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Sample records for agent indocyanine green

  1. In Vitro Efficacy and Mechanistic Role of Indocyanine Green as a Photodynamic Therapy Agent for Human Melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoon, A.; Gamal-Eldeen, A; Ruppel, M; Smith, R; Tsang, T; Miller, L

    2009-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway.

  2. In vitro efficiency and mechanistic role of indocyanine green as photodynamic therapy agent for human melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Mamoon, A.M.; Miller, L.; Gamal-Eldeen, A. M.; Ruppel, M. E.; Smith, R. J.; Tsang, T.; Miller, L. M.

    2009-05-02

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising treatment for superficial cancer. However, poor therapeutic results have been reported for melanoma, due to the high melanin content. Indocyanine green (ICG) has near infrared absorption (700-800 nm) and melanins do not absorb strongly in this area. This study explores the efficiency of ICG as a PDT agent for human melanoma, and its mechanistic role in the cell death pathway. Human skin melanoma cells (Sk-Mel-28) were incubated with ICG and exposed to a low power Ti:Sapphire laser. Synchrotron-assisted Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to assess the cell damage and changes in lipid, protein, and nucleic acids. The cell death pathway was determined by analysis of cell viability and apoptosis and necrosis markers. In the cell death pathway, {sup 1}O{sub 2} generation evoked rapid multiple consequences that trigger apoptosis after laser exposure for only 15min including the release of cytochrome c, the activation of total caspases, caspase-3, and caspase-9, the inhibition of NF-{Kappa}B P65, and the enhancement of DNA fragmentation, and histone acetylation. ICG/PDT can efficiently and rapidly induce apoptosis in human melanoma cells and it can be considered as a new therapeutic approach for topical treatment of melanoma.

  3. Dynamic indocyanine green angiography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Timothy; Invernizzi, Alessandro; Larkin, Sean; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2012-11-01

    Dynamic indocyanine green imaging uses a scanning laser ophthalmoscope and a fluorescent dye to produce movies of the dye-filling pattern in the retina and choroid of the eye. It is used for evaluating choroidal neovascularization. Movies are examined to identify the anatomy of the pathology for planning treatment and to evaluate progression or response to treatment. The popularity of this approach is affected by the complexity and difficulty in interpreting the movies. Software algorithms were developed to produce images from the movies that are easy to interpret. A mathematical model is formulated of the flow dynamics, and a fitting algorithm is designed that solves for the flow parameters. The images provide information about flow and perfusion, including regions of change between examinations. Imaged measures include the dye fill-time, temporal dispersion, and magnitude of the dye dilution temporal curves associated with image pixels. Cases show how the software can help to identify clinically relevant anatomy such as feeder vessels, drain vessels, capillary networks, and normal choroidal draining vessels. As a potential tool for research into the character of neovascular conditions and treatments, it reveals the flow dynamics and character of the lesion. Future varieties of this methodology may be used for evaluating the success of engineered tissue transplants, surgical flaps, reconstructive surgery, breast surgery, and many other surgical applications where flow, perfusion, and vascularity of tissue are important.

  4. Indocyanine green fluorescence-guided redo parathyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chakedis, Jeffery M; Maser, Christina; Brumund, Kevin T; Bouvet, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Re-operative neck surgery for hyperparathyroidism is a technically difficult operation that requires adjunctive studies to assist with finding the parathyroid tissues. Intraoperative tests help minimise exploration of the neck and decrease injuries to the surrounding structures. Indocyanine green is a near-infrared fluorescent dye that in pre-clinical models was found to be useful in locating the parathyroid glands of dogs. No study has yet reported its use as a tool for parathyroid localisation in humans. We investigated the use of indocyanine green to assist with localisation of a recurrent parathyroid adenoma using a near-infrared imaging system. After exposure of the neck tissues, the parathyroid gland fluoresced brightly and directed our dissection. Exploration of the neck was minimal, and allowed for fast localisation and excision of the adenoma. Overall, use of indocyanine green is a simple and safe technique of intraoperative parathyroid localisation that warrants further investigation. PMID:26336189

  5. Efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulyabina, Tatyana V.; Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of staining hair with indocyanine green (ICG) solution depending on type of hair, natural color, staining time and other parameters was investigated. Bonding ICG with hair material occurs due to interaction between ICG molecules and keratinocyte albumin. The penetration of ICG dye into hair meets with difficulties owing to surface protective layer.

  6. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Bashkatov, A N; Tuchin, V V

    2014-07-31

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents. (laser biophotonics)

  7. Study of diffusion of indocyanine green as a photodynamic dye into skin using backscattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    One of the lines of development of modern medicine is theranostics consisting in simultaneous diagnosis and laser treatment with the use of multifunctional agents such as fluorescent indocyanine green that has photodynamic and photothermal properties. Diffusion of indocyanine green dissolved in water and aqueous solutions of alcohols (glycerol, propylene glycol and ethanol) into the dermis is studied by using backscattering spectroscopy. The coefficients of the dye diffusion into the dermis are obtained for the first time by using these solvents.

  8. Fluorescein and Indocyanine Green Angiography for Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Herbort, Carl P

    2009-01-01

    In recent years enormous progress has been achieved in investigational procedures for uveitis. Imaging is one such example with the advent of new methods such as indocyanine green angiography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography to cite only the most important. This tremendous increase in precision and accuracy in the assessment of the level and degree of inflammation and its monitoring comes in parallel with the development of extremely potent and efficacious therapies. In view of these developments, our whole attitude in the appraisal and investigation of the uveitis patient has to be adapted and correctly reoriented integrating the recent developments and this is no different for ocular angiography. PMID:20404985

  9. Prussian blue/serum albumin/indocyanine green as a multifunctional nanotheranostic agent for bimodal imaging guided laser mediated combinatorial phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Abhishek; Lee, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hye Gyeong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-08-28

    Developing novel nanotheranostic agent using only clinically approved materials is highly desirable and challenging. In this study, we combined three clinically approved materials, Prussian blue (PB), serum albumin (BSA), and indocyanine green (ICG), by a simple and biocompatible method to prepare a multifunctional theranostic PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle. The multifunctional nanoparticle system could provide dual mode magnetic resonance (MR) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging as well as combined photothermal and photodynamic (PTT-PDT) therapy in response to a single NIR laser. This nanoparticle showed an excellent stability in physiological solutions and could suppress the photo-instability of ICG. In the absence of light, the nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity, but significant cell death was induced through combined PTT-PDT effect after irradiation with NIR laser light. A high tumor accumulation and minimal nonspecific uptake by other major organs of PB-BSA-ICG nanoparticle were observed in vivo, analyzed by T1-weighted MR and NIR fluorescence bimodal imaging in tumor xenograft mice after intravenous injection. The nanoparticles efficiently suppressed the tumor growth through combinatorial phototherapy with no tumor recurrence upon a single NIR laser irradiation. These results demonstrated that PB-BSA-ICG is potentially an interesting nanotheranostic agent for imaging guided cancer therapy by overcoming the limitations of each technology and enhancing the therapeutic efficiency as well as reducing side effects. PMID:27349352

  10. Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Baharak; Bacon, Danielle; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Some key requirements for clinical translation of such constructs are that they must be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, biodegradable, with extended circulating lifetime. Cell-based structures, particularly those derived from erythrocytes, are promising candidate carrier systems to satisfy these requirements. One particular type of theranostic materials utilize light-sensitive agents that once photo-activated can provide diagnostic imaging capability, and elicit therapeutic effects. Here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate the near infrared chromophore, indocyanine green. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions. PMID:23846447

  11. Erythrocyte-derived photo-theranostic agents: hybrid nano-vesicles containing indocyanine green for near infrared imaging and therapeutic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Baharak; Bacon, Danielle; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-07-01

    Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Some key requirements for clinical translation of such constructs are that they must be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, biodegradable, with extended circulating lifetime. Cell-based structures, particularly those derived from erythrocytes, are promising candidate carrier systems to satisfy these requirements. One particular type of theranostic materials utilize light-sensitive agents that once photo-activated can provide diagnostic imaging capability, and elicit therapeutic effects. Here we demonstrate the first successful engineering of hybrid nano-scale constructs derived from membranes of hemoglobin-depleted erythrocytes that encapsulate the near infrared chromophore, indocyanine green. We show the utility of the constructs as photo-theranostic agents in fluorescence imaging and photothermal destruction of human cells. These erythrocyte-mimicking nano-structures can be derived autologously, and may have broad applications in personal nanomedicine ranging from imaging and photo-destruction of cancerous tissues to vascular abnormalities, and longitudinal evaluations of therapeutic interventions.

  12. Indocyanine green angiography in posterior uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rupesh V; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Gunasekaran, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Literature review for indocyanine green angiography and evaluate the role of indocyanine green angiogram (ICGA) in patients with posterior uveitis seen at a tertiary referral eye care centre. Detailed review of the literature on ICGA was performed. Retrospective review of medical records of patients with posterior uveitis and dual fundus and ICGA was done after institutional board approval. Eighteen patients (26 eyes) had serpiginous choroiditis out of which 12 patients had active choroiditis and six patients had healed choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had ampiginous choroiditis, six patients (12 eyes) had acute multifocal posterior placoid pigment epitheliopathy, eight patients (10 eyes) had multifocal choroiditis, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, four patients (eight eyes) had presumed tuberculous choroiditis, two patients (four eyes) had multiple evanescent white dot syndrome and two patients (four eyes) had Vogt Koyanagi Harada (VKH) syndrome. The most characteristic feature noted on ICGA was the presence of different patterns of hypofluorescent dark spots, which were present at different stages of the angiogram. ICGA provides the clinician with a powerful adjunctive tool in choroidal inflammatory disorders. It is not meant to replace already proven modalities such as the fluorescein angiography, but it can provide additional information that is useful in establishing a more definitive diagnosis in inflammatory chorioretinal diseases associated with multiple spots. It still needs to be determined if ICGA can prove to be a follow up parameter to evaluate disease progression. PMID:23685486

  13. Photoacoustic Tomography of Human Hepatic Malignancies Using Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Akinori; Ishizawa, Takeaki; Kamiya, Mako; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Junichi; Ijichi, Hideaki; Shibahara, Junji; Fukayama, Masashi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Urano, Yasuteru; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, fluorescence imaging following the preoperative intravenous injection of indocyanine green has been used in clinical settings to identify hepatic malignancies during surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green as a contrast agent to produce representative fluorescence images of hepatic tumors by visualizing the spatial distribution of indocyanine green on ultrasonographic images. Indocyanine green (0.5 mg/kg, intravenous) was preoperatively administered to 9 patients undergoing hepatectomy. Intraoperatively, photoacoustic tomography was performed on the surface of the resected hepatic specimens (n = 10) under excitation with an 800 nm pulse laser. In 4 hepatocellular carcinoma nodules, photoacoustic imaging identified indocyanine green accumulation in the cancerous tissue. In contrast, in one hepatocellular carcinoma nodule and five adenocarcinoma foci (one intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and 4 colorectal liver metastases), photoacoustic imaging delineated indocyanine green accumulation not in the cancerous tissue but rather in the peri-cancerous hepatic parenchyma. Although photoacoustic tomography enabled to visualize spatial distribution of ICG on ultrasonographic images, which was consistent with fluorescence images on cut surfaces of the resected specimens, photoacoustic signals of ICG-containing tissues decreased approximately by 40% even at 4 mm depth from liver surfaces. Photoacoustic tomography using indocyanine green also failed to identify any hepatocellular carcinoma nodules from the body surface of model mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In conclusion, photoacoustic tomography has a potential to enhance cancer detectability and differential diagnosis by ultrasonographic examinations and intraoperative fluorescence imaging through visualization of stasis of bile-excreting imaging agents in and/or around hepatic tumors. However, further technical advances are needed

  14. Indocyanine Green-Enhanced Thermotherapy for Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Al-Haddad, Christiane E.; Abdulaal, Marwan; Saab, Raya H.; Bashshur, Ziad F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the outcome of pediatric patients with retinoblastoma refractory to traditional local therapy who were treated with indocyanine green (ICG)-enhanced thermotherapy. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective review of a case series of 3 patients with bilateral retinoblastoma who were treated with ICG-enhanced thermotherapy after showing no response to conventional chemothermotherapy or transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) alone noted on two consecutive examinations under anesthesia. Results The 3 patients had had one eye enucleated previously due to advanced disease, and the remaining eye was diagnosed with a large tumor, which showed either a marginal or no response to systemic chemotherapy and TTT. Addition of ICG enhancement during the subsequent TTT session shrunk the tumor to a measurable size that could then be followed by TTT alone as a means of treatment. One patient had tumor recurrence, at which time additional TTT without ICG was successfully applied after the tumor size had decreased; ICG enhancement was then added whenever TTT alone provided no response. Conclusions ICG enhancement with TTT led to a measurable tumor regression in lesions that had previously not been responsive to traditional chemothermotherapy or isolated TTT. Message These tumors had shown a minimal to no response to previous TTT treatment. However, adding ICG resulted in a measurable regression even though the same TTT treatment parameters were applied.

  15. Indocyanine green for intraoperative localization of ureter.

    PubMed

    Siddighi, Sam; Yune, Junchan Joshua; Hardesty, Jeffrey

    2014-10-01

    Intraurethral injection of indocyanine green (ICG; Akorn, Lake Forest, IL) and visualization under near-infrared (NIR) light allows for real-time delineation of the ureter. This technology can be helpful to prevent iatrogenic ureteral injury during pelvic surgery. Patients were scheduled to undergo robot-assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy. Before the robotic surgery started, the tip of a 6-F ureteral catheter was inserted into the ureteral orifice. Twenty-five milligrams of ICG was dissolved in 10-mL of sterile water and injected through the open catheter. The same procedure was repeated on the opposite side. The ICG reversibly stained the inside lining of the ureter by binding to proteins on urothelial layer. During the course of robotic surgery, the NIR laser on the da Vinci Si surgical robot (Intuitive Surgical, Inc, Sunnyvale, CA) was used to excite ICG molecules, and infrared emission was captured by the da Vinci filtered lens system and electronically converted to green color. Thus, the ureter fluoresced green, which allowed its definitive identification throughout the entire case. In all cases of >10 patients, we were able to visualize bilateral ureters with this technology, even though there was some variation in brightness that depended on the depth of the ureter from the peritoneal surface. For example, in a morbidly obese patient, the ureters were not as bright green. There were no intraoperative or postoperative adverse effects attributable to ICG administration for up to 2 months of observation. In our experience, this novel method of intraurethral ICG injection was helpful to identify the entire course of ureter and allowed a safe approach to tissues that were adjacent to the urinary tract. The advantage of our technique is that it requires the insertion of just the tip of ureteral catheter. Despite our limited cohort of patients, our findings are consistent with previous reports of the excellent safety profile of intravenous and intrabiliary ICG

  16. Labeling of indocyanine green with carrier-free iodine-123

    DOEpatents

    Ansari, Azizullah N.; Lambrecht, Richard M.; Redvanly, Carol S.; Wolf, Alfred P.

    1976-01-01

    The method of labeling indocyanine green (ICG) with carrier-free iodine-123 comprising the steps of condensing xenon-123 on crystals of ICG followed by permitting decay of the .sup.123 Xe a sufficient length of time to produce .sup.123 I-electronically excited ions and atoms which subsequently label ICG.

  17. A Review of Indocyanine Green Fluorescent Imaging in Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Alander, Jarmo T.; Kaartinen, Ilkka; Laakso, Aki; Pätilä, Tommi; Spillmann, Thomas; Tuchin, Valery V.; Venermo, Maarit; Välisuo, Petri

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the recent surgical intraoperational applications of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging methods, the basics of the technology, and instrumentation used. Well over 200 papers describing this technique in clinical setting are reviewed. In addition to the surgical applications, other recent medical applications of ICG are briefly examined. PMID:22577366

  18. Monomer adsorption of indocyanine green to gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrini, Luca; Hartsuiker, Liesbeth; Manohar, Srirang; Otto, Cees

    2011-10-01

    NIR-dye encoded gold nanoparticles (GNP) are rapidly emerging as contrast agents in many bio-imaging/sensing applications. The coding process is usually carried out without control or a clear understanding of the metal-liquid interface properties which, in contrast, are critical in determining the type and extension of dye-metal interaction. In this paper, we investigated the effect of gold surface composition on the adsorption of indocyanine green (ICG) on GNP, simulating the surface conditions of gold nanorods on citrate-capped gold nanospheres. These substrates allowed a careful control of the metal-liquid interface composition and, thus, detailed absorption and fluorescence concentration studies of the effects of each individual chemical in the colloidal solution (i.e. bromide anions, cetyl trimethylammonium ions and Ag+ ions) on the ICG-gold interaction. This study reveals the drastic effect that these experimental parameters can have on the ICG adsorption on GNP.NIR-dye encoded gold nanoparticles (GNP) are rapidly emerging as contrast agents in many bio-imaging/sensing applications. The coding process is usually carried out without control or a clear understanding of the metal-liquid interface properties which, in contrast, are critical in determining the type and extension of dye-metal interaction. In this paper, we investigated the effect of gold surface composition on the adsorption of indocyanine green (ICG) on GNP, simulating the surface conditions of gold nanorods on citrate-capped gold nanospheres. These substrates allowed a careful control of the metal-liquid interface composition and, thus, detailed absorption and fluorescence concentration studies of the effects of each individual chemical in the colloidal solution (i.e. bromide anions, cetyl trimethylammonium ions and Ag+ ions) on the ICG-gold interaction. This study reveals the drastic effect that these experimental parameters can have on the ICG adsorption on GNP. Electronic supplementary

  19. Indocyanine green delivery systems for tumour detection and treatments.

    PubMed

    Porcu, Elena P; Salis, Andrea; Gavini, Elisabetta; Rassu, Giovanna; Maestri, Marcello; Giunchedi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a cyanine compound that displays fluorescent properties in the near infrared region. This dye is employed for numerous indications but nowadays its major application field regards tumour diagnosis and treatments. Optical imaging by near infrared fluorescence provides news opportunities for oncologic surgery. The imaging of ICG can be useful for intraoperative identification of several solid tumours and metastases, and sentinel lymph node detection. In addition, ICG can be used as an agent for the destruction of malignant tissue, by virtue of the production of reactive oxygen species and/or induction of a hyperthermia effect under irradiation. Nevertheless, ICG shows several drawbacks, which limit its clinical application. Several formulative strategies have been studied to overcome these problems. The rationale of the development of ICG containing drug delivery systems is to enhance the in vivo stability and biodistribution profile of this dye, allowing tumour accumulation and resulting in better efficacy. In this review, ICG containing nano-sized carriers are classified based on their chemical composition and structure. In addition to nanosystems, different formulations including hydrogel, microsystems and others loaded with ICG will be illustrated. In particular, this report describes the preparation, in vitro characterization and in vivo application of ICG platforms for cancer imaging and treatment. The promising results of all systems confirm their clinical utility but further studies are required prior to evaluating the formulations in human trials. PMID:27090752

  20. [The indocyanine green (Ujoviridin) test in patients with hyperemesis gravidarum].

    PubMed

    Rudolf, K; Rudolf, H; Töwe, J

    1982-01-01

    A dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight of indocyanine-green (Ujoviridin), a chromodiagnostic, was applied in one single injection under standardised conditions to 16 patients, aged between 21 and 31 years (25.9 years on average), with slight to moderate hyperemesis gravidarum, with the view to making an assessment of hepatic excretion.--Also determined were aminotransferases, alanine-aminopeptidase, and bilirubin in serum, accompanied by thymol turbidity tests.--The values of indocyanine-green half-life were all, but for one patient, within or at the upper limit of normal.--While the informative value of individual measurements is limited, the above findings seem to suggest that in cases of slight or moderate hyperemesis the laboratory parameters tested are unlikely to rise to pathological levels, except for slight increases which may be associated to certain individual cases. PMID:6126975

  1. Uptake of indocyanine green by hamster sebaceous glands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, Kathleen; Lo, Kai-Ming; Wang, Zhi

    2001-05-01

    Photothermal injury to the sebaceous glands is a potential curative treatment for the common skin disease acne vulgaris. Accumulation of the exogenous chromophore indocyanine green in the sebaceous glands may be accomplished using an emulsion or liposomal formulation applied to the skin surface. An emulsion containing 0.09% by weight indocyanine green (ICG) was applied to the epidermis of hamster ears ex vivo and the flank organ in vivo. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated selective accumulation of ICG in the underlying sebaceous glands. The concentration of ICG that may be expected to accumulate in sebaceous glands of humans was then estimated on the basis of the gland size and orifice area, for the case of topical application of a more concentrated 1% ICG liposomal formulation. Monte Carlo modeling and heat transfer calculations showed that the sebaceous glands containing the exogenous chromophore may be selectively damaged by pulsed 810 nm laser radiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling.

  2. Indocyanine green-based fluorescent angiography in breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background Fluorescent angiography (FA) has been useful for assessing blood flow and assessing tissue perfusion in ophthalmology and other surgical disciplines for decades. In plastic surgery, indocyanine green (ICG) dye-based FA is a relatively novel imaging technology with high potential in various applications. We review the various FA detector systems currently available and critically appraise its utility in breast reconstruction. Methods A review of the published English literature dating from 1950 to 2015 using databases, such as PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and EMBASE was undertaken. Results In comparison to the old fluorescein dye, ICG has a superior side effect profile and can be accurately detected by various commercial devices, such as SPY Elite (Novadaq, Canada), FLARE (Curadel LLC, USA), PDE-Neo (Hamamatsu Photonics, Japan), Fluobeam 800 (Fluoptics, France), and IC-View (Pulsion Medical Systems AG, Germany). In breast reconstruction, ICG has established as a safer, more accurate tracer agent, in lieu of the traditional blue dyes, for detection of sentinel lymph nodes with radioactive isotopes (99m-Technetium). In prosthesis-based breast reconstruction, intraoperative assessment of the mastectomy skin flap to guide excision of hypoperfused areas translates to improved clinical outcomes. Similarly, in autologous breast reconstructions, FA can be utilized to detect poorly perfused areas of the free flap, evaluate microvascular anastomosis for patency, and assess SIEA vascular territory for use as an alternative free flap with minimal donor site morbidity. Conclusions ICG-based FA is a novel, useful tool for various applications in breast reconstruction. More studies with higher level of evidence are currently lacking to validate this technology. PMID:27047782

  3. LASER BIOLOGY: Visualisation of the distributions of melanin and indocyanine green in biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, E. A.; Fedosov, I. V.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Zimnyakov, D. A.; Altshuler, G. B.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2008-03-01

    A double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer with the high spectral and spatial resolutions is developed for studying the distribution of endogenic and exogenic dyes in biological tissues. Samples of hair and skin biopsy with hair follicles stained with indocyanine green are studied. The spatial distribution of indocyanine green and melanin in the biological tissue is determined from the measured optical transmittance.

  4. Visualisation of the distributions of melanin and indocyanine green in biological tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Genina, E A; Fedosov, I V; Bashkatov, A N; Zimnyakov, D A; Tuchin, V V; Altshuler, G B

    2008-03-31

    A double-wavelength laser scanning microphotometer with the high spectral and spatial resolutions is developed for studying the distribution of endogenic and exogenic dyes in biological tissues. Samples of hair and skin biopsy with hair follicles stained with indocyanine green are studied. The spatial distribution of indocyanine green and melanin in the biological tissue is determined from the measured optical transmittance. (laser biology)

  5. Indocyanine Green Loaded Nanoconstructs for Optical Imaging and Phototherapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Baharak

    Development of theranostic nano-constructs may enable diagnosis and treatment of diseases at high spatial resolution. Optically active nanoparticles are widely pursued as exogenous chromophores in diagnostic imaging and phototherapeutic applications. However, the blood circulation time of nanoparticles remains limited due to the rapid clearance of the nanoparticles by reticuloendothelial system (RES). Coating with Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a strategy to extend the circulation time of nanoparticles. Here, we report PEGylation of polymeric-based nanocapsules loaded with Indocyanine green (ICG) and effect of PEG's molecular weight on the uptake of these nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages and hepatocytes using flow cytometry. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging in mice and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG. Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents using surface modified nanovectors has been explored immensely in recent years. The growing demand for site-specific and efficient delivery of nanovectors entails stable surface conjugation of targeting moieties. Our ICG-loaded polymeric nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) have potential for covalent coupling of various targeting moieties and materials due to presence of amine groups on the surface. Here, we covalently bioconjugate PEG-coated ICG-NCs with monoclonal anti- HER2 through reductive amination-mediated procedures. The targeting abilities of HER2 functionalized ICG-NCs toward ovarian cancer was investigated in-vitro. Since these functionalized nanoconstructs have potential applications in laser-induced photodestruction of ovarian cancer cells, we

  6. Pharmacokinetic study of indocyanine Green after intravenous administration by UPLC-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Chen, Dongxin; Hu, Wenhao; Lin, Guanyang; Huang, Shiyong

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine Green is widely used in medical diagnosis and to evaluate liver function and other regional blood flows in clinical application or animal experiments. In this work, a sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for determination of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma was developed and validated. After addition of rutin as an internal standard (IS), protein precipitation by acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) was used to prepare samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 1.7 μm) with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase with gradient elution. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in positive ion mode; multiple reactions monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantification using target fragment ions m/z 753.4→330.2 for Indocyanine Green, and m/z 611.1→303.1 for IS. Calibration plots were linear throughout the range 20-5000 ng/mL for Indocyanine Green in rat plasma. Mean recoveries of Indocyanine Green in rat plasma ranged from 79.5% to 85.4%. RSD of intra-day and inter-day precision were both < 12%. The accuracy of the method was between 95.9% and 113.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of Indocyanine Green after intravenous administration. PMID:26629038

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 μM and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  8. Quantitative imaging of lymphatic function with liposomal indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Proulx, Steven T; Luciani, Paola; Derzsi, Stefanie; Rinderknecht, Matthias; Mumprecht, Viviane; Leroux, Jean-Christophe; Detmar, Michael

    2010-09-15

    Lymphatic vessels play a major role in cancer progression and in postsurgical lymphedema, and several new therapeutic approaches targeting lymphatics are currently being developed. Thus, there is a critical need for quantitative imaging methods to measure lymphatic flow. Indocyanine green (ICG) has been used for optical imaging of the lymphatic system, but it is unstable in solution and may rapidly enter venous capillaries after local injection. We developed a novel liposomal formulation of ICG (LP-ICG), resulting in vastly improved stability in solution and an increased fluorescence signal with a shift toward longer wavelength absorption and emission. When injected intradermally to mice, LP-ICG was specifically taken up by lymphatic vessels and allowed improved visualization of deep lymph nodes. In a genetic mouse model of lymphatic dysfunction, injection of LP-ICG showed no enhancement of draining lymph nodes and slower clearance from the injection site. In mice bearing B16 luciferase-expressing melanomas expressing vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), sequential near-IR imaging of intradermally injected LP-ICG enabled quantification of lymphatic flow. Increased flow through draining lymph nodes was observed in mice bearing VEGF-C-expressing tumors without metastases, whereas a decreased flow pattern was seen in mice with a higher lymph node tumor burden. This new method will likely facilitate quantitative studies of lymphatic function in preclinical investigations and may also have potential for imaging of lymphedema or improved sentinel lymph detection in cancer. PMID:20823159

  9. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Martins, Deborah B; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P; Lee, Justine C

    2016-05-01

    Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  10. Indocyanine green-laser thermolysis of acne vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genina, Elina A.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Yaroslavsky, Ilya V.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2005-08-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) laser radiation due to its high penetration depth is widely used in phototherapy and photothermolysis. In application to skin appendages a high selectivity of laser treatment is needed to prevent light action on surrounding tissues. Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye may provide a high selectivity of treatment due to effective ICG uploading by a target and its narrow band of considerable absorption just at the wavelength of the NIR diode laser. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy of the NIR diode laser photothermolysis in combination with topical application of ICG suggested for treatment of acne vulgaris. Two volunteers with back-located acne were enrolled. Skin sites of subjects were stained by ICG and irradiated by NIR laser-diode light (803 or 809 nm). The individual acne lesions were photothermally treated at 18 W/cm2 (803 nm, 0.5 sec) without skin surface cooling or at 200 W/cm2 (809 nm, 0.5 sec) with cooling. The results of the observations during a month after the treatment have shown that ICG stained acne inflammatory elements were destructed for light exposures of 0.5 sec.

  11. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  12. Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Laser Angiography in Pediatric Autologous Ear Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Deborah B.; Farias-Eisner, Gina; Mandelbaum, Rachel S.; Hoang, Han; Bradley, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Skin flap vascularity is a critical determinant of aesthetic results in autologous ear reconstruction. In this study, we investigate the use of intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) as an adjunctive measure of skin flap vascularity in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. Twenty-one consecutive pediatric patients undergoing first-stage autologous total ear reconstruction were retrospectively evaluated. The first 10 patients were treated traditionally (non-ICGA), and the latter 11 patients were evaluated with ICGA intraoperatively after implantation of the cartilage construct and administration of suction. Relative and absolute perfusion units in the form of contour maps were generated. Statistical analyses were performed using independent sample Student t test. Statistically significant differences in exposure and infection were not found between the 2 groups. However, decreased numbers of surgical revisions were required in cases with ICGA versus without ICGA (P = 0.03), suggesting that greater certainty in skin flap perfusion correlated with a reduction in revision surgeries. In cases of exposure, we found an average lowest absolute perfusion unit of 14.3, whereas cases without exposure had an average of 26.1 (P = 0.02), thereby defining objective parameters for utilizing ICGA data in tailoring surgical decision making for this special population of patients. Defined quantitative parameters for utilizing ICGA in evaluating skin flap vascularity may be a useful adjunctive technique in pediatric autologous ear reconstruction. PMID:27579233

  13. Clinical application of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging during hepatectomy.

    PubMed

    Ishizawa, Takeaki; Saiura, Akio; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-08-01

    In hepatobiliary surgery, the fluorescence and bile excretion of indocyanine green (ICG) can be used for real-time visualization of biological structure. Fluorescence cholangiography is used to obtain fluorescence images of the bile ducts following intrabiliary injection of 0.025-0.5 mg/mL ICG or intravenous injection of 2.5 mg ICG. Recently, the latter technique has been used in laparoscopic/robotic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging can be used to identify subcapsular hepatic tumors. Primary and secondary hepatic malignancy can be identified by intraoperative fluorescence imaging using preoperative intravenous injection of ICG through biliary excretion disorders that exist in cancerous tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in non-cancerous hepatic parenchyma around adenocarcinoma foci. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging may help detect tumors to be removed, especially during laparoscopic hepatectomy, in which visual inspection and palpation are limited, compared with open surgery. Fluorescence imaging can also be used to identify hepatic segments. Boundaries of hepatic segments can be visualized following injection of 0.25-2.5 mg/mL ICG into the portal veins or by intravenous injection of 2.5 mg ICG following closure of the proximal portal pedicle toward hepatic regions to be removed. These techniques enable identification of hepatic segments before hepatectomy and during parenchymal transection for anatomic resection. Advances in imaging systems will increase the use of fluorescence imaging as an intraoperative navigation tool that can enhance the safety and accuracy of open and laparoscopic/robotic hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:27500144

  14. Interaction of bilirubin and indocyanine green with the binding and conjugation of sulfobromophthalein by rat liver cytosol proteins.

    PubMed

    Davis, D R; Yeary, R A

    1980-02-01

    The interaction of bilirubin and indocyanine green with sulfobromophthalein (BSP) binding and conjugation by rat liver cytosol proteins was studied. BSP bound to cytosol proteins X, ligandin and Z and the BSP-glutathione conjugate were isolated by sephadex gel chromatography. Neither bilirubin nor indocyanine green affected the binding of BSP to ligandin and Z protein. However, indocyanine green did significantly reduce BSP conjugation in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Diethyl maleate significantly reduced liver glutathione levels and BSP conjugation. It is suggested that indocyanine gree competitively binds at the ligandin catalytic site whereas the primary binding site for bilirubin is probably a noncatalytic site. PMID:7367753

  15. Voltage-Sensitive Fluorescence of Indocyanine Green in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Martišienė, Irma; Mačianskienė, Regina; Treinys, Rimantas; Navalinskas, Antanas; Almanaitytė, Mantė; Karčiauskas, Dainius; Kučinskas, Audrius; Grigalevičiūtė, Ramunė; Zigmantaitė, Vilma; Benetis, Rimantas; Jurevičius, Jonas

    2016-02-01

    So far, the optical mapping of cardiac electrical signals using voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes has only been performed in experimental studies because these dyes are not yet approved for clinical use. It was recently reported that the well-known and widely used fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG), which has FDA approval, exhibits voltage sensitivity in various tissues, thus raising hopes that electrical activity could be optically mapped in the clinic. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using ICG to monitor cardiac electrical activity. Optical mapping experiments were performed on Langendorff rabbit hearts stained with ICG and perfused with electromechanical uncouplers. The residual contraction force and electrical action potentials were recorded simultaneously. Our research confirms that ICG is a voltage-sensitive dye with a dual-component (fast and slow) response to membrane potential changes. The fast component of the optical signal (OS) can have opposite polarities in different parts of the fluorescence spectrum. In contrast, the polarity of the slow component remains the same throughout the entire spectrum. Separating the OS into these components revealed two different voltage-sensitivity mechanisms for ICG. The fast component of the OS appears to be electrochromic in nature, whereas the slow component may arise from the redistribution of the dye molecules within or around the membrane. Both components quite accurately track the time of electrical signal propagation, but only the fast component is suitable for estimating the shape and duration of action potentials. Because ICG has voltage-sensitive properties in the entire heart, we suggest that it can be used to monitor cardiac electrical behavior in the clinic. PMID:26840736

  16. Indocyanine green as an adjunct for resection of insular gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Rangarajan, Vithal; Kaswa, Amol; Jain, Sonal; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many controversies exist regarding the extent of resection for insular gliomas and the timing of resection. Several techniques and adjuncts are used to maximize safety during resection of these tumors. We describe the use of indocyanine green (ICG) to identify the branches of the middle cerebral artery and discuss its utility to increase safety for resection for insular gliomas. Materials and Methods: Five patients with insular gliomas were surgically treated by the authors from June 2013 to June 2014. The patients presented with complaints of either a headache or recurring episodes of convulsions. All the patients were operated with the aid of neuronavigation and tractography. The long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery course through the insula and pass onward to supply the corona radiata. It is essential to preserve these vessels to prevent postoperative neurological deficits. ICG (Aurogreen) was used to identify and preserve the long perforating arteries of the middle cerebral artery. Results: ICG dye correctly identified the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery and easily distinguished these vessels from the short perforating branches. All the branches of the middle cerebral artery that coursed through the tumor and had an onward course were preserved in all the patients. Only one patient developed a transient right sided hemiparesis that had improved at follow-up. Conclusions: Surgery for insular gliomas is challenging due to its location adjacent to eloquent areas, important white fiber tracts and the course of the middle cerebral artery within it. ICG is useful to identify and preserve the long perforating branches of the middle cerebral artery that course through the tumor and traverse onward to supply the corona radiata. PMID:27366256

  17. Clinical application of indocyanine green-fluorescence imaging during hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ishizawa, Takeaki; Saiura, Akio

    2016-01-01

    In hepatobiliary surgery, the fluorescence and bile excretion of indocyanine green (ICG) can be used for real-time visualization of biological structure. Fluorescence cholangiography is used to obtain fluorescence images of the bile ducts following intrabiliary injection of 0.025−0.5 mg/mL ICG or intravenous injection of 2.5 mg ICG. Recently, the latter technique has been used in laparoscopic/robotic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging can be used to identify subcapsular hepatic tumors. Primary and secondary hepatic malignancy can be identified by intraoperative fluorescence imaging using preoperative intravenous injection of ICG through biliary excretion disorders that exist in cancerous tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and in non-cancerous hepatic parenchyma around adenocarcinoma foci. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging may help detect tumors to be removed, especially during laparoscopic hepatectomy, in which visual inspection and palpation are limited, compared with open surgery. Fluorescence imaging can also be used to identify hepatic segments. Boundaries of hepatic segments can be visualized following injection of 0.25−2.5 mg/mL ICG into the portal veins or by intravenous injection of 2.5 mg ICG following closure of the proximal portal pedicle toward hepatic regions to be removed. These techniques enable identification of hepatic segments before hepatectomy and during parenchymal transection for anatomic resection. Advances in imaging systems will increase the use of fluorescence imaging as an intraoperative navigation tool that can enhance the safety and accuracy of open and laparoscopic/robotic hepatobiliary surgery. PMID:27500144

  18. Use of Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Videoangiography to Guide Cutaneous Angiosarcoma Excision

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Teresa; Mo, Kevin W. L.; Wong, Pauline S. Y.; Chiu, Tor

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Complete excision of cutaneous angiosarcoma, which is a rare, vascular, and aggressive tumor, is challenging. Its multifocal nature and propensity for lateral spread make the gross assessment of surgical margins difficult. Neither the use of frozen section analysis nor Mohs surgery consistently improves the probability of margin-free excision. Recent studies have advocated the use of indocyanine green to evaluate the vascular system perioperatively. We describe the intraoperative use of indocyanine green to help define the excision margin of a locally extensive scalp angiosarcoma in an elderly man. PMID:27536487

  19. (177)Lu-Labeled Cerasomes Encapsulating Indocyanine Green for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Jing, Lijia; Shi, Jiyun; Fan, Di; Li, Yaqian; Liu, Renfa; Dai, Zhifei; Wang, Fan; Tian, Jie

    2015-10-01

    This Article reported the fabrication of a robust theranostic cerasome encapsulating indocyanine green (ICG) by incorporating 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethylene glycol)2000]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid monoamide (DSPE-PEG2000-DOTA), followed by chelating radioisotope of (177)Lu. Its applications in optical and nuclear imaging of tumor uptake and biodistribution, as well as photothermal killing of cancer cells, were investigated. It was found that the obtained cerasome could act efficiently as fluorescence contrast agent as well as nuclear imaging tracer. Encapsulating ICG into cerasome could protect ICG from degradation, aggregation, and fast elimination from body, resulting in remarkable improvement in near-infrared fluorescence imaging, photothermal stability, and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile. Both fluorescence and nuclear imaging showed that such agent could selectively accumulate in tumor site after intravenous injection of the cerasome agent into Lewis lung carcinoma tumor bearing mice, resulting in efficient photothermal ablation of tumor through a one-time NIR laser irradiation at the best time window. The ability to track the uptake of cerasomes on a whole body basis could provide researchers with an excellent tool for developing cerasome-based drug delivery agents, especially the strategy of labeling cerasomes with theranostic radionuclide (177)Lu, enabling the ability of the (177)Lu-labeled cerasomes for radionuclide cancer therapy and even the combined therapy. PMID:26398723

  20. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchina, E. S.; Tuchin, Valerii V.; Khlebtsov, B. N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.

    2011-04-01

    The effect of IR laser radiation (λ = 805 — 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation (λ = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination (λ = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages.

  1. Hepatectomy Based on Future Liver Remnant Plasma Clearance Rate of Indocyanine Green

    PubMed Central

    Furuyama, Hiroaki; Yasukawa, Daiki; Nishino, Hiroto; Ando, Yasuhisa; Hata, Toshiyuki; Machimoto, Takafumi; Yoshimura, Tsunehiro

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hepatectomy, an important treatment modality for liver malignancies, has high perioperative morbidity and mortality rates. Safe, comprehensive criteria for selecting patients for hepatectomy are needed. Since June 2011, we have used a cut-off value of ≧ 0.05 for future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green as a criterion for hepatectomy. The aim of this study was to verify the validity of this criterion. Methods. From June 2011 to December 2015, 212 hepatectomies were performed in Tenri Yorozu Hospital. Of these 212 patients, 107 who underwent preoperative computed tomography imaging volumetry, indocyanine green clearance test, and hepatectomy (excluding partial resection or enucleation) were retrospectively analyzed. Results. There was no postoperative mortality. Posthepatectomy liver failure occurred in 59 patients (55.1%) (International Study Group of Liver Surgery Grade A: 43 cases (40.2%), Grade B: 16 cases (15.0%), and Grade C: no cases). Operative morbidity greater than Clavien-Dindo Grade 3 occurred in 23 patients (21.5%). A low future liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green was a good predictor for Grade B cases (area under curve = 0.804; 95% confidence interval, 0.712–0.895). Conclusion. Liver remnant plasma clearance rate of indocyanine green is a valid criterion for hepatectomy. PMID:27418717

  2. Indocyanine green as effective antibody conjugate for intracellular molecular targeted photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sijia; Hüttmann, Gereon; Rudnitzki, Florian; Diddens-Tschoeke, Heyke; Zhang, Zhenxi; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin

    2016-07-01

    The fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) is clinically approved and has been applied for ophthalmic and intraoperative angiography, measurement of cardiac output and liver function, or as contrast agent in cancer surgery. Though ICG is known for its photochemical effects, it has played a minor role so far in photodynamic therapy or techniques for targeted protein-inactivation. Here, we investigated ICG as an antibody-conjugate for the selective inactivation of the protein Ki-67 in the nucleus of cells. Conjugates of the Ki-67 antibody TuBB-9 with different amounts of ICG were synthesized and delivered into HeLa and OVCAR-5 cells through conjugation to the nuclear localization sequence. Endosomal escape of the macromolecular antibodies into the cytoplasm was optically triggered by photochemical internalization with the photosensitizer BPD. The second light irradiation at 690 nm inactivated Ki-67 and subsequently caused cell death. Here, we show that ICG as an antibody-conjugate can be an effective photosensitizing agent. Best effects were achieved with 1.8 ICG molecules per antibody. Conjugated to antibodies, the ICG absorption peaks vary proportionally with concentration. The absorption of ICG above 650 nm within the optical window of tissue opens the possibility of selective Ki-67 inactivation deep inside of tissues.

  3. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Liposomes for Light-Triggered Drug Release.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Tatu; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Viitala, Lauri; Manna, Moutusi; Cramariuc, Oana; Róg, Tomasz; Bunker, Alex; Laaksonen, Timo; Viitala, Tapani; Murtomäki, Lasse; Urtti, Arto

    2016-06-01

    Light-triggered drug delivery systems enable site-specific and time-controlled drug release. In previous work, we have achieved this with liposomes containing gold nanoparticles in the aqueous core. Gold nanoparticles absorb near-infrared light and release the energy as heat that increases the permeability of the liposomal bilayer, thus releasing the contents of the liposome. In this work, we replaced the gold nanoparticles with the clinically approved imaging agent indocyanine green (ICG). The ICG liposomes were stable at storage conditions (4-22 °C) and at body temperature, and fast near-infrared (IR) light-triggered drug release was achieved with optimized phospholipid composition and a 1:50 ICG-to-lipid molar ratio. Encapsulated small molecular calcein and FITC-dextran (up to 20 kDa) were completely released from the liposomes after light exposure for 15 s. Location of ICG in the PEG layer of the liposomes was simulated with molecular dynamics. ICG has important benefits as a light-triggering agent in liposomes: fast content release, improved stability, improved possibility of liposomal size control, regulatory approval to use in humans, and the possibility of imaging the in vivo location of the liposomes based on the fluorescence of ICG. Near-infrared light used as a triggering mechanism has good tissue penetration and safety. Thus, ICG liposomes are an attractive option for light-controlled and efficient delivery of small and large drug molecules. PMID:27097108

  4. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging in Humans with Indocyanine Green: A Review and Update

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Milton V.; Rasmussen, John C.; Tan, I-Chih; Aldrich, Melissa B.; Adams, Kristen E.; Wang, Xuejuan; Fife, Caroline E.; Maus, Erik A.; Smith, Latisha A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2010-01-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging clinical studies have been reported in the literature with six different devices that employ various doses of indocyanine green (ICG) as a non-specific contrast agent. To date, clinical applications range from (i) angiography, intraoperative assessment of vessel patency, and tumor/metastasis delineation following intravenous administration of ICG, and (ii) imaging lymphatic architecture and function following subcutaneous and intradermal ICG administration. In the latter case, NIR fluorescence imaging may enable new discoveries associated with lymphatic function due to (i) a unique niche that is not met by any other conventional imaging technology and (ii) its exquisite sensitivity enabling high spatial and temporal resolution. Herein, we (i) review the basics of clinical NIR fluorescence imaging, (ii) survey the literature on clinical application of investigational devices using ICG fluorescent contrast, (iii) provide an update of non-invasive dynamic lymphatic imaging conducted with our FDPM device, and finally, (iv) comment on the future NIR fluorescence imaging for non-invasive and intraoperative use given recent demonstrations showing capabilities for imaging following microdose administration of contrast agent. PMID:22924087

  5. Tumor homing indocyanine green encapsulated micelles for near infrared and photoacoustic imaging of tumors.

    PubMed

    Uthaman, Saji; Bom, Joon-Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sik; John, Johnson V; Bom, Hee-Seung; Kim, Seon-Jong; Min, Jung-Joon; Kim, Il; Park, In-Kyu

    2016-05-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging analytical modality that is under intense preclinical development for the early diagnosis of various medical conditions, including cancer. However, the lack of specific tumor targeting by various contrast agents used in PAI obstructs its clinical applications. In this study, we developed indocyanine green (ICG)-encapsulated micelles specific for the CD 44 receptor and used in near infrared and photoacoustic imaging of tumors. ICG was hydrophobically modified prior to loading into hyaluronic acid (HA)-based micelles utilized for CD 44 based-targeting. We investigated the physicochemical characteristics of prepared HA only and ICG-encapsulated HA micelles (HA-ICG micelles). After intravenous injection of tumor-bearing mice, the bio-distribution and in vivo photoacoustic images of ICG-encapsulated HA micelles accumulating in tumors were also investigated. Our study further encourages the application of this HA-ICG-based nano-platform as a tumor-specific contrast agent for PAI. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 825-834, 2016. PMID:26743660

  6. Photoacoustic imaging enhanced by indocyanine green-conjugated single-wall carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Li, Hai; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Aguirre, Andres; Mohammad, Innus; Stanford, Courtney; Smith, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. A photoacoustic contrast agent that is based on bis-carboxylic acid derivative of indocyanine green (ICG) covalently conjugated to single-wall carbon nanotubes (ICG/SWCNT) is presented. Covalently attaching ICG to the functionalized SWCNT provides a more robust system that delivers much more ICG to the tumor site. The detection sensitivity of the new contrast agent in a mouse tumor model is demonstrated in vivo by our custom-built photoacoustic imaging system. The summation of the photoacoustic tomography (PAT) beam envelope, referred to as the “PAT summation,” is used to demonstrate the postinjection light absorption of tumor areas in ICG- and ICG/SWCNT-injected mice. It is shown that ICG is able to provide 33% enhancement at approximately 20 min peak response time with reference to the preinjection PAT level, while ICG/SWCNT provides 128% enhancement at 80 min and even higher enhancement of 196% at the end point of experiments (120 min on average). Additionally, the ICG/SWCNT enhancement was mainly observed at the tumor periphery, which was confirmed by fluorescence images of the tumor samples. This feature is highly valuable in guiding surgeons to assess tumor boundaries and dimensions in vivo and to achieve clean tumor margins to improve surgical resection of tumors. PMID:24002193

  7. Comparison of Indocyanine Green Angiography and Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging for the Assessment of Vasculature Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Towle, Erica L.; Richards, Lisa M.; Kazmi, S. M. Shams; Fox, Douglas J.; Dunn, Andrew K.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Assessment of the vasculature is critical for overall success in cranial vascular neurological surgery procedures. Although several methods of monitoring cortical perfusion intraoperatively are available, not all are appropriate or convenient in a surgical environment. Recently, 2 optical methods of care have emerged that are able to obtain high spatial resolution images with easily implemented instrumentation: indocyanine green (ICG) angiography and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI). OBJECTIVE To evaluate the usefulness of ICG and LSCI in measuring vessel perfusion. METHODS An experimental setup was developed that simultaneously collects measurements of ICG fluorescence and LSCI in a rodent model. A 785-nm laser diode was used for both excitation of the ICG dye and the LSCI illumination. A photothrombotic clot model was used to occlude specific vessels within the field of view to enable comparison of the 2 methods for monitoring vessel perfusion. RESULTS The induced blood flow change demonstrated that ICG is an excellent method for visualizing the volume and type of vessel at a single point in time; however, it is not always an accurate representation of blood flow. In contrast, LSCI provides a continuous and accurate measurement of blood flow changes without the need of an external contrast agent. CONCLUSION These 2 methods should be used together to obtain a complete understanding of tissue perfusion. PMID:22843129

  8. Pilot Clinical Trial of Indocyanine Green Fluorescence-Augmented Colonoscopy in High Risk Patients.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Rahul A; Heidari, Pedram; Woods, Kevin; Chung, Daniel; Chan, Andrew T; Mahmood, Umar

    2016-01-01

    White light colonoscopy is the current gold standard for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer, but emerging data suggest that this approach is inherently limited. Even the most experienced colonoscopists, under optimal conditions, miss at least 15-25% of adenomas. There is an unmet clinical need for an adjunctive modality to white light colonoscopy with improved lesion detection and characterization. Optical molecular imaging with exogenously administered organic fluorochromes is a burgeoning imaging modality poised to advance the capabilities of colonoscopy. In this proof-of-principle clinical trial, we investigated the ability of a custom-designed fluorescent colonoscope and indocyanine green, a clinically approved fluorescent blood pool imaging agent, to visualize polyps in high risk patients with polyposis syndromes or known distal colonic masses. We demonstrate (1) the successful performance of real-time, wide-field fluorescence endoscopy using off-the-shelf equipment, (2) the ability of this system to identify polyps as small as 1 mm, and (3) the potential for fluorescence imaging signal intensity to differentiate between neoplastic and benign polyps. PMID:26989406

  9. In vivo photoacoustic molecular imaging of breast carcinoma with folate receptor-targeted indocyanine green nanoprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huina; Liu, Chengbo; Gong, Xiaojing; Hu, Dehong; Lin, Riqiang; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Yan, Meng; Chen, Jingqin; Cai, Lintao; Song, Liang

    2014-11-01

    As an optical-acoustic hybrid imaging technology, photoacoustic imaging uniquely combines the advantages of rich optical contrast with high ultrasonic resolution in depth, opening up many new possibilities not attainable with conventional pure optical imaging technologies. To perform photoacoustic molecular imaging, optically absorbing exogenous contrast agents are needed to enhance the signals from specifically targeted disease activity. In this work, we designed and developed folate receptor targeted, indocyanine green dye doped poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) lipid nanoparticles (FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs) for molecular photoacoustic imaging of tumor. The fabricated FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs exhibited good aqueous stability, a high folate-receptor targeting efficiency, and remarkable optical absorption in near-infrared wavelengths, providing excellent photoacoustic signals in vitro. Furthermore, after intravenous administration of FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, mice bearing MCF-7 breast carcinomas showed significantly enhanced photoacoustic signals in vivo in the tumor regions, compared with those using non-targeted ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs. Given the existing wide clinical use of ICG and PLGA, the developed FA-ICG-PLGA-lipid NPs, in conjunction with photoacoustic imaging technology, offer a great potential to be translated into the clinic for non-ionizing molecular imaging of breast cancer in vivo.

  10. In vivo measurement of Indocyanine green biodistribution in mammalian organs using fiber based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qixiao; Mao, Shuo; Bai, Jing

    2009-11-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent probe widely used in recent years, and it is also the fluorescent dye that can be clinical used, in both imaging and treatment. So it is important to study its biodistribution and metabolism in mammalian organs, but the accuracy and sampling speed is limited by the traditional in-vitro methods. Now we present a design of an in-vivo multi-channel fluorescence intensity measurement system and an algorism of data processing, to achieve the accurate measurement of fluorescence intensity, continuous sampling, real time monitoring and curve fitting. This system design is based on customized fiber bundles and the principle of reflective fluorescence microscopy. We also present a mouse experiment using this system to study the Indocyanine green (ICG) biodistribution in small mammalian liver, in order to demonstrate the potential applications of this system and also present a new experiment method in the study of dye biodistribution and metabolism.

  11. Indocyanine Green Lymphographic Signs of Lymphatic Collateral Formation in Lower Extremity Lymphedema After Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Shibata, Takashi; Mito, Daisuke; Ishiura, Ryohei; Kato, Motoi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green lymphography has recently been used to assess lymphatic vessel function in lymphedema patients. Postoperative collateral lymphatic vessels toward ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes are rarely seen above the umbilical level in lower lymphedema patients. Between January 2012 and December 2014, we performed indocyanine green lymphography of 192 limbs in 96 lower extremity lymphedema cases. As a result, dermal back flow appeared in 95 cases, with 38 in the lower abdominal area and 31 in the genital area. We confirmed 3 cases of superficial lymphatic collateral ways extending above the umbilical level to the axillary lymph nodes. All 3 cases had similarity in lower abdominal edema, so excessive lymphatic fluid in the lower abdomen was assumed to be the cause. Lymphatic collateral ways from abdomen to axillary lymph nodes in this study was likely to be designed to prevent the progress of lymphedema. PMID:26418772

  12. Microencapsulation of Indocyanine Green for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery†

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel process to encapsulate Indocyanine Green (ICG) in liposomal droplets at high concentration for potential applications in image-guided drug delivery. The microencapsulation process follows two consecutive steps of droplet formation by liquid-driving coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) and solvent removal by oil phase dewetting. These biocompatible lipid vesicles may have important applications in drug delivery and fluorescence imaging. PMID:25450664

  13. Nanotubes-Embedded Indocyanine Green-Hyaluronic Acid Nanoparticles for Photoacoustic-Imaging-Guided Phototherapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guohao; Zhang, Fan; Tian, Rui; Zhang, Liwen; Fu, Guifeng; Yang, Lily; Zhu, Lei

    2016-03-01

    Phototherapy is a light-triggered treatment for tumor ablation and growth inhibition via photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT). Despite extensive studies in this area, a major challenge is the lack of selective and effective phototherapy agents that can specifically accumulate in tumors to reach a therapeutic concentration. Although recent attempts have produced photosensitizers complexed with photothermal nanomaterials, the tedious preparation steps and poor tumor efficiency of therapy still hampers the broad utilization of these nanocarriers. Herein, we developed a CD44 targeted photoacoustic (PA) nanophototherapy agent by conjugating Indocyanine Green (ICG) to hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HANPs) encapsulated with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), resulting in a theranostic nanocomplex of ICG-HANP/SWCNTs (IHANPT). We fully characterized its physical features as well as PA imaging and photothermal and photodynamic therapy properties in vitro and in vivo. Systemic delivery of IHANPT theranostic nanoparticles led to the accumulation of the targeted nanoparticles in tumors in a human cancer xenograft model in nude mice. PA imaging confirmed targeted delivery of the IHANPT nanoparticles into tumors (T/M ratio = 5.19 ± 0.3). The effect of phototherapy was demonstrated by low-power laser irradiation (808 nm, 0.8 W/cm(2)) to induce efficient photodynamic effect from ICG dye. The photothermal effect from the ICG and SWCNTs rapidly raised the tumor temperature to 55.4 ± 1.8 °C. As the result, significant tumor growth inhibition and marked induction of tumor cell death and necrosis were observed in the tumors in the tumors. There were no apparent systemic and local toxic effects found in the mice. The dynamic thermal stability of IHANPT was studied to ensure that PTT does not affect ICG-dependent PDT in phototherapy. Therefore, our results highlight imaging property and therapeutic effect of the novel IHANPT theranostic nanoparticle for CD44

  14. A novel indocyanine green nanoparticle probe for non invasive fluorescence imaging in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Fabrice P.; Berger, Michel; Goutayer, Mathieu; Guillermet, Stéphanie; Josserand, Véronique; Rizo, Philippe; Vinet, Françoise; Texier, Isabelle

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging (FLI) allows the in vivo monitoring of biological events associated with disease and represents a new promising tool for drug discovery. In particular, it speeds up the development and assessment of new therapies in oncology, helps in diagnosis, and improves surgery by fluorescence-guided tumor resection. This technique is highly sensitive, non-ionizing, easy to use and relatively inexpensive. Nevertheless, the main limitation of FLI lies in the optical properties of biological tissues. Mainly because of haemoglobin and water absorption, only near-infrared (NIR) light is adapted to image tissues in depth. Using a contrasting agent absorbing and emitting in the NIR region is therefore necessary to improve the background signal ratio, and thus the image contrast. Among many commercially available NIR optical contrast agents, only indocyanine green (ICG), has been approved by the United State Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for various medical applications. However, its instability (photo-degradation, thermal-degradation and low aqueous solubility) limits its applications as a fluorescent probe for imaging purposes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ICG, we engineered ICG-doped lipid nanoparticles (LNP). In this communication, we will report the design of these novel fluorescent nanoparticle probes. These low cost nanocarriers have numerous advantages, including their high chemical stability and biocompatibility. The characterization of the optical properties of the nanoparticles entrapping ICG will also be discussed. Finally, the biodistribution in mice of ICG when delivered through nanoparticles in comparison to free ICG in solution is presented. It demonstrates the efficient accumulation of ICG-doped nanoparticles in the tumor site.

  15. Preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention of indocyanine green for in vivo tumor imaging.

    PubMed

    Onda, Nobuhiko; Kimura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a fluorescent agent approved for clinical applications by the Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency. This study examined the mechanism of tumor imaging using intravenously administered ICG. The in vivo kinetics of intravenously administered ICG were determined in tumor xenografts using microscopic approaches that enabled both spatio-temporal and high-magnification analyses. The mechanism of ICG-based tumor imaging was examined at the cellular level in six phenotypically different human colon cancer cell lines exhibiting different grades of epithelioid organization. ICG fluorescence imaging detected xenograft tumors, even those < 1 mm in size, based on their preferential cellular uptake and retention of the dye following its rapid tissue-non-specific delivery, in contrast to its rapid clearance by normal tissue. Live-cell imaging revealed that cellular ICG uptake is temperature-dependent and occurs after ICG binding to the cellular membrane, a pattern suggesting endocytic uptake as the mechanism. Cellular ICG uptake correlated inversely with the formation of tight junctions. Intracellular ICG was entrapped in the membrane traffic system, resulting in its slow turnover and prolonged retention by tumor cells. Our results suggest that tumor-specific imaging by ICG involves non-specific delivery of the dye to tissues followed by preferential tumor cellular uptake and retention. The tumor cell-preference of ICG is driven by passive tumor cell-targeting, the inherent ability of ICG to bind to cell membranes, and the high endocytic activity of tumor cells in association with the disruption of their tight junctions. PMID:27006261

  16. Indocyanine Green Angiography Guided Management of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bouchenaki, Nadia; Herbort, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To report the management of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease based on indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). Methods VKH patients with acute episodes of inflammation (inaugural or recurrent) who had received standard ICGA-guided care were studied retrospectively. Standard of care included high dose systemic corticosteroids at presentation and close ICGA follow-up with addition of immunosuppressive agents and/or intensification of ongoing therapy when recurrent choroidal lesions were detected by ICGA. Visual acuity, number of subclinical recurrences, type and duration of therapy, proportion of quiescent patients after therapy, and ICGA findings were recorded. Results Nine patients including 8 female and one male subject were studied. Five patients had inaugural disease and 4 presented with recurrent acute episodes. Visual acuity increased from 0.86±0.36 to 1.14±0.34 in the right eyes, and from 0.77±0.34 to 1.05±0.33 in the left eyes. The number of ICGA-detected occult choroidal recurrences amounted to 13. Mean duration of treatment was 30.1±34.6 months leading to recurrence-free status after discontinuation of therapy in 6 cases with mean duration of 29.5 months. Conclusion Continuous monitoring and aggressive therapy guided by ICGA in VKH disease prolongs treatment as compared to textbook guidelines but offers the prospect of reaching inflammation-free status after discontinuation of therapy. Zero tolerance to subclinical choroidal inflammation avoids irremediable evolution towards sunset glow fundus in patients treated early after the initial acute inflammatory attack. PMID:22454746

  17. Phototoxic effect of conjugates of plasmon-resonance nanoparticles with indocyanine green dye on Staphylococcus aureus induced by IR laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Tuchina, E S; Tuchin, Valerii V; Khlebtsov, B N; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G

    2011-04-30

    The effect of IR laser radiation ({lambda} = 805 - 808 nm) on the bacteria of the strain Staphylococcus aureus 209 P, incubated in indocyanine green solutions, is studied, as well as that of colloid gold nanoshells, nanocages and their conjugates with indocyanine green. It is found that the S. aureus 209 P cells are equally subjected to the IR laser radiation ({lambda} = 805 nm) after preliminary sensitisation with indocyanine green and gold nanoparticles separately and with conjugates of nanoparticles and indocyanine green. The enhancement of photodynamic and photothermal effects by 5 % is observed after 30 min of laser illumination ({lambda} = 808 nm) of bacteria, treated with conjugates of indocyanine green and nanocages. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  18. NIRS and indocyanine-green-determined muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boushel, Robert; Ide, Kojiro; Moller-Sorensen, Hasse; Fernandes, Alvito; Pott, Frank; Secher, Niels H.

    1998-01-01

    We present a method for determination of muscle blood flow (MBF) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with indocyanine green (ICG) as the tracer. MBF was quantified using the integrated arterial [ICG] and the accumulation of ICG in muscle. MBF was determined together with ICG-assessed cardiac output (CO) at rest and during incremental cycling. To further modify CO, the same work loads were performed after cardio-selective beta blockade by metoprolol. In one subject both MBF (9 to 110 ml (DOT) 100 g-1 (DOT) min-1) and CO increased linearly with work rate (8 to 19 l (DOT) min-1). Under beta blockade, both the increase in MBF and CO were lower: 5 to 70 ml (DOT) 100 g-1 (DOT) min-1 and 5 to 161 DOT min-1, respectively. During exercise with and without beta blockade, MBF increased with work load to represent a larger proportion of CO. Also, NIRS could detect an attenuated increase in MBF manifest by the restrained CO during leg exercise after cardio-selective beta blockade. Both observations indicate that NIRS detection of indocyanine green provides an estimate of muscle blood flow over the range from rest to intense exercise.

  19. NIRS and indocyanine-green-determined muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boushel, Robert; Ide, Kojiro; Moller-Sorensen, Hasse; Fernandes, Alvito; Pott, Frank; Secher, Niels H.

    1997-12-01

    We present a method for determination of muscle blood flow (MBF) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with indocyanine green (ICG) as the tracer. MBF was quantified using the integrated arterial [ICG] and the accumulation of ICG in muscle. MBF was determined together with ICG-assessed cardiac output (CO) at rest and during incremental cycling. To further modify CO, the same work loads were performed after cardio-selective beta blockade by metoprolol. In one subject both MBF (9 to 110 ml (DOT) 100 g-1 (DOT) min-1) and CO increased linearly with work rate (8 to 19 l (DOT) min-1). Under beta blockade, both the increase in MBF and CO were lower: 5 to 70 ml (DOT) 100 g-1 (DOT) min-1 and 5 to 161 DOT min-1, respectively. During exercise with and without beta blockade, MBF increased with work load to represent a larger proportion of CO. Also, NIRS could detect an attenuated increase in MBF manifest by the restrained CO during leg exercise after cardio-selective beta blockade. Both observations indicate that NIRS detection of indocyanine green provides an estimate of muscle blood flow over the range from rest to intense exercise.

  20. Indocyanine Green Assisted Removal of Orbital Lacrimal Duct Cysts in Children

    PubMed Central

    Keren, Shay; Leibovitch, Leah; Leibovitch, Igal

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To report on the use of indocyanine green (ICG) during surgical removal of pediatric orbital lacrimal duct cysts. Method. We conducted a retrospective review of our cases of surgical excision of orbital lacrimal duct cysts using intraoperative injection of indocyanine green (ICG), which was used following inadvertent cyst rupture and volume loss. The dye allowed complete cyst visualization and complete excision despite volume loss or cyst rupture. Results. The study included 6 children (3 boys, mean age of 4.2 ± 0.84 years, range 3–5 years). Mean follow-up period was 9.3 months. All cysts were located in the inferonasal quadrant of the orbit (4 in the right side). In all cases, ICG was injected into the cyst at the time of surgery following unintentional cyst rupture. After the dye injection, it was easy to identify the borders of the cyst, permitting complete cyst removal, without any intra- or postoperative complications. Pathological examination revealed that all cysts were of lacrimal duct origin. Conclusion. Intraoperative injection of ICG into orbital cysts in children can aid surgeons in identifying cyst borders following inadvertent rupture, allowing complete removal. PMID:25642343

  1. Photothermally Triggered Lipid Bilayer Phase Transition and Drug Release from Gold Nanorod and Indocyanine Green Encapsulated Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Viitala, Lauri; Pajari, Saija; Lajunen, Tatu; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Kuosmanen, Päivi; Viitala, Tapani; Urtti, Arto; Murtomäki, Lasse

    2016-05-10

    In light-activated liposomal drug delivery systems (DDSs), the light sensitivity can be obtained by a photothermal agent that converts light energy into heat. Excess heat increases the drug permeability of the lipid bilayer, and drug is released as a result. In this work, two near-IR responsive photothermal agents in a model drug delivery system are studied: either gold nanorods (GNRs) encapsulated inside the liposomes or indocyanine green (ICG) embedded into the lipid bilayer. The liposome system is exposed to light, and the heating effect is studied with fluorescent thermometers: laurdan and CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Both photothermal agents are shown to convert light into heat in an extent to cause a phase transition in the surrounding lipid bilayer. This phase transition is also proven with laurdan generalized polarization (GP). In addition to the heating results, we show that the model drug (calcein) is released from the liposomal cavity with both photothermal agents when the light power is sufficient to cause a phase transition in the lipid bilayer. PMID:27089512

  2. Optimization of parameters in photodynamic therapy to kill p. aeruginosa with 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Yuksel, Sahru; Gulsoy, Murat

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria causes significant increase in deaths due to infections around the world. Nowadays, it could be impossible to find appropriate antibiotics to treat some bacterial strains, especially multidrug resistant types. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new and safe treatment techniques for multidrug resistant bacteria associated morbidity and mortality. In this study, Photodynamic Therapy was used to destroy these kinds of bacteria with near infrared light and Indocyanine Green. Different wavelengths of lasers mostly in the visible spectrum have been investigated for Photodynamic Therapy; however near infrared lasers have been used in very few studies. The main motivation to test photodynamic therapy with near infrared light and indocyanine green is that the near infrared laser (around 800-nm) has more penetration depth in the biological tissue than the other lasers have. Therefore it is supposed that it will show more antibacterial effect. And also indocyanine green has a very low toxicity and an FDAapproved drug. This study investigated optimum parameters for PDT with 809-nm laser and Indocyanine green (ICG) to kill P. aeruginosa in vitro. We were able to optimize the laser power and ICG concentration to non-toxic levels and achieved 99% decrease in bacterial load with 252 J/cm2 laser light and 125 μg/ml ICG concentration. This study demonstrates that PDT with near-infrared light and ICG can be powerful and non-hazardous treatment strategy for untreatable pathogens.

  3. Retention of indocyanine green as a potential marker for optical detection of blood brain barrier disruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, A.; Joshi, S.; Wang, M.; Bigio, I. J.

    2011-03-01

    Preliminary studies have shown that there is great variability in the degree of disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBBD) after the intraarterial injection of mannitol in rabbit models. The disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) is affected by a number of factors, and the variations could have a profound impact on regional delivery of chemotherapeutics. Optically measured brain tissue concentrations of indocyanine green (ICG) and Evan's blue (EB) enable the quantification of BBBD after intraarterial administration of mannitol. Using the optical pharmacokinetics technique, a variation of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, we are able to track in vivo brain tissue concentrations of ICG and EB in rabbits, before and after barrier disruption. This study shows the feasibility of optical monitoring of BBBD, a method that can help improve intraarterial delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  4. [Video-assisted Thoracoscopic Segmentectomy Using Infrared Thoracoscopy with Indocyanine Green].

    PubMed

    Tarumi, Shintaro; Yokomise, Hiroyasu

    2016-07-01

    The maintenance of a good surgical view is mandatory in video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). For routine segmentectomy, it is necessary to re-inflate the lung in order to identify the intersegmental borders. However, such re-inflation can occasionally obstruct the surgical view and can lead to prolongation of operation time, particularly in the context of VATS. Infrared thoracoscopy( IRT) with indocyanine green (ICG) is a new method of evaluating lung perfusion. There are 2 methods in IRT. One is based on ICG absorption, and the other is based on ICG fluorescence. In our experience, both of them were useful for identification of segmental borders. However, the former method was superior for the clarity of images. No complications attributable to IRT with ICG were observed. IRT with ICG is based on blood flow rather than on ventilation and can thus achieve anatomical segmentectomy without lung re-inflation. This method will be especially useful for VATS segmentectomy. PMID:27440031

  5. In Vivo Photoacoustic and Fluorescence Cystography Using Clinically Relevant Dual Modal Indocyanine Green

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungjo; Kim, Jeesu; Jeon, Mansik; Song, Jaewon; Kim, Chulhong

    2014-01-01

    Conventional X-ray-based cystography uses radio-opaque materials, but this method uses harmful ionizing radiation and is not sensitive. In this study, we demonstrate nonionizing and noninvasive photoacoustic (PA) and fluorescence (FL) cystography using clinically relevant indocyanine green (ICG) in vivo. After transurethral injection of ICG into rats through a catheter, their bladders were photoacoustically and fluorescently visualized. A deeply positioned bladder below the skin surface (i.e., ∼1.5–5 mm) was clearly visible in the PA and FL image using a laser pulse energy of less than 2 mJ/cm2 (1/15 of the safety limit). Then, the in vivo imaging results were validated through in situ studies. Our results suggest that dual modal cystography can provide a nonionizing and noninvasive imaging tool for bladder mapping. PMID:25337743

  6. Photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy with indocyanine green in feline vaccine-associated sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    ONOYAMA, MASAKI; TSUKA, TAKESHI; IMAGAWA, TOMOHIRO; OSAKI, TOMOHIRO; SUGIYAMA, AKIHIKO; AZUMA, KAZUO; ITO, NORIHIKO; KAWASHIMA, KAZUHIKO; OKAMOTO, YOSHIHARU

    2015-01-01

    The anticancer effects of photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy (PHCT), which consists of a combination of indocyanine green photodynamic hyperthermal therapy and local chemotherapy, have previously been reported. The present study investigated the effect of PHCT in six cases of feline vaccine-associated sarcoma (FVAS) following conservative surgical resection. No recurrence was observed in three out of six (50%) cases, while recurrence was observed in the remaining three cases. Of note, each feline with recurrences had previously undergone surgical resection more than three times, whereas those without recurrence had undergone no or one previous resection. In addition, the three animals in which there was no recurrence survived between 893 and 1,797 days following surgery. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that PHCT may be a candidate as a novel adjuvant cancer therapy for FVAS. PMID:26622805

  7. Optical measurement of mouse strain differences in cerebral blood flow using indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye-Min; Sohn, Inkyung; Kim, Seunggyu; Kim, Daehwan; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Joo-Won; Park, Chan

    2015-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice have more cerebral arterial branches and collaterals than BALB/c mice. We measured and compared blood flow dynamics of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in these two strains, using noninvasive optical imaging with indocyanine green (ICG). Relative maximum fluorescence intensity (Imax) and the time needed for ICG to reach Imax in the MCA of C57BL/c were lower than that in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the mean transit time was significantly lower in C57BL/6 than in BALB/c mice. These data suggest that the higher number of arterial branches and collaterals in C57BL/6 mice yields a lower blood flow per cerebral artery. PMID:25833343

  8. Application of indocyanine green video angiography in surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Pahl, Felix Hendrik; Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Brock, Roger Schmidt; Lucio, José Erasmo Dal'Col

    2015-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography has been used for several medical indications in the last decades. It allows a real time evaluation of vascular structures during the surgery. This study describes the surgical results of a senior vascular neurosurgeon. We retrospectively searched our database for all aneurysm cases treated with the aid of intraoperative ICG from 2009 to 2014. A total of 61 aneurysms in 56 patients were surgically clipped using intraoperative ICG. Clip reposition after ICG happened in 2 patients (3.2%). Generally, highly variable clip adjustment rates of 2%-38% following ICG have been reported since the introduction of this imaging technique. The application of ICG in vascular neurosurgery is still an emerging challenge. It is an adjunctive strategy which facilitates aneurismal evaluation and treatment in experienced hands. Nevertheless, a qualified vascular neurosurgeon is still the most important component of a high quality work. PMID:26200056

  9. Principal component analysis of indocyanine green fluorescence dynamics for diagnosis of vascular diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jihye; An, Yuri; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Chulhee

    2015-03-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG), a near-infrared fluorophore, has been used in visualization of vascular structure and non-invasive diagnosis of vascular disease. Although many imaging techniques have been developed, there are still limitations in diagnosis of vascular diseases. We have recently developed a minimally invasive diagnostics system based on ICG fluorescence imaging for sensitive detection of vascular insufficiency. In this study, we used principal component analysis (PCA) to examine ICG spatiotemporal profile and to obtain pathophysiological information from ICG dynamics. Here we demonstrated that principal components of ICG dynamics in both feet showed significant differences between normal control and diabetic patients with vascula complications. We extracted the PCA time courses of the first three components and found distinct pattern in diabetic patient. We propose that PCA of ICG dynamics reveal better classification performance compared to fluorescence intensity analysis. We anticipate that specific feature of spatiotemporal ICG dynamics can be useful in diagnosis of various vascular diseases.

  10. Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Endoscopy at Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for an Intracavernous Sinus Dermoid Cyst: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HIDE, Takuichiro; YANO, Shigetoshi; KURATSU, Jun-ichi

    2014-01-01

    The complete resection of intracavernous sinus dermoid cysts is very difficult due to tumor tissue adherence to important anatomical structures such as the internal carotid artery (ICA), cavernous sinus, and cranial nerves. As residual dermoid cyst tissue sometimes induces symptoms and repeat surgery may be required after cyst recurrence, minimal invasiveness is an important consideration when selecting the surgical approach to the lesion. We addressed a recurrent intracavernous sinus dermoid cyst by the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach assisted by neuronavigation and indocyanine green (ICG) endoscopy to confirm the ICA and patency of the cavernous sinus. The ICG endoscope detected the fluorescence signal from the ICA and cavernous sinus; its intensity changed with the passage of time. The ICG endoscope was very useful for real-time imaging, and its high spatial resolution facilitated the detection of the ICA and the patent cavernous sinus. We found it to be of great value for successful endonasal transsphenoidal surgery. PMID:25446381

  11. A standardized model for predicting flap failure using indocyanine green dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Terence M.; Moore, Lindsay S.; Warram, Jason M.; Greene, Benjamin J.; Nakhmani, Arie; Korb, Melissa L.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2016-03-01

    Techniques that provide a non-invasive method for evaluation of intraoperative skin flap perfusion are currently available but underutilized. We hypothesize that intraoperative vascular imaging can be used to reliably assess skin flap perfusion and elucidate areas of future necrosis by means of a standardized critical perfusion threshold. Five animal groups (negative controls, n=4; positive controls, n=5; chemotherapy group, n=5; radiation group, n=5; chemoradiation group, n=5) underwent pre-flap treatments two weeks prior to undergoing random pattern dorsal fasciocutaneous flaps with a length to width ratio of 2:1 (3 x 1.5 cm). Flap perfusion was assessed via laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography and compared to standard clinical assessment for predictive accuracy of flap necrosis. For estimating flap-failure, clinical prediction achieved a sensitivity of 79.3% and a specificity of 90.5%. When average flap perfusion was more than three standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group at the time of the flap procedure (144.3+/-17.05 absolute perfusion units), laser-assisted indocyanine green dye angiography achieved a sensitivity of 81.1% and a specificity of 97.3%. When absolute perfusion units were seven standard deviations below the average flap perfusion for the negative control group, specificity of necrosis prediction was 100%. Quantitative absolute perfusion units can improve specificity for intraoperative prediction of viable tissue. Using this strategy, a positive predictive threshold of flap failure can be standardized for clinical use.

  12. Dynamic imaging of PEGylated indocyanine green (ICG) liposomes within the tumor microenvironment using multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT).

    PubMed

    Beziere, Nicolas; Lozano, Neus; Nunes, Antonio; Salichs, Juan; Queiros, Daniel; Kostarelos, Kostas; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) is a powerful modality that allows high-resolution imaging of photo-absorbers deep within tissue, beyond the classical depth and resolution limitations of conventional optical imaging. Imaging of intrinsic tissue contrast can be complemented by extrinsically administered gold nanoparticles or fluorescent molecular probes. Instead, we investigated herein generation of re-engineered clinically-used PEGylated liposomes incorporating indocyanine green (LipoICG) as a contrast strategy that combines materials already approved for clinical use, with strong photo-absorbing signal generation available today only from some metallic nanoparticles (e.g. gold nanorods). Using MSOT we confirmed LipoICG as a highly potent optoacoustic agent and resolved tissue accumulation in tumor-bearing animals over time with high-sensitivity and resolution using two tumor models of different vascularisation. We further showcase a paradigm shift in pharmacology studies and nanoparticle investigation, by enabling detailed volumetric optical imaging in vivo through the entire tumor tissue non-invasively, elucidating never before seen spatiotemporal features of optical agent distribution. These results point to LipoICG as a particle with significant advantageous characteristics over gold nanoparticles and organic dyes. PMID:25453969

  13. Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Theranostic Nanocarriers Based on Indocyanine Green and mTOR Inhibitor Rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jinping; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Guo, Fang; Lei, Mingzhu; Ma, Man; Yu, Meng; Tan, Fengping; Li, Nan

    2016-06-01

    The development of treatment protocols that resulted in a complete response to photothermal therapy (PTT) was usually hampered by uneven heat distribution and low effectiveness. Here, we reported an NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-modal imaging-guided active targeted thermal sensitive liposomes (TSLs) based on the photothermal therapy agent Indocyanine green (ICG) and antiangiogenesis agent Rapamycin (RAPA) to realize enhanced therapeutic and diagnostic functions. As expected, the in vitro drug release studies exhibited the satisfactory result of drug released from the TSLs under hyperthermia conditions induced by NIR stimulation. The in vitro cellular studies confirmed that the FA-ICG/RAPA-TSLs plus NIR laser exhibited efficient drug accumulation and cytotoxicity in tumor cells and epithelial cells. After 24 h intravenous injection of FA-ICG/RAPA-TSLs, the margins of tumor and normal tissue were accurately identified via the in vivo NIR fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-modal imaging. In addition, FA-ICG/RAPA-TSLs combined with NIR irradiation treated tumor-bearing nude mice inhibited tumor growth to a great extent and possessed much lower side effects to normal organs. All detailed evidence suggested that the theranostic TSLs which were capable of enhancing the therapeutic index might be a suitable drug delivery system for dual-modal imaging-guided therapeutic tools for diagnostics as well as the treatment of tumors. PMID:27182890

  14. Fabrication of Indocyanine Green and 2H, 3H-perfluoropentane loaded microbubbles for fluorescence and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yutong; Wu, Qiang; Ma, Rong; Chang, Shufang; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Ronald

    2016-03-01

    As a near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence dye, Indocyanine Green (ICG) has not gained broader clinical applications, owing to its multiple limitations such as concentration-dependent aggregation, low fluorescence quantum yield, poor physicochemical stability and rapid elimination from the body. In the meanwhile, 2H,3H-perfluoropentane (H-PFP) has been widely studied in ultrasound imaging as a vehicle for targeted delivery of contrast agents and drugs. We synthesized a novel dual-modal fluorescence and ultrasound contrast agent by encapsulating ICG and H-PFP in lipid microbubbles using a liquid-driven coaxial flow focusing (LDCFF) process. Uniform microbubbles with the sizes ranging from 1-10um and great ICG loading efficiency was achieved by this method. Our benchtop experiments showed that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity and more stable photostability compared to free ICG aqueous solution. Our phantom experiments demonstrated that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles enhanced the imaging contrasts in fluorescence imaging and ultrasonography. Our animal experiments indicated that ICG/H-PFP microbubbles extended the ICG life time and facilitated dual mode fluorescence and ultrasound imaging in vivo.

  15. A Classic Near-Infrared Probe Indocyanine Green for Detecting Singlet Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Cheng-Yi; Wu, Feng-Yao; Yang, Min-Kai; Guo, Yu-Min; Lu, Gui-Hua; Yang, Yong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The revelation of mechanisms of photodynamic therapy (PDT) at the cellular level as well as singlet oxygen (1O2) as a second messengers requires the quantification of intracellular 1O2. To detect singlet oxygen, directly measuring the phosphorescence emitted from 1O2 at 1270 nm is simple but limited for the low quantum yield and intrinsic efficiency of 1O2 emission. Another method is chemically trapping 1O2 and measuring fluorescence, absorption and Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). In this paper, we used indocyanine green (ICG), the only near-infrared (NIR) probe approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), to detect 1O2 in vitro. Once it reacts with 1O2, ICG is decomposed and its UV absorption at 780 nm decreases with the laser irradiation. Our data demonstrated that ICG could be more sensitive and accurate than Singlet Oxygen Sensor Green reagent® (SOSG, a commercialized fluorescence probe) in vitro, moreover, ICG functioned with Eosin Y while SOSG failed. Thus, ICG would reasonably provide the possibility to sense 1O2 in vitro, with high sensitivity, selectivity and suitability to most photosensitizers. PMID:26861313

  16. Molecular Targeted Fluorescence-Guided Intraoperative Imaging of Bladder Cancer Nodal Drainage Using Indocyanine Green During Radical and Partial Cystectomy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Manish N; Hemal, Ashok K

    2016-10-01

    Optical imaging is a relatively inexpensive, fast, and sensitive addition to a surgeon's arsenal for the non-invasive detection of malignant dissemination. Optical cameras in the near infrared spectrum are able to successfully identify injected indocyanine green in lymphatic channels and sentinel lymph nodes. The use of this technology is now being used in the operating room to help with lymph node dissection and improve the prognosis of patients diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Indocyanine green has the potential for many more applications due to its versatility. In the future, there is a potential to use it for lymphangiography during nephroureterctomy for upper tract urothelial carcinoma, adrenal surgery for partial or radical adrenalectomy. Further investigations at multiple centers will validate this technique and its efficiency. PMID:27539291

  17. Predictors of indocyanine green visualization during fluorescence imaging for segmental plane formation in thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shuhei; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Dejima, Hitoshi; Seto, Katsutoshi; Naomi, Akira; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki

    2016-01-01

    Background To determine factors predicting indocyanine green (ICG) visualization during fluorescence imaging for segmental plane formation in thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy. Methods Intraoperatively, the intravenous ICG fluorescence imaging system during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy obtained fluorescence emitted images of its surfaces during lung segmental plane formation after the administration of 5 mg/body weight of ICG. The subtraction of regularization scale for calculating the exciting peaks of ICG between the planned segments to resect and to remain was defined as ΔIntensity (ΔI). Variables such as the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (%FEV1.0), smoking index (SI), body mass index (BMI), and low attenuation area (LAA) on computed tomography (CT) took a leading part. Results The formation of the segmental plane was successfully accomplished in 98.6% segments and/or subsegments. SI and LAA significantly affected ΔI levels. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the %FEV1.0, SI, and LAA was 0.56, 0.70, and 0.74, respectively. SI >800 and LAA >1.0% were strong predictors of unfavorable ICG visibility (P=0.04 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusions Fluorescence imaging with ICG was a safe and effective method for segmental plane formation during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy. In spite of its high success rate, unfavorable visibility may potentially occur in patients who are heavy smokers or those with a LAA (>1.0%) on CT. PMID:27162675

  18. Indocyanine green enhanced near infrared laser treatment of SCK tumors in a mouse model pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirstein, Gal; Bäumler, Wolfgang; Friedman, Ran; Hennings, Leah; Webber, Jessica; Suen, James; Griffin, Robert J.

    2011-03-01

    Background and Purpose. Determine the efficacy of indocyanine green (ICG) dye in enhancing near infrared (NIR) laser ablation of tumors in a mouse model. Methods. Mammary carcinoma cells of A/J mice were injected subcutaneously in the lower back of female A/J mice (n=6). Five to seven days post inoculation the tumors (7-9 mm) were treated with 755-nm laser using 70 J/cm2 radiant exposures and 3-ms pulse time. Epidermal cooling was accomplished by cryogen spray cooling. Two minutes prior to laser irradiation mice were injected, intravenously, with 4 mg/kg body weight of ICG solution. Results. Complete tumor ablation was observed in the tumor region and minor damage was seen in the healthy skin. No major skin damage was observed post treatment. Substantial damage (up to 100% coagulative necrosis) was observed in tissue collected from tumors that were treated with laser/ICG. Conclusions. Intravenous administration of 4 mg/kg ICG significantly enhanced thermal ablation of tumors during NIR laser irradiation while sparing healthy skin.

  19. Recent advances in near-infrared fluorescence-guided imaging surgery using indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Namikawa, Tsutomu; Sato, Takayuki; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has better tissue penetration, allowing for the effective rejection of excitation light and detection deep inside organs. Indocyanine green (ICG) generates NIR fluorescence after illumination by an NIR ray, enabling real-time intraoperative visualization of superficial lymphatic channels and vessels transcutaneously. The HyperEye Medical System (HEMS) can simultaneously detect NIR rays under room light to provide color imaging, which enables visualization under bright light. Thus, NIR fluorescence imaging using ICG can provide for excellent diagnostic accuracy in detecting sentinel lymph nodes in cancer and microvascular circulation in various ischemic diseases, to assist us with intraoperative decision making. Including HEMS in this system could further improve the sentinel lymph node mapping and intraoperative identification of blood supply in reconstructive organs and ischemic diseases, making it more attractive than conventional imaging. Moreover, the development of new laparoscopic imaging systems equipped with NIR will allow fluorescence-guided surgery in a minimally invasive setting. Future directions, including the conjugation of NIR fluorophores to target specific cancer markers might be realistic technology with diagnostic and therapeutic benefits. PMID:25820596

  20. Antibacterial photodynamic therapy with 808-nm laser and indocyanine green on abrasion wound models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Güney, Melike; Yuksel, Sahru; Gülsoy, Murat

    2015-02-01

    Infections with pathogens could cause serious health problems, such as septicemia and subsequent death. Some of these deaths are caused by nosocomial, chronic, or burn-related wound infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) can be useful for the treatment of these infections. Our aim was to investigate the antibacterial effect of indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm laser on a rat abrasion wound model infected with the multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. Abrasion wounds were infected with a multidrug resistant clinical isolate of S. aureus. ICG concentrations of 500, 1000, and 2000 μg/ml were applied with a 450 J/cm2 energy dose. Temperature change was monitored by a thermocouple system. The remaining bacterial burden was determined by the serial dilution method after each application. Wounds were observed for 11 days posttreatment. The recovery process was assessed macroscopically. Tissue samples were also examined histologically by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Around a 90% reduction in bacterial burden was observed after PDT applications. In positive control groups (ICG-only and laser-only groups), there was no significant reduction. The applied energy dose did not cause any thermal damage to the target tissue or host environment. Results showed that ICG together with a 808-nm laser might be a promising antibacterial method to eliminate infections in animals and accelerate the wound-healing process.

  1. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3 h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7 times higher beyond 3 h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3 h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3 h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia. PMID:23764695

  2. Maternal-fetal transfer of indocyanine green across the perfused human placenta.

    PubMed

    Rubinchik-Stern, Miriam; Shmuel, Miriam; Bar, Jacob; Eyal, Sara; Kovo, Michal

    2016-07-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved near-infrared imaging probe, given also to pregnant women. We aimed to characterize ICG's transplacental transfer using the ex-vivo perfusion model. Placentas were obtained from caesarean deliveries. Cotyledons were cannulated and dually perfused. ICG, 9.6μg/mL and antipyrine (50μg/mL) were added to the maternal circulation in the absence (n=4) or the presence of the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATPs) inhibitor rifampin (10μg/mL; n=5) or the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar (2μg/mL; n=3). ICG's maternal-to-fetal transfer was evaluated over 180min. The cumulative percent of ICG in the fetal reservoir was minor. When ICG transfer was normalized to that of antipyrine, it was lower in the presence of rifampin (a 41% decrease; p<0.05). Valspodar did not appear to modify the kinetics of ICG. ICG's transplacental transfer is minimal and is probably OATP-mediated. The placenta is an effective protective barrier to ICG's distribution into the fetus. PMID:27132189

  3. Influence of indocyanine green angiography on microsurgical treatment of spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas.

    PubMed

    Takai, Keisuke; Kurita, Hiroki; Hara, Takayuki; Kawai, Kensuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    OBJECTIVE The microvascular anatomy of spinal perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) is more complicated than that of dural AVFs, and occlusion rates of AVF after open microsurgery or endovascular embolization are lower in patients with perimedullary AVFs (29%-70%) than they are in those with dural AVF (97%-98%). Reports of intraoperative blood flow assessment using indocyanine green (ICG) video angiography in spinal arteriovenous lesions have mostly been for spinal dural AVFs. No detailed reports on spinal perimedullary AVFs are available. METHODS Participants were 11 patients with spinal perimedullary AVFs (Type IVa in 5 patients, Type VIb in 4, and Type IVc in 2). Intraoperative ICG video angiography was assessed by measuring the number of cases in which this modality was judged essential by the surgeon to correctly occlude the fistula. RESULTS In all patients, arterial feeders were identified and intravenous ICG video angiography was performed before and after blocking the feeders. In one patient, selective intraarterial ICG video angiography was also performed. The findings provided by ICG video angiography significantly changed the surgical procedure in 4 of 11 patients (36%). Postoperatively, complete occlusion of the AVF was achieved in 10 of the 11 patients (91%). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative ICG video angiography can have a significant impact on deciding surgical strategy in the microsurgical treatment of spinal perimedullary AVF. PMID:26926050

  4. Targeting tumor hypoxia with 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green dye conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Aguirre, Andres; Wang, Tianheng; Yang, Yi; Kuhn, Liisa; Smith, Michael B.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a major indicator of treatment resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, and fluorescence optical tomography has tremendous potential to provide clinically useful, functional information by identifying tumor hypoxia. The synthesis of a 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine green conjugate using a piperazine linker (piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG) capable of robust fluorescent imaging of tumor hypoxia is described. In vivo mouse tumor imaging studies were completed and demonstrate an improved imaging capability of the new dye relative to an earlier version of the dye that was synthesized with an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG). Mouse tumors located at imaging depths of 1.5 and 2.0 cm in a turbid medium were imaged at various time points after intravenous injection of the dyes. On average, the reconstructed maximum fluorescence concentration of the tumors injected with piperazine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG was twofold higher than that injected with ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG within 3 h postinjection period and 1.6 to 1.7 times higher beyond 3 h postinjection. The untargeted bis-carboxylic acid ICG completely washed out after 3 h postinjection. Thus, the optimal window to assess tumor hypoxia is beyond 3 h postinjection. These findings were supported with fluorescence images of histological sections of tumor samples and an immunohistochemistry technique for identifying tumor hypoxia.

  5. Laser-initiated decomposition products of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black sensitized biological tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokosa, John M.; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Motamedi, Massoud; Hayes, Donald J.; Wallace, David B.; Frederickson, Christopher J.

    1997-05-01

    Organic dyes have found increasing use a s sensitizers in laser surgical procedures, due to their high optical absorbances. Little is known, however, about the nature of the degradation products formed when these dyes are irradiated with a laser. Previous work in our laboratories has shown that irradiation of polymeric and biological tissues with CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers produces a host of volatile and semivolatile by-products, some of which are known to be potential carcinogens. This work focuses on the identification of the chemical by-products formed by diode laser and Nd:YAG laser irradiation of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black based ink sensitized tissues, including bone, tendon and sheep's teeth. Samples were mounted in a 0.5-L Pyrex sample chamber equipped with quartz optical windows, charcoal filtered air inlet and an outlet attached to an appropriate sample trap and a constant flow pump. By-products were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC. Volatiles identified included benzene and formaldehyde. Semi-volatiles included traces of polycyclic aromatics, arising from the biological matrix and inks, as well as fragments of ICG and the carbon ink components. The significance of these results will be discussed, including the necessity of using appropriate evacuation devices when utilizing lasers for surgical procedures.

  6. Dynamic fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green for reliable and sensitive diagnosis of peripheral vascular insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yujung; Lee, Jungsul; Kwon, Kihwan; Choi, Chulhee

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative measurement of functional tissue perfusion is essential for early diagnosis and proper treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). We have previously demonstrated that dynamic imaging of near-infrared fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) can be a noninvasive and sensitive tool to measure tissue perfusion. In the present study, we investigated the clinical efficacy of ICG perfusion imaging method for the diagnosis of PAOD. Total nineteen PAOD patients and age-matched controls (n=10) were evaluated for lower extremity tissue perfusion using ICG perfusion imaging. The perfusion rates of the lower extremities with severe PAOD (n=25 legs, 16.6±8.3%/min) were significantly lower than those of normal controls (38.1±17.3%/min, p<0.001). In cases of mild PAOD, the perfusion rates (n=11 legs, 18.3±10.3%/min) were also significantly lower compared to the control; while the conventional ankle-brachial index (ABI) test failed to detect mild functional impairment. These results collectively indicate that ICG perfusion imaging can be a very effective tool for diagnosis of PAOD with a superior efficacy in comparison to conventional ABI test. PMID:20637783

  7. Cerebral blood flow imaging using time-series analysis of indocyanine green molecular dynamics in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Taeyun; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Chulhee

    2010-02-01

    Measurement of cerebral perfusion is important for study of various brain disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, and vascular dementia; however, efficient and convenient methods which can provide quantitative information about cerebral blood flow are not developed. Here we propose an optical imaging method using time-series analysis of dynamics of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence to generate cerebral blood flow maps. In scalp-removed mice, ICG was injected intravenously, and 740nm LED light was illuminated for fluorescence emission signals around 820nm acquired by cooled-CCD. Time-lapse 2-dimensional images were analyzed by custom-built software, and the maximal time point of fluorescent influx in each pixel was processed as a blood flow-related parameter. The generated map exactly reflected the shape of the brain without any interference of the skull, the dura mater, and other soft tissues. This method may be further applicable for study of other disease models in which the cerebral hemodynamics is changed either acutely or chronically.

  8. Targeted imaging of ovarian cancer cells using viral nanoparticles doped with indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, Yadir; Bahmani, Baharak; Jung, Bonsu; Vullev, Valentine; Kundra, Vikas; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-03-01

    Our group has constructed a new type of viral nanoparticles (VNPs) from genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) that encapsulates the FDA-approved near infrared (NIR) indocyanine green (ICG)[1]. We refer to these VNPs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since the constructs lack the genomic content of wild-type BMV. One of our areas of interest is the application of OVGs for real-time intraoperative NIR fluorescence imaging of small peritoneal ovarian tumor nodules. We target human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression in ovarian cancer as a biomarker associated with ovarian cancer, since its over-expression is linked to the disease's progression to death. We functionalize the OVGs with anti-HER-2 monoclonal antibodies using reductive amination methods. We used fluorescence imaging to visualize the SKOV-3 cells (high HER-2 expression) after incubation with free ICG, OVGs, and functionalized OVGs. Our results suggest the possibility of using anti-HER2 conjugated OVGs in conjunction with cytoreductive surgery to detect small tumor nodules (<5cm) which currently are not excised during surgery.

  9. Noninvasive Optical Measurement of Cerebral Blood Flow in Mice Using Molecular Dynamics Analysis of Indocyanine Green

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Taeyun; Choi, Chulhee

    2012-01-01

    In preclinical studies of ischemic brain disorders, it is crucial to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF); however, this requires radiological techniques with heavy instrumentation or invasive procedures. Here, we propose a noninvasive and easy-to-use optical imaging technique for measuring CBF in experimental small animals. Mice were injected with indocyanine green (ICG) via tail-vein catheterization. Time-series near-infrared fluorescence signals excited by 760 nm light-emitting diodes were imaged overhead by a charge-coupled device coupled with an 830 nm bandpass-filter. We calculated four CBF parameters including arrival time, rising time and mean transit time of a bolus and blood flow index based on time and intensity information of ICG fluorescence dynamics. CBF maps were generated using the parameters to estimate the status of CBF, and they dominantly represented intracerebral blood flows in mice even in the presence of an intact skull and scalp. We demonstrated that this noninvasive optical imaging technique successfully detected reduced local CBF during middle cerebral artery occlusion. We further showed that the proposed method is sufficiently sensitive to detect the differences between CBF status in mice anesthetized with either isoflurane or ketamine–xylazine, and monitor the dynamic changes in CBF after reperfusion during transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. The near-infrared optical imaging of ICG fluorescence combined with a time-series analysis of the molecular dynamics can be a useful noninvasive tool for preclinical studies of brain ischemia. PMID:23119000

  10. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallotta, Olivia J.; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps.

  11. Combined use of intraoperative indocyanine green and dynamic angiography in rotational vertebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Ambekar, Sudheer; Elhammady, Mohamed Samy; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Nogueira, Raul G; Ahmad, Faiz U

    2016-08-01

    Rotational vertebral artery occlusion, also known as bow hunter's syndrome, is a well-documented surgically amenable cause of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Traditionally, patients have been imaged using dynamic rotational angiography. The authors sought to determine whether intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography could reliably assess the adequacy of surgical decompression of the vertebral artery (VA). The authors report two patients who presented with multiple transient episodes of syncope provoked by turning their head to the right. Rotational dynamic angiography revealed a dominant VA that became occluded with head rotation to the right side. The patients underwent successful surgical decompression of the VA via an anterior cervical approach. Intraoperative ICG angiography demonstrated patency of the VA with head rotation. This was further confirmed by intraoperative dynamic catheter angiography. To our knowledge, we present the first two cases of the use of ICG combined with intraoperative dynamic rotational angiography to document the adequacy of surgical decompression of the VA in a patient with rotational vertebral artery occlusion. Intraoperative ICG angiography is a useful adjunct and may potentially supplant the need for intraoperative catheter angiography. PMID:27041076

  12. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Nanoparticles for Image-Guided Tumor Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Tanner K.; Abdulahad, Asem; Kelkar, Sneha S.; Marini, Frank C.; Long, Timothy E.; Provenzale, James M.; Mohs, Aaron M.

    2015-01-01

    Detecting positive tumor margins and local malignant masses during surgery is critical for long-term patient survival. The use of image-guided surgery for tumor removal, particularly with near-infrared fluorescent imaging, is a potential method to facilitate removing all neoplastic tissue at the surgical site. In this study we demonstrate a series of hyaluronic acid (HLA)-derived nanoparticles that entrap the near-infrared dye indocyanine green, termed NanoICG, for improved delivery of the dye to tumors. Self-assembly of the nanoparticles was driven by conjugation of one of three hydrophobic moieties: aminopropyl-1-pyrenebutanamide (PBA), aminopropyl-5β-cholanamide (5βCA), or octadecylamine (ODA). Nanoparticle self-assembly, dye loading, and optical properties were characterized. NanoICG exhibited quenched fluorescence that could be activated by disassembly in a mixed solvent. NanoICG was found to be nontoxic at physiologically relevant concentrations and exposure was not found to inhibit cell growth. Using an MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft model in mice, strong fluorescence enhancement in tumors was observed with NanoICG using a fluorescence image-guided surgery system and a whole-animal imaging system. Tumor contrast with NanoICG was significantly higher than with ICG alone. PMID:25565445

  13. Clinical application of near-infrared thoracoscope with indocyanine green in video-assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao; Zhou, Jian; Chi, Chongwei; Mao, Yamin; Yang, Fan; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Failure to identify all the possible bullous lesions was considered an important reason for the higher recurrence rate after the VATS bullectomy. We applied the latest near-infrared (NIR) thoracoscope with indocyanine green (ICG) to detect bullous lesions for patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. Two male patients with spontaneous pneumothorax and poorly identified bullae intraoperatively were included in this pilot study. An NIR thoracoscope with two different doses of ICG injection (0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg) was used to detect bullous lesions during VATS bullectomy. Partial lung resections of the bullous lesions were performed under syncretic mode. Data was managed with ImageJ software. No procedure-related complications were observed. The fluorescent signal was detected in normal lung tissue 10.5 seconds (mean, 10–11 seconds) after the ICG bolus, and lasted up to 525 seconds (mean, 480–570 seconds). The bullous lesions showed an obviously decreased fluorescent densities comparing to adjacent normal tissue. At the dosage of 0.6 mg/kg, ICG emits sufficient fluorescence to demonstrate the precise border of bullae, with the max SBR of 6.32. All resected specimens were confirmed as bullous lesions microscopically. NIR thoracoscope with intravenous ICG is a safe, accurate and real-time method to detect bullous lesions of lung tissue difficult to be found under normal light in human subjects. Trial registration NCT02611245 (https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/).

  14. Enhanced laser tissue soldering using indocyanine green chromophore and gold nanoshells combination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E.; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad S.

    2011-08-01

    Gold nanoshells (GNs) are new materials that have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes. The purposes of this study were to use the combination of indocyanine green (ICG) and different concentration of gold nanoshells for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different combinations of ICG and gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2 × 20 mm2 was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810 nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength (σt) due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σt of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells in solder, Ns, and decreasing Vs. It was demonstrated that laser soldering using combination of ICG + GNs could be practical provided the optothermal properties of the tissue are carefully optimized. Also, the tensile strength of soldered skin is higher than skins that soldered with only ICG or GNs. In our case, this corresponds to σt = 1800 g cm-2 at I ~ 47 Wcm-2, T ~ 85 ºC, Ns = 10, and Vs = 0.3 mms-1.

  15. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography--an objective evaluation of anastomotic perfusion in colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Protyniak, Bogdan; Dinallo, Anthony M; Boyan, William P; Dressner, Roy M; Arvanitis, Michael L

    2015-06-01

    The essentials for any bowel anastomosis are: adequate perfusion, tension free, accurate tissue apposition, and minimal local spillage. Traditionally, perfusion is measured by assessing palpable pulses in the mesentery, active bleeding at cut edges, and lack of tissue discoloration. However, subjective methods lack predictive accuracy for an anastomotic leak. We used intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence angiography to objectively assess colon perfusion before a bowel anastomosis. Seventy-seven laparoscopic colorectal operations, between June 2013 and June 2014, were retrospectively reviewed. The perfusion to the colon and ileum was clinically assessed, and then measured using the SPY Elite Imaging System. The absolute value provided an objective number on a 0-256 gray-scale to represent differences in ICG fluorescence intensity. The lowest absolute value was used in data analysis for each anastomosis (including small bowel) to represent the theoretical least perfused/weakest anastomotic area. The lowest absolute value recorded was 20 in a patient who underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for an adenoma, with no postoperative complications. Four low anterior resection patients had additional segments of descending colon resected. There was one mortality in a patient who underwent a laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. This study illustrates an initial experience with the SPY system in colorectal surgery. The SPY provides an objective, numerical value of bowel perfusion. However, evidence is scant as to the significance of these numbers. Large-scale randomized controlled trials are required to determine specific cutoff values correlated with surgical outcomes, specifically anastomotic leak rates. PMID:26031270

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikalp; Phillips, Brett T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99) and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG). The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq), and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4) were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40) had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique. PMID:24382997

  17. Development and validation of a custom made indocyanine green fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager.

    PubMed

    Pallotta, Olivia J; van Zanten, Malou; McEwen, Mark; Burrow, Lynne; Beesley, Jack; Piller, Neil

    2015-06-01

    Lymphoedema is a chronic progressive condition often producing significant morbidity. An in-depth understanding of an individual's lymphatic architecture is valuable both in the understanding of underlying pathology and for targeting and tailoring treatment. Severe lower limb injuries resulting in extensive loss of soft tissue require transposition of a flap consisting of muscle and/or soft tissue to close the defect. These patients are at risk of lymphoedema and little is known about lymphatic regeneration within the flap. Indocyanine green (ICG), a water-soluble dye, has proven useful for the imaging of lymphatic vessels. When injected into superficial tissues it binds to plasma proteins in lymph. By exposing the dye to specific wavelengths of light, ICG fluoresces with near-infrared light. Skin is relatively transparent to ICG fluorescence, enabling the visualization and characterization of superficial lymphatic vessels. An ICG fluorescence lymphatic vessel imager was manufactured to excite ICG and visualize real-time fluorescence as it travels through the lymphatic vessels. Animal studies showed successful ICG excitation and detection using this imager. Clinically, the imager has assisted researchers to visualize otherwise hidden superficial lymphatic pathways in patients postflap surgery. Preliminary results suggest superficial lymphatic vessels do not redevelop in muscle flaps. PMID:26057032

  18. Tracheal anastomosis using indocyanine green dye enhanced fibrinogen with a near-infrared diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auteri, Joseph S.; Jeevanandam, Valluvan; Oz, Mehmet C.; Libutti, Steven K.; Kirby, Thomas J.; Smith, Craig R.; Treat, Michael R.

    1990-06-01

    A major obstacle to lung transplantation and combined heart- lung transplantation is dehiscence of the tracheobronchial anastomosis. We explored the possibility of laser welded anastomoses in canine tracheas in vivo. Laser anastomoses were performed on three-quarter circumferential anterior tracheotomies. A continous wave diode laser (808 +1 nm) at a power density of 9.6 watts/cm was used. Human fibrinogen was mixed with indocyanine green dye (ICG, max absorbance 805 nm) and applied to the anastomosis site prior to laser exposure. Animals were sacrificed at 0, 21 and 28 days post-operatively. At sacrifice weld bursting pressures were measured by raising intratracheal pressure using forced ventilation via an endotracheal tube. Sutured and laser welded anastomoses had similar bursting pressures, and exhibited satisfactory histologic evidence of healing. However, compared to polypropylene sutured controls, the laser welded anastomoses exhibited less peritracheal inflammatory reaction and showed visibly smoother luminal surfaces at 21 and 28 days post- operatively. Tracheal anastomosis using ICG dye enhanced fibrinogen combined with the near-infrared diode laser is a promising extension of the technology of laser tissue fusion and deserves further study.

  19. An Activatable Theranostic Nanomedicine Platform Based on Self-Quenchable Indocyanine Green-Encapsulated Polymeric Micelles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lanxia; Ma, Guilei; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Hai; Sun, Hongfan; Wang, Chun; Song, Cunxian; Kong, Deling

    2016-06-01

    Self-quenchable indocyanine green (ICG)-encapsulated micelles with folic acid (FA)-targeting specificity (FA-ICG-micelles) were developed for biologically activatable photodynamic theranostics. FA-ICG-micelles were successfully prepared using the thin-film hydration method, which allows ICG to be encapsulated with a high drug loading that induces an efficient ICG-based quenched state. FA-ICG-micelles are initially in the "OFF" state with no fluorescence signal or phototoxicity, but they become highly fluorescent and phototoxic in cellular degradative environments. Importantly, via folate receptor-mediated endocytosis, the FA targeting of FA-ICG-micelles enhanced intracellular uptake and photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Systematic administration of FA-ICG-micelles to folate receptor-positive tumor-bearing mice elicited prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation and improved therapeutic efficiency compared to free ICG. Therefore, based on the FA-targeted specificity and switchable photoactivity, FA-ICG-micelles have potential for photodynamic theranostics in cancer. PMID:27319216

  20. Enhanced laser tissue soldering using indocyanine green chromophore and gold nanoshells combination.

    PubMed

    Khosroshahi, Mohammad E; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad S

    2011-08-01

    Gold nanoshells (GNs) are new materials that have an optical response dictated by the plasmon resonance. The wavelength at which the resonance occurs depends on the core and shell sizes. The purposes of this study were to use the combination of indocyanine green (ICG) and different concentration of gold nanoshells for skin tissue soldering and also to examine the effect of laser soldering parameters on the properties of repaired skin. Two mixtures of albumin solder and different combinations of ICG and gold nanoshells were prepared. A full thickness incision of 2 × 20 mm(2) was made on the surface and after addition of mixtures it was irradiated by an 810 nm diode laser at different power densities. The changes of tensile strength (σ(t)) due to temperature rise, number of scan (Ns), and scan velocity (Vs) were investigated. The results showed at constant laser power density (I), σ(t) of repaired incisions increases by increasing the concentration of gold nanoshells in solder, Ns, and decreasing Vs. It was demonstrated that laser soldering using combination of ICG + GNs could be practical provided the optothermal properties of the tissue are carefully optimized. Also, the tensile strength of soldered skin is higher than skins that soldered with only ICG or GNs. In our case, this corresponds to σ(t) = 1800 g cm(-2) at I ∼ 47 Wcm(-2), T ∼ 85 [ordinal indicator, masculine]C, Ns = 10, and Vs = 0.3 mms(-1). PMID:21895342

  1. Indocyanine Green Liposomes for Diagnosis and Therapeutic Monitoring of Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, Emma; Vakruk, Natalia; Bishara, Ameer; Shmuel, Miriam; Magdassi, Shlomo; Golenser, Jacob; Eyal, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a major cause of death of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Misdiagnosis of CM often leads to treatment delay and mortality. Conventional brain imaging technologies are rarely applicable in endemic areas. Here we address the unmet need for a simple, non-invasive imaging methodology for early diagnosis of CM. This study presents the diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring using liposomes containing the FDA-approved fluorescent dye indocyanine green (ICG) in a CM murine model. Increased emission intensity of liposomal ICG was demonstrated in comparison with free ICG. The Liposomal ICG's emission was greater in the brains of the infected mice compared to naïve mice and drug treated mice (where CM was prevented). Histological analyses suggest that the accumulation of liposomal ICG in the cerebral vasculature is due to extensive uptake mediated by activated phagocytes. Overall, liposomal ICG offers a valuable diagnostic tool and a biomarker for effectiveness of CM treatment, as well as other diseases that involve inflammation and blood vessel occlusion. PMID:26877776

  2. Endoscopic Fluorescence Angiography with Indocyanine Green : A Preclinical Study in the Swine

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Sang; Kim, Jeong Eun; Kim, Sae Hoon; Kim, Hee Chan; Kang, Uk

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microscopic indocyanine green (ICG) angiography is useful for identifying the completeness of aneurysm clipping and the preservation of parent arteries and small perforators. Neuroendoscopy is helpful for visualizing structures beyond the straight line of the microscopic view. We evaluated our prototype of endoscopic ICG fluorescence angiography in swine, which we developed in order to combine the merits of microscopic ICG angiography and endoscopy. Methods Our endoscopic ICG system consists of a camera, a light source, a display and software. This system can simultaneously display real-time visible and near infrared fluorescence imaging on the same monitor. A commercially available endoscope was used, which was 4 mm in diameter and had an angle of 30°. A male crossbred swine was used. Results Under general anesthesia, a small craniotomy was performed and the brain surface of the swine was exposed. ICG was injected via the ear vein with a bolus dose of 0.3 mg/kg. Visible and ICG fluorescence images of cortical vessels were simultaneously observed on the display monitor at high resolution. The real-time merging of the visible and fluorescent images corresponded well. Conclusion Simultaneous visible color and ICG fluorescent imaging of the cortical vessels in the swine brain was satisfactory. Technical improvement and clinical implication are expected. PMID:26819685

  3. Illuminating necrosis: From mechanistic exploration to preclinical application using fluorescence molecular imaging with indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chaoting; Chi, Chongwei; Shang, Wenting; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Fan, Yingfang; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Nan; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Wen; Fang, Chihua; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue necrosis commonly accompanies the development of a wide range of serious diseases. Therefore, highly sensitive detection and precise boundary delineation of necrotic tissue via effective imaging techniques are crucial for clinical treatments; however, no imaging modalities have achieved satisfactory results to date. Although fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) shows potential in this regard, no effective necrosis-avid fluorescent probe has been developed for clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that indocyanine green (ICG) can achieve high avidity of necrotic tissue owing to its interaction with lipoprotein (LP) and phospholipids. The mechanism was explored at the cellular and molecular levels through a series of in vitro studies. Detection of necrotic tissue and real-time image-guided surgery were successfully achieved in different organs of different animal models with the help of FMI using in house-designed imaging devices. The results indicated that necrotic tissue with a 0.6 mm diameter could be effectively detected with precise boundary definition. We believe that the new discovery and the associated imaging techniques will improve personalized and precise surgery in the near future. PMID:26864116

  4. Illuminating necrosis: From mechanistic exploration to preclinical application using fluorescence molecular imaging with indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Cheng; Wang, Kun; Zeng, Chaoting; Chi, Chongwei; Shang, Wenting; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Fan, Yingfang; Yang, Jian; Xiang, Nan; Zeng, Ning; Zhu, Wen; Fang, Chihua; Tian, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue necrosis commonly accompanies the development of a wide range of serious diseases. Therefore, highly sensitive detection and precise boundary delineation of necrotic tissue via effective imaging techniques are crucial for clinical treatments; however, no imaging modalities have achieved satisfactory results to date. Although fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) shows potential in this regard, no effective necrosis-avid fluorescent probe has been developed for clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate that indocyanine green (ICG) can achieve high avidity of necrotic tissue owing to its interaction with lipoprotein (LP) and phospholipids. The mechanism was explored at the cellular and molecular levels through a series of in vitro studies. Detection of necrotic tissue and real-time image-guided surgery were successfully achieved in different organs of different animal models with the help of FMI using in house-designed imaging devices. The results indicated that necrotic tissue with a 0.6 mm diameter could be effectively detected with precise boundary definition. We believe that the new discovery and the associated imaging techniques will improve personalized and precise surgery in the near future. PMID:26864116

  5. In vivo observing x-ray attenuation of intratumor injection of indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chang; Luo, Qingming; Liang, Wenxi; Lu, Jinling

    2003-12-01

    We report our experimental results of in vivo observing x-ray attenuation of intra-tumor injection of indocyanine green (ICG). An eight- to nine-week-old male BALB/c mouse weighting between 15 and 20 g is used in the experiments, which has been implanted with myeloma cell line (SP2/0) two week before. The system used to monitor the intratumor diffusion of ICG is a digital x-ray imaging system. It works at 33kVp, 0.3mAs, 4 seconds and 1.5×magnification. The objective of this research is to study the x-ray attenuation at different area, which represented by gray-scale value. Compare to the ROI in the tissue without ICG and ROI of black background in the image, there is an obvious change before and after injecting ICG in the tumor, which is the area ICG can diffuse to. It shows the feasibility of using digital x-ray imaging system to dynamically, effectively and noninterventionly monitor the diffusion of the ICG.

  6. In vivo fluorescence confocal microscopy: indocyanine green enhances the contrast of epidermal and dermal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvara, Hans; Kittler, Harald; Schmid, Johannes A.; Plut, Ulrike; Jonak, Constanze

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, in vivo skin imaging devices have been successfully implemented in skin research as well as in clinical routine. Of particular importance is the use of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) and fluorescence confocal microscopy (FCM) that enable visualization of the tissue with a resolution comparable to histology. A newly developed commercially available multi-laser device in which both technologies are integrated now offers the possibility to directly compare RCM with FCM. The fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) was intradermally injected into healthy forearm skin of 10 volunteers followed by in vivo imaging at various time points. In the epidermis, accurate assessment of cell morphology with FCM was supplemented by identification of pigmented cells and structures with RCM. In dermal layers, only with FCM connective tissue fibers were clearly contoured down to a depth of more than 100 μm. The fluorescent signal still provided a favorable image contrast 24 and 48 hours after injection. Subsequently, ICG was applied to different types of skin diseases (basal cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis, seborrhoeic keratosis, and psoriasis) in order to demonstrate the diagnostic benefit of FCM when directly compared with RCM. Our data suggest a great impact of FCM in combination with ICG on clinical and experimental dermatology in the future.

  7. [Place of indocyanine green coupled with fluorescence imaging in research of breast cancer sentinel node].

    PubMed

    Vermersch, Charlotte; Raia Barjat, Tiphaine; Perrot, Marianne; Lima, Suzanne; Chauleur, Céline

    2016-04-01

    The sentinel node has a fundamental role in the management of early breast cancer. Currently, the double detection of blue and radioisotope is recommended. But in common practice, many centers use a single method. However, with a single detection, the risk of false negatives and the identification failure rate increase to a significant extent and the number of sentinel lymph node detected and removed is not enough. Furthermore, the tracers used until now show inconveniences. The purpose of this work is to present a new method of detection, using the green of indocyanine coupled with fluorescence imaging, and to compare it with the already existing methods. The method combined by fluorescence and isotopic is reliable, sure, of fast learning and could constitute a good strategy of detection. The major interest is to obtain a satisfactory number of sentinel nodes. The profit could be even more important for overweight patients. The fluorescence used alone is at the moment not possible. Wide ranging studies are necessary. The FLUOTECH, randomized study of 100 patients, comparing the isotopic method of double isotope technique and fluorescence, is underway to confirm these data. PMID:26946971

  8. Symmetricity analysis of time to peak parameter of indocyanine green dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yuri; Lee, Jungsul; Choi, Chulhee

    2013-03-01

    We have previously discovered that near-infrared optical imaging of indocyanine green (ICG) signal and analyzing its dynamics can be applied for measurement of blood perfusion rate and detection of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP). Especially, RP is closely associated with abnormal vasomotor responses and can progress to tissue necrosis due to excessively sustained vasoconstriction. Therefore, early detecting of RP is one of important implication to prevent tissue damage from peripheral vascular disorders. In the present study, we propose new analysis and scoring method of symmetricity of Tmax value of left and right extremities. Moreover, this symmetricity analysis can give further information about microvascular insufficiency. For validation of the proposed method, we tested whether the segmental and paired analysis of Tmax value (time-to-peak) of ICG dynamics can be used for sensitive diagnosis of microvascular abnormalities which cannot be detected by conventional methods. From the near-infrared images of diabetes mellitus patients with vascular complications, the trend of asymmetry in Tmax value was observed. We assumed that decreasing local blood perfusion by autonomic nerve dysfunction causes the asymmetric Tmax value of right and left feet. These results collectively indicate that the proposed method can be used as a useful diagnostic tool for RP or other microvascular disorders.

  9. Polymer-Protein Hydrogel Nanomatrix for Stabilization of Indocyanine Green towards Targeted Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bio-imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyung Ki; Ray, Aniruddha; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kim, Gwangseong; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an optical contrast agent commonly used for a variety of imaging applications. However, certain limitations of the free dye molecule, concerning its low stability, uncontrolled aggregation and lack of targeting ability, have limited its use. Presented here is a method of embedding ICG in a novel polymer/protein hybrid nanocarrier so as to overcome the above inherent drawbacks of the free molecule. The hybrid nanocarrier consists of a non-toxic and biocompatible polyacrylamide nanoparticle (PAA NP) matrix that incorporates human serum albumin (HSA). This nanocarrier was synthesized through pre-conjugation with HSA and amine functionalized monomer, followed by polymerization using biodegradable cross-linkers, in a water-in-oil emulsion. The ICG dye is loaded into the HSA conjugated PAA nanoparticles (HSA–PAA NPs) through post-loading. Compared to the PAA polymer matrix, the presence of hydrophobic pockets in the HSA–PAA NPs further increases the chemical and physical stability of ICG. This is manifested by lowering the chemical degradation rates under physiological conditions, as well as by improving the thermal- and photo-stability of the dye. A targeting moiety, F3–Cys peptide, was attached to the surface of the NPs, for selective delivery to specific cancer cell lines. The suitability of these NPs for optical imaging applications was demonstrated by performing fluorescence imaging on a rat gliosarcoma cell line (9L). We also present the photoacoustic response of the HSA–PAA NPs, used as imaging contrast agents, in the spectral window of 700 nm to 800 nm. PMID:24224083

  10. Comparison of the photothermal effects of 808nm gold nanorod and indocyanine green solutions using an 805nm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Zhou, Feifan; West, Connor; Silk, Kegan; Doughty, Austin; Bahavar, Cody F.; Chen, Wei R.

    2016-03-01

    Non-invasive laser immunotherapy (NLIT) is a treatment method for metastatic cancer which combines noninvasive laser irradiation with immunologically modified nanostructures to ablate a primary tumor and induce a systemic anti-tumor response. To further expand the development of NLIT, two different photosensitizing agents were compared: gold nanorods (GNR) with an optical absorption peak of 808 nm and indocyanine green (ICG) with an optical absorption peak of ~800 nm. Various concentrations of GNR and ICG solutions were irradiated at different power densities using an 805 nm diode laser, and the temperature of the solutions was monitored during irradiation using a thermal camera. For comparison, dye balls made up of a 1:1 volume ratio of gel solution to GNR or ICG solution were placed in phantom gels and were then irradiated using the 805 nm diode laser to imitate the effect of laser irradiation on in vivo tumors. Non-invasive laser irradiation of GNR solution for 2 minutes resulted in a maximum increase in temperature by 31.8 °C. Additionally, similar irradiation of GNR solution dye ball within phantom gel for 10 minutes resulted in a maximum temperature increase of 8.2 °C. Comparatively, non-invasive laser irradiation of ICG solution for 2 minutes resulted in a maximum increase in temperature by 28.0 °C. Similar irradiation of ICG solution dye ball within phantom gel for 10 minutes yielded a maximum temperature increase of only 3.4 °C. Qualitatively, these studies showed that GNR solutions are more effective photosensitizing agents than ICG solution.

  11. Polymer-Protein Hydrogel Nanomatrix for Stabilization of Indocyanine Green towards Targeted Fluorescence and Photoacoustic Bio-imaging.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Ki; Ray, Aniruddha; Lee, Yong-Eun Koo; Kim, Gwangseong; Wang, Xueding; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-11-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an optical contrast agent commonly used for a variety of imaging applications. However, certain limitations of the free dye molecule, concerning its low stability, uncontrolled aggregation and lack of targeting ability, have limited its use. Presented here is a method of embedding ICG in a novel polymer/protein hybrid nanocarrier so as to overcome the above inherent drawbacks of the free molecule. The hybrid nanocarrier consists of a non-toxic and biocompatible polyacrylamide nanoparticle (PAA NP) matrix that incorporates human serum albumin (HSA). This nanocarrier was synthesized through pre-conjugation with HSA and amine functionalized monomer, followed by polymerization using biodegradable cross-linkers, in a water-in-oil emulsion. The ICG dye is loaded into the HSA conjugated PAA nanoparticles (HSA-PAA NPs) through post-loading. Compared to the PAA polymer matrix, the presence of hydrophobic pockets in the HSA-PAA NPs further increases the chemical and physical stability of ICG. This is manifested by lowering the chemical degradation rates under physiological conditions, as well as by improving the thermal- and photo-stability of the dye. A targeting moiety, F3-Cys peptide, was attached to the surface of the NPs, for selective delivery to specific cancer cell lines. The suitability of these NPs for optical imaging applications was demonstrated by performing fluorescence imaging on a rat gliosarcoma cell line (9L). We also present the photoacoustic response of the HSA-PAA NPs, used as imaging contrast agents, in the spectral window of 700 nm to 800 nm. PMID:24224083

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis of Indocyanine Green-Labeled Panitumumab for Optical Imaging—A Cautionary Tale

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Indocyanine green (IC-Green), the only FDA approved near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore for clinical use, is attractive to researchers for the development of targeted optical imaging agents by modification of its structure and conjugation to monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or their fragments. IC-Green derivative, ICG-sulfo-OSu (ICG-sOSu), is frequently used for antibody conjugation. However, ICG-sOSu is amphiphilic and readily facilitates aggregation of mAbs that is not easily separable from the desired immunoconjugates. Complications originating from this behavior are frequently overlooked by researchers. This study examined detailed chemical and biological characteristics of an ICG-sOSu-labeled mAb, panitumumab, and provided a clinically applicable strategy to deliver a pure conjugation product. Size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography (SE-HPLC) analysis of conjugation reactions, performed at molar reaction ratios of ICG-sOSu: mAb of 5, 10, or 20, resulted in isolable desired ICG-sOSu-panitumumab conjugation product in 72%, 53%, and 19% yields, respectively, with the remainder consisting of high molecular weight aggregates (>150 kDa) 14%, 30%, and 51%, respectively. The HPLC-purified ICG-sOSu-panitumumab products were analyzed by native and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) followed by optical imaging. Results indicated that the interaction between ICG-sOSu and panitumumab was due to both covalent and noncovalent binding of the ICG-sOSu to the protein. Noncovalently bound dye in the ICG-sOSu-panitumumab conjugate products was removed by extraction with ethyl acetate to further purify the HPLC-isolated conjugation products. With conserved immunoreactivity, excellent target-specific uptake of the doubly purified bioconjugates was observed with minimal liver retention in athymic nude mice bearing HER1-expressing tumor xenografts. In summary, the preparation of well-defined bioconjugate products labeled with commercial ICG-sOSu dye is not a simple

  13. Silibinin and indocyanine green-loaded nanoparticles inhibit the growth and metastasis of mammalian breast cancer cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hui-ping; Su, Jing-han; Meng, Qing-shuo; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhi-wen; Yu, Hai-jun; Zhang, Peng-cheng; Wang, Si-ling; Li, Ya-ping

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To improve the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatments, combinational therapies based on nanosized drug delivery system (NDDS) has been developed recently. In this study we designed a new NDDS loaded with an anti-metastatic drug silibinin and a photothermal agent indocyanine green (ICG), and investigated its effects on the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro. Methods: Silibinin and ICG were self-assembled into PCL lipid nanoparticles (SIPNs). Their physical characteristics including the particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were examined. 4T1 mammalian breast cancer cells were used to evaluate their cellular internalization, cytotoxicity, and their influences on wound healing, in vitro cell migration and invasion. Results: SIPNs showed a well-defined spherical shape with averaged size of 126.3±0.4 nm and zeta potential of −10.3±0.2 mV. NIR laser irradiation substantially increased the in vitro release of silibinin from the SIPNs (58.3% at the first 8 h, and 97.8% for the total release). Furthermore, NIR laser irradiation markedly increased the uptake of SIPNs into 4T1 cells. Under the NIR laser irradiation, both SIPNs and IPNs (PCL lipid nanoparticles loaded with ICG alone) caused dose-dependent ablation of 4T1 cells. The wound healing, migration and invasion experiments showed that SIPNs exposed to NIR laser irradiation exhibited dramatic in vitro anti-metastasis effects. Conclusion: SIPNs show temperature-sensitive drug release following NIR laser irradiation, which can inhibit the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells in vitro. PMID:27133295

  14. Automatic Segmentation of Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy from Indocyanine Green Angiography Using Spatial and Temporal Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Yang; Yang, Sheng-Chang; Chen, Shih-Jen; Tsai, Chia-Ling; Du, Shuo-Zhao; Lim, Tock-Han

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a computer-aided diagnostic tool for automated detection and quantification of polypoidal regions in indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) images. Methods The ICGA sequences of 59 polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) treatment–naïve patients from five Asian countries (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand) were provided by the EVEREST study. The ground truth was provided by the reading center for the presence of polypoidal regions. The proposed detection algorithm used both temporal and spatial features to characterize the severity of polypoidal lesions in ICGA sequences. Leave-one-out cross validation was carried out so that each patient was used once as the validation sample. For each patient, a fixed detection threshold of 0.5 on the severity was applied to obtain sensitivity, specificity, and balanced accuracy with respect to the ground truth. Results Our system achieved an average accuracy of 0.9126 (sensitivity = 0.9125, specificity = 0.9127) for detection of polyps in the 59 ICGA sequences. Among the total of 222 features extracted from ICGA sequence, the spatial variances exhibited best discriminative power in distinguishing between polyp and nonpolyp regions. The results also indicated the importance of combining spatial and temporal features to further improve detection accuracy. Conclusions The developed software provided a means of detecting and quantifying polypoidal regions in ICGA images for the first time. Translational Relevance This preliminary study demonstrated a computer-aided diagnostic tool, which enables objective evaluation of PCV and its progression. Ophthalmologists can easily visualize the polypoidal regions and obtain quantitative information about polyps by using the proposed system. PMID:25806144

  15. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging of Liver Metastases in Rats using Indocyanine Green

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Joost R.; Hutteman, Merlijn; Mieog, Sven D.; de Rooij, Karien E.; Kaijzel, Eric L.; Löwik, Clemens W.G.M.; Putter, Hein; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; Frangioni, John V.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) is a promising technique to obtain real-time assessment of the extent and number of colorectal liver metastases during surgery. The current study aims to optimize dosage and timing of ICG administration. Materials and methods Liver tumors were induced in 18 male WAG/Rij rats by subcapsular inoculation of CC531 rat colorectal cancer cells into three distinct liver lobes. Rats were divided in 2 groups: imaging after 24 and 48 hours or 72 and 96 hours after intravenous ICG administration. In each time group, rats were allocated to three dose groups: 0.04, 0.08, or 0.16 mg ICG. Intraoperative imaging and ex vivo measurements were performed using Mini-FLARE™ and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Fluorescence intensity was quantified using the Mini-FLARE software and the difference between tumor signal and liver signal (tumor-to-liver ratio; TLR) was calculated. Results In all 18 rats, all colorectal liver metastases (N = 34), some as small as 1.2 mm, were identified using ICG and the Mini-FLARE™ imaging system. Average tumor-to-liver ratio (TLR) over all groups was 3.0 ± 1.2. TLR was significantly higher in the 72 h time group compared to other time points. ICG dose did not significantly influence TLR, but a trend was found favoring the 0.08 mg dose group. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated a clear fluorescent rim around the tumor. Conclusions This study demonstrates that colorectal cancer liver metastases can be clearly identified during surgery using ICG and the Mini-FLARE™ imaging system, with optimal timing of 72 h post-injection and an optimal dose of 0.08 mg (0.25 mg/kg) ICG. NIR fluorescence imaging has the potential to improve intraoperative detection of micrometastases and thus the completeness of resection. PMID:21396660

  16. Laser-induced heating of dextran-coated mesocapsules containing indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Yaseen, Mohammad A; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S; Anvari, Bahman

    2007-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is a photosensitive reagent with clinically relevant diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Recently, ICG has been investigated for its utility as an exogenous chromophore during laser-induced heating. However, ICG's effectiveness remains hindered by its molecular instability, rapid circulation kinetics, and nonspecific systemic distribution. To overcome these limitations, we have encapsulated ICG within dextran-coated mesocapsules (MCs). Our objective in this study was to explore the ability of MCs to induce thermal damage in response to laser irradiation. To simulate tumorous tissue targeted with MCs, cylindrical phantoms were prepared consisting of gelatin, intralipid emulsion, and various concentrations of MCs. The phantoms were embedded within fresh chicken breast tissue representing surrounding normal tissue. The tissue models were irradiated at lambda = 808 nm for 10 min at constant power (P = 4.2 W). Five hypodermic thermocouples were used to record the temperature at various depths below the tissue surface and transverse distances from the laser beam central axis during irradiation. Temperature profiles were processed to remove the baseline temperature and influence of light absorption by the thermocouple and subsequently used to calculate a damage index based on the Arrhenius damage integral. Tissue models containing MCs experienced a maximum temperature change of 18.5 degrees C. Damage index calculations showed that the heat generation from MCs at these parameters is sufficient to induce thermal damage, while no damage was predicted in the absence of MCs. ICG maintains its heat-generating capabilities in response to NIR laser irradiation when encapsulated within MCs. Such encapsulation provides a potentially useful methodology for laser-induced therapeutic strategies. PMID:17914861

  17. Intraoperative indocyanine green angiography for the objective measurement of blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho-Chul; Han, Sang-Ah; Ahn, Hyung Joon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intraoperative assessment of tissue perfusion is important to predict wound healing or improvement of symptoms in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or vascular trauma. There is no widely accepted standard for intraoperative measurement of tissue perfusion. Here, we report the use of indocyanine green (ICG)-based angiography to determine the blood flow in patients with PAD and vascular trauma. Methods The SPY fluorescent imaging system was utilized. A dose of 3–5 mL of ICG (2.5 mg/mL) was injected intravenously followed by a 10 mL normal saline flush. The SPY imaging system was used to quantitatively assess perfusion. During the study period, the SPY imaging system was applied in 4 patients with PAD and one patient with vascular trauma. Results In 3 patients with PAD associated with an ischemic wound, complete wound healing was achieved with the indication of viable tissue by the SPY system. In one patient with severe claudication in both lower extremities, the ICG angiography was used to determine the increased blood flow after revascularization. In the case of vascular trauma, this imaging system enabled the delineation of viability of the injured tissue. Conclusion ICG angiography can determine the surface tissue viability in PAD patients. In cases of severe vascular trauma,the SPY system can be used to determine tissue perfusion. Further study is warranted to define the definite utility of this technology to assess perfusion, response to revascularization, and potentially, to predict the likelihood of wound healing. PMID:27186573

  18. Fluorescein and indocyanine green angiography findings in Behçet’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Atmaca, L S; Sonmez, P A

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the fluorescein (FA) and indocyanine green angiographic (ICGA) findings, and to investigate the choroidal involvement in Behçet’s disease. Methods: FA and ICGA were performed on 112 eyes of 62 patients with Behçet’s disease, between November 1993 and July 2002, using Topcon IMAGEnet Digital System. Patients were aged 16–50 years; 48 (77.4%) were male and 14 (22.6%) were female. Results: FA showed dye leakage from retinal vessels in 57 (50.9%) eyes, cystoid macular oedema in 18 eyes (16.1%), optic disc oedema in four eyes (3.6%), disc neovascularisation in three eyes (2.7%), and retinal neovascularisation in two eyes (1.8%). ICGA showed hyperfluorescent lesions in 40 eyes (35.7%), hypofluorescent lesions in 17 eyes (15.2%), hyperfluorescent and hypofluorescent lesions in 12 (10.7%) eyes, ICG leakage from choroidal vessels in 11 eyes (9.8%), irregular filling of choriocapillaris in five eyes (4.5%), and choroidal filling defect in four eyes (3.6%). Hyperfluorescent and hypofluorescent lesions which were seen in 53 out of 69 eyes (76.8%) on ICGA, were not visible on FA. 55 eyes (49.1%) showed hyperfluorescence on the disc on both FA and ICGA, whereas 36 (32.1%) showed hyperfluorescence only on FA. Conclusion: The hyperfluorescence and/or hypofluorescence, irregular filling of the choriocapillaris, choroidal filling defect, and ICG leakage from choroidal vessels seen only on ICGA may suggest choroidal involvement in Behçet’s disease. PMID:14660454

  19. Thermal and infrared-diode laser effects on indocyanine-green-treated corneal collagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, George T.; Patmore, Ann; Shallal, Assaad; McHugh, Dominic; Marshall, John

    1993-07-01

    It has been suggested that laser welds of collagenous tissues form by interdigitation and chemical bonding of thermally 'unraveled' collagen fibrils. We investigated this proposal by attempting to weld highly collagenous, avascular corneal tissue with an infrared (IR) diode laser as follows. First, the temperature at which corneal collagen shrinks and collagen fibrils 'split' into subfibrillary components was determined. Second, since use of a near-IR laser wavelength necessitated addition of an absorbing dye (indocyanine green (ICG) to the cornea, we measured absorption spectra of ICG-treated tissue to ensure that peak ICG absorbance did not change markedly when ICG was present in the cornea. Third, using gel electrophoresis of thermally altered corneal collagen, we searched for covalently crosslinked compounds predicted by the proposed welding mechanism. Finally, we attempted to weld partial thickness corneal incisions infused with ICG. Principal experimental findings were as follows: (1) Human corneal (type I) collagen splits into subfibrillary components at approximately 63 degree(s)C, the same temperature that produces collagen shrinkage. (2) Peak ICG absorption does not change significantly in corneal stroma or with laser heating. (3) No evidence was found for the formation of novel compounds or the loss of proteins as a result of tissue heating. All tissue treated with ICG, however, exhibited a novel 244 kD protein band indicating chemical activity between collagen and corneal stromal components. (4) Laser welding corneal incisions was unsuccessful possibly due to shrinkage of the sides of the incision, lack of incision compression during heating, or a less than optimal combination of ICG concentration and radiant exposure. In summary, these experiments demonstrate the biochemical and morphological complexity of ICG-enhanced IR laser-tissue welding and the need for further investigation of laser welding mechanisms.

  20. Photothermal and photochemical effects of laser light absorption by indocyanine green (ICG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Pikkula, Brian M.; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2005-04-01

    Indocyanine Green (ICG) is clinically used as a fluorescent dye for imaging purposes. Its rapid circulation kinetics and minimal toxicity has prompted investigation into ICG's utility as a photosentitizer for therapeutic applications. Traditionally, optically mediated tumor therapy has focused on photodynamic therapy, which employs a photochemical mechanism resulting from the absorption of low intensity CW laser light by localized photosensitizers such as Photofrin II, Benzoporphyrin Derivative (BPD), ICG. Treatment of cutaneous vascular malformations such as port-wine stains, on the other hand, is based on a photothermal mechanism resulting from the absorption of high intensity pulsed laser light by hemoglobin. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of combining photochemical and photothermal mechanisms during application of ICG in conjunction with laser irradiation with the intention that the combined approach may lead to a reduction in the threshold dose of pulsed laser light required to treat hypervascular malformations. The blood vessels in rabbit ears were used as an in vivo model for targeted vasculature. Irradiation of the ears with IR light (λ=785 nm, Δτ = 3 min, Io = 120 mW) was used to elicit photochemical damage, while photothermal damage was brought about using pulses from a ruby laser (λ=694 nm, τ = 3 ms) with different fluences. For the combined modality, photochemical damage was induced first and followed by photothermal irradiation. This modality was compared with photothermal irradiation alone. The effectiveness of each irradiation scheme was assessed using histopathological analysis. We present preliminary data that suggests that pretreatment with photodynamic therapy before photothermal coagulation results in more severe vascular damage with lower photothermal fluence levels. The results of this study provide the foundation work for further exploration of the therapeutic potentials of photochemical and photothermal effects during

  1. Investigation on laser-assisted tissue repair with NIR millisecond-long light pulses and Indocyanine Green-biopolymeric patches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, Paolo; Banchelli, Martina; Cottat, Maximilien; Osticioli, Iacopo; de Angelis, Marella; Rossi, Francesca; Pini, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    In previous works a minimally invasive laser-assisted technique for vascular repair was presented. The technique rests on the photothermal adhesion of a biocompatible and bioresorbable patch containing Indocyanine Green that is brought into contact with the site to be repaired. Afterward the use of NIR millisecond-long light pulses generates a strong welding effect between the patch and the underlying tissue and in turn the repair of the wound. This technique was shown to be effective in animal model and provides several advantages over conventional suturing methods. Here we investigate and discuss the optical stability of the ICG-biopolymeric patches and the photothermal effects induced to the irradiated tissue.

  2. Fat tissue histological study at indocyanine green-mediated photothermal/photodynamic treatment of the skin in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, Irina Yu.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Navolokin, Nikita A.; Matveeva, Olga V.; Bucharskaya, Alla B.; Maslyakova, Galina N.; Altshuler, Gregory B.

    2012-05-01

    Histological slices of skin samples with the subcutaneous adipose tissue after photothermal/photodynamic treatment are analyzed. In the case of subcutaneous indocyanine green injection and 808-nm diode laser exposure of the rat skin site in vivo, the greatest changes in tissue condition were observed. Processes were characterized by dystrophy, necrosis, and desquamation of the epithelial cells, swelling and necrosis of the connective tissue, and widespread necrosis of the subcutaneous adipose tissue. The obtained data are useful for safe layer-by-layer dosimetry of laser illumination of ICG-stained adipose tissue for treatment of obesity and cellulite.

  3. In Vivo Imaging of the Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Mosaic Using Adaptive Optics Enhanced Indocyanine Green Ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Johnny; Liu, Jianfei; Dubra, Alfredo; Fariss, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to establish that retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells take up indocyanine green (ICG) dye following systemic injection and that adaptive optics enhanced indocyanine green ophthalmoscopy (AO-ICG) enables direct visualization of the RPE mosaic in the living human eye. Methods A customized adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope (AOSLO) was used to acquire high-resolution retinal fluorescence images of residual ICG dye in human subjects after intravenous injection at the standard clinical dose. Simultaneously, multimodal AOSLO images were also acquired, which included confocal reflectance, nonconfocal split detection, and darkfield. Imaging was performed in 6 eyes of three healthy subjects with no history of ocular or systemic diseases. In addition, histologic studies in mice were carried out. Results The AO-ICG channel successfully resolved individual RPE cells in human subjects at various time points, including 20 minutes and 2 hours after dye administration. Adaptive optics-ICG images of RPE revealed detail which could be correlated with AO dark-field images of the same cells. Interestingly, there was a marked heterogeneity in the fluorescence of individual RPE cells. Confirmatory histologic studies in mice corroborated the specific uptake of ICG by the RPE layer at a late time point after systemic ICG injection. Conclusions Adaptive optics-enhanced imaging of ICG dye provides a novel way to visualize and assess the RPE mosaic in the living human eye alongside images of the overlying photoreceptors and other cells. PMID:27564519

  4. Pilot study: intravenous use of indocyanine green as an enhancer for 808-nm diode laser application in the equine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Blikslager, Anthony T.; Papich, Mark G.

    2000-05-01

    The 808-nm diode laser, delivering 20 - 40 watts of power, has been produced for medical applications by several manufacturers over the past 10 years. This laser's power output is less than most Neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasers and other high power cutting lasers that use fiberoptic delivery systems. The 808-nm diode laser has not gained popularity in equine transendoscopic laser surgery. Indocyanine green (ICG) is absorbed at 810-nm of light which when concentrated in tissue should be an excellent absorber for the energy produced by the 808-nm diode laser. This study compares the depths and widths of penetration achieved with the 808-nm diode laser after intravenous injection of ICG in equine respiratory tissue. Indocyanine green was administered at two doses: 1.5 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg. The 808-nm diode laser was set to deliver 200 joules of energy. The depths and widths of penetration were also compared to the Nd:YAG laser applied at the same energy setting.

  5. [Unilateral pleural effusion caused by vessel perforation due to peripherally inserted central catheter: Indocyanine green as a diagnostic tool].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Baena, L; Duque, P; Ramos, R; Zarain Obrador, L; Fernández-Quero, L

    2016-01-01

    A peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) was inserted into a 44-year-old man to provide parenteral nutrition in a protein-calorie malnutrition secondary to a benign pyloric stenosis. On the fifth day while monitoring the catheter, the patient presented with a massive whitish pleural effusion after undergoing gastric endoscopy in order to treat pyloric stenosis. Chylothorax was initially suspected, and the patient was admitted to a recovery unit. Indocyanine green was administered through the PICC, obtaining a greenish discoloration in the pleural effusion 30 min later. This led to the diagnosis of a pleural effusion caused by a vessel perforation due to the PICC, leading to parenteral nutrition extravasation. Thoraco-abdominal computed tomography was performed, which confirmed an innominate vein perforation due to the PICC. PICC insertion may be associated with severe complications, such as central vessel perforation, and therefore the correct position of a central catheter should be always checked. Intravenous computed tomography contrast is the gold standard for central vascular perforation diagnosis. However if a pleural effusion occurs in this context, it is possible to use a dye, which administered intravenously can lead us to the correct diagnosis in situ. Indocyanine green was used for this purpose in this case. PMID:26025285

  6. Sentinel Node Biopsy for the Head and Neck Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Combined with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence in Animal Models: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Dai; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Moro, Yorihisa; Kimura, Toru; Hamanoue, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Takehiro; Yamauchi, Koichi; Saito, Koichiro; Sugasawa, Masashi; Kohno, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sentinel node navigation surgery is gaining popularity in oral cancer. We assessed application of sentinel lymph node navigation surgery to pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers by evaluating the combination of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and indocyanine green fluorescence in animal models. Methods This was a prospective, nonrandomized, experimental study in rabbit and swine animal models. A mixture of indocyanine green and Sonazoid was used as the tracer. The tracer mixture was injected into the tongue, larynx, or pharynx. The sentinel lymph nodes were identified transcutaneously by infra-red camera and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Detection time and extraction time of the sentinel lymph nodes were measured. The safety of the tracer mixture in terms of mucosal reaction was evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Results Sentinel lymph nodes were detected transcutaneously by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography alone. The number of sentinel lymph nodes detected was one or two. Despite observation of contrast enhancement of Sonazoid for at least 90 minutes, the number of sentinel lymph nodes detected did not change. The average extraction time of sentinel lymph nodes was 4.8 minutes. Indocyanine green fluorescence offered visual information during lymph node biopsy. The safety of the tracer was confirmed by absence of laryngeal edema both macro and microscopically. Conclusions The combination method of indocyanine green fluorescence and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes during surgery for head and neck cancer seems promising, especially for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer. Further clinical studies to confirm this are warranted. PMID:26161800

  7. Indocyanine green kinetics to assess liver function: Ready for a clinical dynamic assessment in major liver surgery?

    PubMed Central

    De Gasperi, Andrea; Mazza, Ernestina; Prosperi, Manlio

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) kinetics (PDR/R15) used to quantitatively assess hepatic function in the perioperative period of major resective surgery and liver transplantation have been the object of an extensive, updated and critical review. New, non invasive bedside monitors (pulse dye densitometry technology) make this opportunity widely available in clinical practice. After having reviewed basic concepts of hepatic clearance, we analysed the most common indications ICG kinetic parameters have nowadays in clinical practice, focusing in particular on the diagnostic and prognostic role of PDR and R15 in the perioperative period of major liver surgery and liver transplantation. As recently pointed out, even if of extreme interest, ICG clearance parameters have still some limitations, to be considered when using these tests. PMID:26981173

  8. Tuberculosis-related choriocapillaritis (multifocal-serpiginous choroiditis): follow-up and precise monitoring of therapy by indocyanine green angiography.

    PubMed

    De Luigi, Giulia; Mantovani, Alessandro; Papadia, Marina; Herbort, Carl P

    2012-02-01

    To report the case of a patient initially diagnosed with acute posterior multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (APMPPE), characterized by relentless evolution despite high-dose steroid therapy. An interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) indicated a diagnosis of suspected tuberculous choriocapillaritis and the disease responded only to massive inflammation suppressive therapy and antibiotic therapy. Case report. Review of clinical features and investigational procedures. Smoldering relentless evolution and subsequent arrest of progression could be precisely monitored by indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). The patient did not recover after standard anti-tubercolosis (TB) therapy combined with corticosteroid. A fourth antibiotic had to be added in order to stop the progression of the retinal disease. In each case of choriocapillaritis such as APMPPE an infectious cause including TB has to be excluded making IGRA tests unavoidable. As the main structure involved is the choriocapillaris the most precise follow-up or monitoring is obtained with ICGA. PMID:22249644

  9. Time-resolved fluorescence for breast cancer detection using an octreotate-indocyanine green derivative dye conjugate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Das, B. B.; Pu, Yang; Liang, Kexian; Milione, Giovanni; Sordillo, Peter P.; Achilefu, Sam; Alfano, R. R.

    2013-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence was used to investigate malignant and normal adjacent breast tissues stained with a conjugate of indocyanine green and octreotate. A marked increase in fluorescence lifetime intensity was seen in the breast cancer sample compared to the normal sample. The fluorescent lifetimes were also investigated and showed similar fluorescence decay curves in stained malignant and normal breast tissue. These results confirm that somatostatin receptors occur on human breast carcinomas, suggest that the presence of somatostatin receptors should be investigated as a marker of breast cancer aggressiveness, and suggest that this conjugate might be used to detect the presence of residual breast cancer after surgery, allowing better assessment of tumor margins and reducing the need for second or repeat biopsies in selected patients. These results may also provide clues for designing future treatment options for breast cancer patients.

  10. Assessment of Preoperative Liver Function in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma – The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) Grade

    PubMed Central

    Kokudo, Takashi; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Amikura, Katsumi; Uldry, Emilie; Shirata, Chikara; Yamaguchi, Takamune; Arita, Junichi; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Amane; Sakamoto, Hirohiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi; Matsuyama, Yutaka; Demartines, Nicolas; Malagó, Massimo; Kokudo, Norihiro; Halkic, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    Background Most patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying liver disease, therefore, precise preoperative evaluation of the patient’s liver function is essential for surgical decision making. Methods We developed a grading system incorporating only two variables, namely, the serum albumin level and the indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (ICG R15), to assess the preoperative liver function, based on the overall survival of 1868 patients with HCC who underwent liver resection. We then tested the model in a European cohort (n = 70) and analyzed the predictive power for the postoperative short-term outcome. Results The Albumin-Indocyanine Green Evaluation (ALICE) grading system was developed in a randomly assigned training cohort: linear predictor = 0.663 × log10ICG R15 (%)−0.0718 × albumin (g/L) (cut-off value: -2.20 and -1.39). This new grading system showed a predictive power for the overall survival similar to the Child-Pugh grading system in the validation cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade in Child-Pugh A patients allowed further stratification of the postoperative prognosis. This result was reproducible in the European cohort. Determination of the ALICE grade allowed better prediction of the risk of postoperative liver failure and mortality (ascites: grade 1, 2.1%; grade 2, 6.5%; grade 3, 16.0%; mortality: grade 1, 0%; grade 2, 1.3%; grade 3, 5.3%) than the previously reported model based on the presence/absence of portal hypertension. Conclusions This new grading system is a simple method for prediction of the postoperative long-term and short-term outcomes. PMID:27434062

  11. Indocyanine green-loaded perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for bimodal 19F-magnetic resonance/nearinfrared fluorescence imaging and subsequent phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Guo; Kim, Hyunjin; Mun, Saehun

    2013-01-01

    We have developed an indocyanine green-loaded perfluorocarbon (ICG/PFCE) nanoemulsion as a multifunctional theranostic nanomedicine which enables not only 19F magnetic resonance (MR)/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) bimodal imaging but also subsequent photodynamic/photothermal dual therapy of cancer. The hydrodynamic size of ICG/PFCE nanoemulsions was 164.2 nm. The stability of indocyanine green (ICG) in aqueous solution was significantly improved when loaded on perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions. In addition, ICG/PFCE nanoemulsions showed good dispersion stability in aqueous media containing 10% fetal bovine serum, for at least 14 days. 19F-MRI of ICG/PFCE nanoemulsions showed that the signal intensity increased with increasing nanoemulsion concentration with no signal observed from the surrounding background. Using NIRF imaging with perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion alone, without ICG, did not produce NIRF, while clear and bright fluorescent images were obtained with ICG/PFCE nanoemulsions at 10-µM ICG equivalent. The capacity of ICG-loaded nanoemulsions to generate heat following light irradiation by using an 810-nm laser was comparable to that of free ICG, while singlet oxygen generation of ICG-loaded nanoemulsions was significantly better than that of free ICG. In vitro cytotoxicity tests and fluorescence microscopy confirmed biocompatibility of the nanoemulsion. Upon light irradiation, U87MG glioblastoma cells incubated with ICG/PFCE nanoemulsions underwent necrotic cell death. The therapeutic mechanism during light illumination appears to be mainly due to the photodynamic effect at lower ICG concentrations, whilst the photothermal effect became more obvious at increased ICG concentrations, enabling combined photodynamic/photothermal therapy of cancer cells. PMID:23833726

  12. Highly enhanced optical properties of indocyanine green/perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions for efficient lymph node mapping using near-infrared and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Pan Kee; Jung, Juyeon; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2014-03-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe has better tissue penetration and lower autofluorescence. Indocyanine green (ICG) is an NIR organic dye for extensive biological application, and it has been clinically approved for human medical imaging and diagnosis. However, application of this dye is limited by its numerous disadvantageous properties in aqueous solution, including its concentration-dependent aggregation, poor aqueous stability in vitro, and low quantum yield. Its use in molecular imaging probes is limited because it loses fluorescence after binding to nonspecific plasma proteins, leading to rapid elimination from the body with a half-life of 2 - 4 min. In this study, the multifunctional perfluorocarbon (PFC)/ICG nanoemulsions were investigated with the aim of overcoming these limitations. The PFC/ICG nanoemulsions as a new type of delivery vehicle for contrast agents have both NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging moieties. These nanoemulsions exhibited less aggregation, increased fluorescence intensity, long-term stability, and physicochemical stability against external light and temperature compared to free aqueous ICG. Also, the PFC/ICG bimodal nanoemulsions allow excellent detection of lymph nodes in vivo through NIR optical imaging and 19 F-MR imaging. This result showed the suitability of the proposed nanoemulsions for non-invasive lymph node mapping as they enable long-time detection of lymph nodes.

  13. Noninvasive Optical Imaging and In Vivo Cell Tracking of Indocyanine Green Labeled Human Stem Cells Transplanted at Superficial or In-Depth Tissue of SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sabapathy, Vikram; Mentam, Jyothsna; Jacob, Paul Mazhuvanchary; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell based therapies hold great promise for the treatment of human diseases; however results from several recent clinical studies have not shown a level of efficacy required for their use as a first-line therapy, because more often in these studies fate of the transplanted cells is unknown. Thus monitoring the real-time fate of in vivo transplanted cells is essential to validate the full potential of stem cells based therapy. Recent studies have shown how real-time in vivo molecular imaging has helped in identifying hurdles towards clinical translation and designing potential strategies that may contribute to successful transplantation of stem cells and improved outcomes. At present, there are no cost effective and efficient labeling techniques for tracking the cells under in vivo conditions. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a safer, economical, and superior labelling technique for in vivo optical imaging. ICG is a FDA-approved agent and decades of usage have clearly established the effectiveness of ICG for human clinical applications. In this study, we have optimized the ICG labelling conditions that is optimal for noninvasive optical imaging and demonstrated that ICG labelled cells can be successfully used for in vivo cell tracking applications in SCID mice injury models. PMID:26240573

  14. Indocyanine Green Loaded Reduced Graphene Oxide for In Vivo Photoacoustic/Fluorescence Dual-Modality Tumor Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingqin; Liu, Chengbo; Zeng, Guang; You, Yujia; Wang, Huina; Gong, Xiaojing; Zheng, Rongqin; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong; Song, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Multimodality imaging based on multifunctional nanocomposites holds great promise to fundamentally augment the capability of biomedical imaging. Specifically, photoacoustic and fluorescence dual-modality imaging is gaining much interest because of their non-invasiveness and the complementary nature of the two modalities in terms of imaging resolution, depth, sensitivity, and speed. Herein, using a green and facile method, we synthesize indocyanine green (ICG) loaded, polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated, reduced nano-graphene oxide nanocomposite (rNGO-PEG/ICG) as a new type of fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-modality imaging contrast. The nanocomposite is shown to have minimal toxicity and excellent photoacoustic/fluorescence signals both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free ICG, the nanocomposite is demonstrated to possess greater stability, longer blood circulation time, and superior passive tumor targeting capability. In vivo study shows that the circulation time of rNGO-PEG/ICG in the mouse body can sustain up to 6 h upon intravenous injection; while after 1 day, no obvious accumulation of rNGO-PEG/ICG is found in any major organs except the tumor regions. The demonstrated high fluorescence/photoacoustic dual contrasts, together with its low toxicity and excellent circulation life time, suggest that the synthesized rNGO-PEG/ICG can be a promising candidate for further translational studies on both the early diagnosis and image-guided therapy/surgery of cancer. PMID:26868422

  15. Indocyanine Green Loaded Reduced Graphene Oxide for In Vivo Photoacoustic/Fluorescence Dual-Modality Tumor Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingqin; Liu, Chengbo; Zeng, Guang; You, Yujia; Wang, Huina; Gong, Xiaojing; Zheng, Rongqin; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong; Song, Liang

    2016-02-01

    Multimodality imaging based on multifunctional nanocomposites holds great promise to fundamentally augment the capability of biomedical imaging. Specifically, photoacoustic and fluorescence dual-modality imaging is gaining much interest because of their non-invasiveness and the complementary nature of the two modalities in terms of imaging resolution, depth, sensitivity, and speed. Herein, using a green and facile method, we synthesize indocyanine green (ICG) loaded, polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylated, reduced nano-graphene oxide nanocomposite (rNGO-PEG/ICG) as a new type of fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-modality imaging contrast. The nanocomposite is shown to have minimal toxicity and excellent photoacoustic/fluorescence signals both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with free ICG, the nanocomposite is demonstrated to possess greater stability, longer blood circulation time, and superior passive tumor targeting capability. In vivo study shows that the circulation time of rNGO-PEG/ICG in the mouse body can sustain up to 6 h upon intravenous injection; while after 1 day, no obvious accumulation of rNGO-PEG/ICG is found in any major organs except the tumor regions. The demonstrated high fluorescence/photoacoustic dual contrasts, together with its low toxicity and excellent circulation life time, suggest that the synthesized rNGO-PEG/ICG can be a promising candidate for further translational studies on both the early diagnosis and image-guided therapy/surgery of cancer.

  16. Diagnostic Performance of Indocyanine Green-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the presence of metastases in breast cancer remains unclear. Objective We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic performance of ICG-guided SLNB. Methods Eligible studies were identified from searches of the databases PubMed and EMBASE up to September 2015. Studies that reported the detection rate of ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB with full axillary lymph node dissection and histological or immunohistochemical examinations were included. A meta-analysis was performed to generate pooled detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, false negative rate, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and a summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC). Results Nineteen published studies were included to generate a pooled detection rate, comprising 2594 patients. The pooled detection rate was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99). Six studies finally met the criteria for meta-analysis, which yielded a pooled sensitivity of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85–0.96), specificity 1 (95% CI, 0.97–1), and DOR 311.47 (95% CI, 84.11–1153.39). The area under the SROC was 0.9758. No publication bias was found. Conclusion ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB is viable for detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Large-scale randomized multi-center trials are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:27280407

  17. Photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy with indocyanine green: a novel cancer therapy for 16 cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Onoyama, Masaki; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Azuma, Kazuo; Kawashima, Kazuhiko; Ishi, Hiroshi; Takayama, Takahiro; Ogawa, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen cases of malignant soft tissue sarcoma (STS; 10 canines and six felines) were treated with a novel triple therapy that combined photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia using indocyanine green with a broadband light source, and local chemotherapy after surgical tumor resection. This triple therapy was called photodynamic hyperthermal chemotherapy (PHCT). In all cases, the surgical margin was insufficient. In one feline case, PHCT was performed without surgical resection. PHCT was performed over an interval of 1 to 2 weeks and was repeated three to 21 times. No severe side effects, including severe skin burns, necrosis, or skin suture rupture, were observed in any of the animals. No disease recurrence was observed in seven out of 10 (70.0%) dogs and three out of six (50.0%) cats over the follow-up periods ranging from 238 to 1901 days. These results suggest that PHCT decreases the risk of STS recurrence. PHCT should therefore be considered an adjuvant therapy for treating companion animals with STS in veterinary medicine. PMID:24136207

  18. Efficiency of photodynamic therapy using indocyanine green and infrared light on MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhi, Mustafa K.; Ak, Ayşe.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-03-01

    Cancer is one of the main reasons of death in all around the world. The main treatments of cancer include surgical intervention, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. These treatments can be applied separately or in a combined manner. Another therapeutic method that is still being researched and recently has started to be used in clinical applications is Photodynamic Therapy (PDT). Most photosensitizers currently being investigated are sensitive to red light. However, it is known that infrared light has a better penetration into the skin or tissue. Indocyanine Green (ICG), which is used in this study, is sensitive to infrared light. The aim of this in vitro study is to investigate the effect of PDT on breast cancer cells by using different doses of ICG and infrared light irradiation. 25, 50 and 100 μM ICG concentrations and 25 and 50 J/cm2 laser energy doses were applied to MCF-7 cell lines. MTT analyses were performed on 24, 48 and 72 hours following the treatments. As a result, inhibition of cell viability was observed in a time and dose dependent manner. It can be concluded that ICG-PDT application is a good alternative to conventional radiation therapy and chemotherapy for breast cancer treatment.

  19. Effect of polyethylene glycol coatings on uptake of indocyanine green loaded nanocapsules by human spleen macrophages in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahmani, Baharak; Gupta, Sharad; Upadhyayula, Srigokul; Vullev, Valentine I.; Anvari, Bahman

    2011-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) optically active nanoparticles are promising exogenous chromophores for applications in medical imaging and phototherapy. Since nanoparticles can be rapidly eliminated from the body by cells of the reticuloendothelial system, a thriving strategy to increase their blood circulation time is through surface modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG). We constructed polymeric nanocapsules loaded with indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved NIR dye, and coated with aldehyde-terminated PEG. Using optical absorbance spectroscopy and flow cytometry, we investigated the effect of PEG coating and molecular weight (MW) of PEG [5000 and 30,000 Daltons (Da)] on the phagocytic content of human spleen macrophages incubated with ICG-containing nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) between 15 to 360 min. Our results indicate that surface coating with PEG is an effective method to reduce the phagocytic content of ICG-NCs within macrophages for at least up to 360 min of incubation time. Coating the surface of ICG-NCs with the low MW PEG results in lower phagocytic content of ICG-NCs within macrophages for at least up to 60 min of incubation time as compared to ICG-NCs coated with the high MW PEG. Surface coating of ICG-NCs with PEG is a promising approach to prolong vasculature circulation time of ICG for NIR imaging and phototherapeutic applications.

  20. Morphological study in B16F10 murine melanoma cells after photodynamic hyperthermal therapy with indocyanine green (ICG).

    PubMed

    Radzi, Rozanaliza; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-04-01

    Photodynamic hyperthermal therapy (PHT) with indocyanine green (ICG) is a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HT). The low toxicity of ICG with an absorption wavelength of 700-800 nm is thought to make it a good candidate as a photosensitizer for PHT. Upon irradiation, ICG produces oxygen radicals and generates heat. The optimal concentration of ICG and the PHT post-irradiation time effects were evaluated by the cytotoxicity of the treatment on B16F10 murine melanoma. The cytotoxicity of PHT was determined based on the morphology of apoptotic and necrotic cells under phase-contrast microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) with DAPI and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, and cell surface structure evaluation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The use of ICG at a concentration of 150 µM was selected, as cell proliferation was inhibited from 0 to 24 hr post-PHT with a 3-fold decrease in cell viability (P<0.001) compared to the control group. A morphological observation revealed apoptotic and some degree of necrotic features in the PHT-treated cells. PMID:22134111

  1. Intraoperative Combined Use of Somatosensory Evoked Potential, Microvascular Doppler Sonography, and Indocyanine Green Angiography in Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhili; Zhang, Guanni; Huang, Guangfu; Wang, Zhengyu; Tan, Haibin; Liu, Jinping; Li, Aiguo

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining application of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP), microvascular Doppler sonography (MDS), and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in intracranial aneurysm clipping surgery. Material/Methods A total of 158 patients undergoing an intracranial aneurysm clipping operation were recruited. All patients were evaluated with intraoperative SEP and MDS monitoring, and 28 of them were evaluated with intraoperative combined monitoring of SEP, MDS, and ICGA. Results The SEP waves dropped during temporary occlusion of arteries in 19 cases (12.0%), and returned to normal after the clips were repositioned. After aneurysms were clipped, the vortex flow signals were detected by MDS in 6 cases. The aneurysm neck remnants were detected by ICGA in 2 cases of olfactory artery (OA) and in 1 case of middle cerebral artery (MCA), which disappeared after the clips were repositioned. Postoperative CTA or DSA showed that aneurysms were clipped completely and parent arteries and perforating vessels were patent. GOS at 1 month after the surgery was good in 111 cases (70.3%), mild disability in 22 cases (13.9%), severe disability in 14 cases (8.9%), vegetative state in 5 cases (3.2%), and death in 6 cases (3.8%). Conclusions Intraoperative combining application of SEP, MDS, and ICGA can reduce brain tissue ischemia and damage and disability and mortality rate after effective clipping of intracranial aneurysms, thereby improving surgical outcomes. PMID:26845425

  2. Effects of nanoencapsulation and PEGylation on biodistribution of indocyanine green in healthy mice: quantitative fluorescence imaging and analysis of organs

    PubMed Central

    Bahmani, Baharak; Lytle, Christian Y; Walker, Ameae M; Gupta, Sharad; Vullev, Valentine I; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared nanoconstructs present a potentially effective platform for site-specific and deep tissue optical imaging and phototherapy. We have engineered a polymeric nanocapsule composed of polyallylamine hydrochloride (PAH) chains cross-linked with sodium phosphate and doped with indocyanine green (ICG) toward such endeavors. The ICG-doped nanocapsules were coated covalently with polyethylene glycol (5000 daltons) through reductive amination. We administrated the constructs by tail vein injection to healthy mice. To characterize the biodistribution of the constructs, we performed in vivo quantitative fluorescence imaging and subsequently analyzed the various extracted organs. Our results suggest that encapsulation of ICG in these PEGylated constructs is an effective approach to prolong the circulation time of ICG and delay its hepatic accumulation. Increased bioavailability of ICG, due to encapsulation, offers the potential of extending the clinical applications of ICG, which are currently limited due to rapid elimination of ICG from the vasculature. Our results also indicate that PAH and ICG-doped nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) are not cytotoxic at the levels used in this study. PMID:23637530

  3. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Polydopamine-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Amplifying Photoacoustic and Photothermal Effects for Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jingnan; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cui, Haodong; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) as light-induced theranostic platforms have been attracted much attention in recent years. However, the development of highly efficient and integrated phototheranostic nanoagents for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments poses great challenges. Here, we report a novel phototheranostic nanoagent using indocyanine green-loaded polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ICG-PDA-rGO) with amplifying PA and PTT effects for cancer theranostics. The results demonstrate that the PDA layer coating on the surface of rGO could effectively absorb a large number of ICG molecules, quench ICG's fluorescence, and enhance the PDA-rGO's optical absorption at 780 nm. The obtained ICG-PDA-rGO exhibits stronger PTT effect and higher PA contrast than that of pure GO and PDA-rGO. After PA imaging-guided PTT treatments, the tumors in 4T1 breast subcutaneous and orthotopic mice models are suppressed completely and no treatment-induced toxicity being observed. It illustrates that the ICG-PDA-rGO nanocomposites constitute a new class of theranostic nanomedicine for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments. PMID:27217837

  4. 1,213 Cases of Treatment of Facial Acne Using Indocyanine Green and Intense Pulsed Light in Asian Skin

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kui Young; Kim, Ji Young; Hyun, Moo Yeol; Oh, Won Jong; Jeong, Se Yeong; Han, Tae Young; Ahn, Ji Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used for acne, with various combinations of photosensitizers and light sources. Objective. We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of indocyanine green (ICG) and intense pulsed light (IPL) in the treatment of acne. Materials and Methods. A total of 1,213 patients with facial acne were retrospectively reviewed. Patients received three or five treatments of ICG and IPL at two-week intervals. Clinical response to treatment was assessed by comparing pre- and posttreatment clinical photographs and patient satisfaction scores. Results. Marked to excellent improvement was noted in 483 of 1,213 (39.8%) patients, while minimal to moderate improvement was achieved in the remaining 730 (60.2%) patients. Patient satisfaction scores revealed that 197 (16.3%) of 1,213 patients were highly satisfied, 887 (73.1%) were somewhat satisfied, and 129 (10.6%) were unsatisfied. There were no significant side effects. Conclusion. These results suggest that PDT with ICG and IPL can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of acne. PMID:26558274

  5. A novel duct-lobular segmentectomy for breast tumors with nipple discharge using near-infrared indocyanine green fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Keiji; Nagayoshi, Shigeki; Fukuda, Toshio; Irie, Junji

    2013-10-01

    A 44-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with pathological nipple discharge from her left breast. Ultrasonography revealed a solid tumor beneath her left areola that measured 17 mm in diameter with a dilated mammary duct. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed an early-enhanced cystic tumor and a dilated mammary duct. We performed a duct-lobular segmentectomy using near-infrared indocyanine green (ICG)-fluorescence imaging. Under general anesthesia, a silicone tube was inserted into an orifice of a fluid-discharging mammary duct, and 1 mL dye-fluorescence liquid containing ICG and indigo carmine was injected into the mammary duct. A periareolar incision was made, and the fluorescence image of the demarcated mammary duct segment was obtained. The mammary duct segment was dissected, along with the demarcation line. The cystic lesion and dilated mammary duct were fully resected, and the pathological diagnosis was intraductal papilloma of the breast. We report that near-infrared ICG fluorescence could be applied for imaging of the mammary duct segment, and the fluorescence image allowed for easier duct-lobular segmentectomy for nipple discharge. PMID:24054757

  6. Navigation surgery for intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection using Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence real-time imaging in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Toh, U; Iwakuma, N; Mishima, M; Okabe, M; Nakagawa, S; Akagi, Y

    2015-09-01

    A new sensitive fluorescence imaging system was developed for the real-time identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with early breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a color charge-coupled device camera system for the intraoperative detection of SLNs and to determine its clinical efficacy and sensitivity in patients with operable breast cancer. We assessed a total of 168 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having early-stage breast cancer without metastasis in SLNs. The intraoperative detection of SLNs was performed using the conventional Indigo Carmine dye (indigotindisulfonate sodium) technique combined with a new Indocyanine green (ICG) imaging system (HyperEye Medical System: HEMS, MIZUHO IKAKOGYO, Japan) to map SLNs, in which the lymphatic vessels and SLNs were visualized transcutaneously with illuminating ICG fluorescence. Between January 2012 and May 2013, SLNs were successfully identified in all 168 patients (detection rate: 100%). By histopathology, the sensitivity was 93.8% for the detection of the metastatic involvement of SLNs (15 of 16 nodal-positive patients). After a median follow-up of 30.5 months, none of the patients presented with axillary recurrence. These results suggest that the HEMS imaging system is a feasible and effective method for the detection of SLNs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the HEMS device permitted the transcutaneous visualization of lymphatic vessels under light conditions, thus facilitating the identification and detection of SLNs without affecting the surgical procedure, together with a high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:26267663

  7. A simple method for in vivo labelling of infiltrating leukocytes in the mouse retina using indocyanine green dye

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Dawn A.; Chu, Colin J.; Selvam, Senthil; Powner, Michael B.; Liyanage, Sidath; Copland, David A.; Keane, Pearse A.; Tufail, Adnan; Egan, Catherine A.; Bainbridge, James W. B.; Lee, Richard W.; Dick, Andrew D.; Fruttiger, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have developed a method to label and image myeloid cells infiltrating the mouse retina and choroid in vivo, using a single depot injection of indocyanine green dye (ICG). This was demonstrated using the following ocular models of inflammation and angiogenesis: endotoxin-induced uveitis, experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and laser-induced choroidal neovascularization model. A near-infrared scanning ophthalmoscope was used for in vivo imaging of the eye, and flow cytometry was used on blood and spleen to assess the number and phenotype of labelled cells. ICG was administered 72 h before the induction of inflammation to ensure clearance from the systemic circulation. We found that in vivo intravenous administration failed to label any leukocytes, whereas depot injection, either intraperitoneal or subcutaneous, was successful in labelling leukocytes infiltrating into the retina. Progression of inflammation in the retina could be traced over a period of 14 days following a single depot injection of ICG. Additionally, bright-field microscopy, spectrophotometry and flow cytometric analysis suggest that the predominant population of cells stained by ICG are circulating myeloid cells. The translation of this approach into clinical practice would enable visualization of immune cells in situ. This will not only provide a greater understanding of pathogenesis, monitoring and assessment of therapy in many human ocular diseases but might also open the ability to image immunity live for neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disease and systemic immune-mediated disorders. PMID:26398933

  8. Intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography for the evaluation of mastectomy flaps in immediate breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Newman, Martin I; Samson, Michel C; Tamburrino, Joseph F; Swartz, Kimberley A

    2010-09-01

    Skin-sparing mastectomy has been associated with flap ischemia and necrosis. Current clinical methods for assessment of flap viability following mastectomy are largely subjective and lack objective data to guide intraoperative decisions. Intraoperative laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (LA-ICGA) was performed on 20 skin sparing mastectomy flaps. LA-ICGA data were retrospectively compared with clinical outcome. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative digital photographs along with clinical course were evaluated in an effort to identify potential complications. LA-ICGA was performed on 20 breasts in 12 patients. Eleven breasts (55%) demonstrated no wound-healing issues. Nine breasts (45%) experienced wound-healing issues, which were stratified as follows: 1 (5%) mild, 1 (5%) moderate, and 7 (35%) severe. Of these seven severe wound-healing issues, 5 (25%) required debridement and 2 (10%) required complete removal of the prosthetic device. Retrospective analysis demonstrated a 95% correlation between intraoperative imaging and clinical course with 100% sensitivity and 91% specificity. There was a false-positive rate of 9%. This series suggests LA-ICGA is a useful adjunct to determine mastectomy flap viability. Further quantitative advances in this technology may provide objective numerical thresholds to guide intraoperative mastectomy flap debridement when indicated. PMID:20539977

  9. Self-assembly synthesis, tumor cell targeting, and photothermal capabilities of antibody-coated indocyanine green nanocapsules

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jie; Javier, David; Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Nitin, Nitin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anvari, Bahman; Wong, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    New colloidal materials that can generate heat upon irradiation are being explored for photothermal therapy as a minimally invasive approach to cancer treatment. The near-infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) could serve as a basis for such a material, but its encapsulation and subsequent use is very difficult to carry out. We report the three-step room-temperature synthesis of ~120-nm capsules loaded with ICG within salt-crosslinked polyallylamine aggregates, and coated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibodies for tumor cell targeting capability. We studied the synthesis conditions such as temperature and water dilution to control the capsule size and characterized the size distribution via dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. We further studied the specificity of tumor cell targeting using three carcinoma cell lines with different levels of EGFR expression, and investigated the photothermal effects of ICG containing nanocapsules on EGFR-rich tumor cells. Significant thermal toxicity was observed for encapsulated ICG as compared to free ICG at 808 nm laser irradiation with radiant exposure of 6 W/cm2. These results illustrate the ability to design a colloidal material with cell targeting and heat generating capabilities using non-covalent chemistry. PMID:20092330

  10. Self-assembly synthesis, tumor cell targeting, and photothermal capabilities of antibody-coated indocyanine green nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jie; Javier, David; Yaseen, Mohammad A; Nitin, Nitin; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca; Anvari, Bahman; Wong, Michael S

    2010-02-17

    New colloidal materials that can generate heat upon irradiation are being explored for photothermal therapy as a minimally invasive approach to cancer treatment. The near-infrared dye indocyanine green (ICG) could serve as a basis for such a material, but its encapsulation and subsequent use are difficult to carry out. We report the three-step room-temperature synthesis of approximately 120-nm capsules loaded with ICG within salt-cross-linked polyallylamine aggregates, and coated with antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibodies for tumor cell targeting capability. We studied the synthesis conditions such as temperature and water dilution to control the capsule size and characterized the size distribution via dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. We further studied the specificity of tumor cell targeting using three carcinoma cell lines with different levels of EGFR expression and investigated the photothermal effects of ICG containing nanocapsules on EGFR-rich tumor cells. Significant thermal toxicity was observed for encapsulated ICG as compared to free ICG at 808 nm laser irradiation with radiant exposure of 6 W/cm(2). These results illustrate the ability to design a colloidal material with cell targeting and heat generating capabilities using noncovalent chemistry. PMID:20092330

  11. Use of invisible near infrared light fluorescence with indocyanine green and methylene blue in urology. Part 2

    PubMed Central

    Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the second part of this paper, concerning the use of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urology, other possible uses of this new technique will be presented. In kidney transplantation, this concerns allograft perfusion and real time NIR–guided angiography; moreover, perfusion angiography of tissue flaps, NIRF visualization of ureters, NIR–guided visualization of urinary calcifications, NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. In this part, we have also analysed cancer targeting and imaging fluorophores as well as cost benefits associated with the use of these new techniques. Material and methods PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Results Although NIR–guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in a few more major domains of urology, including 1) kidney transplantation: kidney allograft perfusion and vessel reconstruction; 2) angiography perfusion of tissue flaps; 3) visualization of ureters; 4) visualization of urinary calcifications; and 5) NIRF in male infertility and semen quality assessment. Conclusions Near infrared technology in urology is at its early stages. More studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. Initial studies show that this pioneering tool may influence various aspects of urology. PMID:25247093

  12. Indocyanine Green-Loaded Polydopamine-Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites with Amplifying Photoacoustic and Photothermal Effects for Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Dehong; Zhang, Jingnan; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cui, Haodong; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) as light-induced theranostic platforms have been attracted much attention in recent years. However, the development of highly efficient and integrated phototheranostic nanoagents for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments poses great challenges. Here, we report a novel phototheranostic nanoagent using indocyanine green-loaded polydopamine-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites (ICG-PDA-rGO) with amplifying PA and PTT effects for cancer theranostics. The results demonstrate that the PDA layer coating on the surface of rGO could effectively absorb a large number of ICG molecules, quench ICG's fluorescence, and enhance the PDA-rGO's optical absorption at 780 nm. The obtained ICG-PDA-rGO exhibits stronger PTT effect and higher PA contrast than that of pure GO and PDA-rGO. After PA imaging-guided PTT treatments, the tumors in 4T1 breast subcutaneous and orthotopic mice models are suppressed completely and no treatment-induced toxicity being observed. It illustrates that the ICG-PDA-rGO nanocomposites constitute a new class of theranostic nanomedicine for amplifying PA imaging and PTT treatments. PMID:27217837

  13. Optimal settings and accuracy of indocyanine green fluorescence imaging for sentinel node biopsy in early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    KINAMI, SHINICHI; OONISHI, TOSHIO; FUJITA, JUN; TOMITA, YASUTO; FUNAKI, HIROSHI; FUJITA, HIDETO; NAKANO, YASUHARU; UEDA, NOBUHIKO; KOSAKA, TAKEO

    2016-01-01

    Indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging represents a promising method for sentinel node (SN) biopsy in laparoscopic gastric surgery due to its signal stability. In the present study, the suitability and optimal settings of ICG fluorescence imaging for SN biopsy in early gastric cancer were determined. Patients with single primary superficial-type adenocarcinoma of the stomach, lesions <5 cm in diameter, and no evident nodal metastasis and out of indication for endoscopic submucosal dissection were enrolled. The day prior to surgery, ICG solution was endoscopically injected into four quadrants of the submucosal layer of the tumor. The Photodynamic Eye was used to detect ICG fluorescence. Bright nodes were defined as clearly fluorescent nodes. A total of 72 patients were enrolled; 11 cases presented with metastasis, and of these, 10 could be diagnosed by bright node biopsy. The adequate concentration and injection volume of ICG was determined to be 50 µg/ml (×100) and 0.5 mlx4 points, respectively. There was 1 false-negative case, and this was attributed to the failure of the frozen section diagnosis. These results suggested that ICG fluorescence imaging for SN biopsy in laparoscopic surgery for early gastric cancer is feasible. However, a weakness of ICG fluorescence imaging is the subjectivity of bright node evaluation. PMID:27313740

  14. Activatable fluorescent cys-diabody conjugated with indocyanine green derivative: consideration of fluorescent catabolite kinetics on molecular imaging

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kohei; Nakajima, Takahito; Ali, Towhid; Bartlett, Derek W.; Wu, Anna M.; Kim, Insook; Paik, Chang H.; Choyke, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Antibody fragments including diabodies have more desirable pharmacokinetic characteristics than whole antibodies. An activatable optical imaging probe based on a cys-diabody targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen conjugated with the near-infrared fluorophore, indocyanine green (ICG), was designed such that it can only be activated when bound to the tumor, leading to high signal-to-background ratios. We employed short polyethylene glycol (PEG) linkers between the ICG and the reactive functional group (Sulfo-OSu group), resulting in covalent conjugation of ICG to the cys-diabody, which led to lower dissociation of ICG from cys-diabody early after injection, reducing hepatic uptake. However, unexpectedly, high and long-term fluorescence was observed in the kidneys, liver, and blood pool more than 1 h after injection of the cys-diabody PEG-ICG conjugate. A biodistribution study using I125-labeled cys-diabody-ICG showed immediate uptake in the kidneys followed by a rapid decrease, while gastric activity increased due to released radioiodine during rapid cys-diabody-ICG catabolism in the kidneys. To avoid this catabolic pathway, it would be preferable to use antibody fragments large enough not to be filtered through glomerulus or to conjugate the fragments with fluorescent dyes that are readily excreted into urine when cleaved from the cys-diabody to achieve high tumor-specific detection. PMID:23752742

  15. False-negative indocyanine green videoangiography among complex unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms: the importance of further aneurysm inspection.

    PubMed

    Kulwin, Charles; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2014-10-01

    Successful surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms requires complete occlusion of the aneurysm lumen while maintaining patency of the adjacent branching and perforating arteries. Intraoperative flow assessment allows aneurysm clip repositioning in the event these requirements are not met, avoiding the risk of postoperative rehemorrhage or infarction. A number of modalities have been proposed for primarily intraoperative qualitative blood flow assessment, including microdoppler ultrasonography, intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and more recently noninvasive fluorescent angiography including indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescent imaging. Puncture of the aneurysm dome to exclude aneurysm sac filling may also assess the efficacy of clip placement. Although a high concordance between ICG and DSA has been reported, there remains an important subset of aneurysms for which negative ICG study may erroneously suggest aneurysm occlusion. A high-risk situation for such a false-negative study is an atherosclerotic middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm in which vessel wall plaque interferes with the ICG signal. Furthermore, a decreased flow within the aneurysm may not allow enough emission light for detection under the current technology. In this report, we describe our experience with cases of MCA aneurysms with false-negative ICG-VA studies requiring clip adjustment for optimal surgical treatment and discuss two illustrative cases of MCA aneurysms with intraoperative fluorescence studies that were falsely negative, requiring puncture of the aneurysm to correctly identify incomplete aneurysm occlusion. PMID:24552255

  16. Effect of near-infrared diode laser and indocyanine green to treat infections on different wound models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Yuksel, Sahru; Gulsoy, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria causes significant increase in deaths due to wound infections around the world. Nowadays, it could be impossible to find appropriate antibiotics to treat some bacterial strains, especially multidrug resistant types. The aim of this study is to use photodynamic therapy that destroys these kinds of bacteria with the interaction of Indocyanine green (ICG) and 808-nm diode laser. In this study, antibacterial Photodynamic Therapy technique that we call ICG-IR Laser PDT was applied on antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus that infected two different types of wound model (excisional and abrasion wound model) in vivo. Wistar albino rats were used to create animal wound models. Excisional or abrasion wounds were formed on the dorsal skin of the rats. They were infected with Staphylococcus aureus. 300 mW and 500 mW of 808-nm diode laser were applied on the wounds for 30 minutes and 15 minutes of exposure duration, respectively. ICG concentrations applied topically were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 μg/ml. Then the tissue was dissected properly and homogenized in buffer solution. From this solution, bacterial cell count was determined by serial dilution method. 1-2 log reduction in viable cell count was observed after these applications. The temperature increase in the tissue was between 6-8°C during these applications. From these findings, it was understood that this method with 808-nm and ICG is promising but it must be improved by further dosimetry studies.

  17. Indocyanine green-encapsulating calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles: Bifunctional theranostic vectors for near infrared diagnostic imaging and photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altinoglu, Erhan I.

    The synthesis, laundering, and properties of calcium phosphosilicate nanoparticles (CPSNPs) that encapsulate the NIR fluorophore indocyanine green (ICG) related to multifunctional fluorescent photosensitization is presented. Imaging with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the well dispersed state of the nanoparticles, the spherical morphology, and the log normal mean particle diameter of 16 nm. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) mapping identified a Ca:P:Si ratio of 1:1.72:0.41 and a homogeneous composition without evidence of an element rich or deficient architecture. Zeta potential of the as-synthesized, citrate-functionalized CPSNPs was -29 +/-3 mV. A theoretical solids loading of 1.9 x 1013 CPSNP/mL was calculated for a standard suspension. The mean ICG content per suspension is 2 x 10 -6 M, which equates to approximately 63 fluorophore molecules encapsulated per CPSNP. For imaging and diagnostic considerations, the doped CPSNPs exhibited significantly greater intensity at the maximum emission wavelength relative to the free constituent fluorophore. The quantum efficiency of the fluorescent agent is 200% greater at 0.053+/-0.003 over the free fluorophore in PBS. Also, photostability based on fluorescence half-life of encapsulated ICG in PBS is 500% longer under typical clinical imaging conditions relative to the free dye. These performance enhancements are attributed to the matrix shielding effect of the NP around the internalized fluorophore molecules. The in vivo emission signal stability from ICG-CPSNPs was compared to the free fluorophore by whole animal NIR imaging. The duration of fluorescent signal from the ICG-CPSPNPs was extended to up to four days post-injection, highlighting the potential for long-term imaging and sensitive tracking applications using ICG when encapsulated within the protective matrix of CPSNPs. The surfaces of the ICG-CPSNPs were covalently bound with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The pharmacokinetic behavior of the

  18. The Value of Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Based on Enhanced Permeability and Retention of Indocyanine Green: Feasibility and False-Positives in Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Alexander A. W.; de Kroon, Cor D.; Trimbos, J. Baptist M. Z.; van de Velde, Cornelis J. H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Gaarenstroom, Katja N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In ovarian cancer, two of the most important prognostic factors for survival are completeness of staging and completeness of cytoreductive surgery. Therefore, intra-operative visualization of tumor lesions is of great importance. Preclinical data already demonstrated tumor visualization in a mouse-model using near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and indocyanine green (ICG) as a result of enhanced permeability and retention (EPR). The aim of this study was to determine feasibility of intraoperative ovarian cancer metastases imaging using NIR fluorescence imaging and ICG in a clinical setting. Methods Ten patients suspected of ovarian cancer scheduled for staging or cytoreductive surgery were included. Patients received 20 mg ICG intravenously after opening the abdominal cavity. The mini-FLARE NIR fluorescence imaging system was used to detect NIR fluorescent lesions. Results 6 out of 10 patients had malignant disease of the ovary or fallopian tube, of which 2 had metastatic disease outside the pelvis. Eight metastatic lesions were detected in these 2 patients, which were all NIR fluorescent. However, 13 non-malignant lesions were also NIR fluorescent, resulting in a false-positive rate of 62%. There was no significant difference in tumor-to-background ratio between malignant and benign lesions (2.0 vs 2.0; P=0.99). Conclusions This is the first clinical trial demonstrating intraoperative detection of ovarian cancer metastases using NIR fluorescence imaging and ICG. Despite detection of all malignant lesions, a high false-positive rate was observed. Therefore, NIR fluorescence imaging using ICG based on the EPR effect is not satisfactory for the detection of ovarian cancer metastases. The need for tumor-specific intraoperative agents remains. Trial Registration ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN16945066 PMID:26110901

  19. Excitation-resolved wide-field fluorescence imaging of indocyanine green visualizes the microenvironment properties in vivo via solvatochromic shift (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jaedu; Kim, Chang-Seok; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) is a powerful wide-field optical imaging tool that has a potential to visualize molecular-specific exogenous fluorescence agents, such as FDA approved Indocyanine Green (ICG), in thick tissue. Indeed, ICG is sensitive to biochemical environment such that it can be used to detect micro- or macroscopic environmental changes in tissue by solvatochromic shift that is defined by the dependence of absorption and emission spectra with the solvent polarity. For example, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a very powerful drug carrier that can penetrate biological barriers such as the skin, the membranes, and the blood-brain-barrier. In presence of DMSO, ICG in tissue shows the excitation blue shift. However, NIRF imaging of microenvironment dependent changes of ICG has been challenging for the following reasons. First, the Stoke's shift of ICG is too small to separate the excitation and emission spectra easily. Second, the solvatochromic shift of ICG is too small to be detected by conventional NIRF techniques. Last but not least, the multiple scattering in tissue degrades not only the spatial information but also the spectral contents by the red-shift. We developed a wavelength-swept laser-based NIRF system that can resolve the excitation shift of ICG in tissue such that DMSO can be indirectly visualized. We plan to conduct an in-vivo lymph-node drug-delivery study in a mouse model to show feasibility of the indirect imaging of the drug-carrier with the wavelength-swept-laser based NIRF system.

  20. Influence of different output powers on the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Yuksel, Sahru; Gulsoy, Murat

    2013-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an alternative antimicrobial treatment method. Different wavelengths of light sources mostly in the visible spectrum have been investigated for antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy. Even though the wavelengths in near infrared spectrum have the advantage of higher penetration capability in biological tissue, they have not been preferred for PDT because of their possible photothermal effect in biological tissues. In our previous studies, the desired PDT effect was achieved with 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) on drug resistant pathogens. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the influence of different output powers during PDT applications with 809-nm diode laser to clarify whether there is a photothermal effect to kill the pathogens or only the photochemical effect of photodynamic therapy. 4 different output powers (500 mW, 745 mW, 1000 mW, 1500 mW) were examined in Laseronly and PDT groups of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 in vitro. In the PDT groups, a non-phototoxic ICG concentration (50 μl/ml) has been chosen to eliminate the toxic effect of ICG and evaluate only the thermal effect of laser. Applied energy dose (252 J/cm2) was kept constant by increasing the exposure duration (300, 240, 180 and 120 seconds respectively). These output powers in Laser-only or PDT groups did not seem to cause photothermal effect. There was not any significant decrease or increase on bacterial load after the applications with different output powers. Higher output powers in PDT groups with the same ICG concentration did not cause any higher killing effect.

  1. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant for the antimicrobial photo-dynamic therapy (aPDT) in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Joerg; Hopp, Michael; Schäfers, Johannes; Verbeek, Jonas; Kraus, Dominik; Frentzen, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Clinical surveys show a continuous increase of antimicrobial resistance related to the frequency of the administrated medication. The antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is an effective adjuvant to reduce the need of antibiotics in dentistry, especially in periodontics. The antimicrobial effect of lightactivated photosensitizers in periodontics is demonstrated in clinical studies and case reports. Indocyanine green (ICG) as a new adjuvant shows the high potential of antiphlogistic and antimicrobial effects in combination with laser-light activation. In trying to answer the question of just how far the influence of temperature is acting on bacteria, this study was carried out. The influences of ICG at different concentrations (0.01 up to 1 mg/ml) in combination with a culture medium (brain-heart-infusion) and a bacteria culture (Streptococcus salivarius) at different optical densities (OD600 0.5 and 0.1) were investigated under laser-light activation. Laser activation was carried out with diode laser at 810 nm and two different power settings (100 mW/300 mW). The pulse repetition rate was 2 kHz. Taking account of the fiber diameter, distance and spot size on the sample surface, the applicated intensities were 6.2 and 18.7 W/cm2. Total irradiation time was 20 s for all meaurements. Transmitted laser power and temperature increase in the culture medium as well as in the bacteria culture were determined. Additionally the influence of ICG regarding bacterial growth and bactericidal effect was investigated in the bacteria culture without laser irradiation. Without laser, no bactericidal effect of ICG was observed. Only a bacteriostatic effect could be proved. In dependence of the ICG concentration and the applied intensities a temperature increase of ΔT up to 80°C was measured.

  2. Intraoperative Laparoscopic Near-Infrared Fluorescence Cholangiography to Facilitate Anatomical Identification: When to Give Indocyanine Green and How Much.

    PubMed

    Zarrinpar, Ali; Dutson, Erik P; Mobley, Constance; Busuttil, Ronald W; Lewis, Catherine E; Tillou, Areti; Cheaito, Ali; Hines, O Joe; Agopian, Vatche G; Hiyama, Darryl T

    2016-08-01

    Recent technological advances have enabled real-time near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography (NIRFC) with indocyanine green (ICG). Whereas several studies have shown its feasibility, dosing and timing for practical use have not been optimized. We undertook a prospective study with systematic variation of dosing and timing from injection of ICG to visualization. Adult patients undergoing laparoscopic biliary and hepatic operations were enrolled. Intravenous ICG (0.02-0.25 mg/kg) was administered at times ranging from 10 to 180 minutes prior to planned visualization. The porta hepatis was examined using a dedicated laparoscopic system equipped to detect NIRFC. Quantitative analysis of intraoperative fluorescence was performed using a scoring system to identify biliary structures. A total of 37 patients were enrolled. Visualization of the extrahepatic biliary tract improved with increasing doses of ICG, with qualitative scores improving from 1.9 ± 1.2 (out of 5) with a 0.02-mg/kg dose to 3.4 ± 1.3 with a 0.25-mg/kg dose (P < .05 for 0.02 vs 0.25 mg/kg). Visualization was also significantly better with increased time after ICG administration (1.1 ± 0.3 for 10 minutes vs 3.4 ± 1.1 for 45 minutes, P < .01). Similarly, quantitative measures also improved with both dose and time. There were no complications from the administration of ICG. These results suggest that a dose of 0.25 mg/kg administered at least 45 minutes prior to visualization facilitates intraoperative anatomical identification. The dosage and timing of administration of ICG prior to intraoperative visualization are within a range where it can be administered in a practical, safe, and effective manner to allow intraoperative identification of extrahepatic biliary anatomy using NIRFC. PMID:26964557

  3. Treatment of Near-Infrared Photodynamic Therapy Using a Liposomally Formulated Indocyanine Green Derivative for Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Tetsuro; Akutsu, Yasunori; Suganami, Akiko; Tamura, Yutaka; Fujito, Hiromichi; Ouchi, Tomoki; Akanuma, Naoki; Isozaki, Yuka; Takeshita, Nobuyoshi; Hoshino, Isamu; Uesato, Masaya; Toyota, Taro; Hayashi, Hideki; Matsubara, Hisahiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a less invasive option for cancer treatment that has evolved through recent developments in nanotechnology. We have designed and synthesized a novel liposome system that includes an indocyanine green (ICG) derivative, ICG-C18, in its bilayer. In addition to its use as an optical imager to visualize blood, lymphatic, and bile flow, ICG has also been used as an optical sensitizer. In the present report, we evaluate the use of our novel liposome system, LP-ICG-C18, in PDT for squamous cell carcinoma in an autologous murine model. Materials and Methods An excitation pulse beam (300 μJ/pulse) of a single band (800 nm) was used for sensitization. The cytotoxicity of the photodynamic therapy was evaluated in terms of cellular morphology changes, methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay results, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. We tested the enhanced permeability and retention effect of LP-ICG-C18 in tumor-bearing C3H/He mice using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system and fluorescence microscopy. We also examined the antitumor effect of PDT by measuring tumor volume in tumor-bearing mice. Results Cell death and apoptosis were only observed in the PDT group receiving LP-ICG-C18. LP-ICG-C18 itself had no cytotoxic activity and showed good biocompatibility. LP-ICG-C18 accumulated on the tumor 24 hours after injection and was retained for approximately 3 weeks. Tumor cell apoptosis following PDT with LP-ICG-C18 was also observed under optical microscopy, MTT assay, and TUNEL staining. Conclusion These findings suggest that LP-ICG-C18 may be an effective intervening material in PDT for malignant disease. PMID:25850029

  4. Resection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes by an Extraperitoneal Minilaparoscopic Approach Using Indocyanine Green for Uterine Malignancies: A Preclinical Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Hélder; Nogueira-Silva, Cristina; Miranda, Alice; Correia-Pinto, Jorge

    2016-08-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept might minimize surgical aggressiveness in cervical and endometrial malignancies. The aim of the study was to test the feasibility and reliability of minilaparoscopic extraperitoneal SLN excision after indocyanine green (ICG) cervical injection using a high-definition near infrared (NIR) imaging system in an in vivo porcine model. The same procedure was performed using conventional laparoscopic instruments and both outcomes were compared. Methods Twenty-four animals were equally and randomly divided into a minilaparoscopic group (group A) and a 5-mm conventional laparoscopic group (group B). A high-definition NIR imaging system and a 30° ICG endoscope were used. First, ICG (0.5 mL) was injected in the paracervical region. The SLN coloring time was recorded. An extraperitoneal approach to the SLN was executed with the same CO2 retropneumoperitoneum pressures (10 mm Hg). In both groups, the times for SLN localization and excision, as well as complications, were registered. Finally, a laparotomy was then done to evaluate whether any stained SLN still remained. The same surgical team performed all experiments. Results SLNs were identified and extraperitoneally excised in all animals without major complications. The SLN localization varied between animals from external iliac to preaortic regions. The surgical times were shorter with minilaparoscopy (39.3 ± 13 minutes) than with conventional 5-mm instruments (51.3 ± 14.17 minutes; P = .042). In group B, one stained SLN remained and was only detected by laparotomy. Conclusions We confirmed the feasibility and reliability of extraperitoneal minilaparoscopic approach for identification, dissection, and excision of SLN using an NIR imaging system and ICG. PMID:26637497

  5. Near-infrared spectroscopy extended with indocyanine green dye dilution for cerebral blood flow measurement: Median values in healthy volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudra, R.; Muroi, C.; Niederer, P.; Keller, E.

    2008-09-01

    The cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an important vital parameter in neurointensive care. Currently, there is no non-invasive method for its measurement that can easily be applied at the bedside. A new tool to determine CBF is based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) applied together with indocyanine green (ICG) dye dilution. From a bilateral measurement on selected regions on the head of infrared (IR) absorption at various wavelengths during the dilution maneuver, the vascular perfusion characteristics of the two brain hemispheres can be determined in terms of mean transit time (mtt) of ICG, cerebral blood volume (CBV) and CBF. So far, on nine healthy volunteers, NIRS ICG dye dilution bihemispheric measurements were performed, which yielded to mtt given as median (range) of 9.3 s (5.1-16.3 s), CBV of 3.5 ml/100 g (1.7-4.1 ml/100 g), and CBF of 18.2 ml/(100 g×min) [11.1-48.6 ml/(100 g×min)]. Additionally, the blood flow index (BFI) was calculated with BFI= 13.8 mg/(100 g×s) [6.6-15.2 mg/(100 g×s)]. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient between CBF and BFI was RS = 0.76. However, as the Bland & Altman plot between CBFNIRS and the CBFBFI documents, the limits of agreement are rather wide (21.9±6.7). Under physiological conditions in healthy volunteers, no differences could be detected between the hemispheres.

  6. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node mapping after cervical injection of indocyanine green for endometrial cancer – preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Reinholz-Jaskolska, Malgorzata; Bidzinski, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Endometrial cancer (EC) has an increasing incidence worldwide, with lymph node metastases as the main prognostic factor. Systemic lymphadenectomy is connected with elevated morbidity. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is intended to avoid extensive lymphadenectomy and provide significant oncologic information. Aim To evaluate the accuracy of laparoscopic SLN biopsy guided by indocyanine green (ICG) injection into the cervix in EC patients and to develop ideas to improve this method. The optimal time from dye injection to lymph node visualization was assessed. Material and methods This retrospective study was conducted between July 2014 and March 2015 in a group of 9 women with EC, at low and intermediate risk of recurrence, scheduled for total laparoscopic hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. All patients underwent cervical ICG injection and SLN biopsy, followed by surgery. Pelvic lymph nodes were located using an ICG endoscopic camera. Results The following data were collected: There were 9 patients with endometrial cancer at low and intermediate risk of recurrence. Median patient age was 59 years, median body mass index (BMI) 28 kg/m2, endometrioid adenocarcinoma in 9 cases, grading: G1 – 1 patient, G2 – 8 patients. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. Median time from ICG injection and SLN detection during surgery was 25 min. There were no lymph nodes metastasis, all identified by the SLN protocol using ICG injection. Conclusions Sentinel lymph node mapping can play a significant role in lymph node assessment and staging in early-stage EC patients with low risk of recurrence according to the ESMO classification. The use of SLN mapping in EC is much needed and the therapeutic benefit is high. PMID:26649087

  7. Comparing Quantitative Values of Two Generations of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography Systems: Can We Predict Necrosis?

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Mitchell S.; Rivara, Andrew; Dagum, Alexander B.; Huston, Tara L.; Ganz, Jason C.; Bui, Duc T.; Khan, Sami U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Several devices exist today to assist the intraoperative determination of skin flap perfusion. Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Angiography (LAICGA) has been shown to accurately predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis using quantitative perfusion values. The laser properties of the latest LAICGA device (SPY Elite) differ significantly from its predecessor system (SPY 2001), preventing direct translation of previous published data. The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical relationship of perfusion values between these 2 devices. Methods: Breast reconstruction patients were prospectively enrolled into a clinical trial where skin flap evaluation and excision was based on quantitative SPY Q values previously established in the literature. Initial study patients underwent mastectomy skin flap evaluation using both SPY systems simultaneously. Absolute perfusion unit (APU) values at identical locations on the breast were then compared graphically. Results: 210 data points were identified on the same patients (n = 4) using both SPY systems. A linear relationship (y = 2.9883x + 12.726) was identified with a high level or correlation (R2 = 0.744). Previously published values using SPY 2001 (APU 3.7) provided a value of 23.8 APU on the SPY Elite. In addition, postoperative necrosis in these patients correlated to regions of skin identified with the SPY Elite with APU less than 23.8. Conclusion: Intraoperative comparison of LAICGA systems has provided direct correlation of perfusion values predictive of necrosis that were previously established in the literature. An APU value of 3.7 from the SPY 2001 correlates to a SPY Elite APU value of 23.8. PMID:25525483

  8. Indocyanine green-loaded photoacoustic nanodroplets: dual contrast nanoconstructs for enhanced photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Alexander; Luke, Geoffrey; Wilson, Katheryne; Homan, Kimberly; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2014-01-28

    Recently, perfluorocarbon (PFC) nanodroplets were introduced as contrast agents for imaging and image-guided therapy. For example, in sonography, high-intensity ultrasound pulses were used to phase-transition liquid perfluorocarbon to produce gas microbubbles. More recently, perfluorocarbon nanodroplets with encapsulated gold nanorods were used as dual ultrasound/photoacoustic contrast agents. To expedite clinical translation, we synthesized and characterized ICG-loaded perfluorocarbon nanodroplets, i.e., constructs comprising biocompatible, nontoxic and biologically safe materials. We then demonstrated enhanced photoacoustic contrast through optically triggered phase transition of PFC nanodroplets and ultrasound contrast from the resulting PFC bubbles. We assessed the quality enhancement of photoacoustic and ultrasound images through analysis of contrast and contrast-to-noise ratio. We further investigated the changes in image contrast due to increased ambient temperature. Our studies suggest that ICG-loaded perfluorocarbon nanodroplets may become a valuable tool for various imaging modalities, and have promising therapeutic applications. PMID:24303934

  9. Enhanced visualization of the bile duct via parallel white light and indocyanine green fluorescence laparoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demos, Stavros G.; Urayama, Shiro

    2014-03-01

    Despite best efforts, bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a major potential complication. Precise detection method of extrahepatic bile duct during laparoscopic procedures would minimize the risk of injury. Towards this goal, we have developed a compact imaging instrumentation designed to enable simultaneous acquisition of conventional white color and NIR fluorescence endoscopic/laparoscopic imaging using ICG as contrast agent. The capabilities of this system, which offers optimized sensitivity and functionality, are demonstrated for the detection of the bile duct in an animal model. This design could also provide a low-cost real-time surgical navigation capability to enhance the efficacy of a variety of other image-guided minimally invasive procedures.

  10. Macular function and morphology after peeling of idiopathic epiretinal membrane with and without the assistance of indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    Hillenkamp, J; Saikia, P; Gora, F; Sachs, H G; Lohmann, C P; Roider, J; Bäumler, W; Gabel, V-P

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate macular function and morphology after surgical removal of idiopathic epiretinal membrane (IEM) with and without assistance of indocyanine green (ICG). Methods: A retrospective study as a consecutive case series, of 39 patients with IEM. 39 patients, 23 female, 16 male, mean age 67 years, underwent standard three port pars plana vitrectomy with removal of epiretinal membrane. Two groups of patients were consecutively operated: in 20 patients ICG 0.1% in glucose 5% was used to stain the epiretinal membrane. 19 patients underwent the identical procedure but without use of ICG. Postoperative follow up was 1–92 months (mean 15.5 months). Functional outcome was assessed with subjective improvement, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Amsler grid test, 10° and 30° automated perimetry (Heidelberg visual field analyser) (HFA), and Goldmann kinetic perimetry. Macular morphology was assessed with stereoscopic biomicroscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The main outcome measures were macular function as determined by BCVA, presence of visual field defects, and metamorphopsia as determined by Amsler grid test, macular morphology as determined by slit lamp biomicroscopy, and OCT. Results: BCVA improved in 28 patients, remained unchanged in eight patients, and decreased in three patients. Improvement of BCVA was statistically significant in both groups (p = 0.003). Mean BCVA in patients operated with ICG improved from 0.33 preoperatively to 0.53 postoperatively. Mean BCVA in patients operated without ICG improved from 0.32 preoperatively to 0.54 postoperatively. Reduction of macular oedema as measured by OCT was statistically significant in both groups (p<0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative BCVA, macular oedema as measured by OCT, postoperative Amsler grid test, and subjective improvement between the two groups. The incidence of residual or recurrent epiretinal membrane was greater in the group operated

  11. Indocyanine green angiography-guided management of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: differentiation between choroidal scars and active lesions.

    PubMed

    Knecht, Pascal B; Mantovani, Alessandro; Herbort, Carl P

    2013-10-01

    When following Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) is crucial in the subacute and convalescent stages of the disease in order to detect subclinical choroiditis and prevent the development of 'sunset glow' fundus. Hypofluorescent dark dots (HDDs) indicate persisting granulomas in the choroid. However, probably as a result of the healing process of choroidal granulomas, stromal choroidal fibrosis can also be shown by HDDs. We present two cases where intravenous corticosteroid administration because of persistent HDDs led to resolution of lesions in one case while they persisted in the other case. We reviewed the medical history of two VKH patients. Complete routine work-up for patients with posterior uveitis was performed. The charts were screened for the presence of HDDs by ICGA in the subacute and convalescent stages of the disease before and after administration of body weight-adapted pulse intravenous methylprednisolone (PIM). The evolution of HDDs was studied and compared in both patients. A female patient presented with a persistent bilateral granulomatous panuveitis compatible with VKH. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis had shown lymphocytic pleocytosis. At presentation, therapy consisted of oral prednisone 80 mg/day. Prednisone was tapered down to 22 mg/day over 3 months, when a recurrence occurred with the presence of disseminated HDDs. PIM was administered, followed by oral corticosteroids. After 8 days of therapy, ICGA showed an almost complete disappearance of HDDs. A girl presented with bilateral panuveitis and widespread depigmented areas of her fundus. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed monocytic pleocytosis. Because of relative resistance to oral inflammation suppressive therapy (IST), PIM was administered for 3 days. Nevertheless, ICGA showed persistence of HDDs. Therapy was continued, and 3 months later, a follow-up ICGA still depicted numerous HDDs. Another PIM course was given, which had no effect on ICGA signs

  12. Indocyanine green angiography findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To investigate indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) findings in patients with long-standing Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease and their correlation with disease activity on clinical examination as well as with systemic corticosteroid therapy. Methods Twenty-eight patients (51 eyes) with long-standing (≥6 months from disease onset) VKH disease whose treatment was tapered based only in clinical features were prospectively included at a single center in Brazil. All patients underwent standardized clinical evaluation, which included fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and ICGA. Clinical disease activity was determined based in the Standardization in Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group. Fisher exact test and logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. Results Disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 72.5% (31 of 51 eyes). Angiographic findings suggestive of (choroidal and/or retinal) disease activity were not observed on FA. Clinically active disease based on clinical evaluation was observed in 41.2% (21 of 51 eyes). In these 21 eyes, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 76.2% (16 of 21 eyes); in the remaining eyes (without clinical active disease) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 70.0% (21 of 30 eyes). In respect to systemic corticosteroid therapy, 10 patients (18 of 51 eyes) were under treatment with prednisone. In these 10 (18 of 51 eyes) patients, disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 83.3% (15 of 18 eyes); in the remaining patients (33 of 51 eyes) disease-related choroidal inflammation on ICGA was observed in 66.7% (22 of 33 eyes). Conclusion ICGA findings suggestive of disease-related choroidal inflammation were observed in a considerable proportion of patients with long-standing VKH disease, independent of the inflammatory status of the disease on clinical examination or current use of systemic corticosteroid. Therefore

  13. In vivo dual-modality imaging of lymphatic systems using indocyanine green in rats: three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging and planar fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang Hyun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to map non-invasively sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and lymphatic vessels of rats in vivo using FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG) and two non-ionizing imaging modalities: volumetric spectroscopic photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which measures optical absorption, and planar fluorescence imaging, which measures fluorescent emission. SLNs and lymphatic vessels were clearly visible after a 0.2 ml-intradermal-injection of 1 mM ICG in both imaging systems. We also imaged deeply positioned lymph nodes in vivo by layering biological tissues on top of rats. These two modalities, when used together with ICG, have the potential to map SLNs in axillary staging and to study tumor metastasis in breast cancer patients.

  14. Photodynamic hyperthermal therapy with indocyanine green (ICG) induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in B16F10 murine melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Radzi, Rozanaliza; Osaki, Tomohiro; Tsuka, Takeshi; Imagawa, Tomohiro; Minami, Saburo; Nakayama, Yuji; Okamoto, Yoshiharu

    2012-05-01

    We examined the effects of photodynamic hyperthemal therapy (PHT), which is a combination of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia (HT), on the apoptosis and cell cycle progression of murine melanoma B16F10 cells. The percentage of apoptotic cell was determined by flow cytometry using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated Annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining. The cell cycle analysis was performed by PI staining with flow cytometry. The expression of cyclins and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were examined by a Western blotting analysis. PHT induces death in B16F10 cells, and PHT-mediated apoptosis occurred acutely and persistently in vitro. Our study demonstrated that PHT using indocyanine green (ICG) and near infrared (NIR) light source induces apoptosis and G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in the B16F10 cells. PMID:22146339

  15. Analysis of the optical characteristics of adipose tissue in vitro sensitized by indocyanine green and exposed to IR-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanina, I. Yu.; Doubrovski, V. A.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2015-03-01

    The effect of IR-laser irradiation on adipose tissue sensitized by indocyanine green is studied in vitro. Experiments and statistical analysis are used to show that wavelength-selective irradiation leads to an increase in the homogeneity of optical images of adipose cells with time. The transmission coefficient that is averaged over the image area weakly depends on the observation time. An increase in the homogeneity of images is interpreted as a result of immersion of optical inhomogeneities of tissue owing to the intracellular liquid that is released through the photochemically induced pores in cellular membranes. An increase in the optical homogeneity of the medium is compensated for by a decrease in the transmission coefficient of the sensitizer, which is manifested as a weak time dependence of the image-averaged transmittance of tissue.

  16. Early noninvasive measurement of the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate accurately predicts early graft dysfunction and mortality after deceased donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Olmedilla, Luis; Pérez-Peña, José María; Ripoll, Cristina; Garutti, Ignacio; de Diego, Roberto; Salcedo, Magdalena; Jiménez, Consuelo; Bañares, Rafael

    2009-10-01

    Early diagnosis of graft dysfunction in liver transplantation is essential for taking appropriate action. Indocyanine green clearance is closely related to liver function and can be measured noninvasively by spectrophotometry. The objectives of this study were to prospectively analyze the relationship between the indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate (ICGPDR) and early graft function after liver transplantation and to evaluate the role of ICGPDR in the prediction of severe graft dysfunction (SGD). One hundred seventy-two liver transplants from deceased donors were analyzed. Ten patients had SGD: 6 were retransplanted, and 4 died while waiting for a new graft. The plasma disappearance rate was measured 1 hour (PDRr60) and within the first 24 hours (PDR1) after reperfusion, and it was significantly lower in the SGD group. PDRr60 and PDR1 were excellent predictors of SGD. A threshold PDRr60 value of 10.8%/minute and a PDR1 value of 10%/minute accurately predicted SGD with areas under the receiver operating curve of 0.94 (95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97) and 0.96 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98), respectively. In addition, survival was significantly lower in patients with PDRr60 values below 10.8%/minute (53%, 47%, and 47% versus 95%, 94%, and 90% at 3, 6, and 12 months, respectively) and with PDR1 values below 10%/minute (62%, 62%, and 62% versus 94%, 92%, and 88%). In conclusion, very early noninvasive measurement of ICGPDR can accurately predict early severe graft dysfunction and mortality after liver transplantation. PMID:19790138

  17. Intestinal blood flow assessment by indocyanine green fluorescence imaging in a patient with the incarcerated umbilical hernia: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Shunjin; Yoshida, Masashi; Ohdaira, Hironori; Tsutsui, Nobuhiro; Suzuki, Norihiko; Ito, Eisaku; Nakajima, Keigo; Yanagisawa, Satoru; Kitajima, Masaki; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    After reduction of the incarceration during surgery for incarcerated hernia, intestinal blood flow (IBF) and the need for bowel resection must be evaluated. We report the case of a patient with incarcerated umbilical hernia in whom the bowel was preserved after evaluating IBF using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence. A woman in her 40s with a chief complaint of abdominal pain visited our hospital, was diagnosed with incarcerated umbilical hernia and underwent surgery. Laparotomy was performed to reduce bowel incarceration. After reducing the incarceration, IBF was observed using ICG fluorescence detected using a brightfield full-color fluorescence camera. The small bowel that had been incarcerated showed deep-red discoloration on gross evaluation, but intravenous injection of ICG revealed uniform fluorescence of the mesentery and bowel wall. This indicated an absence of irreversible ischemic changes of the bowel, so no resection was performed. The patient showed a good postoperative course, including resumption of eating on day 4 and discharge on day 11. In surgery for incarcerated hernia, ICG fluorescence may offer a useful method to evaluate IBF after reducing the incarceration. This case implied that PINPOINT could be used in open conventional surgery. PMID:27257484

  18. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Khoramnia, Ramin; Uwe Auffarth, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG) dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%), exposure times (10 and 60 seconds), and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed) were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc.), and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery. PMID:27478634

  19. Usage of invisible near infrared light (NIR) fluorescence with indocyanine green (ICG) and methylene blue (MB) in urological oncology. Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Markuszewski, Marcin; Rho, Young Soo; Matuszewski, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Near infrared (NIR) technology has recently garnered much interest as a tool for intraoperative image–guided surgery in various surgical sub–disciplines. In urology, although nascent, NIR technology is also fostering much enthusiasm. This review discusses the two major fluorophores, indocyanine green (ICG) and methlyene blue (MB), with NIR guidance in experimental and clinical urology. The authors aim to illustrate and analyze the currently available initial studies to better understand the potential and practicability of NIR–guided imaging in the diagnosis and surgical outcome improvement. In the first part of the study we analyzed problems associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy, NIR–guided detection and imaging of tumors. Material and methods PubMed and Medline databases were searched for ICG and MB use in urological settings, along with data published in abstracts of urological conferences. Results Although NIR–guided ICG and MB are still in their initial phases, there have been significant developments in major domains of urology, including uro–oncological surgery: 1) sentinel lymph node biopsy, 2) detection and imaging of tumors Conclusions Much like in other fields of surgical medicine, the application of NIR technology in urology is at its early stages. Therefore, more studies are needed to assess the true potential and limitations of the technology. However, initial developments hint towards a pioneering tool that may influence various aspects of urology. PMID:25140227

  20. Preliminary report: comparison of 980-nm, 808-nm diode laser enhanced with indocyanine green to the Nd:YAG laser applied to equine respiratory tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.; Blikslager, Anthony T.; Campbell, Nigel B.

    2001-05-01

    The Neodynium: Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has been the mainstay of performing upper respiratory laser surgery in the equine since 1984. The 808-nm diode laser has also been applied transendoscopically as well as the 980-nm diode laser over recent years. It has been shown that Indocyanine Green (ICG) enhances the performance of the 808- nm laser because it is absorbed at 810 nm of light. The 808- nm laser's tissue interaction combined with ICG is equivalent to or greater than the Nd:YAG laser's cutting ability. The 980-nm diode laser performance was similar to that of the Nd:YAG as determined by the parameters of this study. This study compared the depths and widths of penetration achieved with the 808-nm diode laser after intravenous injection of ICG on equine respiratory tissue. It also compared depths and widths of penetration achieved by the non-contact application of the 980-nm diode laser delivering the same energy of 200 joules. The depths and widths of penetration of both diode lasers were compared to themselves and to the Nd:YAG laser with all factors remaining constant.

  1. Tissue temperatures attained in indocyanine-green infiltrated and noninfiltrated bovine eyelids using diode laser (805-nm) energy at 3, 5, and 7 watts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, John G.; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Dickey, D. Thomas; Powell, Ronald; Schafer, Steven A.; Zhou, Jin Fu; Wicksted, James P.

    1998-07-01

    Normal non-pigmented bovine eyelids in two Hereford cows under general anesthesia were treated with diode laser (805 nm) in a power range of 3 - 6.5 watts. Tissue temperatures were measured in areas infiltrated with 0.25% indocyanine green (ICG) solution and in non-infiltrated areas. Targeted tissue was laser treated at post-injection time intervals of 1 to 60 minutes. Temperatures were measured with a computerized temperature sensing program using hypodermic needle thermistors. Trial objectives were to establish power/chromophore concentration/time parameters to create tumor and peri-tumor tissue temperatures of 50 degrees Celsius without causing epidermal vaporization. Tissue temperature of 50 degrees Celsius has been established as the temperature producing coagulative necrosis of squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissue in 30 seconds. This temperature was produced in chromophore-enhanced tissue bit without repeatable confidence. Bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma (BOSCC)-affected eyes and eyelids have been successfully treated with carbon dioxide focused and defocused laser with and without chromophore enhanced diode laser (805 nm) energy. The need for tumor staging and procedure standardization requires further investigation to determine laser power/chromophore concentration, and issue exposure times.

  2. pH triggered in vivo photothermal therapy and fluorescence nanoplatform of cancer based on responsive polymer-indocyanine green integrated reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Sharker, Shazid Md; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Sung Han; Jeong, Ji Hoon; In, Insik; Lee, Haeshin; Park, Sung Young

    2015-08-01

    We have synthesized a pH-dependent, NIR-sensitive, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) hybrid nano-composite via electrostatic interaction with indocyanine green (ICG) which is designed not only to destroy localized cancer cells but also be minimally invasive to surrounding normal cells. The near-infrared (NIR) irradiated hybrid nano-composites showed pH dependent photo-thermal heat generation capability from pH 5.0 to 7.4 due to the pH response relief and quenching effects of poly(2-dimethyl amino ethyl methacrylate) [poly(PDMAEMA)] with ICG on a single rGO sheet. This pH-triggered relief and quenching mechanism regulated in vitro photo-thermolysis as the pH changed from 5.0 to 7.4. The in vitro cellular uptake and confocal laser scan microscopic (CLSM) images at different pH values show promise for environment sensitive bio-imaging. The NIR-absorbing hybrid nanomaterials showed a remarkably improved in vitro cancer cell targeted photothermal destruction compared to free ICG. Upon local NIR irradiation, these hybrid nano-composites-treated tumors showed necrotic, shrunken, ablation of malignant cells and totally healed after 18 days treatment. Our finding regarding the acidic pH stimulus of cancer cellular environment has proven to be a wining platform for the fight against cancer. PMID:26005762

  3. Usefulness of an Image Fusion Model Using Three-Dimensional CT and MRI with Indocyanine Green Fluorescence Endoscopy as a Multimodal Assistant System in Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Akihiro; Ohnishi, Takanori; Kohno, Shohei; Nishida, Naoya; Nakamura, Yawara; Ohtsuka, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Shirabe; Ohue, Shiro

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. We investigate the usefulness of multimodal assistant systems using a fusion model of preoperative three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) along with endoscopy with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence in establishing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) as a more effective treatment procedure. Methods. Thirty-five consecutive patients undergoing ETSS in our hospital between April 2014 and March 2015 were enrolled in the study. In all patients, fusion models of 3D-CT and MRI were created by reconstructing preoperative images. In addition, in 10 patients, 12.5 mg of ICG was intravenously administered, allowing visualization of surrounding structures. We evaluated the accuracy and utility of these combined modalities in ETSS. Results. The fusion model of 3D-CT and MRI clearly demonstrated the complicated structures in the sphenoidal sinus and the position of the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), even with extensive tumor infiltration. ICG endoscopy enabled us to visualize the surrounding structures by the phasic appearance of fluorescent signals emitted at specific consecutive elapsed times. Conclusions. Preoperative 3D-CT and MRI fusion models with intraoperative ICG endoscopy allowed distinct visualization of vital structures in cases where tumors had extensively infiltrated the sphenoidal sinus. Additionally, the ICG endoscope was a useful real-time monitoring tool for ETSS. PMID:26339240

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Near-Infrared (NIR) Layered Double Hydroxide-Indocyanine Green Nanocomposites for Potential Applications in Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Pei-Ru; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    We designed a study for photodynamic therapy (PDT) using chitosan coated Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles as the delivery system. A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, indocyanine green (ICG) with photoactive properties was intercalated into amine modified LDH interlayers by ion-exchange. The efficient positively charged polymer (chitosan (CS)) coating was achieved by the cross linkage using surface amine groups modified on the LDH nanoparticle surface with glutaraldehyde as a spacer. The unique hybridization of organic-inorganic nanocomposites rendered more effective and successful photodynamic therapy due to the photosensitizer stabilization in the interlayer of LDH, which prevents the leaching and metabolization of the photosensitizer in the physiological conditions. The results indicated that the polymer coating and the number of polymer coats have a significant impact on the photo-toxicity of the nano-composites. The double layer chitosan coated LDH–NH2–ICG nanoparticles exhibited enhanced photo therapeutic effect compared with uncoated LDH–NH2–ICG and single layer chitosan-coated LDH–NH2–ICG due to the enhanced protection to photosensitizers against photo and thermal degradations. This new class of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites can potentially serve as a platform for future non-invasive cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26340627

  5. A Near-Infrared Photothermal Effect-Responsive Drug Delivery System Based on Indocyanine Green and Doxorubicin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles Mediated by Reversible Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Li, Junjie; Ke, Wendong; Ge, Zhishen

    2015-10-01

    Near-infrared light (NIR) possesses great advantages for light-responsive controllable drug release, such as deep tissue penetration and low damage to healthy tissues. Herein, a NIR-responsive drug delivery system is developed based on a NIR dye, indocyanine green (ICG), and anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded thermoresponsive block copolymer micelles, in which the drug release can be controlled via NIR irradiation. First, block copolymers, poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate)-block-poly(furfuryl methacrylate) (POEGMA-b-PFMA), are synthesized by sequential reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization, followed by modification with N-octyl maleimide through Diels-Alder (DA) reaction to produce POEGMA-b-POMFMA. The self-assembly of POEGMA-b-POMFMA by nano-precipitation in aqueous solution affords the polymeric micelles which are used to simultaneously encapsulate ICG and DOX. Upon irradiation by NIR light (805 nm), the loaded DOX is released rapidly from the micelles due to partial retro DA reaction and local temperature increase-induced faster drug diffusion by the photothermal effect. Cytotoxicity evaluation and intracellular distribution observation demonstrate significant synergistic effects of NIR-triggered drug release, photothermal, and chemotherapy toward cancer cells under NIR irradiation. PMID:26274805

  6. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model.

    PubMed

    Tandogan, Tamer; Khoramnia, Ramin; Uwe Auffarth, Gerd; Janusz Koss, Michael; Young Choi, Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG) dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%), exposure times (10 and 60 seconds), and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed) were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc.), and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery. PMID:27478634

  7. Near-Infrared Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping With Indocyanine Green Using the VITOM II ICG Exoscope for Open Surgery for Gynecologic Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Buda, Alessandro; Dell'Anna, Tiziana; Vecchione, Francesca; Verri, Debora; Di Martino, Giampaolo; Milani, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is emerging as an effective method for surgical staging of different gynecologic malignancies. Near-infrared (NIR) technology using a fluorescent dye such as indocyanine green (ICG) represents an interesting and feasible method for SLN mapping even in traditional open surgeries by applying video telescope operating microscope (VITOM) system technology. We report our preliminary experience in 12 women who underwent surgical nodal staging for early-stage vulvar and uterine or cervical cancer. Surgical and pathological outcomes are described, and the VITOM II ICG system's intraoperative image quality, handling and docking, and teaching value are assessed. The general impression of the surgical staff was that the VITOM II system is easy to use, and that the image quality of the anatomic structures is impressive. Traditional open SLN mapping with ICG appears to be easy to perform and reproducible, providing a new tool in the management of patients with gynecologic malignancies. Moreover, we believe that this technology has great potential as an operative teaching and learning modality for trainers for open surgical cases. Additional studies involving the VITOM system with a large sample size of patients are needed to confirm these promising results. PMID:26921484

  8. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan-Coated Near-Infrared (NIR) Layered Double Hydroxide-Indocyanine Green Nanocomposites for Potential Applications in Photodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pei-Ru; Kuthati, Yaswanth; Kankala, Ranjith Kumar; Lee, Chia-Hung

    2015-01-01

    We designed a study for photodynamic therapy (PDT) using chitosan coated Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles as the delivery system. A Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, indocyanine green (ICG) with photoactive properties was intercalated into amine modified LDH interlayers by ion-exchange. The efficient positively charged polymer (chitosan (CS)) coating was achieved by the cross linkage using surface amine groups modified on the LDH nanoparticle surface with glutaraldehyde as a spacer. The unique hybridization of organic-inorganic nanocomposites rendered more effective and successful photodynamic therapy due to the photosensitizer stabilization in the interlayer of LDH, which prevents the leaching and metabolization of the photosensitizer in the physiological conditions. The results indicated that the polymer coating and the number of polymer coats have a significant impact on the photo-toxicity of the nano-composites. The double layer chitosan coated LDH-NH₂-ICG nanoparticles exhibited enhanced photo therapeutic effect compared with uncoated LDH-NH₂-ICG and single layer chitosan-coated LDH-NH₂-ICG due to the enhanced protection to photosensitizers against photo and thermal degradations. This new class of organic-inorganic hybrid nanocomposites can potentially serve as a platform for future non-invasive cancer diagnosis and therapy. PMID:26340627

  9. Endoscopic mucosal incision by diode laser for early cancer treatment in the alimentary tract: effect of submucosal indocyanine green solution injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takuya; Arai, Tsunenori; Nakamura, Naoko; Tajiri, Hisao; Miura, Soichiro; Kikuchi, Makoto

    1999-06-01

    Mucosal incision technique by diode laser ablation was studied to ensure the operation of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR), which is gold standard method for early gastric cancer with little/no risk of lymphnode metastasis. Our method was designed to facilitate grasping a large lesion by hitching the snaring wire on the incised mucosal groove around the lesion. We employed local submucosal injection of indocyanine green (ICG) solution. ICG solution was used to prevent direct laser light penetration to the muscularis propriae owing to strong absorption of 805nm light (absorption coefficent at 805 nm is about 200cm-1). We used diode laser radiation with an output of 25W by contact (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 kg/cm2) and non-contact irradiation methods. In the preliminary experiment with resected porcine stomach, muscularis propriae was intact by the 60s non-contact irradiation or the 8s contact irradiation with contact pressure of 1kg/cm2. In the endoscopic experiment we used 3 dogs. Using conical contact probe, we successfully demonstrated 3cm diameter circular incision with sharp groove in 10 minutes. We could place the snaring wire on the incised groove. Histology of the endoscopically incised canine stomach revealed that the submucosal layer welled up to 6mm in thickness and the bottom of the incision groove reached 1.9mm at deepest below the mucosal muscle. The thickness of the coagulation layer around the incised groove was up to 1.8mm. No damage was seen a the muscularis propriae. We demonstrate easy as well as sure snaring by using our laser incision technique. We think our technique may be available to enhance the efficacy of EMR for early gastric cancer including the lesion over 2cm in diameter.

  10. Tailoring through Technology: A Retrospective Review of a Single Surgeon's Experience with Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction before and after Implementation of Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Angiography.

    PubMed

    Harless, Christin A; Jacobson, Steven R

    2016-05-01

    Reported complication rates of implant-based breast reconstruction in the literature exceed 50%, with mastectomy skin flap necrosis reported to occur in up to 25% of cases. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography (LA-ICGA) technology allows the surgeon to optimize preservation of the mastectomy skin flap while avoiding skin necrosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if outcomes of breast reconstruction are beneficially affected by using LA-ICGA. A total 269 consecutive women (467 breast reconstructions) undergoing implant-based breast reconstruction from 2008 to 2013 were examined. The complication rates of those who underwent reconstruction prior to the implementation of LA-ICGA were compared with those who were reconstructed after implementation of LA-ICGA. A total of 254 consecutive breast reconstructions were performed prior to implementation of LA-ICGA, and 213 breasts were reconstructed with the use of LA-ICGA. After implementation of LA-ICGA System, the rate of mastectomy skin flap necrosis decreased by 86% (6.7% versus 0.9%, p = 0.02). The overall complication rate prior to LA-ICGA was 13.8% compared with 6.6% with the use of LA-ICGA (p = 0.01). After LA-ICGA was incorporated, the percentage of patients undergoing single-stage reconstruction increased from 12% to 32% (p = <0.001). Implementation of LA-ICGA provides the surgeon with an objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion resulting in a trend toward overall reduction in complications as well as an 86% decrease in the rate of subsequent skin necrosis. The objective assessment of mastectomy flap perfusion allows the surgeon to tailor breast reconstruction intraoperatively, in real-time, adjusting for the individual patient's mastectomy flap perfusion. PMID:26899399

  11. In vivo photoacoustic imaging of cancer using indocyanine green-labeled monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kohei; Ohashi, Manami; Kanazaki, Kengo; Ding, Ning; Deguchi, Jun; Kanada, Yuko; Ono, Masahiro; Saji, Hideo

    2015-08-28

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an attractive imaging modality for sensitive and depth imaging of biomolecules with high resolution in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibody (panitumumab; Pan) labeled with indocyanine green derivative (ICG-EG4-Sulfo-OSu), Pan-EG4-ICG, as a PA imaging probe to target cancer-associated EGFR. In vitro PA imaging studies demonstrated that Pan-EG4-ICG yielded high EGFR-specific PA signals in EGFR-positive cells. To determine the optimal injection dose and scan timing, we investigated the biodistribution of radiolabeled Pan-EG4-ICG (200-400 μg) in A431 tumor (EGFR++)-bearing mice. The highest tumor accumulation (29.4% injected dose/g) and high tumor-to-blood ratio (2.1) was observed 7 days after injection of Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg). In in vivo PA imaging studies using Pan-EG4-ICG (400 μg), the increase in PA signal (114%) was observed in A431 tumors inoculated in the mammary glands 7 days post-injection. Co-injection of excess Pan resulted in a 35% inhibition of this PA signal, indicating the EGFR-specific accumulation. In conclusion, the ICG-labeled monoclonal antibody (i.e., panitumumab) has the potential to enhance target-specific PA signal, leading to the discrimination of aggressiveness and metastatic potential of tumors and the selection of effective therapeutic strategies. PMID:26168727

  12. Renal Distribution Volumes of Indocyanine Green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na in Man during Acute Renal Failure after Shock. IMPLICATIONS FOR THE PATHOGENESIS OF ANURIA

    PubMed Central

    Reubi, F. C.; Vorburger, C.; Tuckman, J.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for the anuria in acute renal failure after shock is still controversial. Suppressed glomerular filtration and/or tubular back-diffusion of the filtrate are major possible causes. In the present investigation, seven patients with acute anuria, three of these seven again in the polyuric phase, six patients with moderate renal impairment, four patients with chronic renal failure, and eight subjects with normal renal function were studied by a multiple indicator-dilution method in which the total renal blood flow and renal distribution volumes of indocyanine green, [51Cr]EDTA, and 24Na were determined. In normal subjects the average values for one kidney were 582 ml/min, 42 ml, 92 ml, and 139 ml, respectively. The measurements in the patients with moderate renal impairment were similar to those in the normal subjects, but were decreased in chronic renal failure. In acute anuria, the average values were 269 ml/min, 40 ml, 101 ml, and 114 ml and the kidney volume, estimated radiographically, was increased by 40%. When expressed as milliliters per milliliters kidney, the average distribution volume of 24Na was decreased from 0.64 to 0.38. This decrease is consistent with the hypothesis that suppressed filtration is largely responsible for the anuria and that back-diffusion is, at most, a contributory factor. The apparent contradiction between the relatively well-preserved total blood flow and the suppressed filtration may be due to a combination of afferent vasoconstriction and efferent vasodilatation. This view is supported by the observation that low filtration fractions were found in clearance measurements performed during the polyuric phase. PMID:4630601

  13. High Levels of Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase and Indocyanine Green Retention Rate at 15 min as Preoperative Predictors of Tumor Recurrence in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peipei; Inagaki, Yoshinori; Wang, Zhigang; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Arita, Junichi; Tang, Wei; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the preoperative independent risk factors associated with survival and recurrence for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent hepatic resection. In total, 384 consecutive patients who underwent curative hepatic resection for single primary HCC were studied. Predictive factors associated with 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were assessed using a univariate log-rank test and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) > 100 U/L was identified as a preoperative independent risk factor affecting 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival whereas GGT > 50 U/L and indocyanine green retention 15 min (ICG-R15) > 10% were identified as preoperative independent risk factors affecting 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS. The 384 patients studied had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 72.8%, 43.3%, and 27%, respectively. Patients with GGT > 50 U/L had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 64.5%, 36.0%, and 21.7%. These patients had lower survival rates than did patients with GGT ≤ 50 U/L (P < 0.05). Patients with GGT > 50 U/L and ICG-R15 > 10% had a 1-, 3-, and 5-year RFS rate of 62.4%, 29.5%, and 14.1%, respectively. These patients had lower survival rates than did patients in the other 2 groups with different levels of GGT and ICG (P < 0.05, respectively). The same was also true for patients with a tumor < 5 cm in size. Combined information in the form of high levels of GGT and ICG-R15 is a preoperative predictor that warrants full attention when evaluating tumor recurrence postoperatively. PMID:26020384

  14. Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V.; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t1/2 of ∼20  min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t1/2 of ∼30  min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t1/2 of ∼90  min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers. PMID:24346856

  15. Quantitative cerebral perfusion assessment using microscope-integrated analysis of intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence angiography versus positron emission tomography in superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shinya; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Jun; Moroi, Junta; Suzuki, Akifumi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intraoperative qualitative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography has been used in cerebrovascular surgery. Hyperperfusion may lead to neurological complications after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate intraoperative cerebral perfusion using microscope-integrated dynamic ICG fluorescence analysis, and to assess whether this value predicts hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) after STA-MCA anastomosis. Methods: Ten patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis due to unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease were included. Ten patients with normal cerebral perfusion served as controls. The ICG transit curve from six regions of interest (ROIs) on the cortex, corresponding to ROIs on positron emission tomography (PET) study, was recorded. Maximum intensity (IMAX), cerebral blood flow index (CBFi), rise time (RT), and time to peak (TTP) were evaluated. Results: RT/TTP, but not IMAX or CBFi, could differentiate between control and study subjects. RT/TTP correlated (|r| = 0.534-0.807; P < 0.01) with mean transit time (MTT)/MTT ratio in the ipsilateral to contralateral hemisphere by PET study. Bland–Altman analysis showed a wide limit of agreement between RT and MTT and between TTP and MTT. The ratio of RT before and after bypass procedures was significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.60 ± 0.032 and 0.80 ± 0.056, respectively; P = 0.017). The ratio of TTP was also significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.64 ± 0.081 and 0.85 ± 0.095, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusions: Time-dependent intraoperative parameters from the ICG transit curve provide quantitative information regarding cerebral circulation time with quality and utility comparable to information obtained by PET. These parameters may help predict the occurrence of postoperative HPS. PMID

  16. A new LigaSure technique for the formation of segmental plane by intravenous indocyanine green fluorescence during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dejima, Hitoshi; Mizumo, Tetsuya; Sakakura, Noriaki; Sakao, Yukinori

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to present a new approach to the formation of a segmental plane by LigaSure (Covidien, Mansfield, MA, USA) with indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence system during thoracoscopic segmentectomy. Methods This was a consecutive study that compared 12 patients who underwent a new LigaSure technique (LT) for segmental plane formation during thoracoscopic anatomical segmentectomy with 38 patients who underwent conventional methods using the staple technique (ST). Eleven patients were followed up more than 3 months after discharge. Results The mean age of the patients was 66 years in the LT group and 67 years in ST. The mean duration for the formation of segmental plane and the mean number of staples was 22.8 min and 1.8 per surgery, respectively, in the LT group; and 16.2 min and 3.4 per surgery, respectively, in ST. No patient had a prolonged air leak (PAL) of more than 7 days. Minor air leak was identified early in two and was delayed in one. Two-thirds of patients with early minor air leak had low index of prolonged air leak (IPAL) score. There was no air leak in the patients with high IPAL score. Eventually, we deduced that the cause of the minor air leak was a technical problem. Conclusions In the formation of segmental plane during thoracoscopic segmentectomy, a combination of ICG fluorescence and LigaSure may be beneficial for patients. As a new operative instrument, LT constitutes, in our opinion, a feasible and easy alternative to other thoracoscopic techniques. PMID:27293839

  17. Magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ indocyanine green nanobead with magnetic field-targeting enhanced MR imaging and photothermal therapy in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Wang, Qingtang; Zhang, Da; Liao, Naishun; Wu, Lingjie; Huang, Aimin; Liu, Xiaolong

    2016-05-01

    Multifunctional nanomaterials with the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided tumor photothermal ablation ability have been extensively applied in biomedical research as one of the most exciting and challenging strategies for cancer treatment. Nevertheless, most of these nanomaterials still suffer from low accumulation in tumor tissues and insufficient photothermal ablation of tumors so far. Here, we report a novel approach to overcome these limitations using a core-shell magnetite nanocluster@poly(dopamine)-PEG@ICG nanobead compositing of magnetite nanocluster core with coating of poly(dopamine), then further conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and adsorbing indocyanine green (ICG) on the surface. The adsorbed ICG in the nanobead displays a higher photostability and photothermal conversion ability than free ICG, as well as additional photothermal effect rather than magnetite nanocluster and poly(dopamine), which endow the nanobead with enhanced photothermal killing efficiency against cancer cells under near-infrared (NIR) laser irritation. Furthermore, it is proved that these nanobeads have excellent biocompatibility, T2-weighted MR imaging and magnetic field targeting ability. By applying an external magnetic field (MF) focused on the targeted tumor, a magnetic targeting mediated enhanced accumulation is observed at tumor site as proved by a darker T2-weighted MR image. Utilizing the magnetic targeting strategy, enhanced photothermal tumor ablation was achieved under laser irradiation in vivo, which is reflected by the degree of tumor tissue damage and tumor growth delay. Therefore, this nanobead integrates the abilities of magnetic field-targeting, MR imaging and photothermal cancer therapy, and might be a promising theranostic platform for tumor treatment. PMID:26896652

  18. The ability of intra-operative perfusion mapping with laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography to predict mastectomy flap necrosis in breast reconstruction: a prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Munabi, Naikhoba C O; Olorunnipa, Olushola B; Goltsman, David; Rohde, Christine H; Ascherman, Jeffrey A

    2014-04-01

    Mastectomy skin flap ischaemia leading to necrosis is a common occurrence. Laser-assisted indocyanine green (ICG) angiography can assist to locate these poorly perfused areas intra-operatively. Our study aims to identify specific perfusion values produced by ICG angiography that accurately predict mastectomy flap necrosis. A total of 42 patients undergoing autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction had mastectomy flaps imaged using laser-assisted ICG angiography at the completion of reconstruction. Intra-operative perfusion values were correlated with postoperative skin flap outcomes. Risk factors for abnormal perfusion were recorded and analysed. A total of 62 breast reconstructions were imaged, including 48 tissue expander reconstructions, six transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flaps, six deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps and two direct-to-implant reconstructions. Eight cases (13%) of full-thickness skin necrosis were identified postoperatively. A SPY Elite(®) value of ≤ 7 accurately predicted the development of flap necrosis at 88% sensitivity and 83% specificity. False-positive cases (those with perfusion values ≤ 7 which did not develop necrosis) were more likely to have a smoking history and/or to have had an epinephrine-containing tumescent solution used during mastectomy. Excluding patients with smoking or epinephrine use, a SPY value of ≤ 7 predicted flap necrosis with a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 97%. Thus, these data suggest that laser-assisted ICG angiography predicts postoperative outcomes with high accuracy. In our series, a SPY value of ≤ 7 correlated well with mastectomy flap necrosis. Furthermore, smoking and intra-operative injections containing epinephrine should be considered when evaluating low perfusion values as they can lead to false-positive test results. PMID:24507962

  19. Biostimulative effect of 809-nm diode laser and indocyanine green on p. aeruginosa instead of photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysan, Nuray; Topaloglu, Nermin; Yuksel, Sahru; Gulsoy, Murat

    2013-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a safe and alternative antimicrobial treatment that consists of a chemical agent, called photosensitizer, which can be activated by light of an appropriate wavelength to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). PDT can be used for photoinactivation of bacteria in an attempt to overcome the problem of bacterial multidrug resistance. In particular, it is an effective antimicrobial treatment against infected wounds that have antibiotic resistance and wound infections would otherwise lead to mortality and morbidity. The main purpose of this study was to demonstrate the importance of PDT dosimetry (light dose and concentration of photosensitizer). If the dosimetry of PDT was not optimized properly, photoinactivation of bacteria cannot be achieved and even worse biostimulation on pathogens could be observed. This study investigated whether there is a biostimulative effect due to free oxygen radicals of PDT when light dose and photosensitizer concentration are too low. In this study, the biostimulative effect on P. aeruginosa strain was observed instead of the PDT effect, when 84 J/cm2 of energy dose (809-nm diode laser) was applied with 20, 50, 100 and 150 μg/ml of ICG concentrations. The killing effect of PDT was observed with higher ICG concentrations, such as 200, 250 μg/ml of ICG. However the killing effect was not enough to destroy pathogen efficiently with these high concentrations of ICG.

  20. Feasibility and optimal dosage of indocyanine green fluorescence for sentinel lymph node detection using robotic single-site instrumentation: preclinical study.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Kimberly L; Mahdi, Haider; Escobar, Pedro F

    2013-01-01

    The present study was performed to determine the optimal dosage of indocyanine green (ICG) to accurately differentiate the sentinel node from surrounding tissue and then to test this dosage using novel single-port robotic instrumentation. The study was performed in healthy female pigs. After induction of anesthesia, all pigs underwent exploratory laparotomy, dissection of the bladder, and colpotomy to reveal the cervical os. With use of a 21-gauge needle, 0.5 mL normal saline solution was injected at the 3- and 9-o'clock positions as control. Four concentrations of ICG were constituted for doses of 1000, 500, 250, and 175 μg per 0.5 mL. ICG was then injected at the 3- and 9-o'clock positions on the cervix. The SPY camera was used to track ICG into the sentinel nodes and to quantify the intensity of light emitted. SPY technology uses an intensity scale of 1 to 256; this scale was used to determine the difference in intensity between the sentinel node and surrounding tissues. The optimal dosage was tested using single-port robotic instrumentation with the same injection techniques. A sentinel node was identified at all doses except 175 μg, at which ICG stayed in the cervix and vasculature only. For both the 500- and 250-μg doses, the sentinel node was identified before reaching maximum intensity. At maximum intensity, the difference between the surrounding tissue and the node was 207 (251 vs 44) for the 500-μg dose and 159 (251 vs 92) for the 250-μg dose. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was successfully performed using single-port robotic technology with both the 250- and 500-μg doses. For SLN detection, the dose of ICG is related to the ability to differentiate the sentinel node from the surrounding tissue. An ICG dose of 250 to 500 μg enables identification of a SLN with more distinction from the surrounding tissues, and this procedure is feasible using single-port robotics instrumentation. PMID:24034538

  1. Understanding Green Purchase Behavior: College Students and Socialization Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Ruoh-Nan; Xu, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    Taking the perspective of consumer socialization theory, this study examined the influences of different socialization agents on consumers' purchases of green products. A total of 224 surveys were distributed to students enrolled in a business-related course at a major university in the northeastern United States. The objectives were twofold. The…

  2. 20 g PPV with indocyanine green-assisted ILM peeling versus 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G-assisted ILM peeling for epiretinal membrane.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, Kleanthis; Peter, Silvia; Mennel, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    To compare the anatomical and visual outcomes of 20 gauge (g) pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with indocyanine green (ICG)-assisted internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and 23 g PPV with brilliant blue G (BBG)-assisted ILM peeling for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). 38 eyes of 38 patients with idiopathic ERM were included. They were divided in two groups: group 1 (18 eyes) underwent 20 g PPV with ICG-assisted ILM peeling and group 2 (20 eyes) 23 g PPV with BBG-assisted ILM peeling. Postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT) were compared. Average BCVA in group 1 improved significantly from 0.60 logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution (log MAR) at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Average BCVA in group 2 improved significantly from 0.60 log MAR at baseline to 0.3 log MAR postoperatively. Mean CMT reduced significantly from 473 to 375 μm in group 1 and from 486 to 396 μm in group 2. There were no significant differences in the BCVA and CMT between the groups. Both surgical methods appeared to be safe and provided similar anatomical and visual outcomes. PMID:26499510

  3. Fluorescence measurement of diode (805 nm) laser-induced release of 5,6-CF from DSPC liposomes for monitoring of temperature: an in vivo study in rat liver using indocyanine green potentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Desmettre, Thomas; Devoisselle, Jean-Marie; Soulie-Begu, Sylvie

    1995-05-01

    This in-vivo study examines the validity of fluorescence measurement of laser-induced release of temperature sensitive liposome-encapsulated dye for monitoring of temperature and prediction of tissue thermal damage. It is performed in rat liver after i.v. injection of liposomes loaded with a fluorescent dye and i.v. injection of Indocyanine Green (ICG) for diode laser potentiation. Temperature sensitive liposomes (DSPC: Di- Stearoyl-Phosphatidyl-Choline) are loaded with 5,6-Carboxyfluorescein (5,6-CF). These liposomes (1.5 ml solution) and ICG (1.5 ml solution-5 mg/kg) are injected to adult male wistar rats. Two hours later, the liver is exposed and irradiated with a 0.8 W diode laser using pulses lasting from 1 s to 6 s (fluence ranging from 16 to 98 J/cm+2)). Simultaneously, the fluorescence emission is measured with a fluorescent imaging system. Results show that the fluorescence intensity increases linearly form 18 J/cm2 up to 75 J/cm2. These fluences correspond to surface temperatures between 42°C to 64°C. The measurements appear to be highly reproducible. In this temperature range, the accuracy is +/- 3°C. The maximum intensity is observed immediately after the laser is switched off and a decrease of the fluorescence intensity is observed (27% in 20 minutes) due to the 5.6-CF clearance. However, the ratio (IF/Ibck) remains almost stable over this period of time and the determination of the temperature is still possible with a good accuracy even 20 minutes after laser irradiation. In conclusion, temperature monitoring by using fluorescence measurement of laser-induced release of liposome-encapsulated dye is clearly demonstrated. This procedure could conceivably prove useful for controlling the thermal coagulation of biological tissues.

  4. The role of indocyanine green angiography imaging in further differential diagnosis of patients with nAMD who are morphologically poor responders to ranibizumab in a real-life setting.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, A; Alagoz, C; Garip, R; Alkin, Z; Perente, I; Yazici, A T; Taskapili, M

    2016-07-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) in patients who were morphologically poor responders to intravitreal ranibizumab (IVR) treatment using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) for further investigation.MethodsThis was a cross-sectional, retrospective study. The patients with an initial diagnosis of nAMD who made through the clinical examination, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescein angiography imaging, and were treated with at least three monthly IVR injections that resulted with a morphological poor response, were included. ICGA was obtained from the patients and evaluated in regard to differential diagnosis of other macular diseases, which might mimic nAMD.ResultsThe study included 132 eyes of 117 patients. The mean age was 67.4±9.4 years. After ICGA imaging, 13 eyes (9.8%) were diagnosed as true nAMD, 74 eyes (56.1%) as polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), 35 eyes (26.5%) as chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), 3 eyes (2.3%) as retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP), 3 eyes (2.3%) as choroidal neovascularization secondary to CSC, 2 eyes (1.5%) as adult-onset vitelliform macular dystrophy, and 2 eyes (1.5%) as drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment with vitelliform material, respectively. The duration between the initial diagnosis and the revised diagnosis was 15.6±10.5 months in the non-AMD group, and the mean injection number of these patients was 6.6±4.4.ConclusionsMost of the nAMD patients who were thought to be morphologically poor responders to IVR were diagnosed as having non-AMD diseases via ICGA. A detailed differential diagnostic work-up is needed before considering these patients as poor responders. PMID:27080484

  5. Preparation of tyrosinase inhibitors and antibrowning agents using green technology.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xue; Zhang, Yinan; He, Jia-Liang; Zhang, Shuang; Zeng, Mao-Mao; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Zong-Ping

    2016-04-15

    Chalcones and their derivatives have attracted great interests in recent years for their comprehensive biological activities. In this study, 2,4,2',4'-tetrahydroxychalcone and its two derivatives, 1,3,5-tris-(2,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)pentane-1,5-dione (new compound) and 7,2',4'-trihydroxyflavanone, were synthesized through one-pot green procedure catalyzed by boric acid in polyethylene glycol 400. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS and NMR spectral. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity and antibrowning test results showed that compounds 1-3 exhibited strong tyrosinase inhibitory activities and significant antibrowning effects on the fresh-cut lotus root slices at room temperature in 48 h. Among them, 0.01% 1,3,5-tris-(2,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)pentane-1,5-dione combined with 0.5% VC showed the best antibrowning ability. In brief, this study offers a protocol for one-pot green synthesis of high efficiency tyrosinase inhibitors which may be suitable as antibrowning agents for fresh-cut vegetables. More important, this study developed a new type of 1,5-dione derivative which may serve as new lead structures for novel tyrosinase inhibitors discovery. PMID:26616992

  6. Fluorescence Identification of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and High-Risk Oral Dysplasia With BLZ-100, a Chlorotoxin-Indocyanine Green Conjugate

    PubMed Central

    Baik, FM; Hansen, S; Knoblaugh, SE; Sahetya, D; Mitchell, RM; Xu, C; Olson, JM; Parrish-Novak, J; Méndez, E

    2016-01-01

    Importance Surgical cure of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains hampered by inadequately resected tumors and poor recognition of lesions with malignant potential. BLZ-100 is chlorotoxin-based tumor targeting agent which has not yet been studied in HNSCC. Objective To evaluate BLZ-100 uptake in models of HNSCC and oral dysplasia. Design Observational study (including sensitivity/specificity analysis) of BLZ-100 uptake in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of HNSCC and a carcinogen-induced dysplasia model of hamster cheek pouches. Setting Research laboratory Participants NSG mice, Golden Syrian hamsters Interventions Various HNSCC xenografts were established in the tongues of NSG mice. BLZ-100 was intravenously injected and fluorescence uptake was measured. To induce dysplasia, the carcinogen DMBA was applied to the cheek pouch of Golden Syrian hamsters for 9–16 weeks. BLZ-100 was subcutaneously injected and fluorescence uptake was measured. Main Outcomes and Measures The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of BLZ-100 was measured in tumor xenografts. To calculate the sensitivity and specificity of BLZ-100 uptake, a digital grid was placed over tissue sections and correlative histologic sections to discretely measure fluorescence intensity and presence of tumor; a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then plotted. In the hamster dysplasia model, cheeks were graded according to dysplasia severity. The SBR of BLZ-100 was compared among dysplasia grades. Results In HNSCC xenografts, BLZ-100 demonstrated an overall signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of 2.51 +/− 0.47 SD. The ROC curve demonstrated an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.889; a SBR of 2.5 corresponded to 92% sensitivity and 74% specificity. When this analysis was focused on the tumor and non-tumor interface, the AUC increased to 0.971; a SBR of 2.5 corresponded to 95% sensitivity and 91% specificity. DMBA treatment of hamster cheek pouches generated lesions representing all grades

  7. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-12-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry. PMID:27119158

  8. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-04-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry.

  9. Cariostatic effect of green tea in comparison with common anticariogenic agents: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Mina; Pakdek, Farzaneh; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rafieian, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1) normal saline; 2) a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3) 0.05% fluoride; 4) 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5) fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the experimental groups) with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light microscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in µm) of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P<0.001). Tukey test showed that although there was no significant difference in the depth of caries in groups 1 and 2 (P>0.001), they were significantlyless than those in groups 3 to 5 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between decay depth of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P>0.001). Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent. PMID:25973154

  10. Cariostatic Effect of Green Tea in Comparison with Common Anticariogenic Agents: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Pakdek, Farzaneh; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rafieian, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1) normal saline; 2) a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3) 0.05% fluoride; 4) 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5) fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the experimental groups) with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light microscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in µm) of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P<0.001). Tukey test showed that although there was no significant difference in the depth of caries in groups 1 and 2 (P>0.001), they were significantlyless than those in groups 3 to 5 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between decay depth of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P>0.001). Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent. PMID:25973154

  11. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles: Effect of Dextran Molecular Weight Used as Stabilizing-Reducing Agent.

    PubMed

    Carré-Rangel, Luceldi; Alonso-Nuñez, Gabriel; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes an easy green chemistry method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The AgNPs were obtained through the use of an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3), with dextrans aqueous solutions of different molecular weights acting as stabilizing and reducing agent, employing the chemical reduction method. We made a comparative study to determine which molecular weight dextran was the best stabilizing and reducing agent, and it was found that the molecular size of the stabilizing agent is inversely proportional to the size of the nanoparticle synthesized. The formation of the AgNPs was demonstrated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS analysis shows the formation of particles with dendritic structure. TEM shows nanoparticles which are spherical in shape and 1-10 nm in size; also, the clear lattice fringes show highly crystalline AgNPs (FCC). PMID:26682423

  12. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  13. Stabilization of green bodies via sacrificial gelling agent during electrophoretic deposition

    DOEpatents

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2016-03-22

    In one embodiment, a method for electrophoretic deposition of a three-dimensionally patterned green body includes suspending a first material in a gelling agent above a patterned electrode of an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) chamber, and gelling the suspension while applying a first electric field to the suspension to cause desired patterning of the first material in a resulting gelation. In another embodiment, a ceramic, metal, or cermet includes a plurality of layers, wherein each layer includes a gradient in composition, microstructure, and/or density in an x-y plane oriented parallel to a plane of deposition of the plurality of layers along a predetermined distance in a z-direction perpendicular to the plane of deposition.

  14. Accelerating the degradation of green plant waste with chemical decomposition agents.

    PubMed

    Kejun, Sun; Juntao, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Zongwen, Liao; Lin, Ruan; Cong, Liu

    2011-10-01

    Degradation of green plant waste is often difficult, and excess maturity times are typically required. In this study, we used lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose assays; scanning electron microscopy; infrared spectrum analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis to investigate the effects of chemical decomposition agents on the lignocellulose content of green plant waste, its structure and major functional groups and the mechanism of accelerated degradation. Our results showed that adding chemical decomposition agents to Ficus microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust reduced the contents of lignin by 0.53%-11.48% and the contents of cellulose by 2.86%-7.71%, and increased the contents of hemicellulose by 2.92%-33.63% after 24 h. With increasing quantities of alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, the lignin content decreased. Scanning electron microscopy showed that, after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, lignocellulose tube wall thickness increased significantlyIncreases of 29.41%, 3.53% and 34.71% were observed after treatment with NaOH, alkaline residue and sodium lignosulphonate, respectively. Infrared spectroscopy showed that CO and aromatic skeleton stretching absorption peaks were weakened and the C-H vibrational absorption peak from out-of-plane in positions 2 and 6 (S units) (890-900 cm(-1)) was strengthened after F. microcarpa var. pusillifolia sawdust was treated with chemical decomposition agents, indicating a reduction in lignin content. Several absorption peaks [i.e., C-H deformations (asymmetry in methyl groups, -CH(3)- and -CH(2)-) (1450-1460 cm(-1)); Aliphatic C-H stretching in methyl and phenol OH (1370-1380 cm(-1)); CO stretching (cellulose and hemicellulose) (1040-1060 cm(-1))] that indicate the presence of a chemical bond between lignin and cellulose was reduced, indicating that the chemical bond between lignin and cellulose had been partially broken. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Na

  15. Laser-induced photoacoustic tomography enhanced with an optical contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Ku, Geng; Xie, Xueyi; Wegiel, Malgorzata A.; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2004-07-01

    Optical contrast agents, such as indocyanine dyes, nano-particles and their functional derivatives, have been widely applied to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of optical imaging. However, due to the overwhelming scattering of light in biological tissues, the spatial resolution of traditional optical imaging degrades drastically as the imaging depth increases. For the first time to our knowledge, non-invasive in vivo photoacoustic imaging of an optical contrast agent, distributed in the rat brain, was implemented with near-infrared light. Injection of indocyanine green polyethylene glycol, a contrast agent with a high absorption at the 805-nm wavelength, into the circulatory system of a rat enhanced the absorption contrast between the blood vessels and the background brain tissues. Because near-infrared light can penetrate deep into the brain tissues through the skin and skull, we were able to successfully reconstruct the vascular distribution in the rat brain from the detected photoacoustic signals. The dynamic concentration of this contrast agent in the brain blood after the intravenous injection was also studied. This work proved that the distribution of an exogenous contrast agent in biological tissues can be imaged clearly and accurately by photoacoustic tomography. This new technology has high potential for application in dynamic and molecular medical imaging.

  16. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2015-04-24

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl{sub 4}.3H{sub 2}O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  17. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes as reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Foo Yiing; Periasamy, Vengadesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2015-04-01

    Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) had been developed as an alternative to chemical and physical methods due to its simplicity, cost effectiveness and eco-friendliness. The high biocompatibility and biostability features of AuNPs have found importance in biomedical applications in recent years. In this study, aqueous ethanol extract of Curcuma mangga rhizomes which acts as reducing and stabilizing agent was used to synthesize stable AuNPs by bioreduction of chloroauric acid. The formation of AuNPs was highlighted by the color change of the suspension from light yellow to reddish purple. Time-evolution was monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy, while surface plasmon (SP) absorption band of the AuNPs suspension was observed at a maximum absorption of 540 nm. Hydrodynamic radii and size distribution of the AuNPs in the suspension were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement demonstrated negative surface charge. The particle size was calculated in the range of 2-30 nm using High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The morphology and elemental composition were further determined by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy meanwhile was used to confirm the presence of AuNPs and functional groups involved in the gold bio-reduction process. Influence of the volume of extract and concentration of gold (III) chloride trihydrate (HAuCl4.3H2O) on the synthesis of AuNPs were also investigated. The results obtained indicate potential optimization and functionalization of AuNPs for future applications in bionanotechnology especially in the field of medicine.

  18. Virus-mimicking nano-constructs as a contrast agent for near infrared photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sharad; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Wang, Lihong V.; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-02-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of photoacoustic imaging using a contrast agent composed of a plant virus protein shell, which encapsulates indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near infrared chromophore. These nano-constructs can provide higher photoacoustic signals than blood in tissue phantoms, and display superior photostability compared to non-encapsulated ICG. Our preliminary results suggest that the constructs do not elicit an acute immunogenic response in healthy mice.We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of photoacoustic imaging using a contrast agent composed of a plant virus protein shell, which encapsulates indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near infrared chromophore. These nano-constructs can provide higher photoacoustic signals than blood in tissue phantoms, and display superior photostability compared to non-encapsulated ICG. Our preliminary results suggest that the constructs do not elicit an acute immunogenic response in healthy mice. Electronic supplemental information (ESI) available: Information on experimental procedure for fabrication of the nano-constructs, photoacoustic imaging, and immunogenic studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34124k

  19. Study of anti-angiogenic drugs by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of a contrast agent in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, G.; D'Andrea, C.; Ferrari, R.; Pifferi, A.; Cubeddu, R.; Caronia, D.; Martinelli, M.; Giavazzi, R.

    2007-07-01

    We used two fluorescence techniques based on the Indocyanine Green contrast agent to study the effectiveness of antiangionenic drugs in mice. To this purpose, the volume of the active vasculature in different tumor models implanted in mice was assessed by means of a low noise fluorescence imaging setup and by a photon counting system working in transmittance geometry. Using a first tumor model (carcinoma MDA-MB-435) we observed that mice treated with a Vascular Disrupting Agent (ZD6126) showed a reduction in fluorescence emission of the contrast agent with respect to control mice. This was a clear indication of the vascular shutdown that took place in tumors. The effectiveness of the treatment was also confirmed by histological sections. Then, in a second experiment we considered a second tumor model (carcinoma 1A9-VS1) overexpressing the Vascular Endotelial Growth Factor (VEGF121), which is used by tumor cells to promote angiogenesis. We measured the Indocyanine Green fluorescence in mice treated with an antioangiogenic drug (Avastin TM) and in control mice. In tumors of treated mice we observed an ICG emission lower than the one detected in control mice. This demonstrated that VEGF activity was effectively blocked by the treatment with Avastin. In conclusion, ICG fluorescence provides a simple and reliable way to assess the effectiveness of vascular targeting therapies. Measurements of the fluorescence signal can be repeated every 24 hours, thus allowing oncologists to perform longitudinal studies on the same animals.

  20. Green synthesis of biogenic metal nanoparticles by terrestrial and aquatic phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Kannan Badri; Sakthivel, Natarajan

    2011-12-12

    The size, shape and controlled dispersity of nanoparticles play a vital role in determining the physical, chemical, optical and electronic properties attributing its applications in environmental, biotechnological and biomedical fields. Various physical and chemical processes have been exploited in the synthesis of several inorganic metal nanoparticles by wet and dry approaches viz., ultraviolet irradiation, aerosol technologies, lithography, laser ablation, ultrasonic fields, and photochemical reduction techniques. However, these methodologies remain expensive and involve the use of hazardous chemicals. Therefore, there is a growing concern for the development of alternative environment friendly and sustainable methods. Increasing awareness towards green chemistry and biological processes has led to a necessity to develop simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly procedures. Phototrophic eukaryotes such as plants, algae, and diatoms and heterotrophic human cell lines and some biocompatible agents have been reported to synthesize greener nanoparticles like cobalt, copper, silver, gold, bimetallic alloys, silica, palladium, platinum, iridium, magnetite and quantum dots. Owing to the diversity and sustainability, the use of phototrophic and heterotrophic eukaryotes and biocompatible agents for the synthesis of nanomaterials is yet to be fully explored. This review describes the recent advancements in the green synthesis and applications of metal nanoparticles by plants, aquatic autotrophs, human cell lines, biocompatible agents and biomolecules. PMID:21981929

  1. Simple and rapid green synthesis of micrometer scale single crystalline gold nanoplates using chitosan as the reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Saji; Tian, Kun; Teng, Shiang; Siegel, Gene; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2014-11-01

    A simple, rapid and green chemical method for the synthesis of single crystalline gold nanoplates of several micrometeres in size has been demonstrated. The synthesis involved the reduction of HAuCl4 in aqueous solution using low molecular weight chitosan at boiling temperature for 25 min. The [Au3+]:[chitosan] molar ratio plays an important role in the formation of gold nanoplates and found that an optimized molar ratio in the range of 80 to 125 was suitable for the formation of nanoplates. The size and morphology of the nanoplates can be tuned by adjusting the molar ratio. In this process, the chitosan functions both as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent and no other special agents were added to induce the nanoplate formation. The obtained nanoplates were single crystals with (1 1 1) planes as the basal planes with shapes of hexagonal, triangular, or truncated triangular plates.

  2. A novel use of near-infrared fluorescence imaging during robotic surgery without contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hockenberry, Mark S; Smith, Zachary L; Mucksavage, Phillip

    2014-05-01

    We describe a novel use of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging without contrast agents, like indocyanine green, to identify otherwise obscured intraluminal areas of interest during robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) surgery marked by the white light (WL) of endoscopic instruments. By filtering light wavelengths below near-infrared, NIRF imaging causes the WL of the endoscopes to illuminate green while allowing simultaneous vision of the surrounding tissues. With this visualization, intraoperative ureteroscopy was used to identify the extent of a ureteral stricture in a patient undergoing RAL partial ureterectomy. Cystoscopy was used to identify bladder diverticula and tumor locations in three patients undergoing RAL partial cystectomy with or without diverticulectomy and the ureteral orifice in another patient undergoing RAL nephroureterectomy. This technique enabled more precise identification of important areas and successful completion of RAL surgery in these five patients, which serves as proof of concept for broader applications in RAL surgery. PMID:24354630

  3. Influence of bulking agents on physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage composting of green waste.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-02-01

    A recyclable organic bulking agent (BA) that can be screened and was developed to optimize green waste (GW) composting. This study investigated the use of wood chips (WC) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) and/or composted green waste (CGW) (at 0%, 25%, and 35%) as the BAs in the two-stage composting of GW. The combined addition of WC and CGW improved the conditions of composting process and the quality of compost product in terms of composting temperature, porosity, water retention, particle-size distribution, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), nitrogen losses, humification indices, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, macro- and micro-nutrient contents, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The compost matured in only 22days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90-270days typically required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting process and the best quality of compost product were obtained with the combined addition of 15% WC and 35% CGW. PMID:26644164

  4. Irradiated chitosan nanoparticle as a water-based antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanoplatforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasanphan, Wanvimol; Rattanawongwiboon, Thitirat; Choofong, Surakarn; Güven, Olgun; Katti, Kattesh K.

    2015-01-01

    The idea of preparing water-soluble chitosan and observing its nanostructural morphology are proposed using irradiation process. The water-soluble chitosan nanoparticles (WSCS-NPs) properties were assessed for a possible use as an antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The characteristics of WSCS-NPs were verified using FT-IR, XRD, C H N analyzer and TGA. The nanostructural morphology was investigated using SEM and TEM. The number average molecular weight of WSCS-NPs was as low as 3800 g/mol with narrow polydispersity of 1.26. The average hydrodynamic diameter of WSCS-NPs was 15.40±0.47 nm. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of WSCS-NPs at 0.1 mg/mL was up to 80%, while the original CS exhibited no antioxidant activity. An effective concentration of WSCS-NPs to reduce DPPH free radicals (150 μM) by 50% is as low as 0.025 mg/mL. The in vitro cytotoxicity test by MTT assay demonstrated that WSCS-NPs are non-toxic with an IC50 of 2000 μg/mL. The WSCS-NPs are efficient reducing and stabilizing agent for producing stable colloidal AuNPs. The achievement of the WSCS-NPs and its ability to create AuNPs would be a part of growing interest of green nanotechnology in biomedicine.

  5. Targeting tumor hypoxia: a third generation 2-nitroimidazole-indocyanine dye-conjugate with improved fluorescent yield.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Feifei; Zanganeh, Saeid; Mohammad, Innus; Dietz, Christopher; Abuteen, Akram; Smith, Michael B; Zhu, Quing

    2015-12-14

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with the rapid proliferation and growth of malignant tumors, and the ability to detect tumor hypoxia is important for predicting tumor response to anti-cancer treatments. We have developed a class of dye-conjugates that are related to indocyanine green (ICG, ) to target tumor hypoxia, based on in vivo infrared fluorescence imaging using nitroimidazole moieties linked to indocyanine fluorescent dyes. We previously reported that linking 2-nitroimidazole to an indocyanine dicarboxylic acid dye derivative () using an ethanolamine linker (ethanolamine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG, ), led to a dye-conjugate that gave promising results for targeting cancer hypoxia in vivo. Structural modification of the dye conjugate replaced the ethanolamine unit with a piperazineacetyl unit and led a second generation dye conjugate, piperzine-2-nitroimidazole-ICG (). This second generation dye-conjugate showed improved targeting of tumor hypoxia when compared with . Based on the hypothesis that molecules with more planar and rigid structures have a higher fluorescence yield, as they could release less absorbed energy through molecular vibration or collision, we have developed a new 2-nitroimidazole ICG conjugate, , with two carbon atoms less in the polyene linker. Dye-conjugate was prepared from our new dye (), and coupled to 2-nitroimidazole using a piperazine linker to produce this third-generation dye-conjugate. Spectral measurements showed that the absorption/emission wavelengths of 657/670 were shifted ∼100 nm from the second-generation hypoxia dye of 755/780 nm. Its fluorescence quantum yield was measured to be 0.467, which is about 5 times higher than that of (0.083). In vivo experiments were conducted with balb/c mice and showed more than twice the average in vivo fluorescence intensity in the tumor beyond two hours post retro-orbital injection as compared with . These initial results suggest that may significantly improve in vivo tumor hypoxia targeting

  6. Application of glucose as a green capping agent and reductant to fabricate CuI micro/nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Tavakoli, Farnosh; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Ghanbari, Davood; Saberyan, Kamal; Hosseinpour-Mashkani, S. Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • CuI nanostructures were prepared via a simple precipitation method. • Glucose as a green capping agent and reductant was applied. • The effect of glucose concentration on the morphology of CuI was investigated. • According to XRD results, pure cubic phase CuI have been formed by using glucose. - Abstract: In this work, CuI micro/nanostructures have been successfully prepared via a simple precipitation route at room temperature. By using glucose as a clean reducing agent with different concentrations, CuI micro/nanostructures with various morphologies were obtained. Besides glucose, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}, KBH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}H{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O have been applied as reductant. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence spectroscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced CuI micro/nanostructures. According to the XRD results, it was found that pure cubic phase CuI have been formed by using glucose.

  7. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  8. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  9. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles as antibacterial agent using Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.; Chorachoo, Julalak; Jaiswal, Lily; Shankar, Shiv

    2013-12-01

    The capability of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa acetone extract (RAE) for the production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been explored for the first time. Silver nanoparticles with a surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm were synthesized by reacting RAE with AgNO3. Reaction time, temperature, concentration of AgNO3 and RAE could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size. The nanoparticles were found to be 10-30 nm in size and spherical in shape. XRD data demonstrated crystalline nature of AgNPs dominated by (200) facets. FTIR results showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching with the formation of AgNPs with RAE, respectively. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the nanoparticles. High negative zeta potential values confirmed the stability of AgNPs in water. In vitro antibacterial activity of AgNPs was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using broth microdilution method. AgNPs capped with RAE demonstrated profound antibacterial activity against the organisms with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration in the range between 3.1-6.2 and 6.2-50 μgmL-1, respectively. The synthesized nanoparticles could be applied as an effective antimicrobial agent against staphylococcal infections.

  10. Crystalline Silver Nanoparticles by Using Polygala tenuifolia Root Extract as a Green Reducing Agent.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sang Hui; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Jinwoong; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2015-02-01

    Due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have found interest as a new category of antibacterial agents. The toxicity of the chemicals involved in the commonly employed chemical methods for synthesizing AgNPs present limitations for subsequent pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. In this report, 70% aqueous ethanol extracts of Polygala tenuifolia root were used to reduce Ag+1 ions for AgNPs synthesis. The as-synthesized AgNPs were characterized via UV-Visible spectrophotometry, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A strong surface plasmon resonance band was observed at 414 nm. Images from the high resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated the spherical and irregular shapes of the AgNPs were synthesized. The AgNP crystalline structure was confirmed by the strong diffraction peaks in the X-ray diffraction results and by the bright circular spots observed in selected-area electron diffraction, whose average diameter was measured to be 17.97 8.63 nm or 15.12 nm via high resolution transmission electron microscopy images or X-ray diffraction analysis, respectively. The as-synthesized AgNPs exerted the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli among the tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The current method is eco-friendly, straightforward, cost-effective, biocompatible, and easily scaled up to produce of AgNPs for applications in the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:26353692

  11. Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold.

    PubMed

    Zamani, M; Sharifi Tehrani, A; Ali Abadi, A Alizadeh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by edible salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agent. For this purpose toxicity to Pantoea digitatum and practical use of sodium carbonate (SC), sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and potassium carbonate, and potassium bicarbonate alone or in combination with antagonistic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, Bacillus subtilis isolate VHN, Pantoea agglomerans isolate CA) to control green mold were determined. All were fungistatic. SC and SBC were equal and superior to the other salts for control of green mold on oranges inoculated 6h before treatment and were chosen for subsequent trails under cold storage conditions. The biocontrol agents were found completely tolerant to 3% sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate at room temperature; although their culturability was reduced by > 1000-fold after 60 min in 1% other salt solutions. Satisfactory results were also obtained with the combined treatment for control of green mold. A significant increase in biocontrol activity of all isolate was observed when combined with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. The treatments comprising CA combined with SB was as effective as fungicide treatment. Thus, use of sodium bicarbonate treatment at 3% followed by the antagonist P. agglomerans CA could be an alternative to chemical fungicides for control of green mold on oranges. PMID:18396809

  12. Effective Phages as Green Antimicrobial Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Hospital Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Rana; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Sheikhzadeh, Farzam; Aghamohammadzadeh, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bacteriophages are viruses that attack bacteria and lead to their lysis in an efficient and highly specific manner. These natural enemies of bacteria were used as therapeutic agents before the advent of antibiotics. Currently, with the rapid spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria, phage therapy can be an effective alternative treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria. Objectives: This study evaluated the effectiveness of bacteriophages in removing antibiotic-resistant clinical Escherichia coli strains in vitro and in vivo. Patients and Methods: Different samples were taken from bed sore and foot ulcers of patients with diabetes. E. coli strains were isolated and identified by standard methods. The antibiogram was ascertained using the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method for ten antibiotics. The bacteriophages were isolated from environmental water samples. They were exposed to the host bacteria by the double-layer agar technique (DLA) to observe plaques. Cross reaction of the phages on test E. coli strains was performed to determine broader-spectrum phages. Phage TPR7 was selected for animal trials. Five groups of mice including a control group, bacterial group, phage group, antibiotic therapy group and phage therapy group, were examined. Results: Ten E. coli strains were isolated from hospital samples. They showed high resistance to the used antibiotics. An effective bacteriophage was isolated for each strain. The cross-reaction showed phages which affect more than six E. coli strains. They can be a good choice for clinical therapeutic use. In animal trials the group challenged with phages after being infected showed similar results as the group treated with gentamicin after being infected. In both groups infection was removed after 48 hours. Conclusions: According to the results, six strains were resistant to six or seven antibiotics and all strains were at least resistant to two antibiotics. However, for each of these resistant bacteria one

  13. Multi-channel LED light source for fluorescent agent aided minimally invasive surgery.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiacheng; Venugopalan, Janani; Xu, Jian; Kairdolf, Brad; Durfee, Robert; Wang, May D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common and deadly diseases around the world. Amongst all the different treatments of cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, surgical resection is the most effective. Successful surgeries greatly rely on the detection of the accurate tumor size and location, which can be enhanced by contrast agents. Commercial endoscope light sources, however, offer only white light illumination. In this paper, we present the development of a LED endoscope light source that provides 2 light channels plus white light to help surgeons to detect a clear tumor margin during minimally invasive surgeries. By exciting indocyanine green (ICG) and 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), the light source is intended to give the user a visible image of the tumor margin. This light source is also portable, easy to use and costs less than $300 to build. PMID:25571589

  14. Multi-Channel LED Light Source for Fluorescent Agent Aided Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiacheng; Venugopalan, Janani; Xu, Jian; Kairdolf, Brad; Durfee, Robert; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common and deadly diseases around the world. Amongst all the different treatments of cancer such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy, surgical resection is the most effective. Successful surgeries greatly rely on the detection of the accurate tumor size and location, which can be enhanced by contrast agents. Commercial endoscope light sources, however, offer only white light illumination. In this paper, we present the development of a LED endoscope light source that provides 2 light channels plus white light to help surgeons to detect a clear tumor margin during minimally invasive surgeries. By exciting indocyanine green (ICG) and 5-Aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), the light source is intended to give the user a visible image of the tumor margin. This light source is also portable, easy to use and costs less than $300 to build. PMID:25571589

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Raman, Jegadeesh; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd; John, Priscilla A; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam

    2013-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. AgNPs have been used as antimicrobial and disinfectant agents due their detrimental effect on target cells. The aim of our study was to determine the cytotoxic effects of biologically synthesized AgNPs using hot aqueous extracts of the mycelia of Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Methods We developed a green method for the synthesis of water-soluble AgNPs by treating silver ions with hot aqueous extract of the mycelia of G. neo-japonicum. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, the toxicity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using a series of assays: such as cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase leakage, reactive oxygen species generation, caspase 3, DNA laddering, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Results The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results showed a strong resonance centered on the surface of AgNPs at 420 nm. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the synthesized AgNPs were single-crystalline, corresponding with the result of transmission electron microscopy. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells with various concentrations of AgNPs (1–10 μg/mL) for 24 hours revealed that AgNPs could inhibit cell viability and induce membrane leakage in a dose-dependent manner. Cells exposed to AgNPs showed increased reactive oxygen species and hydroxyl radical production. Furthermore, the apoptotic effects of AgNPs were confirmed by activation of caspase 3 and DNA nuclear fragmentation. Conclusion The results indicate that AgNPs possess cytotoxic effects with apoptotic features and suggest that the reactive oxygen species generated by

  16. Intraoperative imaging using intravascular contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Jeffrey R.; Martirosyan, Nikolay; Garland, Summer; Lemole, G. Michael; Romanowski, Marek

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) contrast agents are becoming more frequently studied in medical imaging due to their advantageous characteristics, most notably the ability to capture near-infrared signal across the tissue and the safety of the technique. This produces a need for imaging technology that can be specific for both the NIR dye and medical application. Indocyanine green (ICG) is currently the primary NIR dye used in neurosurgery. Here we report on using the augmented microscope we described previously for image guidance in a rat glioma resection. Luc-C6 cells were implanted in a rat in the left-frontal lobe and grown for 22 days. Surgical resection was performed by a neurosurgeon using augmented microscopy guidance with ICG contrast. Videos and images were acquired to evaluate image quality and resection margins. ICG accumulated in the tumor tissue due to enhanced permeation and retention from the compromised bloodbrain- barrier. The augmented microscope was capable of guiding the rat glioma resection and intraoperatively highlighted tumor tissue regions via ICG fluorescence under normal illumination of the surgical field.

  17. Characterization of the effects of heat stress on the DNA-intercalating dye EvaGreen for potential use with the joint biological agent identification and diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Nowadly, Craig D; David, Jason W; Grogger, Melanie L M; Demkowicz, Erik R; Atchley, Daniel H; Veverka, Donald V

    2014-06-01

    Although advances in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and equipment have facilitated field research, only a limited selection of reagents do not require cold storage. This study explored the temperature stability of the commercially available DNA-intercalating dye EvaGreen after exposure to a spectrum of temperatures for 176 days by analyzing quantification cycle (Cq) and end fluorescence levels during amplification of the invA gene of Salmonella typhimurium. To further characterize potential dye stability, the effects of small differences in dye volume were examined and dye samples were subjected to an Air Force deployment to the Middle East. Significant differences in Cq and end fluorescence were found; however, the magnitude of mean Cq differences was less than one cycle and the magnitude of mean fluorescence differences was less than that attributable to a difference of 0.25 μL of dye per 25 μL reaction. Liquid EvaGreen dye may thus be stable at temperatures as high as 65°C for up to 6 months for use in real-time PCR. These results warrant further investigation by using liquid EvaGreen dye to adapt traditional lab-based real-time PCR assays for Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System use and testing the assays in the field. PMID:24902129

  18. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method. PMID:27198855

  19. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-05-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method.

  20. Reducing-Agent-Free Instant Synthesis of Carbon-Supported Pd Catalysts in a Green Leidenfrost Droplet Reactor and Catalytic Activity in Formic Acid Dehydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Wook; Jin, Min-Ho; Lee, Young-Joo; Park, Ju-Hyoung; Lee, Chun-Boo; Park, Jong-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The development of green synthesis methods for supported noble metal catalysts remains important challenges to improve their sustainability. Here we first synthesized carbon-supported Pd catalysts in a green Leidenfrost droplet reactor without reducing agents, high-temperature calcination and reduction procedures. When the aqueous solution containing Pd nitrate precursor, carbon support, and water is dripped on a hot plate, vapor layer is formed between a solution droplet and hot surface, which allow the solution droplet to be levitated on the hot surface (Leidenfrost phenomena). Subsequently, Pd nanoparticles can be prepared without reducing agents in a weakly basic droplet reactor created by the Leidenfrost phenomena, and then the as-prepared Pd nanoparticles are loaded on carbon supports during boiling down the droplet on hot surface. Compared to conventional incipient wetness and chemical synthetic methods, the Leidenfrost droplet reactor does not need energy-consuming, time-consuming, and environmentally unfriendly procedures, which leads to much shorter synthesis time, lower carbon dioxide emission, and more ecofriendly process in comparison with conventional synthesis methods. Moreover, the catalysts synthesized in the Leidenfrost droplet reactor provided much better catalytic activity for room-temperature formic acid decomposition than those prepared by the incipient wetness method. PMID:27198855

  1. Hypoxia targeted carbon nanotubes as a sensitive contrast agent for photoacoustic imaging of tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Aguirre, Andres; Biswal, Nrusingh C.; Pavlik, Christopher; Smith, Michael B.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Zhu, Quing

    2011-03-01

    Development of new and efficient contrast agents is of fundamental importance to improve detection sensitivity of smaller lesions. Within the family of nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes (CNT) not only have emerged as a new alternative and efficient transporter and translocater of therapeutic molecules but also as a photoacoustic molecular imaging agent owing to its strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region. Drugs, Antibodies and nucleic acids could functionalize the CNT and prepare an appropriate system for delivering the cargos to cells and organs. In this work, we present a novel photoacoustic contrast agent which is based on a unique hypoxic marker in the near infrared region, 2-nitroimidazole -bis carboxylic acid derivative of Indocyanine Green conjugated to single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-2nitroimidazole-ICG). The 2-nitroimidazole-ICG has an absorption peak at 755 nm and an extinction coefficient of 20,5222 M-1cm-1. The conjugation of this marker with SWCNT shows more than 25 times enhancement of optical absorption of carbon nanotubes in the near infrared region. This new conjugate has been optically evaluated and shows promising results for high contrast photoacoustic imaging of deeply located tumors. The conjugate specifically targets tumor hypoxia, an important indicator of tumor metabolism and tumor therapeutic response. The detection sensitivity of the new contrast agent has been evaluated in-vitro cell lines and with in-vivo tumors in mice.

  2. Construction and characterization of stable, constitutively expressed, chromosomal green and red fluorescent transcriptional fusions in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shengchang; Bangar, Hansraj; Saldanha, Roland; Pemberton, Adin; Aronow, Bruce; Dean, Gary E; Lamkin, Thomas J; Hassett, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Here, we constructed stable, chromosomal, constitutively expressed, green and red fluorescent protein (GFP and RFP) as reporters in the select agents, Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Using bioinformatic approaches and other experimental analyses, we identified P0253 and P1 as potent promoters that drive the optimal expression of fluorescent reporters in single copy in B. anthracis and Burkholderia spp. as well as their surrogate strains, respectively. In comparison, Y. pestis and its surrogate strain need two chromosomal copies of cysZK promoter (P2cysZK) for optimal fluorescence. The P0253-, P2cysZK-, and P1-driven GFP and RFP fusions were first cloned into the vectors pRP1028, pUC18R6KT-mini-Tn7T-Km, pmini-Tn7-gat, or their derivatives. The resultant constructs were delivered into the respective surrogates and subsequently into the select agent strains. The chromosomal GFP- and RFP-tagged strains exhibited bright fluorescence at an exposure time of less than 200 msec and displayed the same virulence traits as their wild-type parental strains. The utility of the tagged strains was proven by the macrophage infection assays and lactate dehydrogenase release analysis. Such strains will be extremely useful in high-throughput screens for novel compounds that could either kill these organisms, or interfere with critical virulence processes in these important bioweapon agents and during infection of alveolar macrophages. PMID:25044501

  3. A comparative study of the effect of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins as stabilizing agents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a green chemistry method.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Cerda, Javier; Nuñez, Gabriel Alonso; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Flores-López, Lucía Z

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the effect of different types of cyclodextrins (CDs) in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs), using an easy green chemistry method. The Ag-NPs were obtained using an aqueous silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) with α-, β-, or γ-CDs (aqueous solutions) as stabilizing agents, employing the chemical reduction method with citric acid as a reducing agent. A comparative study was done to determine which cyclodextrin (CD) was the best stabilizing agent, and we found out that β-CD was the best due to the number of glucopyranose units in its structure. The formation of the Ag-NPs was demonstrated by analysis of UV-vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM-EDS showed the formation of a cluster with a significant amount of silver, for β-CD-Ag-NPs, spherical agglomerates can be observed. However, for α-, γ-CD, the agglomerates do not have a specific form, but their appearance is porous. TEM analysis shows spherical nanoparticles in shape and size between ~0.5 to 7 nm. The clear lattice fringes in TEM images and the typical selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern, showed that the Ag-NPs obtained were highly crystalline with a face cubic center structure (FCC). PMID:25175183

  4. Green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles employing levan, a biopolymer from Acetobacter xylinum NCIM 2526, as a reducing agent and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Khan Behlol Ayaz; Kalla, Divya; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu; Anbazhagan, Veerappan

    2014-11-01

    With a vision of finding greener materials to synthesize nanoparticles, we report the production and isolation of levan, a polysaccharide with repeating units of fructose, from Acetobacter xylinum NCIM2526. The isolated levan were characterized using potassium ferricyanide reducing power assay, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H NMR). To exploit levan in nanotechnology, we present a simple and greener method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using biopolymer, levan as both reducing and stabilizing agents. The morphology and stability of the AgNPs and AuNPs were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis absorption (UV-vis) spectroscopy. The possible capping mechanism of the nanoparticles was postulated using FTIR studies. As synthesized biogenic nanoparticles showed excellent catalytic activity as evidenced from sodium borohydride mediated reduction of 4-nitro phenol and methylene blue. PMID:25129779

  5. Targeted Delivery of Chemotherapeutic Agents Using Improved Radiosensitive Liquid Core Microcapsules and Assessment of Their Antitumor Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Satoshi Ehara, Shigeru; Ishii, Keizo; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Sato, Takahiro; Oikawa, Shyoichi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Arakawa, Kazuo; Yokota, Wataru; Sera, Koichiro; Ito, Jyun

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-sensitive microcapsules composed of alginate and hyaluronic acid are being developed. We report the development of improved microcapsules that were prepared using calcium- and yttrium-induced polymerization. We previously reported on the combined antitumor effect of carboplatin-containing microcapsules and radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We mixed a 0.1% (wt/vol) solution of hyaluronic acid with a 0.2% alginate solution. Carboplatin (l mg) and indocyanine green (12.5 {mu}g) were added to this mixture, and the resultant material was used for capsule preparation. The capsules were prepared by spraying the material into a mixture containing a 4.34% CaCl{sub 2} solution supplemented with 0-0.01% yttrium. These capsules were irradiated with single doses of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2 Gy {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. Immediately after irradiation, the frequency of microcapsule decomposition was determined using a microparticle-induced X-ray emission camera. The amount of core content released was estimated by particle-induced X-ray emission and colorimetric analysis with 0.25% indocyanine green. The antitumor effect of the combined therapy was determined by monitoring its effects on the diameter of an inoculated Meth A fibrosarcoma. Results: Microcapsules that had been polymerized using a 4.34% CaCl{sub 2} solution supplemented with 5.0 x 10{sup -3}% (10{sup -3}% meant or 10%{sup -3}) yttrium exhibited the maximal decomposition, and the optimal release of core content occurred after 2-Gy irradiation. The microcapsules exhibited a synergistic antitumor effect combined with 2-Gy irradiation and were associated with reduced adverse effects. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that our liquid core microcapsules can be used in radiotherapy for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents.

  6. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Bashir, S; Khan, B M; Babar, M; Andleeb, S; Hafeez, M; Ali, S; Khan, M F

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  7. In situ green synthesis of silver-graphene oxide nanocomposites by using tryptophan as a reducing and stabilizing agent and their application in SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Biwen; Liu, Zhiming; Guo, Zhouyi; Zhang, Wen; Wan, Mingming; Qin, Xiaochu; Zhong, Huiqing

    2014-10-01

    Silver-graphene oxide (Ag-GO) nanocomposites were in situ fabricated rapidly through a green one-pot method by using tryptophan (Trp) as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The morphologies of synthesized Ag-GO nanocomposites were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and micro-Raman system. The results indicated silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with spherical size were well dispersed on the surface of graphene oxide (GO). The role of pH has been explored to obtain optimum reaction conditions during the growth process. Raman signals of GO were greatly enhanced after Ag NPs loaded on its surface. More importantly, the synthesized Ag-GO nanocomposites exhibited excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity as SERS substrates to detect crystal violet (CV) in aqueous solution, and the enhancement factor (EF) from the intensity of the vibrational mode at 1621 cm-1 was calculated to be 1.6 × 105.

  8. Assessment of Bioautography and Spot Screening of TLC of Green Tea (Camellia) Plant Extracts as Antibacterial and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Khan, B. M.; Babar, M.; Andleeb, S.; Hafeez, M.; Ali, S.; Khan, M. F.

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out as a prerequisite to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Camellia varieties. The crude extracts of six different plants of green tea Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis were tested against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacteria using agar disk diffusion method at 50 mg/ml concentration. 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and diphenyl-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium free radical scavenging methods were performed to evaluate the antioxidant potential. Phytochemical constituents and trace metals were detected through thin layer chromatography and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrophotometer, respectively. The maximum inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus was recorded by dimethyl sulphoxide extracts of green tea varieties. The measured zone of inhibition of dimethyl sulphoxide extracts by Qimen was (10.00±0.0 mm), Japanese (10.00±0.0 mm), Turkish (10.00±0.0 mm), Indonesian (8.33±1.0 mm), P3 clone (10.00±0.0 mm) and Sri Lankan (10.00±0.0 mm). Maximum scavenging potential activity was found with ethanol, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide extracts. Spot screening of TLC-developed plates indicated that the presence of active biological compounds such as flavonoids, proteins, phenols, alkaloids and glycosides also exhibited strong activity against tested bacterial strains. This study reveals the potential biological activities of Camellia assamica and Camellia sinensis having massive phytochemical constituents and trace elements. PMID:25284935

  9. Fabrication of a light-emitting shape memory polymeric web containing indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Torbati, Amir H; Mather, Ryan T; Reeder, Jay E; Mather, Patrick T

    2014-08-01

    Dye-containing polymers are highly desired for a number of commercially and medically relevant applications, such as sensors, medical devices, and drug delivery. In particular, dyes that emit light in the NIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum are of great interest due to the window of transparency for mammalian soft tissue in this range. While the incorporation of dyes into polymeric hosts by diffusion is a method that has been widely used, this approach is problematic in that it lacks uniformity and control over the incorporation. Here, we sought to develop NIR-emitting polymeric materials with high fluorescence intensity, addressing the problem of uniformity by incorporating the dye in a polymer host using dissolution in a mutual solvent and subsequent electrospinning into a fibrous web. This web could be prepared as a free-standing film, a coating or, as we will show, a shrink-wrap medical device label. The primary findings of this study were that an optimal concentration of dye in the polymer host exists, that the fluorescence intensity for fibrous webs greatly exceed that of comparable cast films, and that the dye-containing webs feature water-triggered contraction of use for application to medical devices, such as feeding tubes or catheters. PMID:24449265

  10. Fluorescent property of indocyanine green (ICG) rubber ring using LED and laser light sources.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nha Young; Kim, Hong Rae; Lee, Hyun Min; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2016-05-01

    Fluorescent properties of ICG depends on solvent. Fluorescent characteristics of ICG rubber rings and optimized detection system condition were identified. The fluorescent rubber rings are produced by drying mixture of ICG solution and liquid rubber. LED and laser light sources were used to test differences between them. Other variables are ICG molar concentration (100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10μM), excitation light spectrum (740, 760, 785nm) and angle of view (0~80°). We observed that ICG ring emitted fluorescence at longer wavelength than in blood and aqueous state. Observation angle between 0 and 50 provided similar brightness of images, while others are significantly less luminous. Excitation light between 740~760nm ensured non-overlapping spectrums of excitation light and fluorescence emission. PMID:27280060

  11. Fluorescent property of indocyanine green (ICG) rubber ring using LED and laser light sources

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Nha Young; Kim, Hong Rae; Lee, Hyun Min; Sohn, Dae Kyung; Kim, Kwang Gi

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescent properties of ICG depends on solvent. Fluorescent characteristics of ICG rubber rings and optimized detection system condition were identified. The fluorescent rubber rings are produced by drying mixture of ICG solution and liquid rubber. LED and laser light sources were used to test differences between them. Other variables are ICG molar concentration (100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10μM), excitation light spectrum (740, 760, 785nm) and angle of view (0~80°). We observed that ICG ring emitted fluorescence at longer wavelength than in blood and aqueous state. Observation angle between 0 and 50 provided similar brightness of images, while others are significantly less luminous. Excitation light between 740~760nm ensured non-overlapping spectrums of excitation light and fluorescence emission. PMID:27280060

  12. Indocyanine green: A test of hepatic function and a measure of plasma volume in the duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    1. 1. The exponential removal of ICG from the plasma by the mallard duck liver made possible the measurement of fractional dye clearance (K), plasma volume (PV) and plasma clearance (PC). 2. 2. Values obtained for K (14.9%/min), PV (39.2 ml/kg) and PC (5.8 ml/min per kg) agreed with those obtained by other techniques used in a number of species. 3. 3. Sex did not affect the removal of ICG by the liver. However, increases in K, PV and PC were noted in hen mallards in laying condition. 4. 4. The data should prove useful as baseline values for physiological and pathological studies on the avian liver

  13. Neurosurgical confocal endomicroscopy: A review of contrast agents, confocal systems, and future imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    Zehri, Aqib H.; Ramey, Wyatt; Georges, Joseph F.; Mooney, Michael A.; Martirosyan, Nikolay L.; Preul, Mark C.; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background: The clinical application of fluorescent contrast agents (fluorescein, indocyanine green, and aminolevulinic acid) with intraoperative microscopy has led to advances in intraoperative brain tumor imaging. Their properties, mechanism of action, history of use, and safety are analyzed in this report along with a review of current laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy systems. Additional imaging modalities with potential neurosurgical utility are also analyzed. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and key words: In vivo confocal microscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, fluorescence imaging, in vivo diagnostics/neoplasm, in vivo molecular imaging, and optical imaging. Articles were reviewed that discussed clinically available fluorophores in neurosurgery, confocal endomicroscopy instrumentation, confocal microscopy systems, and intraoperative cancer diagnostics. Results: Current clinically available fluorescent contrast agents have specific properties that provide microscopic delineation of tumors when imaged with laser scanning confocal endomicroscopes. Other imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, confocal reflectance microscopy, fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM), two-photon microscopy, and second harmonic generation may also have potential in neurosurgical applications. Conclusion: In addition to guiding tumor resection, intraoperative fluorescence and microscopy have the potential to facilitate tumor identification and complement frozen section analysis during surgery by providing real-time histological assessment. Further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to test the efficacy of fluorescent contrast agents and optical imaging instrumentation in order to establish their role in neurosurgery. PMID:24872922

  14. Design and spectroscopic characterization of novel series of near infrared indocyanine dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S.; Strohm, Elizabeth A.; Okasha, Rawda M.

    2015-07-01

    A novel series of near infrared heptamethine indocyanine dyes bearing various aromatic chromophores has been synthesized. The synthetic methodology was achieved via ester condensation reactions of heptamethine indocyanine parent dye with carboxylic moiety and aromatic compounds such as anthracene, pyrene and thiophene derivatives. Structural analysis of the newly prepared dyes was accomplished using one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. These dyes exhibited high molar absorptivity based on the UV-visible/near-infrared spectral data. Fluorescence emission spectral data was used to determine the relative quantum yield. The new dyes displayed formation of H-aggregates in water at low concentrations, while this behavior was not observed in methanol.

  15. Electron beam induced water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles as a natural antioxidant and reducing agent for a green synthesis of gold nanocolloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wongkrongsak, Soraya; Tangthong, Theeranan; Pasanphan, Wanvimol

    2016-01-01

    The research proposes a novel water-soluble silk fibroin nanoparticles (WSSF-NPs) created by electron beam irradiation. In this report, we demonstrate the effects of electron beam irradiation doses ranging from 1 to 30 kGy on the molecular weight (MW), nanostructure formation, antioxidant activity and reducing power of the WSSF-NPs. Electron beam-induced degradation of SF causing MW reduction from 250 to 37 kDa. Chemical characteristic functions of SF still remained after exposing to electron beam. The WSSF-NPs with the MW of 37 kDa exhibited spherical morphology with a nanoscaled size of 40 nm. Antioxidant activities and reducing powers were investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhryl free radical (DPPH•) scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, respectively. The WSSF-NPs showed greater antioxidant activity and reducing power than non-irradiated SF. By increasing their antioxidant and reducing power efficiencies, WSSF-NPs potentially created gold nanocolloid. WSSF-NPs produced by electron beam irradiation would be a great merit for the uses as a natural antioxidant additive and a green reducing agent in biomedical, cosmetic and food applications.

  16. Green synthesis and antibacterial effects of aqueous colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles using camomile terpenoids as a combined reducing and capping agent.

    PubMed

    Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Kus-Liskiewicz, Małgorzata; Depciuch, Joanna; Sadik, Omowunmi

    2016-08-01

    Green synthesis method using camomile extract was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles to tune their antibacterial properties merging the synergistic effect of camomile and Ag. Scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed that camomile extract (CE) consisted of porous globular nanometer sized structures, which were a perfect support for Ag nanoparticles. The Ag nanoparticles synthesized with the camomile extract (AgNPs/CE) of 7 nm average sizes, were uniformly distributed on the CE support, contrary to the pure Ag nanoparticles synthesized with glucose (AgNPs/G), which were over 50 nm in diameter and strongly agglomerated. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy chemical analysis showed that camomile terpenoids act as a capping and reducing agent being adsorbed on the surface of AgNPs/CE enabling their reduction from Ag(+) and preventing them from agglomeration. Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy measurements confirmed these findings, as the spectra of AgNPs/CE, compared to pure CE, did not contain the 1109 cm(-1) band, corresponding to -C-O groups of terpenoids and the peaks at 280 and 320 nm, respectively. Antibacterial tests using four bacteria strains showed that the AgNPs/CE performed five times better compared to CE AgNPs/G samples, reducing totally all the bacteria in 2 h. PMID:27083587

  17. Green Preparation of Epoxy/Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites Using a Glycidylamine Epoxy Resin as the Surface Modifier and Phase Transfer Agent of Graphene Oxide.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xinlei; Zhou, Yang; Peng, Mao

    2016-01-27

    In studies of epoxy/graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites, organic solvents are commonly used to disperse GO, and vigorous mechanical processes and complicated modification of GO are usually required, increasing the cost and hindering the development and application of epoxy nanocomposites. Here, we report a green, facile, and efficient method of preparing epoxy/GO nanocomposites. When triglycidyl para-aminophenol (TGPAP), a commercially available glycidyl amine epoxy resin with one tertiary amine group per molecule, is used as both the surface modifier and phase transfer agent of GO, GO can be directly and rapidly transferred from water to diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A and other types of epoxy resins by manual stirring under ambient conditions, whereas GO cannot be transferred to these epoxy resins in the absence of TGPAP. The interaction between TGPAP and GO and the effect of the TGPAP content on the dispersion of GO in the epoxy matrix were investigated systematically. Superior dispersion and exfoliation of GO nanosheets and remarkably improved mechanical properties, including tensile and flexural properties, toughness, storage modulus, and microhardness, of the epoxy/GO nanocomposites with a suitable amount of TGPAP were demonstrated. This method is organic-solvent-free and technically feasible for large-scale preparation of high-performance nanocomposites; it opens up new opportunities for exploiting the unique properties of graphene or even other nanofillers for a wide range of applications. PMID:26720708

  18. Near-infrared Au nanorods in photodynamic therapy, hyperthermia agents, and near-infrared optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Wen-Shuo; Chang, Chich-Neng; Chang, Yi-Ting; Yang, Meng-Heng; Chien, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Shean-Jen; Yeh, Chen-Sheng

    2011-03-01

    The development of multifunctional nanomaterials is currently a topic of interest in the field of nanotechnology. Integrated systems that incorporate therapeutics, molecular targeting, and diagnostic imaging capabilities are considered to be the next generation of multifunctional nanomedicine. In this work, we present the first example of using Au nanorods simultaneously serving not only as photodynamic and photothermal agents to destroy A549 malignant cells but also as optical contrast agents simultaneously to monitor cellular image. Au nanorods were successfully conjugated with hydrophilic photosensitizer, indocyanine green (ICG), to achieve photodynamic therapy (PDT) and hyperthermia. With the combination of PDT and hyperthermia proved to be efficiently killing cancer cells as compared to PDT or hyperthermia treatment alone and enhanced the effectiveness of photodestruction. Moreover, Au nanorods conjugated with ICG displayed high chemical stability and simultaneously acted as a promising cellular image probe. As a result, the preparation of Au nanorods conjugated with photosensitizers as well as their use in biomedical applications is valuable developments in multifunctional nanomaterials.

  19. Small animal optoacoustic tomography system for molecular imaging of contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Richard; Liopo, Anton; Ermilov, Sergey A.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    2016-03-01

    We developed a new and improved Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System, LOIS-3D for preclinical research applications in small animal models. The advancements include (i) a new stabilized imaging module with a more homogeneous illumination of the mouse yielding a better spatial resolution (<0.2 mm) and (ii) a new low noise amplifier incorporated into the ultrasonic probe and providing the noise equivalent pressure around 2 Pa resulting in increased signal-to-noise ratio and the optical absorption sensitivity of about 0.15 cm-1. We also improved scan time and the image reconstruction times. This prototype has been commercialized for a number of biomedical research applications, such as imaging vascularization and measuring hemoglobin / oxyhemoglobin distribution in the organs as well as imaging exogenous or endogenous optoacoustic contrast agents. As examples, we present in vivo experiments using phantoms and mice with and without tumor injected with contrast agents with indocyanine green (ICG). LOIS-3D was capable of detecting ~1-2 pmole of the ICG, in tissues with relatively low blood content. With its high sensitivity and excellent spatial resolution LOIS-3D is an advanced alternative to fluorescence and bioluminescence based modalities for molecular imaging in live mice.

  20. Cyanine dyes as contrast agents for near-infrared imaging in vivo: acute tolerance, pharmacokinetics, and fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Bernd; Riefke, Björn; Sukowski, Uwe; Licha, Kai

    2011-06-01

    We compare pharmacokinetic, tolerance, and imaging properties of two near-IR contrast agents, indocyanine green (ICG) and 1,1'-bis-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5,5'-dicarboxylic acid diglucamide monosodium salt (SIDAG). ICG is a clinically approved imaging agent, and its derivative SIDAG is a more hydrophilic counterpart that has recently shown promising imaging properties in preclinical studies. The rather lipophilic ICG has a very short plasma half-life, thus limiting the time available to image body regions during its vascular circulation (e.g., the breast in optical mammography where scanning over several minutes is required). In order to change the physicochemical properties of the indotricarbocyanine dye backbone, several derivatives were synthesized with increasing hydrophilicity. The most hydrophilic dye SIDAG is selected for further biological characterization. The acute tolerance of SIDAG in mice is increased up to 60-fold compared to ICG. Contrary to ICG, the pharmacokinetic properties of SIDAG are shifted toward renal elimination, caused by the high hydrophilicity of the molecule. N-Nitrosomethylurea (NMU)-induced rat breast carcinomas are clearly demarcated, both immediately and 24 h after intravenous administration of SIDAG, whereas ICG shows a weak tumor contrast under the same conditions. Our findings demonstrate that SIDAG is a high potential contrast agent for optical imaging, which could increase the sensitivity for detection of inflamed regions and tumors.

  1. High-resolution three-dimensional scanning optical image system for intrinsic and extrinsic contrast agents in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yueqing; Qian, Zhiyu; Chen, Jinxian; Blessington, Dana; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Chance, Britton

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the theory and development of a three-dimensional (3D) imaging instrument capable of determining the biochemical properties of tissue by measuring the absorption or fluorescence of different intrinsic and extrinsic agents simultaneously. A bifurcated optical fiber bundle, serving to deliver the excitation light and collect the emission or reflection light, scans over the flat tissue surface retrieving optical signals in each pixel. Two-dimensional (2D) images of a series of subsequent sections are obtained after signal conversion and processing to yield a 3D image. Manipulation of the scanning step and diameter size of the fibers within the bundle, the spatial resolution of the instrument attains a maximum of 40 × 40 × 10 μm3. The wavelength range is extended from ultraviolet to the near infrared (NIR) through specialized optical design, typically employed for the NIR extrinsic contrast agents study. The instrument is most applicable in situations involving the measurement of fluorescence or absorption at any specific wavelength within the spectrum range. Flavoprotein and nicotinamide adeine dinucleotide are the two typical intrinsic agents indicating the oxidization and reduction status of the tissue sample, with their fluorescence detected at wavelengths of 540 and 440 nm, respectively. Oxy and deoxy hemoglobin are two other significant intrinsic agents for evaluating the blood oxygenation saturation by recording their absorptions at two different wavelengths of 577 and 546 nm. These intrinsic agents were measured in this study for comparison of biochemical properties of rat liver in different gas inhalation treatments. Indocyanine green, a NIR extrinsic contrast agent measured at wavelengths of 780 nm/830 nm as excitation/emission can indicate blood pooling by displaying the distribution of blood vessels within a 9 L tumor. The advantage of high sensitivity, spatial resolution, and broad applied potentiality were demonstrated by the

  2. Noninvasive photoacoustic angiography of animal brains in vivo with near-infrared light and an optical contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xueding; Ku, Geng; Wegiel, Malgorzata A.; Bornhop, Darryl J.; Stoica, George; Wang, Lihong V.

    2004-04-01

    Optical contrast agents have been widely applied to enhance the sensitivity and specificity of optical imaging with near-infrared (NIR) light. However, because of the overwhelming scattering of light in biological tissues, the spatial resolution of traditional optical imaging degrades drastically as the imaging depth increases. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we present noninvasive photoacoustic angiography of animal brains in vivo with NIR light and an optical contrast agent. When indocyanine green polyethylene glycol, a novel absorption dye with prolonged clearance, is injected into the circulatory system of a rat, it obviously enhances the absorption contrast between the blood vessels and the background tissues. Because NIR light can penetrate deep into the brain tissues through the skin and skull, we are able to successfully reconstruct the vascular distribution in the rat brain from the photoacoustic signals. On the basis of differential optical absorption with and without contrast enhancement, a photoacoustic angiograph of a rat brain is acquired that matches the anatomical photograph well and exhibits high spatial resolution and a much-reduced background. This new technology demonstrates the potential for dynamic and molecular biomedical imaging.

  3. Thiadiazole molecules and poly(ethylene glycol)-block-polylactide self-assembled nanoparticles as effective photothermal agents.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tingting; Qi, Ji; Zheng, Min; Xie, Zhigang; Wang, Zhiyuan; Jing, Xiabin

    2015-12-01

    A new photothermal nano-agent was obtained by the coprecipitation of 2,5-Bis(2,5-bis(2-thienyl)-N-dodecyl pyrrole) thieno[3,4-b][1,2,5] thiadiazole (TPT-TT) and a biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymer, methoxypoly(ethylene glycol)2K-block-poly(D,L-lactide)2K (mPEG2K-PDLLA2K). TPT-TT, a donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) type small molecule, with bis(2-thienyl)-N-alkylpyrrole (TPT) as the donor and thieno[3,4-b]thiadiazole (TT) as the acceptor was a strong near infrared (NIR) absorber, which could convert the absorbed light energy into heat. The formation of TPT-TT nanoparticles (TPT-NPs), which possessed high stability in water, was confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TPT-NPs showed high photothermal conversion efficiency (32%) and excellent photostability and heating reproducibility. The photostability of TPT-TT NPs was much better than that of indocyanine green (ICG), a federal drug administration (FDA) approved NIR dye. Besides, TPT-TT NPs exhibited significant photothermal therapeutic effect toward human cervical carcinoma (HeLa) and human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells, while no appreciable dark cytotoxicity was observed. These results highlight the potential of TPT-TT NPs as an effective photothermal agent for cancer therapy. PMID:26398145

  4. Gold nanorods/mesoporous silica-based nanocomposite as theranostic agents for targeting near-infrared imaging and photothermal therapy induced with laser

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Ming; Chen, Qing; Guan, Guannan; Hu, Wen; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Hu, Haiyang; Liang, Ying; Zhu, Heyun; Chen, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is widely regarded as a promising technology for cancer treatment. Gold nanorods (GNRs), as excellent PTT agent candidates, have shown high-performance photothermal conversion ability under laser irradiation, yet two major obstacles to their clinical application are the lack of selective accumulation in the target site following systemic administration and the greatly reduced photothermal conversion efficiency caused by self-aggregating in aqueous environment. Herein, we demonstrate that tLyp-1 peptide-functionalized, indocyanine green (ICG)-containing mesoporous silica-coated GNRs (I-TMSG) possessed dual-function as tumor cells-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe and PTT agents. The construction of the nanostructure began with synthesis of GNRs by seed-mediated growth method, followed by the coating of mesoporous silica, the chemical conjugation of PEG and tLyp-1 peptide, and the enclosure of ICG as an NIR imaging agent in the mesoporous. The as-prepared nanoparticles could shield the GNRs against their self-aggregation, improve the stability of ICG, and exhibit negligible dark cytotoxicity. More importantly, such a theranostic nanocomposite could realize the combination of GNRs-based photothermal ablation under NIR illumination, ICG-mediated fluorescent imaging, and tLyp-1-enabled more easy endocytosis into breast cancer cells. All in all, I-TMSG nanoparticles, in our opinion, possessed the strong potential to realize the effective diagnosis and PTT treatment of human mammary cancer. PMID:26251596

  5. Gold nanorods/mesoporous silica-based nanocomposite as theranostic agents for targeting near-infrared imaging and photothermal therapy induced with laser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Ming; Chen, Qing; Guan, Guannan; Hu, Wen; Zhao, Xiuli; Qiao, Mingxi; Hu, Haiyang; Liang, Ying; Zhu, Heyun; Chen, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Photothermal therapy (PTT) is widely regarded as a promising technology for cancer treatment. Gold nanorods (GNRs), as excellent PTT agent candidates, have shown high-performance photothermal conversion ability under laser irradiation, yet two major obstacles to their clinical application are the lack of selective accumulation in the target site following systemic administration and the greatly reduced photothermal conversion efficiency caused by self-aggregating in aqueous environment. Herein, we demonstrate that tLyp-1 peptide-functionalized, indocyanine green (ICG)-containing mesoporous silica-coated GNRs (I-TMSG) possessed dual-function as tumor cells-targeting near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probe and PTT agents. The construction of the nanostructure began with synthesis of GNRs by seed-mediated growth method, followed by the coating of mesoporous silica, the chemical conjugation of PEG and tLyp-1 peptide, and the enclosure of ICG as an NIR imaging agent in the mesoporous. The as-prepared nanoparticles could shield the GNRs against their self-aggregation, improve the stability of ICG, and exhibit negligible dark cytotoxicity. More importantly, such a theranostic nanocomposite could realize the combination of GNRs-based photothermal ablation under NIR illumination, ICG-mediated fluorescent imaging, and tLyp-1-enabled more easy endocytosis into breast cancer cells. All in all, I-TMSG nanoparticles, in our opinion, possessed the strong potential to realize the effective diagnosis and PTT treatment of human mammary cancer. PMID:26251596

  6. A biomimetic hybrid nanoplatform for encapsulation and precisely controlled delivery of therasnostic agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hai; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Shuting; Yu, Jianhua; Lu, Xiongbin; He, Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles have demonstrated great potential for enhancing drug delivery. However, the low drug encapsulation efficiency at high drug-to-nanoparticle feeding ratios and minimal drug loading content in nanoparticle at any feeding ratios are major hurdles to their widespread applications. Here we report a robust eukaryotic cell-like hybrid nanoplatform (EukaCell) for encapsulation of theranostic agents (doxorubicin and indocyanine green). The EukaCell consists of a phospholipid membrane, a cytoskeleton-like mesoporous silica matrix and a nucleus-like fullerene core. At high drug-to-nanoparticle feeding ratios (for example, 1:0.5), the encapsulation efficiency and loading content can be improved by 58 and 21 times, respectively, compared with conventional silica nanoparticles. Moreover, release of the encapsulated drug can be precisely controlled via dosing near infrared laser irradiation. Ultimately, the ultra-high (up to ∼87%) loading content renders augmented anticancer capacity both in vitro and in vivo. Our EukaCell is valuable for drug delivery to fight against cancer and potentially other diseases. PMID:26621191

  7. Preclinical evaluation of biodegradable macromolecular contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yi

    Macromolecular contrast agents have been shown to be superior to small molecular weight contrast agents for MRI in blood pool imaging, tumor diagnosis and grading. However, none has been approved by the FDA because they circulate in the bloodstream much longer than small molecular weight contrast agents and result in high tissue accumulation of toxic Gd(III) ions. Biodegradable macromolecular contrast agents (BMCA) were invented to alleviate the toxic accumulation. They have a cleavable disulfide bond based backbone that can be degraded in vivo and excreted out of the body via renal filtration. Furthermore, the side chain of the backbone can be modified to achieve various degradation rates. Three BMCA, (Gd-DTPA)-cystamine copolymers (GDCC), Gd-DTPA cystine copolymers (GDCP), and Gd-DTPA cystine diethyl ester copolymers (GDCEP), were evaluated as blood pool contrast agents in a rat model. They have excellent blood pool enhancement, preferred pharmacokinetics, and only minimal long-term tissue retention of toxic Gd(III) ions. GDCC and GDCP, the lead agents with desired degradation rates, with molecular weights of 20 KDa and 70 KDa, were chosen for dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) to differentiate human prostate tumor models of different malignancy and growth rates. GDCC and GDCP could differentiate these tumor models, providing more accurate estimations of plasma volume, flow leakage rate, and permeability surface area product than a small molecular weight contrast agent Gd-DTPA-BMA when compared to the prototype macromolecular contrast agent albumin-Gd-DTPA. GDCC was favored for its neutral charge side chain and reasonable uptake rate by the tumors. GDCC with a molecular weight of 40 KDa (GDCC-40, above the renal filtration cutoff size) was used to assess the efficacy of two photothermal therapies (interstitial and indocyanine green enhanced). GDCC-40 provided excellent tumor enhancement shortly after its injection. Acute tumor response (4 hr) after therapies

  8. Erythrocyte-derived optical nano-vesicles as theranostic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac, Jenny T.; Nunez, Vicente; Bahmani, Baharak; Guerrero, Yadir; Tang, Jack; Vullev, Valentine I.; Anvari, Bahman

    2015-07-01

    We have engineered nano-vesicles, derived from erythrocytes, which can be doped with various near infrared (NIR) organic chromophores, including the FDA-approved indocyanine green (ICG). We refer to these vesicles as NIR erythrocyte-mimicking transducers (NETS) since in response to NIR photo-excitation they can generate heat or emit fluorescent light. Using biochemical methods based on reduction amination, we have functionalized the surface of NET with antibodies to target specific biomolecules. We present results that demonstrate the effectiveness of NETs in targeted imaging of cancer cells that over-express the human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2).

  9. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Inverse image alignment method for image mosaicing and video stabilization in fundus indocyanine green angiography under confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongjin; Xue, Hui; Wan, Mingxi

    2003-01-01

    An efficient image registration algorithm, the Inverse Compositional image alignment method based on minimization of Sum of Squared Differences of images, is applied in fundus blood vessel angiography under confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope, to build image mosaics which have larger field of view without loss of resolution to assist diagnosis. Furthermore, based on similar technique, the angiography video stabilization algorithm is implemented for fundus documenting. The actual underlying models of motion between images and corresponding convergence criteria are also discussed. The experiment results in fundus images demonstrate the effectiveness of the registration scheme. PMID:14575786

  11. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  12. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  13. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate, a green tea polyphenol is a potent agent against UVB-induced damage in HaCaT keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chieh-Chen; Wu, Wen-Bin; Fang, Jia-You; Chiang, Han-Sun; Chen, Shao-Kuan; Chen, Bing-Huei; Chen, Ying-Ting; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2007-01-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG) is a polyphenolic compound similar to (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) which is abundant in green tea. Numerous workers have proposed that EGCG protects epidermal cells against UVB-induced damage. However, little has been known about whether ECG protects keratinocytes against UVB-induced damage. We decided to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanisms of ECG on UVB-induced damage. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK was analyzed by Western blotting. Intracellular H2O2 production and DNA content was analyzed by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assayed by colorimetry. In our study, we found that ECG dose-dependently attenuated UVB-induced keratinocyte death. Moreover, ECG markedly inhibited UVB-induced cell membrane lipid peroxidation and H2O2 generation in keratinocytes, suggesting that ECG can act as a free radical scavenger when keratinocytes were photodamaged. In parallel, H2O2-induced the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK in keratinocytes could be inhibited by ECG. UVB-induced pre-G1 arrest leading to apoptotic changes of keratinocytes were blocked by ECG. Taken together, we provide here evidence that ECG protects keratinocytes from UVB-induced photodamage and H2O2-induced oxidative stress, possibly through inhibition of the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK and/or scavenging of free radicals. PMID:17960092

  14. Microfluidic platform for photodynamic therapy cytotoxicity analysis of nanoencapsulated indocyanine-type photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Elżbieta; Bazylińska, Urszula; Bułka, Magdalena; Tokarska, Katarzyna; Chudy, Michał; Dybko, Artur; Wilk, Kazimiera Anna; Brzózka, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology is important to improve research and development of alternative anticancer therapies. In order to accelerate research related to cancer diagnosis and to improve the effectiveness of cancer treatment, various nanomaterials are being tested. The main objective of this work was basic research focused on examination of the mechanism and effectiveness of the introduction of nanoencapsulated photosensitizers to human carcinoma (A549) and normal cells (MRC-5). Newly encapsulated hydrophobic indocyanine-type photosensitizer (i.e., IR-780) was subjected to in vitro studies to determine its release characteristics on a molecular level. The photosensitizers were delivered to carcinoma and normal cells cultured under model conditions using multiwell plates and with the use of the specially designed hybrid (poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass) microfluidic system. The specific geometry of our microsystem allows for the examination of intercellular interactions between cells cultured in the microchambers connected with microchannels of precisely defined length. Our microsystem allows investigating various therapeutic procedures (e.g., photodynamic therapy) on monoculture, coculture, and mixed culture, simultaneously, which is very difficult to perform using standard multiwell plates. In addition, we tested the cellular internalization of nanoparticles (differing in size, surface properties) in carcinoma and normal lung cells. We proved that cellular uptake of nanocapsules loaded with cyanine IR-780 in carcinoma cells was more significant than in normal cells. We demonstrated non cytotoxic effect of newly synthesized nanocapsules built with polyelectrolytes (PEs) of opposite surface charges: polyanion-polysodium-4-styrenesulphonate and polycation-poly(diallyldimethyl-ammonium) chloride loaded with cyanine IR-780 on human lung carcinoma and normal cell lines. However, the differences observed in the photocytotoxic effect between two types of

  15. Quantification of Vibrio penaeicida, the etiological agent of Syndrome 93 in New Caledonian shrimp, by real-time PCR using SYBR Green I chemistry.

    PubMed

    Goarant, Cyrille; Merien, Fabrice

    2006-10-01

    Shrimp farming is a small but growing industry in New Caledonia. Since 1993, "Syndrome 93" has been affecting New Caledonian shrimp farming industry every cold season, causing severe epizootic mortalities in grow-out ponds and significant losses. Highly pathogenic strains of Vibrio penaeicida are considered the etiological agent of the disease in Litopenaeus stylirostris. On one hand, studies demonstrated that healthy shrimp may carry V. penaeicida for weeks with a high overall prevalence, regardless of any seasonal pattern or temperature conditions. On the other hand, larvae are free of V. penaeicida and are also resistant to experimental infection. V. penaeicida is frequently detected in incoming water pumped from the bays, which was shown, by a molecular typing study, to be the infectious source. This particular epidemiological pattern highlights the major role of the factors that trigger and aggravate the disease in grow-out ponds, where shrimp populations carry the pathogen all year round. In order to gain a better understanding of "Syndrome 93" epidemiology, quantification of V. penaeicida both in shrimp and the shrimp farm ecosystem is necessary. This article describes the steps in the successful development of a real-time PCR quantification assay of V. penaeicida in shrimp haemolymph, seawater (from ponds or bays) and sediment pore water, including the choice of an accurate extraction technique. The entire detection method; including sample processing, DNA extraction and real-time PCR amplification, can be completed within 4 h. PMID:16616385

  16. Monoclonal antibody-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG encapsulating doxorubicin as a potential theranostic agent.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Neus; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa S; Beziere, Nicolas S; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2015-03-30

    Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA-approved, strongly photo-absorbent/fluorescent probe that has been incorporated into a clinically-relevant PEGylated liposome as a flexible optoacoustic contrast agent platform. This study describes the engineering of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using the anti-MUC-1 "humanized" monoclonal antibody (MoAb) hCTM01 as a tumour-specific theranostic system. We aimed to visualise non-invasively the tumour accumulation of these MoAb-targeted liposomes over time in tumour-bearing mice using multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). Preferential accumulation of targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG was studied after intravenous administration in comparison to non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG using both fast growing (4T1) and slow growing (HT-29) MUC-1 positive tumour models. Monitoring liposomal ICG in the tumour showed that both targeted and non-targeted liposome-ICG formulations preferentially accumulated into the tumour models studied. Rapid accumulation was observed for targeted liposomes at early time points mainly in the periphery of the tumour volume suggesting binding to available MUC-1 receptors. In contrast, non-targeted PEGylated liposomes showed accumulation at the centre of the tumour at later time points. In an attempt to take this a step further, we successfully encapsulated the anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX) into both targeted and non-targeted PEGylated liposome-ICG. The engineering of DOX-loaded targeted ICG liposome systems present a novel platform for combined tumour-specific therapy and diagnosis. This can open new possibilities in the design of advanced image-guided cancer therapeutics. PMID:25445515

  17. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  18. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  19. Doppler photoacoustic and Doppler ultrasound in blood with optical contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Eyal, Avishay

    2013-03-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler flowmetry as well as Doppler ultrasound were performed in acoustic resolution regime on tubes filled with flowing blood with indocyanine green (ICG) at different concentrations. The photoacoustic excitation utilized a pair of directly-modulated fiber-coupled 830nm laser-diodes, modulated with either CW or tone-bursts for depthresolved measurements. The amplitude of the Doppler peak in photoacoustic Doppler measurements was found to be proportional to the ICG concentration. Photoacoustic Doppler was measured in ICG at human safe concentrations, but not in whole blood. Comparing the results between the two modalities implied that using a wavelength with higher optical absorption may improve the photoacoustic signal in blood.

  20. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  1. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  2. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  3. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  4. Monitoring of the membrane potential in proteoliposomes with incorporated cytochrome-c oxidase using the fluorescent dye indocyanine.

    PubMed

    Ivashchuk-Kienbaum, Y A

    1996-06-01

    A method has been developed to monitor changes of the membrane potential across vesicle membranes in real time. Using the potential-sensitive fluorescent dye indocyanine and on the basis of a water/lipid redistribution model, a calculation procedure has been introduced to estimate the membrane potential in vesicles with incorporated cytochrome-c oxidase. Physical parameters, such as vesicle size distribution and density of the lipid bilayer were estimated and used as calculation parameters. By extrapolation of the transient potential change to zero time, the initial rate of the potential change (dU/dt) could be calculated. It is also shown, that the initial potential change (dU/dt) may be used to study the proton/electron stoichiometry of cytochrome-c oxidase incorporated in the vesicles. PMID:8661512

  5. Real-Time Intraoperative Near-Infrared Fluorescence Identification of the Extrahepatic Bile Ducts using Clinically-Available Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Aya; Tanaka, Eiichi; Choi, Hak Soo; Winer, Joshua H.; Kianzad, Vida; Gioux, Sylvain; Laurence, Rita G.; Frangioni, John V.

    2009-01-01

    Background Iatrogenic bile duct injuries are serious complications with patient morbidity. We hypothesized that the invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties of methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG) could be exploited for real-time, intraoperative imaging of the extrahepatic bile ducts during open and laparoscopic surgeries. Methods 2.0 mg/kg of MB and 0.05 mg/kg of ICG were intravenously injected into 35-kg female Yorkshire pigs and the extrahepatic bile ducts imaged over time using either the FLARE™ image-guided surgery system (open surgery) or a custom NIR fluorescence laparoscopy system. Surgical anatomy was confirmed using x-ray cholangiography. Contrast-to-background ratio (CBR), contrast-to-liver ratio (CLR), and chemical concentrations in the cystic duct (CD) and common bile duct (CBD) were measured, and the performance of each agent quantified. Results Using NIR fluorescence of MB, the CD and CBD could be identified with good sensitivity (CBR and CLR ≥ 4), during both open and laparoscopic surgeries, from 10 to 120 min post-injection. Functional impairment of the ducts, including constriction and injury were immediately identifiable. Using NIR fluorescence of ICG, extrahepatic bile ducts did not become visible until 90 min post-injection due to strong residual liver retention, however, between 90 to 240 min, ICG provided exquisitely high sensitivity for both CD and CBD, with CBR ≥ 8 and CLR ≥ 4. Conclusions We demonstrate that two clinically available NIR fluorophores, MB fluorescing at 700 nm and ICG fluorescing at 800 nm, provide sensitive, prolonged identification of the extrahepatic bile ducts and assessment of their functional status. PMID:20117813

  6. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  7. Plant mediated green synthesis: modified approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ratul Kumar; Brar, Satinder Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Plant mediated green synthesis of different metallic nanoparticles has emerged as one of the options for implementation of green chemistry principles, and successfully made an important contribution towards green nanotechnology. However, beyond the synthesis and application aspects, the science of green synthesis has carried some wrong perceptions in an unforeseen fashion. In this review, some of the key issues related to the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles employing plants as reducing/capping agents have been addressed. Random selection of plants and its overall impact on the different aspects of green synthesis have been discussed. Emphasis is given to the setting of some standard selection criteria to be adopted for selecting a plant for use in green synthesis. How selection of a plant can positively or negatively influence both procedure and products of a green synthesis process is the prime concern of this article. In addition to selection, the key issue of biocompatibility associated with green synthesized metallic nanoparticles has been considered. Both selection of plant and biocompatibility were reconsidered for their minute details in terms of synthesis, analysis and data interpretation in the green synthesis approach. The key factors capable of fine tuning the core meaning of ``green'' in the synthesis of any metallic nanoparticles were taken into consideration. This article is an effort towards keeping the core meaning of green synthesis.

  8. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  9. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  10. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  11. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  12. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  13. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  14. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  15. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  16. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  17. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:15928624

  18. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  19. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  20. Use Of Green Porphyrinsto Treat Neovasculature In The Eyes

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Julia; Miller, Joan W.; Gradoudas, Evangelos S.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula

    1998-08-25

    Photodynamic therapy of conditions of the eye characterized by unwanted neovasculature, such as age-related macular degeneration, is effective using green porphyrins as photoactive agents, preferably as liposomal compositions.

  1. Green nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoff B.

    2011-10-01

    Nanotechnology, in particular nanophotonics, is proving essential to achieving green outcomes of sustainability and renewable energy at the scales needed. Coatings, composites and polymeric structures used in windows, roof and wall coatings, energy storage, insulation and other components in energy efficient buildings will increasingly involve nanostructure, as will solar cells. Nanostructures have the potential to revolutionize thermoelectric power and may one day provide efficient refrigerant free cooling. Nanomaterials enable optimization of optical, opto-electrical and thermal responses to this urgent task. Optical harmonization of material responses to environmental energy flows involves (i) large changes in spectral response over limited wavelength bands (ii) tailoring to environmental dynamics. The latter includes engineering angle of incidence dependencies and switchable (or chromogenic) responses. Nanomaterials can be made at sufficient scale and low enough cost to be both economic and to have a high impact on a short time scale. Issues to be addressed include human safety and property changes induced during manufacture, handling and outdoor use. Unexpected bonuses have arisen in this work, for example the savings and environmental benefits of cool roofs extend beyond the more obvious benefit of reduced heat flows from the roof into the building.

  2. Roadmap to Implementing Green Cleaning in Districts and Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Rochelle, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Bill Thompson, Director of Facilities for Lockport Township High School in Illinois, first considered starting a green cleaning program after his janitors became dizzy when using a traditional chemical floor stripper. Thompson started introducing green products gradually at Lockport Township High, and now almost all of the cleaning agents used at…

  3. Can "the voices in the car" persuade drivers to go green?: effects of benefit appeals from in-vehicle voice agents and the role of drivers' affective states on eco-driving.

    PubMed

    Joo, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2014-04-01

    The present research investigated the possibility of using an in-vehicle voice agent to promote eco-driving. Considering that both types of benefit appeals--egoistic (emphasizing benefits to the self) and altruistic (emphasizing benefits to others)--could be employed to promote eco-driving behavior, we explored the effects of benefit appeals delivered by an in-vehicle voice agent on driving performance. In particular, we tested whether and how the valence (positive vs. negative) of drivers' affective states moderates the effects, drawing on the functionalist affect-cognition framework, which has theorized that positive affect leads people to focus more on self-interest, whereas negative affect leads people to become more sensitive to social norms. An experiment was conducted in which participants, after undergoing affect (happy vs. sad) elicitation, received messages (egoistic vs. altruistic) promoting eco-driving from an in-vehicle voice agent while performing a simulated driving task. Results were partially consistent with the functionalist affect-cognition framework. Happy participants performed better on eco-driving when they were exposed to egoistic appeals than to altruistic appeals. On the other hand, the driving performance data from sad participants did not yield a significant difference between the egoistic condition and the altruistic condition. Participants' driving performance data further revealed that the joint effects of benefit appeals and affective states on safe driving performance mirrored the joint effects on eco-driving performance, confirming a close relationship between the two driving behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications for the use of in-vehicle voice agents and benefit appeals in promoting eco-driving and safe driving are discussed. PMID:24479527

  4. NPDN Citrus Greening Diagnostic and Detection Efforts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Plant Diagnostic Network (NPDN) has been involved in detection and diagnosis of many new plant diseases, including citrus greening, huanglongbing (HLB), caused by a fastidious bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. The pathogen is on the USDA List of Select Agents, which indicat...

  5. Green chemistry for nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Duan, Haohong; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2015-08-21

    The application of the twelve principles of green chemistry in nanoparticle synthesis is a relatively new emerging issue concerning the sustainability. This field has received great attention in recent years due to its capability to design alternative, safer, energy efficient, and less toxic routes towards synthesis. These routes have been associated with the rational utilization of various substances in the nanoparticle preparations and synthetic methods, which have been broadly discussed in this tutorial review. This article is not meant to provide an exhaustive overview of green synthesis of nanoparticles, but to present several pivotal aspects of synthesis with environmental concerns, involving the selection and evaluation of nontoxic capping and reducing agents, the choice of innocuous solvents and the development of energy-efficient synthetic methods. PMID:25615873

  6. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  7. The effects of different polymerization agents on structural and optical properties of (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 nanopowders synthesized by a facile green route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorrami, Gh. H.; Kompany, A.; Zak, A. Khorsand

    2014-11-01

    (K0.5N0.5)NbO3 lead-free nanopowders were synthesized by a modified sol-gel method in different media: gelatin, starch and chitosan, as polymerization and stabilizer agents. The proper temperature needed for calcinating the prepared gel was obtained using thermogravometric analysis (TGA). Structural and optical properties of the prepared powders were investigated and compared using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis diffused reflectance spectroscopy. The XRD patterns of the synthesized samples confirmed the formation of the orthorhombic structure at 600°C calcination temperature with no remarkable extra peaks. TEM images showed that the morphologies of the particles prepared in the three different media are cubic with the average size of about 69, 34 and 49 nm for gelatin, starch and chitosan, respectively. The value of the energy band gap of the samples was calculated by diffused reflectance spectroscopy, using Kubelka-Munk method. Our results showed that the type of the polymerization agent is important in preparing KNN nanoparticles and affects the structural and optical properties of the synthesized samples.

  8. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  9. A Nano-MgO and Ionic Liquid-Catalyzed 'Green' Synthesis Protocol for the Development of Adamantyl-Imidazolo-Thiadiazoles as Anti-Tuberculosis Agents Targeting Sterol 14α-Demethylase (CYP51).

    PubMed

    Anusha, Sebastian; Cp, Baburajeev; Mohan, Chakrabhavi Dhananjaya; Mathai, Jessin; Rangappa, Shobith; Mohan, Surender; Chandra; Paricharak, Shardul; Mervin, Lewis; Fuchs, Julian E; M, Mahedra; Bender, Andreas; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we describe the 'green' synthesis of novel 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-substituted-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazoles (AITs) by ring formation reactions using 1-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-bromoethanone and 5-alkyl/aryl-2-amino1,3,4-thiadiazoles on a nano material base in ionic liquid media. Given the established activity of imidazothiadiazoles against M. tuberculosis, we next examined the anti-TB activity of AITs against the H37Rv strain using Alamar blue assay. Among the tested compounds 6-(adamantan-1-yl)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole (3f) showed potent inhibitory activity towards M. tuberculosis with an MIC value of 8.5 μM. The inhibitory effect of this molecule against M. tuberculosis was comparable to the standard drugs such as Pyrazinamide, Streptomycin, and Ciprofloxacin drugs. Mechanistically, an in silico analysis predicted sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) as the likely target and experimental activity of 3f in this system corroborated the in silico target prediction. In summary, we herein report the synthesis and biological evaluation of novel AITs against M. tuberculosis that likely target CYP51 to induce their antimycobacterial activity. PMID:26470029

  10. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  11. Green Flight Challenge

    NASA Video Gallery

    The CAFE Green Flight Challenge sponsored by Google will be held at the CAFE Foundation Flight Test Center at Charles M. Schulz Sonoma County Airport in Santa Rosa, Calif. The Green Flight Challeng...

  12. In the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Education officials used to debate whether they could afford to pursue green design and construction. Now the green movement has gained a foothold not just in education, but in society at large, and the prevailing attitude seems to have shifted. Can schools afford "not" to go green? As budgets are slashed repeatedly, education administrators must…

  13. What Is Green?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokrandt, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Green is a question with varying answers and sometimes no answer at all. It is a question of location, resources, people, environment, and money. As green really has no end point, a teacher's goal should be to teach students to question and consider green. In this article, the author provides several useful metrics to help technology teachers…

  14. EPA's Green Roof Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a presentation on the basics of green roof technology. The presentation highlights some of the recent ORD research projects on green roofs and provices insight for the end user as to the benefits for green roof technology. It provides links to currently available EPA re...

  15. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  16. Public Libraries Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Going green is now a national issue, and patrons expect their library to respond in the same way many corporations have. Libraries are going green with logos on their Web sites, programs for the public, and a host of other initiatives. This is the first book to focus strictly on the library's role in going green, helping you with: (1) Collection…

  17. Show Me the Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Gone are the days when green campus initiatives were a balm to the soul and a drain on the wallet. Today's environmental initiatives are all about saving lots of green--in every sense of the word. The environmental benefits of green campus projects--whether wind turbines or better insulation--are pretty clear. Unfortunately, in today's…

  18. Genotoxicity of malachite green and leucomalachite green in female Big Blue B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Mittelstaedt, Roberta A; Mei, Nan; Webb, Peggy J; Shaddock, Joseph G; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; McGarrity, Lynda J; Morris, Suzanne M; Chen, Tao; Beland, Frederick A; Greenlees, Kevin J; Heflich, Robert H

    2004-07-11

    Malachite green, a triphenylmethane dye used in aquaculture as an antifungal agent, is rapidly reduced in vivo to leucomalachite green. Previous studies in which female B6C3F1 mice were fed malachite green produced relatively high levels of liver DNA adducts after 28 days, but no significant induction of liver tumors was detected in a 2-year feeding study. Comparable experiments conducted with leucomalachite green resulted in relatively low levels of liver DNA adducts but a dose-responsive induction of liver tumors. In the present study, we fed transgenic female Big Blue B6C3F1 mice with 450 ppm malachite green and 204 and 408 ppm leucomalachite green (the high doses used in the tumor bioassays) and evaluated genotoxicity after 4 and 16 weeks of treatment. Neither malachite green nor leucomalachite green increased the peripheral blood micronucleus frequency or Hprt lymphocyte mutant frequency at either time point; however, the 16-week treatment with 408 ppm leucomalachite green did increase the liver cII mutant frequency. Similar increases in liver cII mutant frequency were not seen in the mice treated for 16 weeks with malachite green or in female Big Blue rats treated with a comparable dose of leucomalachite green for 16 weeks in a previous study [Mutat. Res. 547 (2004) 5]. These results indicate that leucomalachite green is an in vivo mutagen in transgenic female mouse liver and that the mutagenicities of malachite green and leucomalachite green correlate with their tumorigenicities in mice and rats. The lack of increased micronucleus frequencies and lymphocyte Hprt mutants in female mice treated with leucomalachite green suggests that its genotoxicity is targeted to the tissue at risk for tumor induction. PMID:15238237

  19. Independent component analysis for three-dimensional optical imaging and localization of a fluorescent contrast agent target embedded in a slab of ex vivo human breast tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alrubaiee, M.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.; Alfano, R. R.

    2005-08-01

    An innovative approach for three-dimensional localization and characterization of a fluorescent target embedded in a turbid medium is presented. The target was a ~4-mm diameter glass sphere with a solution of indocyanine green placed within a 50-mm thick tissuelike phantom with mean free path of ~1-mm at 784-nm and a ~ 26-mm thick ex vivo breast tissue slab. The experimental approach uses a multi-source illumination, and a multi-detector signal acquisition scheme. An analysis scheme based on the independent component analysis from information theory is used for target localization and characterization. Independent component analysis of the perturbation in the spatial intensity distribution of the fluorescent signal measured on the exit plane of the turbid medium locates the embedded objects. The location and size, of the embedded objects are obtained from a Green's function analysis and back-projection Fourier transform of the retrieved independent components.

  20. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  1. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  2. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  4. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  5. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  6. Sowing Green Seeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yingjun, Chen; Jianzhuang, Rong

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the development of environmental education Hunan Yueyang Middle School Number One. Famous for its beautiful environment and lush green trees, the school has won titles such as "park" unit, "garden" school, "green school" and "National Advanced Unit for Environmental Education." In order to popularize scientific knowledge of…

  7. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2011-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. Service learning, a research-based teaching pedagogy, provides a flexible framework for integrating green concepts across interdisciplinary content areas.…

  8. Green Chemistry and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hjeresen, Dennis L.; Schutt, David L.; Boese, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    Many students today are profoundly interested in the sustainability of their world. Introduces Green Chemistry and its principles with teaching materials. Green Chemistry is the use of chemistry for pollution prevention and the design of chemical products and processes that are environmentally benign. (ASK)

  9. Green Cleaning Label Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  10. Green Buildings and Health.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; MacNaughton, Piers; Laurent, Jose Guillermo Cedeno; Flanigan, Skye S; Eitland, Erika Sita; Spengler, John D

    2015-09-01

    Green building design is becoming broadly adopted, with one green building standard reporting over 3.5 billion square feet certified to date. By definition, green buildings focus on minimizing impacts to the environment through reductions in energy usage, water usage, and minimizing environmental disturbances from the building site. Also by definition, but perhaps less widely recognized, green buildings aim to improve human health through design of healthy indoor environments. The benefits related to reduced energy and water consumption are well-documented, but the potential human health benefits of green buildings are only recently being investigated. The objective of our review was to examine the state of evidence on green building design as it specifically relates to indoor environmental quality and human health. Overall, the initial scientific evidence indicates better indoor environmental quality in green buildings versus non-green buildings, with direct benefits to human health for occupants of those buildings. A limitation of much of the research to date is the reliance on indirect, lagging and subjective measures of health. To address this, we propose a framework for identifying direct, objective and leading "Health Performance Indicators" for use in future studies of buildings and health. PMID:26231502

  11. Greening the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Norma Velia

    2011-01-01

    Because educators vicariously touch the future through their students, the author believes that they sometimes have the uncanny ability to see the future. One common future forecast is the phenomenal growth of green jobs in the emerging green economy, leading to the creation of the "Reach of the Sun" Solar Energy Academy at La Mirada High School…

  12. The Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huke, Robert E.

    1985-01-01

    Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)

  13. Greening the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Cathryn Berger

    2012-01-01

    The green concept has tremendous value in schools, especially when it reflects the central purpose and mission of schools: educating young people to participate and civically engage in society. School communities that keep greening the school on the periphery of their awareness will reap advantages, but those that align this idea with the…

  14. 10 Paths to Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Some institutions may feel comfortable with a few baby steps into the green world, while others may be ready to commit totally to environmental consciousness. Here, the author discusses 10 areas in which educators and administrators can beef up their green portfolio. These areas are in: alternative fuel, bikes/walking, water, education tools,…

  15. LIGHTWEIGHT GREEN ROOF SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applying a Lightweight Green Roof System to a building can achieve in managing storm water runoff, decreasing heat gain, yielding energy savings, and mitigating the heat island effect. Currently, Most green roof systems are considerably heavy and require structural reinforceme...

  16. Green Infrastructure 101

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure 101 • What is it? What does it do? What doesn’t it do? • Green Infrastructure as a stormwater and combined sewer control • GI Controls and Best Management Practices that make sense for Yonkers o (Include operations and maintenance requirements for each)

  17. Custodial Operations: Green & Sustainable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, J. Kirk

    2008-01-01

    Custodial Operations can have a significant impact on institutional green and sustainable goals if given the proper support and challenge. This article describes the green and sustainable custodial operations in place at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. The article reviews the college's sustainable efforts on biodegradables, packaging,…

  18. A Green Clean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravitz, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the professional cleaning industry, green cleaning has been much discussed in the past few years. Usually, the information pertains to the many reasons why a green cleaning program should be started, the steps involved to get the program off the ground, and the potential benefits. However, although many facility managers and school…

  19. Building the green way.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Charles

    2006-06-01

    Just five or six years ago, the term "green building" evoked visions of barefoot, tie-dyed, granola-munching denizens. There's been a large shift in perception. Of course, green buildings are still known for conserving natural resources by, for example, minimizing on-site grading, using alternative materials, and recycling construction waste. But people now see the financial advantages as well. Well-designed green buildings yield lower utility costs, greater employee productivity, less absenteeism, and stronger attraction and retention of workers than standard buildings do. Green materials, mechanical systems, and furnishings have become more widely available and considerably less expensive than they used to be-often cheaper than their standard counterparts. So building green is no longer a pricey experiment; just about any company can do it on a standard budget by following the ten rules outlined by the author. Reliable building-rating systems like the U.S. Green Building Council's rigorous Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program have done much to underscore the benefits of green construction. LEED evaluates buildings and awards points in several areas, such as water efficiency and indoor environmental quality. Other rating programs include the UK's BREEAM (Building Research Establishment's Environmental Assessment Method) and Australia's Green Star. Green construction is not simply getting more respect; it is rapidly becoming a necessity as corporations push it fully into the mainstream over the next five to ten years. In fact, the author says, the owners of standard buildings face massive obsolescence. To avoid this problem, they should carry out green renovations. Corporations no longer have an excuse for eschewing environmental and economic sustainability. They have at their disposal tools proven to lower overhead costs, improve productivity, and strengthen the bottom line. PMID:16770900

  20. Going Green: Greening Your Marketing Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2009-01-01

    There is no doubt that the "Going Green" movement is in full swing. With global warming and other ecological concerns, people are paying closer attention to environmental issues and striving to live in a more sustainable world. For libraries, this is a perfect opportunity to be active in a campus-wide program and simultaneously promote library…

  1. Collection Development "Green Business": The Green Capitalist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagan, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The "greening" of corporate behemoths like Wal-Mart, DuPont, and Toyota has received much media attention in recent years. But consider small businesses: according to the U.S. Small Business Administration, of the estimated 27 million firms in the United States, 99.7 percent have fewer than 500 employees, 97.5 percent have fewer than 20, and more…

  2. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOEpatents

    Scharf, John Edward

    1998-11-03

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  3. The Green Revolution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbridge, Stuart

    1985-01-01

    The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)

  4. Expanding the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.

    1989-01-01

    Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)

  5. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Pete Beckman

    2010-01-08

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  6. No More Green Thumbs!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Judith A.

    1977-01-01

    An alternative method of bacterial spore staining using malachite green is described. This technique is designed to save time and expense by a less messy procedure. Advantages and adaptations of the technique are also given. (MR)

  7. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    SciTech Connect

    Pete Beckman

    2009-11-18

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing—everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently.

  8. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  9. Green Supercomputing at Argonne

    ScienceCinema

    Beckman, Pete

    2013-04-19

    Pete Beckman, head of Argonne's Leadership Computing Facility (ALCF) talks about Argonne National Laboratory's green supercomputing?everything from designing algorithms to use fewer kilowatts per operation to using cold Chicago winter air to cool the machine more efficiently. Argonne was recognized for green computing in the 2009 HPCwire Readers Choice Awards. More at http://www.anl.gov/Media_Center/News/2009/news091117.html Read more about the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility at http://www.alcf.anl.gov/

  10. Phytochrome from green plants:

    SciTech Connect

    Quail, P.H.

    1988-03-01

    This research has been directed toward characterizing and purifying the molecular species of phytochrome detected in green Avena tissue. We have found major differences between the phytochrome extracted from green and from etiolated tissue as regards immunochemial and spectral properties. In addition, we have established: (a) that the predominant ()approximately)80% of total) phytochrome polypeptide in green tissue has a relative molecular mass (Mr) of 118,000;(b) that the proteolytic peptide map of this 118,000-Mr species differs considerably from that of 124,000-Mr phytochrome from etiolated tissue;(c) that the green-tissue, 118,000-Mr polypeptide carries only one of three spatially separate epitopes that are present on etiolated-tissue phytochrome (i.e., an epitope in the carboxy-terminal domain recognized by Type 3 monoclonal antibodies);(d) that the minor phytochrome species in green tissue ()approximately)20% of total) resembles that in etiolated tissue in that it is 124,000-Mr and is immunoprecipitable with polyclonal, anti-etiolated-oat-phytochrome antibodies, thereby accounting for the previously observed limited population of immunoprecipitable activity in green extracts;and (e) that the 118,000-Mr green-tissue molecule migrates on non-denaturing size exclusionchromatography as a )approximately)320 kDa entity, suggesting a quaternary structure similar to etiolated tissue 124,000-Mr phytochrome. A new purification protocol that enriches the green-tissue phytochrome )approximately)200-fold has been developed. The preparations obtained in this way are apparently free of residual endogenous proteolytic activity. We have examined the regulation of the level of the 118,000-MR species during seedling developement and have obtained evidence that the abundance of this species is not modulated by light, in contrast to its etiolated-tissue counterpart. 12 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Green synthesis of nanomaterials and sustainable applications of nano-catalysts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green synthesis efforts involving the use of vitamins B1, B2, C, and tea and wine polyphenols which function both as reducing and capping agents will be presented which enables extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to nanomaterials in water.1a Shape-controlled synth...

  12. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  13. Shape dependent heat transport through green synthesized gold nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Jisha; Thomas, Lincy; Kumar, B. Rajesh; Kurian, Achamma; George, Sajan D.

    2015-08-01

    Nanofluids hold promise as a more efficient coolant for thermoelectric devices. Despite the capability of tailoring the thermo physical properties of nanofluids, by tuning the particle parameters such as shape, size and concentration, the toxicity of chemicals used for the preparation of nanoparticles is a serious concern. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is emerging as an alternative to the conventional chemical and physical methods for the preparation of nanoparticles. In this work, the results of the preparation of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents are presented. The green synthesis route employed for the present study provides particles of similar size, but the shape of the particles is found to vary depending upon the source of the natural reducing agents. The thermal diffusivity values of the gold nanofluid measured using laser based dual beam thermal lens technique elucidate the role of shape and concentration of the green synthesized nanoparticles on the effective thermal diffusivity values of the nanofluids.

  14. Understanding Green Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Andrew T.

    1998-05-01

    Most astronomers learn about green flashes from either Minnaert's old book (Dover, 1954) or O'Connell's ``The Green Flash....'' Both have defects. Minnaert's account mostly represents what was known in the 1920s; it repeats Mulder's 3-fold classification, which omits Joule's second type of flash --- the one most commonly seen from mountain observatories. O'Connell searched only the astronomical literature, missing Dietze's crucially important paper (Z.f.Met. 9, 169 (1955)) showing that the ``textbook'' mechanism cannot produce flashes visible to the naked eye. He also erred in thinking that distortions of the setting Sun arise in the upper atmosphere (they are due to the marine boundary layer), and copied an error from Feenstra Kuiper's thesis that misidentified a common mirage-like phenomenon as Wegener's ``blank strip'' (Young et al., Appl. Opt. 36, 2689 (1997).) Most phenomena shown in O'Connell's book are caused by inversion layers below eye level, not above as in Wegener's phenomenon. The two commonest forms of green flash are associated with the inferior mirage and the mock mirage, corresponding to Fisher's Type A and Type B sunsets, respectively. Superrefraction, advocated by Wood and by Rayleigh as the cause of large flashes, actually suppress them: the airmass is proportional to the refraction (by Laplace's extinction theorem), so no green is transmitted when refraction is much larger than average. Although there is a physical green flash that can be photographed, the colors seen at sunset are strongly modified by bleaching of the L cones. Most ``green'' sunset flashes are actually yellow. Writers should stop representing Jules Verne's ``ancient legend'' as fact, as it was invented by Verne as a plot device for his novel ``Le Rayon Vert.'' Green-flash photos and simulations will be shown. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF under Award No. ATM-9714357.

  15. Green machining of gelcast ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nunn, S.D.; Kirby, G.H.

    1996-04-01

    Ceramic green bodies prepared by gelcasting were shown to be readily machinable using WC cutting tools. Samples of alumina and silicon nitride were examined. It was found that a gelcasting formulation which uses a high molecular weight cross-linking agent produces a green body having superior machining characteristics. Samples fabricated with a lower molecular weight cross-linker exhibited a poor machined surface finish due to chipping. Machining tests showed that using a 3.2 mm (0.125 in.) diameter cutting tool at a cutting speed of 162.5 cm/sec (64 ft./sec.) to machine a flat-bottomed groove 3.2 mm wide and 9.5 mm deep (0.125 x 0.375 in.) using three passes, feed rates ranging from 0.85 to 6.35 cm/sec (0.33 to 2.50 in./sec.) could be used without damaging the sample.

  16. Detection of rheumatoid arthritis in humans by fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Bernd; Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Bauer, Daniel; Voigt, Jan; Berliner, Michael; Bahner, Malte L.; Macdonald, Rainer

    2010-02-01

    The blood pool agent indo-cyanine green (ICG) has been investigated in a prospective clinical study for detection of rheumatoid arthritis using fluorescence imaging. Temporal behavior as well as spatial distribution of fluorescence intensity are suited to differentiate healthy and inflamed finger joints after i.v. injection of an ICG bolus.

  17. A Green Solvent Induced DNA Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpathi, Sagar; Sengupta, Abhigyan; Hridya, V. M.; Gavvala, Krishna; Koninti, Raj Kumar; Roy, Bibhisan; Hazra, Partha

    2015-03-01

    Mechanistic details of DNA compaction is essential blue print for gene regulation in living organisms. Many in vitro studies have been implemented using several compaction agents. However, these compacting agents may have some kinds of cytotoxic effects to the cells. To minimize this aspect, several research works had been performed, but people have never focused green solvent, i.e. room temperature ionic liquid as DNA compaction agent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report where we have shown that guanidinium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate (Gua-IL) acts as a DNA compacting agent. The compaction ability of Gua-IL has been verified by different spectroscopic techniques, like steady state emission, circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and UV melting. Notably, we have extensively probed this compaction by Gua-IL through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and fluorescence microscopy images. We also have discussed the plausible compaction mechanism process of DNA by Gua-IL. Our results suggest that Gua-IL forms a micellar kind of self aggregation above a certain concentration (>=1 mM), which instigates this compaction process. This study divulges the specific details of DNA compaction mechanism by a new class of compaction agent, which is highly biodegradable and eco friendly in nature.

  18. Green Clay Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velde, B.

    2003-12-01

    Color is a problem for scientific study. One aspect is the vocabulary one used to describe color. Mint green, bottle green, and Kelly green are nice names but not of great utility in that people's physical perception of color is not always the same. In some industries, such as colored fabric manufacture, current use is to send a set of standard colors which are matched by the producer. This is similar to the use of the Munsell color charts in geology. None of these processes makes use of physical optical spectral studies. The reason is that they are difficult to obtain and interpret. For a geologist, color is very important but we rarely have the possibility to standardize the method of our color perception. One reason is that color is both a reflective and transmission phenomenon. The thickness of the sample is critical to any transmission characteristics. Hence, a field color determination is different from one made by using a petrographic microscope. Green glauconite in a hand specimen is not the same color in 30 μm thick thin section seen with a microscope using transmitted light.A second problem is that color in a spectral identification is the result of several absorption emissions,with overlapping signal, forming a complicated spectrum. Interpretation depends very greatly on the spectrum of the light source and the conditions of transmission-reflection of the sample. As a result, for this text, we will not attempt to analyze the physical aspect of green in green clays. In the discussion which follows, reference is made concerning color, to thin section microscopic perception.Very briefly, green clay minerals are green, because they contain iron. This is perhaps not a great revelation to mineralogists, but it is the key to understanding the origin and stability of green clay minerals. In fact, iron can color minerals either red or green or in various shades of orange and brown. The color most likely depends upon the relative abundance of the iron ion valence

  19. Green Logistics Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon S.; Oh, Chang H.

    Nowadays, environmental management becomes a critical business consideration for companies to survive from many regulations and tough business requirements. Most of world-leading companies are now aware that environment friendly technology and management are critical to the sustainable growth of the company. The environment market has seen continuous growth marking 532B in 2000, and 590B in 2004. This growth rate is expected to grow to 700B in 2010. It is not hard to see the environment-friendly efforts in almost all aspects of business operations. Such trends can be easily found in logistics area. Green logistics aims to make environmental friendly decisions throughout a product lifecycle. Therefore for the success of green logistics, it is critical to have real time tracking capability on the product throughout the product lifecycle and smart solution service architecture. In this chapter, we introduce an RFID based green logistics solution and service.

  20. On being green: can flow chemistry help?

    PubMed

    Ley, Steven V

    2012-08-01

    The principles of Green Chemistry are important but challenging drivers for most modern synthesis programs. To meet these challenges new flow chemistry tools are proving to be very effective by providing improved heat/mass transfer opportunities, lower solvent usage, less waste generation, hazardous compound containment, and the possibility of a 24/7 working regime. This machine-assisted approach can be used to effect repetitive or routine scale-up steps or when combined with reagent and scavenger cartridges, to achieve multi-step synthesis of complex natural products and pharmaceutical agents. PMID:22711555

  1. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  2. Apollo 15 green glasses.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridley, W. I.; Reid, A. M.; Warner, J. L.; Brown, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The samples analyzed include 28 spheres, portions of spheres, and angular fragments from soil 15101. Emerald green glasses from other soils are identical to those from 15101. The composition of the green glass is unlike that of any other major lunar glass group. The Fe content is comparable to that in mare basalts, but Ti is much lower. The Mg content is much higher than in most lunar materials analyzed to date, and the Cr content is also high. The low Al content is comparable to that of mare basalt glasses.

  3. New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned. PMID:25343010

  4. Toward Green Challenge Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Karl E.

    1999-01-01

    Designing environmentally friendly challenge courses involves considering factors such as clearing, trees versus poles, soil erosion and compaction, toilet design, waste disposal, and carrying capacity. Strategies used in "green development" such as systems thinking, solution multipliers, and brainstorming with stakeholders could promote challenge…

  5. The Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestage, R. M.; Constantikes, K. T.; Hunter, T. R.; King, L. J.; Lacasse, R. J.; Lockman, F. J.; Norrod, R. D.

    2009-08-01

    The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory is the world's premiere single-dish radio telescope operating at centimeter to long millimeter wavelengths. This paper describes the history, construction, and main technical features of the telescope.

  6. Elements of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turckes, Steven; Engelbrecht, Kathie

    2002-01-01

    Discusses incorporating green design into school construction, asserting that schools can improve their impact on the environment and reduce their operating costs while educating people about the value of sustainable design. Addresses energy reduction (including daylighting), site design for low environmental impact, flexible design, indoor air…

  7. Lean Green Machines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Colleges and universities have been among the leaders nationwide in adopting green initiatives, partly due to their demographics, but also because they are facing their own budget pressures. Virtualization has become the poster child of many schools' efforts, because it provides significant bang for the buck. However, more and more higher…

  8. The Green Hunter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ed

    1991-01-01

    Environmentalists who oppose hunting have little understanding of the sport, its ethics and regulations, and its immense role in wildlife conservation. "Green" hunting involves not only the hunter's methods but also his perceptions of the hunt as a cultural or spiritual experience. (SV)

  9. The Green Obligation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Cameron

    2007-01-01

    As the green movement grows, studies provide conclusive evidence about the benefits of environmentally conscious practices indoors and outdoors. Schools are no exception. Many of these studies demonstrate how poor indoor air quality (IAQ) in schools adversely affects many of the nation's 55 million students with health problems such as asthma and…

  10. Revisiting Lexington Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheurman, Geoffrey

    1998-01-01

    Identifies and discusses different ways in which teachers using constructivist and other approaches might teach a lesson on the Lexington Green incident of April 1775. In that incident British soldiers opened fire on colonial farmers, killing eight of them. Includes excerpts from eyewitness documents and other background material. (MJP)

  11. Green Schools in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zuqiang

    2002-01-01

    Describes the establishment of Green Schools, facilitated environmental education (EE) in primary and middle schools in China, with different detailed criteria among the provinces. Suggests that the transformation from examination-based to quality-oriented education will provide greater opportunity for EE. Recommends strategies to foster Green…

  12. Green chemistry metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synthetic chemists have always had an objective to achieve reliable and high-yielding routes to the syntheses of targeted molecules. The importance of minimal waste generation has emphasized the use of green chemistry principles and sustainable development. These directions lead ...

  13. A Green Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Building a new green campus and adopting a philosophy of sustainability is exciting, but if not done properly, it is not always the wisest decision. As one considers the education, health, and safety of a campus community, along with its business objectives, one may discover that there are numerous ways to make the campus more sustainable without…

  14. A green jobs primer.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Bracken; Light, Andrew; Goldstein, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The authors ask and answer four basic questions about green jobs and their effect on the economy: what are they, will they pay well, do they come at the cost of losses elsewhere in the economy, and do they result from luck in choosing technological "winners." PMID:19608522

  15. Raising a "Green Generation"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leger-Ferraro, Susan

    2010-01-01

    These days, "going green" is at the forefront of conversation in political, entertainment, and corporate circles. Yet to truly impact change, future generations must carry the torch of transformation. To ensure success, adults need to begin the practices with the fertile minds of young children in early education. Practicing sustainability is not…

  16. The Green Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnigen, Charlie

    2006-01-01

    As interest in green building grows, much discussion has focused on aligning a project with the principles of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification: (1) cost savings through energy and water conservation; (2) improved worker productivity; (3) health, insurance and risk-management benefits; and (4) enhanced building…

  17. Greening the Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John E.

    1999-01-01

    People who work on campuses and make decisions are just beginning to recognize that the way their institution organizes itself and behaves constitutes a type of out-of-class curriculum. Efforts to "green" the campus must encompass all aspects of university life. Author offers guidelines to help bring institutions into compliance with the Talloires…

  18. Putting on the green

    EPA Science Inventory

    The green chemistry movement is scrutinized for marks of tangible success in this short perspective. Beginning with the easily identified harm of the Union Carbide Bhopal, India disaster and the concerns of Love Canal site in Niagara Falls, NY the public can begin to more easily ...

  19. Green light for curiosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    feodor, octavian.; garyjahns

    2015-09-01

    In reply to Pete Lawrence's article “The green flash” (Features, July pp30-31, http://ow.ly/Ph0Ws), which described the science behind this rare atmospheric phenomenon and the author's efforts to experience it in person.

  20. Brassica greens herbicide screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to screen herbicides for potential use in brassica greens. Plots were in a RBD with 4 replications. The study was direct seeded on May 19, 2009 with a seeding rate of 272,000 seeds/acre (‘Savanna’ mustard). Treatments included trifluralin PPI + DCPA pre-emergence ap...

  1. Green Schools: Electric Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A student committee whose main duty is changing light bulbs may sound like the punch line to a bad joke, but as the students and faculty at Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) in Rockville, MD, know, changing a light bulb is no laughing matter. As part of the district's green initiative, all standard incandescent and fluorescent light bulbs…

  2. EPA NRMRL green Infrastructure research

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Infrastructure is an engineering approach to wet weather flow management that uses infiltration, evapotranspiration, capture and reuse to better mimic the natural drainage processes than traditional gray systems. Green technologies supplement gray infrastructure to red...

  3. The green highway forum

    SciTech Connect

    2006-07-01

    In late 2004, as part of American Coal Ash Association's (ACAA) strategic planning process, a plan was approved by its Board of Directors implementing a 'green highways' concept which emphasized use of coal combustion products (CCPs) in highways in a variety of ways including being used alone, in combination with other forms of CCPs, and combined with non ash materials. The incentives behind the developed concept were the derived advantages from beneficial technical economic and environmental impacts. Although the primary use of fly ash is concrete, other forms of CCPs could be considered for more non-traditional highway applications. For example, these might include soils stabilization, binders for in-place pavement recycling, use in flowable fills, aggregates, source materials for structural fills and embankments, components in manufactured soils, and for granular base courses beneath pavements. At this same time, unknown to ACCA, EPA Region 3 in Philadelphia was working with the Wetlands and Watershed Work Group, a non-profit organization involved in wetlands policy and management along with the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) on their own Green Highways initiative. These groups were planning a conference, the 'Green Highway Forum'. This was held in College Park, Maryland at the University of Maryland, Nov 8-10 2005. At the conference a draft 'roadmap' was presented as a guide to executive level participants bringing the diverse viewpoints of many agencies and interest groups together. Ten guiding principals were considered. The 'Green Highways' is a new effort to recognize the 'greenness' of many projects already completed and those to be initiated. 2 photos.

  4. "Green" School Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, J. Howard

    2009-01-01

    What are "Green School" programs and how do they benefit students, teachers and the community? Green School programs seek to weave concepts of sustainability and environmental awareness into the social and academic culture of the school community. Green schools are high performance facilities that have been designed, built, renovated operated or…

  5. Green Roofs for Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Results indicate that the green roofs are capable of removing 40% of the annual rainfall volume from a roof through retention and evapotranspiration. Rainfall not retained by green roofs is detained, effectively...

  6. It's Not Easy Building Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Discusses green buildings, facilities designed, constructed, and operated in an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient way. Discusses reasons for campuses to "go green," the "shades of green" or variations in environmental-friendliness, certification through the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating system, financial…

  7. Green Schools on Ordinary Budgets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Some in the green building industry have spoken for some time now of green buildings not needing to cost more. Jason McLennan in his 2004 book "The Philosophy of Sustainable Design" discusses not falling into the "green is always more" syndrome. He goes on to explain the concept of tunneling through the cost barrier. A 2007 cost study by the…

  8. Greening from the Top Down.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberndorfer, Erica

    2002-01-01

    Green roofs, with their topsoil and plants, improve insulation, filter air, reduce water runoff, and provide habitat for urban wildlife. They are compatible with schools because they save energy; schools' flat roofs are conducive to greening; and green roofs can be outdoor classrooms for botany, ecology, and energy efficiency. Although scarce in…

  9. Development of a fast ELISA for the specific detection of both leucomalachite green and malachite green

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yousheng; Chen, Li; Hu, Kun; Yu, Wenjuan; Yang, Xianle; Lu, Liqun

    2015-04-01

    Malachite green (MG), a dye, is an antifungal agent that has been used to treat and prevent fish diseases. It is metabolized into reduced leucomalachite green forms (LMG) that may reside in fish muscles for a long period, thus being harmful to human health. The aim of this study was to develop a competitive and direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect MG and LMG specifically. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) to LMG was generated using a hybridoma technique. The obtained mAb showed good cross-reactivity (CR) to malachite green (MG), but not to crystal violet (CV) and Brilliant Green (BG). The mAb was used to develop a fast detecting ELISA of MG and LMG in fish. By introducing the conjugation LMG-HRP, the detection capability was 0.37 ng mL-1 for MG and LMG. The mean recovery from spiked grass carp tissues ranged from 76.2% to 82.9% and the coefficients of variation varied between 1.8% and 7.5%. The stable and efficient monoclonal cell line obtained is a sustainable source of sensitive and specific antibody to MG and LMG.

  10. Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles and prospects toward green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Adil, Syed Farooq; Assal, Mohamed E; Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-06-01

    The immense importance of nanoparticles and their applications is a strong motivation for exploring new synthetic techniques. However, due to strict regulations that manage the potential environmental impacts greener alternatives for conventional synthesis are the focus of intense research. In the scope of this perspective, a concise discussion about the use of green reducing and stabilizing agents toward the preparation of metal nanoparticles is presented. Reports on the synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles using plant extracts, ascorbic acid and sodium citrate as green reagents are summarized and discussed, pointing toward an urgent need of understanding the mechanistic aspects of the involved reactions. PMID:25633046

  11. Green chemistry synthesis of nano-cuprous oxide.

    PubMed

    Ceja-Romero, L R; Ortega-Arroyo, L; Ortega Rueda de León, J M; López-Andrade, X; Narayanan, J; Aguilar-Méndez, M A; Castaño, V M

    2016-04-01

    Green chemistry and a central composite design, to evaluate the effect of reducing agent, temperature and pH of the reaction, were employed to produce controlled cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles. Response surface method of the ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy is allowed to determine the most relevant factors for the size distribution of the nanoCu2O. X-ray diffraction reflections correspond to a cubic structure, with sizes from 31.9 to 104.3 nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals that the different shapes depend strongly on the conditions of the green synthesis. PMID:27074852

  12. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  13. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  14. Magnetic fields of green.

    PubMed

    Branton, Scott; Lile, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    By incorporating even the basic elements of a more environmentally friendly, "green"construction and design in an MRI setting can create a safer, more pleasant space for the patients and staff, better images, and operational cost savings. Using building systems that have reduced amounts of steel can decrease construction time, increase thermal insulation, and reduce the weight of the structure meaning less energy required to transport and install. HVAC systems and lighting design can also play a major role in creating a "green"MRI suite. LEED certification places a focus on quality of the built environment, life cycle cost, and a productive indoor environment, as well as impact on the exterior environment. An LEED certified building considers costs and benefits for the lifetime of the building. PMID:22043731

  15. Green biorefinery - Industrial implementation.

    PubMed

    Kamm, B; Schönicke, P; Hille, Ch

    2016-04-15

    Oil refineries currently generate a multitude of products for almost every sphere of life at very high efficiency. However, fossil raw materials are just available in limited quantities. The development of comparable BIOREFINERIES is necessary to make a variety of competitive biological products regarding their equivalent products based on fossil raw materials. The product range of a biorefinery comprises products that can be manufactured on the basis of crude oil, as well as such products that cannot be produced on the basis of crude oil (Kamm, Gruber, & Kamm, 2011). GREEN BIOREFINERIES [GBR's] are complex systems of sustainable, environment- and resource-friendly technologies for a comprehensive material and energy use or recovery of renewable raw materials in form of green and waste biomasses from a sustainable land use as target (Kamm et al., 2009; Digman, Runge, Shinners, & Hatfield, 2013). PMID:26675876

  16. The greening of synfuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kintisch, E.

    2008-04-15

    Synfuels emit less carbon dioxide than oil and even reduce the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. For making synfuels green is by using large amounts of plant biomass along with coal and storing in the ground the CO{sub 2} emitted during the production of synfuels. The process of making synfuel is by turning coal into gas, which creates carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The resulting syngas is converted into diesel fuel, jet fuel, or chemical feedstock.

  17. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  18. Underwater green laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, Arkadiusz J.; Kozioł, Paweł; Wąż, Adam T.; Sotor, Jarosław Z.; Dudzik, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Paweł R.; Abramski, Krzysztof M.

    2012-06-01

    We have developed a laser vibrometer based on an monolithic single-frequency green laser operating at 532 nm. This wavelength can be particularly useful in the case of underwater vibrometry, especially with regard to the minimum of water absorption for this wavelength range (blue-green window). Using polarizing optics, we proposed a configuration that allows the elimination of parasitic reflections at the air-glass-water boundary. A measurement of heterodyne signals as a mixing result of scattered and reference beams has been performed. The study was conducted in aqueous medium for the scattering waterproof paper and retro-reflective surface. In both configurations we have obtained signals with a relatively high S/N ratio > 20 dB (for scattering surface) and > 31 dB (for retro-reflective tape) with the Resolution Bandwidth RBW 10 kHz for a vibrometer output power of 5 mW and the distance to the moving object 1.2 m (including 0.3 m in air). In our opinion, laser Doppler vibrometry LDV based on high-performance single frequency solid-state lasers with a wavelength range corresponding to the blue-green window allows effective measurement of vibration in the underwater environment.

  19. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  20. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  1. INL Green Building Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Dalton

    2005-05-01

    Green buildings, also known as sustainable buildings, resource efficient buildings, and high performance buildings, are structures that minimize the impact on the environment by using less energy and water, reducing solid waste and pollutants, and limiting the depletion of natural resources. As Idaho National Laboratory (INL) becomes the nation’s premier nuclear energy research laboratory, the physical infrastructure will be established to help accomplish the mission. This infrastructure, particularly the buildings, should incorporate green design features in order to be environmentally responsible and reflect an image of progressiveness and innovation to the public and prospective employees. With this in mind, the recommendations described in this strategy are intended to form the INL foundation for green building standards. The recommendations in this strategy are broken down into three levels: Baseline Minimum, Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)Certification, and Innovative. Baseline Minimum features should be included in all new occupied buildings no matter what the purpose or size. These features do not require significant research, design, or capital costs and yet they can reduce Operation and Maintenance (O&M) costs and produce more environmentally friendly buildings. LEED Certification features are more aggressive than the Baseline Minimums in that they require documentation, studies, and/or additional funding. Combined with the Baseline Minimums, many of the features in this level will need to be implemented to achieve the goal of LEED certification. LEED Silver certification should be the minimum goal for all new buildings (including office buildings, laboratories, cafeterias, and visitor centers) greater than 25,000 square feet or a total cost of $10 million. Innovative features can also contribute to LEED certification, but are less mainstream than those listed in the previous two levels. These features are identified as areas where

  2. Green Chemistry Metrics with Special Reference to Green Analytical Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tobiszewski, Marek; Marć, Mariusz; Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The concept of green chemistry is widely recognized in chemical laboratories. To properly measure an environmental impact of chemical processes, dedicated assessment tools are required. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge in the field of development of green chemistry and green analytical chemistry metrics. The diverse methods used for evaluation of the greenness of organic synthesis, such as eco-footprint, E-Factor, EATOS, and Eco-Scale are described. Both the well-established and recently developed green analytical chemistry metrics, including NEMI labeling and analytical Eco-scale, are presented. Additionally, this paper focuses on the possibility of the use of multivariate statistics in evaluation of environmental impact of analytical procedures. All the above metrics are compared and discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. The current needs and future perspectives in green chemistry metrics are also discussed. PMID:26076112

  3. Green chemistry approach for the synthesis of biocompatible graphene

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2013-01-01

    Background Graphene is a single-atom thick, two-dimensional sheet of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms isolated from its three-dimensional parent material, graphite. One of the most common methods for preparation of graphene is chemical exfoliation of graphite using powerful oxidizing agents. Generally, graphene is synthesized through deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO) by using hydrazine, which is one of the most widespread and strongest reducing agents. Due to the high toxicity of hydrazine, it is not a promising reducing agent in large-scale production of graphene; therefore, this study focused on a green or sustainable synthesis of graphene and the biocompatibility of graphene in primary mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (PMEFs). Methods Here, we demonstrated a simple, rapid, and green chemistry approach for the synthesis of reduced GO (rGO) from GO using triethylamine (TEA) as a reducing agent and stabilizing agent. The obtained TEA reduced GO (TEA-rGO) was characterized by ultraviolet (UV)–visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results The transition of graphene oxide to graphene was confirmed by UV–visible spectroscopy. XRD and SEM were used to investigate the crystallinity of graphene and the surface morphologies of prepared graphene respectively. The formation of defects further supports the functionalization of graphene as indicated in the Raman spectrum of TEA-rGO. Surface morphology and the thickness of the GO and TEA-rGO were analyzed using AFM. The presented results suggest that TEA-rGO shows significantly more biocompatibility with PMEFs cells than GO. Conclusion This is the first report about using TEA as a reducing as well as a stabilizing agent for the preparation of biocompatible graphene. The proposed safe and green method offers substitute routes for large-scale production of graphene

  4. Mitigation of copper toxicity by DNA oligomers in green paramecia

    PubMed Central

    Takaichi, Hiroshi; Comparini, Diego; Iwase, Junichiro; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Impact of transition metals which catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. Similarly in green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), an aquatic protozoan species harboring symbiotic green algae in the cytoplasm, toxicities of various metallic ions have been documented. We have recently examined the effects of double-stranded GC-rich DNA fragments with copper-binding nature and ROS removal catalytic activity as novel plant cell-protecting agents, using the suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Here, we show that above DNA oligomers protect the cells of green paramecia from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in tobacco cells is not limited only within higher plants but it could be universally observable in wider range of organisms. PMID:26418558

  5. Mitigation of copper toxicity by DNA oligomers in green paramecia.

    PubMed

    Takaichi, Hiroshi; Comparini, Diego; Iwase, Junichiro; Bouteau, François; Mancuso, Stefano; Kawano, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Impact of transition metals which catalyze the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. Similarly in green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria), an aquatic protozoan species harboring symbiotic green algae in the cytoplasm, toxicities of various metallic ions have been documented. We have recently examined the effects of double-stranded GC-rich DNA fragments with copper-binding nature and ROS removal catalytic activity as novel plant cell-protecting agents, using the suspension-cultured tobacco cells. Here, we show that above DNA oligomers protect the cells of green paramecia from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in tobacco cells is not limited only within higher plants but it could be universally observable in wider range of organisms. PMID:26418558

  6. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition1

    PubMed Central

    Clore, Gerald L.; Palmer, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  7. AFFECTIVE GUIDANCE OF INTELLIGENT AGENTS: How Emotion Controls Cognition.

    PubMed

    Clore, Gerald L; Palmer, Janet E

    2009-03-01

    Emotions and moods color cognition. In this article, we outline how emotions affect judgments and cognitive performance of human agents. We argue that affective influences are due, not to the affective reactions themselves, but to the information they carry about value, a potentially useful finding for creators of artificial agents. The kind of influence that occurs depends on the focus of the agent at the time. When making evaluative judgments, for example, agents may experience positive affect as a positive attitude toward a person or object. But when an agent focuses on a cognitive task, positive affect may act like performance feedback, with positive affect giving a green light to cognitive, relational processes. By contrast, negative affect tends to inhibit relational processing, resulting in a more perceptual, stimulus-specific processing. One result is that many textbook phenomena from cognitive psychology occur readily in happy moods, but are inhibited in sad moods. PMID:19255620

  8. Greening critical care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Climate change and environmental stewardship are phrases that have been defining the past few decades and promoting change in our societies. The sensitivities of intensive care as a specialty make the process of greening an intensive care unit a challenge, but not one that is insurmountable. This paper discusses opportunities for critical care to reduce its environmental impact and provide a framework change. The article includes suggestions of what can be done as an individual, as a unit and as a hospital. Generally, practices in critical care are accepted without questioning the environmental consequences. We believe it is time for change, and critical care should give environmental stewardship a higher priority. PMID:21635700

  9. Multimodal Surgical Guidance during Sentinel Node Biopsy for Melanoma: Combined Gamma Tracing and Fluorescence Imaging of the Sentinel Node through Use of the Hybrid Tracer Indocyanine Green-(99m)Tc-Nanocolloid.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Nynke S; Brouwer, Oscar R; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E; Mathéron, Hanna M; Klop, W Martin C; Balm, Alfons J M; van Tinteren, Harm; Nieweg, Omgo E; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; Valdés Olmos, Renato A

    2015-05-01

    Purpose To evaluate the hybrid approach in a large population of patients with melanoma in the head and neck, on the trunk, or on an extremity who were scheduled for sentinel node (SN) biopsy. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board. Between March 2010 and March 2013, 104 patients with a melanoma, including 48 women (average age, 54.3 years; range, 18.5-87.4 years) and 56 men (average age, 55.2 years; range, 22.4-77.4 years) (P = .76) were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. Following intradermal hybrid tracer administration, lymphoscintigraphy and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography were performed. Blue dye was intradermally injected prior to the start of the surgical operation (excluding patients with a facial melanoma). Intraoperatively, SNs were initially pursued by using gamma tracing followed by fluorescence imaging (FI) and, when applicable, blue-dye detection. A portable gamma camera was used to confirm SN removal. Collected data included number and location of the preoperatively and intraoperatively identified SNs and the intraoperative number of SNs that were radioactive, fluorescent, and blue. A two-sample test for equality of proportions was performed to evaluate differences in intraoperative SN visualization through FI and blue-dye detection. Results Preoperative imaging revealed 2.4 SNs (range, 1-6) per patient. Intraoperatively, 93.8% (286 of 305) of the SNs were radioactive, 96.7% (295 of 305) of the SNs were fluorescent, while only 61.7% (116 of 188) of the SNs stained blue (P < .0001). FI was of value for identification of near-injection-site SNs (two patients), SNs located in complex anatomic areas (head and neck [28 patients]), and SNs that failed to accumulate blue dye (19 patients). Conclusion The hybrid tracer enables both preoperative SN mapping and intraoperative SN identification in melanoma patients. In the setup of this study, optical identification of the SNs through the fluorescent signature of the hybrid tracer was superior compared with blue dye-based SN visualization. PMID:25521776

  10. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  11. The trashing of Big Green

    SciTech Connect

    Felten, E.

    1990-11-26

    The Big Green initiative on California's ballot lost by a margin of 2-to-1. Green measures lost in five other states, shocking ecology-minded groups. According to the postmortem by environmentalists, Big Green was a victim of poor timing and big spending by the opposition. Now its supporters plan to break up the bill and try to pass some provisions in the Legislature.

  12. Dimensions of Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloech, Henning M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how schools can benefit by establishing sustainable purchasing practices for furniture and furnishings. Describes the elements of sustainable purchasing (reduce, reuse, recycle; ingredients/contents; emissions/indoor air quality; and corporate guidelines), and the added vigilance required of purchasing agents. (EV)

  13. Green light in photomorphogenic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maruhnich, Stefanie Anne

    Light quality, quantity, and duration provide essential environmental cues that shape plant growth and development. Over the last century, researchers have worked to discover how plants sense, integrate, and respond to red, blue, and far-red light. Green light is often considered a “benign” wavelength with little to no effect in plant development. However, sparse experiments in the literature demonstrate that green effects are often counterintuitive to normal light responses and oppose red- and blue-light-induced responses. Green light effects on plant growth and development are described here through the use of custom, tunable LED, light-emitting diode, chambers. These light sources allow for specific light qualities and quantities to be administered. The effects of green wavebands were assessed when red and blue photomorphogenic systems were active to answer the question: Are the effects of an inhibitor (green light) more evident in the presence of inducers (red and blue light)? In seedlings, supplemental green light increased hypocotyl elongation opposite to classical inhibition of hypocotyl elongation associated with growth in light and induced by red and blue wavebands. Results indicate that added green light induced a reversion of light-grown phenotypes. In mature plants, supplemental green light induced phenotypes typical of the shade-avoidance syndrome, including elongated petioles, smaller leaf areas, and leaf hyponasty. These responses are typical of lower-light conditions or far-red enriched environments. Contrary to far-red-light-induced shade-avoidance, data indicate green delays flowering. In Arabidopsis and strawberry plants, anthocyanin levels also decreased when green light was added to red and blue light treatments, which is again opposite to normal light-induced phenotypes. Photoreceptor mutants were tested and indicate green light effects in early development are cryptochromedependent. However, green-light-induced shade-avoidance responses

  14. Chemical crowd control agents.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  15. Can Growth Be Green?

    PubMed

    Gough, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This short article, based on a presentation at the London School of Economics, criticizes the common opinion that "green growth" offers a relatively painless - some even say pain-free - transition path for capitalist economies. After a brief summary of the daunting arithmetic entailed in combining fast decarbonization with continuing growth, the article advances 3 propositions. First, market-based carbon mitigation programs, such as carbon trading, cannot be sufficient and must be coupled with other policy pillars that foster transformative investment and widespread regulation. Second, a political economy of climate policy needs to draw on the lessons of comparative social policy research, which emphasizes the role of international pressures, interests, institutions, and ideas. Taking these into account gives a more realistic perspective on climate policy making in today's neoliberal world. Third, more radical policies on both consumption and production are called for, to ensure that carbon mitigation is not pursued at the expense of equity and social welfare. These include policies to restrain high-carbon luxury consumption and a transition toward shorter paid working time. The conclusion is that a realistic program of green growth will be immensely difficult and entail radical political change. PMID:26077854

  16. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Heather E.

    2011-01-01

    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  17. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  19. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture Regulations..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color....

  20. 7 CFR 29.3522 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3522 Section 29.3522 Agriculture... Type 95) § 29.3522 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored, immature, or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green....

  1. 7 CFR 51.574 - Green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.574 Green. Green means that the middle portions of the outer branches on the stalk are generally green to light green color. ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green. 51.574 Section 51.574 Agriculture...

  2. Investigating Green: Creating Surveys to Answer Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenga, Stephen; Joyce, Beverly A.; Ness, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Being green means different things to different people. Some suggest that being green means saving energy, not wasting paper towels, going solar, harnessing wind, using less fertilizer, or buying products that are organically grown. Given that being green can mean a lot of things, what does "being green" or "going green" mean to both you and your…

  3. 77 FR 2296 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule for three teleconference meetings of the Green Building Advisory Committee (the..., Designated Federal Officer, Office of Federal High Performance Green Buildings, Office of...

  4. 77 FR 66616 - Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ...: Introductions & plans for today's meeting. Green Building Certification System Review update. Facilities... ADMINISTRATION Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; Green Building Advisory Committee... provides the schedule and agenda for the November 27, 2012, meeting of the Green Building...

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

    2011-04-01

    Although green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by various plants and microorganisms has been reported, the potential of plants as biological materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their compatibility to biological systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we report a simple green method for the synthesis of Ag NPs using garlic clove extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition to green synthesis, biological response of Ag NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells was also assessed. Ag NPs were rapidly synthesized using garlic clove extract and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The green synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data demonstrated that the particles were crystalline in nature and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 12 nm. Measurements of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species have shown that the green synthesized Ag NPs were nontoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study demonstrated a simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign synthesis of Ag NPs with excellent biocompatibility to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This preliminary in vitro investigation needs to be followed up by future studies with various biological systems.

  6. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  7. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  8. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  9. Green Tea, Soy, and Mammographic Density in Singapore Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H.; Ursin, Giske; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Khoo, Kei-Siong; Yu, Mimi C.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence from observational studies that breast cancer risk is inversely associated with soy and green tea consumption. We investigated the effects of these two dietary agents on mammographic density, a well-established biomarker for breast cancer risk, in a cross-sectional analysis of mammograms and validated food frequency questionnaires from 3,315 Chinese women in Singapore. Percent mammographic density (PMD) was assessed using a reproducible computer-assisted method. We used generalized linear models to estimate PMD by intake of soy, green tea, and black tea while adjusting for potential confounders. Daily green tea drinkers showed statistically significantly lower PMD (19.5%) than non-tea drinkers (21.7%; P = 0.002) after adjusting for relevant covariates. This difference in PMD between daily green tea drinkers and non-tea drinkers remained statistically significant after adjustment for soy (P = 0.002); the effect was more apparent among lower soy consumers (Q1–Q3; 21.9% versus 19.4%; P = 0.002) than in higher (Q4) consumers (20.9% versus 19.5%; P = 0.32). Black tea intake was unrelated to PMD. Only among postmenopausal women who reported very high soy intake (Q4) compared with those with less soy intake was there any association noted between PMD and soy intake (18.9% versus 20.5%; P = 0.035). Following adjustment for green tea intake, the association between soy and PMD was no longer statistically significant (P = 0.52). Our findings suggest that both regular green tea and high soy intake may have beneficial effects on the breast; the effect of green tea on PMD may be stronger than the effect of soy. PMID:19064551

  10. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  11. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  12. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  13. Recent developments of green tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Si-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Green tribology is a new field of great interest to a large number of tribologists. This article reviews the latest advances in this area including energy conservation, emission reduction, super-low friction and super-low wear, wind turbines, smart coatings, and fundamentals. Moreover, an overview of the future development of green tribology is also presented.

  14. Lighting Demands in Green Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Jim; Thurnquist, Annmarie

    2011-01-01

    Growing up in a more eco-conscious world, incoming students are more savvy about "greening" the world around them. A decade ago, green college campuses were those that offered recycling bins in residence halls. Now education institutions are integrating sustainability efforts into as many aspects of their campus operations as possible. And that…

  15. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  16. Green tea and bone health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in the elderly, particularly women. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mit...

  17. Green as the New Norm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Lured by the recognition that comes with a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating from the U.S. Green Building Council, many schools and universities have become aware of that certification process. But for years, the involvement was limited to a few trendsetters; according to the Green Building Council's database, only about…

  18. Green from the inside out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seydel, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    "Green school" is an umbrella term that covers a number of educational approaches, such as environment-based curricula, environment-integrated curricula, education for sustainability, and education for sustainable development. Green schools enrich the traditional secondary curriculum by relating it to practical issues of environmental…

  19. Savvy Schools Are Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how the green phenomenon is spreading, especially among schools, which have found that not only are they being environmentally friendly, they are also saving big money. Green buildings focus on efficiency and renewable energy, water stewardship, environmentally preferable building materials and specifications, waste…

  20. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  1. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  2. News from Online: Green Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uffelman, Erich S.

    2004-01-01

    Green chemistry closely relates to energy and environmental problems, and includes the promotion of environmental friendly products and systems within the framework of renewable resources. Various websites on green chemistry are reviewed, one of which lists the 12 commandments of this particular subject.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using tannins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Qureshi, Ahmad Kaleem; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-09-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared by rapid green synthesis using different tannin sources as reducing agent viz. chestnut (CN), mangrove (MG) and quebracho (QB). The aqueous silver ions when exposed to CN, MG and QB tannins were reduced which resulted in formation of silver nanoparticles. The resultant silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of nanoparticles synthesis was also derived using FT-IR analysis. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles were within 30 to 75 nm in size, while XRD results showed that nanoparticles formed were crystalline with face centered cubic geometry.

  4. Habitat goes green

    SciTech Connect

    Kriescher, P.; Smith, M.

    1999-12-01

    A Denver family enjoys the financial and personal benefits of owning an affordable, energy-efficient home. On Earth Day, April 22, 1997, Habitat for Humanity of Metro Denver witnessed the realization of a dream. As Luis and Estella Valadez and their four children cut the ribbon on their 1,100 square foot (102 m{sup 2}) northwest Denver home, it signified the completion of the Denver Habitat affiliate's first ``Green'' home. Building this dream involved developing a plan to build affordable Habitat homes that also embodied a sense of stewardship of the Earth's environment. The affiliate also wanted to use this effort to achieve the additional goal of reducing the homeowner's utility and maintenance bills.

  5. USING GREEN CHEMISTRY TO INFLUENCE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The twelve principles of green chemistry by Anastas and Warner provide the researcher with a foundation or pathway which allows opportunities to incorporate greenness into an existing reaction or when developing alternative technologies. The twelve additional principles of green ...

  6. Green Roofs for Stormwater Runoff Control - Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project evaluated green roofs as a stormwater management tool. Specifically, runoff quantity and quality from green and flat asphalt roofs were compared. Evapotranspiration from planted green roofs and evaporation from unplanted media roofs were also compared. The influence...

  7. The stay-green trait.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Howard; Ougham, Helen

    2014-07-01

    Stay-green (sometimes staygreen) refers to the heritable delayed foliar senescence character in model and crop plant species. In a cosmetic stay-green, a lesion interferes with an early step in chlorophyll catabolism. The possible contribution of synthesis to chlorophyll turnover in cosmetic stay-greens is considered. In functional stay-greens, the transition from the carbon capture period to the nitrogen mobilization (senescence) phase of canopy development is delayed, and/or the senescence syndrome proceeds slowly. Yield and composition in high-carbon (C) crops such as cereals, and in high-nitrogen (N) species such as legumes, reflect the source-sink relationship with canopy C capture and N remobilization. Quantitative trait loci studies show that functional stay-green is a valuable trait for improving crop stress tolerance, and is associated with the domestication syndrome in cereals. Stay-green variants reveal how autumnal senescence and dormancy are coordinated in trees. The stay-green phenotype can be the result of alterations in hormone metabolism and signalling, particularly affecting networks involving cytokinins and ethylene. Members of the WRKY and NAC families, and an ever-expanding cast of additional senescence-associated transcription factors, are identifiable by mutations that result in stay-green. Empirical selection for functional stay-green has contributed to increasing crop yields, particularly where it is part of a strategy that also targets other traits such as sink capacity and environmental sensitivity and is associated with appropriate crop management methodology. The onset and progress of senescence are phenological metrics that show climate change sensitivity, indicating that understanding stay-green can contribute to the design of appropriate crop types for future environments. PMID:24600017

  8. Stormwater Attenuation by Green Roofs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, A.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.; Smart, C. C.

    2014-12-01

    Innovative municipal stormwater management technologies are urgently required in urban centers. Inadequate stormwater management can lead to excessive flooding, channel erosion, decreased stream baseflows, and degraded water quality. A major source of urban stormwater is unused roof space. Green roofs can be used as a stormwater management tool to reduce roof generated stormwater and generally improve the quality of runoff. With recent legislation in some North American cities, including Toronto, requiring the installation of green roofs on large buildings, research on the effectiveness of green roofs for stormwater management is important. This study aims to assess the hydrologic response of an extensive sedum green roof in London, Ontario, with emphasis on the response to large precipitation events that stress municipal stormwater infrastructure. A green roof rapidly reaches field capacity during large storm events and can show significantly different behavior before and after field capacity. At field capacity a green roof has no capillary storage left for retention of stormwater, but may still be an effective tool to attenuate peak runoff rates by transport through the green roof substrate. The attenuation of green roofs after field capacity is linked to gravity storage, where gravity storage is the water that is temporarily stored and can drain freely over time after field capacity has been established. Stormwater attenuation of a modular experimental green roof is determined from water balance calculations at 1-minute intervals. Data is used to evaluate green roof attenuation and the impact of field capacity on peak flow rates and gravity storage. In addition, a numerical model is used to simulate event based stormwater attenuation. This model is based off of the Richards equation and supporting theory of multiphase flow through porous media.

  9. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  10. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  11. Green Tea and Bone metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Yeh, James K.; Cao, Jay; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major health problem in both elderly women and men. Epidemiological evidence has shown an association between tea consumption and the prevention of age-related bone loss in elderly women and men. Ingestion of green tea and green tea bioactive compounds may be beneficial in mitigating bone loss of this population and decreasing their risk of osteoporotic fractures. This review describes the effect of green tea or its bioactive components on bone health, with an emphasis on: (i) the prevalence and etiology of osteoporosis, (ii) the role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in osteoporosis, (iii) green tea composition and bioavailability, (iv) the effects of green tea and its active components on osteogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis from human epidemiological, animal, as well as cell culture studies, (v) possible mechanisms explaining the osteo-protective effects of green tea bioactive compounds, (vi) other bioactive components in tea that benefit bone health, and (vii) a summary and future direction of green tea and bone health research and the translational aspects. In general, tea and its bioactive components might decrease the risk of fracture by improving bone mineral density (BMD) and supporting osteoblastic activities while suppressing osteoclastic activities. PMID:19700031

  12. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  13. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  14. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  15. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  16. It's hard to be green: Reverse green value chain.

    PubMed

    Couto, João; Tiago, Teresa; Gil, Artur; Tiago, Flávio; Faria, Sandra

    2016-08-01

    Firms have recently discovered that it is not enough to optimize internal processes and relationships with partners along the value chain to create a sustainable competitive market position. A clear customer orientation, which acknowledges that consumer buying behavior is complex and includes many elements implied in the value chain, is required. As companies offering green products are no exception to this rule, this study analyzes consumer behavior in Europe from a reserve green supply chain management perspective, using descriptive analyses and a structural equation model, with data collected by Flash Barometer comprising 26,573 responses from 28 European countries. The results suggest that European consumers are conscious of the green concept, but are not willing to buy or pay more for these products since the value is unclear. Companies offering green products must therefore rethink their strategies, especially in terms of value proposition, communication strategies, and eco-labeling. PMID:27209347

  17. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research. PMID:24071694

  18. Cecil Green receives Smith Medal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Press, Frank; Green, Cecil

    The Waldo E. Smith Medal, which is awarded for extraordinary service to geophysics, was presented to Cecil H. Green at the 1994 AGU Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony on December 7, 1994 in San Francisco. The award citation and Green's response are given here.“It would take a book to do justice to Cecil Green's extraordinary contributions to the geophysics and electronics industries, to the training of scientists, physicians, and engineers, and to strengthening education and research institutions. In fact, such a book has been written about Cecil's multiple lives as engineer, geophysicist, cofounder of Texas Instruments, and partner with his wife, Ida, in international philanthropy.

  19. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  20. Green roofs: potential at LANL

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Elena M

    2009-01-01

    Green roofs, roof systems that support vegetation, are rapidly becoming one of the most popular sustainable methods to combat urban environmental problems in North America. An extensive list of literature has been published in the past three decades recording the ecological benefits of green roofs; and now those benefits have been measured in enumerated data as a means to analyze the costs and returns of green roof technology. Most recently several studies have made substantial progress quantifying the monetary savings associated with storm water mitigation, the lessoning of the Urban Heat Island, and reduction of building cooling demands due to the implementation of green roof systems. Like any natural vegetation, a green roof is capable of absorbing the precipitation that falls on it. This capability has shown to significantly decrease the amount of storm water runoff produced by buildings as well as slow the rate at which runoff is dispensed. As a result of this reduction in volume and velocity, storm drains and sewage systems are relieved of any excess stress they might experience in a storm. For many municipalities and private building owners, any increase in storm water mitigation can result in major tax incentives and revenue that does not have to be spent on extra water treatments. Along with absorption of water, vegetation on green roofs is also capable of transpiration, the process by which moisture is evaporated into the air to cool ambient temperatures. This natural process aims to minimize the Urban Heat Island Effect, a phenomenon brought on by the dark and paved surfaces that increases air temperatures in urban cores. As the sun distributes solar radiation over a city's area, dark surfaces such as bitumen rooftops absorb solar rays and their heat. That heat is later released during the evening hours and the ambient temperatures do not cool as they normally would, creating an island of constant heat. Such excessively high temperatures induce heat

  1. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Annu; Ikram, Saiqa; Yudha S, Salprima

    2016-08-01

    Nanotechnology is an immensely developing field due to its extensive range of applications in different areas of technology and science. Different types of methods are employed for synthesis of nanoparticles due to their wide applications. The conventional chemical methods have certain limitations with them either in the form of chemical contaminations during their syntheses procedures or in later applications and use of higher energy. During the last decade research have been focussed on developing simple, clean, non-toxic, cost effective and eco-friendly protocols for synthesis of nanoparticles. In order to get this objective, biosynthesis methods have been developed in order to fill this gap. The biosynthesis of nanoparticles is simple, single step, eco-friendly and a green approach. The biochemical processes in biological agents reduce the dissolved metal ions into nano metals. The various biological agents like plant tissues, fungi, bacteria, etc. are used for biosynthesis for metal nanoparticles. In this review article, we summarised recent literature on biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles which have revolutionised technique of synthesis for their applications in different fields. Due to biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles, it has find its applications in biomedical applications. The protocol and mechanism of biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles along with various applications have also been discussed. PMID:27236049

  2. Gore proposes green strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-26

    A national environmental technology strategy laying out incentives for developing and using {open_quotes}green{close_quotes} technology was announced last week by Vice President Al Gore. The plan proposes a national goal of cutting waste 40%-50% and using 20%-25% less materials/unit of gross domestic product by Earth Day 2020. To meet that goal, the federal government aims to streamline environmental permitting, provide federal sites where US firms can test and demonstrate new technologies, create flexible regulation that encourages efficient and effective technologies, encourage research on pollution prevention, and improve monitoring data and information systems. The Administration says environmental technology is providing job growth twice that of the economy as a whole, and global markets are expected to rise from $300 billion to $500 billion by 2000. It adds that the US is the world market leader but only by a slim- and slipping-margin. Whereas previous federal support for environmental technologies focused on the front end of R&D and prototyping, the new strategy aims to bring technologies to market and encourage exports, according to the Administration`s National Commission for Employment Policy, which issued two reports last week. The commission says federal environmental policies now produce 68,000-80,000 jobs and contribute $3.5 billion-$3.7 billion to the economy.

  3. Interferometric seismoelectric Green's function representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ridder, Sjoerd A. L.; Slob, Evert; Wapenaar, Kees

    2009-09-01

    Interferometric Green's function representations can be used to retrieve a Green's function between two receiver stations, effectively turning one receiver into a source. Through reciprocity theorems of the convolution and correlation types, we derive interferometric Green's function representations for coupled electromagnetic and seismic wave propagation in 1-D. These representations express a symmetrized Green's function in terms of correlations of sources distributed throughout the domain of reciprocity and on its boundary. The main challenge for practical implementation is the necessity of sources throughout a domain. Numerical examples show how this constraint can be relaxed for different configurations. In a configuration of two layers bounded by a vacuum, seismic noise sources behind the interface can be used to recover seismoelectric reflection responses that suffer from small amplitude losses, but are not corrupted by spurious events.

  4. Green Building and School Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNola, Ralph; Guerra, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of green, or high-performance, buildings, such as health and comfort, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Explores the barriers to their use by schools--most notably cost. Offers suggestions on overcoming these barriers. (EV)

  5. A blueprint for green marketing.

    PubMed

    Davis, J J

    1991-01-01

    Companies have rushed to market environmentally acceptable products. But according to the author, many have ignored the planning considerations that should have preceded the development and promotion of these "green" products. PMID:10112307

  6. Green Tea and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anna H; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-01-01

    The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors that could reduce the risk of breast cancer is a research priority. Despite the enormous chemo preventive potential of green tea and compelling evidence from animal studies, its role in breast cancer development in humans is still unclear. Part of the uncertainty is related to the relatively small number of epidemiological studies on green tea and breast cancer and that the overall results from case-control studies and prospective cohort studies are discordant. In addition, the mechanisms by which green tea intake may influence risk of breast cancer in humans remains not well studied. We review the human studies that have evaluated the relationship between green tea intake and four biomarkers (sex steroid hormones, mammographic density, insulin-like growth factor, adiponectin) that are believed to be important in breast cancer development. Results from these biomarker studies are also inconclusive. Limitations of human studies and areas of further investigations are discussed. PMID:21538855

  7. Green Construction in Building Renovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksit, Barbara; Majcherek, Michał

    2016-06-01

    Modern materials and construction solutions draw more and more attention to ecology and building certification. Among the criteria appearing in revitalization, an important element is bringing plants back into heavily urbanized areas. In its natural form, this is not possible to carry out everywhere, often requiring large amounts of space. Nowadays, however, there are a number of green roofs and green wall systems, allowing "greener" construction without making significant changes in the urban environment. The article includes a presentation and analysis of selected solutions of biological surfaces known as green roofs and green walls, specifying various solutions and their most important features. The case study focuses primarily on material and design solutions, as well as the potential benefits, risks and limitations in their use. Plants structures on the surfaces of vertical and horizontal partitions continue to be a very interesting alternative to take into account when applying for grants, such as LEED or BREEAM certificates.

  8. Movie Trailer: 'Romancing the Green'

    NASA Video Gallery

    The research and development by NASA Aeronautics of next generation "green" technologies and systems are highlighted in this parody of a "coming attraction" trailer produced by NASA Television. The...

  9. USPS – Lean Green Teams

    SciTech Connect

    2012-08-01

    Institutional change case study details the U.S. Postal Service's Lean Green Teams, which collaborate across functions to identify and implement low- and no-cost ways to conserve natural resources, purchase fewer consumable products, and reduce waste.

  10. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yuko; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well‐formed granulomas. The patient, a 54‐year‐old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X‐ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2‐month period. The chest X‐ray and high‐resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground‐glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well‐formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology PMID:27081492

  11. Occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a green tea manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yuko; Shirai, Toshihiro; Enomoto, Noriyuki; Asada, Kazuhiro; Oyama, Yoshiyuki; Suda, Takafumi

    2016-04-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is caused by numerous agents, and one of its histopathological features is poorly formed granulomas. We report here a rare case of occupational HP caused by green tea, showing well-formed granulomas. The patient, a 54-year-old woman who had worked for 15 years in a green tea factory, was referred for abnormal chest X-ray shadows with cough and breathlessness over a 2-month period. The chest X-ray and high-resolution computed tomography showed diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities and poorly defined centrilobular nodules. Histopathological examination of the thoracoscopic lung biopsy specimens showed bronchiolocentric interstitial pneumonia with well-formed granulomas. Although the form of granulomas were atypical, laboratory data, CT findings, and intradermal skin testing suggested the diagnosis of subacute HP caused by green tea. After transfer to a different department, her condition improved markedly. Taking a precise medical history and avoidance of the suspected environmental agent proved useful in diagnosing this condition. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology Case Reports published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of The Asian Pacific Society of Respirology. PMID:27081492

  12. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  13. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  14. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  15. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  16. 7 CFR 29.2274 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.2274 Section 29.2274 Agriculture... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2274 Green (G). A term applied to green-colored tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20...

  17. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  18. 7 CFR 29.1024 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.1024 Section 29.1024 Agriculture... Type 92) § 29.1024 Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its surface may be described as green. (See Rule 19.)...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3029 - Green (G).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Green (G). 29.3029 Section 29.3029 Agriculture... Green (G). A color term applied to immature or crude tobacco. Any leaf which has a green color affecting 20 percent or more of its leaf surface may be described as green. (See Rule 18.)...

  1. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Green design, green construction, and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School in…

  2. The Road to a Green District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutter, Rachel; Knupp, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Green design, green construction and green operations for new buildings are rapidly becoming the norm for school districts throughout the country. Today, increased availability of green products and technology coupled with cost savings that are realized through an integrated design process mean that schools like Arabia Mountain High School can be…

  3. Brief Discussion on Green Building Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Jia-wei; Sun, Jian

    2014-08-01

    With more and more emphasizes on the environment and resources, the concept of green buildings has been widely accepted. Building materials are vectors of architectures, only if green building materials and related technical means are used, can we construct green buildings to achieve the purpose of energy conservation and environmental protection. This paper introduces the relationship between green building materials and green buildings, the current situation of green building materials in China, as well as the measures to accelerate the development of green building materials.

  4. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  5. Sustainable Strategies For The Production Of Nanomaterials And Their Application In Green Environmental Remediation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vitamins B2, B1, C, tea polyphenols, and natural surfactants, which function both as reducing and capping agents, provide extremely simple, one-pot, green synthetic methods to bulk quantities of nanomaterials in water. Shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microw...

  6. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  7. A STATUS REPORT ON PLANKTONIC CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE) AND THEIR TOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) continue to be agents of certain waterbased toxicoses. heir presence is now being acknowledged in many of the world's fresh and brackish waters with eutrophication status of meso to hypereutrophic. ense surface scums called waterblooms will ...

  8. Tangential Flow Filtration of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles: A "Green" Laboratory Experiment for Chemistry and Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorney, Kevin M.; Baker, Joshua D.; Edwards, Michelle L.; Kanel, Sushil R.; O'Malley, Matthew; Pavel Sizemore, Ioana E.

    2014-01-01

    Numerous nanoparticle (NP) fabrication methodologies employ "bottom-up" syntheses, which may result in heterogeneous mixtures of NPs or may require toxic capping agents to reduce NP polydispersity. Tangential flow filtration (TFF) is an alternative "green" technique for the purification, concentration, and size-selection of…

  9. MpcAgent

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.

  10. MpcAgent

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  11. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  12. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  13. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  14. Therapeutic potential of green tea in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Masterjohn, Christopher; Bruno, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a constellation of progressive liver disorders that are closely related to obesity, diabetes, and insulin resistance and may afflict over 70 million Americans. NAFLD may occur as relatively benign, nonprogressive liver steatosis, but in many individuals it may progress in severity to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. No validated treatments currently exist for NAFLD except for weight loss, which has a poor long-term success rate. Thus, dietary strategies that prevent the development of liver steatosis or its progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis are critically needed. Green tea is rich in polyphenolic catechins that have hypolipidemic, thermogenic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities that may mitigate the occurrence and progression of NAFLD. This review presents the experimental evidence demonstrating the hepatoprotective properties of green tea and its catechins and the proposed mechanisms by which these targeted dietary agents protect against NAFLD. PMID:22221215

  15. Terminalia chebula mediated green and rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Kumar, Kesarla; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Sinha, Madhulika; Krishnakumar, Varadhan

    2012-02-01

    Biologically inspired experimental process in synthesising nanoparticles is of great interest in present scenario. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered to be one of the best green techniques in synthesising metal nanoparticles. Here, an in situ green biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of Terminalia chebula as reducing and stabilizing agent is reported. Gold nanoparticles were confirmed by surface plasmon resonance in the range of 535 nm using UV-visible spectrometry. TEM analysis revealed that the morphology of the particles thus formed contains anisotropic gold nanoparticles with size ranging from 6 to 60 nm. Hydrolysable tannins present in the extract of T. chebula are responsible for reductions and stabilization of gold nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activity of gold nanoparticles showed better activity towards gram positive S. aureus compared to gram negative E. coli using standard well diffusion method.

  16. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, A K; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    The application of "green" chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

  17. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  18. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  19. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  20. Gold nanorods as dual photo-sensitizing and imaging agents for two-photon photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Tingting; Shen, Xiaoqin; Li, Lin; Guan, Zhenping; Gao, Nengyue; Yuan, Peiyan; Yao, Shao Q.; Xu, Qing-Hua; Xu, Guo Qin

    2012-11-01

    Gold nanorods with three different aspect ratios were prepared and their dual capabilities for two-photon imaging and two-photon photodynamic therapy have been demonstrated. These gold nanorods exhibit large two-photon absorption action cross-sections, about two orders of magnitude larger than small organic molecules, which makes them suitable for two-photon imaging. They can also effectively generate singlet oxygen under two-photon excitation, significantly higher than traditional photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal and Indocyanine Green. Such high singlet oxygen generation capability under two-photon excitation was ascribed to their large two-photon absorption cross-sections. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated gold nanorods displayed excellent biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency. The two-photon photodynamic therapy effect and two-photon fluorescence imaging properties of PVP coated gold nanorods have been successfully demonstrated on HeLa cells in vitro using fluorescence microscopy and indirect XTT assay method. These gold nanorods thus hold great promise for imaging guided two-photon photodynamic therapy for the treatment of various malignant tumors.Gold nanorods with three different aspect ratios were prepared and their dual capabilities for two-photon imaging and two-photon photodynamic therapy have been demonstrated. These gold nanorods exhibit large two-photon absorption action cross-sections, about two orders of magnitude larger than small organic molecules, which makes them suitable for two-photon imaging. They can also effectively generate singlet oxygen under two-photon excitation, significantly higher than traditional photosensitizers such as Rose Bengal and Indocyanine Green. Such high singlet oxygen generation capability under two-photon excitation was ascribed to their large two-photon absorption cross-sections. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coated gold nanorods displayed excellent biocompatibility and high cellular uptake efficiency