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Sample records for agent methylazoxymethanol acetate

  1. Prior antipsychotic drug treatment prevents response to novel antipsychotic agent in the methylazoxymethanol acetate model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gill, Kathryn M; Cook, James M; Poe, Michael M; Grace, Anthony A

    2014-03-01

    Trials of novel compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia are typically tested in patients following brief withdrawal of ongoing medication despite known long-term changes in the dopamine (DA) system following chronic antipsychotic drug therapy. The present study explored the impact of withdrawal from repeated haloperidol (HAL) treatment, as well as the response to a novel α5 gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptor positive allosteric modulator (α5PAM), on the activity of the DA system in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Electrophysiological recordings were conducted from DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area of MAM and saline (SAL) rats following 7-day withdrawal from repeated HAL (21 d, 0.6 mg/kg, orally). In separate animals, amphetamine-induced locomotion was measured to assess changes in DA behavioral sensitivity. SAL rats withdrawn from HAL demonstrated reduced spontaneous DA neuron activity along with an enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine, indicative of the development of DA supersensitivity. Both α5PAM treatment and ventral hippocampal (vHPC) inactivation reversed the DA neuron depolarization block following HAL withdrawal in SAL rats. In contrast, MAM rats withdrawn from HAL exhibited reduced spontaneous DA activity and enhanced locomotor response to amphetamine compared with untreated SAL rats; however, this condition was unresponsive to α5PAM treatment or vHPC inactivation. Withdrawal from prior HAL treatment interferes with the therapeutic actions of this novel treatment in the MAM model of schizophrenia. Consequently, testing novel compounds on chronically treated schizophrenia patients may be ineffective. PMID:24464874

  2. Effect of methylazoxymethanol acetate on bluegill sunfish cell cultures in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Borenfreund, E.; Babich, H.; Martin-Alguacil, N.

    1989-06-01

    An epithelioid cell line derived from fin tissue of bluegill sunfish (designated BG/F) exhibited early indications of cell transformation upon exposure to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM acetate). Such changes included the induction of polyploidy, increased colony-forming efficiency, loss of contact inhibition, and formation of transformed foci. Unlike later transformation characteristics observed with mammalian cells, the MAM acetate-treated BG/F cells could not be propagated under conditions of anchorage independence in soft agar. Incubation of BG/F cells with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, followed by exposure to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, was not observed to cause cell transformation under the experimental conditions. The controls of a fibroblastic cell culture derived from gill tissue of bluegill sunfish showed spontaneous transformation after 6 months of passage, similar to the transformation observed in the experimental MAM acetate treated gill cultures.

  3. Biochemical and cognitive impairments observed in animal models of schizophrenia induced by prenatal stress paradigm or methylazoxymethanol acetate administration.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Piotr; Kus, Krzysztof; Murawiecka, Patrycja; Słodzińska, Iwona; Giermaziak, Wojciech; Nowakowska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to find whether spatial memory impairment and disruption in locomotor activity were found in prenatally stressed rats (PSG) or prenatally methylazoxymethanol acetate-treated rats (MAMG). In addition to this, we examined basal plasma corticosterone level as well as brain-derived neurothropic factor (BDNF) in the PSG and MAMG rats. The effect of prenatal stress (stress paradigm between 14 and 21 day of gestation) and methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) administration (17 day of gestation) to the female Wistar rats were studied on the male offspring in the Morris Water Maze (spatial memory) and locomotor activity test. Through Morris Water Maze rats were injected with saline 4 times (on 1, 7, 14 and 21 day of testing) while in locomotor activity test saline was injected only once. Corticosterone level was measured using ELISA Kit while BDNF levels were assessed using ELISA Chemikine TM BDNF kit. Results indicate that both PSG and MAMG rats deteriorate spatial memory as well as increase locomotor activity compared to the control group. Biochemical studies indicate that basal plasma corticosterone level increased in both PSG and MAMG rats compared to the control group. Analyses of the BDNF level, on the other hand, have shown decrease of the neurothropin level in both hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) in both PSG and MAMG groups of rats. As shown by the obtained results, both the prenatal stress model and prenatal MAM administration model generate a number of behavioural (e.g. spatial memory disorders, increased locomotor activity) and biochemical (e.g. increased corticosterone and decreased BDNF levels) changes in the examined offspring, Thus, these models can be successfully used in the efficacy analysis of the pharmacotherapy applied. PMID:26581387

  4. Apoptosis (cell death) induced in mouse bowel by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methylazoxymethanol acetate, and gamma-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ijiri, K. )

    1989-11-15

    Apoptosis is a pattern of cell death involving nuclear pyknosis, cytoplasmic condensation, and karyorrhexis. The frequency of apoptosis after treatment with two colon carcinogens and radiation was studied in the crypts of five different portions of mouse bowel. When 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) was injected s.c., the earliest rise in apoptotic incidence after a high dose (200 mg/kg) was noted at 3 h in small intestine and at 6 h in large bowel. After i.p. administration of methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate, apoptotic cells were seen in large bowel after 3 h. When the plateau values attained after high doses of DMH were compared, many apoptotic cells were found in the lower part of the large bowel, whereas few such cells were observed in the small intestine and the upper part of the large bowel. This finding was reversed in the case of radiation-induced apoptosis. In the descending colon, a definite circadian rhythm in the apoptotic incidence was observed 6 h after injection of DMH or MAM acetate. Apoptosis showed a high incidence when these drugs were given between 2400 h and 0900 h, but a low incidence after administration between 1200 h and 2100 h. In the small intestine a rhythm was also noted for MAM acetate, but not significantly for DMH.

  5. DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY: EVALUATION OF TESTING PROCEDURES WITH METHYLAZOXYMETHANOL AND METHYLMERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Testing procedures that allow for early, rapid and cost-effective investigation of potential developmental neurotoxicants were evaluated using two prototypical developmental neurotoxicants, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and methylmercury (MeHg). valuation of offspring of Long-Evans r...

  6. Incensole acetate: a novel neuroprotective agent isolated from Boswellia carterii.

    PubMed

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Shein, Na'ama A; Tsenter, Jeanna; Grigoriadis, Savvas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Schmitz, Michael L; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo; Mechoulam, Raphael; Shohami, Esther

    2008-07-01

    Boswellia resin has been used as a major anti-inflammatory agent and for the healing of wounds for centuries. Incensole acetate (IA), isolated from this resin, was shown to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, a key transcription factor in the inflammatory response. We now show that IA inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in an in vitro model system of C6 glioma and human peripheral monocytes. Given the involvement of postinjury inflammation in the pathophysiology and outcome of traumatic brain injury, we examined the effect of IA on the inflammatory process and on the recovery of neurobehavioral and cognitive functions in a mouse model of closed head injury (CHI). In the brains of post-CHI mice, IA reduced glial activation, inhibited the expression of interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNAs, and induced cell death in macrophages at the area of trauma. A mild hypothermic effect was also noted. Subsequently, IA inhibited hippocampal neurodegeneration and exerted a beneficial effect on functional outcome after CHI, indicated by reduced neurological severity scores and improved cognitive ability in an object recognition test. This study attributes the anti-inflammatory activity of Boswellia resin to IA and related cembranoid diterpenes and suggests that they may serve as novel neuroprotective agents. PMID:18414499

  7. The effect of trichlorfon and methylazoxymethanol on the development of guinea pig cerebellum

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, Anna; Schanke, Tore M.; Torvik, Ansgar; Fonnum, Frode . E-mail: frode.fonnum@bio.uio.no

    2007-03-15

    The pesticide trichlorfon (125 mg/kg on days 42-44 in gestation) gives hypoplasia of Brain of the offspring without any significant reduction in their body weights. The hypoplasia may be caused by trichlorfon itself or by its metabolite dichlorvos. This period of development coincides with the growth spurt period of guinea pig brain. The largest changes occurred in the cerebellum. Electron microscopic examination of the cerebellar cortex showed increased apoptotic death of cells in the granule cell layer after trichlorfon treatment. A reduction in thickness of the external germinal layer of the cerebellar cortex and an elevated amount of pyknotic and karyorrhexic cells in the granule cell layer was found. There was a significant reduction in choline esterase, choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activities in the cerebellum. Methylazoxymethanol (15 mg/kg body weight, day 43) was examined for comparison and caused similar hypoplasia of the guinea pig cerebellum, but did also induce a reduction in body weight. Trichloroethanol, the main metabolite of trichlorfon, did not give brain hypoplasia.

  8. Soil washing of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge using acids and ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid chelating agent.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Saeid; Ahmadi, Soheil; Madadian, Edris; Ardestani, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of soil washing in the removal of chromium- and cadmium-contaminated sludge samples collected from Pond 2 of the Tehran Oil Refinery was investigated. These metals are considered as hazardous substances for human health and the environment. The carcinogenicity of chromate dust has been established for a long time. Cadmium is also a potential environmental toxicant. This study was carried out by collecting sludge samples from different locations in Pond 2. Soil washing was conducted to treat the samples. Chemical agents, such as acetic acid, ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid, were used as washing solutions to remove chromium and cadmium from sludge samples. The results of this study indicated that the highest removal efficiencies from the sludge samples were achieved using a 0.3 M HCl solution with 82.69% and 74.47% for chromium and cadmium, respectively. EDTA (0.1 M) in the best condition extracted 66.81% of cadmium and 72.52% of chromium from the sludges. The lowest efficiency values for the samples, however, were achieved using 3 M acetic acid with 41.7% and 46.96% removals for cadmium and chromium, respectively. The analysis of washed sludge indicated that the heavy metals removal decreased in the order of 3 M acetic acid < 0.1 M EDTA<0.3 M HCl, thus hydrochloric acid appears to offer a greater potential as a washing agent in remediating the sludge samples. PMID:26599728

  9. Synthesis and biological evaluation of propargyl acetate derivatives as anti-mycobacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has intensified efforts to discover novel drugs for tuberculosis (TB) treatment. Targeting the persistent state of Mtb, a condition in which Mtb is resistant to conventional drug therapies, is of particular interest. Methods This study is focused on propargyl acetate derivatives. Eight molecules were designed based on propargyl alcohols and different acid anhydrides. Results All the synthesized compounds and commercially available ones were evaluated for anti-tuberculosis activity. Conclusions Inhibitors against Mtb have been identified and characterized for further development into potential novel anti-tubercular drugs. PMID:23351675

  10. Dysplastic neocortex and subcortical heterotopias in methylazoxymethanol-treated rats: an intracellular study of identified pyramidal neurones.

    PubMed

    Sancini, G; Franceschetti, S; Battaglia, G; Colacitti, C; Di Luca, M; Spreafico, R; Avanzini, G

    1998-05-01

    Intracellular recordings were obtained using biocytin-filled electrodes from 78 neurones located in both dysplastic neocortex and subcortical heterotopic aggregates in a model of neuronal migration disorder induced in rats by means of a double methylazoxymethanol injection given on embryonic day 15. Both regular spiking and intrinsically bursting pyramidal neurones were found in all of the examined structures and were synaptically activated by subcortical stimulation. In a neuronal subpopulation (22%) located in the neocortex as well as in the subcortical heterotopic aggregates, the injection of depolarising current pulses elicited aberrant firing patterns, consisting of repetitive bursts of APs that gradually increased in duration and eventually merged in a long-lasting discharge. The gradual development of this 'excessive' bursting behaviour suggests a progressive run-down of the slow components of the hyperpolarising afterpotential. PMID:9792622

  11. Parenteral use of medroxyprogesterone acetate as an antifertility agent in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Bryan, H S

    1973-05-01

    10 kg unbred Beagle and mongrel bitches were used in each of 4 experiments (exp). 6 alpha-methyl-17 alpha-acetoxyprogesterone (MAP or medroxyprogesterone acetate) was prepared as a sterile aqueous suspension (50 mg/ml) and was used in exps 1, 2 and 3. Tritiated MAP was used in exp 4. In exp 1, 7 bitches were given 500 mg and 7 were given 50 mg subcutaneously (sc). 6 controls were used. In exp 2, 50, 100 or 250 mg were given sc, intramuscular (im) or intraperitoneal (ip) to 4 dogs at each dose level and route of administration. In exp 3, 12.5 or 25 mg was given either sc or im in 4 groups of 8 bitches each. In exp 4, a single 50 mg mixture of MAP and tritiated MAP was given to each of 3 dogs: 1 sc, 1 im, and 1 ip. Results of exp 1 showed those on 500 mg had first posttreatment estrus an average of 504 days (range of 247-730) after injection. Those on 50 mg averaged 329 days (range of 205-429). Breeding resulted in 6 live pups/litter for the controls 5.2 for those on 50 mg, and 4 for those on 500 mg. In exp 2, results showed prolonged cycling in those injected sc (295 days to estrus), while those injected im reached estrous in 225 days and those injected ip in 148 days. In exp 3, 3 on 25 mg sc had a 6 month estrous delay while 4 did when injected im. 3 of 16 given 12.5 mg sc and im had a 6 month delay in cycling. Exp 4 showed ip treated dogs had estrus 148 days after treatment, 225 days for im, and 295 days for sc. Ip treated dogs whelped 5 pups; im 7 pups; and sc, 5 pups. 7 months lapsed before nearly all of the 50 mg sc administered dose was excreted. An additional 2.5 months lapsed before estrus occurred in this dog. PMID:4703510

  12. Extrusion foaming of thermoplastic cellulose acetate from renewable resources using a two-component physical blowing agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Windeck, C.; Hendriks, S.; Zepnik, S.; Wodke, T.

    2014-05-01

    Thermoplastic cellulose acetate (CA) is a bio-based polymer with optical, mechanical and thermal properties comparable to those of polystyrene (PS). The substitution of the predominant petrol-based PS in applications like foamed food trays can lead to a more sustainable economic practice. However, CA is also suitable for more durable applications as the biodegradability rate can be controlled by adjusting the degree of substitutions. The extrusion foaming of CA still has to overcome certain challenges. CA is highly hydrophilic and can suffer from hydrolytic degradation if not dried properly. Therefore, the influence of residual moisture on the melt viscosity is rather high. Beyond, the surface quality of foam CA sheets is below those of PS due to the particular foaming behaviour. This paper presents results of a recent study on extrusion foamed CA, using a two-component physical blowing agent system compromising HFO 1234ze as blowing agent and organic solvents as co-propellant. Samples with different co-propellants are processed on a laboratory single screw extruder at IKV. Morphology and surface topography are investigated with respect to the blowing agent composition and the die pressure. In addition, relationships between foam density, foam morphology and the propellants are analysed. The choice of the co-propellant has a significant influence on melt-strength, foaming behaviour and the possible blow-up ratio of the sheet. Furthermore, a positive influence of the co-propellant on the surface quality can be observed. In addition, the focus is laid on the effect of external contact cooling of the foamed sheets after the die exit.

  13. Repositioning of 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid as a potential anti-inflammatory agent: in silico and pharmaceutical formulation study.

    PubMed

    Khedr, Mohammed A; Shehata, Tamer M; Mohamed, Maged E

    2014-12-18

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) is a well-known plant auxin which is widely used in plant tissue culture experiments as well as a weed killer and a herbicide. In this study, 2,4-D was rediscovered as a new anti-inflammatory agent through an in silico molecular modeling and docking studies along with drug formulation and in vivo anti-inflammatory inspection. The molecular modeling and docking studies indicated high affinity of 2,4-D toward COX-2 enzyme in a way similar to Ibuprofen, suggesting a higher anti-inflammatory activity. Molecular docking by both MOE 2013.08 and Leadit 2.1.2 revealed excellent binding pattern compared to some of well-known non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 2,4-D was formulated in different gel bases. In vitro drug release experiments were used to examine the best 2,4-D formula for in vivo studies. In vivo carrageenan-induced hind paw edema inflammatory model in rats was used to test the in silico finding. 2,4-D showed potential in vivo anti-inflammatory activity and significantly reduced the concentration of prostaglandin E2 in hind paw tissues in a way similar to Ibuprofen. These results may open the door to introduce a new anti-inflammatory molecule; especially that 2,4-D is a well-investigated regarding its toxicity and side effect. PMID:25245006

  14. 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid in the treatment of refractory tumors: a phase I safety study of a vascular disrupting agent.

    PubMed

    McKeage, Mark J; Fong, Peter; Jeffery, Mark; Baguley, Bruce C; Kestell, Phil; Ravic, Miroslav; Jameson, Michael B

    2006-03-15

    This phase I safety study aimed to identify the optimal dose of the vascular disrupting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA) for combination studies. Using a crossover design, 15 patients with refractory tumors were allocated randomly to receive six sequential doses of DMXAA (300, 600, 1,200, 1,800, 2,400, and 3,000 mg m(-2)), each given once-weekly as a 20-minute i.v. infusion. The drug was generally well tolerated. Transient, moderate increases in the heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval occurred at the two highest doses. DMXAA produced transient dose-dependent increases in blood pressure. Transient, dose-related visual disturbances occurred at the two highest doses. No significant changes in K(trans) and k(ep) were observed but V(e), a secondary dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging variable, increased significantly after giving DMXAA. At 1,200 mg m(-2), the Cmax and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 hours for total and free DMXAA plasma concentrations were 315 +/- 25.8 microg/mL, 29 +/- 6.4 microg/mL x d, 8.0 +/- 1.77 microg/mL, and 0.43 +/- 0.07 microg/mL x d, respectively. Plasma levels of the vascular damage biomarker 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid increased in the 4 hours after treatment in a dose-dependent fashion up to 1,200 mg m(-2), with a plateau thereafter. Doses in the range of 1,200 mg m(-2) have been selected for further studies (phase II combination studies with taxanes and platins are under way) because this dose produced no significant effect on heart rate-corrected cardiac QT interval, produced near maximum levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, achieved DMXAA plasma concentrations within the preclinical therapeutic range, and was well tolerated. PMID:16551862

  15. Chelating agents related to ethylenediamine bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (EDDHA): synthesis, characterization, and equilibrium studies of the free ligands and their Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, and Fe3+ chelates.

    PubMed

    Yunta, Felipe; García-Marco, Sonia; Lucena, Juan J; Gómez-Gallego, Mar; Alcázar, Roberto; Sierra, Miguel A

    2003-08-25

    Iron chelates such as ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (EDDHA) and their analogues are the most efficient soil fertilizers to treat iron chlorosis in plants growing in calcareous soils. EDDHA, EDDH4MA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-4-methylphenyl)acetic acid), and EDDCHA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-carboxyphenyl)acetic acid) are allowed by the European directive, but also EDDHSA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-sulfonylphenyl)acetic acid) and EDDH5MA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)acetic acid) are present in several commercial iron chelates. In this study, these chelating agents as well as p,p-EDDHA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid) and EDDMtxA (ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis(2-metoxyphenyl)acetic acid) have been obtained following a new synthetic pathway. Their chemical behavior has been studied to predict the effect of the substituents in the benzene ring on their efficacy as iron fertilizers for soils above pH 7. The purity of the chelating agents has been determined using a novel methodology through spectrophotometric titration at 480 nm with Fe(3+) as titrant to evaluate the inorganic impurities. The protonation constants were determined by both spectrophotometric and potentiometric methods, and Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) stability constants were determined from potentiometric titrations. To establish the Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) stability constants, a new spectrophotometric method has been developed, and the results were compared with those reported in the literature for EDDHA and EDDHMA and their meso- and rac-isomers. pM values have been also determined to provide a comparable basis to establish the relative chelating ability of these ligands. The purity obtained for the ligands is higher than 87% in all cases and is comparable with that obtained by (1)H NMR. No significant differences have been found among ligands when their protonation and stability constants were compared. As expected, no Fe(3

  16. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  17. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  18. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  20. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  1. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  2. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production trait, a useful screening to select endophytic and rhizosphere competent bacteria for rice growth promoting agents

    PubMed Central

    Etesami, Hassan; Alikhani, Hossein Ali; Hosseini, Hossein Mirseyed

    2015-01-01

    Plants select plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) that are competitively fit to occupy compatible niches without causing pathological stress on them. However, when screening bacteria for plant growth promoting (PGP) agents, it is better to select bacteria for achieving the most promising isolates having suitable colonization and PGP traits. In most researches, it has been seen that following incubation, bacterial flora are taken at random from petri dishes for further study. However, this type of selection may remove some superior bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization ability. Therefore, it is essential to study all the isolated bacteria in an economic way and select the best bacteria in terms of PGP traits and high colonization rate. A simple screening method to detect endophytic and rhizosphere bacteria, isolated from the plants in rotation with rice, for rice PGP agents based on a root colonization bioassay and a PGP trait is characterized. • Selected bacterial isolates based on their IAA producing trait have the potential for more PGP and colonization of rice plant. • IAA may be the first PGP trait for screening bacteria isolated from plant rotated with rice for rice PGP agents. • The screening procedure appears to be very effective and less time consuming. PMID:26150974

  3. Application of acetone acetals as water scavengers and derivatization agents prior to the gas chromatographic analysis of polar residual solvents in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Niels; Wolfs, Kris; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2015-12-18

    The sensitivity of gas chromatography (GC) combined with the full evaporation technique (FET) for the analysis of aqueous samples is limited due to the maximum tolerable sample volume in a headspace vial. Using an acetone acetal as water scavenger prior to FET-GC analysis proved to be a useful and versatile tool for the analysis of high boiling analytes in aqueous samples. 2,2-Dimethoxypropane (DMP) was used in this case resulting in methanol and acetone as reaction products with water. These solvents are relatively volatile and were easily removed by evaporation enabling sample enrichment leading to 10-fold improvement in sensitivity compared to the standard 10μL FET sample volumes for a selection of typical high boiling polar residual solvents in water. This could be improved even further if more sample is used. The method was applied for the determination of residual NMP in an aqueous solution of a cefotaxime analogue and proved to be considerably better than conventional static headspace (sHS) and the standard FET approach. The methodology was also applied to determine trace amounts of ethylene glycol (EG) in aqueous samples like contact lens fluids, where scavenging of the water would avoid laborious extraction prior to derivatization. During this experiment it was revealed that DMP reacts quantitatively with EG to form 2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane (2,2-DD) under the proposed reaction conditions. The relatively high volatility (bp 93°C) of 2,2-DD makes it possible to perform analysis of EG using the sHS methodology making additional derivatization reactions superfluous. PMID:26614172

  4. Interaction of thalidomide, phthalimide analogues of thalidomide and pentoxifylline with the anti-tumour agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid: concomitant reduction of serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha and enhancement of anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ching, L. M.; Browne, W. L.; Tchernegovski, R.; Gregory, T.; Baguley, B. C.; Palmer, B. D.

    1998-01-01

    DMXAA (5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid), a novel anti-tumour agent currently undergoing clinical evaluation, appears to mediate its anti-tumour effects through immune modulation and the production of the cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). Our previous studies have shown that thalidomide, a potent inhibitor of TNF biosynthesis that has numerous biological effects, including inhibition of tumour angiogenesis, unexpectedly augments the anti-tumour response in mice to DMXAA. We show here that thalidomide (100 mg kg(-1)) has no effect when administered with inactive doses of DMXAA, and that it must be given simultaneously with an active dose of DMXAA to have its maximum potentiating effect on the growth of the murine Colon 38 adenocarcinoma. To address the issue of whether inhibition of serum TNF production is important for potentiation of anti-tumour activity, we have tested three potent analogues of thalidomide. All three analogues, when co-administered with DMXAA to mice at doses lower than those used with thalidomide, inhibited TNF production and were effective in potentiating the anti-tumour activity of DMXAA against transplanted Colon 38 tumours. One of the analogues, N-phenethyltetrafluorophthalimide, was 1000-fold more potent than thalidomide and at a dose of 0.1 mg kg(-1) in combination with DMXAA (30 mg kg(-1)) cured 100% of mice, compared with 67% for the group treated with DMXAA alone. We also tested pentoxifylline and found it to suppress TNF production in response to DMXAA and to potentiate the anti-tumour effect of DMXAA. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that pharmacological reduction of serum TNF levels might benefit the anti-tumour effects of DMXAA and suggest new strategies for therapy using this agent. PMID:9703279

  5. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  6. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  7. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Amanda; Lindinger, Michael I

    2007-01-01

    Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate) has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA) administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET) designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1) 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial); or 2) a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial). Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse. PMID:18096070

  8. Metabolic and mutagenicity studies on DDT and 15 derivatives. Detection of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethyl acetate (kelthane acetate) as mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene oxide, a likely metabolite, as an alkylating agent.

    PubMed

    Planche, G; Croisy, A; Malaveille, C; Tomatis, L; Bartsch, H

    1979-05-01

    Using a novel in vitro technique, whereby microsomal enzymes were embedded in an agar layer to prolong their viability, 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene(DDNU), a mammalian metabolite of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT), was converted by microsomal mono-oxygenases of mouse liver into 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,2-ethanediol (DDNU-diol). The putative epoxide intermediate, 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene oxide (DDNU-oxide), a new compound, was synthesized; it showed weak alkylating activity with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine but was not mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA100 and TA98. DDT and 13 of its metabolites or putative synthetic derivatives, including 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethylene (DDE), 1 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2-chloroethylene (DDMU), 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2-chloroethane (DDMS)-DDNU, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethanol (DDOH), bis(p-chlorophenyl)acetic acid (DDA) and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethanol (Kethane), caused no mutagenic effects in S. typhimurium strains TA100 or TA98, either in the presence or absence of a mouse-liver microsomal fraction. 1,1-Bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethyl acetate (Kelthane acetate) was a direct-acting mutagen in strain TA100, whereas 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane (DDD) was mutagenic in TA98, only in the presence of a mouse-liver microsomal system. The results are discussed in relation to possible pathways whereby DDT is activated to mutagenic and/or carcinogenic metabolites. PMID:380827

  9. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  10. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  11. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  12. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  14. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ≤ 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

  15. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  16. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Deslorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each implant contains 2.1 milligrams deslorelin acetate. (b) Sponsor.... One implant per mare. (ii) Indications for use. For inducing ovulation within 48 hours in...

  17. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  18. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  20. Kinetics of the Methanogenic Fermentation of Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, qch4 = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, Ks, of 4.0 μM for the acclimatized sludge and 104 μM for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 μM (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 μM (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri. Images PMID:16348323

  1. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  4. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  18. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  19. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    PubMed

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betaisodona), polyhexanide 0.04% (Lavasept), mafenide 5% and chlohexidine gluconate 1.5% cetrimide 15% (Hibicet). Former studies suggest the bactericidal effect of acetic acid, but these data are very heterogeneous; therefore, a standardised in vitro study was conducted. To cover the typical bacterial spectrum of a burn unit, the following Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains were tested: Escherichia coli, P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus group A and B. The tests showed excellent bactericidal effect of acetic acid, particularly with problematic Gram-negative bacteria such as P. vulgaris, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. The microbiological spectrum of acetic acid is wide, even when tested at a low concentration of 3%. In comparison to our currently used antiseptic solutions, it showed similar - in some bacteria, even better - bactericidal properties. An evaluation of the clinical value of topical application of acetic acid is currently underway. It can be concluded that acetic acid in a concentration of 3% has excellent bactericidal effect and, therefore, seems to be suitable as a local antiseptic agent, but further clinical studies are necessary. PMID:19286325

  20. All natural cellulose acetate-Lemongrass essential oil antimicrobial nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; D'autilia, Francesca; Garzoni, Alice; Bonferoni, Cristina; Scarpellini, Alice; Brunetti, Virgilio; Carzino, Riccardo; Bianchini, Paolo; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Athanassiou, Athanassia

    2016-08-30

    Nanocapsules and nanoparticles play an essential role in the delivery of pharmaceutical agents in modern era, since they can be delivered in specific tissues and cells. Natural polymers, such as cellulose acetate, are becoming very important due to their availability, biocompatibility, absence of toxicity and biodegradability. In parallel, essential oils are having continuous growth in biomedical applications due to the inherent active compounds that they contain. A characteristic example is lemongrass oil that has exceptional antimicrobial properties. In this work, nanocapsules of cellulose acetate with lemongrass oil were developed with the solvent/anti-solvent method with resulting diameter tailored between 95 and 185nm. Various physico-chemical and surface analysis techniques were employed to investigate the formation of the nanocapsules. These all-natural nanocapsules found to well bioadhere to mucous membranes and to have very good antimicrobial properties at little concentrations against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:26827919

  1. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  2. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  7. Effects of acetic acid on the viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    PubMed Central

    Beyhan, Yunus E.; Yilmaz, Hasan; Hokelek, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of acetic acid on durable Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides) eggs to determine the effective concentration of vinegar and the implementation period to render the consumption of raw vegetables more reliable. Methods: This experimental study was performed in May 2015 in the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Yuzuncu Yil University, Van, Turkey. The A. lumbricoides eggs were divided into 2 groups. Eggs in the study group were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 10% acetic acid concentrations, and eggs in the control group were treated with Eosin. The eggs’ viability was observed at the following points in time during the experiment: 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, and 60 minutes. Results: The 1% acetic acid was determined insufficient on the viability of Ascaris eggs. At the 30th minute, 3% acetic acid demonstrated 95% effectiveness, and at 5% concentration, all eggs lost their viability. Treatment of acetic acid at the ratio of 4.8% in 30 minutes, or a ratio of 4.3% in 60 minutes is required for full success of tretment. Conclusion: Since Ascaris eggs have 3 layers and are very resistant, the acetic acid concentration, which can be effective on these eggs are thought to be effective also on many other parasitic agents. In order to attain an active protection, after washing the vegetables, direct treatment with a vinegar containing 5% acetic acid for 30 minutes is essential. PMID:26905351

  8. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  9. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  10. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  11. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  12. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  13. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  14. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  15. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  16. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  17. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  18. Structure elucidation via stereoselective synthesis of the acetate center of 1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}(1-iodo-1-propen-3-yl)-{alpha}-phenylacetate (IQNP). A high affinity muscarinic imaging agent for SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    McPherson, D.W.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1996-11-15

    A facile stereoselective synthesis of {alpha}-hydroxy-{alpha}-phenyl-{alpha}-(1-propyn-3-yl)acetic acid in high enantiomeric excess has been developed and allows determination of the (R/S) conformation at this center. In addition, comparison of the specific rotation, HPLC, and NMR data of (E)-(R,R)-and (E)-(R,S)-IQNP to those prepared by a classical resolution of the acetate moiety allows the assignment of (E)-(R,R)-IQNP as the isomer demonstrating binding to the M{sub 1} mAChR subtype and (Z)-(R,R)-IQNP as the isomer binding to both the M{sub 1} and M{sub 2} mAChR subtypes.

  19. New agents for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Di Lorenzo, G; Sonpavde, G; Bellmunt, J

    2014-09-01

    The therapeutic landscape of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been revolutionized by the arrival of multiple novel agents in the past 2 years. Immunotherapy in the form of sipuleucel-T, androgen axis inhibitors, including abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide, a chemotherapeutic agent, cabazitaxel, and a radiopharmaceutical, radium-223, have all yielded incremental extensions of survival and have been recently approved. A number of other agents appear promising in early studies, suggesting that the armamentarium against castrate-resistant prostate cancer is likely to continue to expand. Emerging androgen pathway inhibitors include androgen synthesis inhibitors (TAK700), androgen receptor inhibitors (ARN-509, ODM-201), AR DNA binding domain inhibitors (EPI-001), selective AR downregulators or SARDs (AZD-3514), and agents that inhibit both androgen synthesis and receptor binding (TOK-001/galeterone). Promising immunotherapeutic agents include poxvirus vaccines and CTLA-4 inhibitor (ipilimumab). Biologic agents targeting the molecular drivers of disease are also being investigated as single agents, including cabozantinib (Met and VEGFR2 inhibitor) and tasquinimod (angiogenesis and immune modulatory agent). Despite the disappointing results seen from studies evaluating docetaxel in combination with other agents, including GVAX, anti-angiogentic agents (bevacizumab, aflibercept, lenalinomide), a SRC kinase inhibitor (dasatinib), endothelin receptor antagonists (atrasentan, zibotentan), and high-dose calcitriol (DN-101), the results from the trial evaluating docetaxel in combination with the clusterin antagonist, custirsen, are eagerly awaited. New therapeutic hurdles consist of discovering new targets, understanding resistance mechanisms, the optimal sequencing and combinations of available agents, as well as biomarkers predictive for benefit. Novel agents targeting bone metastases are being developed following the success of zoledronic acid

  20. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  1. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  2. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  3. Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

  4. Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction. PMID:21209842

  5. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    PubMed

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  6. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  7. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  8. [Advances in the progress of anti-bacterial biofilms properties of acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xinxin; Jin, Zhenghua; Chen, Xinxin; Yu, Jia'ao

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial biofilms are considered to be the hindrance in the treatment of chronic wound, because of their tolerance toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. They also have strong ability to escape from the host immune attack. Acetic acid, as a kind of organic weak acid, can disturb the biofilms by freely diffusing through the bacterial biofilms and bacterial cell membrane structure. Then the acid dissociates to release the hydrogen ions, leading to the disorder of the acid-base imbalance, change of protein conformation, and the degradation of the DNA within the membranes. This paper reviews the literature on the characteristics and treatment strategies of the bacterial biofilms and the acetic acid intervention on them, so as to demonstrate the roles acetic acid may play in the treatment of chronic wound, and thus provide a convincing treatment strategy for this kind of disease. PMID:27321493

  9. Adrenocortical suppression in cats given megestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Chastain, C B; Graham, C L; Nichols, C E

    1981-12-01

    Megestrol acetate was given orally to 8 cats at a dose of 2.5 mg every other day for 2 weeks and to 8 cats at a dose of 5.0 mg every day for 2 weeks. Four cats were designated nontreated controls. Pre-ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion (IV) were determined on each of the 20 cats given megestrol acetate. Cats were restrained with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride during blood sample collection and large-dose glucose infusion. Adrenocortical function and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion were reevaluated for 4 weeks--after 1st and 2nd weeks of megestrol acetate treatment of the treated groups, and after 1st and 2nd weeks when treatment was stopped (ie, experiment weeks 3 and 4). Each week a cat from the control group and 2 cats from the 2 treated groups were selected to determine the changes occurring during the experiment for that week; after collection of plasma samples, each week's 5 selected cats were euthanatized and necropsied. Significant impairment of adrenocortical function and alteration of adrenocortical morphology occurred with both treated groups. The most severe adrenocortical alterations occurred in the cats 1 week after megestrol acetate was no longer given (ie, experiment week 3). Megestrol acetate-induced adrenocortical suppression contributed to the death of 1 cat. It was concluded that if stress occurs to cats on treatment or soon after treatment with megestrol acetate, glucocorticoids should be supplemented. The effects of megestrol acetate on glucose tolerance were overshadowed by the unforeseen intolerance caused by chemical restraint with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:6280517

  10. Acetate Transport and Utilization in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Shestov, Alexander A.; Koski, Dee M.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMRace) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization ( KMutil=0.01±0.14mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier ( KMt=4.18±0.83mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the blood-brain barrier ( Vmaxt=0.96±0.18μmol/g/min) was nearly two-fold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization ( Vmaxutil=0.50±0.08μmol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the blood-brain barrier, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain. PMID:19393008

  11. Surface treatment agents for protection of shorelines from oil spills. Final report 1975-79

    SciTech Connect

    Foget, C.R.; Castle, R.W.; Naughton, S.; Sartor, J.D.; Miller, M.

    1984-04-01

    A literature review and laboratory tests were conducted to provide a basis for analyzing the results of previous tests on surface treatment agents, compare agent effectiveness, and recommend agents for preliminary field tests. The surface treatment agents evaluated during the preliminary tests were film-forming agents, dispersing agents, and a surface collecting agent. From the results of these tests, two film-forming agents, polyvinyl acetate and xanthan gum, a surface collecting agent, and a flowing film of water were recommended and tested during full-scale field tests at Sewaren Beach, New Jersey. The results of the full-scale field tests showed that polyvinyl acetate provided both beach and marsh test plots with the most effective long-term protection. The toxic effects of the various agents on the Eastern Blue Crab and cord grass (Spartina foliosa) were also evaluated.

  12. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  13. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  16. [Degradation of thiometon in ethyl acetate].

    PubMed

    Satoh, M; Shimokawa, S; Kobata, M; Tanaka, T; Nakanishi, Y

    2001-04-01

    When performing multiresidue analysis of pesticides, the recovery of thiometon was less than 20% from carrots and eggplants, but about 100% from garlic chives and welsh onions. The recovery of thiometon was found to depend on the lot of ethyl acetate. A 2-year-old lot of ethyl acetate caused degradation of thiometon, but a fresh lot of ethyl acetate did not. Analysis showed that ethyl acetate stored for 2 years contained about 5 microL/mL of acetaldehyde. Thiometon was also degraded by acetone or acetonitrile, when acetaldehyde was added to them, in the same manner as by aged ethyl acetate. The fact that the recovery of thiometon from welsh onions was about 100% indicated that some of the mercaptans in allium vegetables may prevent thiometon degradation. Mercaptans such as L-cysteine and 3-mercaptoproionic acid were confirmed to prevent the degradation of thiometon and disulfoton. These findings show that mercaptans may be useful additives for analyzing thiometon and disulfoton. PMID:11486375

  17. An Association Between Glatiramer Acetate and Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Walker, John; Smylie, AnneLiese; Smylie, Michael

    2016-09-01

    A 43-year-old female receiving immunomodulatory therapy with glatiramer acetate (copaxone, GA) for relapsing, remitting multiple sclerosis was diagnosed with stage IIIB melanoma that recurred <7 months after resection and lymphadenectomy. In preparation for systemic therapy the patient discontinued GA, and shortly thereafter experienced spontaneous and complete clinical and radiographic resolution of her disease. The development and subsequent regression of melanoma in this patient may be due to the use and subsequent discontinuation of GA, and our discussion of the case includes the potential immunologic mechanisms that may provide an explanation for our findings. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first reported association between the immunomodulatory agent GA and malignant melanoma. PMID:27404942

  18. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  19. Ionic liquid mediated technology for synthesis of cellulose acetates using different co-solvents.

    PubMed

    Jogunola, Olatunde; Eta, Valerie; Hedenström, Mattias; Sundman, Ola; Salmi, Tapio; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cellulose acetate was synthesized under homogeneous conditions. Cellulose was first dispersed in acetone, acetonitrile, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-ene (DBN) or dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and the resulting suspension was dissolved in an ionic liquid, 1,5-diazabicyclo(4.3.0)non-5-enium acetate [HDBN][OAc] at 70°C for 0.5h. It was possible to dissolve more than 12wt% cellulose with a degree of polymerization in the range of 1000-1100. The dissolved cellulose was derivatized with acetic anhydride (Ac2O) to yield acetylated cellulose. As expected, the use of the co-solvents improved the acetylation process significantly. In fact, cellulose acetates with different properties could be obtained in half an hour, thus facilitating rapid processing. When DBN was used as the dispersing agent (the precursor of the ionic liquid), the problems associated with recycling of the ionic liquid were significantly reduced. In fact, additional [HDBN][OAc] was obtained from the interaction of the DBN and the by-product, acetic acid (from Ac2O). However, the cellulose acetate obtained in this manner had the lowest DS. Consequently, the native cellulose and acetylated celluloses were characterized by means of (1)H- and (13)C-NMR, FT-IR, GPC/SEC and by titration. The cellulose acetates produced were soluble in organic solvents such as acetone, chloroform, dichloromethane and DMSO which is essential for their further processing. It was demonstrated that the ionic liquid can be recovered from the system by distillation and re-used in consecutive acetylation batches. PMID:26453886

  20. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  1. Megestrol acetate for treatment of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Schlaff, W D; Dugoff, L; Damewood, M D; Rock, J A

    1990-04-01

    Between 1977-1989, 29 women with symptomatic endometriosis were treated with megestrol acetate by the Johns Hopkins Division of Reproductive Endocrinology. All had previously received one or more alternative medical treatments for endometriosis, in each case discontinued because of poor response or development of unacceptable side effects. Treatment consisted of a daily dose of 40 mg megestrol acetate orally for up to 24 months. Disease-related symptoms (dysmenorrhea, noncyclic pelvic pain, and dyspareunia) were relieved in 86% of the subjects treated with an adequate course of therapy. Side effects were fairly well tolerated, although eight women discontinued treatment within 2 months and two others stopped the drug by 4 months. These preliminary findings suggest that megestrol acetate may be an effective treatment for patients with endometriosis, even those who have been unresponsive to other modes of therapy. PMID:2314784

  2. Conjunctival Necrosis due to Subconjunctival Methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrol™) Acetate Injection

    PubMed Central

    van Zyl, L. M.; Hill, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of conjunctival necrosis due to subconjunctival methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrol™) acetate injection after phacoemulsification surgery. This case report highlights a serious complication of the inadvertent use of methylprednisolone as a subconjunctival agent. To report a case of conjunctival necrosis due to subconjunctival methylprednisolone (Depo-Medrol™) acetate injection after phacoemulsification. Case report a single case presenting to a tertiary ophthalmic unit. An 82-year-old patient underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification in the right eye. Postoperatively, she was given a subconjunctival injection of methylprednisolone. Two weeks later, she presented with a painful ulcerated lesion of the conjunctiva proximal to the injection site. The ulcerated lesion was surgically excised and she made a complete recovery. In this reported case, methylprednisolone was used in error with significant resultant morbidity. This preparation is not registered for the off label use in ophthalmology, and this case report highlights the danger of its inadvertent use as a subconjuctival agent. PMID:21180446

  3. Randomized Study Combining Interferon & Glatiramer Acetate in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lublin, Fred D.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Conwit, Robin; Narayana, Ponnada A.; Nelson, Flavia; Salter, Amber R.; Gustafson, Tarah; Wolinsky, Jerry S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A double-blind, randomized, controlled study to determine if combined use of interferon beta-1a (IFN) 30ug IM weekly and glatiramer acetate (GA) 20mg daily is more efficacious than either agent alone in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods 1008 participants were randomized and followed until the last participant enrolled completed 3 yrs. The primary endpoint was reduction in annualized relapse rate utilizing a strict definition of relapse. Secondary outcomes included time to confirmed disability, Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) score and MRI metrics. Results Combination IFN + GA was not superior to the better of the single agents (GA) in risk of relapse. Both the combination therapy and GA were significantly better than IFN in reducing the risk of relapse. The Combination was not better than either agent alone in lessening confirmed EDSS progression or change in MSFC over 36 months. The combination was superior to either agent alone in reducing new lesion activity and accumulation of total lesion volumes. In a post hoc analysis, combination therapy resulted in a higher proportion of participants attaining disease activity free status (DAFS) compared to either single arm; driven by the MRI results. Interpretation Combining the two most commonly prescribed therapies for MS did not produce a significant clinical benefit over three years. An effect was seen on some MRI metrics. In a test of comparative efficacy, GA was superior to IFN in reducing the risk of exacerbation. The extension phase for CombiRx will address if the observed differences in MRI and DAFS findings predict later clinical differences. PMID:23424159

  4. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  5. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  6. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  8. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS TOLERANCES FOR RESIDUES OF NEW ANIMAL DRUGS IN FOOD Specific Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs §...

  9. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  10. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Prednisolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate. 522.1881 Section 522.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... used as supportive therapy pre- and postoperatively and for various stress conditions...

  11. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414644

  12. Reactions of germanium tetrahalides with ketene acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Efimova, I.V.; Kazankova, M.A.; Lutsenko, I.F.

    1985-05-01

    Recently, the authors reported that alkyl vinyl ethers and terminal alkynes are readily germylated by germanium tetrahalides in the presence of a tertiary amine. To extend the range of applicability of this reaction and to obtain additional information on its mechanism, the authors study reactions of ketene acetals with germanium tetrachloride and tetrabromide in the presence of triethylamine.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  14. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  15. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  16. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities. PMID:27104514

  17. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of linalool and linalyl acetate constituents of essential oils.

    PubMed

    Peana, A T; D'Aquila, P S; Panin, F; Serra, G; Pippia, P; Moretti, M D L

    2002-12-01

    Linalool and linalyl acetate are the principal components of many essential oils known to possess several biological activities, attributable to these monoterpene compounds. In this work, we evaluated individually the anti-inflammatory properties of (-) linalool, that is, the natural occurring enantiomer, and its racemate form, present in various amounts in distilled or extracted essential oils. Because in the linalool-containing essential oils, linalyl acetate, is frequently present, we also examined the anti-inflammatory action of this monoterpene ester. Carrageenin-induced edema in rats was used as a model of inflammation. The experimental data indicate that both the pure enantiomer and its racemate induced, after systemic administration, a reduction of edema. Moreover, the pure enantiomer, at a dose of 25 mg/kg, elicited a delayed and more prolonged effect, while the racemate form induced a significant reduction of the edema only one hour after carrageenin administration. At higher doses, no differences were observed between the (-) enantiomer and the racemate; a further increase in the dose of both forms did not result in an increased effect at any time of observation. The effects of equi-molar doses of linalyl acetate on local edema were less relevant and more delayed than that of the corresponding alcohol. These finding suggest a typical pro-drug behavior of linalyl acetate. The results obtained indicate that linalool and the corresponding acetate play a major role in the anti-inflammatory activity displayed by the essential oils containing them, and provide further evidence suggesting that linalool and linalyl acetate-producing species are potentially anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:12587692

  19. Non-halogenated alternative cleaning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The cleaning efficiency of five alternative cleaning agents have been evaluated as possible replacements chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) solvents used in the manufacture of certain electronic components. These cleaning agents were evaluated in the first phase (Phase I) of a two-phase program to remove various simulated manufacturing contaminants such as oils, greases, mold release, and body oils. Results showed that a decyl acetate (EXXATE 1000) and a terpene (BIOACT EC-7) were both able to effectively remove these contaminants form copper board substrates.

  20. Non-halogenated alternative cleaning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1992-09-01

    The cleaning efficiency of five alternative cleaning agents have been evaluated as possible replacements chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and chlorohydrocarbon (CHC) solvents used in the manufacture of certain electronic components. These cleaning agents were evaluated in the first phase (Phase I) of a two-phase program to remove various simulated manufacturing contaminants such as oils, greases, mold release, and body oils. Results showed that a decyl acetate (EXXATE 1000) and a terpene (BIOACT EC-7) were both able to effectively remove these contaminants form copper board substrates.

  1. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  2. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  4. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H; N'Guessan, A L; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  5. Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

  6. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of precocious puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Prager-Lewin, R; Grünebaum, M; Laron, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine children (23 girls, 6 boys) with precocious puberty were treated with cyproterone acetate for various periods of time ranging from 6 months to 3 years 4 months. They received an oral dose ranging from 70-150 mg/m2 per day, or an intramuscular depot injection once a fortnight or once a month at a dose ranging from 107-230 mg/m2. Both forms of therapy were found to suppress the signs of sexual maturation, but the oral form proved to be superior. Only the younger patients with a bone age under 11 years showed a beneficial effect upon linear growth and bone maturation. No side effects were noted, but additional advantageous effects upon behaviour and sociability were. It is concluded that at present cyproterone acetate by mouth is the drug of choice in the treatment of precocious puberty. The treatment should be initiated as early as possible to attain maximum benefit. PMID:952553

  7. Facile hydrolysis and alcoholysis of palladium acetate.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Robin B; Bowen, John G; Davidson, Russell B; Haddow, Mairi F; Seymour-Julen, Annabelle E; Sparkes, Hazel A; Webster, Ruth L

    2015-05-26

    Palladium(II) acetate is readily converted into [Pd3 (μ(2) -OH)(OAc)5 ] (1) in the presence of water in a range of organic solvents and is also slowly converted in the solid state. Complex 1 can also be formed in nominally anhydrous solvents. Similarly, the analogous alkoxide complexes [Pd3 (μ(2) -OR)(OAc)5 ] (3) are easily formed in solutions of palladium(II) acetate containing a range of alcohols. An examination of a representative Wacker-type oxidation shows that the Pd-OH complex 1 and a related Pd-oxo complex 4 can be excluded as potential catalytic intermediates in the absence of exogenous water. PMID:25865439

  8. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  9. Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

  10. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  11. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  12. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  13. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  14. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  15. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  16. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  17. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  4. Multiple-anion nonvolatile acetal (MANA) resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevremont, Jeffrey M.; Brainard, Robert L.; Reeves, Scott D.; Zhou, Xin; Nguyen, Thinh B.; Mackevich, Joseph F.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, Gary N.

    2001-08-01

    New acetal or ketal blocking reagents were investigated for use in e-beam lithography and compared with the performance of ethyl vinyl either (EVE). Three blocking groups, (alpha) -Angelicalactone (AL), 6-methylene-5,6-benzo-1,4- dioxane (MBD), and MANA50 (an undisclosed blocking group used to show the potential of this chemistry) were reacted with poly(p-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) under acid catalyzed conditions to form AL-PHS, MBD-PHS, MANA50-PHS. The performance objectives pursued in the design of these new materials was to use acetal (ketal) chemistry to deliver wide process latitudes (e.g. good PED performance and minimal PEB sensitivity), use high molecular weight blocking groups to eliminate outgassing, and use the novel concept of multiple anions to deliver lithographic performance. These new materials are called Multiple Anion Nonvolatile Acetal (MANA) resists. Resists films were exposed with 50kV electrons, post exposure baked (PEB), and developed with 0.26 N TMAH. Resists prepared with the third blocking group, MANA50, gave contrast and imaging performance independent of PEB humidity and were relatively insensitive to PEB temperature and post exposure delay (PED). These resists gave the best resolution (90 nm) and profiles of all the materials tested, as well as showing no outgassing (as measured by film thickness loss).

  5. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  6. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  7. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly. PMID:23379161

  8. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  9. Tethering for selective synthesis of 2,2'-biphenols: the acetal method.

    PubMed

    Masters, Kye-Simeon; Bihlmeier, Angela; Klopper, Wim; Bräse, Stefan

    2013-12-23

    2,2'-Biphenols are a large and diverse group of compounds with exceptional properties both as ligands and bioactive agents. Traditional methods for their synthesis by oxidative dimerisation are often problematic and lead to mixtures of ortho- and para-connected regioisomers. To compound these issues, an intermolecular dimerisation strategy is often inappropriate for the synthesis of heterodimers. The 'acetal method' provides a solution for these problems: stepwise tethering of two monomeric phenols enables heterodimer synthesis, enforces ortho regioselectivity and allows relatively facile and selective intramolecular reactions to take place. The resulting dibenzo[1,3]dioxepines have been analysed by quantum chemical calculations to obtain information about the activation barrier for ring flip between the enantiomers. Hydrolytic removal of the dioxepine acetal unit revealed the 2,2'-biphenol target. PMID:24265263

  10. Reduction of bromate to bromide coupled to acetate oxidation by anaerobic mixed microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    van Ginkel, C G; van Haperen, A M; van der Togt, B

    2005-01-01

    Bromate, a weakly mutagenic oxidizing agent, exists in surface waters. The biodegradation of bromate was investigated by assessing the ability of mixed cultures of micro-organisms for utilization of bromate as electron acceptor and acetate as electron donor. Reduction of bromate was only observed at relatively low concentrations (<3.0 mM) in the absence of molecular oxygen. Under these conditions bromate was reduced stoichiometrically to bromide. Unadapted sludge from an activated sludge treatment plant and a digester reduced bromate without lag period at a constant rate. Using an enrichment culture adapted to bromate, it was demonstrated that bromate was a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic growth. Approximately 50% of the acetate was utilized for growth with bromate by the enrichment culture. A doubling of 20 h was estimated from a logarithmic growth curve. Other electron acceptors, like perchlorate, chlorate and nitrate, were not reduced or at negligible rates by bromate-utilizing microorganisms. PMID:15607164

  11. Atomic Layer Deposition of Titania on Cellulose Acetate for Enhanced Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, G. Kevin; Stewart, S. Michael; Scarel, Giovanna; Parsons, Gregory N.; Shih, Chun-Che; Shih, Chun-Ming; Lin, Shing-Jong; Su, Yea-Yang; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Narayan, Roger J.

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 films may be used to alter the wettability and hemocompatibility of cellulose materials. In this study, pure and stoichiometric TiO2 films were grown using atomic layer deposition on both silicon and cellulose substrates. The films were grown with uniform thicknesses and with a growth rate in agreement with literature results. The TiO2 films were shown to profoundly alter the water contact angle values of cellulose depending upon processing characteristics. Higher rates of protein adsorption were noted on TiO2-coated cellulose acetate than on uncoated cellulose acetate. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an appropriate method for improving the biological properties of hemostatic agents and other blood-contacting biomaterials. PMID:21298806

  12. Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

  13. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  14. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    PubMed

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  15. Chemoselectivities in acetalization, thioacetalization, oxathioacetalization and azathioacetalization.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ram Kinkar; Bagaria, Priyanka; Naik, Sarala; Kavala, Veerababurao; Patel, Bhisma K

    2006-02-16

    In the present article (experimental as well theoretical) the relative yields of cyclic (O,O), (S,S), (S,O), and (S,N) acetals, formed from p-(NO2)C6H4CHO and p-(OH)C6H4CHO, are compared. Atomic charges, global electrophilicity descriptor (w) [as proposed by Parr et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 1922] and hard-soft acid-base concept of Pearson (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1963, 85, 3533) are used to explain the experimental observations. Although the w values can explain the yields, charge and local softness values of the interacting sites explain the plausible reaction mechanism. The bisnucleophiles chosen for acetalization are CH2(OH)-CH2(OH) (glycol), CH2(SH)-CH2(SH) (dithiol), CH2(OH)-CH2(SH) (oxathiol) and CH2(SH)-CH2(NH2) (azathiol). For p-(NO2)C6H4CHO, the experimental yield of cyclic acetals were found to follow the trend as (S,N) > (S,O) > (O,O) > (S,S), which is also supported by theoretical explanation based on the w values and applying the concept of hard-hard (i.e., charge-controlled) and soft-soft (i.e., orbital-controlled) interaction between the interacting sites of the substrates (i.e., aldehydes) and the reactants (bisnucleophiles). Similarly, for p-(OH)C6H4CHO the relative yields of cyclic acetals follow the trend (S,N) approximately (S,S) > (S,O) > (O,O). It is argued that the attack on C(CHO) (i.e., C-atom of the CHO group) in p-(NO2)C6H4CHO by O(OH) (i.e., O-atom of OH group) or N(NH2) (i.e., N-atom of NH2 group) is mainly charge-controlled but the attack on C(CHO) in p-(OH)C6H4CHO) by S(SH) (i.e., S-atom of SH group) is orbital-controlled. PMID:16466254

  16. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  17. Triacetin-based acetate supplementation as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant therapy in glioma

    PubMed Central

    Tsen, Andrew R.; Long, Patrick M.; Driscoll, Heather E.; Davies, Matthew T.; Teasdale, Benjamin A.; Penar, Paul L.; Pendlebury, William W.; Spees, Jeffrey L.; Lawler, Sean E.; Viapiano, Mariano S.; Jaworski, Diane M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is associated with epigenetic (i.e., histone hypoacetylation) and metabolic (i.e., aerobic glycolysis) alterations. Levels of N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA), the primary storage form of acetate in the brain, and aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme responsible for NAA catalysis to generate acetate, are reduced in glioma; yet, few studies have investigated acetate as a potential therapeutic agent. This preclinical study sought to test the efficacy of the food additive Triacetin (glyceryl triacetate, GTA) as a novel therapy to increase acetate bioavailability in glioma cells. The growth-inhibitory effects of GTA, compared to the histone deacetylase inhibitor Vorinostat (SAHA), were assessed in established human glioma cell lines (HOG and Hs683 oligodendroglioma, U87 and U251 glioblastoma) and primary tumor-derived glioma stem-like cells (GSCs), relative to an oligodendrocyte progenitor line (Oli-Neu), normal astrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro. GTA was also tested as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant with temozolomide (TMZ) in orthotopically grafted GSCs. GTA induced cytostatic growth arrest in vitro comparable to Vorinostat, but, unlike Vorinostat, GTA did not alter astrocyte growth and promoted NSC expansion. GTA alone increased survival of mice engrafted with glioblastoma GSCs and potentiated TMZ to extend survival longer than TMZ alone. GTA was most effective on GSCs with a mesenchymal cell phenotype. Given that GTA has been chronically administered safely to infants with Canavan disease, a leukodystrophy due to ASPA mutation, GTA-mediated acetate supplementation may provide a novel, safe chemotherapeutic adjuvant to reduce the growth of glioma tumors, most notably the more rapidly proliferating, glycolytic, and hypoacetylated mesenchymal glioma tumors. PMID:23996800

  18. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. PMID:26416641

  19. Transport properties of polyaniline-cellulose-acetate blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planès, Jérôme; Wolter, Andreas; Cheguettine, Yasmina; Proń, Adam; Genoud, Françoise; Nechtschein, Maxime

    1998-09-01

    Transport properties of polyaniline (PANI)-cellulose acetate (CA) conducting blends have been investigated at various length scales and temperatures. We report on the results of dc and ac conductivity measurements, magnetoresistance and electron-spin resonance (ESR) performed on composite films with PANI weight fraction p ranging from the percolation threshold-pc~=0.1%-to a few percent. Three different PANI doping agents have been tested, namely, camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), di(i-octyl phosphate) (DiOP) and phenyl phosphonic acid (PPA). The percolative behavior of σdc resembles that of published results on PANI/PMMA blends. The onset frequency ωξ of the dispersion in σac appears to follow the scaling law: ωξ~σzdc with z~=1. The temperature dependence is of the form of lnσ(T)~-(T0/T)γ the exponent decreasing from 0.75 to 0.5 with increasing p. The microscopic metallic character of transport is found in ESR and microwave measurements. Spin-dependent conductivity is inferred from the (B/T)2 universal behavior of magnetoresistance. Those results are discussed in conjunction with the ongoing debate on the nature of disorder in conducting polymers-homogeneous versus heterogeneous.

  20. Metabolism of Flavone-8-acetic Acid in Mice.

    PubMed

    Pham, Minh Hien; Auzeil, Nicolas; Regazzetti, Anne; Scherman, Daniel; Seguin, Johanne; Mignet, Nathalie; Dauzonne, Daniel; Chabot, Guy G

    2016-08-01

    Flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA) is a potent antivascular agent in mice but not in humans. Assuming that FAA was bioactivated in mice, we previously demonstrated that 6-OH-FAA was formed from FAA by mouse microsomes but not by human microsomes; its antivascular activity was 2.1- to 15.9-fold stronger than that of FAA, and its antivascular activity was mediated through the Ras homolog gene family (Rho) protein kinase A (RhoA) pathway. The present work aimed to study FAA metabolism in order to verify if 6-OH-FAA is formed in mice. Using synthesized standards and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with ultraviolet (UV) detection and mass spectrometry (MS) analysis, we herein demonstrated, for the first time, that in vitro FAA and its monohydroxylated derivatives could directly undergo phase II metabolism forming glucuronides, and two FAA epoxides were mostly scavenged by NAC and GSH forming corresponding adducts. FAA was metabolized in mice. Several metabolites were formed, in particular 6-OHFAA. The antitumor activity of 6-OH-FAA in vivo is worthy of investigation. PMID:27466491

  1. Rheological study of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils.

    PubMed

    Mikešová, Jana; Hašek, Jindřich; Tishchenko, Galina; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

    2014-11-01

    Rheological properties of chitosan acetate solutions containing chitin nanofibrils (n-chitin) and biocompatible plasticizers intended for preparation of biodegradable films are reported in the steady, oscillatory and transient shear flow. The experiments were performed on slurries with an optimum proportion of 65/35 wt.% between chitosan and n-chitin in the films which was determined from our results of mechanical properties and absorption of water vapor. The time-dependent dynamic experiments revealed the chitin nanofibrils as an effective "gelling agent" of chitosan phase. The phenomenon is explained by a chitosan-like surface of n-chitin and by the interactions inducing orientational cooperativity of chitosan molecules dissolved in close neighborhood of the anisotropic chitin nanofibrils. Additions of glycerol or poly(ethylene glycol), improving mechanical properties of the films, delay significantly the onset of gelation of chitosan/n-chitin slurries. The effect is induced by an increase in viscosity of the slurries and by their enhanced chaotropic character. PMID:25129805

  2. Spasticity in multiple sclerosis and role of glatiramer acetate treatment

    PubMed Central

    Meca-Lallana, Jose Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spasticity is one of the most disabling and difficult-to-treat symptoms shown by patients with multiple sclerosis, who often show a suboptimal and unsatisfactory response to classic treatment and new available nonpharmacological alternatives. Due to the progressive nature of this condition, the early management should be essential to improve long-term outcomes. Methods We performed a narrative literature review of the contribution of spasticity to the burden of multiple sclerosis and the potential role of classic disease-modifying drugs. Results Added to the underlying pathophysiology of spasticity, certain external factors and drugs such as interferon may exacerbate the existing condition, hence their awareness is crucial as part of an effective management of spasticity. Furthermore, the evidence for the effectiveness of glatiramer acetate in preventing spasticity in naïve patients and in those switching from interferon should not be ignored. Conclusions This literature review proposes the examination of spasticity and the influence of classic disease-modifying agents on the level of existing condition among the variables to be considered when deciding on therapy for multiple sclerosis in clinical practice. PMID:26445705

  3. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-23

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. PMID:24953705

  4. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  5. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  6. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  7. A radioimmunoassay for serum medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Shrimanker, K; Saxena, B N; Fotherby, K

    1978-04-01

    When injected intramuscularly in a dose of 150 mg, Depo Provera, a microcrystalline suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), will provide a contraceptive effect for at least 3 months. This paper describes a sensitive radioimmunoassay for MPA which has been used in the author's laboratory for the past 2 years. MPA was converted to MPA-3-CMO and the oxime was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) by the mixed anahydride method. 4 rabbits were immunized with the antiserum. A high titre of MPA antibodies was detected 6 months after immunization. Serum from the rabbit with the highest titre of antibodies to MPA was subjected to radioimmunoassay. 7 days after the intramuscular injection of 150 mg Depo-Provera, serum levels of MPA were found in the range of 1750 to 9000 pg/ml. By 75 days, the levels had decreased to 680-2600 pg/ml. The method was found to have adequate accuracy, precision and sensitivity. PMID:661315

  8. Breast cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study of the incidence of breast cancer in relation to use of depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand, and one each in Kenya and Mexico. A relative risk for breast cancer of 0.7 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. Although no consistent decrease in risk with duration of use was observed, the lowest relative risk (0.5) was observed in women who had used DMPA for three or more years. These findings are based on small numbers and must be considered preliminary. However, they provide no evidence that DMPA increases the risk of breast cancer, and suggest that it may exert a protective effect, particularly in long-term users. PMID:2931206

  9. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  10. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  11. Comparison between topical honey and mafenide acetate in treatment of auricular burn.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Basir; Bayat, Akbar; Kazemei, Tayebe; Azarpira, Negar

    2011-01-01

    The auricle is a frequently injured part of the head and neck during thermal injury leading to ear deformity. The burned ear represents one of the most difficult problems for reconstructive surgeons. Mafenide acetate is a topical agent used routinely for these patients, but it has some disadvantages including painful application and allergic rash. Some authors have reported the healing effect and antibacterial activity of honey. The study reported here was undertaken to compare the effect of honey and mafenide acetate on auricular burn in rabbit. In our study, although the pathologic score of the honey group was better than that of the mafenide group both on 14 and 21 days after burning, it was not statistically significant. In the mafenide acetate group, deep complication of burn (chondritis) was significantly lower than that of the honey group. In conclusion, in contrast to healing and antibiotic activity reported for honey, it may have failure in preventing deep bacterial complications of wound (like chondritis). So in deep wounds, the use of honey as dressing is not recommended. PMID:20015812

  12. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  13. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  14. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  15. ANTIFUNGAL AND SPROUT REGULATORY BIOACTIVITIES OF PHENYLACETIC ACID, INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID, AND TYROSOL ISOLATED FROM THE POTATO DRY ROT SUPPRESSIVE BACTERIUM ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE S11:T:07

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enterobacter cloacae S11:T:07 (NRRL B-21050) is a promising biological control agent which has significantly reduced both fungal dry rot disease and sprouting in lab and pilot potato storages. The metabolites phenylacetic acid (PAA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and tyrosol (TSL) were isolated from ...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... this chapter; pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of this chapter; processing aid as defined... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 44, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed...

  17. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  18. Rapid conversion of the ester prodrug abiraterone acetate results in intestinal supersaturation and enhanced absorption of abiraterone: in vitro, rat in situ and human in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Stappaerts, Jef; Geboers, Sophie; Snoeys, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intestinal disposition of abiraterone acetate, an ester prodrug of the anticancer agent abiraterone. Stability of the prodrug and solubility and dissolution characteristics of both abiraterone and abiraterone acetate were monitored in vitro. Moreover, the in vivo intraluminal concentrations of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate upon intake of one tablet of 250 mg abiraterone acetate were assessed in healthy volunteers. The intestinal absorption resulting from the intraluminal behavior of the ester prodrug was determined using the rat in situ intestinal perfusion technique with mesenteric blood sampling. Simulated and aspirated human intestinal fluids of the fasted state were used as solvent systems. Upon incubation of abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids in vitro, rapid hydrolysis of the prodrug was observed, generating abiraterone concentrations largely exceeding the apparent solubility of abiraterone, suggesting the existence of intestinal supersaturation. These findings were confirmed in vivo, by intraluminal sampling of duodenal fluids upon oral intake of an abiraterone acetate tablet by healthy volunteers. Rat in situ intestinal perfusion experiments performed with suspensions of abiraterone and abiraterone acetate in human intestinal fluids of the fasted state revealed significantly higher flux values upon perfusion with the prodrug than with abiraterone. Moreover, rat in situ intestinal perfusion with abiraterone acetate suspensions in simulated fluids of the fasted state in presence or absence of esterases demonstrated that increased hydrolytic activity of the perfusion medium was beneficial to the intestinal absorption of abiraterone. In conclusion, the rapid hydrolysis of abiraterone acetate in the intraluminal environment appears to result in fast and extensive generation of abiraterone supersaturation, creating a strong driving force for abiraterone absorption. PMID:25592324

  19. Homogeneous gold-catalyzed efficient oxidative dimerization of propargylic acetates.

    PubMed

    Cui, Li; Zhang, Guozhu; Zhang, Liming

    2009-07-15

    A highly efficient gold-catalyzed oxidative dimerization of propargylic acetates is developed. In this chemistry, Selectfluor oxidation of Au(I) to Au(III) is readily incorporated into Au-catalyzed tandem reactions of propargylic acetates, and transmetallation and reductive elimination on Au(III) intermediates are likely involved. PMID:19362834

  20. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  1. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  2. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  3. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2478 Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate. (a) Specifications. Each implant dose...) For an implant as described in paragraph (a)(1) of this section: (A) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate... feed efficiency. (C) Limitations. Implant subcutaneously in ear only. Safety and effectiveness have...

  4. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  5. Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4. PMID:22211106

  6. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product....

  7. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection....

  8. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate solution. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate solution....

  9. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  11. Growth and antioxidant activity of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 cultivated in acetate or lactate containing media.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Cwiek, Lucyna; Pado, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Three independent 28 or 32-day stationary cultures of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 strain were carried out under anoxic conditions in acetate or lactate-containing media. The acids were the sole carbon and energy sources in these media. During cultivation the turbidity (for calculation of cell division index) and hydrogen sulfide contents were determined in culture broth and reduced glutathione and protein concentrations were assayed in culture broth supernatant. In these three successive cultures, the bacterium initially grew much faster on lactate than on acetate. However, after two weeks of culture this difference disappeared and in fact the growth rate was higher on acetate than on lactate. The level of H2S formed (product of the dissimilatory pathway of sulfate reduction) demonstrated that this pathway was more effective when lactate was a carbon source and the average H2S concentration was from over 3-fold to about 9-fold greater in lactate than in acetate cultures. Also GSH (glutathione, product of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway) average level was about 2-fold higher in lactate-grown cultures. The high negative values of the correlation coefficients between GSH and O2 levels, especially during the first 4 days of cultivation, indicate that GSH is a very important antioxidizing extracellular agent of D. acetoxidans. The rapid increase in GSH level, preceding the release of H2S, indicates the metabolic priority of the assimilation pathway of sulfate reduction. For both carbon sources the highest coefficient of correlation was found between protein and H2S levels. These results suggest that hydrogen sulfide is bound by proteins (which contain cysteinyl residues) secreted by D. acetoxidans cells. Indicated way of H2S bounding could result in its accumulation. This coefficient of correlation increased gradually in the successive cultures. The ratio of H2S concentration to protein concentration increased gradually in the successive cultures

  12. Pharmacokinetics of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception.

    PubMed

    Mishell, D R

    1996-05-01

    Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is an aqueous suspension of 17-acetoxy 6-methyl progestin administered by intramuscular injection for long-term contraception. This highly effective injectable formulation of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has a prolonged duration of action since the progestin is released slowly from the muscle. MPA is detected in the serum within 30 minutes after an injection of 150 mg. Serum concentrations vary between individual women but generally plateau at about 1.0 ng/mL for about three months, after which there is a gradual decline. In some women, MPA can be detected in the serum for as long as nine months after a single injection of 150 mg. The circulating MPA initially inhibits the midcycle leutinizing hormone (LH) peak, but LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels remain in the range of those for the luteal phase of a pretreatment control cycle. Since ovulation is inhibited, serum progesterone levels remain low (< 0.4 ng/mL) for several months following an injection of DMPA. When MPA levels fall below 0.1 ng/mL, ovulation resumes. Thus, return to fertility is delayed for several months if a woman wishes to conceive after receiving one or more injections of DMPA. Following an injection of DMPA, serum estradiol levels initially are in the early to midfollicular phase range (mean approximately 50 pg/nL). Serum estradiol levels begin to rise about four months after a single injection when MPA levels fall below 0.5 ng/mL. For women who have used DMPA for several years, serum estradiol levels range between 10 and 92 pg/mL, with mean levels of about 40 pg/mL. Despite these low levels of estradiol, hot flushes are a rare event, and the vaginal epithelium remains moist and well rugated. Women using DMPA for several years do not observe a change in breast size. DMPA causes the endometrium to become atrophic, with small, straight endometrial glands and decidualized stroma. The cervical mucus remains thick and viscid. DMPA is a

  13. The clinical use of PET with 11C-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Ilaria; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Morigi, Joshua James; Montini, Gian Carlo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate clinical applications of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). Acetate is quickly metabolized into acetyl-CoA in human cells. In this form it can either enter into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, thus producing energy, as happens in the myocardium, or participate in cell membrane lipid synthesis, as happens in tumor cells. 11C-acetate PET was originally employed in cardiology, to study myocardial oxygen metabolism. More recently it has also been used to evaluate myocardial perfusion, as well as in oncology. The first studies of 11C-acetate focused on its use in prostate cancer. Subsequently, 11C-acetate was studied in other urological malignancies, as well as renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. Well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma represents an 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET pitfall, so many authors have proposed to use 11C-acetate in addition to 18F-FDG in studying this tumor. 11C-acetate PET has also been used in other malignancies, such as brain tumors and lung carcinoma. Some authors reported a few cases in which 11C-acetate PET incidentally found multiple myeloma or rare tumors, such as thymoma, multicentric angiomyolipoma of the kidney and cerebellopontine angle schwannoma. Lastly, 11C-acetate PET was also employed in a differential diagnosis case between glioma and encephalitis. The numerous studies on 11C-acetate have demonstrated that it can be used in cardiology and oncology with no contraindications apart from pregnancy and the necessity of a rapid scan. Despite its limited availability, this tracer can surely be considered to be a promising one, because of its versatility and capacity to even detect non 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm, such as differentiated lung cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23133801

  14. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  15. 2-(2-Naphthyloxy)acetate derivatives. I. A new class of antiamnesic agents.

    PubMed

    Thamotharan, S; Parthasarathi, V; Malik, R; Jindal, D P; Piplani, P; Linden, Anthony

    2003-08-01

    The title compounds 1-(2-naphthyloxymethylcarbonyl)piperidine, C(17)H(19)NO(2), (I), and 3-methyl-1-(2-naphthyloxymethylcarbonyl)piperidine, C(18)H(21)NO(2), (II), are potential antiamnesics. In (II), the methyl-substituted piperidine ring is disordered over two conformations. The piperidine ring has a chair conformation in both compounds. In (I), the molecules are linked by weak intermolecular C-H.O interactions to give networks represented by C(4), C(6) and R(4)(4)(18) graph-set motifs, while in (II), weak intermolecular C-H.O interactions generate R(1)(2)(5), C(4) and C(7) graph-set motifs. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene moiety and the piperidine ring is 33.83 (7) degrees in (I), while it is 31.78 (11) and 19.38 (19) degrees for the major and minor conformations, respectively, in (II). PMID:12909766

  16. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  17. An energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway in Entamoeba histolytica. Pyruvate synthase and a new acetate thiokinase.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R E; Warren, L G; Susskind, B; Lo, H S

    1977-01-25

    Under anaerobic conditions, cells of Entamoeba histolytica grown with bacteria produce H2 and acetate while cells grown axenically produce neither. Aerobically, acetate is produced and O2 is consumed by amebae from either type of cells. Centrifuged extracts, 2.4 x 106 x g x min, from both types of cells contain pyruvate synthase (EC 1.2.7.1) and an acetate thiokinase which, together, form a system capable of converting pyruvate to acetate. Pyruvate synthase catalyzes the reaction: pyruvate + CoA leads to CO2 + acetyl-CoA + 2E. Electron acceptors which function with this enzyme are FAD, FMN, riboflavin, ferredoxin, and methyl viologen, but not NAD or NADP. The amebal acetate thiokinase catalyzes the reaction acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi leads to acetate + ATP + CoA. For this apparently new enzyme we suggest the trivial name acetyl-CoA-synthetase (ADP-forming). Extracts from axenic amebae do not contain hydrogenase, but extracts from cells grown with bacteria do. It is postulated that in bacteria-grown amebae electrons generated at the pyruvate synthase step are utilized anaerobically to produce H2 via the hydrogenase and that the acetyl-CoA is converted to acetate in an energy-conserving step catalyzed by amebal acetyl-CoA synthetase. Aerobically, cells grown under either regimen may utilize the energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway since O2 then serves as the ultimate electron acceptor. PMID:13076

  18. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes. PMID:26176799

  19. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  20. Unilateral Erythema Nodosum following Norethindrone Acetate, Ethinyl Estradiol, and Ferrous Fumarate Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Min, Michelle S.; Fischer, Rob; Fournier, John B.

    2016-01-01

    Erythema nodosum is a septal panniculitis that typically presents as symmetric, tender nodules on the anterior aspects of bilateral lower extremities. Nearly half of cases are due to secondary causes, with oral contraceptive pills being the leading pharmaceutical cause. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a published association with norethindrone acetate, ethinyl estradiol, and ferrous fumarate. We report our experience with a 30-year-old woman who developed unilateral tender nodules within a month of starting 1 mg norethindrone acetate and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol daily. Of note, she had previously taken oral contraceptives with the same estrogen agent but different progesterone, without problems. We conclude that systemically triggered erythema nodosum can present with lesions localized to one extremity. When a patient presents with tender, firm nodules, clinicians should consider the possibility of erythema nodosum and its triggers, such as oral contraceptives. Additionally, should a patient on hormonal therapy develop erythema nodosum, changing the progesterone agent may allow the patient to continue similar therapy without developing symptoms. PMID:27110414

  1. Unilateral Erythema Nodosum following Norethindrone Acetate, Ethinyl Estradiol, and Ferrous Fumarate Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Min, Michelle S; Fischer, Rob; Fournier, John B

    2016-01-01

    Erythema nodosum is a septal panniculitis that typically presents as symmetric, tender nodules on the anterior aspects of bilateral lower extremities. Nearly half of cases are due to secondary causes, with oral contraceptive pills being the leading pharmaceutical cause. However, to our knowledge, there has yet to be a published association with norethindrone acetate, ethinyl estradiol, and ferrous fumarate. We report our experience with a 30-year-old woman who developed unilateral tender nodules within a month of starting 1 mg norethindrone acetate and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol daily. Of note, she had previously taken oral contraceptives with the same estrogen agent but different progesterone, without problems. We conclude that systemically triggered erythema nodosum can present with lesions localized to one extremity. When a patient presents with tender, firm nodules, clinicians should consider the possibility of erythema nodosum and its triggers, such as oral contraceptives. Additionally, should a patient on hormonal therapy develop erythema nodosum, changing the progesterone agent may allow the patient to continue similar therapy without developing symptoms. PMID:27110414

  2. Graft Loss Due to Percutaneous Sclerotherapy of a Lymphocele Using Acetic Acid After Renal Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Adani, Gian Luigi Baccarani, Umberto; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzin, Dario; Montanaro, Domenico; Risaliti, Andrea; Terrosu, Giovanni; Sponza, Massimo; Bresadola, Fabrizio

    2005-12-15

    Development of lymphoceles after renal transplantation is a well-described complication that occurs in up to 40% of recipients. The gold standard approach for the treatment of symptomatic cases is not well defined yet. Management options include simple aspiration, marsupialization by a laparotomy or laparoscopy, and percutaneous sclerotherapy using different chemical agents. Those approaches can be associated, and they depend on type, dimension, and localization of the lymphocele. Percutaneous sclerotherapy is considered to be less invasive than the surgical approach; it can be used safely and effectively, with low morbidity, in huge, rapidly accumulating lymphoceles. Moreover, this approach is highly successful, and the complication rate is acceptable; the major drawback is a recurrence rate close to 20%. We herewith report a renal transplant case in which the patient developed a symptomatic lymphocele that was initially treated by ultrasound-guided percutaneous sclerotherapy with ethanol and thereafter using acetic acid for early recurrence. A few hours after injection of acetic acid in the lymphatic cavity, the patient started to complain of acute pain localized to the renal graft and fever. An ultrasound of the abdomen revealed thrombosis of the renal vein and artery. The patient was immediately taken to the operating room, where the diagnosis of vascular thrombosis was confirmed and the graft was urgently explanted. In conclusion, we strongly suggest avoiding the use of acetic acid as a slerosating agent for the percutaneous treatment of post-renal transplant lymphocele because, based on our experience, it could be complicated by vascular thrombosis of the kidney, ending in graft loss.

  3. A nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid/acetic acid route for the deposition of epitaxial cerium oxide films as high temperature superconductor buffer layers

    SciTech Connect

    Thuy, T.T.; Lommens, P.; Narayanan, V.; Van de Velde, N.; De Buysser, K.; Herman, G.G.; Cloet, V.; Van Driessche, I.

    2010-09-15

    A water based cerium oxide precursor solution using nitrilo-tri-acetic-acid (NTA) and acetic acid as complexing agents is described in detail. This precursor solution is used for the deposition of epitaxial CeO{sub 2} layers on Ni-5at%W substrates by dip-coating. The influence of the complexation behavior on the formation of transparent, homogeneous solutions and gels has been studied. It is found that ethylenediamine plays an important role in the gelification. The growth conditions for cerium oxide films were Ar-5% gas processing atmosphere, a solution concentration level of 0.25 M, a dwell time of 60 min at 900 {sup o}C and 5-30 min at 1050 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), pole figures and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the CeO{sub 2} films with different thicknesses. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) was used to determine the carbon residue level in the surface of the cerium oxide film, which was found to be lower than 0.01%. Textured films with a thickness of 50 nm were obtained. - Graphical abstract: Study of the complexation and hydrolysis behavior of Ce{sup 4+} ions in the presence of nitrilo-tri-acetic acid and the subsequent development of an aqueous chemical solution deposition route suited for the processing of textured CeO{sub 2} buffer layers on Ni-W tapes.

  4. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  5. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  6. Dexamethasone acetate encapsulation into Trojan particles.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Fattal, Elias; Silva, Lídia; Besnard, Madeleine; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2008-05-22

    We have combined the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles systems with the ease of manipulation of microparticles by developing a hybrid vector named Trojan particles. We aim to use this new delivery vehicle for intravitreal administration of dexamethasone. Initialy, dexamethasone acetate (DXA) encapsulation into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles was optimized. Then, Trojan particles were formulated by spray drying 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC), hyaluronic acid (HA) and different concentrations of nanoparticle suspensions. The effect of nanoparticles concentration on Trojan particle physical characteristics was investigated as well as the effect of the spray drying process on nanoparticles size. Finally, DXA in vitro release from nanoparticles and Trojan particles was evaluated under sink condition. SEM and confocal microscopy show that most of Trojan particles are spherical, hollow and possess an irregular surface due to the presence of nanoparticles. Neither Trojan particle tap density nor size distribution are significantly modified as a function of nanoparticles concentration. The mean nanoparticles size increase significantly after spray drying. Finally, the in vitro release of DXA shows that the excipient matrix provides protection to encapsulated nanoparticles by slowing drug release. PMID:18374442

  7. Eslicarbazepine acetate for partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Rauchenzauner, Markus; Luef, Gerhard

    2011-12-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker that is chemically related to carbamazepine and partially metabolized to oxcarbazepine, has attracted attention as results of previous Phase II and III studies demonstrated and confirmed efficacy and tolerability of ESL 800 and 1200 mg once daily as add-on therapy for adult patients with drug-resistant partial-onset seizures. In children, efficacy data point towards a dose-dependent decrease in seizure frequency and tolerability analyses showed a low incidence of mild drug-related adverse effects at 5 and 15 mg/kg/day. The most frequently reported adverse effects were dizziness, somnolence, headache, diplopia, nausea and vomiting. The convenience of once-daily dosing and a short/simple titration regimen in combination with a comparative efficacy and tolerability profile might promote ESL as a valid alternative to the current adjunctive antiepileptic drug therapy armamentarium for drug-resistant partial seizures in adults. Since clinical trials in children and adolescents on ESL efficacy and safety are ongoing and data already published are far from conclusive, the therapeutic value of ESL in this special population has to be established in the near future. PMID:22091592

  8. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    PubMed

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. PMID:22612290

  9. Biodegradable cellulose acetate nanofiber fabrication via electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Theopisti; Doumanidis, Charalabos

    2010-09-01

    Nanofiber manufacturing is one of the key advancements in nanotechnology today. Over the past few years, there has been a tremendous growth of research activities to explore electrospinning for nanofiber formation from a rich variety of materials. This quite simple and cost effective process operates on the principle that the solution is extracted under the action of a high electric field. Once the voltage is sufficiently high, a charged jet is ejected following a complicated looping trajectory. During its travel, the solvent evaporates leaving behind randomly oriented nanofibers accumulated on the collector. The combination of their nanoscale dimensionality, high surface area, porosity, flexibility and superior strength makes the electrospun fibers suitable for several value-added applications, such as filters, protecting clothes, high performance structures and biomedical devices. In this study biodegradable cellulose acetate (CA) nanofibrous membranes were produced using electrospinning. The device utilized consisted of a syringe equipped with a metal needle, a microdialysis pump, a high voltage supply and a collector. The morphology of the yielded fibers was determined using SEM. The effect of various parameters, including electric field strength, tip-to-collector distance, solution feed rate and composition on the morphological features of the electrospun fibers was examined. The optimum operating conditions for the production of uniform, non-beaded fibers with submicron diameter were also explored. The biodegradable CA nanofiber membranes are suitable as tissue engineering scaffolds and as reinforcements of biopolymer matrix composites in foils by ultrasonic welding methods. PMID:21133179

  10. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  11. Nomegestrol acetate: pharmacology, safety profile and therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lello, Stefano

    2010-03-26

    This review summarizes the pharmacology, safety and clinical efficacy of nomegestrol acetate, based on the available published literature, and assesses the pharmacological characteristics that underlie a role in different gynaecological disorders and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and a potential role in combination estrogen/progestogen oral contraception. Nomegestrol acetate is a potent, orally active progestogen with a favourable tolerability profile and neutral metabolic characteristics. Unlike the majority of older progestogens, which were 19-nortestosterone derivatives synthesized primarily for their antigonadotropic activity as a component of hormonal contraception in combination with an estrogen, nomegestrol acetate is a 19-norprogesterone derivative designed to bind specifically to the progesterone receptor, and is relatively lacking in affinity for other steroid receptors. Nomegestrol acetate exerts strong antiestrogenic effects at the level of the endometrium and has potent antigonadotropic activity, but without any residual androgenic or glucocorticoid properties. At a dosage of 1.25 mg/day, nomegestrol acetate inhibits ovulation while permitting follicle growth, whereas at dosages of 2.5 or 5 mg/day, both ovulation and follicle development are suppressed. The antigonadotropic action of nomegestrol acetate is mediated, like other progestins, at the hypothalamic and pituitary level. Moreover, nomegestrol acetate has partial antiandrogenic activity. Absorption of nomegestrol acetate is rapid after oral administration, reaching a peak serum concentration within 4 hours, with a terminal half-life of approximately 50 hours. Nomegestrol acetate has been used successfully for the treatment of some gynaecological disorders (menstrual disturbances, dysmenorrhoea, premenstrual syndrome) and as a component of HRT in combination with estradiol for the relief of menopausal symptoms; it has been approved in Europe as monotherapy for the treatment of the menopausal

  12. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  13. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  14. Methane Production and Syntrophic Acetate Oxidation in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, M. E.; Chanton, J.; Bae, H.; Ogram, A.

    2012-12-01

    Methane production pathways in the Florida Everglades are influenced by factors such as nutrient levels, H2 concentrations, and temperature. Syntrophic acetate oxidizers can outcompete methanogens for acetate when conditions are right (high temperatures and low H2). During syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO), which becomes more exergonic with increasing temperature, acetate is oxidized to carbon dioxide and H2, which can be utilized to produce methane via CO2 reduction. Everglades soil from along a nutrient gradient was incubated at 25°C and 45°C. The shift to the CO2 reduction pathway for methane formation that would be expected in high temperature incubations due to SAO should result in a decrease in δ13C-CH4 and increase in δ2H-CH4. Instead, we observed higher δ13C and lower δ2H in the methane produced in high temperature incubations. The higher than expected δ13C may be partly explained by lower kinetic isotope effects caused by temperature. Coupling between the syntrophic acetate oxidizers and the CO2 reducers, whereby isotopically light hydrogen from acetate is used in methane formation could lower δ2H-CH4. Separate experiments using 13C-labelled acetate revealed that potential SAO activity is low in soils collected from the Everglades.

  15. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester. PMID:24788328

  16. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  17. SAGA Complex Components and Acetate Repression in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A.; Kelly, Joan M.

    2012-01-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

  18. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism. PMID:23173087

  19. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in rice field soil during acetate turnover by syntrophic acetate oxidation or acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. In Italian rice field soil CH 4 is produced either by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, or by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation when temperatures are below and above about 40-45 °C, respectively. In order to see whether these acetate consumption pathways differently discriminate the stable carbon isotopes of acetate, we measured the δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl as well as the δ 13C of CO 2 and CH 4 in rice field soil that had been pre-incubated at 45 °C and then shifted to different temperatures between 25 and 50 °C. Acetate transiently accumulated to about 6 mM, which is about one-third of the amount of CH 4 produced, irrespective of the incubation temperature and the CH 4 production pathway involved. However, the patterns of δ 13C of the CH 4 and CO 2 produced were different at low (25, 30, 35 °C) versus high (40, 45, 50 °C) temperatures. These patterns were consistent with CH 4 being exclusively formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at high temperatures, and by a combination of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at low temperatures. The patterns of δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl were also different at high versus low temperatures, indicating the involvement of different pathways of production and consumption of acetate at the two temperature regimes. Isotope fractionation during consumption of the methyl group of acetate was more pronounced at low ( α = 1.010-1.025) than at high ( α = 1.0-1.01) temperatures indicating that acetoclastic methanogenesis exhibits a stronger isotope effect than syntrophic acetate oxidation. Small amounts of propionate also transiently accumulated and were analyzed for δ 13C. The δ 13C values slightly increased (by about 10‰) during production and consumption of propionate, but were not affected by incubation temperature. Collectively, our results showed distinct

  20. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  1. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  2. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  3. Viscosity of Mixtures of α-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczaka, Elżbieta; Stagraczyński, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; Świergielb, Jolanta; Jadżyn, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure α-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

  4. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense. PMID:16362253

  5. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  6. [The mechanism of acetate assimilation in purple nonsulfur bacteria lacking the glyoxylate pathway: acetate assimilation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells].

    PubMed

    Filatova, L V; Berg, I A; Krasil'nikova, E N; Tsygankov, A A; Laurinavichene, T V; Ivanovskiĭ, R N

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of acetate assimilation in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which lacks the glyoxylate pathway, is studied. It is found that the growth of this bacterium in batch and continuous cultures and the assimilation of acetate in cell suspensions are not stimulated by bicarbonate. The consumption of acetate is accompanied by the excretion of glyoxylate and pyruvate into the medium, stimulated by glyoxylate and pyruvate, and inhibited by citramalate. The respiration of cells in the presence of acetate is stimulated by glyoxylate, pyruvate, citramalate, and mesaconate. These data suggest that the citramalate cycle may function in Rba. sphaeroides in the form of an anaplerotic pathway instead of the glyoxylate pathway. At the same time, the low ratio of fixation rates for bicarbonate and acetate exhibited by the Rba. sphaeroides cells (approximately 0.1), as well as the absence of the stimulatory effect of acetate on the fixation of bicarbonate in the presence of the Calvin cycle inhibitor iodoacetate, suggests that pyruvate synthase is not involved in acetate assimilation in the bacterium Rba. sphaeroides. PMID:16119843

  7. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  8. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-01-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  9. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions. PMID:21848256

  10. Risks vs benefits of glatiramer acetate: a changing perspective as new therapies emerge for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kenneth P

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the risks, benefits, and relative value of glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) has been evolving based on recently completed head-to-head studies: REGARD (REbif vs Glatiramer Acetate in Relapsing MS Disease); BEYOND (Betaseron Efficacy Yielding Outcomes of a New Dose); and BECOME (BEtaseron vs COpaxone in Multiple Sclerosis with Triple-Dose Gadolinium and 3-Tesla MRI Endpoints). Outcomes in the primary endpoints of these trials showed no significant differences between GA and high-dose beta-interferons (IFNβs). Results of the PreCISe (Early GA Treatment in Delaying Conversion to Clinically Definite Multiple Sclerosis [CDMS] in Subjects Presenting With a Clinically Isolated Syndrome [CIS]) trial led to the US Food and Drug Administration approval of GA in patients with a CIS. Furthermore, the ongoing follow-up study to the original pivotal GA trial, now extending beyond 15 years, continues to support the safety of GA. Currently, GA and IFNβs are no longer the only immunomodulators available for MS. Introduction of the monoclonal antibody, natalizumab (Tysabri®; Biogen Idec, Inc., Cambridge, MA, USA) provides an alternative immunomodulator for MS and has changed the therapeutic landscape dramatically. However, the rare but serious cases of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy that have occurred with natalizumab have raised concerns among clinicians and patients about using this agent and some of the emerging agents. The potential risks and benefits of the emerging therapies (cladribine, alemtuzumab, rituximab, fingolimod, laquinimod, teriflunomide, and dimethyl fumarate) based on phase II/III trials, as well as their use for indications other than MS, will be presented. This review provides available data on GA, natalizumab, and the emerging agents to support new developments in our understanding of GA and how its long-standing role as a first-line therapy in MS will evolve within the increasingly complex MS therapeutic

  11. Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.

    PubMed

    Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA. PMID:17345272

  12. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  13. Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, R. U.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

  14. Deep cavitands featuring functional acetal-based walls.

    PubMed

    Degardin, Melissa; Busseron, Eric; Kim, Dang-A; Ajami, Dariush; Rebek, Julius

    2012-12-18

    The synthesis of deep cavitands with functionalized acetals as a fourth-wall is described. Recognition properties and stabilities of the complexes of two representative cavitands with aliphatic, aromatic, carbocyclic and adamantane guests were evaluated by NMR methods. PMID:23125977

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  16. A molecular dynamics study of the ionic liquid, choline acetate.

    PubMed

    Willcox, Jon A L; Kim, Hyunjin; Kim, Hyung J

    2016-06-01

    Structural and dynamic properties of the ionic liquid (IL) choline acetate are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The hydroxyl group of choline shows significant hydrogen-bonding interactions with the oxygen atoms of acetate. Nearly all choline cations are found to form a hydrogen bond with acetate anions at 400 K, while about 67% of cations participate in hydrogen-bonding interactions at 600 K. At 400 K, subdiffusive and prominent non-Gaussian behavior persist for t > 10 ns. At 600 K, the usual diffusion regime is obtained after a few hundred ps of subdiffusive behavior. Analysis of reorientational motions of acetate ions, particularly those of their short axes, indicates a high degree of dynamic heterogeneity, in agreement with previous work on different IL systems. PMID:27188287

  17. Light and Acetate Regulate a Mitochondrial Malate Dehydrogenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Struck, Friedhelm; Grölz-Krug, Sabine; Boschek, Bruce; Zetsche, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    A malate dehydrogenase was purified from the unicellular green alga Chlorogonium elongatum Dangeard. The enzyme was localized in the mitochondria by immunogold electron microscopy and was found to be present on the cristae. The concentration of the enzyme is regulated by acetate and light. In cells cultured heterotrophically with acetate as carbon source the activity and the concentration of the enzyme is 5- to 6-fold higher than in autotrophic cells. In mixotrophically cultured cells (light and acetate) the enzyme level attains only half of the value of that in heterotrophic cells. Acetate induces an increase of the enzyme concentration while light has an inhibitory effect on this process. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16665643

  18. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  19. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not

  20. Bioavailability of acetate from two vinegar supplements: capsule and drink.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Shino; Fushimi, Takashi; Kishi, Mikiya; Irie, Shin; Tsuji, Shigeki; Hosokawa, Natsuko; Kaga, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The bioavailability of acetate in various vinegar supplements, e.g. as capsules and drinks, remains unclear. Thus, we conducted a cross-over clinical study in 30 healthy subjects. After an overnight fast, subjects received each test sample in a randomised sequence: 9 vinegar capsules (containing 750 mg acetic acid in total) with 150 mL of water, 100 mL of vinegar drink (containing 750 mg acetic acid), and 150 mL of water as reference. Blood samples were collected before (defined as 0 min), at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min after each test sample intake. In the vinegar drink group, serum acetate concentration increased immediately after intake, peaked at 15 min and returned to baseline at 90 min. That in the vinegar capsule group rose slowly, peaked at 30 min and returned to baseline at 120 min. The peak values in both groups exceeded 200 µmol/L, the physiologically active concentration confirmed by in vitro experiment. In the reference group, levels remained constant throughout the 180-min period. The amount of absorbed acetate from the vinegar capsule group and the drink group was evaluated by the difference value of the area under the serum acetate concentration-time curve (AUC) between in each vinegar group and in the reference group (expressed as AUC(capsule-ref) and AUC(drink-ref ), respectively). AUC(capsule-ref) was about 80% of AUC(drink-ref ), but there was no significant difference between them. PMID:20924150

  1. Disease modifying potential of glatiramer acetate in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Corey-Bloom, Jody; Jia, Haiqun; Aikin, Alaina M.; Thomas, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD). Objective Glatiramer acetate, an FDA- approved drug used for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, has been shown to increase brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor levels in immune cells; hence, we investigated whether it could have similar effects in striatal cells. Methods Wild-type and HD striatal cells were treated with glatiramer acetate for 48 hrs. HD transgenic and wild-type mice were injected with glatiramer acetate (1.5 to1.7 mg/mouse) for five days. These treatments were followed by protein measurements for brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor. Results Glatiramer acetate elicited concentration-dependent increases in brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor protein levels in wild-type and HD striatal cells and in striatal tissue from N171-82Q transgenic mice. Glatiramer acetate also improved metabolic activity of HD striatal cells, and significantly reduced the early hyperactivity phenotype exhibited by N171-82Q transgenic mice. Conclusions These findings suggest that glatiramer acetate may represent a useful therapeutic approach for HD. The excellent safety and tolerability record of this compound makes it an ideal candidate for drug repurposing efforts. PMID:25300334

  2. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  3. Acetic acid oxidation and hydrolysis in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.C.; Marrone, P.A.; Tester, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Acetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOH) hydrolysis and oxidation in supercritical water were examined from 425--600 C and 246 bar at reactor residence times of 4.4 to 9.8 s. Over the range of conditions studied, acetic acid oxidation was globally 0.72 {+-} 0.15 order in acetic acid and 0.27 {+-} 0.15 order in oxygen to a 95% confidence level, with an activation energy of 168 {+-} 21 kJ/mol, a preexponential factor of 10{sup 9.9{+-}1.7}, and an induction time of about 1.5 s at 525 C. Isothermal kinetic measurements at 550 C over the range 160 to 263 bar indicated that pressure or density did not affect the rate of acetic acid oxidation as much as was previously observed in the oxidation of hydrogen or carbon monoxide in supercritical water. Major products of acetic acid oxidation in supercritical water are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, and hydrogen. Trace amounts of propenoic acid were occasionally detected. Hydrolysis or hydrothermolysis in the absence of oxygen resulted in approximately 35% conversion of acetic acid at 600 C, 246 bar, and 8-s reactor residence time. Regression of the limited hydrolysis runs assuming a reaction rate first-order in organic gave a global rate expression with a preexponential factor of 10{sup 4.4{+-}1.1} and an activation energy of 94 {+-} 17 kJ/mol.

  4. Expeditious dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization without glassing agents.

    PubMed

    Lama, Bimala; Collins, James H P; Downes, Daniel; Smith, Adam N; Long, Joanna R

    2016-03-01

    The hyperpolarization of metabolic substrates at low temperature using dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), followed by rapid dissolution and injection into an MRSI or NMR system, allows in vitro or in vivo observation and tracking of biochemical reactions and metabolites in real time. This article describes an elegant approach to sample preparation which is broadly applicable for the rapid polarization of aqueous small-molecule substrate solutions and obviates the need for glassing agents. We demonstrate its utility for solutions of sodium acetate, pyruvate and butyrate. The polarization behavior of substrates prepared using rapid freezing without glassing agents enabled a 1.5-3-fold time savings in polarization buildup, whilst removing the need for toxic glassing agents used as standard for dissolution DNP. The achievable polarization with fully aqueous substrate solutions was equal to that observed using standard approaches and glassing agents. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26915792

  5. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  6. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Guest, D; Hamilton, M L; Deisinger, P J; DiVincenzo, G D

    1984-01-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application or IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p less than 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg [ethyl-1,2-14C]PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. [14C]EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for [14C]PEA and 7.9 hr for [14C]EEA. Only trace amounts of 14CO2 (less than 1%) or volatile materials (less than 0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, [14C]PEA or [14C]EEA was added to undiluted compound and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6499802

  7. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  8. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  9. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I.; Fausto, R.

    2014-02-01

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol-1 energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (˜330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol-1) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol-1). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm-1, where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur. The

  10. Tetrazole acetic acid: tautomers, conformers, and isomerization.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Andrade, C; Reva, I; Fausto, R

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol(-1) energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol(-1)) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol(-1)). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm(-1), where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur

  11. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I. Fausto, R.

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  12. Effectiveness of calcium magnesium acetate as an SO[sub x] sorbent in coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Zhu, W.; Wise, D.L. ); Simons, G.A. )

    1993-05-01

    A fundamental study was conducted on the effectiveness of the chemical calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) as a sulfur capture agent during combustion of pulverized coal. It was based on high-temperature laboratory-bench experiments with the scope of exploring the use of CMA as a dry scrubbing'' medium for in-boiler injection. Two methods of CMA introduction in the furnace were considered: dry-spraying fine powders of the chemical and wet-spraying aqueous solutions to generate fine aerosols. It considered conditions pertinent to post-flame in-boiler injection of CMA to identify optimum temperatures and residence times. In addition to the versatility of the water-soluble CMA to enable spray drying injection and therefore eliminate grinding costs, there are other attractive features. Mainly, its ability to form highly cenospheric, popcorn''-like, oxide particles on heating to high temperatures. These cenospheres possess thin, porous walls with blowholes that enable penetration of the SO[sub 2] in the interior of the particle which promotes high sorbent utilization. SO[sub 2] captures in the order of 90% were achieved with dry-injection of the chemical at furnace gas temperatures of about 1,000[degree]C, a Ca/S ratio of 2, and particle size of [approximately] 50[mu]m. Moreover, CMA was superior (by over 40%) to either CaCO[sub 3] or Ca(OH)[sub 2] in sulfur capture effectiveness per unit mass of calcium. This commercially obtained CMA was even superior to reagent-grade calcium acetate (by as much as 30%), again per unit mass of calcium. The utilization of CMA and calcium acetate depended on the cenosphere wall thickness, rather than the particle size and, thus, outperformed other sorbents regardless of the size of the resulting oxide particles.

  13. Use of Prednisone With Abiraterone Acetate in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Margaret K.; Nguyen, Suzanne; Mundle, Suneel D.

    2014-01-01

    Abiraterone acetate, a prodrug of the CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone that blocks androgen biosynthesis, is approved for treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in combination with prednisone or prednisolone 5 mg twice daily. This review evaluates the basis for the effects of prednisone on mineralocorticoid-related adverse events that arise because of CYP17A1 inhibition with abiraterone. Coadministration with the recommended dose of glucocorticoid compensates for abiraterone-induced reductions in serum cortisol and blocks the compensatory increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone seen with abiraterone. Consequently, 5 mg prednisone twice daily serves as a glucocorticoid replacement therapy when coadministered with abiraterone acetate, analogous to use of glucocorticoid replacement therapy for certain endocrine disorders. We searched PubMed to identify safety concerns regarding glucocorticoid use, placing a focus on longitudinal studies in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases and cancer. In general, glucocorticoid-related adverse events, including bone loss, immunosuppression, hyperglycemia, mood and cognitive alterations, and myopathy, appear dose related and tend to occur at doses and/or treatment durations greater than the low dose of glucocorticoid approved in combination with abiraterone acetate for the treatment of mCRPC. Although glucocorticoids are often used to manage tumor-related symptoms or to prevent treatment-related toxicity, available evidence suggests that prednisone and dexamethasone might also offer modest therapeutic benefit in mCRPC. Given recent improvements in survival achieved for mCRPC with novel agents in combination with prednisone, the risks of these recommended glucocorticoid doses must be balanced with the benefits shown for these regimens. PMID:25361624

  14. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  15. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  18. Experimental study of the hydrothermal reactivity of organic acids and acid anions: II. Acetic acid, acetate, and valeric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollom, Thomas M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2003-10-01

    Organic acids and acid anions occur in substantial concentrations in many aqueous geologic fluids and are thought to take part in a variety of geochemical processes ranging from the transport of metals in ore-forming fluids to the formation of natural gas to serving as a metabolic energy source for microbes in subsurface habitats. The widespread occurrence of organic acids and their potential role in diverse geologic processes has led to numerous experimental studies of their thermal stability, yet there remain substantial gaps in our knowledge of the factors that control the rates and reaction pathways for the decomposition of these compounds under geologic conditions. In order to address some of these uncertainties, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to examine the behavior of organic acids and acid anions under hydrothermal conditions in the presence of minerals. Reported here are results of experiments where aqueous solutions of acetic acid, sodium acetate, or valeric acid ( n-pentanoic acid) were heated at 325°C, 350 bars in the presence of the mineral assemblages hematite + magnetite + pyrite, pyrite + pyrrhotite + magnetite, and hematite + magnetite. The results indicate that aqueous acetic acid and acetate decompose by a combination of two reaction pathways: decarboxylation and oxidation. Both reactions are promoted by minerals, with hematite catalyzing the oxidation reaction while magnetite catalyzes decarboxylation. The oxidation reaction is much faster, so that oxidation dominates the decomposition of acetic acid and acetate when hematite is present. In contrast to previous reports that acetate decomposed more slowly than acetic acid, we found that acetate decomposed at slightly faster rates than the acid in the presence of minerals. Although longer-chain monocarboxylic acids are generally thought to decompose by decarboxylation, valeric acid appeared to decompose primarily by "deformylation" to 1-butene plus formic acid. Subsequent

  19. Lipases and whole cell biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid and its ester.

    PubMed

    Majewska, Paulina; Serafin, Monika; Klimek-Ochab, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Rodak, Małgorzata; Żymańczyk-Duda, Ewa

    2016-06-01

    A wide spectrum of commercially available lipases and microbial whole cells catalysts were tested for biotransformations of 2-hydroxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 1 and its butyryl ester. The best results were achieved for biocatalytic hydrolysis of ester: 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxyphenylphosphinyl)acetic acid 2 performed by lipase from Candida cylindracea, what gave optically active products with 85% enantiomeric excess, 50% conversion degree and enantioselectivity 32.9 for one pair of enantiomers. Also enzymatic systems of Penicillium minioluteum and Fusarium oxysporum were able to hydrolyze tested compound with high enantiomeric excess (68-93% ee), enantioselectivity (44 for one pair of enantiomers) and conversion degree about 50-55%. Enzymatic acylation of hydroxyphosphinate was successful in case when porcine pancreas lipase was used. After 4days of biotransformation the conversion reaches 45% but the enantiomeric enrichment of the isomers mixture do not exceed 43%. Obtained chiral compounds are valuable derivatizing agents for spectroscopic (NMR) evaluation of enantiomeric excess for particular compounds (e.g. amino acids). PMID:26989983

  20. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  1. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  2. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  3. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24225327

  4. Catalytic oxidation of butyl acetate over silver-loaded zeolites.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheng Teng; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Bhatia, Subhash

    2008-09-15

    The performance of silver-loaded zeolite (HY and HZSM-5) catalysts in the oxidation of butyl acetate as a model volatile organic compound (VOC) was studied. The objective was to find a catalyst with superior activity, selectivity towards deep oxidation product and stability. The catalyst activity was measured under excess oxygen condition in a packed bed reactor operated at gas hourly space velocity (GHSV)=15,000-32,000 h(-1), reaction temperature between 150 and 500 degrees C and butyl acetate inlet concentration of 1000-4000 ppm. Both AgY and AgZSM-5 catalysts exhibited high activity in the oxidation of butyl acetate. Despite lower silver content, AgY showed better activity, attributed to better metal dispersion, surface characteristics and acidity, and its pore system. Total conversion of butyl acetate was achieved at above 400 degrees C. The oxidation of butyl acetate followed a simple power law model. The reaction orders, n and m were evaluated under differential mode by varying the VOC partial pressure between 0.004 and 0.018 atm and partial pressure of oxygen between 0.05 and 0.20 atm. The reaction rate was independent of oxygen concentration and single order with respect to VOC concentration. The activation energies were 19.78 kJ/mol for AgY and 32.26 kJ/mol for AgZSM-5, respectively. PMID:18294771

  5. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  6. Reduction of aerobic acetate production by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, W R; Liao, J C

    1997-01-01

    Acetate excretion by Escherichia coli during aerobic growth on glucose is a major obstacle to enhanced recombinant protein production. We report here that the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors influencing acetate excretion. Flux analysis of E. coli central metabolic pathways predicts that increasing the fraction of carbon flux through the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) pathway and the glyoxylate bypass reduces acetate production. We tested this prediction by overexpressing PPC and deregulating the glyoxylate bypass by using a fadR strain. Results show that the acetate yield by the fadR strain with PPC overexpression is decreased more than fourfold compared to the control, while the biomass yield is relatively unaffected. Apparently, the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors that influence acetate excretion. These results confirm the prediction of our flux analysis and further suggest that E. coli is not fully optimized for efficient utilization of glucose. PMID:9251207

  7. Study of dynamic process of acetic acid induced-whitening in epithelial tissues at cellular level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tao T.; Qu, Jianan Y.; Cheung, Tak Hong; Yim, So Fan; Wong, Yick Fu

    2005-06-01

    Acetic acid, inducing transient whitening (acetowhitening) when applied to epithelial tissues, is a commonly used contrast agent for detecting early cervical cancer. The goals of this research are to investigate the temporal characteristics of acetowhitening process in cervical epithelial tissue at cellular level and develop a clear understanding of the diagnostic information carried in the acetowhitening signal. A system measuring time-resolved reflectance was built to study the rising and decay processes of acetowhitening signal from the monolayered cell cultures of normal and cancerous cervical squamous cells. It is found that the dynamic processes of acetowhitening in normal and cancerous cells are significantly different. The results of this study provide insight valuable to further understand the acetowhitening process in epithelial cells and to encourage the development of an objective procedure to detect the early cervical cancers based on quantitative monitoring of the dynamic process of acetowhitening

  8. Electrospun antibacterial polyurethane-cellulose acetate-zein composite mats for wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Gnanasekaran, Gopalsamy; Sathishkumar, Yesupatham; Lee, Yang Soo; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2014-02-15

    In this study, an antibacterial electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds with diameters around 400-700 nm were prepared by physically blending polyurethane (PU) with two biopolymers such as cellulose acetate (CA) and zein. Here, PU was used as the foundation polymer, was blended with CA and zein to achieve desirable properties such as better hydrophilicity, excellent cell attachment, proliferation and blood clotting ability. To prevent common clinical infections, an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulfate was incorporated into the electrospun fibers and its antimicrobial ability against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria were examined. The interaction between fibroblasts and the PU-CA and PU-CA-zein-drug scaffolds such as viability, proliferation, and attachment were characterized. PU-CA-zein-drug composite nanoscaffold showed enhanced blood clotting ability in comparison with pristine PU nanofibers. The presence of CA and zein in the nanofiber membrane improved its hydrophilicity, bioactivity and created a moist environment for the wound, which can accelerate wound recovery. PMID:24507360

  9. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  10. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Peters, John W.

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  11. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  12. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea.

    PubMed

    Ferry, James G

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth's biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  13. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia. PMID:24333792

  14. Enhanced alignment of Mn 12-acetate micro-crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, D.; Teizer, W.; Zhao, H.; Dunbar, K. R.

    2007-05-01

    A dilute Mn 12-acetate suspension composed of microscopic single crystals and single molecules in isopropanol was used for magnetic studies of Mn 12-acetate single molecule magnets. We observed magnetic properties of the frozen Mn 12-acetate suspension similar to large single crystals, specifically several sharp steps in the low-temperature hysteresis loop, indicating significantly enhanced alignment as compared to prior studies of micro-crystals. The greater the external magnetic field during alignment, the sharper the steps were in the low-temperature hysteresis loops, indicating that this method can be used for continuous control of alignment. A magnetic field of ˜0.5 T was sufficient to align the micro-crystals in the organic solvent to a degree previously observed only in much larger single crystals.

  15. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  16. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

  17. Synthesis of imidazoles via cascade reaction of nitroallylic acetates with amidines and studies on their trypanocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Tarun; Verma, Deepti; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Valença, Wagner O; da Silva Júnior, Eufrânio N; Namboothiri, Irishi N N

    2015-02-21

    A one-pot, two step synthesis of highly substituted imidazoles has been carried out in good to excellent yields for the first time via a cascade intermolecular aza-SN2'-intramolecular aza-Michael addition involving a variety of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates of nitroalkenes and amidines in the presence of DABCO at room temperature. The synthetic and biological utility of the products has been demonstrated. In particular, some of the imidazoles exhibited potent activity against T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. PMID:25573664

  18. Alternative acetate production pathways in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during dark anoxia and the dominant role of chloroplasts in fermentative acetate production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenqiang; Catalanotti, Claudia; D'Adamo, Sarah; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl J; Mackinder, Luke; Miller, Tarryn E; Heuberger, Adam L; Peers, Graham; Smith, Kerry S; Jonikas, Martin C; Grossman, Arthur R; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2014-11-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii insertion mutants disrupted for genes encoding acetate kinases (EC 2.7.2.1) (ACK1 and ACK2) and a phosphate acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.8) (PAT2, but not PAT1) were isolated to characterize fermentative acetate production. ACK1 and PAT2 were localized to chloroplasts, while ACK2 and PAT1 were shown to be in mitochondria. Characterization of the mutants showed that PAT2 and ACK1 activity in chloroplasts plays a dominant role (relative to ACK2 and PAT1 in mitochondria) in producing acetate under dark, anoxic conditions and, surprisingly, also suggested that Chlamydomonas has other pathways that generate acetate in the absence of ACK activity. We identified a number of proteins associated with alternative pathways for acetate production that are encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome. Furthermore, we observed that only modest alterations in the accumulation of fermentative products occurred in the ack1, ack2, and ack1 ack2 mutants, which contrasts with the substantial metabolite alterations described in strains devoid of other key fermentation enzymes. PMID:25381350

  19. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1 ± 2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5 ± 7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9 ± 0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6 μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7 ± 9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0 ± 17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations. PMID:26731193

  20. Search for Deuterated methyl acetate in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3 ) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion. But the existence of its deuterated form are yet to be confirmed. Here, we study the properties of methyl acetate and its singly deuterated forms (CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D). Our simulation results reveal that deuterated forms of methyl acetate could efficiently be produced both in gas as well as in ice phase. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxy acetone), we prepare a large gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients of our newly adopted network for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, in our simulation, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to find out various spectral properties of various forms of methyl acetate in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which might be useful for its detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

  1. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  2. Prednisolone acetate-gentamicin combination following cataract surgery.

    PubMed

    Carriker, F; Liebowitz, S; Nees, O; Siegel, E; Duzman, E; Cheetham, J K; DeGryse, R

    1987-07-01

    One-hundred-eleven patients participated in a 21-day, open-label study to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of a prednisolone acetate 1%-gentamicin 0.3% ophthalmic suspension to control inflammation and prevent infection after cataract surgery. Beginning the day after surgery, the medication was instilled qid for the next 21 days. No postoperative infection was noted, and postoperative inflammation, which was mild immediately after surgery, decreased steadily during follow-up. The results of this study suggest that a prednisolone acetate-gentamicin combination used for three weeks after cataract surgery is safe and has a positive therapeutic effect on postoperative inflammation and infection. PMID:3307591

  3. Cushing's syndrome from the therapeutic use of intramuscular dexamethasone acetate.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J M; Hichens, M; Booze, G W; Thorner, M O

    1986-09-01

    We present, to our knowledge, the first case of Cushing's syndrome due to large doses of intramuscular dexamethasone acetate. Dexamethasone levels after intramuscular dexamethasone administration were measured in two patients. Serial determination of the dexamethasone levels demonstrated prolonged serum half-lives of seven and 33 days in the two patients, respectively. Furthermore, pharmacologic levels of dexamethasone were present as long as seven months after the initial injections. The present recommendation for the use of intramuscular dexamethasone acetate is as frequent as every one to three weeks. However, our patients demonstrate that supraphysiologic levels of dexamethasone may still be present well beyond the three-week period. PMID:3753129

  4. Kanokonyl acetate-rich Indian valerian from northwestern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Mathela, Chandra S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chanotiya, Chandan S

    2009-09-01

    The volatile composition of rhizomes of Valeriana wallichii DC has been studied by GC, GC/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Sesquiterpenes were shown to be the main constituents (> 89.3%) comprising kanokonyl acetate (42.4%), gamma-curcumene (10.7%), ar-curcumene (7.2%), (Z)-beta-farnesene (3.2%), xanthorrhizol (4.1%), 7-epi-alpha-selinene (2.2%), valeranone (2.0%) and curcuphenol (1.4%). The unique presence of kanokonyl acetate and the complete absence of the earlier reported chemotype marker constituents of Indian valerian viz. maaliol and patchouli alcohol makes the composition significant. PMID:19831039

  5. Chemical crowd control agents.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian

    2016-03-01

    Chemical crowd control agents are also referred to as riot control agents and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control agents used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical agent contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556

  6. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed. PMID:18639982

  7. Acetic acid as an adjunct vital stain in diagnosis of tobacco-associated oral lesions: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Vinuth, DP; Agarwal, Poonam; Kale, Alka D; Hallikeramath, Seema; Shukla, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the most important risk factors for oral precancer and cancer in India is the use of tobacco. In chronic tobacco users, the mucosa may appear clinically healthy, however, changes are observed histologically. Screening of such tobacco users for an early diagnosis is, therefore, of paramount importance. Several adjunctive diagnostic modalities have been used in the past, but none has been conclusively validated as confirmative and cost-effective screening methodology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of 5% acetic acid as a vital staining agent in tobacco-associated oral lesions. Materials and Methods: The study subjects were divided into two groups. Group I (n = 40) subjects with a history of chronic tobacco use and clinically apparent normal mucosa. Group II (n = 40) subjects suspected of having oral cancer, 5% acetic acid was applied to the mucosa/lesions, followed by incisional biopsy for confirmatory diagnosis. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for Groups I and II were 97%, 50% and 95%, 60%, respectively. Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of Group I were 0.95 and 0.66. Group II showed PPV and NPV of 0.95 and 0.60. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that acetic acid holds promise for future. Hence, further studies are needed to be undertaken on a large scale to assess its potential as a screening tool for high-risk individuals and oral cancer. PMID:26604486

  8. Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact

    PubMed Central

    Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

    1983-01-01

    Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested. PMID:16346182

  9. Quantitative analysis and purity evaluation of medroxyprogesterone acetate by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Cavina, G; Valvo, L; Alimenti, R

    1985-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the assay of medroxyprogesterone acetate and for the detection and determination of related steroids present as impurities in the drug. The method was compared with the normal-phase technique of the USP XX and was also applied to the analysis of tablets and injectable suspensions. PMID:16867645

  10. Acetate as a Metabolic and Epigenetic Modifier of Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jaworski, Diane M; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Moffett, John R

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic networks are significantly altered in neoplastic cells. This altered metabolic program leads to increased glycolysis and lipogenesis and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation and oxygen consumption. Despite their limited mitochondrial respiration, cancer cells, nonetheless, derive sufficient energy from alternative carbon sources and metabolic pathways to maintain cell proliferation. They do so, in part, by utilizing fatty acids, amino acids, ketone bodies, and acetate, in addition to glucose. The alternative pathways used in the metabolism of these carbon sources provide opportunities for therapeutic manipulation. Acetate, in particular, has garnered increased attention in the context of cancer as both an epigenetic regulator of posttranslational protein modification, and as a carbon source for cancer cell biomass accumulation. However, to date, the data have not provided a clear understanding of the precise roles that protein acetylation and acetate oxidation play in carcinogenesis, cancer progression or treatment. This review highlights some of the major issues, discrepancies, and opportunities associated with the manipulation of acetate metabolism and acetylation-based signaling in cancer development and treatment. PMID:26251955

  11. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  12. Intrinsic Hydration of Uranyl-Hydroxide, -Nitrate and -Acetate Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Winnie Chien; Dorothy Hanna; Victor Anbalagan; Garold Gresham; Gary Groenewold; Michael Van Stipdonk

    2004-06-01

    The intrinsic hydration of three monopositive uranyl-anion complexes (UO2A)+ (where A = acetate, nitrate, or hydroxide) was investigated using ion-trap mass spectrometry (IT-MS). The relative rates for the formation of the monohydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)]+, with respect to the anion, followed the trend: Acetate = nitrate >> hydroxide. This finding was rationalized in terms of the donation of electron density by the strongly basic OH- to the uranyl metal center, thereby reducing the Lewis acidity of U and its propensity to react with incoming nucleophiles, viz., H2O. An alternative explanation is that the more complex acetate and nitrate anions provide increased degrees of freedom that could accommodate excess energy from the hydration reaction. The monohydrates also reacted with water, forming dihydrates and then trihydrates. The rates for formation of the nitrate and acetate dihydrates [(UO2A)(H2O)2]+ were very similar to the rates for formation of the monohydrates; the presence of the first H2O ligand had no influence on the addition of the second. In contrast, formation of the [(UO2OH)(H2O)2]+ was nearly three times faster than the formation of the monohydrate.

  13. Eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of refractory bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel third-generation antiepileptic related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine with a benign adverse effect profile. We report a patient with bipolar mania with intolerance to multiple antimanic drugs, responding to eslicarbazepine without any serious adverse effect. PMID:23151469

  14. Effects of acetic acid on light scattering from cells

    PubMed Central

    Marina, Oana C.; Sanders, Claire K.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Acetic acid has been used for decades as an aid for the detection of precancerous cervical lesions, and the use of acetic acid is being investigated in several other tissues. Nonetheless, the mechanism of acetowhitening is unclear. This work tests some of the hypotheses in the literature and measures changes in light scattering specific to the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Wide angle side scattering from both the nucleus and the cytoplasm increases with acetic application to tumorigenic cells, with the increase in nuclear scattering being greater. In one cell line, the changes in nuclear scattering are likely due to an increase in number or scattering efficiency of scattering centers smaller than the wavelength of excitation light. There are likely several cellular changes that cause acetowhitening and the cellular changes may differ with cell type. These results should lead to a better understanding of acetowhitening and potentially the development of adjunct techniques to improve the utility of acetic acid application. For the well-studied case of cervical tissue, acetowhitening has been shown to be sensitive, but not specific for oncogenic changes needing treatment. PMID:23224185

  15. Microbially Produced Acetate: A "Missing Link" in Understanding Obesity?

    PubMed

    Trent, Chad M; Blaser, Martin J

    2016-07-12

    Numerous studies have connected the gut microbiome with diet-induced obesity; however, mechanistic explanations for the host-microbial interactions are needed. Perry et al. (2016) present studies suggesting that microbially produced acetate (MPA) increases post-prandial insulin release via a sequential and integrated gut, brain, and pancreatic signaling network promoting energy retention. PMID:27411005

  16. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892...

  17. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892...

  20. Transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Lithium Acetate/ Dimethyl Sulfoxide Procedure.

    PubMed

    Murray, Johanne M; Watson, Adam T; Carr, Antony M

    2016-04-01

    Transformation ofSchizosaccharomyces pombewith DNA requires the conditioning of cells to promote DNA uptake followed by cell growth under conditions that select and maintain the plasmid or integration event. The three main methodologies are electroporation, treatment with lithium cations, and transformation of protoplasts. The lithium acetate method described here is widely used because it is simple and reliable. PMID:27037075

  1. 40 CFR 721.532 - Substituted hydroxyalkane acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.532 Substituted hydroxyalkane acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  2. 40 CFR 721.532 - Substituted hydroxyalkane acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.532 Substituted hydroxyalkane acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically...

  3. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22417777

  4. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  6. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  7. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  8. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  9. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  10. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  11. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  12. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient. PMID:27055527

  13. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  14. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY POECILIA RETICULATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy Poecilia reticulata following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac 1-1 for 2 h and then tr...

  15. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC CARCINOGENESIS IN THE GUPPY (POECILIA RETICULATA).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exocrine pancreatic neoplasms developed in the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) following exposure to the direct acting carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM-Ac). Fish 6- to 10-days old were exposed to nominal, nontoxic concentrations of 4 and 10 mg MAM-Ac/L for 2 hr and then t...

  16. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  17. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on behavioural responses of captive female hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas).

    PubMed

    Guy, Amanda J; Schuerch, Franziska S; Heffernan, Scott; Thomson, Peter C; O'Brien, Justine K; McGreevy, Paul D

    2008-11-01

    Female hormonal contraception is considered here as an alternative to vasectomy for population control in social groups of captive hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas). While female hormonal contraceptive methods have been successful, behavioural effects of such agents represent a potential welfare concern. This study examined the effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; 3.5mg/kg) on perineal tumescence and behaviour in three social groups (total of 3 males, 22 females) of captive hamadryas baboons. The agent had little effect on social interactions such as grooming relationships, aggression and affiliation (all P>0.05), but did cause a reduction in sexual behaviour (P<0.001). Females-mounting-females and females receiving mounting was decreased during MPA treatment compared with the minimal tumescence phase (P<0.001). Age strongly influenced the contraceptive's duration: there was a significant correlation between age and latency of return to oestrus post-MPA (r=0.832, P<0.001) with the latency increasing by 2.61 days per year of age on average. Age also influenced the frequency of behaviours such as affiliation and aggression (P<0.001 and P=0.044, respectively). The absence of adverse behavioural effects further supports the use of MPA in the hamadryas baboon, and its potential use in other non-human primates. PMID:17980521

  18. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  19. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The

  20. Zinc Acetate/Carrageenan Gels Exhibit Potent Activity In Vivo against High-Dose Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Vaginal and Rectal Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Romero, José A.; Abraham, Ciby J.; Rodriguez, Aixa; Kizima, Larisa; Jean-Pierre, Ninochka; Menon, Radhika; Begay, Othell; Seidor, Samantha; Ford, Brian E.; Gil, Pedro I.; Peters, Jennifer; Katz, David; Robbiani, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Topical microbicides that block the sexual transmission of HIV and herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) are desperately needed to reduce the incidence of HIV infections worldwide. Previously we completed phase 3 testing of the carrageenan-based gel Carraguard. Although the trial did not show that Carraguard is effective in preventing HIV transmission during vaginal sex, it did show that Carraguard is safe when used weekly for up to 2 years. Moreover, Carraguard has in vitro activity against human papillomavirus (HPV) and HSV-2 and favorable physical and rheological properties, which makes it a useful vehicle to deliver antiviral agents such as zinc acetate. To that end, we previously reported that a prototype zinc acetate carrageenan gel protects macaques against vaginal challenge with combined simian-human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Herein, we report the safety and efficacy of a series of zinc acetate and/or carrageenan gels. The gels protected mice (75 to 85% survival; P < 0.001) against high-dose (106-PFU) HSV-2 vaginal or rectal challenge. In contrast, zinc acetate formulated in HEC (hydroxyethylcellulose; or the Universal Placebo) failed to protect mice against the high-dose vaginal HSV-2 challenge (similar to aqueous zinc acetate solution and the placebo controls). The gels were found to be effective spreading gels, exhibited limited toxicity in vitro, caused minimal damage to the architecture of the cervicovaginal and rectal mucosae in vivo, and induced no increased susceptibility to HSV-2 infection in a mouse model. Our results provide a strong rationale to further optimize and evaluate the zinc acetate/carrageenan gels for their ability to block the sexual transmission of HIV and HSV-2. PMID:22064530

  1. Significant and Sustained Antitumor Activity in Post-Docetaxel, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer With the CYP17 Inhibitor Abiraterone Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Alison H.M.; Attard, Gerhardt; Danila, Daniel C.; Oommen, Nikhil Babu; Olmos, David; Fong, Peter C.; Molife, L. Rhoda; Hunt, Joanne; Messiou, Christina; Parker, Christopher; Dearnaley, David; Swennenhuis, Joost F.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.; Lee, Gloria; Kheoh, Thian; Molina, Arturo; Ryan, Charles J.; Small, Eric; Scher, Howard I.; de Bono, Johann S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The principal objective of this trial was to evaluate the antitumor activity of abiraterone acetate, an oral, specific, irreversible inhibitor of CYP17 in docetaxel-treated patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Patients and Methods In this multicenter, two-stage, phase II study, abiraterone acetate 1,000 mg was administered once daily continuously. The primary end point was achievement of a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline of ≥ 50% in at least seven of 35 patients. Per an attained phase II design, more than 35 patients could be enrolled if the primary end point was met. Secondary objectives included: PSA declines of ≥ 30% and ≥ 90%; rate of RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors) responses and duration on study; time to PSA progression; safety and tolerability; and circulating tumor cell (CTC) enumeration. Results Docetaxel-treated patients with CRPC (N = 47) were enrolled. PSA declines of ≥ 30%, ≥ 50% and ≥ 90% were seen in 68% (32 of 47), 51% (24 of 47), and 15% (seven of 47) of patients, respectively. Partial responses (by RECIST) were reported in eight (27%) of 30 patients with measurable disease. Median time to PSA progression was 169 days (95% CI, 113 to 281 days). The median number of weeks on study was 24, and 12 (25.5%) of 47 patients remained on study ≥ 48 weeks. CTCs were enumerated in 34 patients; 27 (79%) of 34 patients had at least five CTCs at baseline. Eleven (41%) of 27 patients had a decline from at least five to less than 5 CTCs, and 18 (67%) of 27 had a ≥ 30% decline in CTCs after starting treatment with abiraterone acetate. Abiraterone acetate was well tolerated. Conclusion Abiraterone acetate has significant antitumor activity in post-docetaxel patients with CRPC. Randomized, phase III trials of abiraterone acetate are underway to define the future role of this agent. PMID:20159823

  2. Macrocyclic bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Meares, Claude F.; DeNardo, Sally J.; Cole, William C.; Mol, Min K.

    1987-01-01

    A copper chelate conjugate which is stable in human serum. The conjugate includes the copper chelate of a cyclic tetraaza di-, tri-, or tetra-acetic acid, a linker attached at one linker end to a ring carbon of the chelate, and a biomolecule joined at the other end of the linker. The conjugate, or the linker-copper chelate compound used in forming the conjugate, are designed for use in diagnostic and therapeutic applications which involve Cu(II) localization via the systemic route.

  3. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  4. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  5. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  6. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  7. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  8. Biological carbon monoxide conversion to acetate production by mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chul Woo; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-07-01

    To utilize waste CO for mixed culture gas fermentation, carbon sources (CO, CO2) and pH were optimized in the batch system to find out the center point and boundary of response surface method (RSM) for higher acetate (HAc) production (center points: 25% CO, 40% CO2, and pH 8). The concentrations of CO and CO2, and pH had significant effects on acetate production, but the pH was the most significant on the HAc production. The optimum condition for HAc production in the gas fermentation was 20.81% CO, 41.38% CO2, 37.81% N2, and pH 7.18. The continuous gas fermentation under the optimum condition obtained 1.66g/L of cell DW, 23.6g/L HAc, 3.11g/L propionate, and 3.42g/L ethanol. PMID:27035481

  9. Delineation of LASIK Flaps with Prednisolone Acetate Eyedrops

    PubMed Central

    Fahd, Daoud C; Fahed, Sharbel D

    2014-01-01

    We describe the use and safety of prednisolone acetate eyedrops at the end of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) to aid proper positioning of the corneal flap. The LASIK flap is created using the preferred technique. Following laser ablation and flap repositioning, one drop of prednisolone acetate is instilled on the eye. This delineates the flap “gutters” and allows perfect flap positioning and centration. We used this technique in 425 eyes undergoing LASIK for correction of spherocylindrical refractive errors. Flap margins were adequately delineated intraoperatively. The only complication related to the use of the steroid suspension was crystal deposition under the flap in one case which resolved completely in 48 hours. PMID:24982743

  10. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects. PMID:26374081

  11. Turbulent Motion in Ethyl Acetate-Water System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Jamil

    2000-09-01

    An overhead projector demonstration is described in which 4 mL of ethyl acetate is added to 10 mL of water contained in a 10-cm diameter Petri dish. Within a minute or so of the addition, image of a turbulent motion appears on the screen, at first at a few centers that eventually organize themselves in a line. The image of the line of turbulence is quite striking and resembles a moving front of dancing flames. The phenomenon arises because as ethyl acetate evaporates from the region where it has spread in the form of a monolayer, fresh material gets transferred to take its place. Because of the viscosity effects, this transfer of the surface film causes movement in the bulk of the material as well, making the process visible.

  12. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a coating... of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid used as a coating or as a component of a coating conforming...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  14. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the Office of Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No....

  15. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a..., and 5 milligrams of hydrocortisone acetate in each gram of ointment.1 (b) Sponsor. No. 000009 in §...

  16. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  17. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  18. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  19. 21 CFR 524.1881b - Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881b Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension. (a) Specifications. Prednisolone acetate-neomycin sulfate sterile suspension contains 2.5 milligrams of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (a) An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  2. Acetate dialysate versus bicarbonate dialysate: a continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1987-01-01

    The use of bicarbonate dialysate as the buffer during routine dialysis is growing. This discussion reviews several of the comparative trials in which bicarbonate and acetate buffers have been tested. Effects of the two buffers on BP, cardiac function, and pulmonary performance are discussed. Costs of the two systems are also compared. Patients who seem most likely to benefit from bicarbonate dialysate include those with a reduced muscle mass in whom a high sodium dialysate has not prevented hypotension. PMID:3028133

  3. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  4. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of benzothiazole N,O-acetals.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhiqin; Zhou, Fengxing; Wei, Shaopeng

    2015-10-01

    A new series of N,O-acetals were prepared via a simple one-pot reaction by the condensation of 2-amino-methybenzothiazole with aldehydes and alcohols. The title compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields in the presence of acid catalyst. Bioassay results indicated that some synthesized compounds had good herbicidal activity against both dicotyledon and monocotyledon weeds. This investigation provided a new type of herbicidal lead compounds, as well as its facile preparation method. PMID:26318996

  5. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  6. N-phosphorylated ketene S,N-acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, V.A.; Dol'nikova, T.Yu.; Grapov, A.F.; Mel'nikov, N.N.

    1987-09-20

    The authors investigate the reactions of phosphorisocyanitidic and phosphorisocyanatidothioc esters with organic CH acids and determine that the products, depending on the substituent on the beta-carbon atom, are either ketene S,N-acetals or equilibrium mixtures of these and phosphorylated imino thioesters. IR spectra were determined in chloroform. H 1 and P 31 NMR spectra were determined in deuterated acetone. An analysis of the spectra, including the determination of spin-spin coupling constants, is conducted.

  7. Pseudotumour cerebri as a side effect of leuprorelin acetate.

    PubMed

    Boot, J H

    1996-01-01

    Leuprorelin acetate is a synthetic nona-peptide analogue of the naturally occurring gonadotrophin releasing hormone LH-RH (hypothalamus), used in the treatment of sterility, endometriosis or prostatic cancer. In a 35 year old woman, treated with leuprorelin acetate, after 5 months treatment, the side-effects (hot flushes, sweating, sleeping disorders), appeared to be rather unbearable. Medication was ended. The endocrine reversion to the normal physiological balance was association with high fever (38.9 degrees C) during an 8 day period. Increasing scotomas resulted in a gradual loss of eyesight in one eye, associated with a normal visual acuity. Unilateral papilloedema was observed, indicating the possibility of tumor cerebri. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated an intense leakage of the right optic disc. No signs of retinal vascular malformations were seen. The eye pressure was normal. No signs of hemorrhages were observed. Visual field examination showed an enlarged blind spot with a few scotomas above the centre of fixation. CT scan of the brain was normal, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was normal, indicated by IgG production. Six months after ending the leuprorelin acetate treatment, the eyesight was spontaneously 100% recovered. It is most likely that leuprorelin acetate is responsible for the emergence of pseudotumor cerebri. As described by Prof. Sidi et al(1), leuprorelin strongly induces increased liquor pressure, being the intermediate mechanism between hormonal treatment and an ante grade mechanical force, on the optic nervus. Because of the risk of permanent loss of eyesight, it is strongly advised to verify eye parameters conscientiously during leuprorelin treatment. PMID:8867506

  8. Use of fibre wastes from production of acetate fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Askarov, M.I.; Tashpulatova, A.B.

    1995-07-01

    The rational use of production wastes is an important part of the Fergana Chemical Fibre Plant in Russia. This recycling reduces the negative effect of the technological process on the environment, increases the economy of production, and produces additional consumer goods. Consumer goods began to be produced at the plant in 1978 with processing of amide-acetate textured fibres into yarn for hand knitting. The need to increase the volumes and expand the variety of goods for the market predetermined an important increase in production of this product. Production of consumer goods has increased since 1990, and both fibre wastes and untreated low-grade fibres and filaments have been used as the starting material. Technological processes for processing wastes and low-grade figured, textured polyamide-acetate fibres into knitting yarn, haberdashery cord, and finishing tape and fringe were created and introduced in subsequent years. The primary technological formulation for production of these materials is well known and is used in light industry. However, production of each type of product in the plant was preceded by research related to selection of the optimum linear density of the filaments used, composition of blends, and the structure of figured fibres, as well as the concrete technological parameters and operating regimes of the equipment to produce articles of the required quality. Development and testing of new decorative textiles are continuing. Low grade and nonstandard acetate semifinished fibre from spinning machines and low grade, bulk dyed acetate fibres have been selected as the raw material for fabrication of these articles.

  9. Theophylline-7-acetic acid: lack of absorption and therapeutic effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Fleetham, J A; Owen, J A; May, B; Munt, P W; Nakatsu, K

    1979-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of oral theophylline-7-acetic acid (T7AA) in 13 asthmatic patients. Pulmonary function tests showed no difference between T7AA and placebo. No T7AA or theophylline was found in the sera of these patients or of healthy volunteers who took T7AA tablets or syrup. PMID:388714

  10. Control of sulfatase activity by nomegestrol acetate in normal and cancerous human breast tissues.

    PubMed

    Chetrite, Gérard Samuel; Thomas, Jean-Louis; Shields-Botella, Jaqueline; Cortes-Prieto, Joaquin; Philippe, Jean-Claude; Pasqualini, Jorge Raul

    2005-01-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC), a 17alpha-hydroxy-nor-progesterone derivative (17alpha-acetoxy-6-methyl-19-nor-4,6-pregnadiene-3,20-dione, the active substance in Lutenyl), is a potent and useful clinical synthetic progestin for the treatment of menopausal complaints and is under current development for oral contraception. Previous studies in this laboratory demonstrated that NOMAC can block sulfatase and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and transformation of estradiol (E2) in hormone-dependent MCF-7 and T-47D breast cancer cells. In the present study, the effect of NOMAC on sulfatase activity using total breast cancer tissue, compared to the effect in normal breast tissue, was explored. Slices of tumoral or normal breast tissues (45-65 mg) were incubated in buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.2) with physiological concentrations of [3H]-estrone sulfate (5x10(-9) M), alone or in the presence of nomegestrol acetate (5x10(-5) - 5x10(-7) - 5x10(-9) M), for 4 h at 37 degrees C. Estrone sulfate (E1S), estrone (E1) and E2 were characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified using the corresponding standard. It was observed that [3H]- E1S was only converted to [3H]- E1 and not to [3H]- E2, in normal or cancerous breast tissues, which suggests a low or no 17beta-HSD activity under these experimental conditions. The sulfatase activity was more intense with breast cancer tissue than normal tissue, since the concentrations of E1 were 42.5 +/- 3.4 and 27.2 +/- 2.5 pg/mg tissue, respectively. NOMAC, at the concentration of 5x10(-5) M, inhibited this conversion by 49.2% and 40.8% in cancerous and normal breast tissues, respectively. The sulfatase inhibition at low concentration (5x10(-7) M) was 32.5% and 22.8%, respectively. It is concluded that sulfatase activity is almost twice as potent in cancerous breast tissues than in normal tissues. Nomegestrol acetate is a strong anti-sulfatase agent, in particular with cancerous breast

  11. The use of hormonal agents in the treatment of acne.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Lauren A; Chahal, Dev S; Sivamani, Raja K; Larsen, Larissa N

    2016-06-01

    Hormones and androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne. Multiple hormonal modulators are now available for the treatment of acne. The efficacies and side effects of currently available hormonal agents are reviewed here including the use of oral contraceptives, spironolactone, flutamide, cyproterone acetate, finasteride, and cortexolone 17α-propionate. Hormonal therapies are an efficacious treatment option for acne among females. With the growing need to reduce antibiotic exposures, hormonal therapies should be more widely studied and incorporated into acne treatment strategies. PMID:27416311

  12. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about -15 degC. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL1703.

  13. Crystal structure of febuxostat-acetic acid (1/1).

    PubMed

    Wu, Min; Hu, Xiu-Rong; Gu, Jian-Ming; Tang, Gu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-iso-butyl-oxyphen-yl)-4-methyl-thia-zole-5-carb-oxy-lic acid-acetic acid (1/1)], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat mol-ecule and an acetic acid mol-ecule. In the febuxostat mol-ecule, the thia-zole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2)°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming supra-molecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π-π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thia-zole and benzene rings of adjacent mol-ecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17) and 3.9296 (17) Å. PMID:25995912

  14. Induction of the acetamidase of Aspergillus nidulans by acetate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hynes, M J

    1977-09-01

    Growth tests and enzyme determinations strongly suggest that the acetamidase of Aspergillus nidulans is induced by a product of acetate metabolism rather than the substrate, acetamide. The cis-dominant mutation, amdI9, which is closely linked to amdS, the structural gene for the acetamidase, results in greatly increased sensitivity to induction by acetate metabolism. Propionate, L-threonine, and ethanol also result in acetamidase induction. Mutations in the facA, facB, and facC genes, which lead to low levels of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase, are epistatic to the amdI9 mutation for strong growth on acetamide medium and abolish acetamide and propionamide induction of the acetamidase and isocitrate lyase enzymes. Acetate, L-threonine, and ethanol, however, can induce these enzymes in strains containing facA and facC lesions but not in strains containing a facB lesion. The evidence suggests that acetamidase and isocitrate lyase may be induced by a similar mechanism. PMID:19418

  15. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  16. Acetate and CO2 assimilation by Methanothrix concilii.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, I; Sprott, G D; Patel, G B

    1985-06-01

    Biosynthetic pathways in Methanothrix concilii, a recently isolated aceticlastic methanogen, were studied by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates were determined. Similar to other methanogens, acetate was carboxylated to pyruvate, which was further converted to amino acids by various biosynthetic pathways. The origin of carbon atoms in glutamate, proline, and arginine clearly showed that an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle operating in the oxidative direction was used for their biosynthesis. Isoleucine was synthesized via citramalate, which is a typical route for methanogens. As with Methanosarcina barkeri, an extensive exchange of the label between the carboxyl group of acetate and CO2 was observed. Lipids predominantly contained diphytanyl chains, the labeling of which indicated that biosynthesis proceeded through mevalonic acid. Labeling of the C-1,6 of glucose from [2-13C]acetate is consistent with a glucogenic route for carbohydrate biosynthesis. Except for the different origins of the methyl group of methionine, the metabolic properties of Methanothrix concilii are closely related to those of Methanosarcina barkeri. PMID:3922956

  17. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (109 CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:27433160

  18. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth. PMID:21452895

  19. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  20. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  1. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  2. Transverse field Ising ferromagnetism in Mn12-acetate-MeOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subedi, P.; Kent, A. D.; Wen, Bo; Sarachik, M. P.; Yeshurun, Y.; Millis, A. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Christou, G.

    2012-04-01

    We report measurements of the magnetic susceptibility of single crystals of Mn12-acetate-MeOH, a newly-synthesized high-symmetry variant of the original single molecule magnet Mn12-acetate. A comparison of these data to theory and to data for the Mn12-acetate material shows that Mn12-acetate-MeOH is a realization of a transverse-field Ising ferromagnet in contrast to the original Mn12-acetate material, in which solvent disorder leads to effects attributed to random-field Ising ferromagnetism.

  3. Evidence that the production of acetate in rat hepatocytes is a predominantly cytoplasmic process.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, B; Souter, M J; Anderson, S E

    1989-01-01

    By using [1-14C]butyrate, the fluxes of butyrate to acetate and fatty acids were measured in rat hepatocytes. Both fluxes were inhibited to a similar extent by (-)-hydroxycitrate, with no significant effect on butyrate uptake. These results indicate that acetate formation takes place in the cytoplasm, presumably via ATP-stimulated acetyl-CoA hydrolase. Since acetate formation occurred despite a net uptake of acetate, the results are also consistent with the operation of a substrate cycle between acetate and acetyl-CoA, recently proposed by other workers, and suggest that this cycle is cytoplasmic. PMID:2564776

  4. Elevated acetate concentrations in the rhizosphere of Spartina alterniflora and potential influences on sulfate reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, Mark E.; Tugel, Joyce B.; Giblin, A. E.; Banta, G. T.; Hobbie, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    Acetate is important in anaerobic metabolism of non-vegetated sediments but its role in salt marsh soils was not investigated thoroughly. Acetate concentrations, oxidation (C-14) and SO4(2-) reduction (S-35) were measured in S. alterniflora soils in NH and MA. Pore water from cores contained greater than 0.1 mM acetate and in some instances greater than 1.0 mM. Non-destructive samples contained less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots and concentrations were highest during vegetative growth and varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of SO4(2-) reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a significant percentage of SO4(2-) reduction. These results differ markedly from data for non-vegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high and acetate oxidation rates greatly exceed rates of SO4(2-) reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and SO4(2-) reduction in marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by SO4(2-) reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria.

  5. Gas Cluster Ion Beam Etching under Acetic Acid Vapor for Etch-Resistant Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Hinoura, Ryo; Toyoda, Noriaki; Hara, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Isao

    2013-05-01

    Gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) etching of etch-resistant materials under acetic acid vapor was studied for development of new manufacturing process of future nonvolatile memory. Etching depths of various etch-resistant materials (Pt, Ru, Ta, CoFe) with acetic acid vapor during O2-GCIB irradiations were 1.8-10.7 times higher than those without acetic acid. Also, etching depths of Ru, Ta, CoFe by Ar-GCIB with acetic acid vapor were 2.2-16.1 times higher than those without acetic acid. Even after etching of Pt, smoothing of Pt was realized using O2-GCIB under acetic acid. From XPS and angular distribution of sputtered Pt, it was shown that PtOx layer was formed on Pt after O2-GCIB irradiation. PtOx reacted with acetic acid by GCIB bombardments; as a result, increase of etching depth was observed.

  6. Temperature dependence of hydrogen-bond dynamics in acetic acid-water solutions.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Francesco; Bencivenga, Filippo; Gessini, Alessandro; Masciovecchio, Claudio

    2010-08-19

    An inelastic UV scattering experiment has been carried out on acetic acid-water solutions as a function of temperature and concentration. The analysis of experimental data indicates the presence of a crossover temperature (T(c) approximately 325 +/- 10 K). Above T(c), the energy of hydrogen bonds responsible for water-acetic acid and acetic acid-acetic acid interactions is strongly reduced. This leads to a reduction in the average number of water molecule interacting with acetic acid, as well as to a lower number of acetic acid clusters. The latter behavior can be mainly ascribed to a temperature change in the activation energy of carboxylic groups of acetic acid. These results may be also relevant to better understand the folding mechanism in protein-water solutions. PMID:20701390

  7. Protein content and enzyme activities in methanol- and acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, P E; DiMarco, A A; Bobik, T A; Cabell, M C; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The cell extract protein content of acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 100 mutually exclusive spots were present in acetate- and methanol-grown cells. Spots corresponding to acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase, and the five subunits of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex were identified in acetate-grown cells. Activities of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, formylmethanofuran:tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase, methylene tetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme F420 oxidoreductase, formate dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase were examined in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Levels of formyltransferase in either acetate- or methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila were approximately half the levels detected in H2-CO2-grown Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. All other enzyme activities were significantly lower in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2307649

  8. MpcAgent

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.

  9. MpcAgent

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  10. Gadofullerene MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D

    2008-04-01

    A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing agents with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast agent. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426

  11. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  12. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...

  13. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  14. Male Fishia yosemitae (Grote)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) captured in traps baited with (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traps baited with sex pheromone lures for the noctuid moths Chrysodeixis eriosoma (Doubleday) and Feltia jaculifera (Guenee) captured males of another noctuid moth Fishia yosemitae (Grote). These lures included both (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate (Z7-12Ac) and (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate (Z9-14AC). When the...

  15. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  16. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  17. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  18. Battlefield agent collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2001-09-01

    Small air and ground physical agents (robots) will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces in urban and open terrain scenarios. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA), intelligence, chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, decoy, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensors, communications, and mobility characteristics. It is anticipated that there will be many levels of individual and team collaboration between the soldier and robot, robot to robot, and robot to mother ship. This paper presents applications and infrastructure components that illustrate each of these levels. As an example, consider the application where a team of twenty small robots must rapidly explore and define a building complex. Local interactions and decisions require peer to peer collaboration. Global direction and information fusion warrant a central team control provided by a mother ship. The mother ship must effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. Any level of collaboration requires robust communications, specifically a mobile ad hoc network. The application of fixed ground sensors and mobile robots is also included in this paper. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of multi-robot collaboration. This research includes battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, sensor and information fusion, and multi-modal human computer interaction.

  19. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  20. Role of Acetate in Sporogenesis of Bacillus cereus

    PubMed Central

    Nakata, H. M.

    1966-01-01

    Nakata, H. M. (Washington State University, Pullman). Role of acetate in sporogenesis of Bacillus cereus. J. Bacteriol. 91:784–788. 1966.—The distribution of radioactivity associated initially with acetate-2-C14 was followed during sporogenesis of Bacillus cereus strain T. This was accomplished by replacing cells committed to sporulation into a chemically defined sporulation medium. It was observed that 65 to 70% of the initial radioactivity was incorporated into poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, whereas 20 to 25% was found in other cellular constituents. Virtually no radioactivity was lost as C14O2 during the first 5 to 6 hr after replacement. Then, a gradual evolution of C14O2 coincident with poly-β-hydroxybutyrate degradation, was observed until about the ninth hour. By this time, the polymer was essentially depleted, and the first spore structures were observed in stained preparations. The total amount of radioactivity lost as C14O2 was 20 to 25%. The major portion of products derived from poly-β-hydroxybutyrate was incorporated into the spores. As much as 17% of the radioactivity associated with the spores was found in dipicolinic acid. More than 50% was located in spore proteins, 20 to 25% in the hot 5% trichloroacetic acid-soluble fraction, 4 to 5% in the lipid fraction, and 15 to 20% in the cold 5% trichloroacetic acid-soluble fraction. These data, accounting for 70 to 75% of the initial radioactivity, confirmed the hypothesis that the major role of acetate, and subsequently of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate, in sporulation of B. cereus T is to provide carbon precursors and energy for sporogenesis. PMID:4956759

  1. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A. Dean; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [13C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-13C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). 13C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, 13C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [13C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [13C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

  2. The bioavailability of an orally administered medroxyprogesterone acetate suspension.

    PubMed

    Antal, E J; Gillespie, W R; Albert, K S

    1983-05-01

    The relative bioavailability of an orally administered aqueous suspension of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) intended for intramuscular injection (Depo-Provera) was determined in relation to orally administered tablets. Serum levels of MPA were determined by radioimmunoassay following the administration of 400-mg doses to 19 adult male volunteers in a crossover design after an overnight fast. The two treatments were judged bioequivalent based upon a comparison of the resultant MPA serum levels and the derived bioavailability parameters. Hence, the intramuscular suspension administered orally offers an alternative means of achieving optimal serum levels of MPA in patients requiring high dose therapy. PMID:6222996

  3. Electrical and Thermal Properties of Polyvinyl Acetal Based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Sauers, Isidor; James, David Randy; Ellis, Alvin R; Tuncer, Enis; Polyzos, Georgios; Pace, Marshall O

    2009-10-01

    A water chemistry procedure is used to synthesize titanium dioxide nanoparticles which can later be blended with a polymer to form a nanodielectric. The synthesized nanoparticles are dispersed in two grades of polyvinyl acetal (commercially available under the trade names BX-L and KS-10, manufactured by SEKISUI Chemicals). Nanocomposite materials were prepared with 15 and 33 wt% titanium dioxide. The variation of the glass transition temperature with increasing filler weight fraction is presented. The dielectric breakdown strengths of the nanodielectric samples are reported. The presented results can be employed to optimize the dielectric properties of the studied nanocomposites for potential use in cryogenic high voltage applications.

  4. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi; Maity, Sunil K.

    2010-10-01

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  5. Diffusion of mineral oils in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richaud, Emmanuel; Bellili, Amar; Goutille, Yannick

    2012-07-01

    This paper reports a study of mineral oil diffusion through a filled ethylene-vinyl acetate crosslinked polymer, together with some comparisons with aliphatic linear hydrocarbons. Permeation was monitored by classical gravimetric measurements leading to values of diffusion coefficient at several temperatures ranging from 23 to 120°C. A change in activation energy of diffusivity was observed at ca 70°C for mineral oils but not for simple hydrocarbons. The obtained diffusivity values and this curvature were discussed diffusion models derived from free volume theory. A relationship between D and boiling temperature was observed and tentatively justified.

  6. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  7. HT update: spotlight on estradiol/norethindrone acetate combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Colleen L; Murray, Christine A

    2008-01-01

    The goal of postmenopausal hormone therapy is to alleviate the symptoms that are associated with the loss of estrogen. Many formulations of estrogen and progestin are available, depending on the needs and circumstances of each individual woman. For postmenopausal women, the choice of whether or not to begin therapy requires knowledge of the risks and benefits of estrogen and/or progestin replacement. The purpose of this review is to describe the risks and benefits of hormonal therapy, focusing on estradiol/norethindrone acetate combination therapy. PMID:18488874

  8. Ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroid-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Puchar, A; Luton, D; Koskas, M

    2015-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign uterine tumors in women of reproductive age. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids, according to their type and location, can cause several symptoms and impact quality of life. To date, no medical treatment is able to eliminate fibroids. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an orally active synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) characterized by a tissue-specific progesterone antagonist effect that reduces the proliferation of leiomyoma cells and induces apoptosis. It was licensed in Europe for preoperative fibroid treatment in 2012. Its pharmacological and pharmacodynamic characteristics, its efficacy and good tolerance make UPA a new important tool in the management of uterine fibroids. PMID:26744741

  9. Kinetic Modeling of Esterification of Ethylene Glycol with Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Vishnu P.; Maity, Sunil K.; Mukherjee, Rudra Palash; Bantraj, Kandi

    2010-10-26

    The reaction kinetics of the esterification of ethylene glycol with acetic acid in the presence of cation exchange resin has been studied and kinetic models based on empirical and Langmuir approach has been developed. The Langmuir based model involving eight kinetic parameters fits experimental data much better compared to empirical model involving four kinetic parameters. The effect of temperature and catalyst loading on the reaction system has been analyzed. Further, the activation energy and frequency factor of the rate constants for Langmuir based model has been estimated.

  10. Complexation of thorium(IV) with acetate at variable temperatures.

    PubMed

    Rao, Linfeng; Zhang, Zhicheng; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Bismondo, Arturo; Clark, Sue B

    2004-09-21

    The complexation between Th(IV) and acetate in 1.05 mol kg(-1) NaClO4 was studied at variable temperatures (10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 degrees C). The formation constants of five successive complexes, Th(Ac)j(4-j)+ where Ac = CH3COO- and j = 1-5, and the molar enthalpies of complexation were determined by potentiometry and calorimetry. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provided additional information on the complexes in solution. The effect of temperature on the stability of the complexes is discussed in terms of the electrostatic model. PMID:15349159

  11. Enantioselective Hydrosilylation of Imines Catalyzed by Chiral Zinc Acetate Complexes.

    PubMed

    Bezłada, Agata; Szewczyk, Marcin; Mlynarski, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    A series of zinc acetate complexes with optically pure diphenylethanediamine (DPEDA)-derived ligands have been employed as enantioselective catalyst for the hydrosilylation of various imines. High control of stereoselectivity (up to 97% ee) and excellent yields (up to 96%) were gained for a broad range of N-phosphinoylimines by using (R,R)-N,N'-dibenzyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine. This is the first successful application of an air-stable and environmentally friendly chiral Zn(OAc)2 complex instead of the previously used harmful diethylzinc in the asymmetric reduction of the C═N double bond. PMID:26667387

  12. Radioiron utilization and gossypol acetic acid in male rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tone, J.N.; Jensen, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 24-h incorporation of VZFe into circulating red blood cells, bone marrow, urine, liver, spleen, and skeletal muscle was measured in splenectomized and sham-splenectomized rats which had received a daily, oral dose of gossypol acetic acid (20 mg GAA/kg body wt) for 91 days. A significant decrease in total body weight gain was observed in all GAA treated animals. Splenectomized rats dosed with GAA exhibited a significant decrease in hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and erythrocyte count. A significant increase in VZFe incorporation by red blood cells and a decrease in hepatic incorporation of VZFe indicate a preferential utilization of iron in erythropoiesis among GAA treated animals.

  13. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  14. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  15. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  16. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  17. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on the response of the rat mammary gland to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Russo, I. H.; Gimotty, P.; Dupuis, M.; Russo, J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to determine whether mammary gland differentiation, which is known to protect this organ from chemically induced carcinogenesis, can be stimulated in virgin rats by administration of a progestagenic agent, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) was given to 300 Sprague-Dawley virgin rats, which at the ages of 45, 55, 65 and 75 days, groups I, II, III and IV respectively, had implanted an MPA pellet of 0.5 mg (low dose-LD) or 5.0 mg (high dose-HD). Pellets were removed after 21 days, and 21 days later five animals per group were killed for evaluation of mammary gland development. The remaining animals received 8 mg 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DMBA) per 100 g body weight, and were killed after 24 weeks for evaluation of tumour incidence. Both age and treatment affected mammary gland structure and had a significant interaction in the proportion of terminal end buds (TEBs) present. The number of TEBs decreased as a function of age; treatment at both LD and HD did not modify the proportion of TEBs in groups I and III; LD decreased their percentage in group II, and both doses markedly increased TEB percentage in group IV animals. MPA LD treatment did not affect overall tumour and adenocarcinoma incidence although group IV animals developed greater incidences than their respective controls. MPA HD treated rats were 2.45 times more likely to develop tumours than their respective controls. Adenocarcinoma incidence had a significant positive correlation with the percentage of TEBs present. It was concluded that this progestagenic agent did not increase the risk of carcinoma development when administered to virgin rats at the clinical dose used for contraception. However, a 10-fold dose increase resulted in a higher tumorigenic response. PMID:2522791

  18. Heterogeneous Reactions of Acetic Acid with Oxide Surfaces: Effects of Mineralogy and Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Larish, Whitney A; Fang, Yuan; Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the heterogeneous uptake of gaseous acetic acid on different oxides including γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and CaO under a range of relative humidity conditions. Under dry conditions, the uptake of acetic acid leads to the formation of both acetate and molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on γ-Al2O3 and CaO and only molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on SiO2. More importantly, under the conditions of this study, dimers are the major form for molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on all three particle surfaces investigated, even at low acetic acid pressures under which monomers are the dominant species in the gas phase. We have also determined saturation surface coverages for acetic acid adsorption on these three oxides under dry conditions as well as Langmuir adsorption constants in some cases. Kinetic analysis shows that the reaction rate of acetic acid increases by a factor of 3-5 for γ-Al2O3 when relative humidity increases from 0% to 15%, whereas for SiO2 particles, acetic acid and water are found to compete for surface adsorption sites. PMID:27322707

  19. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  20. Process control, energy recovery and cost savings in acetic acid wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaiopoulou, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A

    2011-02-28

    An anaerobic fixed bed loop (AFBL) reactor was applied for treatment of acetic acid (HAc) wastewater. Two pH process control concepts were investigated; auxostatic and chemostatic control. In the auxostatic pH control, feed pump is interrupted when pH falls below a certain pH value in the bioreactor, which results in reactor operation at maximum load. Chemostatic control assures alkaline conditions by setting a certain pH value in the influent, preventing initial reactor acidification. The AFBL reactor treated HAc wastewater at low hydraulic residence time (HRT) (10-12 h), performed at high space time loads (40-45 kg COD/m(3) d) and high space time yield (30-35 kg COD/m(3) d) to achieve high COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal (80%). Material and cost savings were accomplished by utilizing the microbial potential for wastewater neutralization during anaerobic treatment along with application of favourable pH-auxostatic control. NaOH requirement for neutralization was reduced by 75% and HRT was increased up to 20 h. Energy was recovered by applying costless CO(2) contained in the biogas for neutralization of alkaline wastewater. Biogas was enriched in methane by 4 times. This actually brings in more energy profits, since biogas extra heating for CO(2) content during biogas combustion is minimized and usage of other acidifying agents is omitted. PMID:21168957

  1. Multianalyte Microphysiometry of Macrophage Responses to Phorbol Myristate Acetate, Lipopolysaccharide, and Lipoarabinomannan

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Danielle W.; Meschievitz, Mika E.; Hiatt, Leslie A.; Cliffel, David E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that mycobacterial antigens generate different metabolic responses in macrophages as compared to gram-negative effectors and macrophage activators. The metabolic activation of macrophages by PMA is a useful tool for studying virulent agents and can be compared to other effectors. While phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is commonly used to study macrophage activation, the concentration used to create this physiological response varies. The response of RAW-264.7 macrophages is concentration-dependent, where the metabolic response to high concentrations of PMA decreases suggesting deactivation. The gram-negative effector, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), was seen to promote glucose and oxygen production which were used to produce a delayed onset of oxidative burst. Pre-incubation with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) increased the effect on cell metabolism, where the synergistic effects of IFN-γ and LPS immediately initiated oxidative burst. These studies exhibited a stark contrast with lipoarabinomannan (LAM), an antigenic glycolipid component associated with the bacterial genus Mycobacterium. The presence of LAM effectively inhibits any metabolic response preventing consumption of glucose and oxygen for the promotion of oxidative burst and to ensure pathogenic proliferation. This study demonstrates for the first time the immediate inhibitory metabolic effects LAM has on macrophages, suggesting implications for future intervention studies with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:25798034

  2. Enzymatic activation of cellulose acetate membrane for reducing of protein fouling.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu-Imer, Derya Y; Dizge, Nadir; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the surface of cellulose acetate (CA) ultrafiltration membrane was activated with serine protease (Savinase) enzyme to reduce protein fouling. Enzyme molecules were covalently immobilized with glutaraldehyde (cross-linking agent) onto the surface of CA membranes. The membrane activation was verified using filtration experiments and morphological analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of the activated membrane when compared with raw membrane were confirmed that the enzyme was immobilized onto the membrane surface. The immobilization efficiencies changed from 13.2 to 41.2% according to the enzyme ratios from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/mL. However, the permeability values decreased from 232±6 to 121±4 L/m(2) h bar with increasing enzyme concentration from 2.5 to 10.0 mg/mL. In fouling experiments, bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as the protein model solution and activated sludge was used as the model biological sludge. Enzyme-activated membranes exhibited good filtration performances and protein rejection efficiencies were compared with raw CA membrane. Also the relative flux reduction (RFR) ratios of membranes were calculated as 97% and 88% for raw CA and enzyme-activated membranes (5 mg/mL savinase), respectively. The membrane activated with Savinase enzyme could be proposed as a surface treatment method before filtration to mitigate protein fouling. PMID:22218336

  3. Gluconobacter as well as Asaia species, newly emerging opportunistic human pathogens among acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alauzet, Corentine; Teyssier, Corinne; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Gouby, Anne; Chiron, Raphael; Rabaud, Christian; Counil, François; Lozniewski, Alain; Marchandin, Hélène

    2010-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are broadly used in industrial food processing. Among them, members of the genera Asaia, Acetobacter, and Granulibacter were recently reported to be human opportunistic pathogens. We isolated AAB from clinical samples from three patients and describe here the clinical and bacteriological features of these cases. We report for the first time (i) the isolation of a Gluconobacter sp. from human clinical samples; (ii) the successive isolation of different AAB, i.e., an Asaia sp. and two unrelated Gluconobacter spp., from a cystic fibrosis patient; and (iii) persistent colonization of the respiratory tract by a Gluconobacter sp. in this patient. We reviewed the main clinical features associated with AAB isolation identified in the 10 documented reports currently available in the literature. Albeit rare, infections as well as colonization with AAB are increasingly reported in patients with underlying chronic diseases and/or indwelling devices. Clinicians as well as medical microbiologists should be aware of these unusual opportunistic pathogens, which are difficult to detect during standard medical microbiological investigations and which are multiresistant to antimicrobial agents. Molecular methods are required for identification of genera of AAB, but the results may remain inconclusive for identification to the species level. PMID:20826638

  4. An investigation of carbon dioxide capture by chitin acetate/DMSO binary system.

    PubMed

    Eftaiha, Ala'a F; Alsoubani, Fatima; Assaf, Khaleel I; Troll, Carsten; Rieger, Bernhard; Khaled, Aseel H; Qaroush, Abdussalam K

    2016-11-01

    Chitin is considered to be the second most abundant naturally-occurring polysaccharide. Also, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the second highest dielectric constant polar solvent after water. Despite the low solubility of chitin in common organic solvents, and due to its high nitrogen content, it may serve as a potential scrubbing agent "wet scrubbing" for carbon dioxide (CO2) capturing as an alternative to monoethanolamine "renewables for renewables approach". Briefly, a detailed investigation for the utilization of low molecular weight, chitin-acetate (CA) in DMSO for the capturing of CO2 is reported. As carbonation process takes place, the formation of ionic alkylcarbonate was confirmed throughout spectroscopic and computational studies. Supramolecular chemisorption was proven throughout (1)H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR) together with the absence of sorption of CO2 by the monomeric repeating unit, glucosamine hydrochloride. Further, Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations supported the formation of the CA/CO2 adduct through a newly formed supramolecular ionic interaction and hydrogen bonding along the oligosaccharide backbone between the neighboring ammonium ion and hydroxyl functional groups. The sorption capacity was measured volumetrically within an in situ Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared coupled (in situ ATR-FTIR) autoclave at 25.0°C, and 4.0bar CO2, with a maximum sorption capacity of 3.63 [Formula: see text] /gsorbent at 10.0% (w/v). PMID:27516261

  5. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (1) The drug is indicated in the treatment of dogs, cats, and horses for conditions requiring an anti-inflammatory agent. The drug is indicated for the treatment of acute musculoskeletal inflammations such...

  6. Total synthesis of plagiochin G and derivatives as potential cancer chemopreventive agents

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui-Juan; Zhao, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yue-Hu; Shi, Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    A new and efficient total synthesis has been developed to obtain plagiochin G (22), a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl, and four derivatives. The key 16-membered ring containing biphenyl ether and biaryl units was closed via an intramolecular SNAr reaction. All synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyls inhibited Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBVEA) activation induced by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in Raji cells and, thus, are potential cancer chemopreventive agents. PMID:25574060

  7. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. PMID:25488041

  8. Dielectric relaxation of α -tocopherol acetate (vitamin E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, K.; Maslanka, S.; Ziolo, J.; Paluch, M.; McGrath, K. J.; Roland, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Dielectric loss spectra are reported for α -tocopherol acetate (an isomer of vitamin E) in the supercooled and glassy states. The α -relaxation times, τα , measured over a 190° range of temperatures, T , at pressures, P , up to 400MPa can be expressed as a single function of TV3.9 ( V is specific volume, measured herein as a function of T and P ). At ambient pressure, there is no dynamic crossover over eight decades of measured τα . The relaxation spectra above the glass transition temperature Tg show ionic conductivity and an excess wing on the high-frequency flank of the α -relaxation loss peak. Temperature-pressure superpositioning is valid for the α process; moreover, the peak shape is constant (stretch exponent equal to 0.65). However, application of pressure changes the shape of the dielectric spectrum at higher frequencies due to the shift of the excess wing to form a resolved peak. Additionally, another relaxation process, absent at atmospheric pressure, emerges on the high-frequency side of the α -process. We propose that this new peak reflects a more compact conformation of the α -tocopherol acetate molecule. Drawing on the coupling model, the experimentally determined relaxation times, activation energy, and activation volume for the Johari-Goldstein process are compared to values calculated from the properties of the α relaxation. The agreement is generally satisfactory, at least for T

  9. Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-07-01

    Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20 wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0 wt% of original bagasse, 10.2 wt% of original pine, containing 14-18 wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0 wt% of original bagasse, 6.0 wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17 h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). PMID:24874879

  10. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  11. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Timmers, Peer H A; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its liquid phase was removed and periodically replenished (days 77, 119, 166, 258, 312 and 385). Although the reactor was operated under conditions favourable to promote thiosulphate reduction coupled to methane oxidation, thiosulphate disproportionation was the dominant microbial process. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the most abundant microorganisms in the bioreactor were phototrophic green sulphur bacteria (GSB) belonging to the family Chlorobiaceae and thiosulphate-disproportionating bacteria belonging to the genus Desulfocapsa. Even though the reactor system was surrounded with opaque plastic capable of filtering most of the light, the GSB used it to oxidize the hydrogen sulphide produced from thiosulphate disproportionation to elemental sulphur. Interrupting methane and acetate supply did not have any effect on the microbial processes taking place. The ultimate goal of our research was to develop a process that could be applied for thiosulphate and sulphate removal and biogenic sulphide formation for metal precipitation. Even though the system achieved in this study did not accomplish the targeted conversion using methane as electron donor, it does perform microbial conversions which allow to directly obtain elemental sulphur from thiosulphate. PMID:26423279

  12. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. PMID:25044390

  13. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  14. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    SciTech Connect

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz; Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L. E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  15. Rabbit gastric ulcer models: comparison and evaluation of acetic acid-induced ulcer and mucosectomy-induced ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Maeng, Jin Hee; Lee, Eunhye

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined rabbit gastric ulcer models that can serve as more clinically relevant models. Two types of ulcer model were studied: acetic acid-induced ulcers (AAU) and mucosal resection-induced ulcers (MRU). For AAU, rabbit gastric mucosa was exposed by median laparotomy and treated with bottled acetic acid. MRU was examined as a model for endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Normal saline was injected into the submucosal layer and the swollen mucosa was resected with scissors. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is frequently performed for treatment of early gastric cancers. This procedure inevitably leads to ulcers and bleeding. Bleeding control is the major concern in endoscopic mucosectomy, and some endoscopic hemostatic agents are currently under clinical and preclinical studies. MRU was developed as a model for these induced ulcers and the evaluation of the healing process. The clinical relevancy of those models was compared with that of rat models. Progressive healing was observed for 7 days based on histology. Rabbit models demonstrate round, deep ulcers with clear margins and well-defined healing stages that were difficult to define in rat models. PMID:23825482

  16. Distributed Agents for Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Rick; Amigoni, Francesco; Brambilla, Andrea; de la Rosa Steinz, Sonia; Lavagna, Michele; le Duc, Ian; Page, Jonathan; Page, Oliver; Steel, Robin; Wijnands, Quirien

    2010-08-01

    The Distributed Agents for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. Agent technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.

  17. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  18. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  19. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  20. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  1. Perioperative allergy: uncommon agents.

    PubMed

    Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L

    2011-01-01

    Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic agents. Neuromuscular blocking agents, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three agents, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to provide a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927

  2. Impact of different pH control agents on biopesticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis during the fermentation of starch industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-06-01

    Different pH control agents (NaOH/H(2)SO(4)--SodSulp, NaOH/CH(3)COOH--SodAcet, NH(4)OH/CH(3)COOH--AmmoAcet and NH(4)OH/H(2)SO(4)--AmmoSulp) were used to investigate their effects on growth, enzyme production (alkaline protease and amylase), and entomotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) against eastern spruce budworm larvae (Choristoneura fumiferana) using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material in a 15-l fermentor. AmmoSulp and SodSulp were found to be the best pH control agents for alkaline protease and amylase production, respectively; whereas, the fermented broth obtained by using SodAcet as pH control agents recorded the highest delta-endotoxin production of 1043.0 mg/l and entomotoxicity value 18.4 x 10(9) SBU/l. Entomotoxicity of re-suspended centrifuged pellet in one-tenth of original volume in case of SodAcet as pH control agents was 26.7 x 10(9) SBU/l and was the highest value compared to three other pH control agents. PMID:18979122

  3. Biomass bioconversion to calcium magnesium acetate deicing salt. Final project report on Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Trantolo, D.J.

    1989-06-01

    The project experimentally investigated using biomass as feedstock for conversion to calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), an alternative road salt. This new organic road salt will prevent corrosion of bridge decks, underground cables, and rusting of cars and trucks. CMA from biomass will reduce costs, compared to petroleum and natural gas for making this material. Phase I work focused on bioconversion of sewage sludge residuals to CMA. The process is based on a packed bed fermenter to produce acetic acid from biomass, as well as liquid ion exchange to recover acetic acid from the fermenter broth prior to the final production step which occurs by passing the acetic acid over limestone. In Phase I: (1) percent bioconversion and kinetics of biomass to acetic acid have been confirmed in small batch fermenters; (2) equilibrium constants for acetic acid recovery via liquid ion exchange have been documented; and (3) rates of conversion to CMA have been determined.

  4. Cell morphology variations of Klebsiella pneumoniae induced by acetate stress using biomimetic vesicle assay.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengguo; Han, Yuwang; Duan, Xujia; Luo, Fang; Zhu, Lingyan; Li, Shuang; Huang, He

    2013-10-01

    Supplementation with acetate under low levels was used as a novel approach to control the morphological development of Klebsiella pneumoniae aimed to improve 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) production. A full range of morphological types formed from rod shape to oval shape even round shape in response to different concentrations of acetate. The cell growth and 1,3-PD productions in the shake flasks with 0.5 g/L acetate addition were improved by 9.4 and 28.37%, respectively, as compared to the control, while the cell became shorter and began to lose its original shape. The cell membrane penetration by acetate was investigated by the biomimetic vesicles, while higher concentration of acetate led to more moderate colorimetric transitions. Moreover, the percentage composition of unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) was increased as well as the increased concentrations of acetate, whereas higher UFA percentage, higher fluidity of bacterial cell membrane. PMID:23892619

  5. Pulsed (13)C2-Acetate Protein-SIP Unveils Epsilonproteobacteria as Dominant Acetate Utilizers in a Sulfate-Reducing Microbial Community Mineralizing Benzene.

    PubMed

    Starke, Robert; Keller, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Vogt, Carsten; Richnow, Hans H; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; von Bergen, Martin; Seifert, Jana

    2016-05-01

    In a benzene-degrading and sulfate-reducing syntrophic consortium, a clostridium affiliated to the genus Pelotomaculum was previously described to ferment benzene while various sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria and a member of the Epsilonproteobacteria were supposed to utilize acetate and hydrogen as key metabolites derived from benzene fermentation. However, the acetate utilization network within this community was not yet unveiled. In this study, we performed a pulsed (13)C2-acetate protein stable isotope probing (protein-SIP) approach continuously spiking low amounts of acetate (10 μM per day) in addition to the ongoing mineralization of unlabeled benzene. Metaproteomics revealed high abundances of Clostridiales followed by Syntrophobacterales, Desulfobacterales, Desulfuromonadales, Desulfovibrionales, Archaeoglobales, and Campylobacterales. Pulsed acetate protein-SIP results indicated that members of the Campylobacterales, the Syntrophobacterales, the Archaeoglobales, the Clostridiales, and the Desulfobacterales were linked to acetate utilization in descending abundance. The Campylobacterales revealed the fastest and highest (13)C incorporation. Previous experiments suggested that the activity of the Campylobacterales was not essential for anaerobic benzene degradation in the investigated community. However, these organisms were consistently detected in various hydrocarbon-degrading and sulfate-reducing consortia enriched from the same aquifer. Here, we demonstrate that this member of the Campylobacterales is the dominant acetate utilizer in the benzene-degrading microbial consortium. PMID:26846217

  6. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by etiolated and green corn tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Reinecke, D. )

    1989-04-01

    Etiolated corn tissues oxidase indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to oxindole-3-acetic acid (OxIAA). This oxidation results in loss of auxin activity and may plant a role in regulating IAA-stimulated growth. The enzyme has been partially purified and characterized and shown to require O{sub 2}, and a heat-stable lipid-soluble corn factor which can be replaced by linolenic or linoleic acids in the oxidation of IAA. Corn oil was tested as a cofactor in the IAA oxidation reaction. Corn oil stimulated enzyme activity by 30% while trilinolein was inactive. The capacity of green tissue to oxidize IAA was examined by incubating leaf sections from 2 week old light-grown corn seedlings with {sup 14}C-IAA. OxIAA and IAA were separated from other IAA metabolites on a 3 ml anion exchange column. Of the IAA taken up by the sections, 13% was oxidized to OxIAA. This is the first evidence that green tissue of corn may also regulate IAA levels by oxidizing IAA to OxIAA.

  7. Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing detection of intestinal parasites from single unpreserved stool sample vs. sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-preserved pooled samples, and stained with chlorazol black dye in routine practice. Unpreserved samples were collected from 120 patients and represented as Group I. Other three SAF-preserved samples were collected from the same patients over a 6-day period and represented as Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc. The latter groups were equally subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup of each of the three samples was examined individually, whereas the second subgroup of each were pooled and examined as a single specimen. All groups were examined by the routine diagnostic techniques; however, in group II when the diagnosis was uncertain, the chlorazol black dye staining procedure was carried out. Results demonstrated that out of 74 patients who continued the study, 12 cases (16%) were positive in group I, compared with 29 (39%) in the subgroups examined individually, and 27 (36%) in the pooled subgroups. Therefore, pooling of preserved fecal samples is an efficient and economical procedure for the detection of parasites. Furthermore, the chlorazol black dye was simple and effective in detecting the nuclear details of different parasites. PMID:21567472

  8. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  9. Comparative metabolic effects of acetate and dichloroacetate infusion in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Ward, R A; Wathen, R L; Harding, G B; Thompson, L C

    1985-07-01

    The comparative effects of acetate (10 mmol/h/kg) and dichloroacetate (DCA) (1 mmol/h/kg and 10 mmol/h/kg) on acid-base and intermediary metabolism were assessed using the fasted anesthetized dog, undergoing controlled ventilation, as a metabolic model. Infusion of acetate resulted in a marked metabolic alkalemia and a decline in PaO2, while DCA had minimal effects on acid-base state and oxygen consumption. Serum glucose decreased with both DCA and acetate infusion, although only significantly with the latter. At infusion rates of 10 mmol/h/kg, acetate caused marked decreases, while DCA caused marked increases, in serum potassium and phosphorus. Acetate and DCA also had opposing effects on lactate and citrate levels, the former caused increases and the latter decreases in both metabolites. Pyruvate levels decreased similarly in response to both infusates. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels increased significantly with both acetate and DCA infusions; however, the increases were much greater with acetate than with DCA infusion. Blood alanine levels decreased significantly during the infusion of both acetate and DCA, whereas, free fatty acids tended to increase with acetate infusion, remained unchanged with low dose DCA and fell significantly with high dose DCA. Plasma insulin levels were sustained during acetate infusion, but fell abruptly with termination of infusion. In contrast, insulin levels fell markedly with DCA infusion and remained depressed throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Blood levels of acetate and DCA rose markedly during infusion; however, while acetate levels decreased nearly to control values during the recovery period, DCA levels remained elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3925292

  10. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  11. The stable carbon isotope biogeochemistry of acetate and methane in freshwater environments

    SciTech Connect

    Gelwicks, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    Methane produced in freshwater sediments, where acetate is the major substrate utilized by methanogenic bacteria, is commonly depleted in {sup 13}C. Variations in the carbon-isotopic composition of methane have been related to flows of acetate carbon to various fates within microbial communities. To examine these processes, the isotopic compositions of biogenic methane and its sedimentary sources (acetate and CO{sub 2}) were considered along with related isotope effects. A method of preparation for carbon isotope analyses of both carbons in acetate was developed. Uncertainties in measurements are less than 0.4{per thousand} for samples greater than 5 {mu}mol of acetate. Advantages of this technique include good separation of acetate from other compounds and the applicability to samples containing micromolar quantities of acetate. Carbon kinetic isotope effects associated with synthesis of acetate from CO{sub 2} by Acetobacterium woodii were measured by isotopic analyses of CO{sub 2}, methyl-carbon, and total acetate. Closed systems allowing construction of complete mass balances at varying stages of growth were utilized, and the effects of the partitioning of carbon between CO{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} were taken into account. For the overall reaction total carbonate {yields} total acetate, the isotope effect measured {minus}58.6 {plus minus} 0.7{per thousand}; there is no evidence for intramolecular isotopic ordering in the acetate. Carbon isotope effects associated with synthesis of methane from acetate by Methanosarcina barkeri and by a natural community of methanogens were measured in closed system experiments. For the process of methyl-carbon {yields} methane, the isotope effect measured {minus}21.5 {plus minus} 1.3{per thousand}.

  12. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I.; Wang, Guijun

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  13. Acetic acid and aromatics units planned in China

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1993-01-27

    The Shanghai Wujing Chemical Complex (SWCC; Shanghai) is proceeding with construction of an acetic acid plant. The 100,000-m.t./year until will use BP Chemicals carbonylation technology, originally developed by Monsanto. John Brown has been selected by China National Technical Import Corp. (CNTIC) to supply the plant, Chinese sources say. The UK contractor, which competed against Mitsui Engineering Shipbuilding (Tokyo) and Lurgi (Frankfurt), has built a similar plant for BP in the UK, although using different technology. The new plant will require 54,000 m.t./year of methanol, which is available onsite. Carbon monoxide will be delivered from a new plant. The acetic acid unit will joint two other acetic plants in China supplied some time ago by Uhde (Dortmund). SWCC is due to be integrated with two adjacent complexes to form Shanghai Pacific Chemical. Meanwhile, four groups are competing to supply a UOP-process aromatics complex for Jilin Chemical Industrial Corp. They are Toyo Engineering, Lurgi, Lucky/Foster Wheeler, and Eurotechnica. The complex will include plants with annual capacities for 115,000 m.t. of benzene, 90,000 m.t. of ortho-xylene, 93,000 m.t. of mixed xylenes, and 20,000 m.t. of toluene. The plants will form part of a $2-billion petrochemical complex based on a 300,000-m.t./year ethylene plant awarded last year to a consortium of Samsung Engineering and Linde. Downstream plants will have annual capacities for 120,000 m.t. of linear low-density polyethylene, 80,000 m.t. of ethylene oxide, 100,000 m.t. of ethylene glycol, 80,000 m.t. of phenol, 100,000 m.t. of acrylonitrile, 20,000 m.t. of sodium cyanide, 40,000 m.t. of phthalic anhydride, 40,000 m.t. of ethylene propylene rubber, 20,000 m.t. of styrene butadiene styrene, and 30,000 m.t. of acrylic fiber.

  14. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  15. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  16. An evaluation of the bioconversion of woody biomass to calcium acetate deicing salt

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, D.L.; Augenstein, D. )

    1988-01-01

    A competitive process is described using local woody biomass residues, which may also include associated pulp and paper wastes, or municipal solid waste, as potential feedstocks for bioconversion to calcium acetate, an alternative deicing salt. The process first involves suppressed methane fermentation of these woody biomass residues in a packed bed fermentor for the production of acetic acid. In earlier experimental work, operation of conventional anaerobic digestion systems in this suppressed methane mode has yielded a product of over 85% acetic acid, the remainder primarily being other organic acids such as propionic and butyric acids; operation at thermophilic conditions (60{degree}C) yielded essentially all acetic acid. In the process described, recovery of the dilute organic acids (=3.5% acetic acid) will be by liquid ion exchange extraction. Production calcium acetate is formed by back extraction of liquid ion exchange with calcium hydroxide. After spray drying, this calcium acetate is ready for use as an organic deicing salt. Pretreatment of woody biomass may be by steam explosion or by mild alkali treatment to breakdown the lignin fraction for fermentation to acetic acid; however, if cellulosic wastes are used, no pretreatment step will be needed. Essentially, only technology transfer is involved in commercialization of this process, rather than the development of new technology. Their cost analysis, the objective of this present work, projects calcium acetate costs of 0.258 $US/kg ($0.117/lb) for a full-scale plant of 454 metric tons/day (500 US tons/day).

  17. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J.; Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  18. Microbiosensor for the detection of acetate in electrode-respiring biofilms.

    PubMed

    Atci, Erhan; Babauta, Jerome T; Sultana, Sujala T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this work was to develop a microbiosensor to measure acetate concentration profiles inside biofilms in situ. The working principle of the microbiosensor was based on the correlation between the acetate concentration and the current generated during acetate oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The microbiosensor consisted of a 30-µm carbon microelectrode with an open tip as a working electrode, with G. sulfurreducens biofilm on the tip and a pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case with a 30-µm tip diameter. The microbiosensor showed a linear response in the 0-1.6mM acetate concentration range with a 79±8µM limit of detection (S/N=2). We quantified the stirring effect and found it negligible. However, the interfering effect of alternative electron donors (lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen) was found to be significant. The usefulness of the acetate microbiosensor was demonstrated by measuring acetate concentration depth profiles within a G. sulfurreducens biofilm. The acetate concentration remained at bulk values throughout the biofilm when no current was passed, but it decreased from the bulk values to below the detection limit within 200µm when current was allowed to pass. The zero acetate concentration at the bottom of the biofilm showed that the biofilm was acetate-limited. PMID:27016913

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of alpinone 3-acetate from Alpinia japonica seeds.

    PubMed

    Kakegawa, Tomohito; Miyazaki, Aya; Yasukawa, Ken

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to investigate the bioactive components of Alpinia japonica as anti-inflammatory compounds using searches of the Alpinia genus, and subsequently demonstrated that alpinone 3-acetate markedly inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation in a mouse model of ear edema. To assess other bioactivities of alpinone 3-acetate, we performed translatome analyses and compared them with those of hydrocortisone. Polysome-associated mRNAs were prepared from alpinone 3-acetate- or hydrocortisone-treated and control cells from 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced THP-1-derived macrophages cultured in the presence of Escherichia coli O-111 lipopolysaccharide. Subsequent microarray analysis revealed that alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone upregulated and downregulated the same 155 and 41 genes, respectively. Moreover, direct comparisons of translationally regulated genes indicated 5 and 10 gene probes that were upregulated and downregulated by alpinone 3-acetate and hydrocortisone, respectively. In conclusion, assays of 12-O-tetradecanoyiphorbol 13-acetate-induced inflammation ear edema in mice and polysome profiling of alpinone 3-acetate bioactivities indicated similar medicinal possibilities to those of hydrocortisone. PMID:27137785

  20. (14C)acetate assimilation by a type I obligate methylotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R N; Hoare, S L; Hoare, D S; Taylor, B F

    1977-01-01

    Methanol and formate oxidation supported the assimilation of [14C]acetate by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; oxidation of other primary alcohols, except ethanol, did not. The extent of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was decreased in the presence of primary alcohols, except ethanol. Potassium cyanide (0.33 mM) completely inhibited the oxidation of formate and its stimulation of [1-14C]acetate assimilation. The amount of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was significantly inhibited by cyanide. PMID:412469

  1. Sum-frequency generation of acetate adsorption on Au and Pt surfaces: Molecular structure effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braunschweig, Björn; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Kutz, Robert B.; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Dlott, Dana D.

    2010-12-01

    The reversible adsorption of acetate on polycrystalline Au and Pt surfaces was investigated with broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) and cyclic voltammetry. Specifically adsorbed acetate as well as coadsorbed sulfuric acid anions are observed for the first time with SFG and give rise to dramatically different SFG intensities on Au and Pt surfaces. While similar coverages of acetate adlayers on Au and Pt surfaces are well established by previous studies, an identification of the interfacial molecular structure has been elusive. However, we have applied the high sensitivity of SFG for interfacial polar ordering to identify different acetate structures at Au and Pt surfaces in contact with HClO4 and H2SO4 electrolytes. Acetate competes with the formation of surface oxides and shifts the oxidation threshold of both Au and Pt electrodes anodically. Effects of the supporting electrolyte on the formation of acetate adlayers are revealed by comparing SFG spectra in HClO4 and H2SO4 solutions: Sulfuric acid anions modify the potential-dependent acetate adsorption, compete with adsorbed acetate on Au and coadsorb with acetate on Pt surfaces.

  2. Bacterial response to acetate challenge: a comparison of tolerance among species.

    PubMed

    Lasko, D R; Zamboni, N; Sauer, U

    2000-08-01

    Although acetate formation and tolerance are important criteria for various aspects of biotechnological process development, available studies on acetate tolerance in different species are disparate. We evaluate the response of eight bacterial strains, including two variants of Escherichia coli, two variants of Staphylococcus capitis, and one each of Acetobacter aceti, Gluconobacter suboxydans, Lactobacillus acetotolerans, and L. bulgaricus, to acetate challenges under identical conditions. Our findings were: (1) wild-type organisms of species that are considered tolerant of acetate perform only slightly better than E. coli in unadapted shaker cultures; (2) the ability to tolerate acetate is strongly dependent on the carbon source, and is, especially for E. coli, much greater on glycerol than on glucose; (3) respiration is not as important to acetate tolerance in E. coli and S. capitis as has been reported for the acetic acid bacteria; (4) S. capitis was the least affected by acetate under all conditions and grew at up to 44 g/l acetate without any preconditioning; and (5) qualitative high-throughput screening of growth characteristics can be achieved with relatively inexpensive multiwell plate readers. PMID:10968640

  3. Effects of acetate on Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martynova, Jekaterina; Kokina, Agnese; Kibilds, Juris; Liepins, Janis; Scerbaka, Rita; Vigants, Armands

    2016-05-01

    Metabolically active cells produce a wide array of metabolites that can inhibit their growth. Acetate is a widely known preservative, and it is also produced by yeast cells during their growth. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 is a promising yeast strain that could be employed in biotechnological processes, but the knowledge of its stress physiology is scarce. Here, we investigate the effects of acetate on growth and changes in cell population structure during adaptation to elevated concentrations of acetate in K. marxianus DSM 5422. Our results indicate that acetate inhibits growth in a pH-dependent manner and has pronounced effects if yeast is grown on lactose or galactose. When challenged with acetate, culture extends lag phase, during which cells adapt to elevated acetate concentrations, and growth reoccurs, albeit at a slower rate, when majority of the population is acetate resistant. Acetate resistance is maintained only if acetate is present in the media or if the culture has reached end of active growth phase. This study shows possible caveats in lactose fermentation with K. marxianus and gives a further perspective in non-conventional yeast applications in biotechnology. PMID:26910042

  4. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  5. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, F; Camaggi, C M; Strocchi, E; Comparsi, R

    1987-01-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) plasma pharmacokinetics was followed up in a total of 30 New Zealand rabbits after i.v. administration (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg) of either an aqueous suspension or a homogeneous solution of the drug in dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO). A well-defined triphasic decay of MAP plasma levels was noticeable in the animals treated with DMSO solutions. A delayed concentration peak was often present when aqueous suspensions were used, so if is not feasible to fit the experiment with simple polyexponential equations. Model-independent pharmacokinetic analysis (statistical moment theory) revealed a significant dependence of plasma clearance and mean residence time on the dose administered in both conditions. PMID:2954713

  6. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiachao; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Xin

    2005-07-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15 folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55°C and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+, EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  7. Application of cellulose acetate for controlled release of thymol.

    PubMed

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Markovic, Darka; Aksentijevic, Ksenija; Stojanovic, Dusica B; Ivanovic, Jasna; Zizovic, Irena

    2016-08-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) was investigated as a carrier towards development of material with controlled release of thymol as a natural substance with strong antibacterial properties using high pressure techniques. Effect of thymol content on CA was confirmed by SEM, FTIR and DSC methods. Kinetic of thymol release from CA was tested using simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (hydrochloric acid and phosphate buffer saline). Results were correlated with Korsmeyer-Peppas and Weibull model. Depending on the thymol content and chemical nature of the release medium, the time of thymol release varied from one to three days indicating CA as a promising carrier of thymol with potential uses from medicine to agriculture. The impregnated CA showed antibacterial activity against 23 tested bacterial strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is particularly important bearing in mind that this strain causes fatal infections in humans and animals. PMID:27178940

  8. Crystal structure of 7,8-benzocoumarin-4-acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, R. Ranga; Gowda, Ramakrishna; Gowda, K. V. Arjuna; Basanagouda, Mahantesha

    2015-01-01

    The fused-ring system in the title compound [systematic name: 2-(2-oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromen-4-yl)acetic acid], C15H10O4, is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.031 Å) and the Car—C—C=O (ar = aromatic) torsion angle for the side chain is −134.4 (3)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating [100] C(8) chains, where the acceptor atom is the exocyclic O atom of the fused-ring system. The packing is consolidated by a very weak C—H⋯O hydrogen bond to the same acceptor atom. Together, these inter­actions lead to undulating (001) layers in the crystal. PMID:26396827

  9. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases ‡

    PubMed Central

    Vavříková, Eva; Gavezzotti, Paolo; Purchartová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Biedermann, David; Kuzma, Marek; Riva, Sergio; Křen, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22) of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia) immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule. PMID:26016503

  10. The in vivo glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, G P; John, W J

    1980-11-01

    The in vivo glucocorticoid actions of medroxyprogesterone acetate [6 alpha-methyl-17-acetoxy-pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (MPA)] were assessed in intact prepubertal female Wistar rats using five simultaneous assays: plasma glucose, plasma corticosterone, hepatic glycogen content, hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity, and croton oil-induced ear inflammation. Antiglucocorticoid acitivity was measured through interference by MPA with the glucocorticoid effect of a standard 5-microgram dose of dexamethasone in these same assays. The glucocorticoid activity of MPA was evident from suppression of corticosterone and ear inflammation and stimulation of tyrosine aminotransferase activity. The antiglucocorticoid activity of MPA was detected through inhibition of basal and dexamethasone-stimulated hepatic glycogen and partial reversal of the suppression of ear inflammation by dexamethasone. The progestational steroid MPA was thus found to have assay-specific glucocorticoid and antiglucocorticoid actions and may have a potential use in the treatment of some states of glucocorticoid excess. PMID:6107239

  11. Method of making a cellulose acetate low density microcellular foam

    DOEpatents

    Rinde, James A.

    1978-01-01

    Low-density microcellular foam having a cell size of not greater than 2 .mu.m and method of making by dissolving cellulose acetate in an acetone-based solvent, gelling the solution in a water bath maintained at 0-10.degree. C for a selected period of time to allow impurities to diffuse out, freezing the gel, and then freeze-drying wherein water and solvents sublime and the gel structure solidifies into low-density microcellular foam. The foam has a density of 0.065 to 0.6.times.10.sup.3 kg/m.sup.3 and cell size of about 0.3 to 2 .mu.m. The small cell size foam is particularly adaptable for encapsulation of laser targets.

  12. [Removal of tattoos by CO2 laser and acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Di Quirico, R; Pallini, G; Di Domenicantonio, G; Astolfi, A; Bindi, F; Gianfelice, F

    1992-10-31

    The Authors pay attention to small tattoo removal by means of the utilization of the CO2 laser. Moreover, the Authors emphasize the drawback of double treatment which, usually, the patient suffers in tattoo removal by CO2 laser. Then, the pressure of the Authors is small sized tattoo removal in only one sitting achieving so an excellent esthetic result. Besides, the Authors, in this medical study, explains two methods for tattoo removal. In the study's results, the Authors describes the manner and the time of the two lesion recovery by the different manners of treatment. Finally, the Authors affirms the great consequence of the surgical CO2 laser, they don't fail, however, to affirm that the laser and acetic acid combination is an excellent procedure for small tattoo removal. PMID:1480288

  13. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  14. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  15. Dynamic determination of anaerobic acetate kinetics using membrane mass spectrometry

    PubMed

    Meyer; Heinzle

    1998-01-20

    A small, stirred, 14.4-mL tank reactor was designed to serve as a measurement cell for short-term investigation of microbial kinetics. A mass spectrometer membrane probe allowed the measurement of the dissolved gases of hydrogen, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide. pH was measured by an electrode and controlled by addition of acid or alkali. The highly sensitive measurement of gases with low solubility allowed rapid measurements at very low conversion. In kinetic experiments, a stepwise increase of substrate concentration (method A) and continuous feed of substrate (method B) were used, allowing quick estimation of substrate kinetics. Acetate conversion in mixed culture biofilms from a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Substrate inhibition was found to be negligible in the concentration range studied. Experiments at various pH values showed that the undissociated acid form was the kinetic determinant. Kinetic parameters for Haldane kinetics of protons were KSH = 1.3 x 10(-5) mol m-3 and KIH = 8.1 x 10(-3) mol m-3. With free acid (HAc) as the rate determining species, the kinetic parameters for method A were KSHAc = 0.005 mol m-3 and KIHAc = 100 mol m-3 and for method B were KSHAc = 0.2 mol m-3 and KIHAc = 50 mol m-3. The maximum biomass activity occurred at around pH 6.5. Acetate was exclusively converted to methane and CO2 at pH > 6. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099187

  16. Inflammatory cells’ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sanei, Mohammad H.; Hadizadeh, Fatemeh; Adibi, Peyman; Alavi, Sayyed Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1), ex vivo (group 3), and enema after immune suppression (group 5). Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H2O2, we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful. PMID:25337523

  17. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate. PMID:22370408

  18. Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

    2008-01-01

    While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting

  19. Nomegestrol acetate and vascular reactivity: nonhuman primate experiments.

    PubMed

    Paris, J M; Williams, K J; Hermsmeyer, K R; Delansorne, R

    2000-01-01

    Prevention of coronary artery disease has been recognized as a major benefit of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in postmenopausal women. However, endometrial hyperplasia induced by unopposed ERT has raised important safety concerns. Progesterone or synthetic progestins have been used in combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to prevent endometrial cancer risk. Therefore, a major concern has been to ensure that the vascular beneficial effects of estrogens are not opposed when combined with progestins. Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is an orally active progestin widely prescribed for HRT. Its vascular effects were evaluated in two models of coronary vascular reactivity in primates: 1) the paradoxical vasoconstriction to acetylcholine (Ach) coronary infusion after 5 months of mildly atherogenic diet in ovariectomized (OVX) Cynomolgus monkeys and 2) the pharmacologically evoked coronary vasospasm in the OVX Rhesus monkey. In the first model, after 3 months of continuous oral administration in the diet at 0.1 mg/kg/day, E2 prevented the paradoxical response to Ach, alone as well as combined with 0.25 mg/kg/day NOMAC, whereas NOMAC counteracted the endometrial stimulation. In the second model, after one artificial cycle consisting of 28 days of E2 subcutaneous (s.c.) implant and of daily oral gavage with 1 mg/kg/day of NOMAC for the last 14 days, no vasospasm (0 of 11 tested animals) occurred when the complete challenge protocol, including serotonin and the thromboxane agonist U46619, was administered to OVX Rhesus monkeys. In the balanced crossover design, identical artificial cycles with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) at the same dose resulted in 7 vasospasms in 12 animals. In parallel, effective progestative activity was demonstrated by a secretory pattern in endometrial sections obtained at the end of the cycle. In these two nonhuman primate cardiovascular models, NOMAC did not have the negating effects observed with MPA. PMID:11108868

  20. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  1. Use of extracting agent for decadmiation of phosphate rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benredjem, Z.; Delimi, R.

    2009-11-01

    According to World Bank projections, world population will reach 7 billion in 2020. This impressive population must be accommodated, clothed and most importantly it must be fed. It keep into this challenge an increase in the agricultural production must reach 90% of the already cultivated land. It is clear that mineral fertilizers will continue to play an important role in improving agricultural production. A fertilizer is by definition 'any product containing at least 5% of the three major plant nutrients: N, P2O5, and K2 O. The most common fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, magnesium and sulphur fertilizers. They can be simple, single or complex nutrients. Currently, phosphate fertilizers are by far the most prevalent. However, the fertilizers produced from phosphate ores still contain heavy metals that are harmful to human health. These heavy metals are transferred through processing to phosphoric acid: the main intermediary between the rock and phosphate fertilizers. Among these heavy metals, cadmium seems to be the most harmful and toxic element. The occurrence of such element in the fertilizer products causes a serious danger to both human health and environment. Most of the phosphate-bearing rocks contain large Cd amounts that are often above acceptable levels. Phosphate ore industry usually tends to improve the quality of product by eliminating this toxic element. The aim of this study is to present an accurate and less expensive method by which cadmium in phosphate ore would be reduced to lower rates. The method uses ammonium acetate salt, diamine tetra-acetic and hydrochloric acids as extracting agents of cadmium in phosphate. The influence of some parameters was taken into consideration, such as the volume/mass ratios, the extracting agent concentration and the temperature. The results analyses were based on the amount of cadmium extracted and P2O5 loss, and the efficiencies of extracting agents.

  2. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R

    2010-07-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  3. Pharmacologic agents targeting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545

  4. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  5. Antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior flower extract against lead acetate - induced perturbations in free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid peroxidation in rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Etlingera elatior or 'pink torch ginger' (Zingiberaceae) are widely cultivated in tropical countries and used as spices and food flavoring. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant effects of Etlingera elatior against lead - induced changes in serum free radical scavenging enzymes and lipid hydroperoxides in rats. Findings Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 14 days alone or plus the ethanol extract of E. elatior (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood lead levels, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl contents and oxidative marker enzymes were estimated. Lead acetate in drinking water elicited a significant increase in lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and protein-carbonyl-contents (PCC). There was a significant decrease in total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase levels with lead acetate treatment. Supplementation of E. elatior was associated with reduced serum LPO and PCC and a significant increase in total antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme levels. Conclusions The results suggest that flower extract of Etlingera elatior has powerful antioxidant effect against lead - induced oxidative stress and the extract may be useful therapeutic agent against lead toxicity. However, detailed evaluations are required to identify the active antioxidant compounds from this plant extract. PMID:21414212

  6. Embryonic mutation as a possible cause of in utero carcinogenesis in mice revealed by postnatal treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, T.; Nakajima, H.; Hatanaka, T.; Kinuta, M.; Hongyo, T. )

    1990-04-01

    Although in utero irradiation at early stages induced a high incidence of somatic mutations at coat color genes in the embryos of a specified tester strain (PT x HT F1) of mice, it was not carcinogenic by itself. However, in utero-irradiated animals did develop skin tumors and hepatomas (but not leukemias) by the postnatal administration of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The incidence of both tumors and embryonic mutations increased with in utero doses of X-rays. Furthermore, a large reduction of tumor incidence, about 80%, was observed by low-dose-rate irradiation, similar to the 75% reduction in spot size found for embryonic mutations. The tumor nodule size was also dramatically reduced by low-dose-rate irradiation. Consequently, the induced incidence and size of tumors produced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate treatment parallel those which are observed for coat color mutations as expected, because somatic mutations observed in the pigment cells must similarly occur in embryonic cells of other organs. The larger the clone of mutant cells, the greater their chance of becoming tumorigenic by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate posttreatment. These results strongly support the recent epidemiological survey showing that adult types of cancers, but not leukemias, are increasing in the atomic bomb survivors exposed in utero, since humans are continuously exposed to a variety of cancer-promoting agents in contrast to experimental animals reared without such exposures.

  7. Acetaldehyde partial oxidation on the Au(111) model catalyst surface: C-C bond activation and formation of methyl acetate as an oxidative coupling product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatok, Mustafa; Vovk, Evgeny I.; Shah, Asad A.; Turksoy, Abdurrahman; Ozensoy, Emrah

    2015-11-01

    Partial oxidation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) on the oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst was investigated via Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction Spectroscopy (TPRS) techniques, where ozone (O3) was utilized as the oxygen delivery agent providing atomic oxygen to the reacting surface. We show that for low exposures of O3 and small surface oxygen coverages, two partial oxidation products namely, methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) can be generated without the formation of significant quantities of carbon dioxide. The formation of methyl acetate as the oxidative coupling reaction product implies that oxygen pre-covered Au(111) single crystal model catalyst surface can activate C-C bonds. In addition to the generation of these products; indications of the polymerization of acetaldehyde on the gold surface were also observed as an additional reaction route competing with the partial and total oxidation pathways. The interplay between the partial oxidation, total oxidation and polymerization pathways reveals the complex catalytic chemistry associated with the interaction between the acetaldehyde and atomic oxygen on catalytic gold surfaces.

  8. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity. PMID:21313993

  9. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. PMID:25817449

  10. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  11. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  12. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  13. The fate of trenbolone acetate and melengestrol acetate after application as growth promoters in cattle: environmental studies.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, B; Daxenberger, A; Meyer, K; Meyer, H H

    2001-11-01

    The steroids trenbolone acetate (TbA) and melengestrol acetate (MGA) are licensed as growth promoters for farm animals in several meat-exporting countries. Although many studies have explored their safety for both animals and consumers, little is known about their fate after excretion by the animal. Our study aimed to determine the residues and degradation of trenbolone and MGA in solid dung, liquid manure, and soil. In animal experiments lasting 8 weeks, cattle were treated with TbA and MGA. Solid dung and, in case of trenbolone, liquid manure were collected and spread on maize fields after 4.5 and 5.5 months of storage, respectively. Determination of the hormone residues in all samples included extraction, clean-up (solid-phase extraction), separation of metabolites and interfering substances by HPLC (RP-18), and quantification by sensitive enzyme immunoassay. Procedures were validated by mass spectrometry (MS) methods. During storage of liquid manure the level of trenbolone decreased from 1,700 to 1,100 pg/g (17alpha-isomer), corresponding to a half-life of 267 days. Before storage, the concentrations in the dung hill ranged from 5 to 75 ng/g TbOH and from 0.3 to 8 ng/g MGA. After storage, levels up to 10 ng/g trenbolone, and 6 ng/g MGA were detected. In the soil samples trenbolone was traceable up to 8 weeks after fertilization, and MGA was detected even until the end of the cultivation period. The results show that these substances should be investigated further concerning their potential endocrine-disrupting activity in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:11713000

  14. Preparation of biomaterials on the basis of a water-soluble cellulose acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmalova, G. Yu.; Gulyamova, N. S.; Zainutdinov, U. N.; Rakhmanberdiev, G. R.; Negmatova, K. S.; Negmatova, M. I.

    2012-07-01

    Biomaterials were obtained on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and diterpenoids group of plants Lagohulusa intoxicating having hemostatic properties. It is established that these biomaterials on the basis of water-soluble cellulose acetate and lagohilina (or lagohirzina) had increased hemostatic activity and reduce parenchymal hemorrhage 5-6 times compared to control.

  15. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  16. Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

    1984-09-01

    Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with (8-14C) adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake.

  17. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  18. Acetate in recent anoxic sediments: Direct and indirect measurements of concentration and turnover rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, David G.; McIntosh, Douglas J.

    1990-12-01

    While acetate is generally regarded as an important intermediate in the mineralization of organic matter in anoxic sediment systems, some quantitative studies in marine systems (including our own) have measured acetate oxidation rates in excess of sulphate reduction rates where sulphate is known to be the principal electron acceptor. We revisited Skan Bay, Alaska, where we had previously made such observations, for a reexamination of acetate turnover. Measurements of acetate concentrations, production rate, oxidation rate and sulphate reduction rate as well as bioenergetic considerations led to the conclusion that acetate oxidation rate in 15-18-cm deep sediment is 1·1-1·5 μM h -1. The possibility that previous measurements were high because of a non-citric-acid-cycle pathway of acetate oxidation (suggested by recent laboratory studies) was excluded. It appears that our previous turnover measurements were high mainly because of high acetate concentrations. Procedures used for the isolation of porewater for acetate determination may influence results to an extent not previously recognized.

  19. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  20. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  1. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  2. Gold-catalyzed efficient preparation of linear alpha-iodoenones from propargylic acetates.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meng; Zhang, Guozhu; Zhang, Liming

    2007-05-24

    Only 2 mol % of Au(PPh3)NTf2 is needed to convert readily accessible propargylic acetates into versatile linear alpha-iodoenones in good to excellent yields. This reaction is easy to execute and has broad substrate scope. Good to excellent Z-selectivities are observed in the cases of aliphatic propargylic acetates derived from aldehydes. PMID:17465561

  3. Education and production. Chicken manure methanogenesis. 1. Selective inhibition of acetate conversion to methane

    SciTech Connect

    Dosoretz, C.; Lamed, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thermophilic (55 C) methanogenesis of chicken manure was examined after prolonged acclimatization procedures. Unusual steady state parameters were obtained in quasi-continuous operations: volatile solids = 24 to 96 g/L, retention time = 5 to 20 days, in which methane was continuously formed (.5 to .7/L.L/day), H/sub 2/ was not present, but acetate (19 to 222 mM), other fatty acids, and ammonia nitrogen (800 to 2,830 mg/L) levels were very high. Tracer (2-(/sup 14/C) acetate) studies showed that acetate accumulation resulted from inhibition of acetate conversion to methane. Enumeration of H/sub 2/-oxidizing methanogenic populations as well as acetate-degrading methanogens indicated adequate populations in chicken manure relative to cow manure. Thus, measurement of acetate degradation activities indicated its inhibition, whereas bacterial enumeration studies indicated no lack of methanogenic bacterial populations. These findings are in disagreement with the uninhibited fast rate of aceticlastic methanogenesis in cow manure. Therefore, it may be concluded that the methanogenic populations are unchanged, but their capacity to decarboxylate acetate is somehow blocked, which would lead to concomittant accumulation of acetate in addition to the formation of CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2//CO/sub 2/-derived methane as the major fermentation end products. (Refs. 33).

  4. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures. PMID:24972948

  5. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  6. The potentiometric determination of stability constants for zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions to 295C

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, T.H. ); Drummond, S.E. )

    1991-09-01

    A potentiometric method was used to determine the formation quotients of zinc acetate complexes in aqueous solutions from 50 to 295C at ionic strengths of 0.03, 0.3, and 1.0 m. The potentiometric titrations were carried out in an externally heated, Teflon-lined concentration cell fitted with hydrogen electrodes. Formal sodium acetate concentrations of the experimental solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.1 m with acetic acid to sodium acetate ratios ranging from 30 to 300. Sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate (F{sub 3}CSO{sub 3}Na) was used as a supporting electrolyte. Stoichiometries and formation quotients for the complexes ZnCH{sub 3}COO{sup +}, Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}, and Zn(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}{sup {minus}} were derived from the titration data by regression analysis. Stability constants at infinite dilution (K{sub n}) and other relevant thermodynamic quantities were calculated for these three complexes. Calculations of zinc speciation in acetate-chloride solutions show that zinc acetate complexes should have an importance similar to zinc chloride complexes in high acetate waters where chloride to acetate molal ratios are less than about 10.

  7. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  8. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  9. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  10. Improved isolation of zein from corn gluten meal using acetic acid as solvent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop new uses for corn zein, an improved means of isolating zein is needed. We have evaluated the ability of acetic acid to remove zein from corn gluten meal, distillers dried grains and ground corn. Acetic acid removed zein more quickly, at lower temperatures and in higher yields when compa...

  11. Chemosensory tracking of scent trails by the planktonic shrimp Acetes sibogae australis.

    PubMed

    Hamner, P; Hamner, W M

    1977-03-01

    In the laboratory, planktonic shrimps (Acetes sibogae) precisely follow scent trails of food or paper soaked in meat extract, L-alanine, L-leucine, and L-methionine. In the ocean, Acetes may be able to follow scent trails as far as 20 meters to catch falling food. This demonstrates precise trail-following by pelagic animals. PMID:841313

  12. 21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section 524.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  13. 21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section 524.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  14. 21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section 524.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  15. 21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. 524.1881 Section 524.1881 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms....

  16. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  17. 2-[4-(Carb­oxy­meth­yl)phen­oxy]acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun-Dan; Wen, Yi-Hang

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, C10H10O5, was obtained by the reaction of 4-hy­droxy­phenyl­acetic acid with chloro­acetic acid. In the crystal, the mol­ecules form a three-dimensional network by way of inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding. PMID:21522674

  18. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  19. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  20. Insights into Acetate Toxicity in Zymomonas mobilis 8b using Different Substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shihui; Franden, M. A.; Brown, S. D.; Chou, Y. C.; Pienkos, P. T.; Zhang, Min

    2014-09-30

    The lignocellulosic biomass is a promising renewable feedstock for biofuel production. Acetate is one of the major inhibitors liberated from hemicelluloses during hydrolysis. Likewise, an understanding of the toxic effects of acetate on the fermentation microorganism and the efficient utilization of mixed sugars of glucose and xylose in the presence of hydrolysate inhibitors is crucial for economic biofuel production.