Science.gov

Sample records for agent programming language

  1. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  2. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  3. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  4. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  5. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  6. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  7. Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwestern Cooperative Educational Lab., Albuquerque, NM.

    The Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is currently field testing a set of instructional materials for teaching English language speaking and listening skills in preschool and first grade classes. The Oral Language Program (OLP) is directed at providing non-English speaking youngsters with a fluent, independent speaking ability in…

  8. Language Resource Centers Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Language Resource Centers (LRC) program provides grants to institutions of higher education to establish, strengthen, and operate resource centers that serve to improve the nation's capacity to teach and learn foreign languages. Eligible applicants are institutions of higher education. Duration of the grant is four years. Center activities…

  9. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  10. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen L.

    1983-01-01

    The nature of programing languages is discussed, focusing on machine/assembly language and high-level languages. The latter includes systems (such as "Basic") in which an entire set of low-level instructions (in assembly/machine language) are combined. Also discusses the nature of other languages such as "Lisp" and list-processing languages. (JN)

  11. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  12. The Impact of a Peer-Learning Agent Based on Pair Programming in a Programming Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Keun-Woo; Lee, EunKyoung; Lee, YoungJun

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the educational effects of a peer-learning agent based on pair programming in programming courses. A peer-learning agent system was developed to facilitate the learning of a programming language through the use of pair programming strategies. This system is based on the role of a peer-learning agent from pedagogical and…

  13. The programming language EFL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  14. Programming Languages for Microprocessor Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests criteria for choosing a programing language in courseware development. Authoring languages (PILOT, TUTOR, BASIC, and PASCAL) are compared; driver programs' compilers and interpreters are discussed; and the tasks of an authoring system are presented. (RAO)

  15. Programmed Instruction and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article first takes some characteristics of language and suggests that the nature of language makes it, intrinsically, unsuitable to treatment by a fully programmed course. Second, it takes programming and suggests what aspects of language might be assigned to programmed instruction. (Author/LG)

  16. Java Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  17. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  18. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  19. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented. PMID:22132053

  20. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  1. Programming languages for circuit design.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  2. Principles of programming languages: design

    SciTech Connect

    MacLennan, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    An excellent pedagogically oriented text on programming languages in which principles are emphasized more than details, methods more than results, and semantics more than syntax. Many chapter exercises, uniquely constructed and worded. Contents: Emphasis on efficiency: FORTRAN. Elegance and generality: ALGOL-60. Syntactic issues: ALGOL-60. Modularity and data abstraction: ADA. List processing LISP. Object-oriented programming. SMALLTALK. Logic programming: PROLOG. INDEX.

  3. Using Theorem Proving to Verify Properties of Agent Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alechina, N.; Dastani, M.; Khan, F.; Logan, B.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.

    We present a sound and complete logic for automatic verification of simpleAPL programs. simpleAPL is a simplified version of agent programming languages such as 3APL and 2APL designed for the implementation of cognitive agents with beliefs, goals and plans. Our logic is a variant of PDL, and allows the specification of safety and liveness properties of agent programs. We prove a correspondence between the operational semantics of simpleAPL and the models of the logic for two example program execution strategies. We show how to translate agent programs written in simpleAPL into expressions of the logic, and give an example in which we show how to verify correctness properties for a simple agent program using theorem-proving.

  4. Syntactic adaptability of programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, V.V.

    1994-11-01

    Development of programming languages has to contend with a variety of conflicting criteria. Moreover, as in any other creative field, it is not always possible to arrive at a clear formulation of these criteria. Nevertheless, one of the main criteria is problem orientation, be it numerical algorithms, database management, simulation of hydraulic systems, or other applications. Idealizing, we can say that the programming language is based on a model of the application domain. This model may vary in its scope, covering some aspects of the application domain and ignoring others. Thus, for one application domain we may have a whole spectrum of models and correspondingly a whole spectrum of languages. Some are special-purpose languages designed for a specific class of problems, others are more general. Both special-purpose and general-purpose languages have definite advantages and find their own clientele, who are willing to ignore their shortcomings.

  5. FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMMED MATERIALS--1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FIKS, ALFRED I.

    A LIST OF 26 FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IS PRESENTED. THE LIST INCLUDES SUCH INFORMATION AS PRICE, COMPLETION TIME, STUDENT LEVEL AND FORMAT OF EACH PROGRAM AND AN "ATOMY" INDEX. "ATOMY" IS DEFINED AS THE NUMBER OF FRAMES PER HOUR AND THE INDEX IS USED TO PROVIDE SOME INDICATION OF THE DEGREE OF FRACTIONATION OR ATOMIZATION OF THE COURSE CONTENT.…

  6. Programming languages: a grand tour

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Abrahams, P.W.; Edwards, D.J.; Hart, T.P.; Levin, M.

    1983-01-01

    The LISP language is designed primarily for symbolic data processing. It has been used for symbolic calculations in differential and integral calculus, electrical circuit theory, mathematical logic, game playing, and other fields of artificial intelligence. LISP is a formal mathematical language. It is therefore possible to give a concise yet complete description of it. Such is the purpose of the first section of the manual. Other sections describe ways of using LISP to advantage and explain extensions of the language which make it a convenient programming system.

  7. Aptitude and Language Learning of FBI Special Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Marijke; And Others

    This study investigated the relationship between aptitude, as measured by Defense Language Aptitude Battery (DLAB) scores, and oral proficiency as measured by the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI) scores of 72 Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Special Agents who completed basic foreign language training at the Defense Language Institute (DLI).…

  8. SAL: a language for developing an agent-based architecture for mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Willie Y.; Verzulli, Joe

    1993-05-01

    SAL (the SmartyCat Agent Language) is a language being developed for programming SmartyCat, our mobile robot. SmartyCat's underlying software architecture is agent-based. At the lowest level, the robot sensors and actuators are controlled by agents (viz., the sensing and acting agents, respectively). SAL provides the constructs for organizing these agents into many structures. In particular, SAL supports the subsumption architecture approach. At higher levels of abstraction, SAL can be used for writing programs based on Minsky's Society of Mind paradigm. Structurally, a SAL program is a graph, where the nodes are software modules called agents, and the arcs represent abstract communication links between agents. In SAL, an agent is a CLOS object with input and output ports. Input ports are used for presenting data from the outside world (i.e., other agents) to the agent. Data are presented to the outside world by the agent through its output ports. The main body of the SAL code for the agent specifies the computation or the action performed by the agent. This paper describes how SAL is being used for implementing the agent-based SmartyCat software architecture on a Cybermotion K2A platform.

  9. Multi-Language Programs. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio-Papadaki, Evienia; Matsalia, Joan; Bowie, Paula; Wardle, Francis; Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles on multi-language programs in early childhood education: "Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Language Acquisition Theories" (Evienia Papadaki-D'Onofrio); "Training and Supporting Caregivers Who Speak a Language Different from Those in Their Community" (Joan Matsalia and Paula Bowie); "Language Immersion Programs for Young…

  10. A survey of functional programming language principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  11. Which Programming Language is Right for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Wayne

    1984-01-01

    Describes the strengths and weaknesses of four programing languages (Logo, PILOT, BASIC, Pascal) in terms of the tasks to be performed (task environment), capabilities of the language (programing environment), and skills user wants to develop (user environment). (JN)

  12. Brahms An Agent-Oriented Language for Work Practice Simulation and Multi-Agent Systems Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.; van Hoof, Ron J. J.

    Brahms is a multi-agent modeling language for simulating human work practice that emerges from work processes in organizations. The same Brahms language can be used to implement and execute distributed multi-agent systems, based on models of work practice that were first simulated. Brahms demonstrates how a multi-agent belief-desire-intention language, symbolic cognitive modeling, traditional business process modeling, activity-and situated cognition theories are brought together in a coherent approach for analysis and design of organizations and human-centered systems.

  13. Learning by Communicating in Natural Language with Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graesser, Arthur; Li, Haiying; Forsyth, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Learning is facilitated by conversational interactions both with human tutors and with computer agents that simulate human tutoring and ideal pedagogical strategies. In this article, we describe some intelligent tutoring systems (e.g., AutoTutor) in which agents interact with students in natural language while being sensitive to their cognitive…

  14. The English Language in the School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert F., Ed.

    The 22 papers in this publication, drawn from the 1963 and 1964 NCTE Spring Institutes on Language, Linguistics, and School Programs, concentrate on the relevance of recent scholarship for English language programs in elementary and secondary schools. Language theory is the focus of articles by Harold B. Allen, Sumner Ives, Albert H. Marckwardt,…

  15. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  16. HOW A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM WORKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN ALLEN, ROACH

    A LANGUAGE-EXPERIENCE PROGRAM INCLUDING SPELLING, LISTENING, READING, WRITING, AND SPEAKING IS DISCUSSED. THE TEACHER HELPS EACH CHILD BECOME INCREASINGLY SENSITIVE TO HIS ENVIRONMENT AND SUCCEED THROUGH A VARIETY OF LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES. TWENTY LANGUAGE EXPERIENCES ARE GROUPED INTO THREE CATEGORIES TO AID THE TEACHER IN SELECTING APPROPRIATE…

  17. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  18. Computer Languages: A Practical Guide to the Chief Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Peter C.

    All the most commonly-used high-level computer languages are discussed in this book. An introductory discussion provides an overview of the basic components of a digital computer, the general planning of a computer programing problem, and the various types of computer languages. Each chapter is self-contained, emphasizes those features of a…

  19. Toward Agent Programs with Circuit Semantics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, Nils J.

    1992-01-01

    New ideas are presented for computing and organizing actions for autonomous agents in dynamic environments-environments in which the agent's current situation cannot always be accurately discerned and in which the effects of actions cannot always be reliably predicted. The notion of 'circuit semantics' for programs based on 'teleo-reactive trees' is introduced. Program execution builds a combinational circuit which receives sensory inputs and controls actions. These formalisms embody a high degree of inherent conditionality and thus yield programs that are suitably reactive to their environments. At the same time, the actions computed by the programs are guided by the overall goals of the agent. The paper also speculates about how programs using these ideas could be automatically generated by artificial intelligence planning systems and adapted by learning methods.

  20. Research Issues and Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilenman, L. Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of papers is divided into two parts. After "Introduction" (L. Kathy Heilenman), Part 1, "Research and Language Program Directors: The Relationship," includes "Research Domains and Language Program Direction" (Bill VanPatten); "Language Program Direction and the Modernist Agenda" (Celeste Kinginger); "The Research-Pedagogy Interface…

  1. Flight program language requirements. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Government-sponsored study and development efforts were directed toward design and implementation of high level programming languages suitable for future aerospace applications. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of language requirements was synthesized from these activities.

  2. Computer Programming Languages for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Joseph T.

    1979-01-01

    This paper advocates the use of standard high level programming languages for medical computing. It recommends that U.S. Government agencies having health care missions implement coordinated policies that encourage the use of existing standard languages and the development of new ones, thereby enabling them and the medical computing community at large to share state-of-the-art application programs. Examples are based on a model that characterizes language and language translator influence upon the specification, development, test, evaluation, and transfer of application programs.

  3. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    PubMed

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code.

  4. US Directory of Foreign Language Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The preparation of a directory of foreign language education programs was a response to the lack of an information source for location or curricular content of programs in foreign language pedagogy, and followed the lead of other associations in the United States and abroad in compiling such information. Despite having developed guidelines for…

  5. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  6. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  7. School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "School Administrator's Guide to Implementing Language Programming" serves as a starting point to plan for and implement language programming. It provides a general overview; suggests practical strategies for working with students, parents, teachers and the surrounding community; and includes details on areas to address in selecting and…

  8. Awakening the Languages. Challenges of Enduring Language Programs: Field Reports from 15 Programs from Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Mary S.; Naranjo, Tessie; Nicholas, Sheilah; Slaughter, Inee; Yamamoto, Akira; Zepeda, Ofelia

    The Indigenous Language Institute (ILI) collaborates with indigenous language communities to combat language decline. ILI facilitates community-based language programs, increases public awareness of language endangerment, and disseminates information on language preservation and successful language revitalization programs. In response to numerous…

  9. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  10. Development of Methodology for Programming Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erol, Kutluhan; Levy, Renato; Lang, Lun

    2004-01-01

    A brief report discusses the rationale for, and the development of, a methodology for generating computer code for autonomous-agent-based systems. The methodology is characterized as enabling an increase in the reusability of the generated code among and within such systems, thereby making it possible to reduce the time and cost of development of the systems. The methodology is also characterized as enabling reduction of the incidence of those software errors that are attributable to the human failure to anticipate distributed behaviors caused by the software. A major conceptual problem said to be addressed in the development of the methodology was that of how to efficiently describe the interfaces between several layers of agent composition by use of a language that is both familiar to engineers and descriptive enough to describe such interfaces unambivalently

  11. Reading and Language. Workplace Education Program Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkhart, Jennifer; Sullivan, Mark

    The BUILD Program (Businesses United to Increase Literacy Development) was conducted from June 1991 through December 1992 as a cooperative workplace literacy program joining Arapahoe Community College and four companies in Littleton, Colorado. This document consists of two modules for the reading and language instruction classes of the program.…

  12. The Dynamics of Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P., Ed.

    This collection papers begins with "Introduction: The Dynamics of Successful Leadership in Foreign Language Programs," then features the following: "The Undergraduate Program: Autonomy and Empowerment" (Wilga M. Rivers); "TA Supervision: Are We Preparing a Future Professoriate?" (Cathy Pons); "Applied Scholarship in Foreign Languages: A Program of…

  13. Applied Computer Technology in Cree and Naskapi Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancewicz, Bill; MacKenzie, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the parameters for the application of computer technology in Cree and Naskapi language programs, and shows that the deliberate and structured introduction of these technologies to indigenous language programs can facilitate indigenous language stabilization and development. (Author/VWL)

  14. Intelligent agents as a basis for natural language interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    Typical natural-language interfaces respond passively to the users's commands and queries. They cannot volunteer information, correction user misconceptions, or reject unethical requests. In order to do these things, a system must be an intelligent agent. UC (UNIX Consultant), a natural language system that helps the user solve problems in using the UNIX operating system, is such an intelligent agent. The agent component of UC in UCEgo. UCEgo provides UC with its own goals and plans. By adopting different goals in different situations, UCEgo creates and executes different plans, enabling it to interact appropriately with the user. UCEgo adopts goals from its themes, adopts subgoals during planning, and adopts metagoals for dealing with goal interactions. It also adopts goals when it notices that the user either lacks necessary knowledge, or has incorrect beliefs. In these cases, UCEgo plans to volunteer information or correct the user's misconception as appropriate. The user's knowledge and beliefs are modeled by the KNOME (KNOwledge Model of Expertise) component of UC. KNOME is a double-stereotype system which categorizes users by expertise and categorizes UNIX facts by difficulty.

  15. The Language Improvement Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Rena; Vallone, Kerren

    Two English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) curricula for hotel employees are outlined. The first is limited-English-proficient (LEP) housekeeping staff. It contains notes on initial background and needs assessment, assessment results, course logistics and project design, course content, evaluation, and results. The 60-hour beginning-level curriculum…

  16. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  17. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  18. The BLAZE language: A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, Blaze, is described. Blaze contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus Blaze should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with onceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of Blaze is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in Blaze code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of Blaze are described and shows how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  19. The BLAZE language - A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Van Rosendale, John

    1987-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, BLAZE, is described. BLAZE contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus BLAZE should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with conceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of BLAZE is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in BLAZE code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of BLAZE are described and it is shown how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  20. From General Game Descriptions to a Market Specification Language for General Trading Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielscher, Michael; Zhang, Dongmo

    The idea behind General Game Playing is to build systems that, instead of being programmed for one specific task, are intelligent and flexible enough to negotiate an unknown environment solely on the basis of the rules which govern it. In this paper, we argue that this principle has the great potential to bring to a new level artificially intelligent systems in other application areas as well. Our specific interest lies in General Trading Agents, which are able to understand the rules of unknown markets and then to actively participate in them without human intervention. To this end, we extend the general Game Description Language into a language that allows to formally describe arbitrary markets in such a way that these specifications can be automatically processed by a computer. We present both syntax and a transition-based semantics for this Market Specification Language and illustrate its expressive power by presenting axiomatizations of several well-known auction types.

  1. A conceptual data model and modelling language for fields and agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bakker, Merijn; de Jong, Kor; Schmitz, Oliver; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Modelling is essential in order to understand environmental systems. Environmental systems are heterogeneous because they consist of fields and agents. Fields have a value defined everywhere at all times, for example surface elevation and temperature. Agents are bounded in space and time and have a value only within their bounds, for example biomass of a tree crown or the speed of a car. Many phenomena have properties of both fields and agents. Although many systems contain both fields and agents and integration of these concepts would be required for modelling, existing modelling frameworks concentrate on either agent-based or field-based modelling and are often low-level programming frameworks. A concept is lacking that integrates fields and agents in a way that is easy to use for modelers who are not software engineers. To address this issue, we develop a conceptual data model that represents fields and agents uniformly. We then show how the data model can be used in a high-level modelling language. The data model represents fields and agents in space-time. Also relations and networks can be represented using the same concepts. Using the conceptual data model we can represent static and mobile agents that may have spatial and temporal variation within their extent. The concepts we use are phenomenon, property set, item, property, domain and value. The phenomenon is the thing that is modelled, which can be any real world thing, for example trees. A phenomenon usually consists of several items, e.g. single trees. The domain is the spatiotemporal location and/or extent for which the items in the phenomenon are defined. Multiple different domains can coexist for a given phenomenon. For example a domain describing the extent of the trees and a domain describing the stem locations. The same goes for the property, which is an attribute of the thing that is being modeled. A property has a value, which is possibly discretized, for example the biomass over the tree crown

  2. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K.

    1975-01-01

    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  3. Natural language understanding and logic programming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, V.; Saint-Dizier, P.

    1985-01-01

    Logic programming has been used in many natural language understanding applications, mainly in the areas of analysis, metagrammatical formalisms, logical treatment of linguistic problems, and meaning representations for naturla language. The particular methods and formal systems developed in this context usually exhibit attractive features of logic while remaining in the more pragmatic area of programming: conciseness, modularity, a declarative meaning that is independent from machine behaviour, and logical inference. All of these features, common to logic programming and to logic metagrammars, have been made possible through a chaining of various fundamental ideas. Outstanding among these are the resolution principle. Prolog itself; and interpretation of logic as a programming language. The machines of a relatively near future are likely to incorporate many related capabilities while increasing their speed manyfold. The Japanese Fifth Generation Computer project has triggered efforts towards future generations of computer systems based on these concepts. The potential in understanding natural language through logic programming is growing rapidly, and it might be wise to integrate the various theoretical and practical aspects involved, rather than yielding to the temptation of using all the extra power for programming ad-hoc systems. This conference is an effort toward such an integration.

  4. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  5. Assessing Foreign Language Proficiency of Undergraduates. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teschner, Richard V., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes: "Foreign Language Testing Today: Issues in Language Program Direction" (Frank Nuessel); "Assessing the Problems of Assessment" (M. Peter Hagiwara); "Testing in Foreign Language Programs and Testing Programs in Foreign Language Departments: Reflections and Recommendations" (Elizabeth B. Bernhardt and Craig…

  6. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  7. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach. PMID:25893212

  8. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    PubMed

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  9. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  10. Successful technical trading agents using genetic programming.

    SciTech Connect

    Othling, Andrew S.; Kelly, John A.; Pryor, Richard J.; Farnsworth, Grant V.

    2004-10-01

    Genetic programming (GP) has proved to be a highly versatile and useful tool for identifying relationships in data for which a more precise theoretical construct is unavailable. In this project, we use a GP search to develop trading strategies for agent based economic models. These strategies use stock prices and technical indicators, such as the moving average convergence/divergence and various exponentially weighted moving averages, to generate buy and sell signals. We analyze the effect of complexity constraints on the strategies as well as the relative performance of various indicators. We also present innovations in the classical genetic programming algorithm that appear to improve convergence for this problem. Technical strategies developed by our GP algorithm can be used to control the behavior of agents in economic simulation packages, such as ASPEN-D, adding variety to the current market fundamentals approach. The exploitation of arbitrage opportunities by technical analysts may help increase the efficiency of the simulated stock market, as it does in the real world. By improving the behavior of simulated stock markets, we can better estimate the effects of shocks to the economy due to terrorism or natural disasters.

  11. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.

    PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…

  12. Programming as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Standard methods of teaching an introductory course in computer science, designed to introduce computer programming as a tool for mathematicians and engineers at the university level, are unnecessarily complicated and difficult. They lack a common thread that unifies each unit of material and frequently make use of mathematical notation, technical…

  13. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  14. English Language Teachers as Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannacito, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    An administrator, broadly conceived, is a person who has authority to lead and manage people, practices, materials, and policies in an educational unit. Dan Tannacito shows teachers the pathway to becoming English language program administrators (ELPAs) and the myriad benefits they can derive. Most may be surprised to see that they are already on…

  15. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  16. A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

    APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

  17. The WRITEACOURSE Language: Programming Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosel, Mary; And Others

    WRITEACOURSE is a programing language for man-computer interactions. It was originally designed for writing computer assisted instruction courses, but it can also be used to control a remote terminal in a variety of applications which involve display and editing of characters. It is not suited for applications which use the computer as an…

  18. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  19. The Dual Language Program Planner: A Guide for Designing and Implementing Dual Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Elizabeth R.; Olague, Natalie; Rogers, David

    This guide offers a framework to facilitate the planning process for dual language programs, assuming at least a basic working knowledge of the central characteristics and essential features of dual language models. It provides an overview of the various models that serve linguistically diverse student populations, defining the term dual language…

  20. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  1. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  2. Using the Canadian Language Benchmarks (CLB) to Benchmark College Programs/Courses and Language Proficiency Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epp, Lucy; Stawychny, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a process developed by the Language Training Centre at Red River College (RRC) to use the Canadian language benchmarks in analyzing the language levels used in programs and courses at RRC to identify appropriate entry-level language proficiency and the levels that second language students need in order to meet college or university…

  3. Flexible language constructs for large parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Schnabel, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the research described is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (MIMD) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression of the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. An overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner is given. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. An overview of the language and discussion of some of the critical implementation details is given.

  4. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  5. A programming language for composable DNA circuits

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing. PMID:19535415

  6. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-01

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  7. Modular Logic Programming for Web Data, Inheritance and Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, Isambo

    The Semantic Web provides a framework and a set of technologies enabling an effective machine processable information. However, most of the problems that are addressed in the Semantic Web were tackled by the artificial intelligence community, in the past. Within this period, Logic Programming emerged as a complete framework ranging from a sound formal theory, based on Horn clauses, to a declarative description language and an operational behavior that can be executed. Logic programming and its extensions have been already used in various approaches in the Semantic Web or the traditional Web context. In this work, we investigate the use of Modular Logic Programming, i.e. Logic Programming extended with modules, to address issues of the Semantic Web ranging from the ontology layer to reasoning and agents. These techniques provide a uniform framework ranging from the data layer to the higher layers of logic, avoiding the problem of incompatibilities of technologies related with different Semantic Web layers. What is more is that it can operate directly on top of existent World Wide Web sources.

  8. The BASIC Instructional Program: Conversion into MAINSAIL Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report summarizes the rewriting of the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP) (a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language) from SAIL (a programming language available only on PDP-10 computers) into MAINSAIL (a language designed for portability on a broad class of computers). Four sections contain (1) a…

  9. Software and the future of programming languages.

    PubMed

    Aho, Alfred V

    2004-02-27

    Although software is the key enabler of the global information infrastructure, the amount and extent of software in use in the world today are not widely understood, nor are the programming languages and paradigms that have been used to create the software. The vast size of the embedded base of existing software and the increasing costs of software maintenance, poor security, and limited functionality are posing significant challenges for the software R&D community.

  10. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  11. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

  12. A Cooperative Bilingual Language Program for Deaf Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuroth-Gimbrone, Cindy; Logiodice, Colleen M.

    1992-01-01

    Briefly describes a program that sought to improve the written English skills of deaf adolescents' whose first language was American Sign Language, focusing on first-language skills, metalinguistic skills, translating skills, lexical matching across languages, translation of syntactical structures, and recognition of the importance of the…

  13. Foreign Language K-12. Program Evaluation 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Des Moines (Iowa) Public Schools foreign language program for K-12 is described and evaluated. The evaluation report focuses on six areas, including: (1) school district mission and philosophy of foreign language instruction; (2) context (state policies and standards, foreign language program overview and enrollment, fiber-optic communication…

  14. Award-Winning Foreign Language Programs: Prescriptions for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, William D.; Hammond, Sandra B.

    The study reviews 50 foreign language programs in the United States that are said to be both inspirational and useful for providing concrete information about the creation and preservation of successful language programs. The programs cited are exemplary and can serve as models for educators and administrators to study and visit. Program selection…

  15. Effective Reading Programs for English Language Learners and Other Language-Minority Students: Educator's Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Data-Driven Reform in Education (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    What reading programs have been proven to help English language learners succeed in reading? To find out, this review summarizes evidence on achievement effects of reading programs for English language learners and other language minority students in the elementary grades. The research summarized in this article shows how much remains to be done…

  16. Investigating Principals' Knowledge and Perceptions of Second Language Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padron, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined principals' knowledge and perceptions of second language programs for English language learners (ELLs) operating in their schools. An open-ended survey and in-depth interviews were used to examine elementary school principals' knowledge of the second language programs implemented at their schools. The survey asked principals…

  17. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  18. A Programming Language Environment for the Unassisted Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. G.; Ince, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the computing environment and command language for a new programing language called OUSBASIC which is designed to enable naive users to interact usefully, with little assistance, with a computer system. (Author/CHC)

  19. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  20. Operating Systems Support for Advanced Programming Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiatowicz, John

    2012-10-29

    As machines grow in scale and complexity, techniques to make the most effective use of network, memory, and processor resources will also become increasingly important. Programming models that rely on one-sided communication or global address space support have demonstrated advantages for productivity and performance, but they are most effective when used with proper OS support. We propose to develop OS and runtime support for programming models like UPC, GA, Charm++, and HPCS languages, which rely on one-sided communication. Rather than a full OS model, we envision applications bundled with only the necessary OS functions linked in to the application in user space -- relying on the hypervisor for protaction, resource sharing, and mangagement of Quality of Service guarantees. Our services will include support for remote reads and writes to memory, along with remote active message handlers, which are essential for support of fast noncontiguous memory operations, atomic operations, and event-driven applications.

  1. Going Global: Can Dual-Language Programs Save Bilingual Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manka M.; Park, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, we extend the cautionary tales regarding dual-language programs raised by several scholars by considering the interface of such programs with global education. We consider the possible pitfalls of uncritically framing dual-language programs within the global education movement in the United States, especially in light of how…

  2. Elementary World Language Programs: Current Existence and Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    School districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania have recognized the need for elementary world language programs. The intention of this research was to determine if school districts across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania are utilizing elementary world language programs and discover the type of program models being applied. Additionally,…

  3. Language Programs at Villababel High: Rethinking Ideologies of Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Laura; Relano Pastor, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies underlying two language programs implemented in one secondary school in Madrid (Spain). The Spanish for newcomers immersion program ("Aula de Enlace") is aimed at immigrant origin students who do not know or have a poor command of Spanish; and the Spanish-English bilingual program targets students from…

  4. Programming in Polygon R&D: Explorations with a Spatial Language II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the language associated with a polygon microworld called Polygon R&D, which has the mathematical crispness of Logo and has the discreteness and simplicity of a Turing machine. In this microworld, polygons serve two purposes: as agents (similar to the turtles in Logo), and as data (landmarks in the plane). Programming the…

  5. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  6. The Military Language Tutor (MILT) Program: An Advanced Authoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Sabol, Mark A.; Wisher, Robert A.; Seidel, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the Military Language Tutor (MILT), a language-tutor authoring system, examining the development of a proof of principal version of MILT's two-dimensional Arabic microworld, which uses speech input to control an animated agent in solving an authored problem and describing an evaluation of the speech-driven microworld at Fort Campbell,…

  7. Oral Language Disorders Program. Language Is a Group Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Joel; And Others

    The paper describes the Oral Language Disorders Classroom (OLDC), an approach providing intensive speech and language therapy and academic support to students with severe communication disorders in a primary classroom setting. The OLDC emphasizes preparation for quick return to the regular classroom. General school curriculum is modified and…

  8. A Generative CAI Monitor For Teaching Machine-Language Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blount, Sumner E.

    An effective generative computer-assisted instructional system designed to teach basic machine language computer programing is now available. The system--known as Machine Language Teacher (MALT)--is implemented on an IBM 360 with numerous 2741 remote terminals giving student access. It teaches the machine language of the Simulated Educational…

  9. Cognitive and Affective Benefits of an Animated Pedagogical Agent for Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sunhee; Clark, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the use of an animated pedagogical agent (agent) with an electronic arrow and voice narration (arrow and voice) in a multimedia learning environment where 74 college level English as a Second Language (ESL) students learned English relative clauses. No significant differences in learning or performance were found between the…

  10. Language and Man: An Exploratory Foreign-Language Program for Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Marilyn; And Others

    These materials constitute an exploratory program for grade 6 Spanish and French. Introductory units contain sample lessons, suggested activities, and test items. These units are entitled: (1) Language in Indiana; (2) How Languages Operate; (3) Detecting Meaning: Aztec Dialect; (4) How Words Came to Be and Mean What They Do; (5) Language Is Sound;…

  11. Language and Man: An Exploratory Foreign-Language Program for Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Marilyn; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents a program introducing sixth-grade children to the study of language, of languages other than English, and specifically of French. An initial section includes a variety of activities designed to interest students in the study of language, its peculiarties, complexities, and importance in life. Prior to the first…

  12. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  13. Native Language Arts-English as a Second Language Program for Optional Assignment Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Rhoda

    The Native Language Arts English as a Second Language Program for Optional Assignment Pupils in New York City was designed for economically disadvantaged students whose native language was not English and whose ability to read and write in English and, in some cases their own tongue was not adequate to permit them any degree of success in school.…

  14. Agents Contribute to Statewide Program Designs in Yardwaste Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, James H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 125 Virginia extension agents received 90 responses demonstrating their knowledge of yard waste management and composting. Results were used to develop public education programs and pilot projects about composting. (SK)

  15. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  16. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  17. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  18. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  19. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  20. Intensive Language and Culture Orientation Program for Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setliff, Rebecca J.; Taft, Lori A.

    The Language and Culture Institute of the University of Pittsburgh has developed a 13-week program of pre-assignment training for engineers given corporate assignments in Japan. The Institute offers the corporations three components in this intensive seminar: program administration, language training, and culture training. The program…

  1. Foreign Language Teaching Programs for Microcomputers: A Volume of Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culley, Gerald R., Ed.; Mulford, George W., Ed.

    Teachers and supervisors of foreign language programs from 29 high schools in six states provide reviews of foreign language microcomputer courseware. Evaluations of the 25 programs for French, German, Italian, Russian and Spanish are based on: (1) quality of content; (2) relevance to subject area; (3) suitability to computer medium; (4)…

  2. Guide to Conducting a Language Immersion/Homestay Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Susan; Killelea, Frances

    This handbook, designed to assist foreign language teachers in planning and executing a language immersion/homestay program for their students, is based on a successful program in Switzerland undertaken by Northport (New York) High School French teachers in 1980. The material is presented in three parts: (1) preparation of the exchange, including…

  3. Writing Scale Development and Use within a Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Developing assessments within a program can create more useful measures of our students' language. This includes rating scales used in performance assessments such as writing or speaking tests. This article describes the process of development, use, and revision of a writing placement scale by teachers in an intensive English language program. To…

  4. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  5. Language Interference and Language Learning Techniques Transfer in L2 and L3 Immersion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronin, Larissa; Toubkin, Lynne

    2002-01-01

    Examines the relationships between the first (L1), second (L2), and third (L3) language in immersion programs for Russian-speaking students in Israel. Two parallel and similar immersion programs, which were carried out for the same population, but with different target languages (L2 Hebrew and L3 English), are described. Presents tentative…

  6. Grounding language in action and perception: From cognitive agents to humanoid robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    In this review we concentrate on a grounded approach to the modeling of cognition through the methodologies of cognitive agents and developmental robotics. This work will focus on the modeling of the evolutionary and developmental acquisition of linguistic capabilities based on the principles of symbol grounding. We review cognitive agent and developmental robotics models of the grounding of language to demonstrate their consistency with the empirical and theoretical evidence on language grounding and embodiment, and to reveal the benefits of such an approach in the design of linguistic capabilities in cognitive robotic agents. In particular, three different models will be discussed, where the complexity of the agent's sensorimotor and cognitive system gradually increases: from a multi-agent simulation of language evolution, to a simulated robotic agent model for symbol grounding transfer, to a model of language comprehension in the humanoid robot iCub. The review also discusses the benefits of the use of humanoid robotic platform, and specifically of the open source iCub platform, for the study of embodied cognition.

  7. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  8. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  9. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  10. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  11. Toward a semantics for an agent communications language based on speech-acts

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.A.; Cohen, P.R.

    1996-12-31

    Systems based on distributed agent architectures require an agent communications language having a clearly defined semantics. This paper demonstrates that a semantics for an agent communications language can be founded on the premise that agents are building, maintaining, and disbanding teams through their performance of communicative acts. This view requires that definitions of basic communicative acts, such as requesting, be recast in terms of the formation of a joint intention - a mental state that has been suggested underlies team behavior. To illustrate these points, a semantics is developed for a number of communication actions that can form and dissolve teams. It is then demonstrated how much of the structure of popular finite-state dialogue models, such as Winograd and Flores` basic conversation for action, follows as a consequence of the logical relationships that are created by the redefined communicative actions.

  12. Assessment and Evaluation in Whole Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill, Ed.

    Intended for practioners, this book discusses many of the critical questions being asked about the role of whole language in schools. The book not only examines the growing research base that supports whole language, but also offers practical and realistic suggestions for tackling the many thorny issues involved in the assessment and evaluation of…

  13. Interaction and Communication of Agents in Networks and Language Complexity Estimates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smid, Jan; Obitko, Marek; Fisher, David; Truszkowski, Walt

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition and sharing are arguably the most critical activities of communicating agents. We report about our on-going project featuring knowledge acquisition and sharing among communicating agents embedded in a network. The applications we target range from hardware robots to virtual entities such as internet agents. Agent experiments can be simulated using a convenient simulation language. We analyzed the complexity of communicating agent simulations using Java and Easel. Scenarios we have studied are listed below. The communication among agents can range from declarative queries to sub-natural language queries. 1) A set of agents monitoring an object are asked to build activity profiles based on exchanging elementary observations; 2) A set of car drivers form a line, where every car is following its predecessor. An unsafe distance cm create a strong wave in the line. Individual agents are asked to incorporate and apply directions how to avoid the wave. 3) A set of micro-vehicles form a grid and are asked to propagate information and concepts to a central server.

  14. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  15. A Formal Language Selection Process for Introductory Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kevin R.; Chao, Joseph T.; Ottaway, Thomas A.; Chang, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The selection of a programming language for introductory courses has long been an informal process involving faculty evaluation, discussion, and consensus. As the number of faculty, students, and language options grows, this process becomes increasingly unwieldy. As it stands, the process currently lacks structure and replicability. Establishing a…

  16. A Perspective of Oral Language Development in Federal Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caragonne, Kay Jagoda

    Two basic reasons for including Oral Language Development in the instructional program are (1) to prepare students for reading instruction, and (2) to teach students how to communicate effectively in real-life situations. A child is expected to have had five or six years oral practice in a language before learning to read. When children have…

  17. A Statewide Professional Development Program for California Foreign Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Albert S.; Padilla, Amado M.; Sung, Hyekyung; Silva, Duarte M.

    2004-01-01

    The California Foreign Language Project (CFLP), established in 1988, is a voluntary professional development program designed to improve and expand elementary, secondary, and postsecondary foreign language teaching in California. CFLP consists of nine regional sites that work in conjunction with a central office to increase professional…

  18. A Bi-Modality Approach to Language Program Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongsothorn, Achara

    1988-01-01

    A summer intensive English language course is described that is offered by the Chulalongkorn University Language Institute (CULI) in Thailand to university instructors and government officials. A writing program, which constitutes one-fourth of the entire course, consists of 10 units incorporating main functions and topics of English use found in…

  19. Educational Priorities for Language Arts Programs: A Comparative Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swander, Alice Jane

    To determine the priorities that linguists and educators stress as essential to the development of positive language arts programs, numerous works by selected linguists and educators were read. Letters were also sent to major publishing companies requesting complimentary copies of current elementary language arts textbook series for evaluation.…

  20. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  1. Languages for Specific Purposes Curriculum in the Context of Chinese-Language Flagship Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spring, Madeline K.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an overview of how the Language Flagship Program integrates languages for specific purposes (LSP) components into its broader mission of having students graduate with Superior Level linguistic proficiency and cultural competence, thus being well equipped to function as global professionals in the major of their choice. Turning…

  2. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    LOGO is a programming language developed at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., specifically for use in teaching. It provides the student with a set of numerical and symbolic primitives as elements for gradually building extended, complex program structures. The building of these structures is facilitated by a procedure-oriented programming heuristic…

  3. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    The All Day Kindergarten Program was instituted in the Columbus Public Schools in January, 1972, for the purpose of providing a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. The 1982-83 program goal was that the average language/reading growth of pupils in program attendance for at least 80 percent of the instructional period…

  4. Creating a Speech-Language Pathology Assistant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrecht, Georgia, Ed.; Stimley, Mark, Ed.

    This document consists of 11 short articles about the development of the Associate of Science degree program for speech-language pathology assistants (SLPAs) at Indiana State University. The three sections address the program's background, course planning, and program implementation, respectively. Individual articles are: (1) "Top 10 List of…

  5. Integrating programming features with an algebraic modeling language for optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Fourer, R.; Gay, D.

    1994-12-31

    In describing optimization models to a computer, programming is best avoided. In using models as part of a larger scheme, however, programs must be written to specify how information is passed between models. We describe a programming environment for this purpose that has been integrated with the AMPL modeling language.

  6. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  7. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  8. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  9. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  10. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  11. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students; Overview... Secretary and Director, Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and...

  12. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  13. Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

  14. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  15. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  16. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  17. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  18. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  19. Blackfeet Language Coloring Book. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A part of the Blackfeet Indian Heritage Project, this coloring book features 21 pages of pictures of animal and plant life, foods, and numbers. Arranged in alphabetical order, the pictures are accompanied with their names printed in both the English and Blackfeet languages. The reverse side of each page is left blank to give the student room to…

  20. Othering in an English Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palfreyman, David

    2005-01-01

    In this article, I discuss how the administrators and local teachers in a Turkish university English language centre perceive others in the institution. I present interview data to illustrate processes of "Othering", whereby a group constructs a shared, Us-Them representation of another group. The data show that administrators and local teachers…

  1. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  2. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    This document provides the final evaluation report of the language development component of the Columbus, Ohio, Public Schools' Chapter 1 All-Day Kindergarten Program for 1989-1990. The overall goal of the program was to prepare underachieving kindergarten children for first grade. A total of 17 teachers in 17 elementary schools participated in…

  3. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    An evaluation was made of the language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP). The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. The overall goal of the program was to prepare pupils for first grade by providing…

  4. Library Literacy Programs for English Language Learners. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurrer, Eileen; Terrill, Lynda

    This digest summarizes the history of public libraries and library literacy programs; describes current delivery models; and discusses initiatives in library literacy, profiling one successful public library program that serves adult English language learners and their families. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  5. American Sign Language: An Innovative Middle School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Karen

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) began at Seminole Middle School in August 2007 as part of the program, D.E.C.A.L (Division of Communication and Law), the brainchild of principal, Dr. Kris Black. Her goal was to offer a program that would entice advanced middle school students from around Broward County to Seminole and the hook she used to entice them…

  6. Maryland Adult English as a Second Language Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore. Adult Continuing Education Section.

    This document is an official statement of the State of Maryland, outlining in detail the state's adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program standards. The standards are not specific instructional standards, but rather overall guidelines for identifying and improving major components of quality adult ESL programs. The document has three…

  7. Commercial Video Programs: A Component to Enhance Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, H. A.

    After the passage of a resolution by the South Dakota Board of Regents to place greater emphasis on the study of foreign language, Northern State College introduced commercial video programs in Spanish for classroom use. After installing a parabolic antenna and the other necessary equipment, the department selected and edited a series of programs,…

  8. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  9. An English Language Program for Wives of International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostler, Shirley E.

    The curriculum, administration, staffing, facilities, and funding of a college English-as-a-Second-Language program for the wives of foreign students are described. The program is intended to reduce feelings of isolation and facilitate the adjustment of women whose student husbands are busy with the academic and social routines of the university.…

  10. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  11. Language Development Component, Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Ed; And Others

    This report evaluates the 1982-83 Compensatory Language Experience and Reading Program (CLEAR), which served 5392 Ohio students, grades K-8, whose reading skills achievement was at or below the 36th percentile. The program featured individual or small group instruction. Instructional techniques and materials based on skill-centered objectives were…

  12. The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration FALCON Program in Chinese Language at Cornell University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John

    The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration (FALCON) program was designed for students who need an intensive program in Chinese to make them proficient enough for graduate study. Using L1, FALCON teaches students to express adult concepts in L2. Since good writing requires a great degree of proficiency, it is neglected initially for the sake of a…

  13. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  14. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing. PMID:20198154

  15. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  16. The Influences of Indigenous Heritage Language Education on Students and Families in a Hawaiian Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luning, Rebecca J. I.; Yamauchi, Lois A.

    2010-01-01

    Papahana Kaiapuni is a K-12 public school program in which the Hawaiian language is the medium of instruction. In 1987, parents and language activists started the program in response to the dwindling number of speakers that resulted from a nearly century-long ban on the indigenous language. This study examined how participation in this indigenous…

  17. Do They Make a Difference? The Impact of English Language Programs on Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…

  18. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  19. 76 FR 62312 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCIES: Animal and... the Federal Select Agent Program established under the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism.... Cassie Armiger, Program Analyst, APHIS Select Agent Program, APHIS, 4700 River Road, Unit 2,...

  20. A Whole Language Program for Refugee Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Kathleen; And Others

    Preparing Refugees for Elementary Programs (PREP) is a federal program to prepare young refugee children for further learning in the United States. Findings from current research on how children learn to speak, read, and write were used to design the curriculum. All children receive 18 weeks of full-time instruction, during which their parents…

  1. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  2. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  3. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  4. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  5. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  6. Modern Foreign Languages: A Four-Year Program [and] a Six-Year Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladu, Tora; And Others

    Four- and six-year language programs emphasizing the development of listening comprehension, speaking, reading, writing, and cultural understanding are outlined in this guide. Major sections cover guiding principles in the development of the foreign language curriculum, teaching techniques, and evaluation. Subclassified materials include coverage…

  7. Fast Track: A Language Arts Program for Middle School Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jean

    2008-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a pseudonym for an accelerated, advanced language arts program for verbally gifted and high potential students in grades 6-8. The critical thinking model used for "Fast Track" was gleaned from Coalition of Essential Schools founder Ted Sizer's Habits of Mind: significance, evidence, connections, perspective, and supposition, as…

  8. Running the Gauntlet of an Indigenous Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greymorning, Stephen

    This personal narrative of an Arapaho teacher compares the development of an indigenous language program to running the gauntlet. On the Wind River Reservation (Wyoming), Arapaho instruction was introduced in reservation schools during the late 1970s. By 1984, it was taught in grades K-12, but for only 15 minutes per day. Although recordings of…

  9. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie

    The language development component of Columbus, Ohio's All Day Kindergarten Program (ADKP) was evaluated. The ADKP was instituted in Columbus' public schools in January, 1972, to provide a full day of instruction for underachieving kindergarten pupils. In the 1988-89 school year, 18 teachers served in 18 elementary schools that were eligible for…

  10. PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING--PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VALDMAN, ALBERT

    THE RESULTS OF INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED DURING THE PAST 6 YEARS IN SELF-INSTRUCTION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES HAVE LED RESEARCHERS TO CONCLUDE THAT TOTAL PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION SEEMS PRODUCTIVE ONLY IN CASES WHERE THE TERMINAL BEHAVIOR TO BE ACHIEVED IS VERY LIMITED. EXPERIMENTS HAVE SHOWN THAT IT IS MOST USEFUL IN MODULES AT EARLY LEVELS FOR TEACHING…

  11. Language for Survival: A Model Study-Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Thomas; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In 1971 the College of the Holy Cross (Minnesota) set up a summer language and cultural program in Cuernavaca, Mexico for their students of Spanish. After intensive grammar in the classroom students are sent out on "survival" situations involving verbal communication with Mexicans in the market place, schools, prisons, etc. (SC)

  12. Accountability and Criterion Referenced Testing in Modern Foreign Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struth, Johann F.

    The nature of educational accountability, seen as an organized, systematized process of self-evaluation, and a review of available standardized tests for foreign language programs are examined in this paper. Teacher accountability is seen to rely exclusively on the judgement of the teacher and administration within the school itself. The author…

  13. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for programing a…

  14. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; Papert, Seymour A.

    2011-01-01

    Formal mathematical methods remain, for most high school students, mysterious, artificial and not a part of their regular intuitive thinking. The authors develop some themes that could lead to a radically new approach. According to this thesis, the teaching of programming languages as a regular part of academic progress can contribute effectively…

  15. Languages for Specific Purposes. Program Design and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackay, Ronald, Ed.; Palmer, Joe Darwin, Ed.

    This collection of research on curriculum and program development in languages for special purposes (LSP) contains the following papers: (1) "LSP Curriculum Development--From Policy to Practice," by Ronald Mackay and Maryse Bosquet; (2) "The Problem of Needs Assessment in English for Specific Purposes: Some Theoretical and Practical…

  16. A Teachers' Manual to Accompany the Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeback, Robert T.

    This document is the teachers' manual for use with the Oral Language Program, a 1-year set ot daily lessons of roughly 25 minutes each designed to help five- to seven-year-old children who do not speak English, or who speak dialects of English that offer significant structural competition with the standard dialects, to become proficient speakers…

  17. Tutorial on Generalized Programming Language s and Systems. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasana, Paul J., Ed.; Shank, Russell, Ed.

    This instructor's manual is a comparative analysis and review of the various computer programing languages currently available and their capabilities for performing text manipulation, information storage, and data retrieval tasks. Based on materials presented at the 1967 Convention of the American Society for Information Science, the manual…

  18. Toward Useful Program Evaluation in College Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M., Ed.; Davis, John McE., Ed.; Sinicrope, Castle, Ed.; Watanabe, Yukiko, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume reports on innovative, useful evaluation work conducted within U.S. college foreign language programs. An introductory chapter scopes out the territory, reporting key findings from research into the concerns, impetuses, and uses for evaluation that FL educators identify. Seven chapters then highlight examples of evaluations conducted…

  19. The FORCE - A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory multiprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low-level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high-level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared-memory multiprocessor executing them.

  20. The FORCE: A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

  1. Language Is the Key: A Multilingual Language Building Program for Young Children. Training Manual To Accompany the Video Programs: Talking and Books [and] Talking and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notari-Syverson, Angela; Madddox, Mary; Lim, Young Sook; Cole, Kevin

    This educational program, comprised of a training manual and 2 accompanying videotapes (each about 25 minutes long), is designed to develop language skills in young children with language disorders and/or children from minority backgrounds. The program model is based on the following principles: (1) early language is critical to later academic…

  2. The Development of an Indigenous Knowledge Program in a New Zealand Maori-Language Immersion School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Barbara; Papa, Rahui

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, Te Wharekura o Rakaumangamanga initiated a Maori-language immersion program for children ages 5 through 18. In recent years, a program based on Waikato-Tainui tribal epistemology has been incorporated into the language immersion program. This article describes the community context and the language immersion and tribal knowledge programs.…

  3. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  4. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  5. 75 FR 23223 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... guidance related to the Federal Select Agent Program established under the Public Health Security and.... Sherylyn Roberson, Veterinary Permit Examiner, APHIS Select Agent Program, VS, ASAP, APHIS, 4700 River...

  6. The Effect of the English Language Learner Pull out Program on Primary Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penke, Heidi T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the English Language Learner (ELL) pull out program on student achievement. Schools are facing the unprecedented challenge to educate a multicultural and multilingual student body with varied abilities and backgrounds of learning. The independent variables in this study were the…

  7. More than Words, A Way of Life: Language Restoration Programs Reach beyond Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskus, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In North America, and worldwide, Indigenous languages are disappearing at an alarming rate. There are, however, models of success for language revitalization in immersion language programs, usually found in tribal colleges and universities. Whether the language learners are tribal college students greeting one another in their native language,…

  8. A Comparison of String Handling in Four Programming Languages. Technical Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Carol Loeb

    Character string handling in the programing languages SNOBOL 4, TRAC, APL, and PL/I are compared. The first two of these are representatives of string processing languages, while the latter two represent general purpose programing languages. A description of each language is given and examples of string handling problems coded in the four…

  9. Multiple-Language Program Assessment: Learners' Perspectives on First- and Second-Year College Foreign Language Programs and Their Implications for Program Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Gladys M.; Matsuzawa, Chie

    2007-01-01

    A pilot study was designed to examine student perspectives on the first two years of the foreign language program at an east coast college. The study addresses key areas of foreign language teaching and learning in terms of goals and objectives, effectiveness of instruction and instructional approach, and student suggestions for improvement. The…

  10. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Charleene

    1995-04-05

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. A set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.

  11. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    1995-04-05

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. Amore » set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.« less

  12. The programming language HAL: A specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  13. Cellular segregation and engulfment simulations using the cell programming language.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, P

    1995-09-01

    In developmental biology, modeling and simulation play an important role in understanding cellular interactions. In this paper a simple language, the Cell Programming Language (CPL), is suggested for writing programs that describe this behavior. Using these programs, it is possible to simulate and visualize intercellular behavior. CPL is used to model cellular segregation based upon the differential adhesion hypothesis. Results indicate that a high degree of segregation can be produced in a mixture of cells by allowing random motion. The engulfment of a tissue by a less adhesive tissue is also observed when the two tissues are placed in contact. Both these simulations utilize only local interactions and random motion of cells. Earlier simulations used long-range interactions to observe similar effects. The present simulations prove that random motion of cells can produce long-range effects.

  14. Adaptive Agent Modeling of Distributed Language: Investigations on the Effects of Cultural Variation and Internal Action Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the "grounded adaptive agent" computational framework for studying the emergence of communication and language. This modeling framework is based on simulations of population of cognitive agents that evolve linguistic capabilities by interacting with their social and physical environment (internal and external symbol…

  15. The efficacy of chemical agents in cleaning and disinfection programs

    PubMed Central

    Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; Silva Martins, Alzira Maria

    2001-01-01

    Background Due to the growing number of outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries, it becomes essential to set up a sanitation program that indicates that the appropriate chemical agent was chosen for application in the most effective way. Method For the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of a chemical agent, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was reached by the classic method of successive broth dilutions. The reference bacteria utilized were Bacillus subtilis var. globigii ATCC 9372, Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The strains of Enterobacter cloacae IAL 1976 (Adolfo Lutz Institute), Serratia marcescens IAL 1478 and Acinetobactev calcoaceticus IAL 124 (ATCC 19606), were isolated from material collected from babies involved in outbreaks of infection in hospital nurseries. Results The MIC intervals, which reduced bacteria populations over 08 log10, were: 59 to 156 mg/L of quaternarium ammonium compounds (QACs); 63 to 10000 mg/L of chlorhexidine digluconate; 1375 to 3250 mg/L of glutaraldehyde; 39 to 246 mg/L of formaldehyde; 43750 to 87500 mg/L of isopropanol or ethanol; 1250 to 6250 mg/L of iodine in polyvinyl-pyrolidone complexes, 150 to 4491 mg/L of chlorine-releasing-agents (CRAs); 469 to 2500 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide; and, 2310 to 18500 mg/L of peracetic acid. Conclusions Chlorhexidine showed non inhibitory activity over germinating spores. A. calcoaceticus, was observed to show resistance to the majority of the agents tested, followed by E. cloacae and S. marcescens. PMID:11591223

  16. A Classroom-Home Language Intervention Program for Preschool Children "At Risk" for Language/Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Project developed a successful classroom-home language intervention program for mildly to mildly-to-moderately language-impaired preschool children. An overview of the project, its rationale, and its results in terms of positive change in families and children are described. This volume is designed to…

  17. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…

  18. Multitasking kernel for the C and Fortran programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, E.D. III

    1984-09-01

    A multitasking kernel for the C and Fortran programming languages which runs on the Unix operating system is presented. The kernel provides a multitasking environment which serves two purposes. The first is to provide an efficient portable environment for the coding, debugging and execution of production multiprocessor programs. The second is to provide a means of evaluating the performance of a multitasking program on model multiprocessors. The performance evaluation features require no changes in the source code of the application and are implemented as a set of compile and run time options in the kernel.

  19. Extensive set of macros for structured programing in OS/360 assembly language (STRCMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1975-01-01

    Development of consistent assembly language structured programming techniques has been enhanced by use of assembly macros developed for structured programing. Set of macros was written for IBM OS/360 Assembly language.

  20. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  1. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? 39.130 Section 39.130 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE... implement Language Development programs that demonstrate the positive effects of Native language programs...

  2. A Needs Assessment of Aquaculture Extension Agents, Specialists, and Program Administrators in Extension Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Michael H.; Gibson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    The study reported here identified continuing education and training needs of aquaculture Extension agents, specialists, and program administrators in 10 competency areas relating to the need for continuing education or training. Fourteen resources on the AquaNIC Web site were also evaluated, as was the efficacy of the AQUA-EXT listserv. Data were…

  3. A Multicultural Awareness Program To Improve Language and Thinking Skills to a Group of Language Deficient Preschool Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamura, Marilyn T.

    This practicum project exposed seven preschool students with language deficiencies to multicultural experiences and strategies, resulting in improvements in both language and thinking skills. The children were included in a regular preschool program serving low-income families. The program was based on a multicultural awareness curriculum which…

  4. 76 FR 17617 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service..., that a meeting will be held to provide specific regulatory guidance related to the Federal Select Agent... INFORMATION CONTACT: APHIS: Ms. Sarah Kwiatkowski, Veterinary Program Assistant, APHIS Select Agent...

  5. 76 FR 14896 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Meeting AGENCIES: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service..., that a meeting will be held to provide specific regulatory guidance related to the Federal Select Agent... INFORMATION CONTACT: APHIS: Ms. Sarah Kwiatkowski, Veterinary Program Assistant, APHIS Select Agent...

  6. Health Care and ADA Language Education Programs. Cooperative Demonstration Program: High Technology. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marion County Schools, Fairmont, WV.

    A project implemented cooperative training programs in the three occupational areas: ADA computer language use; respiratory therapy technician; and hospital pharmacy technician. The project's purpose was to demonstrate high technology training programs for adults as a cooperative effort among the West Virginia Department of Education, local…

  7. Advanced Foreign Language Learning: A Challenge to College Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi, Ed.; Maxim, Hiram H., Ed.

    This book includes the following chapters: "Literacy and Advanced Foreign Language Learning: Rethinking he Curriculum" (Richard G. Kern); "A Template for Advanced Learner Tasks: Staging Genre Reading and Cultural Literacy Through the Precis" (Janet Swaffar); "Fostering Advanced L2 Literacy: A Genre-Based, Cognitive Approach" (Heidi Byrnes,…

  8. 101 Ways To Market Your Language Program: A Practical Guide for Language Schools and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    This book provides 101 ideas and strategies to empower overall marketing efforts: (1) "Put On Your Thinking Cap" (e.g., define the problem before marketing it, set reasonable goals, and create a niche); (2) "Secrets to Boost Your Marketing Power" (e.g., emphasize the benefits, check out the competition, and sell oneself in as many languages as…

  9. Towards the Automatic Generation of Programmed Foreign-Language Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Campen, Joseph A.

    The purpose of this report is to describe a set of programs which either perform certain tasks useful in the generation of programed foreign-language instructional material or facilitate the writing of such task-oriented programs by other researchers. The programs described are these: (1) a PDP-10 assembly language program for the selection from a…

  10. Programming language supporting first-class parallel environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Jagannathan, S.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents a new programming model called the symmetric model in which the representation of programs is identical to the representation of data: to specify a computation, one defines a data structure. This data structure possesses the semantics of a first-class naming environment-it defines a scope and can be used to affect the evaluation environment of other expressions. A new programming language is presented called Symmetric Lisp, based on the symmetric model. Program structures in Symmetric Lisp are considered non-strict: a program's components may be examined even as its other elements continue to evaluate. The first part of the thesis investigates the interaction of non-strictness with first-class naming environments. The second part of the thesis discusses the compilation and implementation of Symmetric Lisp. An extended type inference system is presented for first-class environments that can be used to infer the proper evaluation environment of identifiers found within the scope of environment-yielding expressions. A translation of Symmetric Lisp into a high-level data flow language is presented.

  11. Why the Intercultural Matters to Language Teaching and Learning: An Orientation to the ILTLP Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela; Crichton, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    The Intercultural Language Teaching and Learning in Practice (ILTLP) Project is a large scale, national professional learning program designed to extend the understanding and practice of language teachers with regard to intercultural language learning. The latter is an orientation to language learning that underpins the National Statement and Plan…

  12. Cost/Benefit Evaluation of Three English Language Training Programs for Potential Navy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, William M.; And Others

    As part of its plans to recruit Hispanic personnel who speak English as a second language, the U.S. Navy will have to provide English language training as well as technical training to prepare these personnel for fleet duty. A cost/benefit analysis was conducted of three English language training programs: the English Technical Language School…

  13. A Proposal for a CA-Integrated English Language Teacher Education Program in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive framework for a Conversation Analysis (CA) informed English language teacher education program in Turkey. By reviewing recent studies in CA, Critical Reflective Practice, Teacher Language Awareness and language teacher education in general; the author calls for a more effective language teacher education program…

  14. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Preservice Teacher Education Program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center on the Foreign Language Teaching Beliefs of Preservice Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Preservice foreign-language teachers are adults with well-established beliefs. They start teacher-education programs with traditional beliefs about language teaching reflecting their own experiences. The field of foreign-language teaching, however, underwent a paradigm shift from grammar-based to communicative foreign-language instruction.…

  15. Learning Through Survival: An Approach to Foreign Language Teaching. A Program Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Claudia S.; Reilly, Joseph T. M.

    A foreign travel program for eighth grade French language students from Shoreham, New York was developed to provide language speaking practice in Quebec, Canada. The program was designed to allow students to spend as much time as possible speaking the language and interacting with the people. The following "survival through speaking" activities…

  16. Teaching English Language Arts to Francophone Program Students, Grades 3 to 9: Bridging the Francais and English Language Arts (ELA) Programs of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    This document is the first in a 3-part collection titled "Teaching English Language Arts (ELA) to Francophone Program Students" to be used primarily by ELA teachers in their efforts to ensure that francophone program students build on their established French language skills when learning English. It is designed to show that a strong correlation…

  17. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  18. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  19. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  20. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  1. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  2. ACACIA: an agent-based program for simulating behavior to reach long-term goals.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Francesc S; Quera, Vicenç; Zibetti, Elisabetta; Tijus, Charles; Miñano, Meritxell

    2009-05-01

    We present ACACIA, an agent-based program implemented in Java StarLogo 2.0 that simulates a two-dimensional microworld populated by agents, obstacles and goals. Our program simulates how agents can reach long-term goals by following sensorial-motor couplings (SMCs) that control how the agents interact with their environment and other agents through a process of local categorization. Thus, while acting in accordance with this set of SMCs, the agents reach their goals through the emergence of global behaviors. This agent-based simulation program would allow us to understand some psychological processes such as planning behavior from the point of view that the complexity of these processes is the result of agent-environment interaction.

  3. Agent planning in AgScala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Saša; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2013-10-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages are designed to simplify the development of software agents, especially those that exhibit complex, intelligent behavior. This paper presents recent improvements of AgScala, an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala. AgScala includes declarative constructs for managing beliefs, actions and goals of intelligent agents. Combined with object-oriented and functional programming paradigms offered by Scala, it aims to be an efficient framework for developing both purely reactive, and more complex, deliberate agents. Instead of the Prolog back-end used initially, the new version of AgScala relies on Agent Planning Package, a more advanced system for automated planning and reasoning.

  4. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed. PMID:25264401

  5. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed. PMID:25264401

  6. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  7. Teaching Practices and Language Use in Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Programs in a Large Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer; Steele, Jennifer; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers look to two-way dual language immersion as one of the most promising options to close achievement gaps for English learners. However, the programs' effectiveness depends on the quality of their implementation. This article reports on a large-scale study of the implementation of dual language immersion across a…

  8. 77 FR 56845 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program; Public Webcast AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and... (HHS) announces the notice of a public webcast concerning compliance with the Federal Select Agent... Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Issues to be discussed include changes to the select agent...

  9. Introductory Computer Programming Course Teaching Improvement Using Immersion Language, Extreme Programming, and Education Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rubio, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Teaching computer programming to freshmen students in Computer Sciences and other Information Technology areas has been identified as a complex activity. Different approaches have been studied looking for the best one that could help to improve this teaching process. A proposed approach was implemented which is based in the language immersion…

  10. A Program Evaluation of the Language Lab™: Response to Intervention Program for Teaching Grammar, Vocabulary, and Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, JoAnn; Richardson, Martha; Jones, Don

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation study addressed the struggle of local elementary school speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in a school district to provide evidence-based intervention in language for students below grade level as required by the U.S. Department of Education. Recently, Language Lab™ was published to address the needs of oral language…

  11. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  12. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  13. Toward a molecular programming language for algorithmic self-assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patitz, Matthew John

    Self-assembly is the process whereby relatively simple components autonomously combine to form more complex objects. Nature exhibits self-assembly to form everything from microscopic crystals to living cells to galaxies. With a desire to both form increasingly sophisticated products and to understand the basic components of living systems, scientists have developed and studied artificial self-assembling systems. One such framework is the Tile Assembly Model introduced by Erik Winfree in 1998. In this model, simple two-dimensional square 'tiles' are designed so that they self-assemble into desired shapes. The work in this thesis consists of a series of results which build toward the future goal of designing an abstracted, high-level programming language for designing the molecular components of self-assembling systems which can perform powerful computations and form into intricate structures. The first two sets of results demonstrate self-assembling systems which perform infinite series of computations that characterize computably enumerable and decidable languages, and exhibit tools for algorithmically generating the necessary sets of tiles. In the next chapter, methods for generating tile sets which self-assemble into complicated shapes, namely a class of discrete self-similar fractal structures, are presented. Next, a software package for graphically designing tile sets, simulating their self-assembly, and debugging designed systems is discussed. Finally, a high-level programming language which abstracts much of the complexity and tedium of designing such systems, while preventing many of the common errors, is presented. The summation of this body of work presents a broad coverage of the spectrum of desired outputs from artificial self-assembling systems and a progression in the sophistication of tools used to design them. By creating a broader and deeper set of modular tools for designing self-assembling systems, we hope to increase the complexity which is

  14. NEPTE [New England Program in Teacher Education] Field Agents: Studies in a Crucial Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ducharme, Edward R.; Goddu, Roland J. B.

    This document is a description of the New England Program in Teacher Education (NEPTE), which is a six-state regional program intended to improve the quality of teacher education in New England. The main focus of the NEPTE staff is its state field agents. Activities of the field agents include the following: workshops; evaluation of proposals; the…

  15. A Direct-Mail Nutrition In-Service Program for County Extension Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, Barbara J.; Gillespie, Ardyth H.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a nutrition in-service training program for New York Cooperative Extension Agents. Results showed that agents who read most of the program increased their nutrition knowledge, had more positive attitudes about the by-mail approach, and increased their emphasis on current/integrated…

  16. Spanish-Language Community-Based Mental Health Treatment Programs, Policy-Required Language-Assistance Programming, and Mental Health Treatment Access Among Spanish-Speaking Clients

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Sean R.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the extent to which implementing language assistance programming through contracting with community-based organizations improved the accessibility of mental health care under Medi-Cal (California’s Medicaid program) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency, and whether it reduced language-based treatment access disparities. Methods. Using a time series nonequivalent control group design, we studied county-level penetration of language assistance programming over 10 years (1997–2006) for Spanish-speaking persons with limited English proficiency covered under Medi-Cal. We used linear regression with county fixed effects to control for ongoing trends and other influences. Results. When county mental health plans contracted with community-based organizations, those implementing language assistance programming increased penetration rates of Spanish-language mental health services under Medi-Cal more than other plans (0.28 percentage points, a 25% increase on average; P < .05). However, the increase was insufficient to significantly reduce language-related disparities. Conclusions. Mental health treatment programs operated by community-based organizations may have moderately improved access after implementing required language assistance programming, but the programming did not reduce entrenched disparities in the accessibility of mental health services. PMID:23865663

  17. Your Foreign Language Program: Telling It--and Showing It--Like It Is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Robert J.

    1978-01-01

    A sound and slide show was produced at Parchment (Michigan) High School to show the community foreign language learning in their own school system. The program was designed to portray the nature of the local foreign language program and to increase support for and enrollment in the program. (Author/SW)

  18. School Readiness Language Development Program: A Teacher Survey Report. Publication No. 701, Part C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padi-Sandamela, Ambition; Maddahian, Ebrahim

    The School Readiness Language Development Program (SRLDP) is one of several programs developed in response to a court order to racially integrate the Los Angeles Unified School District (California). The program, developed for schools with high proportions of minority students, includes oral language development opportunities for 4 year-olds, a…

  19. Children Learning Computer Programming: Experiments with Languages, Curricula and Programmable Devices. Technical Report No. 250.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyer, S. A.; Cannara, A. B.

    An experiment was conducted to study how children, aged 10-15 years, learn concepts relevant to computer programing and how they learn modern programing languages. The implicit educational goal was to teach thinking strategies through the medium of programing concepts and their applications. The computer languages Simper and Logo were chosen…

  20. Options and Perspectives: A Sourcebook of Innovative Foreign Language Programs in Action, K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, F. William D.; Honig, Lucille J.

    This report presents information on 51 current innovative foreign language projects and programs for grades K-12. Information was collected by means of a year-long, national survey of continuing language programs, which involved announcements in journals, newsletters, and other publications; form letters to program supervisors; an ERIC search; a…

  1. Standing Strong: Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School Japanese Language and Culture Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhi, Jessica; Yamashita-Iverson, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    Maloney Interdistrict Magnet School (MIMS) is the only elementary school in Waterbury that has a world language program and is one of only two elementary Japanese programs in Connecticut. In the past 15 years, more than 1500 students have participated in its Japanese Language and Culture (JLC) Program in grades Prekindergarten through 5th. The JLC…

  2. Accommodating Diverse Language Needs within an Intensive English Language Program: A Study of the English Language Institute at Alaska Pacific University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Patricia Diane Palmer

    The English Language Institute (ELI) at Alaska Pacific University provides an intensive academic program designed primarily to prepare foreign students for successful participation in undergraduate or graduate programs. Students from the local international community have also been admitted to the program. These students have motivations, language…

  3. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  4. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  5. Language Development Component: All Day Kindergarten Program 1992-1993. Ohio Disadvantaged Pupil Program Fund. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jessie; And Others

    This report describes the All Day Kindergarten (ADK) Program undertaken at 18 elementary schools in Columbus, Ohio, and presents an evaluation of the language development component of the program. ADK provides an extra half day of instruction, using a language-based curriculum to reinforce the skills, concepts, and educational experiences taught…

  6. What about a simple language? Analyzing the difficulties in learning to program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomäki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16 19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a “simple” language to a more “advanced” one, by following up on eight students, who learned programming in Python before moving on to Java.Our results suggest that a simple language gives rise to fewer syntax errors as well as logic errors. The qualitative part of our study did not reveal any disadvantages from having learned to program in a simple language when moving on to a more complex one. This suggests that not only can a simple language be used when introducing programming as a general skill, but also when providing basic skills to future professionals in the field.

  7. Middle School Foreign Language Programs: Excellence for All Students in 2000 and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClendon, Lynne

    2000-01-01

    Most states have only a 2-year foreign-language requirement for college-bound students. Two 1999 federal initiatives--the Foreign Language Education Improvement Amendments and the Educational Excellence for All Children Act--provide support for expanding foreign-language education opportunities. Four exemplary Georgia middle-school programs are…

  8. Assessing a Foreign Language Program Through Proper Use of Standardized Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockman, John F.

    This talk delivered at the 1967 annual meeting of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages examines a statistically-oriented assessment of the foreign language program at Tucson, Arizona. The text includes reprints of 25 transparencies used, largely drawn from the results of two groups of tests: (1) the Modern Language Association…

  9. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  10. Cover to Cover: A Guide to Foreign Language Programs, Instruction and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Instructional Services.

    The guide is intended as a resource for North Carolina teachers and administrators concerning second language education. Part 1 offers a rationale for second language education, and provides specific reasons for studying French, German, Latin, Spanish, and uncommonly taught languages. Part 2 describes instructional program models for elementary…

  11. Leadership Practice in Elementary School Dual Language Programs: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroy, Joanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Research in effective programming for English language learners has demonstrated the efficacy of dual language education as a model for closing persistent achievement gaps for this growing population of students. With goals of high academic achievement, linguistic proficiency in two languages, and cross-cultural proficiency, dual language…

  12. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  13. Funding Policy for Language Programs = Politique de financement des programmes de langue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This policy statement, presented in both English and French, describes the funding support available for heritage language and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for K-12 students in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The two parts of the statement, headed "Heritage Language Instruction" and "ESL for Students with Limited Proficiency in…

  14. The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals. REL 2014-027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    REL Northeast & Islands at Education Development Center, in partnership with the English Language Learners Alliance, has developed a new survey tool--The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals--to help state education departments collect consistent data on the education of English language learner students. Designed for school…

  15. Agent-patient similarity affects sentence structure in language production: evidence from subject omissions in Mandarin.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yaling; Gao, Yannan; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-01-01

    Interference effects from semantically similar items are well-known in studies of single word production, where the presence of semantically similar distractor words slows picture naming. This article examines the consequences of this interference in sentence production and tests the hypothesis that in situations of high similarity-based interference, producers are more likely to omit one of the interfering elements than when there is low semantic similarity and thus low interference. This work investigated language production in Mandarin, which allows subject noun phrases to be omitted in discourse contexts in which the subject entity has been previously mentioned in the discourse. We hypothesize that Mandarin speakers omit the subject more often when the subject and the object entities are conceptually similar. A corpus analysis of simple transitive sentences found higher rates of subject omission when both the subject and object were animate (potentially yielding similarity-based interference) than when the subject was animate and object was inanimate. A second study manipulated subject-object animacy in a picture description task and replicated this result: participants omitted the animate subject more often when the object was also animate than when it was inanimate. These results suggest that similarity-based interference affects sentence forms, particularly when the agent of the action is mentioned in the sentence. Alternatives and mechanisms for this effect are discussed.

  16. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  17. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir. PMID:27711123

  18. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  19. A Parallel Vector Machine for the PM Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2016-04-01

    PM is a new programming language which aims to make the writing of computational geoscience models on parallel hardware accessible to scientists who are not themselves expert parallel programmers. It is based around the concept of communicating operators: language constructs that enable variables local to a single invocation of a parallelised loop to be viewed as if they were arrays spanning the entire loop domain. This mechanism enables different loop invocations (which may or may not be executing on different processors) to exchange information in a manner that extends the successful Communicating Sequential Processes idiom from single messages to collective communication. Communicating operators avoid the additional synchronisation mechanisms, such as atomic variables, required when programming using the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) paradigm. Using a single loop invocation as the fundamental unit of concurrency enables PM to uniformly represent different levels of parallelism from vector operations through shared memory systems to distributed grids. This paper describes an implementation of PM based on a vectorised virtual machine. On a single processor node, concurrent operations are implemented using masked vector operations. Virtual machine instructions operate on vectors of values and may be unmasked, masked using a Boolean field, or masked using an array of active vector cell locations. Conditional structures (such as if-then-else or while statement implementations) calculate and apply masks to the operations they control. A shift in mask representation from Boolean to location-list occurs when active locations become sufficiently sparse. Parallel loops unfold data structures (or vectors of data structures for nested loops) into vectors of values that may additionally be distributed over multiple computational nodes and then split into micro-threads compatible with the size of the local cache. Inter-node communication is accomplished using

  20. Languaging as Agent and Constituent of Cognitive Change in an Older Adult: An Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Vygotsky's writings have established the critical importance of language in the development of higher mental functions, including memory and attention. One of the processes involved in this development is languaging, the activity of mediating cognitively complex ideas using language (Swain, 2006). The present study of an older adult with mild…

  1. Integrating English as a Second Language into Special Education Teacher Personnel Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hudson, Roxanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Preparing educators who are culturally responsive and prepared to meet the needs of English-language learners is a national priority. Consequently, many teacher preparation programs are being encouraged to include English as a second-language content in their programs of study. The following case study describes the development and implementation…

  2. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a "simple"…

  3. Do Bilingual Education Programs Inhibit English Language Achievement? A Report on an Illinois Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balasubramonian, K.; And Others

    The English language achievement of 213 Spanish speaking students in grades K-3, who receive English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction in the context of a bilingual program, is compared to that of 104 similar students who receive ESL instruction within the traditional school program, in order to probe whether enrollment in a bilingual program…

  4. English as a Second Language Program: A Support System for the Basal Reading Series. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, John H., Jr.; And Others

    The language program guide explains the theoretical basis and the instructional objectives of the approach to developing English language proficiency, supporting the Houghton Mifflin Reading Series and the Ginn 360 Series. The first of three sections describes the theoretical considerations and the philosophy of the program; it provides…

  5. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  6. A Guide for Developing Language Arts Curricula (A Plan for Program Development). Bulletin No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, Martha, Ed.; And Others

    Designed for use by local schools in developing language arts programs, this guide presents a sequence of skill development for each of four areas of interest: listening, speaking, writing, and reading. The first part of the guide relates the principles of building a language arts program, discusses the development of communication skills, and…

  7. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  8. A Visual Approach to Programming Language Internationalization: An Arabic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suleiman, Khalid A.; Citrin, Wayne V.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an experiment supporting the thesis that visual languages are well-suited for computer programmers whose native languages are not English, analyzing the particular problems of Arabic speakers in comprehending Pascal program structures. A visual programming environment is presented in which all syntactic and nearly all semantic information…

  9. Promoting Success for Dual Language Learners: The Essential Role of Early Childhood Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedberg, Louis; Frey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education programs in California have a crucial role to play in preparing dual language learners to enter kindergarten with the skills they need to succeed in school and beyond. The reason is simple: there are more dual language learners under the age of 5 in early childhood education programs in California than anywhere else in…

  10. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  11. An Evaluation of the DISTAR Language I Program at Seymour Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.

    During 1972-73, the Direct Instructional System for Teaching and Remediation (DISTAR) Language I Program, a series of instructional programs developed to teach children the basic skills and concepts in reading, arithmetic, and language, was used in two of the three kindergarten classes at Seymour Elementary School. The three kindergarten classes…

  12. Toward a Renewed Focus. Literacy in Early Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Mimi

    2013-01-01

    This article promotes literacy as a a powerful tool for learning new language. Although learners frequently think of comprehensible input as language that is heard, comprehensible input from print can also be accessed. Research has shown that reading has a powerful impact on language learning: much of the vocabulary that educated adults know has…

  13. Educating Extension Agents: An Evaluation of Method and Development of a Remarried Family Educational Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzpatrick, Jacki A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested two formats of remarriage educational program on cooperative extension agents. Agents (n=119) were randomly assigned to written format group, audiotape format group, or control group and were mailed pretest-posttest packets. Analysis of pretest-posttest scores for three groups indicated significant increase in scores for written format…

  14. Clinical laboratories, the select agent program, and biological surety (biosurety).

    PubMed

    Pastel, Ross H; Demmin, Gretchen; Severson, Grant; Torres-Cruz, Rafael; Trevino, Jorge; Kelly, John; Arrison, Jay; Christman, Joy

    2006-06-01

    The threat of bioterrorism has led to increased concerns over the availability of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT). Congress has implemented several public laws that have led to the development of federal regulations by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the US Department of Agriculture. The CDC regulation 42 CFR 73 has a direct impact on all clinical laboratories that may at some time identify BSAT in a clinical specimen. The Department of Defense has imposed a more stringent layer of regulation called biological surety (biosurety) on top of the requirements of 42 CFR 73 for military laboratories that possess BSAT. However,42 CFR 73 falls into the framework of biosurety. Both sets of regulations have four pillars (safety, physical security, agent account-ability, and personnel reliability) that are built on a foundation of training and covered by a roof of management (operations and plans).

  15. Demands and Opportunities: Analyzing Academic Language in a First Grade Dual Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucero, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Academic language, the register necessary to be successful in school, has been widely studied in recent years. Researchers have devoted much energy to defining the construct of academic language and identifying ways that teachers can support students--particularly those learning two languages simultaneously--as they develop it. Several scholars…

  16. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender,…

  17. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    PubMed

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  18. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  19. An Evaluation Framework and Comparative Analysis of the Widely Used First Programming Languages

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  20. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  1. An informal introduction to programming data processing problems in a functional language

    SciTech Connect

    Senichkin, V.I.

    1994-07-01

    The basic idea behind the proposed language CORAL (Conceptual Recursive Applicative Language) is that of functional programming and the functional model of data. The type system of the language includes abstraction, classification, generalization, and aggregation. The set of built-in type constructors makes it possible to describe set-theoretic operations over extensional types. The basis functions are defined as functions over lists, which are the only form of data organization in the language. The computational model of the language, which is based on notions of polymorphism and inheritance and treats data types as objects, is adequate to the needs of data processing in applications with complex relations between objects.

  2. Benchmarks of programming languages for special purposes in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoebel, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    Although Ada is likely to be chosen as the principal programming language for the Space Station, certain needs, such as expert systems and robotics, may be better developed in special languages. The languages, LISP and Prolog, are studied and some benchmarks derived. The mathematical foundations for these languages are reviewed. Likely areas of the space station are sought out where automation and robotics might be applicable. Benchmarks are designed which are functional, mathematical, relational, and expert in nature. The coding will depend on the particular versions of the languages which become available for testing.

  3. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  4. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  5. Understanding Neuropsychiatric Diseases, Analyzing the Peptide Sharing between Infectious Agents and the Language-Associated NMDA 2A Protein

    PubMed Central

    Lucchese, Guglielmo

    2016-01-01

    Language disorders and infections may occur together and often concur, to a different extent and via different modalities, in characterizing brain pathologies, such as schizophrenia, autism, epilepsies, bipolar disorders, frontotemporal neurodegeneration, and encephalitis, inter alia. The biological mechanism(s) that might channel language dysfunctions and infections into etiological pathways connected to neuropathologic sequelae are unclear. Searching for molecular link(s) between language disorders and infections, the present study explores the language-associated NMDA 2A subunit for peptide sharing with pathogens that have been described in concomitance with neuropsychiatric diseases. It was found that a vast peptide commonality links the human glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA 2A subunit to infectious agents. Such a link expands to and interfaces with neuropsychiatric disorders in light of the specific allocation of NMDA 2A gene expression in brain areas related to language functions. The data hint at a possible pathologic scenario based on anti-pathogen immune responses cross-reacting with NMDA 2A in the brain. PMID:27148089

  6. Neural associative memories for the integration of language, vision and action in an autonomous agent.

    PubMed

    Markert, H; Kaufmann, U; Kara Kayikci, Z; Palm, G

    2009-03-01

    Language understanding is a long-standing problem in computer science. However, the human brain is capable of processing complex languages with seemingly no difficulties. This paper shows a model for language understanding using biologically plausible neural networks composed of associative memories. The model is able to deal with ambiguities on the single word and grammatical level. The language system is embedded into a robot in order to demonstrate the correct semantical understanding of the input sentences by letting the robot perform corresponding actions. For that purpose, a simple neural action planning system has been combined with neural networks for visual object recognition and visual attention control mechanisms. PMID:19203859

  7. Neural associative memories for the integration of language, vision and action in an autonomous agent.

    PubMed

    Markert, H; Kaufmann, U; Kara Kayikci, Z; Palm, G

    2009-03-01

    Language understanding is a long-standing problem in computer science. However, the human brain is capable of processing complex languages with seemingly no difficulties. This paper shows a model for language understanding using biologically plausible neural networks composed of associative memories. The model is able to deal with ambiguities on the single word and grammatical level. The language system is embedded into a robot in order to demonstrate the correct semantical understanding of the input sentences by letting the robot perform corresponding actions. For that purpose, a simple neural action planning system has been combined with neural networks for visual object recognition and visual attention control mechanisms.

  8. Symbolic programming language in molecular multicenter integral problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safouhi, Hassan; Bouferguene, Ahmed

    It is well known that in any ab initio molecular orbital (MO) calculation, the major task involves the computation of molecular integrals, among which the computation of three-center nuclear attraction and Coulomb integrals is the most frequently encountered. As the molecular system becomes larger, computation of these integrals becomes one of the most laborious and time-consuming steps in molecular systems calculation. Improvement of the computational methods of molecular integrals would be indispensable to further development in computational studies of large molecular systems. To develop fast and accurate algorithms for the numerical evaluation of these integrals over B functions, we used nonlinear transformations for improving convergence of highly oscillatory integrals. These methods form the basis of new methods for solving various problems that were unsolvable otherwise and have many applications as well. To apply these nonlinear transformations, the integrands should satisfy linear differential equations with coefficients having asymptotic power series in the sense of Poincaré, which in their turn should satisfy some limit conditions. These differential equations are very difficult to obtain explicitly. In the case of molecular integrals, we used a symbolic programming language (MAPLE) to demonstrate that all the conditions required to apply these nonlinear transformation methods are satisfied. Differential equations are obtained explicitly, allowing us to demonstrate that the limit conditions are also satisfied.

  9. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems. PMID:27128855

  10. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-01

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  11. Learning and comprehension of BASIC and natural language computer programming by novices

    SciTech Connect

    Dyck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of teaching novices to program in Natural Language as a prerequisite for learning BASIC, and the learning and comprehension processes for Natural Language and BASIC computer-programming languages. Three groups of computer-naive subjects participated in five self-paced learning sessions; in each sessions, subjects solved a series of programming problems with immediate feedback. Twenty-four subjects learned to solve BASIC programming problems (BASIC group) for all five sessions, 23 subjects learned to solve corresponding Natural Language programming problems for all five sessions (Natural Language group), and 23 subjects learned to solve Natural Language programming problems for three sessions and then transferred to BASIC for the two sessions (Transfer group). At the end of the fifth session, all subjects completed a post-test which required the subjects to use their programming knowledge in a new way. Results indicated that the Natural Language trained subjects had complete transfer to BASIC, as indicated by no overall difference in comprehension time or accuracy for final BASIC sessions (i.e., sessions four and five) for the Transfer and BASIC groups. In addition, there was an interaction between group and session on accuracy, in which the Transfer group increased its accuracy at a faster rate than the BASIC group.

  12. Dual Language Programs as a Strand within a Secondary School: Dilemmas of School Organization and the TWI Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.; Bearse, Carol I.

    2014-01-01

    Dual language (DL) programs aim to create additive bilingual learning environments where the dominant language and the minority language are given equal status at the program, curricular, and instructional level. While several studies have documented the effectiveness of DL programs and classroom-based practices, few have considered how the…

  13. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices...

  14. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to this... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices...

  15. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  16. Visual Education and the Language Arts: Toward the Incorporation of Visual Concepts and Skills in the Secondary Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David Robert

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rationale for and to organize sequences of visual education concepts and skills that could function as a part of a secondary language arts program embodying the approaches of James Moffett. The literature on visual education was studied to identify those factors related specifically to professional…

  17. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  18. The Integration of Language and Content: Form-Focused Instruction in a Content-Based Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valeo, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    This comparative, classroom-based study investigated the effect and effectiveness of introducing a focus on form approach to a content-based, occupation-specific language program for adults. Thirty-six adults in two classes participated in a 10-week study. One group of 16 adults received content-based instruction that included a focus on form…

  19. Tools for Language Programs. ICEM Technical Information Bulletin No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezard, M.; Bourguignon, C.

    This overview of available technologies and how they can be used in teaching languages is divided into three sections. The first, "Multimedia Inputs," examines digitized multimedia tools and their role in language courses, electronic books, encyclopedias and dictionaries, and games, and takes a closer look at "unimedia" products and audiovisual…

  20. Influences of Globalization on K-12 Language Teacher Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Navin Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of globalization on K-12 language teacher education at Northern Arizona University (NAU) in terms of multilingual practices in the US, with reference to an English-only-state, Arizona. This study explored influences of globalization on K-12 language education practices in the US through teacher…

  1. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  2. The Effect of Afterschool Program Participation on English Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Rebecca; Gurantz, Oded; Norman, Jon R.

    2011-01-01

    In the past quarter century, the nation's K-12 public schools have experienced a large influx of students who speak languages other than English. Research has shown that many factors affect how English learner (EL) students acquire English language skills, including their preparation before entering U.S. schools, their out-of-school environments,…

  3. Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

  4. Conducting a Statewide Dual-Purpose Program for Pesticide Applicators and County Extension Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishel, Fred; Liu, Guodong David

    2014-01-01

    The University of Florida Cooperative Extension conducted a statewide program with a dual role during 2013 and 2014 to enhance efficiency. The program provided in-service training to county Extension agents and provided continuing education to meet requirements needed by licensed pesticide applicators. Using Polycom distance technology, the event…

  5. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of first grade language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "The Little House"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia. Parallel to…

  6. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of kindergarten language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "Let's Eat Together"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia. Parallel to…

  7. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  8. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. You and I (Kindergarten). DS Manual 2650.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  9. Students' Perceptions of Bilingualism in Spanish and Mandarin Dual Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research documents students' outcomes in dual language (DL) programs, but there is little examination of students' perceptions of bilingualism and its impact on students' cognitive functioning and social relationships, especially with comparative studies across different target languages and student backgrounds. This study, which…

  10. LaREC: Language through Recreation. A Handbook for Program Developers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Dana; Koester, Allison

    This handbook was prepared for use by the various ethnic associations in Canada whose members want to find effective means of helping their children learn or maintain their ancestral language. The program described involves the use of recreational activities for language instruction, based on the theory that the nature of and motivation for…

  11. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. Your World and Mine (Sixth Grade). DS Manual 2650.6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  13. German Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the German Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the German Language and Culture Nine-year…

  14. Policies and Practices regarding Students with Accents in Speech-Language Pathology Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Crowley, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathology (SLP) training programs are the initial gateway for nonnative speakers of English to join the SLP profession. An anonymous web-based survey in New York State examined policies and practices implemented when SLP students have foreign accents in English or in other languages. Responses were elicited from 530 students and 28…

  15. A Center for Accelerated Learning: A Training Program for Elementary and Secondary Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullen, Audrey; And Others

    A discussion of accelerated learning in language instruction gives a sample lesson, discusses the methodology used, and summarizes the results of a language teacher training program using the method. The approach is based on recognition and development of brain hemisphere functions to make learning faster and more effective. The sample lesson is a…

  16. Unique Effects of a Family Literacy Program on the Early Reading Development of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Sarah; Platt, Amy; Pelletier, Janette

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the effects of a Family Literacy program on the early English reading development of speakers of English as a first language (EL1s) and English language learners (ELLs). The study included a linguistically and culturally diverse sample of 132 kindergarten children and their parents. Families in the…

  17. Undergraduate German Language Program at Middlebury College, Summer 1975. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Gerd K.

    Current publications do not cease to stress the unfortunate fact that language ernollments are declining; this paper is an exception to the prevailing pessimistic trend. Its aim is to describe the success of the first and second year German language courses taught at Middlebury College during the summer of 1975. This was an intensive program with…

  18. A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP) in Toronto public schools in Ontario, Canada. Based on an analysis developed from Fairclough and Parker's criteria, this paper determined stereotypes…

  19. Foreign Language/Intercultural Program. Appendix. DS Manual 2650.9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dependents Schools (DOD), Washington, DC.

    The curriculum guides for foreign language and intercultural education programs in United States dependents schools overseas provide instructional ideas designed to promote learning about the language and culture of the host nation. The series, covering kindergarten through eighth grade, was written by host nation teachers, classroom teachers, and…

  20. Motivators for Demotivators Affecting English Language Acquisition of Saudi Preparatory Year Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Alsamani, Abdulaziz Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the demotivating factors that discourage Preparatory Year Program (PYP) students from learning the English language. It also proposes and tests the effectiveness of a set of academic and administrative approaches on enhancing English language acquisition of 102 Saudi PYP Students taking an EFL summer course in the…

  1. Selection and Use of General-Purpose Programming Languages--Overview. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cugini, John V.

    This study presents a review of selection factors for the seven major general-purpose programming languages: Ada, BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, and PL/I. The factors covered include not only the logical operations within each language, but also the advantages and disadvantages stemming from the current computing environment, e.g., software…

  2. Three Methods for Language Acquisition: Total Physical Response; the Tomatis Program; Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic…

  3. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  4. Programmed Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching. Report of Second Annual Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Mary, Ed.; Serafino, Robert, Ed.

    Dr. Simon Belasco's paper "Programmed Instruction and the Psychology of Second Language Learning" explores basic assumptions held by curriculum designers and teachers concerning the possibility of second language acquisition in an artificial, unicultural, and contrived classroom environment. Concepts relating to scope and sequence, New Key…

  5. Preschool Second-Language Acquisition: A Parent Involvement Program To Reinforce Classroom Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goren, Dorothy

    2003-01-01

    Describes the creation of a flexible and varied family-school partnership for second-language learning at a Montessori preschool. Highlights how the program provided students with an opportunity to participate in second-language learning in an optimal environment while providing parents access to home-based activities that were in concert with…

  6. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  7. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  8. Cognitive Style and Achievement in Imperative and Functional Programming Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, J. Paul, Jr.; Munsinger, Brita

    This paper investigates the relationship between learning style and programming achievement in two paradigms: imperative and functional. An imperative language achieves its effect by changing the value of variables by means of assignment statements while functional languages rely on evaluation of expressions rather than side-effects. Learning…

  9. Effects of a Professional Development Program on Classroom Practices and Outcomes for Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…

  10. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  11. Japanese Language and Culture: 9-Year Program Classroom Assessment Materials, Grade 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document is designed to provide assessment materials for specific Grade 4 outcomes in the Japanese Language and Culture Nine-year Program, Grades 4-5-6. The assessment materials are designed for the beginner level in the context of teaching for communicative competence. Grade 4 learning outcomes from the Japanese Language and Culture…

  12. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  13. Evaluation of a School District's English as a Second Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolland, Kathy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of the English as a Second Language (ESL) program provided to the English Language Learners (ELLs) in elementary and middle schools in one local school district. The study evaluated two factors: model of service provided and teacher effectiveness. The models of service provided were a push-in model and a…

  14. A STUDY OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER DEALERS IN EXTENSION PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODARD, BRUCE H.

    A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO 98 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IN AGRONOMY IN THEIR COUNTIES WAS USED TO COLLECT DATA ON THE AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF PERFORMANCE BY DEALERS IN SOIL FERTILITY PROGRAMS, AGENTS' FEELINGS ABOUT DEALER PARTICIPATION, AND THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGENTS'…

  15. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  16. The Rhythm of Language: Fostering Oral and Listening Skills in Singapore Pre-School Children through an Integrated Music and Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…

  17. Exploring the Synergy between Science Literacy and Language Literacy with English Language Learners: Lessons Learned within a Sustained Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrejo, David J.; Reinhartz, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five elementary teachers participated in a yearlong professional development (PD) program whose goal was to foster science content learning while promoting language literacy for English Language Learners (ELL). The researchers utilized an explanatory design methodology to determine the degree to which science and language literacy…

  18. Cognitive characteristics of learning Java, an object-oriented programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Garry Lynn

    Industry and Academia are moving from procedural programming languages (e.g., COBOL) to object-oriented programming languages, such as Java for the Internet. Past studies in the cognitive aspects of programming have focused primarily on procedural programming languages. Some of the languages used have been Pascal, C, Basic, FORTAN, and COBOL. Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents a new paradigm for computing. Industry is finding that programmers are having difficulty shifting to this new programming paradigm. This instruction in OOP is currently starting in colleges and universities across the country. What are the cognitive aspects for this new OOP language Java? When is a student developmentally ready to handle the cognitive characteristics of the OOP language Java? Which cognitive teaching style is best for this OOP language Java? Questions such as the aforementioned are the focus of this research Such research is needed to improve understanding of the learning process and identify students' difficulties with OOP methods. This can enhance academic teaching and industry training (Scholtz, 1993; Sheetz, 1997; Rosson, 1990). Cognitive development as measured by the Propositional Logic Test, cognitive style as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator, and physical hemispheric dominance as measured by a self-report survey were obtained from thirty-six university students studying Java programming. Findings reveal that physical hemispheric dominance is unrelated to cognitive and programming language variables. However, both procedural and object oriented programming require Piaget's formal operation cognitive level as indicated by the Propositional Logic Test. This is consistent with prior research A new finding is that object oriented programming also requires formal operation cognitive level. Another new finding is that object oriented programming appears to be unrelated to hemispheric cognitive style as indicated by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI

  19. Towards a Transcription System of Sign Language for 3D Virtual Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Amaral, Wanessa Machado; de Martino, José Mario

    Accessibility is a growing concern in computer science. Since virtual information is mostly presented visually, it may seem that access for deaf people is not an issue. However, for prelingually deaf individuals, those who were deaf since before acquiring and formally learn a language, written information is often of limited accessibility than if presented in signing. Further, for this community, signing is their language of choice, and reading text in a spoken language is akin to using a foreign language. Sign language uses gestures and facial expressions and is widely used by deaf communities. To enabling efficient production of signed content on virtual environment, it is necessary to make written records of signs. Transcription systems have been developed to describe sign languages in written form, but these systems have limitations. Since they were not originally designed with computer animation in mind, in general, the recognition and reproduction of signs in these systems is an easy task only to those who deeply know the system. The aim of this work is to develop a transcription system to provide signed content in virtual environment. To animate a virtual avatar, a transcription system requires explicit enough information, such as movement speed, signs concatenation, sequence of each hold-and-movement and facial expressions, trying to articulate close to reality. Although many important studies in sign languages have been published, the transcription problem remains a challenge. Thus, a notation to describe, store and play signed content in virtual environments offers a multidisciplinary study and research tool, which may help linguistic studies to understand the sign languages structure and grammar.

  20. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  1. Foreign Language Education in Elementary Schools: Revitalizing and Maintaining a Workable Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Rachel Elaine

    A discussion of foreign languages in elementary schools (FLES) includes both historical and current overviews of FLES in the United States and makes recommendations for development of FLES programs. The historical review looks at program design and methods during the 1950s and 1960s and the successes and failures of program types and approaches.…

  2. Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program. O.E.E. Evaluation Report, 1980-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Robert; Lavin, Claire

    This report evaluates the Early Childhood Language-Centered Intervention Program in New York City Public Schools. The program was designed to promote the development of preschool handicapped students in a variety of areas. The program objective proposed that the target students would show statistically significant improvement at the .05 level in…

  3. Developing Programs for Intercultural Language Learning: Insights from Project Team Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    Feedback provided by ILTLP Project team members to participants in Phase 1 is analysed to provide insights into the process of developing programs. The questions provide a starting point for considering current programming practices in developing units of work and long- term programs to support intercultural language learning.

  4. Assessing Students' Language Proficiency: A New Model of Study Abroad Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jack Jinghui

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model that integrates an at-home preparation intensive summer program with a short-term, study abroad summer program to increase students' Chinese-language proficiency, cultural awareness, and personal career development. The results indicate that the at-home preparation program can build students' self-esteem and…

  5. Design and Implementation of an English as a Second Language Program in a Bilingual College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Clara Virgen

    This dissertation focuses on the development of a complete English as a Second Language (ESL) program for a bilingual college-level curriculum. It includes the theoretical basis, the linguistic sociological, and self-oriented goals, the personnel and funding needed for the program and the relationship of the program to the surrounding community.…

  6. Towards Promoting Biliteracy and Academic Achievement: Educational Programs for High School Latino English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alberto M.; Cadiero-Kaplan, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The Latino student presently faces many obstacles to achieve educational equity and excellence at the high school level. This article examines academic programming for Latino middle and high school English language learners (ELLs) and provides recommendations for addressing programming that promotes biliteracy policy and programming as a valued…

  7. Integrating Foreign Languages and International Exchanges in a Graduate Program of Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Michael; Sheehan, David

    The integration of foreign language education and international exchange into a French graduate program in business administration is discussed. The 3-year program results in the equivalent of a master's degree in management. The historical, educational, cultural, and socio-political factors in development of the program are reviewed, and key…

  8. Workshop on programming languages for high performance computing (HPCWPL): final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the deliberations and conclusions of the Workshop on Programming Languages for High Performance Computing (HPCWPL) held at the Sandia CSRI facility in Albuquerque, NM on December 12-13, 2006.

  9. Emergent Entities and Emergent Processes: Constructing Emergence through Multi-Agent Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilensky, Uri

    The use of programming language was studied in an eighth grade science classroom. The goal of the EMERGE curriculum is to enable students to understand the global patterns that they observe. EMERGE was used in an eighth-grade classroom of 12 students, with a range of abilities (3 had learning disabilities), in 21 sessions over 3 months. For the…

  10. The Uses and Limitations of Aptitude Testing in the Language Training Program of the Public Service Commission of Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todesco, Angie; Castonguay, Therese

    The uses of aptitude tests for entry to language training, diagnosis, placement for training, and certification are described. The Language Training Program of the Public Service Commission of Canada provides language training and testing in French and English to public servants required to use either official language. A variety of aptitude tests…

  11. The NINDS Hearing, Speech, and Language Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an overview of hearing, speech and language research being sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS). Described is research in such areas as infant audiological screening, auditory prostheses, larynx surgery, and developmental dysphasia. (LS)

  12. Introducing social cues in multimedia learning: The role of pedagogic agents' image and language in a scientific lesson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roxana Arleen

    The present dissertation tested the hypothesis that software pedagogical agents can promote constructivist learning in a discovery-based multimedia environment. In a preliminary study, students who received a computer-based lesson on environmental science performed better on subsequent tests of problem solving and motivation when they learned with the mediation of a fictional agent compared to when they learned the same material from text. In order to investigate further the basis for this personal agent effect, I varied whether the agent's words were presented as speech or on-screen text and whether or not the agent's image appeared on the screen. Both with a fictional agent (Experiment 1) and a video of a human face (Experiment 2), students performed better on tests of retention, problem-solving transfer, and program ratings when words were presented as speech rather than on-screen text (producing a modality effect) but visual presence of the agent did not affect test performance (producing no image effect). Next, I varied whether or not the agent's words were presented in conversational style (i.e., as dialogue) or formal style (i.e., as monologue) both using speech (Experiment 3) and on-screen text (Experiment 4). In both experiments, there was a dialogue effect in which conversational-style produced better retention and transfer performance. Students who learned with conversational-style text rated the program more favorably than those who learned with monologue-style text. The results support cognitive principles of multimedia learning which underlie the understanding of a computer lesson about a complex scientific system.

  13. International Education Programs: Access to the World and Its Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Education Programs Service (IEPS) administers 14 education programs. These programs are complementary in nature and designed to benefit a variety of audiences through training programs, research, start-up or enhancement projects, and fellowships. This paper provides brief descriptions of these programs.

  14. A Systematic Meta-Analytic Review of Evidence for the Effectiveness of the "Fast ForWord" Language Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gemma K.; Torgerson, Carole J.; Torgerson, David; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fast ForWord is a suite of computer-based language intervention programs designed to improve children's reading and oral language skills. The programs are based on the hypothesis that oral language difficulties often arise from a rapid auditory temporal processing deficit that compromises the development of phonological…

  15. Development of Reading Skills from K-3 in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners Following Three Programs of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…

  16. Race, Power, and Equity in a Multiethnic Urban Elementary School with a Dual-Language "Strand" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Dual-language education is often lauded for providing high-caliber bilingual instruction in an integrated classroom. This is complicated, however, when a dual-language program does not include all members of a school community. This article examines a "strand" dual-language program that attracts middle-class white students to a predominantly black…

  17. Implications of a Second-Language Program: The Coquitlam Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilton, Florence

    1974-01-01

    The experience of a British Columbia bilingual education program is outlined, with information about number of pupils, program objectives, staffing, teaching materials and cost. The program teaches French in a primarily English-speaking area. (CK)

  18. Nous Parlons Francais. An Elementary Foreign Language Summer School Program, Grades K-8. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Virginia; And Others

    The teachers' guide for a 4-week, 4-hours-per-day elementary school summer program in French consists of information and suggestions for program implementation and materials for use with students. The introductory section contains a general program description, including broad program objectives for language comprehension, language production, and…

  19. Interactive debug program for evaluation and modification of assembly-language software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An assembly-language debug program written for the Honeywell HDC-601 and DDP-516/316 computers is described. Names and relative addressing to improve operator-machine interaction are used. Features include versatile display, on-line assembly, and improved program execution and analysis. The program is discussed from both a programmer's and an operator's standpoint. Functional diagrams are included to describe the program, and each command is illustrated.

  20. Building Resources for a Spanish as a Second Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nancy; And Others

    The Minneapolis public elementary school program in Spanish is described. It was established in 1974 as a FLES program in kindergarten and first grade, later established as part of a fundamental school alternative, and recently expanded to a partial immersion program. Children ideally follow the program from kindergarten through sixth grade. A…

  1. English Language Instruction in the Philippine Basic Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizconde, Camilla

    2006-01-01

    The study discusses the dynamics English language instruction in the Philippine basic education curriculum. Although English enjoyed immense popularity as early as 1900s during the American entry to the country, its role in Philippine education has transformed gradually as the country undergoes political, social and economic reconstruction in the…

  2. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As the United States continues to be a nation of immigrants and their children, the nation's school systems face increased enrollments of students whose primary language is not English. With the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the allocation of federal funds for…

  3. Back from the Brink: Innovative Language Program Involves Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Fort Belknap College has embarked on an ambitious project in Montana to pull the Gros Ventre and the Assiniboine languages back from the brink. On the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, where there are two principal tribes, only a handful of Gros Ventre, or White Clay, members are still fluent in the traditional tongue. The "tribal college" already…

  4. Computer Programming Languages and Expertise Needed by Practicing Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doelling, Irvin

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the present engineering computer environment of a large aerospace company recognized as a leader in the application and development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing techniques. A review is given of the exposure spectrum of engineers to the world of computing, the computer languages used, and the career impacts…

  5. Photos Can Work Magic for Your Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Myrtle; Graham, Adele

    1987-01-01

    Class-made scrapbooks with mounted photographs (taken by the teacher) of hearing-impaired preschool students in previous learning activities were used to encourage students' language development and improve their communication skills. Suggestions for teachers regarding supplies and equipment and hints for taking good pictures are offered. (CB)

  6. Programmed Latin I, Part 1. Foreign Language: 7513.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide is designed to be used in conjunction with the text "Artes Latinae," units 1-10. The course focuses on the listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills as well as on cultural background material. Emphasis is placed on developing a positive student attitude toward language learning. The student moves at his own pace…

  7. English Language Learners Utilizing the Accelerated Reader Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Frank, II

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…

  8. Program Evaluation: English Grammar in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azimi, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    The present study wants to find out the reasons for choosing the current methods/techniques for teaching grammar and it also wants to investigate whether there is a relation between teachers' thinking and their actions in the class or not. For this reason, four language teachers were selected. The subjects were selected by non-random sampling.…

  9. Texts for Talking: Evaluation of a Mobile Health Program Addressing Speech and Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kaitlyn B; Wilkinson, Carol L; Wilkinson, M Jackson; Harris, Jamal; Whittle, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Speech and language delays are common developmental disorders that can lead to long-term academic and psychosocial impairments. Affected families often benefit from instruction in cultivating a language-rich home environment. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing text messaging to deliver developmental education to families. Parents of children aged 11 to 36 months with concerning language development were enrolled in a 3-month text messaging program. Pre-program and post-program telephone surveys were completed. All enrolled parents were of low socioeconomic status, and 48% were monolingual Spanish speakers. A total of 27 parents (87%) completed the program and follow-up survey. After program completion, parents reported increased awareness of language-promoting activities and local child development resources (P = .002; P = .005). Parents also reported increased engagement in language-promoting activities (P = .004). The marginal program cost was 37 cents per participant. Findings from this pilot study indicate that text messaging is a feasible, engaging, and inexpensive platform for delivering developmental education to families.

  10. Texts for Talking: Evaluation of a Mobile Health Program Addressing Speech and Language Delay.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kaitlyn B; Wilkinson, Carol L; Wilkinson, M Jackson; Harris, Jamal; Whittle, Amy

    2016-10-01

    Speech and language delays are common developmental disorders that can lead to long-term academic and psychosocial impairments. Affected families often benefit from instruction in cultivating a language-rich home environment. This study investigated the feasibility of utilizing text messaging to deliver developmental education to families. Parents of children aged 11 to 36 months with concerning language development were enrolled in a 3-month text messaging program. Pre-program and post-program telephone surveys were completed. All enrolled parents were of low socioeconomic status, and 48% were monolingual Spanish speakers. A total of 27 parents (87%) completed the program and follow-up survey. After program completion, parents reported increased awareness of language-promoting activities and local child development resources (P = .002; P = .005). Parents also reported increased engagement in language-promoting activities (P = .004). The marginal program cost was 37 cents per participant. Findings from this pilot study indicate that text messaging is a feasible, engaging, and inexpensive platform for delivering developmental education to families. PMID:27554765

  11. Adapting high-level language programs for parallel processing using data flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standley, Hilda M.

    1988-01-01

    EASY-FLOW, a very high-level data flow language, is introduced for the purpose of adapting programs written in a conventional high-level language to a parallel environment. The level of parallelism provided is of the large-grained variety in which parallel activities take place between subprograms or processes. A program written in EASY-FLOW is a set of subprogram calls as units, structured by iteration, branching, and distribution constructs. A data flow graph may be deduced from an EASY-FLOW program.

  12. Learner Performance in Mandarin Immersion and High School World Language Programs: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the Mandarin performance of elementary immersion program students and high school world language program students in the same school district. A cross-sectional design was employed to gather information on Mandarin proficiency of fourth and fifth graders and Level 4 and Level 5 (AP Chinese) high school students who took the…

  13. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  14. The Development and Use of a Language Arts Computer Software Program Appropriate for Special Needs Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jo-Anne

    For a school year, a language arts software program was used to help special needs children in Marblehead, Massachusetts who represented a range of learning disabilities and emotional, behavioral and physical disorders of varying degrees of severity. The program had three major components, entitled "Nouns,""Verbs," and "Adjectives." These…

  15. A Case Study of English Language Learners Who Have Successfully Completed a Healthcare Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud Smith, Theresa Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if English Language Learners (ELLs), who had successfully completed a healthcare education program, identified support services as having an impact on their academic success, and to identify what support services were critical to their successful completion of the healthcare education program. The…

  16. Imaginative Geographies: Identity, Difference, and English as the Language of Instruction in a Mexican University Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Olave, Blanca Minerva

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the "geographies of difference" at LI-NSU, a Mexican university program where English is the predominant language of instruction. The interactions between LI-NSU students and students from other programs are marked by themes of national identity and symbolically charged views of English, creating a contested "poetics of…

  17. Recasting the Foreign Language Requirement through Study Abroad: A Cultural Immersion Program in Avignon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Given the decline in French majors and enrollments in French junior year study abroad programs, educators have increasingly turned to short-term study abroad for first- and second-year students. These programs can motivate students fulfilling the language requirement, while also internationalizing the curriculum through interdisciplinary and…

  18. Pediatric Language Laboratory--A Day Care Center Program During 1977-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodson, Susan; And Others

    The document describes the Pediatric Language Laboratory, a day care center which provides day care and therapeutic services to 20 mild to moderate communicatively delayed children, 1 to 4 years old. Initial sections address program philosophy; program components (diagnostics, remedial services, typical services, parent education, and community…

  19. Determining the ROI of an Online English as a Second Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the methodology used to determine the return on investment (ROI) of an online English as a Second Language (ESL) program. The online ESL program was implemented in over 20 countries, and the scope of the analysis includes data from all participating countries. A form of ROI analysis had been conducted annually prior to the…

  20. Preparing Bilingual Speech-Language Pathologists: The Development of an Innovative Master's Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Harp, Wilhelmina; Munoz, Emma

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the two-year master's degree program for speech-language pathologists with a specialization in bilingualism (Spanish/English) developed at the University of the District of Columbia. First, the article describes the program's curriculum, clinical practicum, recruitment, and retention activities. It then discusses the student…

  1. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  2. Instructional Preferences of Students in Transnational Chinese and English Language MBA Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambacas, Mary; Sanderson, Gavin B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on Stage 1 of a learning and teaching project focused on students studying in the Chinese and English language delivery of transnational Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs of an Australian university. The programs are delivered using limited and intensive face-to-face teaching augmented by self-directed and…

  3. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2, phase 2: Introduction to plans programming. [user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, D. R.; Ishikawa, M. K.; Paulson, R. E.; Ramsey, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A user guide for the Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling (PLANS) is presented. Information is included for the construction of PLANS programs. The basic philosophy of PLANS is discussed, and access and update reference techniques are described along with the use of tree structures.

  4. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  5. Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner-Bond, Molly; Waring, Sara; Forte, Ellen; Crenshaw, Rhonda L.; Tindle, Kathleen; Belknap, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Department of Education (the Department) contracted with Synergy Enterprises, Inc. and edCount, LLC, to complete a study titled Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): Lessons From the Research and Profiles of Promising Programs. This study includes a review of the foundational literature related to LIEPs, case studies…

  6. The Effect of International Programs on On-Campus Foreign Language Enrollment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Rosco N.

    This paper describes the Northwest Council of Colleges' Mexico Program in Guadalajara, Mexico. Although the program gives Spanish more emphasis than any other single discipline, it is not fundamentally language-oriented, and it is not designed specifically for Spanish majors. The project of Central, Eastern, and Western Washington State Colleges,…

  7. SELF-INSTRUCTION IN THE NON-WESTERN LANGUAGES--A MANUAL FOR PROGRAM DIRECTORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOYD-BOWMAN, PETER

    THIS INSTRUCTIONAL MANUAL WAS PREPARED FOR COLLEGE ADMINISTRATORS WHO WISH TO ESTABLISH AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMS IN LANGUAGES NOT OFFERED IN THE REGULAR CLASS SCHEDULES OF THEIR INSTITUTIONS. SUCH PROGRAMS WOULD EMPHASIZE INDEPENDENT STUDY WITH COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE TEXTS AND TAPE RECORDINGS, AND PRONUNCIATION DRILLS SUPERVISED BY NATIVE…

  8. English as a Second Language Curriculum Resource Handbook. A Practical Guide for K-12 ESL Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano, Graciela; Rounds, Patricia

    Resources and strategies for teachers, administrators, and curriculum specialists working in K-12 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are presented in this handbook. The book is designed to provide information on the background of ESL programs as well as current information on publications, standards, and special materials. Contents are…

  9. Starting an English-as-a-Second-Language Program. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placer-Barber, Venus

    A guide to the development of programs in English as a second language (ESL) outlines the program development process and necessary considerations. A foreword describes the two major types of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students and notes differences between LEP students in general and their monolingual English-speaking counterparts. Chapters…

  10. Redefining the Boundaries of Language Study. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire, Ed.

    The papers in this volume fall into five categories. After "Introduction: Making the Invisible Visible" (Claire Kramsch), Part 1, "Theoretical Boundaries," includes "The Metamorphosis of the Foreign Language Director, or: Waking Up to Theory" (Mark Webber) and "Subjects-in-Process: Revisioning TA Development through Psychoanalytic, Feminist, and…

  11. Educating Emergent Bilinguals: Policies, Programs, and Practices for English Language Learners. Language & Literacy Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Ofelia; Kleifgen, Jo Anne

    2010-01-01

    This comprehensive and insightful book shows how present educational policies and practices to educate language minority students in the United States ignore an essential characteristic--their emergent bilingualism. In one accessible guide, the authors compile the most up-to-date research findings to demonstrate how ignoring children's…

  12. Filling the Void: Community Spanish Language Programs in Los Angeles Serving to Preserve the Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carreira, Maria M.; Rodriguez, Rey M.

    2011-01-01

    An extensive body of research documents the successes of immigrant groups in establishing community language schools. Studied within this tradition, Latino immigrant communities appear to come up short, because of the scarcity of such schools for Spanish-speaking children. However, as we show in this paper, Latino immigrant communities do have…

  13. Algorithm Building and Learning Programming Languages Using a New Educational Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anshul K.; Singhal, Manik; Gupta, Manu Sheel

    2011-08-01

    This research paper presents a new concept of using a single tool to associate syntax of various programming languages, algorithms and basic coding techniques. A simple framework has been programmed in Python that helps students learn skills to develop algorithms, and implement them in various programming languages. The tool provides an innovative and a unified graphical user interface for development of multimedia objects, educational games and applications. It also aids collaborative learning amongst students and teachers through an integrated mechanism based on Remote Procedure Calls. The paper also elucidates an innovative method for code generation to enable students to learn the basics of programming languages using drag-n-drop methods for image objects.

  14. Translator program converts computer printout into braille language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program converts print image tape files into six dot Braille cells, enabling a blind computer programmer to monitor and evaluate data generated by his own programs. The Braille output is printed 8 lines per inch.

  15. Teaching an Introductory Programming Language in a General Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…

  16. Evaluating an English Language Teacher Education Program through Peacock's Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun, Abdullah; Daloglu, Aysegul

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to draw attention to the importance of program evaluation for teacher education programs and to reveal the pre-service English teacher education program components that are in need of improvement or maintenance both from teachers' and students' perspectives by using Peacock's (2009) recent evaluation model in a…

  17. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  18. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the issues surrounding the comparison and selection of a programming language to be used in high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method used was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to high energy physics (HEP) applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The method assumes a knowledge of the requirements of current HEP applications, the data-processing environments expected to support these applications and relevant non-technical issues. The languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 99 (formerly 8X), Pascal and PL/1. Particular emphasis is placed upon the past, present and anticipated future role of FORTRAN in HEP software applications. Upon examination of the technical and practical issues, conclusions are reached and some recommendations are made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. 54 refs.

  19. Formal semantic specifications as implementation blueprints for real-time programming languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.

    1981-01-01

    Formal definitions of language and system semantics provide highly desirable checks on the correctness of implementations of programming languages and their runtime support systems. If these definitions can give concrete guidance to the implementor, major increases in implementation accuracy and decreases in implementation effort can be achieved. It is shown that of the wide variety of available methods the Hgraph (hypergraph) definitional technique (Pratt, 1975), is best suited to serve as such an implementation blueprint. A discussion and example of the Hgraph technique is presented, as well as an overview of the growing body of implementation experience of real-time languages based on Hgraph semantic definitions.

  20. The Marine Language Exchange Program: an International Approach to Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, A.; Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world's oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even fewer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences that address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including University of Washington (Washington), Eckerd College (Florida), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their ocean sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this preparatory immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad for 6 to 12 months to study marine sciences for full academic credit. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies.

  1. Concurrent extensions to the FORTRAN language for parallel programming of computational fluid dynamics algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, Cindy Lou

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to define multi-tasking software requirements for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computer architectures. The focus was on specifying solutions for algorithms in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The program objectives were to allow researchers to produce usable parallel application software as soon as possible after acquiring MIMD computer equipment, to provide researchers with an easy-to-learn and easy-to-use parallel software language which could be implemented on several different MIMD machines, and to enable researchers to list preferred design specifications for future MIMD computer architectures. Analysis of CFD algorithms indicated that extensions of an existing programming language, adaptable to new computer architectures, provided the best solution to meeting program objectives. The CoFORTRAN Language was written in response to these objectives and to provide researchers a means to experiment with parallel software solutions to CFD algorithms on machines with parallel architectures.

  2. Vector Pascal: a computer programming language for the FPS-164 array processor

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    Support for vector operations in computer programming languages is analyzed to determine if programs employing such operations run faster. The programming language Vector Pascal is defined and compared to Fortran 8X and Actus. Vector Pascal contains definitions for matrix and vector operations and the Vector Pascal compiler translates vector expressions. The Vector Pascal compiler executes on an IBM Personal Computer AT and produces code for a Floating Point Systems FPS-164 Scientific Computer. The standard benchmark LINPACK, which solves systems of linear equations, is transcribed from Fortran to Standard Pascal and Vector Pascal. The Vector Pascal version of LINPACK exploits vector operations defined in the language. The speedup of the Vector Pascal version of LINPACK over the Standard Pascal version is presented.

  3. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján

    2015-12-01

    The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  4. Russian Language Study in Leningrad: The CIEE Semester Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkelson, Gerald E.

    1977-01-01

    A semester study program for American students in Leningrad is described. Student selection, directors, participating schools, housing, courses and academic program, extra-curricular activities, and facilities are discussed. Suggested improvements included shorter class hours, fewer hours per week, lecture revisions, institution of required…

  5. A Primer of Programmed Instruction in Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, John B.

    1963-01-01

    The first part of this paper is a general introduction which defines programmed instruction, traces the history of the concept, and explains its basic ideas and terminology. Progress and problems in research and in evaluating programmed materials are also briefly considered, and a short selective bibliography is included in this first section. The…

  6. SPEECH AND LANGUAGE SCREENING IN A SUMMER HEADSTART PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MONSEES, EDNA K.; BERMAN, CAROL

    AS PART OF A COMPREHENSIVE HEALTH CARE PROGRAM, A TEAM OF MEDICAL AND HEALTH-RELATED SPECIALISTS CONDUCTED SCREENING EXAMINATIONS OF CHILDREN ENROLLED IN SUMMER HEADSTART PROGRAMS IN WASHINGTON, D.C. THE 286 CHILDREN EXAMINED WERE NEGROES AND RECENTLY IMMIGRATED INDIANS AND LATIN AMERICANS. TWO SPEECH PATHOLOGISTS AND THREE AUDIOLOGISTS FROM THE…

  7. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  8. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  9. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  10. The Value of an Interdisciplinary B.B.A.-B.A. Program in Language and International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Victor, David A.

    Eastern Michigan University's program in language and international trade has three features that distinguish it from other attempts to address the role of world business or language education: (1) the spirit of cooperation evident in the interdisciplinary or joint degree, (2) the equal importance given to foreign language and business education,…

  11. Effective Reading Programs for Spanish-Dominant English Language Learners (ELLs) in the Elementary Grades: A Synthesis of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Alan C. K.; Slavin, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    This review synthesizes research on English reading outcomes of all types of programs for Spanish-dominant English language learners (ELLs) in elementary schools. It is divided into two major sections. One focuses on studies of language of instruction and one on reading approaches for ELLs holding constant language of instruction. A total of 13…

  12. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras: ensayo metodologico (Notions on the Programming of Foreign Languages: Methodological Experiment)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Presents a computerized program for foreign language learning giving drills for all the major language skills. The drills are followed by an extensive bibliography of documents in some way dealing with computer based instruction, particularly foreign language instruction. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  13. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR THE SCHOOL DISTRICT ON ARTICULATION IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM, ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TO GRADUATE SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RUPP, THEODORE H.

    DESIGNED TO OBTAIN INFORMATION ON ARTICULATION OF LANGUAGE PROGRAMS IN THE UNITED STATES, ONE OF THESE QUESTIONNAIRES DEALS WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION IN THE ELEMENTARY, JUNIOR HIGH, AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS, THE OTHER WITH LANGUAGE STUDY AT THE UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE LEVELS IN COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES. SUBJECTS COVERED ARE--(1)…

  14. Medical computing in the 1980s. Operating system and programming language issues.

    PubMed

    Greenes, R A

    1983-06-01

    Operating systems and programming languages differ widely in their suitability for particular applications. The diversity of medical computing needs demands a diversity of solutions. Compounding this diversity if the decentralization caused by evolution of local computing systems for local needs. Relevant current trends in computing include increased emphasis on decentralization, growing capabilities for interconnection of diverse systems, and development of common data base and file server capabilities. In addition, standardization and hardware in dependence of operating systems, as well as programming languages and development of programmerless systems, continue to widen application opportunities.

  15. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  16. A phenomenographic study of the ways of understanding conditional and repetition structures in computer programming languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucks, Gregory Warren

    Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how computers function, both at the hardware and software level, is essential for the next generation of engineers. Despite the need for engineers to develop a strong background in computing, little opportunity is given for engineering students to develop these skills. Learning to program is widely seen as a difficult task, requiring students to develop not only an understanding of specific concepts, but also a way of thinking. In addition, students are forced to learn a new tool, in the form of the programming environment employed, along with these concepts and thought processes. Because of this, many students will not develop a sufficient proficiency in programming, even after progressing through the traditional introductory programming sequence. This is a significant problem, especially in the engineering disciplines, where very few students receive more than one or two semesters' worth of instruction in an already crowded engineering curriculum. To address these issues, new pedagogical techniques must be investigated in an effort to enhance the ability of engineering students to develop strong computing skills. However, these efforts are hindered by the lack of published assessment instruments available for probing an individual's understanding of programming concepts across programming languages. Traditionally, programming knowledge has been assessed by producing written code in a specific language. This can be an effective method, but does not lend itself well to comparing the pedagogical impact of different programming environments, languages or paradigms. This dissertation presents a phenomenographic research study

  17. English Language & Orientation Programs in the United States Offered by U.S. Institutions of Higher Education and Private Language Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sara J., Ed.; De Angelis, Carl, Ed.

    This directory describes over 800 preacademic intensive English Programs and English as a Second Language (ESL) courses open to international students at undergraduate and graduate levels. Listed by state first are Intensive English Programs, full-time preacademic educational programs offering at least 15 hours of intensive English classes each…

  18. Language Is the Key: Building Language with Picture Books and Play. A Training Manual To Accompany the Video Programs: "Talking and Books" [and]"Talking and Play."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notari-Syverson, Angela; Maddox, Mary; Cole, Kevin

    This training manual and two companion videotapes comprise an educational program for professionals and paraprofessionals who work with young children with language disorders. The program is particularly helpful in serving children from linguistic minority backgrounds and their families. The program's strategies are also appropriate for teachers…

  19. Language Is the Key: A Program for Building Language and Literacy. "Talking and Books" [and]"Talking and Play" Resource Guide [with Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kevin; Maddox, Mary; Lim, Young Sook; Notari-Syverson, Angela

    This training manual and companion videotapes comprise an educational program for professionals and paraprofessionals who work with young children with language disorders. The program is particularly helpful in serving children from linguistic minority backgrounds and their families. The program's strategies are also appropriate for teachers and…

  20. Talk it out: a conflict resolution program for preschool children with speech and language impairments.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Barbara; Gray, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Talk It Out was developed by speech-language pathologists to teach young children, especially those with speech and language impairments, to recognize problems, use words to solve them, and verbally negotiate solutions. One of the very successful by-products is that these same strategies help children avoid harming their voice. Across a school year, Talk It Out provides teaching and practice in predictable contexts so that children become competent problem solvers. It is especially powerful when implemented as part of the tier 1 preschool curriculum. The purpose of this article is to help school-based speech-language pathologists (1) articulate the need and rationale for early implementation of conflict resolution programs, (2) develop practical skills to implement Talk It Out strategies in their programs, and (3) transfer this knowledge to classroom teachers who can use and reinforce these strategies on a daily basis with the children they serve. PMID:23633173

  1. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  2. A survey of head and neck cancer curriculum in United States speech language pathology masters programs.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Hon K; Fallis, Michelle; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed speech language pathology (SLP) programs for head and neck cancer (HNC) training. Program directors of 242 American Speech-Language-Hearing Association accredited masters programs for SLP were contacted regarding curricular HNC material. Directors (n = 120) responded online: six included a required course in HNC, and all but two programs with no required HNC course included HNC topics in other required courses. Thirty-two programs were affiliated with a medical center and/or a teaching hospital. Programs that offered either a required course in HNC or elective courses on HNC were more likely to be affiliated with a medical center and/or a teaching hospital than programs that did not offer a required course in HNC (P = 0.043) or elective courses on HNC (P = 0.007), respectively. Few programs offer a required HNC course but most programs integrate HNC content into the required coursework. Potential strategies to incorporate HNC exposure into formal SLP programs are identified.

  3. Evaluation of English Language Development Programs in the Santa Ana Unified School District. A Report on Data System Reliability and Statistical Modeling of Program Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Destino, Tom; Karam, Rita

    In response to concern about the effectiveness of programs for English-as-a-Second-Language students in California's schools, the Santa Ana Unified School District, in which over 80 percent of students are limited-English-proficient (LEP) conducted a study of both the operations and effectiveness of the district's language development program,…

  4. Stan: A Probabilistic Programming Language for Bayesian Inference and Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Andrew; Lee, Daniel; Guo, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Stan is a free and open-source C++ program that performs Bayesian inference or optimization for arbitrary user-specified models and can be called from the command line, R, Python, Matlab, or Julia and has great promise for fitting large and complex statistical models in many areas of application. We discuss Stan from users' and developers'…

  5. Fourth and fifth generation programming languages. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Chorafas, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    This volume discusses the latest trends in OS, DBMS, and 4GL at both IBM and AT and T, and how the computing industry will be affected by these changes. It details advantages and short comings in its discussions on productivity in computer programming, leading software solutions, and main-frames converted to high productivity tools.

  6. THE LANGUAGE AND READING EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE SOUTHWEST EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OTT, ELIZABETH

    THE BASIC CONCEPTS USED IN DEVELOPING THE LANGUAGE AND READING EDUCATION PROGRAM WERE--(1) ALL HUMAN ORGANISMS ARE ESSENTIALLY ALIKE AND THEREFORE MAN'S BASIC NEEDS ARE THE SAME, (2) FUNDAMENTAL LIKENESSES EXIST IN ALL CULTURES, (3) CHILDREN FIRST INTRODUCED TO THE DIMENSIONS OF THEIR OWN CULTURE ARE READY TO MOVE TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE OTHER…

  7. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  8. A Proposed Program to Develop Teaching for Thinking in Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwehaibi, Huda U.

    2012-01-01

    Students' thinking is an integral part of English language pedagogy. Teachers need the pedagogical competence to teach thinking effectively. This research suggests a program to develop the teaching skills for thinking of pre-service teachers (fourth-year college students) in the English Department of the Faculty of Education at Princess Noura…

  9. American Sign Language-English Interpreting Program Faculty: Characteristics, Tenure Perceptions, and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreting education, which began as a community apprenticeship and vetting process, has within the last several decades moved into higher education. Most recently, the number of baccalaureate-granting ASL-English interpreting programs have continued to increase while the number of associate's degree…

  10. A Review of Research on Effective Community Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2010-01-01

    This article synthesized current research on effective communities for English Language Learners (ELLs). The findings are discussed under the following categories: parents, community resources, and peers. The results of the review indicate that parenting programs are effective, but they must be carefully developed and often require specific…

  11. Gender Difference in CALL Programs for English as a Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kuo, Ming-Mu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of gender differences on the application of CALL programs for second language acquisition. Gender difference is an important theme in linguistic education because it influences the design of curriculum, teaching method, instructional strategy, and students' learning processes. This study applied…

  12. French as a Second Language: Nine-Year Program of Studies (Grade 4 to Grade 12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The nine-year program of studies for French as a Second Language (FSL) is a legal document that specifies from Grade 4 to 12 what Alberta students are expected to acquire as attitudes and linguistic, cultural, and strategic knowledge as they develop and demonstrate their communicative skills. This document contains an introduction, a rationale,…

  13. A Perceptuomotor and Oral Language Program for Children Identified as Potential Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weimer, Wayne Robert

    This study sought to determine whether the de Hirsch Predictive Index Tests would accurately identify children who were potential failures in school. The study also investigated whether a perceptual-motor and oral language program would aid those children identified as potential failures. The Predictive Index Tests were administered to 645 first…

  14. Language Arts Grades 8 and 9. Teacher Resource Manual. Integrated Occupational Program. Interim-1989 Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Developed to assist classroom teachers in implementing the Grades 8 and 9 Integrated Occupational Language Arts program, this teacher resource manual is intended for use as a practical planning and instructional tool and has been designed for a minimum of 150 hours of instruction at each grade level. It contains: further information about the…

  15. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Foreign Language Education: Perspectives of College Students in a German Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Segler, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore and comprehend the role of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in foreign language learning by analyzing the perspectives of college students in a German immersion program at a liberal arts college in the Midwest. Data collection included 10 in-depth student…

  16. The 1959 Summer Russian Language Learning Program. Final Report of Testing Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carton, Aaron S.; Carroll, John B.

    Findings of the testing project carried out in the course of the 1959 Summer Russian Language Learning Program at Harvard University (Massachusetts) are presented. A number of students were selected for training at the Russian School at Middlebury College (Vermont) and the Summer Workshop in Russian at Indiana University. After a 6-week summer…

  17. Effective Professional Development Programs for Teachers of English Language Learners. Spotlight on Student Success. No. 803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2005-01-01

    One of our greatest educational challenges continues to be improving the education of English language learners (ELLs). Because many new teachers are underprepared and many veteran teachers wholly unprepared for teaching ELLs, school districts nationwide have initiated professional development programs for inservice teachers. In this article, the…

  18. Preparing a Nation's Teachers: Models for English and Foreign Language Programs. The MLA Teacher Education Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Phyllis, Ed.; Laurence, David, Ed.; Welles, Elizabeth B., Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the challenges involved in improving teacher education for faculty members, department chairs, administrators, and policymakers. The book includes the concrete experiences of 12 English and foreign language faculty members at different universities who studied their teacher preparation programs. It also offers an…

  19. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  20. A Reading Instruction Intervention Program for English-Language Learners Who Are Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Kai Yung; Heward, William L.; Heng, Mary Anne

    2006-01-01

    We used a multiple baseline across students design to evaluate the effects of an intervention program consisting of vocabulary instruction, error correction, and fluency building on oral reading rate and comprehension of five English-language learners who were struggling readers in a primary school. During the first intervention condition (new…

  1. Student Writing from NYC Programs in English for Speakers of Other Languages: September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Winston, Comp.

    This publication contains a collection of writings by New York City adult learners enrolled in English for Speakers of Other Languages programs. The writings focus on their feelings about and experiences with the World Trade Center attacks of September 11, 2001. Some of the titles include: "Why?"; "Sad Feeling"; "A Day of Remembrance"; "I Want to…

  2. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  3. Using the "Moodle" Learning Management System and "GREWPtool" Collaborative Tool for Teaching a Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire; Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Ibrahim, Dogan

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental study which has been carried out at the Near East University using the Moodle Learning Management System (LMS) together with two types of Web-Based Collaborative Tools (CTs): Standard CT and Advanced CT to create a virtual learning environment to teach programming languages. The aim of this study was to find…

  4. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  5. Detailed Analysis of Language Development of Preschool Children in ECE Program. Technical Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Brainard W.

    This report is concerned with the language skills category of objectives of the Early Childhood Education (ECE) Program. The Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Ability (ITPA) was the primary instrument used for evaluation of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children in three treatment groups: (1) mobile educational facility, TV, and paraprofessional, (2) TV…

  6. Evaluation of an In-Service Training Program for Primary-School Language Teachers in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uysal, Hacer Hande

    2012-01-01

    Despite the critical importance of in-service education programs (INSETs) for teachers' on-going professional development, educators often report problems concerning many INSETs. However, due to lack of systematic evaluation studies of INSETs in especially language education field, specific problems in these courses cannot be diagnosed, and they…

  7. The Changing Context for Sign Bilingual Education Programs: Issues in Language and the Development of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Connie; Leigh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The widespread implementation of newborn hearing screening and advances in amplification technologies (including cochlear implants) have fundamentally changed the educational landscape for deaf learners. These changes are discussed in terms of their impact on sign bilingual education programs with a focus on the relationships between language and…

  8. Auditory Perceptual and Language Development Training Program. Final Project Report 1969-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    Terminally evaluated was a 3-year (1969-1972) Title III Idaho project to develop an auditory perceptual and language development training program involving the screening of 657 children in grades 1 and 2 in four schools and a first grade demonstration class for 192 perceptually handicapped children. Of 346 children identified to have auditory…

  9. Globalisation of English Language Programs for Young Children in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    The specific purpose of education is to "prepare" children so that they are able to maximise their potential and participate in the society or community around them. In order for many Third World nations to access information technology, the provision of language programs, particularly English, has become necessary. However, in the implementation…

  10. Suncast Corporation Curriculum Guide, English as a Second Language for the Workplace. Worker Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keresztes-Nagy, Susan

    The curriculum guide is designed for a workplace education program for assembly line workers, inspectors, machine operators, packers, materials handlers, blenders, grinders, and trainers in a factory. The curriculum consists of instruction in English as a Second Language for the job, workplace communication, efficient and safe work habits, and…

  11. WORLD Program Description, Goals and Objectives. Vocational English-as-a-Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Cynthia

    A vocational English-as-a-Second Language program for limited-English-proficient adults enrolled in North Orange County Community College District courses was developed to meet the needs of this population. The limited-English-speaking population of the district is an immigrant and refugee population with people from a variety of language…

  12. REPORT OF EVALUATION OF KINDERGARTEN LANGUAGE AWARENESS PROGRAM AT STONEHURST ELEMENTARY SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    THE PRIMARY OBJECTIVE OF THIS PROGRAM HAS BEEN TO DEMONSTRATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF INTRODUCING CERTAIN LANGUAGE CONCEPTS IN KINDERGARTEN WHICH ARE NOT NORMALLY INCLUDED AT THAT LEVEL. SPECIAL EFFORTS WERE GIVEN TO MAKING THE CHILDREN AWARE OF THEIR SPEECH HABITS, LETTERS, WORDS, AND SENTENCES. VISUAL AND AUDITORY DISCRIMINATION SKILLS WERE…

  13. Combining Self-Explaining with Computer Architecture Diagrams to Enhance the Learning of Assembly Language Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Y.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of combining self explaining (SE) with computer architecture diagrams to help novice students learn assembly language programming. Pre- and post-test scores for the experimental and control groups were compared and subjected to covariance (ANCOVA) statistical analysis. Results indicate that the SE-plus-diagram…

  14. Program Participation and Academic Progress of Second Language Learners: Texas Middle School Update. Policy Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    This study examined program participation and academic progress of second language learners, following a cohort of Texas public school students from the school years, 1992-93 to 1999-00 as they progressed through the elementary and middle grades. Researchers examined the following: changes in Texas policy related to students with limited English…

  15. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  16. A Study of Linguistic, Perceptual, and Pedagogical Change in a Short-Term Intensive Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Karen

    This study investigates linguistic, perceptual, and pedagogical change (LPPC) in a short-term, study abroad English immersion program. It proposes the LPPC Interactive Model of second language acquisition based on Gardner's 1985 socioeducational model and Woods' 1996 beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge (BAK) structure. The framework is applied in a…

  17. A CLOSE LOOK AT THE IMPORTANCE AND PLACE OF TESTING IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    TESTING IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS BECAUSE THE NATURE OF AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING REQUIRES GREAT AMOUNTS OF FEEDBACK, REINFORCEMENT, AND VERIFICATION. TESTS CAN MEASURE APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT, CAN DIAGNOSE, AND, MOST IMPORTANT, CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE TEACHING TOOL. MANY TEACHING TECHNIQUES ARE EXCELLENT FOR TESTING AND SOME…

  18. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  19. Arkansas Department of Education Programs for Language Minority Students, 2005-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Families whose native language is not English have been arriving in Arkansas seeking employment in agriculture-related and other industries. School-age children from these families are relatively new to most of Arkansas school districts, and the educational programs necessary to meet their needs in many school districts are relatively new. Over…

  20. Toward a Capacity Framework for Useful Student Learning Outcomes Assessment in College Foreign Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John McEwan

    2016-01-01

    The educational impacts of mandated assessment in U.S. colleges is part of a growing research agenda focused on how methodologies of program evaluation best enable educators to improve teaching and learning. Accordingly, research has tried to identify the key aspects of evaluation/assessment "capacity" in college language departments…

  1. The Decision-Making Process in Language Program Placement: Test and Nontest Factors Interacting in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia; Burke, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    The use of tests has been targeted as a critical point in validity, which suggests that contexts for test use warrant closer investigation. This article describes a study of decision making during test use in the context of a university intensive English language program. Over a period of 2 1/2 years, data were collected by audio-recording…

  2. Grade 9 English Language Arts, Student Achievement Testing Program, 1985-86 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…

  3. English as a Second Language Teacher Resource Handbook. A Practical Guide for K-12 ESL Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudelson, Sarah, Ed.

    The handbook is designed as a practical reference for English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teachers, curriculum developers, teacher trainers, and student teachers. It provides basic information on the background of ESL programs and current information on publications, standards, and special materials for elementary and secondary school ESL. It does…

  4. Comparison of and conversion between different implementations of the FORTRAN programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treinish, L.

    1980-01-01

    A guideline for computer programmers who may need to exchange FORTRAN programs between several computers is presented. The characteristics of the FORTRAN language available on three different types of computers are outlined, and procedures and other considerations for the transfer of programs from one type of FORTRAN to another are discussed. In addition, the variance of these different FORTRAN's from the FORTRAN 77 standard are discussed.

  5. Implementing a Video Language Skills Program through the Use of Video Feedback for Developmentally Young Kindergarten Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Ysolene C.

    A practicum intervention that provided an intensive language acquisition skills program to kindergarten children performing below grade level expectation in language acquisition was designed, implemented, and evaluated. Parents were included through scheduled meetings and newsletters that were developed by the children. The program was designed…

  6. A Curriculum Guide for English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Center Programs in the Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's County Public Schools, Upper Marlboro, MD.

    A program and curriculum guide intended for teachers, counselors, and administrators concerned with English-as-a-second-language (ESL) instruction in Prince George's County public secondary schools is presented. The guide describes the intensive language program; academic and cultural problems often found within the school and related to the…

  7. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  8. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras; Ensayo metodologico (II) (Notions on Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages; Methodological Essay II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the prerequisites to programed language instruction, the role of the native language and the level of skill, and then explains materials and machines needed for such a program. Particular attention is given to phonetics. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  9. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  10. 76 FR 14954 - National Professional Development Program; Office of English Language Acquisition, Language...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... costs related to tuition, fees, and books for enrolling in courses required to complete the degree... grant programs, published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78486). Competitive... and helping to improve high school graduation rates and college enrollment rates for students in...

  11. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    PubMed

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine.

  12. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  13. The effects of program model and language on science TAKS scores among fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, Stephanie

    This study examined the conditions of learning allowing students in one classroom to succeed on the fifth grade science TAKS test whereas students in other classrooms on the same campus do not succeed. It focused on the relationship of program models, specifically as it pertains to the influence of language within the content area of science and student performance on the fifth grade science TAKS scores. To compare the academic achievement, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, in grade five students as a function of program model, the mean levels of achievement of students served by straight monolingual, 50/50 TWB (Spanish component of dual), 50/50 TWM (English component of dual) and 90/10 OWB programs were examined. The mean levels of achievement of students on the fifth grade science TAKS were also compared as a function of language of instruction and the language in which the test was administered to the students. The mean levels of achievement of students were also compared as a function of various teacher characteristics. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the statistical procedure used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that a statistically significant difference was present in TAKS science scores as a function of Program Model. Students in a Two-Way (dual) program model outperformed the students in the One-Way model. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of students as a function of teachers' area of certification, teachers' source of certification, teachers' first language, teachers' language of formal education, or teacher/student language match. In the analysis of teacher characteristics, students taught by teachers educated in the U.S. in grades K-12 significantly outscored the students taught by teachers educated in Mexico in grades K-12. Students taught by teachers with a master's degree significantly outscored students taught by teachers without a master's degree. The students

  14. Agent-based Bayesian approach to monitoring the progress of invasive species eradication programs

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Jonathan M.; Spring, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Eradication of an invasive species can provide significant environmental, economic, and social benefits, but eradication programs often fail. Constant and careful monitoring improves the chance of success, but an invasion may seem to be in decline even when it is expanding in abundance or spatial extent. Determining whether an invasion is in decline is a challenging inference problem for two reasons. First, it is typically infeasible to regularly survey the entire infested region owing to high cost. Second, surveillance methods are imperfect and fail to detect some individuals. These two factors also make it difficult to determine why an eradication program is failing. Agent-based methods enable inferences to be made about the locations of undiscovered individuals over time to identify trends in invader abundance and spatial extent. We develop an agent-based Bayesian method and apply it to Australia’s largest eradication program: the campaign to eradicate the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) from Brisbane. The invasion was deemed to be almost eradicated in 2004 but our analyses indicate that its geographic range continued to expand despite a sharp decline in number of nests. We also show that eradication would probably have been achieved with a relatively small increase in the area searched and treated. Our results demonstrate the importance of inferring temporal and spatial trends in ongoing invasions. The method can handle incomplete observations and takes into account the effects of human intervention. It has the potential to transform eradication practices. PMID:23878210

  15. Agricultural Extension Agents' Perceptions of Effective Teaching Strategies for Adult Learners in the Master Beef Producer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Harder, Amy; Carter, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study reported here was to explore and describe how Extension agents selected teaching strategies for adult audiences. Andragogy is hypotheses concerning the attributes of adult learners (Knowles, Swanson, & Holton III, 2005). Extension agents responsible for teaching the Master Beef Producer (MBP) program were purposively…

  16. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  17. Evidence-Based Programming: What Is a Process an Extension Agent Can Use to Evaluate a Program's Effectiveness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetsch, Robert J.; MacPhee, David; Boyer, Luann K.

    2012-01-01

    Extension agents and specialists have experienced increased pressure for greater program effectiveness and accountability and especially for evidence-based programs. This article builds on previously published evidence-based programming articles. It provides ideas that address three problems that Extension staff face with EBPs and that Extension…

  18. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations. PMID:26932571

  19. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    PubMed

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed.

  20. A Support Program for English as an Additional Language Nursing Students.

    PubMed

    Choi, Liza Lai Shan

    2016-01-01

    Canada is among the most diverse countries in the world. To provide meaningful health care, the Canadian health care system requires nursing health care teams reflecting this diversity. Meeting this demand should be a specific goal of Canadian nursing schools. Nursing students with English as an Additional Language (EALs) are graduating and passing national licencing exams at a lower rate than nursing students whose first language is English. It is the premise of the article that EALs require both academic and nonacademic forms of support during their years of nursing education. A literature review reveals that EALs facing academic crisis benefit from individual and group English language support, aimed at improving their understanding and use of English in an academic environment. Studies also suggest that group sessions help improve EALs' psychosocial functioning. This article provides an overview of the establishment and implementation of a proactive nursing support program, purposely designed to address the challenges faced by EALs. PMID:25288563