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Sample records for agent sodium bicarbonate

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p < 0.05). Base excess, pH and blood bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  15. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Peiper, J. Christopher

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  16. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants.

  17. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  19. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  20. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  1. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  2. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1996-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:11524863

  3. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1997-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:12017930

  4. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1996-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient.

  5. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1997-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient.

  6. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health.

  7. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  12. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  13. Effects of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate on lactating Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1989-02-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Orthogonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation vs. sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation. There were no differences among treatments for milk yield (34.9 kg/d), milk fat yield (.99 kg/d), 3.5% FCM (31.1 kg/d), or milk protein concentration (3.15%). There were no treatment effects on total chewing time. Milk fat concentration tended to be greater for cows fed sodium bicarbonate (2.92%) and sodium sesquicarbonate (2.89%) relative to control (2.82%). Relative to control, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation increased DM intake (22.0 and 22.7 vs. 21.4 kg/d), digestible DM intake (16.7 and 16.2 vs. 14.8 kg/d), digestible organic matter intake (16.0 and 15.5 vs. 14.3 kg/d); and apparent digestibility of DM (77.3 and 74.8 vs. 73.3%) and NDF (62.6 and 56.5 vs. 54.7%). Relative to sesquicarbonate, bicarbonate supplementation increased apparent digestibilities of CP (82.3 vs. 78.8%) and NDF, and decreased milk protein yield (1.06 vs. 1.11 kg/d). Sesquicarbonate was as effective as bicarbonate in alleviating milk fat depression and increasing intake of digestible organic matter. PMID:2539402

  14. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  15. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia.

  16. Alteration of oxygen tension and oxyhemoglobin saturation. A hazard of sodium bicarbonate administration.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B; Mantini, E L; Ruiz, B C

    1979-03-01

    The administration of sodium bicarbonate solution, which has been advocated for the treatment of metabolic acidosis, may have detrimental side effects. We evaluated oxyhemoglobin saturation and oxygen tensions in eight anesthetized swine before and after freshwater near-drowning and after a rapid intravenous infusion of 7.5% sodium bicarbonate solution (8 mEq/kg). After freshwater aspiration, arterial and venous oxygen tensions and oxyhemoglobin saturation decreased. Administration of sodium bicarbonate resulted in decreased venous and increased arterial, oxygen tensions. Arterial, but not venous, oxyhemoglobin saturation increased. These findings suggest that sodium bicarbonate caused a distinct leftward shift in the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve, which could impair tissue oxygenation. Therefore, to avoid detrimental effects, sodium bicarbonate should be administered slowly and in a dose sufficient just to correct metabolic acidosis. PMID:435039

  17. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  18. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  19. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  20. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  1. Use of high-dose epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate during neonatal resuscitation: is there proven benefit?

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, Myra H; Perlman, Jeffrey M

    2006-03-01

    For adults and pediatric age patients, high-dose intravenous epinephrine was recommended if standard-dose epinephrine failed to achieve return of spontaneous circulation. More recent trials suggest that high-dose epinephrine is not beneficial and may result in increased harm. There are no randomized clinical studies of high-dose versus standard-dose intravenous epinephrine in neonates. Routine use of high-dose epinephrine during neonatal resuscitation cannot be recommended. Although sodium bicarbonate has been used during neonatal resuscitation, the only randomized controlled trial of its use during brief neonatal resuscitation showed no benefit. Sodium bicarbonate infusion during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has several known and potential side effects. The use of sodium bicarbonate infusion should be discouraged during brief CPR. Whether sodium bicarbonate is beneficial for infants who require prolonged CPR despite adequate ventilation is unknown.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation and ingestion timing: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Bray, James; Towlson, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Although a considerable amount of literature exists on the ergogenic potential of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) before short-term, high-intensity exercise, very little exists on optimal loading times before exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation timing on repeated sprint ability (RSA). Eight men completed 3 (randomized and counterbalanced) trials of ten 10-second sprints separated by 50 seconds of active recovery (1:5 work-to-rest) on a nonmotorized treadmill. Before each trial, the subjects ingested 0.3 g·kg(-1) body weight of NaHCO3 at 60 (H1), 120 (H2), or 180 (H3) minutes before exercise. Additionally, the subjects were assessed for any side effects (gastrointestinal [GI] discomfort) from the NaHCO3 ingestion via a visual analog scale (VAS). Blood buffering was assessed using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, whereas repeated sprint performance and GI discomfort were assessed via a 1-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Blood-buffering capacity was not different at preexercise times (HCO3(-) [millimoles per liter] H1: 30.2 ± 0.4, H2: 30.9 ± 0.6, H3: 31.2 ± 0.6; p > 0.74). Average speed, average power, and total distance covered progressively declined over the 10 sprints; however, there was no difference between conditions (p > 0.22). The incidence of GI discomfort was significantly higher (p < 0.05) from preingestion at all time points with the exception of 180 minutes, whereas severity was only different between 90 and 180 minutes. Ingestion times (between 60 and 180 minutes) did not influence the blood buffering or the ergogenic potential of NaHCO3 as assessed by RSA. However, VAS scores indicated that at 180 minutes postingestion, an individual is less prone to experiencing significant GI discomfort.

  4. Dietary sodium bicarbonate as a treatment for exertional rhabdomyolysis in a horse.

    PubMed

    Robb, E J; Kronfeld, D S

    1986-03-15

    A 3-year-old mare repeatedly had clinical signs of rhabdomyolysis on mild exertion. Serum creatine kinase and aspartate transaminase activities were high at rest. Responses to dietary sodium bicarbonate were tested through 7 alternating periods of supplementation of a basal ration of timothy hay and oats. Physical signs; venous blood pH and gases; blood glucose and lactate; serum electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine; and urine pH were monitored before and after exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate raised resting venous blood pH and bicarbonate slightly and significantly increased urine pH from pH 7.46 to 8.2 (P less than 0.001). An exercise test included 5 minutes at the walk followed by 20 minutes at the trot. The exercise induced gait stiffness, muscle fasciculations, and muscle induration when the diet was not supplemented, but not when it was supplemented with sodium bicarbonate. Myoglobin was present in 16 of 21 urine samples after exercise during nonsupplemented periods, but only in 3 of 28 urine samples during supplemented periods (P less than 0.0001). Bicarbonate supplementation significantly decreased the responses of blood lactic acid, serum creatine kinase, and aspartate transaminase to exercise. Supplementation of the diet was associated with higher venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentrations throughout exercise. Dietary sodium bicarbonate apparently mitigated or prevented physical, chemical, and enzymatic characteristics of exertional rhabdomyolysis in this mare, possibly through its enhancement of buffering capacity in muscle tissue fluids.

  5. Haemodynamic and metabolic effects in diabetic ketoacidosis in rats of treatment with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Beech, J S; Williams, S C; Iles, R A; Cohen, R D; Nolan, K M; Evans, S J; Going, T C

    1995-08-01

    To examine factors determining the haemodynamic and metabolic responses to treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis with alkali, groups of anaesthetised and ventilated rats with either diabetic ketoacidosis (mean arterial pH 6.86-6.96, mean arterial blood pressure 63-67 mm Hg) or hypovolaemic shock due to blood withdrawal (mean pHa 7.25-7.27, mean arterial blood pressure 36-41 mm Hg) were treated with sodium chloride ('saline'), sodium bicarbonate or 'Carbicarb' (equimolar bicarbonate plus carbonate). In the diabetic ketoacidosis series, treatment with either alkali resulted in deterioration of mean arterial blood pressure and substantial elevation of blood lactate, despite a significant rise in myocardial intracellular pH determined by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These effects were accompanied by falling trends in the ratios of myocardial phosphocreatine and ATP to inorganic phosphate. Erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate was virtually absent in animals with diabetic ketoacidosis of this severity and duration. In contrast, in shock due to blood withdrawal, infusion of saline or either alkali was accompanied by a transient elevation of mean arterial blood pressure and no significant change in the already elevated blood lactate; erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate was normal in these animals. The effect of alkalinization in rats with severe diabetic ketoacidosis was consistent with myocardial hypoxia, due to the combination of very low initial erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, alkali-exacerbated left shift of the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve and artificial ventilation. No evidence was found for any beneficial effect of 'Carbicarb' in either series of animals; 'Carbicarb' and sodium bicarbonate could be deleterious in metabolic acidosis of more than short duration. PMID:7589873

  6. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key points Sodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance. Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level PMID:24150555

  7. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  8. Evaluation of powder mixtures and hydrophilic gastroretentive drug delivery systems containing zinc acetate and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Baki, Gabriella; Bajdik, János; Pintye-Hódi, Klára

    2011-03-25

    The aim of this study was to develop and study floating controlled drug delivery systems consisting of a model drug (zinc acetate dihydrate), different forms of a matrix-forming polymer (Metolose 90 SH) and sodium bicarbonate as an effervescent component. The proportions of Metolose and bicarbonate were varied, and the effects of the different ratios on the properties of the resulting powders and tablets were determined. The water uptakes of different powder mixtures were initially evaluated. These tests indicated the interaction of the active and effervescent agent, this phenomenon leading to an unpredicted increase in the amount of liquid taken up. This interaction was evaluated as concerns the degradation of the hydrophilic matrix system. The disintegration of tablets with different compositions revealed that this interaction increases the time required for the disintegration of these systems. The study demonstrated that the interaction of the components induced significant changes in the parameters of this new sensitive delivery system. In the last steps, the buoyancy and dissolution properties of tablets that appeared appropriate for the formulation of a controlled drug delivery system were investigated. PMID:21109379

  9. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransport occurs in rat kidney cortical membranes but not in rat small intestinal basolateral membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbuch, B; Stange, G; Murer, H

    1987-01-01

    Basolateral membrane vesicles were isolated from rat kidney cortex and small intestinal enterocytes. Both membrane preparations show ATP-dependent calcium uptake and cytochalasin B-sensitive D-glucose transport. In renal membranes, sodium influx is stimulated by bicarbonate; bicarbonate-dependent sodium flux is membrane-potential-dependent and inhibited by 4,4'-di-isothiocyanato-2, 2'-stilbenedisulphanic acid ('DIDS'). Small intestinal basolateral membranes do not show bicarbonate-dependent sodium fluxes. PMID:2825641

  10. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  11. Effects of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Michal L.; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C.; Hostetter, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Metabolic acidosis contributes to muscle breakdown in patients with CKD, but whether its treatment improves functional outcomes is unknown. The choice of dose and tolerability of high doses remain unclear. In CKD patients with mild acidosis, this study evaluated the dose–response relationship of alkali with serum bicarbonate, its side effect profile, and its effect on muscle strength. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single-blinded pilot study from March of 2009 to August of 2010, 20 adults with estimated GFR 15–45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and serum bicarbonate 20–24 mEq/L were treated during successive 2-week periods with placebo followed by escalating oral NaHCO3 doses (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mEq/kg per day). At each visit, handgrip strength and time required to complete 5 and 10 repetitions of a sit-to-stand test were measured. Results Each 0.1 mEq/kg per day increase in dose produced a 0.33 mEq/L (95% confidence interval=0.23–0.43 mEq/L) higher serum bicarbonate. Sit-to-stand time improved after 6 weeks of oral NaHCO3 (23.8±1.4 versus 22.2±1.6 seconds for 10 repetitions, P=0.002), and urinary nitrogen excretion decreased (−0.70 g/g creatinine [95% confidence interval=−1.11 to −0.30] per 0.1 mEq/kg per day higher dose). No statistically significant change was seen in handgrip strength (29.5±9.6 versus 28.4±9.4 kg, P=0.12). Higher NaHCO3 doses were not associated with increased BP or greater edema. Conclusions NaHCO3 supplementation produces a dose-dependent increase in serum bicarbonate and improves lower extremity muscle strength after a short-term intervention in CKD patients with mild acidosis. Long-term studies are needed to determine if this finding translates into improved functional status. PMID:23393105

  12. Determinants of oxygen uptake during sodium bicarbonate infusion.

    PubMed

    Patterson, R W; Sullivan, S F

    1978-09-01

    Steady-state passive hyperventilation alkalosis produces a predictable increase in oxygen uptake (VO2) proportional to the change in arterial pH (pHa) while variable changes in VO2 have been reported during alkali infusion. To compare metabolic with respiratory alkalosis 17 dogs were anesthetized with halothane and their VO2 response to respiratory alkalosis evaluated by hyperventilation. The pHa measured during this phase was duplicated during the later continuous infusion of NaHCO3 at which time either 1) ventilation was held constant at the control level, allowing arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) to rise as a consequence of the bicarbonate dissociation, or 2) PaCO2 was held constant by servo control of ventilation. Hyperventilation (pHa 7.6, PaCO2 13 Torr) produced an average increase in VO2 of 24%. During the bicarbonate infusion at constant ventilation (pHa 7.6, PaCO2 45 Torr) VO2 increased only 7%; however, when PACO2 was held constant by servo ventilation VO2 increased 21% above control. We conclude that respiratory and metabolic alkalosis produce similar increases in VO2 when steady-state acid-base conditions are achieved. PMID:29867

  13. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  14. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  15. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de; Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm(2) specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37 degrees Celsius, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs). A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL). The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively) compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative. PMID:20027444

  16. Control of blue mold of apple by combining controlled atmosphere, antagonist mixtures and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum, treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO2). The fruit were stored for 2 or 4 months at 1°C. The antagonists survived and their p...

  17. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations.

  18. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  19. Identification and membrane localization of electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters in Calu-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kreindler, James L; Peters, Kathryn W; Frizzell, Raymond A; Bridges, Robert J

    2006-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severely life-shortening genetic disease resulting from mutations in the gene for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Impaired bicarbonate secretion is a key component of CF-related pancreatic disease, but the role of impaired bicarbonate secretion in CF lung disease is less well understood. The submucosal glands of the conducting airways produce and secrete a complex airway surface liquid that lines the airway epithelium and plays a significant role in mucociliary clearance. The serous cell is the predominant cell type of the submucosal gland and a predominant site of CFTR expression. Calu-3 cells are a model of airway submucosal gland serous cells that demonstrates vectorial bicarbonate secretion in response to elevations in cAMP. Based on previously published measurements of unidirectional ion flux, pharmacological inhibition of short-circuit current and ion substitution studies, one can hypothesize the existence of an electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) in the basolateral membrane of Calu-3 cells that mediates bicarbonate entry from the interstitium. To test this hypothesis, we performed reverse-transcriptase PCR, western blotting, and surface biotinylation to identify and localize electrogenic NBCs in Calu-3 cells. Our data demonstrate that both pNBC1 and NBC4 mRNAs can be identified and that their protein products are expressed at the basolateral membrane of polarized Calu-3 cells. These data suggest that these transporters contribute to regulated bicarbonate secretion across Calu-3 cells and perhaps human airway submucosal glands.

  20. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. Results: A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I2= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I2= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I2= 0%; p= 0.51). Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy. PMID:26600623

  1. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  2. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    PubMed

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure. PMID:27628629

  3. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on cytokine secretion in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ori, Yaacov; Zingerman, Boris; Bergman, Michael; Bessler, Hanna; Salman, Hertzel

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of acidosis increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of acidosis by sodium bicarbonate may slow CKD deterioration. Inflammation, which is common in CKD, may be related to acidosis. Whether the slower rate of GFR decline following the correction of acidosis is related to changes in inflammatory markers is unknown. The current study examined whether correcting CKD-acidosis affected inflammatory cytokines secretion. Thirteen patients with CKD 4-5 and acidosis were tested for cytokines secretion from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at baseline and after one month of oral sodium bicarbonate. Following treatment with sodium bicarbonate there was no change in weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, albumin, sodium, calcium, phosphate, PTH, hemoglobin and CRP. Serum urea decreased (134±10-116±8 mg/dl, P=0.002), potassium decreased (5.1±0.4-4.8±0.1 mequiv./l, P=0.064), pH increased (7.29±0.01-7.33±0.01, P=0.008), and serum bicarbonate increased (18.6±0.4 mequiv./l to 21.3±0.3 mequiv./l, P=0.001). The secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased (2.75±0.25 ng/ml to 2.29±0.21 ng/ml, P=0.041). There was no significant change in the secretion of the other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-1ra. Thus, correcting acidosis in CKD with bicarbonate decreases IL-10 secretion. Its significance needs to be further investigated.

  4. Effects of different dosages and modes of sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Bleske, B E; Chow, M S; Zhao, H; Kluger, J; Fieldman, A

    1992-11-01

    Systemic acidosis occurs during cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The present study investigated the effect of different modes of sodium bicarbonate administration on blood gas parameters during CPR. Arterial and venous blood gases were obtained during 10 minutes of CPR which was preceded by 3 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation in 36 dogs. Following 1 minute of CPR, the animals received one of four treatments in a randomized and blinded manner: normal saline (NS), sodium bicarbonate bolus dose 1 mEq/kg (B), sodium bicarbonate continuous infusion 0.1 mEq/kg/min (I), and sodium bicarbonate bolus dose (0.5 mEq/kg) plus continuous infusion 0.1 mEq/kg/min (L+I). Eleven dogs completed NS, 8 B, 8 I, and 9 L+I protocol. Following NS infusion, both arterial and venous pH declined consistently over time. Significant differences compared with NS treatment in venous pH were observed at 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation (L+I, 7.27 +/- 0.05; NS, 7.15 +/- 0.05; B, 7.20 +/- 0.05; I, 7.24 +/- 0.04, each bicarbonate treatment versus NS, and L+I versus B, (P < .05). The B group had an elevated venous PCO2 (mm Hg) concentration following 6 minutes of ventricular fibrillation compared with NS, L+I, and I groups (81 +/- 14 versus 69 +/- 10 versus 68 +/- 10 versus 71 +/- 8, respectively, (P = .07). Arterial pH and PCO2 values showed a similar trend as the venous data with the L+I group demonstrating arterial alkalosis (pH > 7.45) at 12 minutes of ventricular fibrillation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress.

  6. Effect of dietary sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in pigs.

    PubMed

    Blank, R; Wolffram, S

    2005-06-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OA) is regarded as a causative agent for endemic nephropathy in farm animals and humans. Reabsorption of OA along the nephron results from nonionic diffusion and by carrier-mediated mechanisms indicating that urine alkalinization may help to accelerate OA excretion and thus reduce its toxicity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a dietary sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation as a means to increase urinary pH on the systemic availability and excretion of OA in pigs. Dietary supplementation of 2% NaHCO3 increased urinary pH (5.7±0.2 to 8.3±0.1) and daily urine volume (1108±276 to 2479±912ml) significantly. The systemic availability of OA and its dechloro-analog Ochratoxin B (OB) in the NaHCO3 group calculated as the area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) was reduced to 75 and 68%, respectively, of the control (P<0.05). This effect was mainly due to an accelerated elimination of OA and OB in the urine. The faster renal elimination might be explained by a reduced reabsorption of the ochratoxins by nonionic diffusion, and other H(+)-dependent mechanisms. Thus, urinary alkalinization might be an efficient means to partially reduce the toxic effects and carry-over of OA in pigs.

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Bowen, B K; Krause, W J; Ivey, K J

    1977-10-22

    Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens were taken from 15 healthy subjects before, during, and after intragastric instillation of one of the following isotonic solutions: saline; sodium bicarbonate; 600 mg aspirin suspended in sodium bicarbonate; and aspirin suspended in saline. On a separate day the same solutions were instilled, but gastric transmucosal potential differences were monitored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the biopsy specimens showed occasional mucous degranulation of mucosal surface cells, but no cell damage during instillation of sodium bicarbonate. Light microscopy studies 10 minutes after aspirin in saline showed damage in 20% of surface cells, with focal areas of cellular disruption and microscopic erosions, but only 3.4% of cells were damaged after aspirin in bicarbonate and there were no erosions. Electron microscopy showed a damaged honeycombed appearance of surface epithelium after aspirin in saline and a normal cobblestone appearance after aspirin in bicarbonate. Aspirin dissolved in bicarbonate failed to induce the usual fall in potential difference.These findings indicate that sodium bicarbonate in amounts equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda protects the gastric mucosa against aspirin-induced damage and prevents the usual fall in potential difference after aspirin. PMID:922417

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Bruce K; Krause, William J; Ivey, Kevin J

    1977-01-01

    Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens were taken from 15 healthy subjects before, during, and after intragastric instillation of one of the following isotonic solutions: saline; sodium bicarbonate; 600 mg aspirin suspended in sodium bicarbonate; and aspirin suspended in saline. On a separate day the same solutions were instilled, but gastric transmucosal potential differences were monitored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the biopsy specimens showed occasional mucous degranulation of mucosal surface cells, but no cell damage during instillation of sodium bicarbonate. Light microscopy studies 10 minutes after aspirin in saline showed damage in 20% of surface cells, with focal areas of cellular disruption and microscopic erosions, but only 3·4% of cells were damaged after aspirin in bicarbonate and there were no erosions. Electron microscopy showed a damaged honeycombed appearance of surface epithelium after aspirin in saline and a normal cobblestone appearance after aspirin in bicarbonate. Aspirin dissolved in bicarbonate failed to induce the usual fall in potential difference. These findings indicate that sodium bicarbonate in amounts equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda protects the gastric mucosa against aspirin-induced damage and prevents the usual fall in potential difference after aspirin. ImagesFIG 2FIG 3FIG 4 PMID:922417

  9. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms “bicarbonates” and “cardiac arrest”, limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  10. A new protocol using sodium bicarbonate for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Motohiro, Masayuki; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Tsujimoto, Satoshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Isono, Tsuyoshi; Sutani, Yasuo; Yuasa, Fumio; Iwasaka, Toshiji

    2011-06-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Although a previous study reported that pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding. We performed a prospective randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided using sodium bicarbonate. In total 155 patients with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) who were undergoing coronary angiography were enrolled. We assigned patients to sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate group, n = 78) or sodium chloride alone (chloride group, n = 77). Infusion of sodium bicarbonate at 1 ml/kg/hour continued from 3 hours before to 6 hours after coronary angiography. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline value or an absolute increase of ≥0.5 mg/dl, which appeared within 2 days of contrast. Baseline GFR was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Patients in the bicarbonate group had a higher GFR than those in the chloride group on day 2 (45.8 ± 13.4 vs 40.9 ± 14.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.031) and at 1 month (49.5 ± 14.7 vs 43.7 ± 15.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.019). CIN occurred in 10 patients (13%) in the chloride group but in only 2 patients (2.6%) in the bicarbonate group (p = 0.012). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can lead to retention of better long-term renal function.

  11. Long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation does not improve serum albumin levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Giungi, Stefania; Tazza, Luigi; Luciani, Giovanna

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis, a frequent event in hemodialysis patients, has been implicated as a potential cause of protein-energy malnutrition. Unfortunately, correction of metabolic acidosis by means of high bicarbonate concentration in the dialysate does not seem to lead to significant changes in nutritional parameters. The project was a single-arm, open-label, 12-month pilot study at a university-based tertiary care center aimed at evaluating whether correction of metabolic acidosis through long-term oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves serum albumin levels and other nutritional parameters in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Twenty highly acidotic hemodialysis patients patients were invited to consume an oral supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (1 g, thrice daily), for 12 months. Patients were followed at baseline and every month, until month 12. At each follow-up visit, dry body weight, BMI, blood pressure, presence of edema, venous bicarbonate, and serum albumin were measured. Total lymphocyte count, fasting total cholesterol and C-reactive protein were assessed every 2 months. At baseline and at 12 months, the subjective global assessment of nutritional status and the protein equivalent of nitrogen appearance normalized to actual body weight were determined. Plasma bicarbonate level rose from 18.1 +/- 2.7 to 22.1 +/- 4.5 mmol/l after 10 months (p = 0.001). Mean serum albumin levels were 3.8 +/- 0.2 mg/dl at baseline and 3.9 +/- 0.2 at the end of the study. Repeated measure ANOVA showed that there was no significant effect of bicarbonate treatment on serum albumin levels (p = 0.29), dry weight (p = 0.1), serum total cholesterol (p = 0.97), total lymphocyte count (p = 0.69), or C-reactive protein (p = 0.85). Mean subjective global assessment score was 4.53 +/- 0.37 at baseline and 4.58 +/- 0.54 at 12 months (p = 0.1). Mean nPNA (g/kg/day) was 0.86 +/- 0.05 at baseline and 0.85 +/- 0.08 at month 12. The present study demonstrates that long

  12. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  13. Recent Developments in the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate as an Ergogenic Aid.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Lars R; Gough, Lewis; Deb, Sanjoy; Bentley, David; Sparks, S Andy

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the current status of sodium bicarbonate as an ergogenic aid. It builds on previous reviews in the area. Current research would suggest that as an ergogenic aid, a 300 mg·kg dose of NaHCO3 can improve high-intensity exercise, within a range of exercise modalities, such as a single bout of supramaximal exercise, high-intensity intermittent activity, and skill-based sports. In particular, these benefits seem to be present to a greater extent within trained individuals. Despite this, there appears to exist a high intraindividual variability in response to NaHCO3, and therefore, the ergogenic benefits may not be induced during every exercise bout. Current thinking also suggests that athletes need to individualize their ingestion timings to maximize peak pH or blood bicarbonate to effectively maximize the performance effect, and this may allow individuals to attain the ergogenic benefits of NaHCO3 more consistently. PMID:27399820

  14. Failure of sodium bicarbonate to improve resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Guerci, A D; Chandra, N; Johnson, E; Rayburn, B; Wurmb, E; Tsitlik, J; Halperin, H R; Siu, C; Weisfeldt, M L

    1986-12-01

    To determine the value of sodium bicarbonate in resuscitation from ventricular fibrillation and the prevention of spontaneous refibrillation, sodium bicarbonate (1 meq/kg) or placebo was administered on a random basis to 16 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs 18 min after the induction of ventricular fibrillation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Defibrillation was attempted 2 min after the administration of bicarbonate or placebo. All animals were successfully defibrillated, but three of eight bicarbonate-treated and two of eight control animals died in electromechanical dissociation (p = NS). Spontaneous refibrillation occurred in three animals in each group (p = NS). Successful resuscitation was not dependent on treatment, arterial or mixed venous Pco2, or arterial or mixed venous pH but correlated strongly with coronary perfusion pressure (p less than .003). Spontaneous refibrillation occurred without relation to any identifiable variable. The gradient between diastolic aortic and right atrial pressures was 24 +/- 2 mm Hg in controls and 23 +/- 2 mm Hg in treated animals over the entire 20 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (p = NS). However, among animals successfully resuscitated, mean diastolic coronary perfusion pressure averaged 27 +/- 2 mm Hg compared with 20 +/- 1 mm Hg among those dying in electromechanical dissociation (p less than .02). For the final 2 min of resuscitation, after drug administration, these gradients were 31 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively (p less than .01). Microsphere determined myocardial perfusion correlated with the diastolic aortic-right atrial perfusion pressure gradient (r = .86) and was 0.43 +/- 0.03 ml/min/g in survivors and 0.22 +/- 0.01 ml/min/g in nonsurvivors (p less than .01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3022965

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05), pH (P<0.05) and strong ion difference (P<0.05) drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, P<0.05) while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24±0.01 to 7.53±0.03, P<0.05). When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05) so that blood lactate was higher (2.9±1 mmol/l vs. 1.0±0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively). The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05). Conclusions pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load. PMID:23029373

  16. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. PMID:20977701

  17. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Ktenopoulos, Nikolaos; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH > 7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis.

  18. Hypertension corrected by discontinuing chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion. Subsequent transient hypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Lowder, S C; Brown, R D

    1975-02-01

    A 52 year old man with a long history of marked hypertension, peptic ulcer disease, nephrocalcinosis and intermittent hypercalcemia was referred to be evaluated for primary aldosteronism suspected on the basis of low plasma renin activity, hypokalemia and blood pressure responsive to spironolactone. Aldosterone excretion, however, was extremely low. Alkaluria, high urinary sodium excretion and hypercalciuria were observed. The patient admitted to chronic ingestion of large amounts of baking soda. Upon cessation of alkali abuse, his blood pressure fell dramatically; orthostatic hypotension, concomitant azotemia, hemoconcentration, hyperkalemia and weight loss occurred. Despite dramatic elevation in plasma renin activity, urinary aldosterone excretion remained low during this period. Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion was intact. All abnormalities of sodium, potassium and aldosterone subsequently returned to normal. A 10 day challenge with oral sodium bicarbonate was associated with a rise in blood pressure, but serum calcium remained normal. The patient remains normotensive 15 months after discontinuing alkali abuse. PMID:1115072

  19. The effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on the vasopressor effect of high-dose epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine.

    PubMed

    Bleske, B E; Rice, T L; Warren, E W; De Las Alas, V R; Tait, A R; Knight, P R

    1993-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is administered during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for the treatment of systemic acidemia. However, the effect of administering standard-dose sodium bicarbonate on the vasopressor effect of epinephrine is unknown. This study compared the effects of sodium bicarbonate or normal saline on the vasopressor effect of epinephrine in 18 pigs. After 10 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation, CPR was started using a pneumatic chest compression device. Two minutes after the start of CPR, sodium bicarbonate (1 mEq/kg) or normal saline (1 mL/kg) was administered into the right ventricule followed 1 minute later by epinephrine (0.2 mg/kg). Defibrillation was attempted at 8 minutes of CPR (18 minutes of ventricular fibrillation). Results demonstrated no significant differences in aortic systolic, aortic diastolic, or coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) between the two groups (1 minute after epinephrine, CPP was 22.6 +/- 13.3 mm Hg versus 21.1 +/- 20.7 mm Hg for the sodium bicarbonate and normal saline groups, respectively). However, when the data were stratified according to pH < 7.4 and pH > 7.4, the peak change in CPP was 12.7 +/- 21 mm Hg when pH < 7.4 and was 5.2 +/- 7.4 when pH > 7.4 (P = .33). Resuscitation was also similar between the two groups (two of nine for sodium bicarbonate and one of nine for normal saline). In conclusion, the standard recommended dose of sodium bicarbonate did not alter the vasopressor effect of epinephrine or resuscitation compared with normal saline in this closed chest model of ventricular fibrillation and CPR.

  20. Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.

    PubMed

    Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde

    2014-12-01

    Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p < .001). Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion resulted in marked hypoglycemia (< 3.5 mmol · l(-1)) throughout the first quarter, coincident with impaired sprinting (+0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .01) and layup shooting performance (8.5/11 versus 10.3/11 baskets; p < .01). However, ingestion of either carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate before exercise offset fatigue such that sprinting performance was maintained into the final quarter relative to placebo (Study A: -0.07 ± 0.04 second; p < .01 and Study B: -0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .02), although neither translated into improved skilled (layup shooting) performance. This basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced

  1. Physiological responses in swine treated with water containing sodium bicarbonate as a prophylactic for gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Cole, J T; Argenzio, R A; Eisemann, J H

    2004-09-01

    Maintenance of gastric pH above 4.0 aids the prevention of bile acid-mediated ulcerative damage to the pars esophageal tissue in pigs. One means of doing so is the addition of buffering compounds, such as sodium bicarbonate, to the water supply; however, any potential physiological effect of buffer consumption has yet to be determined. Experiment 1 tested the acute effects of buffer addition to the water supply on systemic acid-base and electrolyte balance in swine (BW 40.7 +/- 3.0 kg). Consumption of water calculated to a 200 mOsm solution with sodium bicarbonate for 24 h increased (P < 0.05) blood Na+, HCO3(-), and pCO2, although these effects were all within physiologically tolerable levels. Urine pH and Na+ excretion increased (P < 0.001) following the consumption of NaHCO3, with Na+ concentration almost threefold higher in treated pigs compared with controls. Experiment 2 determined the chronic systemic effects of buffer consumption by measuring blood and urine variables, with pigs consuming NaHCO3-treated water throughout. Water consumption increased (P < 0.001) during buffer consumption, although intake levels remained within normal ranges. Blood pH levels were not affected by long-term consumption of dietary buffer; however, blood HCO3(-) (P < 0.05), Na+, and pCO2 (P < 0.01) increased. Urine pH and urine Na+ concentration increased (P < 0.01) in buffer-treated compared with control animals. Results indicate that sodium bicarbonate can safely be added to the water supply for pigs, with no clinically relevant alterations in acid-base balance because the animals readily compensate for buffer intake.

  2. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  4. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments. PMID:24031511

  5. Quantitative analysis of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Shailesh; Kalyanasundaram, Sivasubramanian; Balasubramanian, Venkatraman

    2013-08-01

    An analytical methodology is proposed based on constant ratio and absorbance correction methods to quantify sodium carbonate, Na₂CO₃ (1450 cm⁻¹), and sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO₃ (1000 cm⁻¹, 1923 cm⁻¹), in solid mixtures using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Potassium ferricyanide, K₃Fe(CN)₆ (2117cm⁻¹), was used as an internal standard to get characteristic parameters. NaHCO₃ was quantified using the constant ratio method. Spectral interference of NaHCO₃ in Na₂CO₃ (1450 cm⁻¹) was corrected using the absorbance correction method. The corrected absorbance was successfully applied to quantify Na₂CO₃ (1450 cm⁻¹) in the mixture using the constant ratio method. The results obtained for simulated samples were satisfactory (relative standard deviation less than 7%) for all samples.

  6. Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone.

  7. Ventricular Tachycardia or not? An Unexpected Reason of Wide QRS Complex Tachycardia in a Young Healthy Man: Sodium Bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Eyuboglu, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is life-threatening subgroup of wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT). VT is usually associated with structural heart diseases, but it can occur in the absence of any cardiovascular diseases. Adverse cardiac effect of sodium bicarbonate in healthy subjects is not well described. A 30-year-old healthy man with excessive intake of sodium bicarbonate-related VT is presented. He was using sodium bicarbonate during last 2 months to lose weight. He has no risk factors and any cardiovascular or systemic diseases. After intravenous administration of amiodarone, tachycardia ended and his rhythm converted to sinus rhythm with normal electrocardiogram. Patient is asymptomatic, and no VT was observed without any medications at 1 year of follow-up.

  8. Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Doepel, L; Hayirli, A

    2011-01-01

    Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow.

  9. Transport of butyrate across the isolated bovine rumen epithelium--interaction with sodium, chloride and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Møller, P D; Skadhauge, E

    1999-08-01

    The Ussing chamber technique was used for studying unidirectional fluxes of 14C-butyrate across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro. Significant amounts of butyrate were absorbed across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro, without any external driving force. The paracellular pathway was quantitatively insignificant. The transcellular pathway was predominately voltage-insensitive. The serosal to mucosal (SM) pathway was regulated by mass action, whereas the mucosal to serosal (MS) pathway further includes a saturable process, which accounted for 30 to 55% of the MS flux. The studied transport process for 14C-butyrate across the epithelium could include metabolic processes and transport of 14C-labelled butyrate metabolites. The transport of butyrate interacted with Na+, Cl- and HCO3-, and there was a linear relationship between butyrate and sodium net transport. Lowering the sodium concentration from 140 to 10 mmol l-1 decreased the butyrate MS flux significantly. Amiloride (1 mmol l-1) did, however, not reduce the butyrate flux significantly. Chloride concentration in itself did not seem to influence the transport of butyrate, but chloride-free conditions tended to increase the MS and SM flux of butyrate by a DIDS-sensitive pathway. DIDS (bilateral 0.5 mmol l-1) did further decrease the butyrate SM flux significantly at all chloride concentrations. Removing bicarbonate from the experimental solutions decreased the MS and increased the SM flux of butyrate significantly, and abolished net butyrate flux. There were no significant effects of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamide (bilateral 1.0 mmol l-1). The results can be explained by a model where butyrate and butyrate metabolites are transported both by passive diffusion and by an electroneutral anion-exchange with bicarbonate. The model couples sodium and butyrate via CO2 from metabolism of butyrate, and intracellular pH.

  10. Response in two commercial Holstein herds to addition of sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets.

    PubMed

    Bath, D L; Bishop, S E; Peterson, N G; Hight, W B; De Peters, E J

    1985-07-01

    Feeding trials were conducted in two commercial dairy herds to evaluate the addition of .8% sodium bicarbonate to alfalfa hay-based diets. Approximately half of each herd served as controls and the other half was fed the same diet with sodium bicarbonate. A total of 1280 Dairy Herd Improvement Association lactation records were obtained in the two herds during the trials. Cows in herd 1 were milked three times daily and cows in herd 2 were milked twice daily. In herd 1, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 7491 and 7748 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8363 and 8791 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8713 and 9562 kg/cow. There were no differences in milkfat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. In herd 2, milk production from control and bicarbonate groups was: first lactation cows, 6800 and 7158 kg/cow; second lactation cows, 8487 and 8082 kg/cow; and third and higher lactation cows, 8807 and 8216 kg/cow. First lactation cows fed sodium bicarbonate had a lower milk fat percentage than controls. There were no other differences in milk fat or solids-not-fat percentages between treatment groups. PMID:2993391

  11. Interactions in the solid state. I: Interactions of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid under compressed conditions.

    PubMed

    Usui, F; Carstensen, J T

    1985-12-01

    The interaction of NaHCO3 and tartaric acid in powder mixtures and compressed tablets has been studied. It has been found that in an open system the reaction is simply a decarboxylation of NaHCO3 and that the effect of compression on the reaction rate can be attributed to the brittle fracture (and subsequent surface area increase) that occurs on compaction. In a closed system the decomposition of the mixture is an interaction between the acid and the base, and it is mediated by the amount of moisture in the system. This latter is a product of reaction, and a suitable kinetic scheme is described for this. It is shown that "curing" the sodium bicarbonate by heating it to, e.g., 90 degrees C stabilizes the system by virtue of the formation of surface Na2CO3, which acts as a moisture scavenger.

  12. Characterization of physical, thermal and chemical contributions of sodium bicarbonate particles in extinguishing counterflow nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Chelliah, H.K.; Krauss, R.H.; Zhou, H.; Lentati, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Based on laminar, nonpremixed methane-air flames established in a counterflow field, the flame extinction effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate particles is investigated here, both experimentally and numerically. In experiments, particles are separated into varying sizes (with the range of each size group approximately 10 {micro}m), and are introduced with the air stream. Flame extinction strain rates estimated using the measured nozzle exit velocities and separation distance are reported, as well as limited comparisons with LDV data (latter are mainly for calibration of the system). Numerical flame extinction results are also reported using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model previously developed for characterization of the flame extinction mechanism of fine-water droplets in a counterflow field. Comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates a similar trend with particular size variation, but uncertainties in the particle decomposition model employed precludes any absolute comparisons at this time.

  13. Effect of Sodium bicarbonate on Fire behaviour of tilled E- Glass Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, S.; Devendra, K.; Bharath, K. N.

    2016-09-01

    Composites such as fibre reinforced polymers give us the good mechanical properties, but their fire behaviour is not appreciable and needs to be improved. In this work, E- glass fiber is used as a reinforcement material and Epoxy resin is used as a matrix with particulate sodium bi-carbonate (NaHCO3) is used as additive. The hand lay-up technique is adopted for the development of composites by varying percentage of additive. All the tests were conducted according to ASTM standards to study the Fire behaviour of the developed composites. The different fire properties like Ignition time, mass loss rate and flame propagation rate of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) with NaHCO3 are compared with neat FRPs. It is found that the ignition time increases as the percentage of additive is increased.

  14. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted.

  15. Investigation of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and water systems for saturated solar ponds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-28

    The overall objective of this study was to gather relevant data primarily from the published literature to investigate the technical feasibility of using a Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaHCO/sub 3/ mixture for a saturated solar pond. This objective was accomplished by a literature search and review of existing chemical information and by performing simple chemistry experiments in the laboratory. Information on density, solubility, phase diagram, equilibrium compositions, reaction rate constant, equilibrium constant, diffusion coefficient, vapor pressure and potentially useful additives is compiled. It is concluded that even though both the saturation density and solubility increase with temperature for trona, it is not chemically stable either at room temperature or higher temperatures (80/sup 0/C). Therefore, as is, trona is not suitable for use in a saturated solar pond. From the literature it has been found that sugar and gum can retard the decomposition of bicarbonate to carbonate in the mixture. Nevertheless, trona is a very attractive solute for an unsaturated solar pond. A laboratory unsaturated pond with a stable density gradient has worked without any problems for about two months at InterTechnology/Solar Corporation.

  16. Control of blue mold decay of apple during commercial controlled atmosphere storage with yeast antagonists and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of two yeast antagonists, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus laurentii, originally isolated from apples and having superior biocontrol activity against blue mold of apple over individual application of these yeasts, were used in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in a pilot ...

  17. Sodium bicarbonate infusion for prevention of acute kidney injury: no evidence for superior benefit, but risk for harm?

    PubMed

    Schiffl, Helmut

    2015-02-01

    The best "treatment" of acute kidney injury (AKI) is prevention. Patients who are at high risk of AKI should have an assessment of their volume status and receive appropriate volume expansion. The most effective type of intravenous fluid remains unclear. Innumerable studies have compared sodium bicarbonate and isotonic saline and have combined fluid hydration with pharmacological interventions, particularly N-acetyl-cysteine. However, abundant systematic reviews and meta-analyses have provided conflicting conclusions and have recognized a significant degree of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias. Most studies comparing intravenous sodium bicarbonate and saline were small. They often enrolled patients with a low risk for AKI, yielding low serious events (renal replacement therapy), and used different protocols for administration of fluids. Based on current literature, intravenous sodium bicarbonate does not seem to be more efficient than saline for the prevention of contrast-media-induced AKI, cardiac surgery-associated AKI, pigment nephropathy or septic AKI. However, some cohort studies or prospective randomized trials did track and report serious adverse events, such as higher rates of AKI or higher in-hospital mortality. At present, it should be concluded that the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate administration to prevent AKI should be evaluated further in multicenter randomized double-blind trials rather than adopted into routine clinical practice.

  18. Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

    2011-08-01

    Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

  19. Current Status of Sodium Bicarbonate in Coronary Angiography: An Updated Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ali-Hassan-Sayegh, Sadegh; Mirhosseini, Seyed Jalil; Rahimizadeh, Elham; Ghodratipour, Zahra; Sarrafan-Chaharsoughi, Zahra; Dehghan, Ali Mohammad; Lotfaliani, Mohammad Reza; Rezaeisadrabadi, Mohammad; Kayvanpour, Elham; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Zeriouh, Mohamed; Weymann, Alexander; Sabashnikov, Anton; Popov, Aron-Frederik

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review with meta-analysis sought to determine comparison of efficacy and safety of hydration with sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride on contrast induced nephropathy and clinical outcomes. We searched major electronic databases for studies in randomized controlled trials. A value of P < 0.1 for Q test or I2 > 50% indicated significant heterogeneity between the studies. Literature search of all databases retrieved 650 studies. 29 studies enrolled in meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated about the incidence of CIN (OR of 0.718; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.85; P = 0.000), requirement of hemodialysis (OR of 1.00; 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.01; P = 0.9), mean changes of serum creatinine (WMD of 2.321; 95% CI: 1.995 to 2.648; P = 0.000), length of hospital stays (WMD of −0.774; 95% CI: −1.65 to 0.10; P = 0.08), major adverse cardiovascular events (OR = 1.075, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.95; P = 0.8), and mortality (OR of 0.73; 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.26; P = 0.2). Overall, hydration with sodium bicarbonate could significantly reduce CIN and the length of hospital stay compared to sodium chloride. In addition NAC added as a supplement to sodium bicarbonate could increase prophylactic effects against nephropathy. PMID:25973282

  20. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of

  1. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments.

  2. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  3. Electrochemical concentration and purification of spent sodium bicarbonate blasting media. Final report, 30 December 1994--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.D.; Hicks, R.E.; Gold, H.

    1995-08-21

    The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electrochemical cell containing a Nafion cation exchange membrane. Energy consumption was 2 kWh per pound of sodium bicarbonate treated and could be reduced by a factor of two by operating the cell at higher flow rates. The proposed treatment train will essentially eliminate the need for off-site waste disposal, reducing the quantity of solid hazardous waste by over 99 percent and completely eliminating all liquid hazardous wastes. The capital costs of an electrochemical treatment system was estimated to be $19,400 for a plant sized to treat 25 lb/day blast media. Estimated operating costs amount to $2,270/yr, some 90 percent less than the $26,850/yr needed for makeup of the blast media and off-site waste disposal when treatment is not used. The savings of $24,580/yr correspond to a very short payback period of 0.8 years (9.5 months) for the capital cost. It was concluded that by conserving resources and eliminating off-site waste disposal, treating the spent blast media has the potential for significantly reducing the overall costs for depainting.

  4. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice.

  5. Combination of Kluyveromyces marxianus and sodium bicarbonate for controlling green mold of citrus fruit.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Rizwan-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Lai, Kaiping; Qu, Fei; Zhang, Yanbo

    2011-12-01

    Biocontrol efficacy of an antagonistic yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus was evaluated individually or in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) against green mold of citrus fruit caused by Penicillium digitatum. Their effects on postharvest quality of citrus fruit were also investigated. The results indicated that the antagonistic activity of K. marxianus at 1×10⁸ CFU/mL on green mold of citrus fruit was enhanced by 2% SBC treatment. In artificial inoculation trials, disease control after 3 and 6 days, respectively, with the mixture of K. marxianus and 2% SBC (18.33%, 58.33%) was significantly improved over that obtained with K. marxianus (41.67%, 70.00%) or SBC (43.33%, 81.67%) alone. The combination of K. marxianus with SBC was as effective as the imazalil treatment in natural infection trials, which gave about 90% control of green mold. Addition of 2% SBC significantly stimulated the growth of K. marxianus in citrus fruit wounds after 72 h. Moreover, K. marxianus, SBC and their combination did not impair quality parameters including weight loss, fruit firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid at 4 °C for 30 days followed by 20 °C for 15 days. These results suggested that the use of SBC is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of K. marxianus for the postharvest green mold of citrus fruit.

  6. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on maximal sprint swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of extracellular buffer sodium bicarbonate (SB) and intracellular buffer beta-alanine (BA) on maximal sprint swimming. Methods Thirteen competitive male swimmers completed 4 different treatments (placebo [PL], SB, BA + PL, and BA + SB) in a crossover procedure. PL or SB supplementation (0.3 g/kg body weight) was ingested 60 min before two maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 12-min between each swim. Because of the known long washout period for carnosine, four weeks of BA supplementation (4.8 g per day) was started after the first week of PL or SB supplementation and performance testing. Results The first maximal swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 1.5 s more (p < 0.05) in PL than in SB. Blood pH values were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the SB and in the BA + SB groups compared to the PL and BA + PL values. There were no differences in peak blood lactate between the treatments. Conclusion Supplementing with SB prior to performing maximal sprint swimming with repetitions under 60 s improves performance. However, co-supplementation with SB and BA did not confer any added benefit on maximal swim performance. PMID:24215679

  7. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  8. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Skaar, Don

    2014-09-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO(3) rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO(3) (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  9. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a sodium bicarbonate cotransporter from guinea-pig parotid glands.

    PubMed

    Koo, Na-Youn; Li, Jingchao; Hwang, Sung Min; Choi, Se-Young; Lee, Sung Joong; Oh, Seog-Bae; Kim, Joong-Soo; Lee, Jong Heun; Park, Kyungpyo

    2006-04-21

    We recently found that the concentration of HCO3- in guinea-pig saliva is very similar to that of human saliva; however, the entity that regulates HCO3- transport has not yet been fully characterized. In order to investigate the mechanism of HCO3- transport, we identified, cloned, and characterized a sodium bicarbonate (Na(+)/HCO3- cotransporter found in guinea-pig parotid glands (gpNBC1). The gpNBC1 gene encodes a 1079-amino acid protein that has 95% and 96% homology with human and mouse parotid NBC1, respectively. Oocytes expressing gpNBC1 were exposed to HCO3- or Na(+)-free solutions, which resulted in a marked change in membrane potentials (V(m)), suggesting that gpNBC1 is electrogenic. Likewise, a gpNBC1-mediated pH recovery was observed in gpNBC1 transfected human hepatoma cells; however, in the presence of 4, 4-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2-disulfonic acid, a specific NBC1 inhibitor, such changes in V(m) and pH(i) were not observed. Together, the data show that the cloned guinea-pig gene is a functional, as well as sequence homologue of human NBC1. PMID:16513089

  10. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  11. Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Richard J; Peart, Daniel J; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise.

  12. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p < 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p > 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p < 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p > 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research.

  13. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux.

  14. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters.

    PubMed

    Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D

    2014-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)/K(+) ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  16. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  17. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ≥ 7-mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (P<0.001) and 1 in GRK4 (P=0.020). Of these, 2 SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations.

  18. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  19. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  20. Evaluation of smear layer removal by bicarbonate soda, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide and sodium hypochlorite with a new model.

    PubMed

    Leow, Natalie; Abbott, Paul; Castro Salgado, Jacqueline; Firth, Laura

    2012-12-01

    Various methods are used to evaluate irrigants. The primary aim was to develop a model for preliminary testing of potential irrigants. The second aim was to investigate the effect of bicarbonate soda on smear layer by comparing it with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid with cetrimide (EDTAC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Extracted human single-canal teeth were halved, and a uniform filing method was used to create smear layer. The following solutions were then applied - distilled water (control), 1% NaOCl, 17% EDTAC and bicarbonate soda at concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15%. Some samples had multiple solutions in different sequences. Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Representative images were scored based on the degree of smear layer remaining. Results were analysed with the SAS system, using the GENMOD procedure. Complete smear layer was found in samples treated with all solutions except EDTAC used alone. There were no significant differences between the sequences, EDTAC/NaOCl/EDTAC and NaOCl/EDTAC/NaOCl. There were no significant differences between groups with and without bicarbonate soda. In conclusion, the model was effective for testing chemical effects on solutions on smear layer. Bicarbonate soda did not remove smear layer and provided no additional cleaning effects after EDTAC and NaOCl.

  1. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Weldon, Anthony; Price, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum). Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed more repetitions to failure in the back squat after NaHCO3 ingestion (p = 0.04) but not for bench press (p = 0.679). Mean ± SD of total repetitions was 31.3 ± 15.3 and 24.6 ± 16.2 for back squat and 28.7 ± 12.2 and 26.7 ± 10.2 for bench press in NaHCO3 and placebo conditions, respectively. Repetitions to failure decreased as set increased for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.001, both). Rating of perceived exertion significantly increased with set for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.002, both). There was no significant change in blood lactate across time or between conditions. There were however treatment × time interactions for blood pH (p = 0.014) and blood HCO3 concentration (p = 0.001). After ingestion, blood pH and HCO3 (p = 0.008) concentrations were greater for the NaHCO3 condition compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate ingestion can enhance resistance exercise performance using a repetition to failure protocol in the first exercise in a resistance exercise session.

  2. The Effects of Novel Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate on Repeated Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter; Robinson, Amy L; Sparks, S Andy; Bridge, Craig A; Bentley, David J; McNaughton, Lars R

    2016-02-01

    This work examined the influence of an acute dose of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on buffering capacity and performance during a repeated sprint ability (RSA) protocol. Eleven (mean ± SD: age 24.6 ± 6.1 years; mass 74.9 ± 5.7 kg; height 177.2 ± 6.7 cm) participated in the study, undertaking 4 test sessions. On the first visit to the laboratory, each participant ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3 (in 450 ml of flavored water) and blood samples were obtained at regular intervals to determine the individual times peak pH and HCO3. In subsequent visits, participants ingested 300 mg · kg(-1) of NaHCO3, 270 mg · kg(-1) body mass (BM) of NaCI, or no drink followed by a RSA cycling protocol (10 × 6 seconds sprints with 60 seconds recovery), which commenced at each individuals predetermined ingestion peak pH response time. Blood samples were obtained before exercise and after the first, fifth, and 10th sprint to determine the blood pH, HCO3, and lactate (La) responses. Total work completed during the repeated sprint protocol was higher (p ≤ 0.05) in the NaHCO3 condition (69.8 ± 11.7 kJ) compared with both the control (59.6 ± 12.2 kJ) and placebo (63.0 ± 8.3 kJ) conditions. Peak power output was similar (p > 0.05) between the 3 conditions. Relative to the control and placebo conditions, NaHCO3 ingestion induced higher (p ≤ 0.05) blood pH and HCO3 concentrations before exercise and during the bouts, and higher lactate concentrations (p ≤ 0.05) after the final sprint. Results suggest that NaHCO3 improves the total amount of work completed during RSA through enhanced buffering capacity.

  3. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  4. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  5. Structural and functional characterization of the human NBC3 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Frederick B; Jaschke, Paul; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    The sodium bicarbonate co-transporter, NBC3, is expressed in a range of tissues including heart, skeletal muscle and kidney, where it modulates intracellular pH and bicarbonate levels. NBC3 has a three-domain structure: 67 kDa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, 57 kDa membrane domain and an 11 kDa C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (NBC3Ct). The role of C-terminal domains as important regulatory regions is an emerging theme in bicarbonate transporter physiology. This study determined the functional role of human NBC3Ct and characterized its structure using biochemical techniques. The NBC3 C-terminal domain deletion mutant (NBC3DeltaCt) had only 12 +/- 5% of wild-type transport activity. This low activity is attributable to low steady-state levels of NBC3DeltaCt and almost complete retention inside the cell, as assessed by immunoblots and confocal microscopy, suggesting a role of NBC3Ct in cell surface processing. To characterize the structure of NBC3Ct, amino acids 1127-1214 of NBC3 were expressed as a GST fusion protein (GST.NBC3Ct). GST.NBC3Ct was cleaved with PreScission Protease and native NBC3Ct could be purified to 94% homogeneity. Gel permeation chromatography and sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation of NBC3Ct indicated a Stokes radius of 26 and 30 angstroms, respectively. Shape modelling revealed NBC3Ct as a prolate shape with long and short axes of 19 and 2 nm, respectively. The circular dichroism spectra of NBC3Ct did not change over the pH 6.2-7.8 range, which rules out a large change of secondary structure as a component of pH sensor function. Proteolysis with trypsin and chymotrypsin identified two proteolytically sensitive regions, R1129 and K1183-K1186, which could form protein interaction sites. PMID:14578046

  6. Intraoral evaluation of mineralization of cosmetic defects by a toothpaste containing calcium, fluoride, and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Leonard J; Quinlan, Kathleen B; Ross, David R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Winston, Anthony; Charig, Andrew; Flickinger, Mark; Vorwerk, Linda

    2004-09-01

    New dual-phase fluoride toothpastes that contain soluble calcium, phosphate, and baking soda have recently been introduced into the market. These toothpastes are designed to fill in small surface defects in tooth enamel and thereby enhance tooth esthetics such as gloss. This two-part study was designed to assess these superficial mineralizing effects from using one of these products compared with an experimental calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free formulation and a conventional fluoride toothpaste using an intraoral model. Enamel specimens with 4 types of defects were mounted into an intraoral appliance and placed in the mouths of volunteers for 1 month. The four types of defects were whitening toothpaste abrasion, coarse abrasion, natural dimpling, and acid etching. Before and after intraoral exposure, scanning electron microscope photographs of the specimens were made. The surface microhardness of the acid-etched specimens also was determined. The volunteers brushed their specimens twice daily with one of three randomly assigned toothpastes. The toothpastes were a two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste; an experimental, two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free toothpaste; and a conventional toothpaste. Only the calcium-containing toothpastes showed unequivocal signs of mineral deposition into surface defects, leading to smoothing of the enamel. All three products significantly increased the hardness of the etched enamel, presumably because of fluoride. However, only the two calcium-containing toothpastes gave significantly greater hardness increases than the conventional toothpaste; the specimens treated with a conventional toothpaste were indistinguishable from those treated with saliva. PMID:15645904

  7. Degradation of hydroxyapatite in vivo and in vitro requires osteoclastic sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter NBCn1.

    PubMed

    Riihonen, Riikka; Nielsen, Søren; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Laitala-Leinonen, Tiina; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution of the inorganic bone matrix releases not only calcium and phosphate ions, but also bicarbonate. Electroneutral sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter (NBCn1) is expressed in inactive osteoclasts, but its physiological role in bone resorption has remained unknown. We show here that NBCn1, encoded by the SLC4A7 gene, is directly involved in bone resorption. NBCn1 protein was specifically found at the bone-facing ruffled border areas, and metabolic acidosis increased NBCn1 expression in rats in vivo. In human hematopoietic stem cell cultures, NBCn1 mRNA expression was observed only after formation of resorbing osteoclasts. To further confirm the critical role of NBCn1 during bone resorption, human hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with SLC4A7 shRNA lentiviral particles. Downregulation of NBCn1 both on mRNA and protein level by lentiviral shRNAs significantly inhibited bone resorption and increased intracellular acidification in osteoclasts. The lentiviral particles did not impair osteoclast survival, or differentiation of the hematopoietic or mesenchymal precursor cells into osteoclasts or osteoblasts in vitro. Inhibition of NBCn1 activity may thus provide a new way to regulate osteoclast activity during pathological bone resorption.

  8. Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture.

    PubMed

    Wright, J L; Carstensen, J T

    1986-06-01

    The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent. PMID:3016234

  9. Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Carstensen, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent.

  10. (In)Consistencies in Responses to Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: A Randomised, Repeated Measures, Counterbalanced and Double-Blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Froio de Araujo Dias, Gabriela; da Eira Silva, Vinicius; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Sale, Craig; Giannini Artioli, Guilherme; Gualano, Bruno; Saunders, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Intervention studies do not account for high within-individual variation potentially compromising the magnitude of an effect. Repeat administration of a treatment allows quantification of individual responses and determination of the consistency of responses. We determined the consistency of metabolic and exercise responses following repeated administration of sodium bicarbonate (SB). Design and Methods 15 physically active males (age 25±4 y; body mass 76.0±7.3 kg; height 1.77±0.05 m) completed six cycling capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output (CCT110%) following ingestion of either 0.3 g∙kg-1BM of SB (4 trials) or placebo (PL, 2 trials). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess and lactate were determined at baseline, pre-exercise, post-exercise and 5-min post-exercise. Total work done (TWD) was recorded as the exercise outcome. Results SB supplementation increased blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess prior to every trial (all p ≤ 0.001); absolute changes in pH, bicarbonate and base excess from baseline to pre-exercise were similar in all SB trials (all p > 0.05). Blood lactate was elevated following exercise in all trials (p ≤ 0.001), and was higher in some, but not all, SB trials compared to PL. TWD was not significantly improved with SB vs. PL in any trial (SB1: +3.6%; SB2 +0.3%; SB3: +2.1%; SB4: +6.7%; all p > 0.05), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 93% likely improvement in SB4. Individual analysis showed ten participants improved in at least one SB trial above the normal variation of the test although five improved in none. Conclusions The mechanism for improved exercise with SB was consistently in place prior to exercise, although this only resulted in a likely improvement in one trial. SB does not consistently improve high intensity cycling capacity, with results suggesting that caution should be taken when interpreting the results from single trials as to the efficacy of SB supplementation. Trial Registration

  11. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints.

  12. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. PMID:26447209

  13. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    PubMed

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake.

  14. Transport Activity of the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1 Is Enhanced by Different Isoforms of Carbonic Anhydrase

    PubMed Central

    Schueler, Christina; Becker, Holger M.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.

    2011-01-01

    Transport metabolons have been discussed between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and several membrane transporters. We have now studied different CA isoforms, expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and together with the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), to determine their catalytic activity and their ability to enhance NBCe1 transport activity. pH measurements in intact oocytes indicated similar activity of CAI, CAII and CAIII, while in vitro CAIII had no measurable activity and CAI only 30% of the activity of CAII. All three CA isoforms increased transport activity of NBCe1, as measured by the transport current and the rate of intracellular sodium rise in oocytes. Two CAII mutants, altered in their intramolecular proton pathway, CAII-H64A and CAII-Y7F, showed significant catalytic activity and also enhanced NBCe1 transport activity. The effect of CAI, CAII, and CAII mutants on NBCe1 activity could be reversed by blocking CA activity with ethoxyzolamide (EZA, 10 µM), while the effect of the less EZA-sensitive CAIII was not reversed. Our results indicate that different CA isoforms and mutants, even if they show little enzymatic activity in vitro, may display significant catalytic activity in intact cells, and that the ability of CA to enhance NBCe1 transport appears to depend primarily on its catalytic activity. PMID:22076132

  15. Use of 8.4% Sodium Bicarbonate in Buffering Commonly Administered Vancomycin Hydrochloride Solutions for Use with Midline or Peripheral Line Catheters.

    PubMed

    Puertos, Enrique; Spencer, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the use of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate in the buffering of commonly administered vancomycin hydrochloride solutions for use with midline or peripheral line catheters. Nine admixtures of vancomycin hydrochloride were aseptically prepared for this study. Vancomycin hydrochloride solutions were prepared in triplicates in the following strengths, 1 gram, 2 grams, and 3 grams, which were added to 250-mL bags of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (with overfill). To each prepared solution of vancomycin hydrochloride, 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate was added. The pH was measured to obtain a baseline level. At day 9, the pH of each sample was measured and compared to those at baseline. The osmolality of each sample was also measured. There was no statistical difference in the pH at baseline and at day 9 (α = 0.05, P = 0.347). A solution of vancomycin hydrochloride that is compounded in 250 mL of sodium chloride 0.9% injection (including overfill) and buffered with 0.5 mL of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate maintained a pH in the range of 5 to 9 and an osmolality in the range of 150 mOsm/kg to 500 mOsm/kg.

  16. An evaluation of sodium bicarbonate chewing gum as a supplement to toothbrushing for removal of dental plaque from children's teeth.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Davidson, K R; Rhoades, M L

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this human clinical study was to determine whether a commercial chewing gum containing 5% sodium bicarbonate (ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum [AHDC]) was effective in removing dental plaque when used as a supplement to regular toothbrushing by children. Healthy children (N = 28, average age = 11 years) were randomly distributed into 2 groups. One group was instructed to chew 2 tablets of AHDC chewing gum for 20 minutes 2 times each day (after lunch and dinner) in addition to their normal toothbrushing regimen. The other group used a sugarless mint tablet twice daily during the same period in addition to toothbrushing. After 1 week of using their assigned product, all participants were again examined for oral health and plaque. After a 1-week washout period, subjects were crossed over to the opposite group. Among the 21 participants completing the study, the AHDC chewing gum significantly (P < .0001) reduced plaque by 15% after 1 week compared to the mint tablet control, as measured by the Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. When longitudinally compared to the baseline plaque scores, the gum resulted in a significant (P < .01) 10% reduction of plaque on the teeth. Subanalysis of the data showed that the AHDC chewing gum was particularly effective on the lingual surfaces and the posterior teeth and least effective on the facial surfaces of the anterior teeth, which do not readily come into direct contact with the gum during mastication. The bicarbonate gum demonstrated significant plaque reduction in all other areas of the mouth, even on tooth surfaces not directly contacted during chewing. Compliance with the chewing gum regimen was excellent, and oral health exams did not indicate any adverse events among children using either the chewing gum or mint tablets. In this study, regular use of AHDC chewing gum was safe and effective in removing dental plaque and served as a significant complement to the daily toothbrushing regimen of children

  17. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  18. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate on animal performance, ruminal metabolism, and systemic acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, G R; Jackson, J A; Hemken, R W

    1989-08-01

    Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a replicated 3 x 3 latin square design with 3-wk periods and offered diets containing concentrate and corn silage in a 60:40 ratio (DM basis). Treatments were: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet with 1% NaHCO3, and 3) basal diet with 1% sodium sesquicarbonate. There were no differences among treatments in milk production, milk protein, or 3.5% FCM, but sodium sesquicarbonate increased milk fat percentage (3.89, 3.94, 4.06%) compared with that of the control. Rumen pH was higher for cows fed buffered diets than for control cows. Urine pH was higher for cows fed NaHCO3 diet than for those fed sodium sesquicarbonate and control diets. No differences were detected among treatment means for molar percentage of isobutyrate, isovalerate, or total VFA, Dietary sesquicarbonate addition increased molar percentage of acetate, decreased propionate, and resulted in a higher acetate:propionate ratio compared with the cows fed NaHCO3. However, molar percentage of butyrate and valerate decreased in cows fed sodium sesquicarbonate when compared with those fed the control diet. No differences among treatment means were detected for blood pH, pCO2, or HCO3. PMID:2551941

  19. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    PubMed

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV < 0.28) or elevated (RV:TV > or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad

  20. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  1. Anionic salts in the prepartum diet and addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum replacer, and their effects on immunoglobulin G absorption in the neonate.

    PubMed

    Morrill, K M; Marston, S P; Whitehouse, N L; Van Amburgh, M E; Schwab, C G; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2010-05-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine whether feeding anionic salts to prepartum Holstein cows affected their calf's colostral IgG passive transfer and whether adding sodium bicarbonate to a colostrum replacer (CR) would increase the efficiency of IgG absorption. Forty Holstein cows and their resulting calves were assigned to a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design based on expected date of calving. Three weeks before the projected due date, cows were placed on 1 of 2 treatments: a diet without anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of +77 mEq/kg) or a diet with anionic salts (dietary cation-anion difference of -100 mEq/kg). Within 45 min after birth, all calves received 1 dose of a commercially available CR (132g of IgG) without or with supplemental sodium bicarbonate (19.5 g/dose). A half-dose of CR (66g of IgG) and sodium bicarbonate (9.75g) was fed at 6h of age. Calves received milk replacer at 12, 24, 36, and 48h. Blood samples were obtained from calves at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h and were analyzed for IgG concentration. Cows fed the diet supplemented with anionic salts had lower DMI on d 8, 5, 4, and 1 and lower urine pH 2 and 1 wk before parturition compared with cows fed the diet without supplemental anionic salts. Calves born from dams receiving anionic salts had similar IgG concentrations (15.1 vs. 14.4g/L) and apparent efficiency of absorption values (29.2 vs. 28.2%) compared with calves born from dams not fed anionic salts. Calves receiving supplemental sodium bicarbonate in the CR had higher serum IgG concentrations at 12 (14.4 vs. 12.0g/L), 24 (16.3 vs. 13.2g/L), and 48h (14.6 vs. 11.2g/L) and higher apparent efficiency of absorption values (31.2 vs. 26.1%) than calves that did not receive sodium bicarbonate in the CR. Calves receiving sodium bicarbonate also had greater area under the curve values for IgG absorption compared with calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate. There was a trend

  2. How does live yeast differ from sodium bicarbonate to stabilize ruminal pH in high-yielding dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Marden, J P; Julien, C; Monteils, V; Auclair, E; Moncoulon, R; Bayourthe, C

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the capacity of 2 dietary feed additives, sodium bicarbonate and live yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain Sc 47), in optimizing ruminal pH in dairy cows and to determine their modes of action. Three early lactating Holstein cows, fitted with ruminal cannulas, were allocated in a 3 x 3 Latin square design. They were given a total mixed ration as control diet (CD) at a daily feeding rate of 28.0 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow supplemented with 150 g/d of sodium bicarbonate (SBD) or 5 g/d of live yeast (YD) during a 21-d experimental period (14 d of diet adaptation, 4 consecutive days of measurement and sampling and 3 d of transition). The pH and redox potential (E(h)) were measured from 1 h before feeding to 8 h after feeding at 1-h intervals, and samples of ruminal fluid were taken at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after feeding for the determination of volatile fatty acids and lactate concentrations. Total tract apparent digestibility of the diet was also determined. Ruminal pH fluctuated between 6.53 at feeding and 5.57 at 5 h postfeeding. Mean pH was greater with SBD (6.21) and YD (6.14) compared with CD (5.94), showing that both additives had a pH stabilization effect. The E(h) varied from -88 mV at 1 h before feeding to -165 mV at 1 h after feeding. Mean E(h) and Clark's Exponent (rH) were lower with YD (-149 mV and 7.31, respectively) than with SBD (-137 mV and 7.85, respectively) and CD (-115 mV and 8.05, respectively), indicating that the yeast strengthened the reducing power of the milieu. Total volatile fatty acids were greater in SBD (95.3 mM) and YD (99.4 mM) compared with CD (85.3 mM). Acetate concentration was greater in SBD (60.8 mM) and YD (59.1 mM) compared with CD (53.2 mM). Propionate concentration was greater in YD (25.8 mM) than in SBD (20.0 mM) and CD (18.0 mM). Butyrate remained constant between diets. Mean total lactate concentrations were 16.5, 12.2, and 5.4 mM for CD, SBD, and YD, respectively, with a 67

  3. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  4. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  5. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  6. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients. PMID:25102038

  7. Improvement in lipids extraction processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgal pellets grown on diammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate combinations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Hasnain; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid

    2016-08-01

    Biomass productivity and growth kinetics for microalgae grown on sodium bicarbonate and diammonium phosphate were investigated. Different carbon and nitrogen ratios have shown different growth rates and biomass productivity and C:N ratio 50:10 as mgL(-1) has shown the best production than all. For effective lipids extraction from biomass thermolysis and sonolysis were carried out from wet biomass. Sonolysis at 2.3W intensity for 5min has released 8.58mg at neutral pH. More quantity of lipids was extracted when extraction was made at pH 4 and 10 which resulted 9mg and 9.28mg lipids respectively. Thermal treatment at 100°C for 10min has released 12.82mg lipid at neutral pH. In the same thermolysis at pH 4 and 10 more quantity of lipids was extracted which were 15.16mg and 14.81mg respectively. Finally transesterified lipids were analyzed through GC-MS for FAME composition analysis. PMID:27132228

  8. The effects of subacute ruminal acidosis on sodium bicarbonate-supplemented water intake for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cottee, G; Kyriazakis, I; Widowski, T M; Lindinger, M I; Cant, J P; Duffield, T F; Osborne, V R; McBride, B W

    2004-07-01

    Four multiparous ruminally fistulated Holstein dairy cows were used in an 8-wk experiment utilizing a repeated measures block design to determine the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on supplemented water intake. Animals were subjected to SARA, which was induced by replacing 25% of the ad libitum intake of the total mixed ration (dry matter basis) with 50:50 wheat:barley pellets utilizing a grain challenge model. Cows had free choice from 2 water bowls. One bowl contained water with sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplemented at 2.5 g/L. The other bowl contained unsupplemented water. Ruminal pH was monitored continuously during the trial using indwelling pH probes. The induction of SARA reduced daily mean ruminal pH and increased the duration when ruminal pH was below 6. The total mixed ration intake by the cows decreased during the SARA periods. The overall preference for SB-supplemented water did not change, as the preference ratio was similar during the control and SARA periods. During the period of greatest ruminal pH depression, total water intake was higher during the SARA periods than during the control periods. During SARA, there was no difference in the preference of a SB water source to unsupplemented water. During the period of day with the most severe ruminal pH depression, the lactating dairy cows subjected to SARA increased their total water intake. PMID:15328239

  9. Thiazolidinediones enhance sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from renal proximal tubules via PPARγ-dependent nongenomic signaling.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yoko; Suzuki, Masashi; Yamada, Hideomi; Horita, Shoko; Kunimi, Motoei; Yamazaki, Osamu; Shirai, Ayumi; Nakamura, Motonobu; Iso-O, Naoyuki; Li, Yuehong; Hara, Masumi; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Moriyama, Nobuo; Kudo, Akihiko; Kawakami, Hayato; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kume, Haruki; Enomoto, Yutaka; Homma, Yukio; Seki, George; Fujita, Toshiro

    2011-05-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve insulin resistance by activating a nuclear hormone receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). However, the use of TZDs is associated with plasma volume expansion through a mechanism that remains to be clarified. Here we showed that TZDs rapidly stimulate sodium-coupled bicarbonate absorption from the renal proximal tubule in vitro and in vivo. TZD-induced transport stimulation is dependent on PPARγ-Src-EGFR-ERK and observed in rat, rabbit and human, but not in mouse proximal tubules where Src-EGFR is constitutively activated. The existence of PPARγ-Src-dependent nongenomic signaling, which requires the ligand-binding ability, but not the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, is confirmed in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. The enhancement of the association between PPARγ and Src by TZDs supports an indispensable role of Src in this signaling. These results suggest that the PPARγ-dependent nongenomic stimulation of renal proximal transport is also involved in TZD-induced volume expansion.

  10. Temperature and particle size dependence of sodium bicarbonate inhibition of methane/air flames. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, H.T.

    1982-11-03

    Coal mining/handling operations, as well as those of other powder-using industries, are occasionally interrupted by explosions and fires as a consequence of uncontrolled, fugitive flammable dusts. Damage to life and loss of capital are the unsatisfactory results. Hence, the development of powerful fire extinguishing/suppressing agents to stop these holocausts has become an increasingly important scientific challenge in today's energy and safety conscious world.

  11. Are inter-center differences in EMS-management and sodium-bicarbonate administration important for the outcome of CPR? The Cerebral Resuscitation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Delooz, H H; Lewi, P J

    1989-01-01

    The hospital of Brugge relies on selection of the emergency calls and sends a Mobile Intensive Care Unit (MICU) whenever cardiac arrest (CA) is suspected. The University Hospital of Leuven does no selection of calls and responds to every emergency call by sending an ambulance with an advanced life support (ALS) trained nurse. The MICU is called when the ambulance crew recognizes the emergency to be a CA. The Leuven system is a so-called tiered system. Although MICU-response times are significantly longer in Leuven than in Brugge, no difference is found as to the success of CPCR. The immediate response to all emergency calls by specialized E.D. nurses (paramedic) capable of ALS, seems to make up for the difference in MICU-response times. The University Hospital of Jette has a higher success-rate for CPCR for in-hospital CA, than the University Hospitals of Leuven. Due to size and lay-out differences, the MICU-response times are shorter in Jette than in Leuven. Basic life support (BLS) provided by doctors and nurses present at the scene, does not seem to be able to compensate for longer MICU-arrival times. The introduction of semi-automatic or automatic defibrillators, to be used by the BLS trained medical and nursing personnel, might be able to make up for the longer MICU-intervention times. Inter-center differences were witnessed as far as the amount of sodium-bicarbonate infused during CPR. Within each group of total duration of CPR an inverse correlation exists between the amount of bicarbonate infused and the success rate of CPCR. Partial correlation between the bicarbonate infused and the survival with regaining of consciousness at 14 days post-CPR, with constant CPR-time, is statistically significant. This indicates that long-term CPCR success is inversely correlated with increasing amounts of sodium-bicarbonate infused. Short duration of CPR and low adrenaline dosage correlate with immediate and long-term success of CPR. On the contrary, low versus high

  12. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on PEPT2 (SLC15A2) mediated renal clearance of cephalexin in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Tang, Audrey May Yi; Tan, Yen Ling; Limenta, Lie Michael George; Lee, Edmund Jon Deoon

    2011-01-01

    PEPT2 mediates the H(+) gradient-driving reabsorption of di- and tri-peptides, and various peptidomimetic compounds in the kidney. This study examines the influence of urinary pH modification through sodium bicarbonate and ammonium chloride pre-treatments on the function of PEPT2 in healthy subjects, using cephalexin as the probe drug. Sixteen male subjects received a single oral dose of 1000 mg cephalexin under ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate treatment, respectively, with a wash-out period of one week. The study subjects were genotyped for PEPT2 polymorphic variants. Cephalexin concentrations in plasma and urine were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The mean renal clearance of cephalexin was significantly higher under ammonium chloride treatment than that under sodium bicarbonate treatment (P < 0.01). This difference was significant for PEPT2*2/*2 (P = 0.017) but not for PEPT2*1/*1 (P = 0.128). No differences were observed for other pharmacokinetic parameters. The findings of this study suggest that urinary pH changes may alter the pharmacokinetics of PEPT2's substrates. This effect was more obvious for the PEPT2*2/*2. PMID:21084767

  13. Solubilities of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Zheng, D.Q.; Guo, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The solubility of natural gas mixtures in formation water (brine) plays an important role in estimating the natural gas reserve, the formation/dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in situ, and the interfacial tension of the hydrocarbon-formation water system. However, solubility data at high pressure and elevated temperature conditions for aqueous electrolyte systems are rare. Recently, in the reservoirs found at the South China Sea areas, the main salt species in the formation water is sodium bicarbonate, and the solubility data of gases in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under reservoir conditions have not previously been reported. An apparatus for measuring the solubility of gases in aqueous electrolyte solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions is described. The solubility of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions were measured up to 58 MPa and 403 K. The modified Patel-Teja equation of state proposed by Zuo and Guo (1991) for aqueous electrolyte systems was applied to correlate the measured solubility data, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA). Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD −0.31 95% CI: −0.55 to −0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD −0.17 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60–2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41–1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD −1.47; 95% CI: −4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries. The evidence that sodium

  15. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-02-01

    Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA).Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD -0.31 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD -0.17 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60-2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41-1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD -1.47; 95% CI: -4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries.The evidence that sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of

  16. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-02-01

    Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA).Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD -0.31 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD -0.17 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60-2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41-1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD -1.47; 95% CI: -4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries.The evidence that sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of

  17. The regulation of corneal hydration by a salt pump requiring the presence of sodium and bicarbonate ions

    PubMed Central

    Hodson, Stuart

    1974-01-01

    1. The use of polyacrylamide gel salt bridges enables trans-membrane potentials to be measured to an accuracy of 20 μV over long periods. 2. The technique is applied to measure electrical potentials across corneal endothelia of rabbits. 3. In de-epithelialized corneas which translocate water, a spontaneous potential of 550 μV is found across the endothelium (tissue resistance 20 Ω cm2). 4. This electrical potential (and water translocation) is reduced to zero when sodium is absent from the Ringer, and by about 80% when bicarbonate ions are absent. Removal of chloride has no such effect. 5. Under a variety of conditions, the potential correlates with the observed translocation of fluid across corneal endothelium. The translocated fluid is shown to be isotonic with sodium in the Ringer and therefore the potential correlates with `active' sodium transport. 6. The potential and water translocation are abolished in the presence of ouabain at concentrations greater than 10-5 M. 7. The potential (lens-side negative) is of the wrong polarity to explain the net sodium transport (into the lens-side) by a sodium ion `pump'. 8. The current does not equal the net sodium flux under short circuit conditions. They differ in magnitude and polarity. 9. A model is proposed where the endothelium `pumps' salt out of the corneal stroma into the aqueous humour. 10. Flux equations are derived for a condition where the membrane (corneal endothelium) separates an ion exchanger (corneal stroma) from free solution (aqueous humour), where the usual relationship for free-free solutions Δπ = csΔμs does not apply. 11. The model is of use only when the stroma is well stirred. It may be used in whole corneas retaining their epithelium but it may not be used in de-epithelialized corneas. 12. The model predicts that the presence of an `active' salt flux out across the endothelium would create passive water and salt fluxes. The passive water flux would also travel out of the stroma across the

  18. Reversed electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 is the major acid loader during recovery from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Naoshin, Zinnia; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-01-01

    Recovery of intracellular pH from cytosolic alkalosis has been attributed primarily to Cl– coupled acid loaders/base extruders such as Cl–/HCO3– or Cl–/OH– exchangers. We have studied this process in cortical astrocytes from wild-type and transgenic mouse models with gene deletion for the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) and for carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform II. An acute cytosolic alkalosis was induced by the removal of either CO2/HCO3– or butyric acid, and the subsequent acid loading was analysed by monitoring changes in cytosolic H+ or Na+ using ion-sensitive fluorescent dyes. We have identified that NBCe1 reverses during alkalosis and contributes more than 70% to the rate of recovery from alkalosis by extruding Na+ and HCO3–. After CA inhibition or in CAII-knockout (KO) cells, the rate of recovery was reduced by 40%, and even by 70% in the nominal absence of CO2/HCO3–. Increasing the extracellular K+ concentration modulated the rate of acid loading in wild-type cells, but not in NBCe1-KO cells. Removing chloride had only a minor effect on the recovery from alkalosis. Reversal of NBCe1 by reducing pH/[HCO3–] was demonstrated in astrocytes and in Xenopus oocytes, in which human NBCe1 was heterologously expressed. The results obtained suggest that reversed NBCe1, supported by CAII activity, plays a major role in acid-loading cortical astrocytes to support recovery from cytosolic alkalosis. PMID:25990710

  19. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel.

    PubMed

    Ash, A; Wilde, P J; Bradshaw, D J; King, S P; Pratten, J R

    2016-03-14

    The salivary conditioning film (SCF) that forms on all surfaces in the mouth plays a key role in lubricating the oral cavity. As this film acts as an interface between tongue, enamel and oral mucosa, it is likely that any perturbations to its structure could potentially lead to a change in mouthfeel perception. This is often experienced after exposure to oral hygiene products. For example, consumers that use dentifrice that contain a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate (SB) often report a clean mouth feel after use; an attribute that is clearly desirable for oral hygiene products. However, the mechanisms by which SB interacts with the SCF to alter lubrication in the mouth is unknown. Therefore, saliva and the SCF was exposed to high ionic strength and alkaline solutions to elucidate whether the interactions observed were a direct result of SB, its high alkalinity or its ionic strength. Characteristics including bulk viscosity of saliva and the viscoelasticity of the interfacial salivary films that form at both the air/saliva and hydroxyapatite/saliva interfaces were tested. It was hypothesised that SB interacts with the SCF in two ways. Firstly, the ionic strength of SB shields electrostatic charges of salivary proteins, thus preventing protein crosslinking within the film and secondly; the alkaline pH (≈8.3) of SB reduces the gel-like structure of mucins present in the pellicle by disrupting disulphide bridging of the mucins via the ionization of their cysteine's thiol group, which has an isoelectric point of ≈8.3.

  20. Neuronal expression of sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hae Jeong; Rajbhandari, Ira; Yang, Han Soo; Lee, Soojung; Cucoranu, Delia; Cooper, Deborah S.; Klein, Janet D.; Sands, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is an acid-base transporter that normally moves Na+ and HCO3− into the cell. This membrane protein is sensitive to cellular and systemic pH changes. We examined NBCn1 expression and localization in the brain and its response to chronic metabolic acidosis. Two new NBCn1 antibodies were generated by immunizing a rabbit and a guinea pig. The antibodies stained neurons in a variety of rat brain regions, including hippocampal pyramidal neurons, dentate gyrus granular neurons, posterior cortical neurons, and cerebellar Purkinje neurons. Choroid plexus epithelia were also stained. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that NBCn1 and the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 were found in the same hippocampal CA3 neurons and partially colocalized in dendrites. PSD-95 was pulled down from rat brain lysates with the GST/NBCn1 fusion protein and was also coimmunoprecipitated with NBCn1. Chronic metabolic acidosis was induced by feeding rats with normal chow or 0.4 M HCl-containing chow for 7 days. Real-time PCR and immunoblot showed upregulation of NBCn1 mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of acidotic rats. NBCn1 immunostaining was enhanced in CA3 neurons, posterior cortical neurons, and cerebellar granular cells. Intraperitoneal administration of N-methyl-d-aspartate caused neuronal death determined by caspase-3 activity, and this effect was more severe in acidotic rats. Administering N-methyl-d-aspartate also inhibited NBCn1 upregulation in acidotic rats. We conclude that NBCn1 in neurons is upregulated by chronic acid loads, and this upregulation is associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:20147654

  1. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting.

  2. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1.

  3. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  4. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  5. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  7. [Blood gas and acid-base changes and rhythmologic tolerance of acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis using a standard dialyser with high sodium and control of ultrafiltration].

    PubMed

    Westeel, P F; Coevoet, B; Bens, J L; Neuville, M; Morinière, P; Fievet, P; Dkhissi, H; Fournier, A

    1983-01-01

    In order to demonstrate a possible superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (HDB) over acetate dialysis (HDA) in conditions of standard dialysis (4 hours on a 1 m2 cuprophan dialyser) but with a bath rich in sodium (143 mEq/l) and control of ultrafiltration, we have compared 2 sequences of 3 runs of HDA and HDB with these conditions in 8 patients as regards their acido-basic and cardiologic parameters (continuous monitoring of ECG by Holter, regular measurement of blood pressure). Acid base balance study in AHD led to the distinction of 2 groups according to wether their plasma bicarbonate increased or decreased during the run. Rythmological tolerance was the same in BHD and AHD, wether all patients or both groups were considered. Heart rate was however slightly but significantly higher during AHD than during BHD, in the patients whose plasma bicarbonate decreased. In conclusion, the benefit of HDB is not remarkable when HDA is performed not only in standard conditions but also with a bath rich in sodium and with control of ultrafiltration.

  8. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae. PMID:26960545

  9. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae.

  10. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted. PMID:26988768

  11. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted.

  12. Increasing sodium bicarbonate level in high-concentrate diets for heifers. II. Effects on chewing and feeding behaviors.

    PubMed

    González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2008-05-01

    Four Holstein heifers (264 ± 12 kg initial BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-day experimental periods to determine the effect of increasing levels of sodium bicarbonate (BICARB) (0%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%, of concentrate dry matter (DM) basis) on chewing and feed intake behavior when fed high-concentrate diets. Concentrate (13.41% CP, 13.35% NDF) and barley straw were fed once a day at 0830 h ad libitum. Feed bunks placed on scales and video recording were used to measure 24-h feed intake and chewing behavior, respectively. The patterns of feeding behavior (feed intake, meal size and length) and chewing behavior (eating, ruminating and total chewing) were studied by dividing the day into 12 intervals of 2-h each, beginning at feeding (interval 1 through 12). Number of meals per day and eating rate decreased linearly with increasing buffer level, but meal length increased linearly. No treatment effects were observed in sum of daily meal lengths or average meal size. The treatment × interval interaction was significant on meal size, length and feed intake. The size and length of those meals occurring during the 4 h post-feeding increased linearly. However, meal size tended to decrease in the evening between 8 and 12 h, whereas feed intake decreased linearly from 6 to 10 h and from 12 to 14 h post-feeding. Buffer concentration did not affect the percentage of time spent ruminating, eating or drinking per day but the buffer level × interval interaction was significant. Time spent eating expressed as min per kg of DM or organic matter (OM) intake increased linearly with buffer levels. Proportion of time spent eating increased linearly during the intervals between 0 and 4 h post-feeding. Time spent ruminating decreased linearly during the 2 h post-feeding, and also in the evening from 12 to 14 h, and at night from 18 to 22 h post-feeding, but the effect was quadratic between 8 and 10 h when intermediate buffer levels showed the greatest ruminating

  13. A synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying UV-C light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; Venditti, T

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultraviolet-C light (UV-C; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kJm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (SBC), to control plum (Prunus domestica cv Stanley) postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum L. and Botrytis cinerea was investigated. First, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees C with 90% RH for 7 days. In the second experiment, treatments were applied before fruit was spray-contaminated with conidia and then stored for 4 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH (storage conditions). In both experiments, the highest degree of decay caused by the two pathogens was monitored when fruit stayed untreated (control), and a negligible reduction was achieved by treating with the sole salt or with a 3 kJm(-2) UV-C light. Compared to control (89 +/- 3% decay), the treatment of wound-inoculated fruit with 6 kJm(-2) provided a 35 and 38% reduction of P. expansum and B. cinerea decay, respectively. Meanwhile, 12 kJm(-2) provided an additional decrease of 25 and 27%, respectively. In both experiments, the best control of decay was attained when treatments with SBC and UV-C light were combined and the efficacy depended upon the sequence of application. Synergistic effects were found by applying the salt before UV-C light. When 6 or 12 kJm(-2) were employed following the 2% SBC treatment, no disease symptoms developed for either pathogens in both experiments. The same combination with 3 kJm(-2) resulted in a nearly 5 fold increase of efficacy compared to the sole light treatment. The combined treatments controlled the two pathogens to valuable levels and, since no quality losses were observed during storage, they could be considered as a suitable approach to contain postharvest losses of this fruit.

  14. The ergogenic effect of beta-alanine combined with sodium bicarbonate on high-intensity swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Painelli, Vitor de Salles; Roschel, Hamilton; Jesus, Flávia de; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger Charles; Solis, Marina Yázigi; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Gualano, Bruno; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the effect of beta-alanine (BA) alone (study A) and in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SB) (study B) on 100- and 200-m swimming performance. In study A, 16 swimmers were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 4 weeks) or placebo (PL; dextrose). At baseline and after 5 weeks of supplementation, 100- and 200-m races were completed. In study B, 14 were assigned to receive either BA (3.2 g·day(-1) for 1 week and 6.4 g·day(-1) for 3 weeks) or PL. Time trials were performed once before and twice after supplementation (with PL and SB), in a crossover fashion, providing 4 conditions: PL-PL, PL-SB, BA-PL, and BA-SB. In study A, BA supplementation improved 100- and 200-m time-trial performance by 2.1% (p = 0.029) and 2.0% (p = 0.0008), respectively. In study B, 200-m time-trial performance improved in all conditions, compared with presupplementation, except the PL-PL condition (PL-SB, +2.3%; BA-PL, +1.5%; BA-SB, +2.13% (p < 0.05)). BA-SB was not different from BA-PL (p = 0.21), but the probability of a positive effect was 78.5%. In the 100-m time-trial, only a within-group effect for SB was observed in the PL-SB (p = 0.022) and BA-SB (p = 0.051) conditions. However, 6 of 7 athletes swam faster after BA supplementation. The probability of BA having a positive effect was 65.2%; when SB was added to BA, the probability was 71.8%. BA and SB supplementation improved 100- and 200-m swimming performance. The coingestion of BA and SB induced a further nonsignificant improvement in performance.

  15. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    PubMed

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers.

  16. Evaluation of sodium bicarbonate, chloride, or sulfate with a coccidiostat in corn-soy or corn-soy-meat diets for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R; McNaughton, J L

    1999-09-01

    During the period from January to June, combined-sex broiler chickens were inoculated with coccidia via drinking water at 14 d of age. In a completely randomized design (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) using built-up litter, experimental diets contained monensin plus 0.20% dietary sodium bicarbonate (SBC), which provided 0.054% sodium and 0.144% bicarbonate. Treatment with SBC significantly improved coccidial lesion score, 45-d body weight, and feed efficiency compared with monensin alone. In a 2 x 5 factorial trial using built-up litter pens (eight replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) vs. each ionophore alone, 0.20% dietary SBC with monensin significantly improved body weight, uniformity, and feed efficiency; 0.20% SBC with halifuginone, lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly reduced mortality; and 0.20% SBC with lasalocid, monensin, or salinomycin significantly increased breast meat yield. In a 2x4 factorial trial (12 replicate pens; 88 chicks per pen) on built-up litter, corn-soy and corn-soy-meat diets (higher potassium, lower chloride) with monensin were evaluated using 0.054% sodium from SBC, NaCl, or sodium sulfate decahydrate (SSD). With both diet types, SBC (0.20%) or NaCl (0.139% extra) significantly improved weight uniformity, feed efficiency, mortality, and breast meat yield; however, the SSD results were closer to controls. In a 21-d battery brooder test using similar diets and design (2x4 factorial; 4 replicate pens; 10 chicks per pen), SBC and NaCl significantly reduced coccidial lesion scores; SSD produced a significant, but weaker effect. Extra NaCl significantly increased water intake (approximately 37%), water excretion (approximately 27%), and litter moisture (approximately 22%) with both diet types. The SSD did not affect water intake.

  17. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  18. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Harper, David D; Farag, Aïda M; Skaar, Don

    2014-03-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3(-). The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3(-). Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3(-) compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3(-). This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Lacticemia After Acute Overdose of Metformin in an Adolescent Managed Without Intravenous Sodium Bicarbonate or Extracorporeal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bebarta, Vikhyat S; Pead, Joshua; Varney, Shawn M

    2015-08-01

    Metformin-associated lactic acidosis or lacticemia has been widely reported as an adverse drug effect in diabetic patients with other significant comorbidities and in acute overdose in adults. Lacticemia has been reported twice in a previously healthy pediatric population, both of which were suicide attempts and required hemodialysis. We report a case of a 17-year-old, nondiabetic, healthy adolescent girl with metformin-associated lacticemia who intentionally overdosed on metformin, had no coingestants, and was treated only with crystalloids. Furthermore, she did not require intravenous bicarbonate administration or extracorporeal removal. PMID:26241713

  20. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 supports glutamine efflux via SNAT3 (SLC38A3) co-expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wendel, Christina; Becker, Holger M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2008-02-01

    The glutamine transporter SNAT3 contributes to the glutamine fluxes in liver, kidney, and brain. We heterologously co-expressed SNAT3 with the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 in Xenopus laevis oocytes and measured cytosolic pH and membrane current in voltage clamp. Because of the increased buffer capacity contributed by the NBCe1 (Becker and Deitmer in J Biol Chem 279:28057-28062, 2004), we hypothesized that this may enhance the proton-coupled glutamine transport via SNAT3 in the presence of CO2/HCO3-. Addition and removal of glutamine activated not only SNAT3 but also NBCe1, as indicated by the increased membrane current. The NBCe1 current during glutamine removal was more than 50% larger than during glutamine addition, suggesting that NBCe1 enhances glutamine efflux rather than glutamine uptake. This was confirmed by radio-labeled glutamine flux measurements; influx of glutamine was significantly decreased, whereas efflux of glutamine was increased when SNAT3 was co-expressed with NBCe1. A model is presented that attempts to explain the role of intracellular pH, bicarbonate transport, and buffering capacity mediated by NBCe1 for uptake and efflux of glutamine via SNAT3.

  1. X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Gill, Harindarpal S; Dutcher, Lauren; Boron, Walter F; Patel, Samir; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    NBCe1-A membrane-embedded macromolecules that cotransport sodium and bicarbonate ions across the bilayer serve to maintain acid-base homeostasis throughout the body. Defects result in a number of renal and eye disorders, including type-II renal tubular acidosis and cataracts. Here, crystals of a human truncated mutant of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NBCe1 (Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A) are reported that diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal symmetry of Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A is of space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and it has a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. The crystals may provide insight into the pathogenic processes observed in a subset of patients with truncating and point mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1.

  2. A novel sodium bicarbonate cotransporter-like gene in an ancient duplicated region: SLC4A9 at 5q31

    PubMed Central

    Lipovich, Leonard; Lynch, Eric D; Lee, Ming K; King, Mary-Claire

    2001-01-01

    Background: Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) genes encode proteins that execute coupled Na+ and HCO3- transport across epithelial cell membranes. We report the discovery, characterization, and genomic context of a novel human NBC-like gene, SLC4A9, on chromosome 5q31. Results: SLC4A9 was initially discovered by genomic sequence annotation and further characterized by sequencing of long-insert cDNA library clones. The predicted protein of 990 amino acids has 12 transmembrane domains and high sequence similarity to other NBCs. The 23-exon gene has 14 known mRNA isoforms. In three regions, mRNA sequence variation is generated by the inclusion or exclusion of portions of an exon. Noncoding SLC4A9 cDNAs were recovered multiple times from different libraries. The 3' untranslated region is fragmented into six alternatively spliced exons and contains expressed Alu, LINE and MER repeats. SLC4A9 has two alternative stop codons and six polyadenylation sites. Its expression is largely restricted to the kidney. In silico approaches were used to characterize two additional novel SLC4A genes and to place SLC4A9 within the context of multiple paralogous gene clusters containing members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF), ankyrin (ANK) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) families. Seven human EGF-SLC4A-ANK-FGF clusters were found. Conclusion: The novel sodium bicarbonate cotransporter-like gene SLC4A9 demonstrates abundant alternative mRNA processing. It belongs to a growing class of functionally diverse genes characterized by inefficient highly variable splicing. The evolutionary history of the EGF-SLC4A-ANK-FGF gene clusters involves multiple rounds of duplication, apparently followed by large insertions and deletions at paralogous loci and genome-wide gene shuffling. PMID:11305939

  3. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Florian; Meyer, Tim; Such, Ulf; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling. Methods This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg−1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo), respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa) and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test. Results Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05) under BICA (49.5±11.5 min) compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min). No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes. Conclusion The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006198. PMID:25494054

  4. Transport of sodium across the isolated bovine rumen epithelium: interaction with short-chain fatty acids, chloride and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Moller, P D; Skadhauge, E

    1996-01-01

    Unidirectional transport rates of sodium (22Na+) and chloride (36Cl-) across bovine rumen epithelium were measured in vitro by the Ussing chamber technique. The active and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-stimulated sodium transport was shown to fit Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and was rate limited mainly by one transport system, characterized by a Km of 43 mmol l-1 Na+ and a Jmax (maximal transport rate) of 6.2 mumol cm-2 h-1 Na+. It was confirmed that the basolateral Na+,K(+)-ATPase was essential for active sodium transport, and that an apical amiloride-sensitive sodium transport system (Na(+)-H+ exchange) was involved in a minimum of 60-70% of the active sodium transport in the presence of SCFAs (butyrate). The main part of both the mucosal-serosal (MS) and serosal-mucosal (SM) sodium flux was sensitive to an applied electrical potential difference (PD). It is noteworthy that an applied PD, equal to the in vivo PD (+30 mV, lumen as reference), abolished net transport of sodium. The stimulating effect of a mixture of acetate, propionate and butyrate on active sodium transport was confirmed, and it was further shown that the stimulating effect of each of the three SCFAs was nearly equal. Analogues of naturally occurring SCFAs (isobutyrate and 2-ethyl-butyrate) did not stimulate active sodium transport, but inhibited the stimulating effect of butyrate. The stimulating effect of butyrate was clearly concentration dependent and showed a maximum at approximately 20 mmol l-1 butyrate. Above this limit active sodium transport was decreased with increasing butyrate concentration. This suggests that there was a limit to the amount of butyrate that could be handled by the epithelium. The active sodium transport was clearly correlated with the chloride concentration, and was significantly reduced, but not abolished, by replacement of chloride with gluconate. Active transport of chloride was stimulated by butyrate and reduced by the Na(+)-H+ exchange inhibitor amiloride (3 mmol l

  5. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Gutsche, Jacob T.; Ramakrishna, Harish; Setegne, Samuel L.; Jackson, Kirk R.; Augoustides, John G.; Ochroch, E. Andrew; Weiss, Stuart J.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Cheung, Albert T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or hospital length of stay (LOS). Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86%) received NaHCO3. Total NaHCO3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0–535 mEq) per patient. Total NaHCO3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001), minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001), maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007), duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002), and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007). Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27397449

  6. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  7. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P < 0.05) in BICARB vs. PLAC. During exercise, muscle glycogen utilization (126 ± 47 vs. 53 ± 38 mmol/kg dry weight, P < 0.05) and blood lactate accumulation (12.8 ± 2.6 vs. 10.5 ± 2.8 mmol/liter, P < 0.05) were greater in BICARB vs. PLAC. The acute exercise-induced increase in the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a downstream marker of AMP-activated protein kinase activity, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats.

  8. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from OH and NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. PMID:21975008

  9. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    PubMed

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

  10. Effects of calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate bicarbonate health supplements on the urinary risk factors for kidney stone formation.

    PubMed

    Allie, Shameez; Rodgers, Allen

    2003-01-01

    We describe a model to illustrate different chemical interactions that can occur in urine following ingestion of individual and combined health supplements. Two types of interactions are defined: synergism and addition. The model was applied to eight healthy males who participated in a study to investigate the chemical interactions between calcium carbonate, magnesium oxide and sodium citrate-bicarbonate health supplements on calcium oxalate urinary stone risk factors. Subjects ingested these components individually and in combination for 7 days. Twenty-four-hour urines were collected at baseline and during the final day of supplementation. These were analysed using standard laboratory techniques. Three different chemical interactions, all involving citrate, were identified: magnesium and citrate exerted a synergistic effect on lowering the relative superaturation (RS) of brushite; the same two components produced a synergistic effect on raising pH; finally, calcium and citrate exerted an additive effect on lowering the RS of uric acid. We propose that the novel approach described in this paper allows for the evaluation of individual, additive and synergistic interactions in the assessment of the efficacy of stone-risk reducing preparations.

  11. Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ⩾0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improved MAOD but is not correlated with 200- and 400-m running performances: a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brisola, Gabriel Motta Pinheiro; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; da Silva, Henrique Santos; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) determined by a single supramaximal effort (MAODALT) in running and the correlation with 200- and 400-m running performances. Fifteen healthy men (age, 23 ± 4 years; maximal oxygen uptake, 50.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) underwent a maximal incremental exercise test and 2 supramaximal efforts at 110% of the intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake, which was carried out after ingesting either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body weight NaHCO3 or a placebo (dextrose) and completing 200- and 400-m performance tests. The study design was double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled. Significant differences were found between the NaHCO3 and placebo conditions for MAODALT (p = 0.01) and the qualitative inference for substantial changes showed a very likely positive effect (98%). The lactic anaerobic contribution in the NaHCO3 ingestion condition was significantly higher (p < 0.01) and showed a very likely positive effect (99% chance), similar to that verified for peak blood lactate concentration (p < 0.01). No difference was found for time until exhaustion (p = 0.19) or alactic anaerobic contribution (p = 0.81). No significant correlations were observed between MAODALT and 200- and 400-m running performance tests. Therefore, we can conclude that both MAODALT and the anaerobic lactic metabolism are modified after acute NaHCO3 ingestion, but it is not correlated with running performance.

  13. Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J.; Kim, H.P.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

  14. Comparison of a dual-phase fluoride toothpaste containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate with a regular fluoride toothpaste on calculus formation.

    PubMed

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-09-01

    This clinical study compared the effect on dental calculus formation of a dual-phase fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate with that of a regular dentifrice using a short-term clinical model in which calculus formation was facilitated. A total of 87 adult volunteers completed this study, which was a double-blind, parallel-group design, consisting of 2-week pretrial and trial periods separated by a washout period. A partial-mouth technique was used wherein the lower anterior teeth were protected from brushing by a custom-fitted toothshield, which doubled as an applicator for an undiluted dentifrice, twice daily. Calculus was measured on the labial/lingual surfaces of six lower anterior teeth by the Volpe-Manhold Index (V-MI). Subjects used a non-tartar-control dentifrice during the pretrial period to determine calculus formation rates, and these V-MI scores were used as baseline data for random allocation to either a control or test product for the trial period. Subjects who were accepted into the study, based on existing tartar deposits, readily formed calculus during the pretrial period using the toothshield method. During the trial period, subjects who were assigned the test dentifrice had comparable amounts of calculus accumulation to those who used the control dentifrice. However, subjects in the test dentifrice group had significantly lower (16%) calculus scores on lingual surfaces than those in the control group. Intragroup comparisons of V-MI data from the pretrial period with those from the trial period provided similar overall results to the comparisons between groups. This study demonstrated that a dual-phase baking soda dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate did not increase calculus accumulation relative to a regular dentifrice when used by adults with a propensity for developing calculus. PMID:15645907

  15. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole. PMID:27433347

  16. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  17. Residue levels and efficacy of fludioxonil and thiabendazole in controlling postharvest green mold decay in citrus fruit when applied in combination with sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

    2013-01-16

    The curative and protective activity of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) at 1% alone or in combination with fludioxonil (FLU), thiabendazole (TBZ), or FLU and TBZ together, between 50 and 600 mg/L, was evaluated on fruit of different citrus species and cultivars. Fruits were either artificially inoculated with a resistant (TBZ-r) or sensitive (TBZ-s) strain of Penicillium digitatum or not inoculated and incubated at 20 °C and 90% relative humidity (RH) for 7 days (incubated fruit) or stored at 1.5 °C for 21 days plus 7 days of simulated marketing conditions at 20 °C and 60% RH. The effectiveness of these treatments was related with treatment-induced changes of epicuticular wax morphology, the mode of distribution of SBC, TBZ, and FLU on the fruit surface, and FLU and TBZ fruit residue levels. SBC alone showed a weak activity against both strains of P. digitatum. Both TBZ and FLU were very effective at all rates used, and their activity markedly increased when combined together or with SBC, even at concentrations of 50-150 mg/L. Fruit treated with SBC either alone or in combination with TBZ and/or FLU increased weight loss, although no treatment damage was detected. Residue levels of TBZ generally increased when TBZ was combined with FLU and/or SBC, whereas those of FLU slightly increased only in treatment where FLU was combined with TBZ and SBC. Initial residues of TBZ and FLU when applied at 600 mg/L were around 2 and 1 mg/kg, respectively, several times below the lowest MRLs set by most important citrus-producing countries. In treatments with SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU, SEM observation of the fruit surface showed a smoothing of cuticular wax platelets' surface, whereas ESEM micrographs showed irregular spots of salt deposits of roundish to irregular shape. The apparently uneven distribution of SBC or SBC plus TBZ or FLU or SBC plus TBZ and FLU on fruit might in part reduce the potential beneficial effects of SBC or of fungicide-SBC mixtures. PMID:23256745

  18. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to either 1 or 2 feedings of colostrum replacer: effect on uptake and rate of absorption of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Cabral, R G; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2012-06-01

    Forty Holstein dairy calves were blocked by birth date and sex, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within each block to elucidate the effect of feeding regimen and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) supplementation on absorption of IgG from colostrum replacer (CR). Calves received CR containing 191.4 g of IgG fed either in 1 feeding at 0 h (within 45 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO₃, or in 2 feedings (127.6 g of IgG at 0 h, with or without 20 g of NaHCO₃, and 63.8 g of IgG at 6 h, with or without 10 g of NaHCO₃). The treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; (2) 1 feeding of CR+30 g of NaHCO₃; (3) 2 feedings of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; and (4) 2 feedings of CR+30 g total of NaHCO₃. Only calves born with no dystocia were used on this study. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h postpartum and were analyzed for IgG using a radial immunoassay. Results indicated that, individually, feeding regimen and NaHCO₃ treatments had no effect. However, the interaction was significant for 24-h IgG and area under the curve, and showed a trend for apparent efficiency of absorption. Absorption rate data indicated that, for calves fed within 45 min of birth, most IgG absorption occurred in the first 6 h after birth. From 6 to 12 h postpartum, IgG absorption started to decrease; however, IgG absorption remained higher for calves fed in a single feeding than in 2 feedings. These data indicated that NaHCO₃ may increase IgG absorption when calves are fed colostrum in a single feeding but is not beneficial when colostrum is fed in 2 feedings.

  19. Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2014-01-01

    Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption.

  20. Improved pH buffering agent for sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. R.; Veeder, L. N.

    1969-01-01

    Sodium citrate/citric acid was found to be an effective buffer for pH control when used with sodium hypochlorite. The mixture does not corrode aluminum. The buffer appears to form a type of conversion coating that may provide corrosion-resistant properties to aluminum in other applications.

  1. Residue levels, persistence and effectiveness of imazalil against a resistant strain of penicillium digitatum when applied in combination with heat and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Green and blue molds, respectively caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc., and P. italicum Wehmer, are the most important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit Postharvest management of these pathogens is mainly based on the application of thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil (IMZ) fungicides. However, their intensive and prolonged use has led to the selection of TBZ- IMZ-resistant strains of these pathogens and to a reduction of TBZ and IMZ effectiveness to control postharvest decay. However, while TBZ may become completely ineffective against TBZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, reduction of IMZ efficacy is only partial, and an effective control of decay can still be achieved by increasing its concentration, heating the treatment-solution and/or combining IMZ with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) or other food additives or natural salts. In this study, 'Desiderio' and 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with spores of a sensitive strain of P. digitatum to IMZ and TBZ (PDs) or with a strain of P. digitatum with double resistance to both fungicides (PDr) and immersed in IMZ or TBZ emulsions at increasing concentrations up to 1000 mg/L or in IMZ (25, 200 or 400 mg/L), SBC (0.5, 1 or 2%) or IMZ + SBC emulsions either at 20 or 40 degrees C. IMZ was superior to TBZ to control decay of 'Desiderio' mandarins incited by PDs and was also effective to control decay in fruit inoculated with PDr, while TBZ even at the highest rate was completely ineffective. In 'Desiderio' mandarins inoculated with PDs, a complete control of decay was achieved with 25 mg/L IMZ but in fruit inoculated with PDr, 25 mg/L IMZ were ineffective to control decay despite in combination with SBC at 2% a synergistic effect was detected. In contrast, a good control of decay was achieved with 400 mg/L IMZ. In 'Nova' mandarins after 1 week of incubation at 20 degrees C decay incidence in fruit dipped in 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C was almost completely inhibited, while the addition of SBC at

  2. Acetate dialysate versus bicarbonate dialysate: a continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1987-01-01

    The use of bicarbonate dialysate as the buffer during routine dialysis is growing. This discussion reviews several of the comparative trials in which bicarbonate and acetate buffers have been tested. Effects of the two buffers on BP, cardiac function, and pulmonary performance are discussed. Costs of the two systems are also compared. Patients who seem most likely to benefit from bicarbonate dialysate include those with a reduced muscle mass in whom a high sodium dialysate has not prevented hypotension. PMID:3028133

  3. Sodium trimetaphosphate as a bone-imaging agent. I. Animal studies.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M F; Melton, R E; Wazer, J R

    1975-11-01

    When used is conjunction with stannous ion and 99Tc, the nonsequestering, cyclic, trimeric phosphate anion, (P309)3-, introduced in the form of its sodium salt, exhibits admirable properties as a bone-visualizing agent as demonstrated by animal studies. These studies show that this combinatation is easily prepared reproducibly and, compared to the agents described in the recent literature (all based on sequestering phosphates), is at least equivalent for bone visualization while being considerably less toxic. PMID:1185266

  4. On the mechanisms responsible for the phosphaturia of bicarbonate administration.

    PubMed Central

    Mercado, A; Slatopolsky, E; Klahr, S

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in normal dogs to characterize the mechanisms by which sodium bicarbonate administration results in increased excretion of phosphate. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate alone increased fractional phosphate excretion from 0.8 to 29.3%. During bicarbonate administration, ionized calcium fell and mean parathyroid hormone values increased from 59.6 to 230.4 muleq/ml. In the same group of dogs, administration of sodium bicarbonate plus calcium prevented the fall in ionized calcium, and parathyroid hormone levels remained unchanged. In these dogs fractional phosphate excretion increased from 2.4 to only 4.9%. Similar results were obtained in thyroparathyroidectomized dogs receiving sodium bicarbonate. In these dogs fractional excretion of phosphate increased from 0.6 to 4.5%. Under all three experimental conditions no differences were observed in sodium or bicarbonate excretion or in urinary or plasma pH. Administration of hydrochloric acid, after phosphaturia had been induced by the infusion of bicarbonate, resulted in a decrease in plasma bicarbonate and an acid urine; however, the phosphaturia persisted even in the presence of an acid urine pH. In five thyroparathyroidectomized dogs infused with parathyroid hormone throughout, administration of identical amounts of sodium as either NaCl or NaHCO3 resulted in a similar degree of phosphaturia despite significant differences in urine pH. These experiments suggest that a rise in parathyroid hormone levels, resulting from a fall in ionized calcium, is the major mechanism by which bicarbonate administration produces phosphaturia. An increased natriuresis per nephron, as a consequence of extracellular fluid volume expansion, contributes to the phosphaturia. On the other hand, alkalinization of the urine does not play a significant role in the phosphaturia seen after bicarbonate administration. PMID:172529

  5. Sodium arsenite potentiates the clastogenicity and mutagenicity of DNA cross linking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.C.; Lee, K.C.; Tzeng, Y.J.; Huang, R.Y.; Jan, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    To see if sodium arsenite enhances the clastogenicity and the mutagenicity of DNA crosslinking agents, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human skin fibroblasts were exposed to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-Pt(II)) or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA) and then to sodium arsenite. The results indicate that the clastogenicity of cis-Pt(II) and 8-MOP pllus UVA are enhanced by the post-treatment with sodium arsenite. Chromatid breaks and exchanges are predominantly increased in doubly treated cells. Furthermore, the mutagenicity of cis-Pt(II) at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus is also potentiated by sodium arsenite in CHO cells

  6. [Conservative treatment improved corrosive esophagitis and pneumomediastinum in a patient who ingested bleaching agent containing sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Nakano, Hiroshi; Iseki, Ken; Ozawa, Akiko; Tominaga, Aya; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Otani, Koichi

    2014-03-01

    A 69-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department 3 hours after ingestion of a bleaching agent containing hypochlorous acid and sodium hydroxide in a suicide attempt. Enhanced chest computed tomography scans taken on admission indicated an edematous esophagus and air bubbles in the mediastinum. He underwent endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation until day 9 because of laryngeal edema. On day 10, his endoscopy indicated diffuse reddish mucosal hyperemia, erosions, and lacerated mucosal lesions in the esophagus that were indicative of grade 2b corrosive esophagitis. Treatment with a proton pump inhibitor was initiated, with which the condition of the esophagus improved, and on day 44, a slight stricture of the upper part of the esophagus was observed. He was discharged on day 64 without any complaints. The ingestion of sodium hypochlorite induces corrosive esophagitis and acute phase of gastritis. Ingestion of any corrosive agent is known as a risk factor for esophagus cancer in the long-term. In such cases with esophageal stricture, esophagectomy is recommended for preventing esophagus cancer. Considering the age of the patient, however, he did not undergo esophagectomy.

  7. Influence of zinc, sodium bicarbonate, and citric acid on the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in model systems and ham.

    PubMed

    Ko, K Y; Mendonca, A F; Ahn, D U

    2008-12-01

    The influence of NaHCO(3) and citric acid on the antibacterial activity of apo-ovotransferrin in model systems and ham was investigated. The antibacterial activity of 20 mg/mL of ovotransferrin solution with added NaHCO(3) (0, 25, 50, or 100 mM) or citric acid (0.25 or 0.5%) was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in brain heart infusion broth. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin saturated with Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) against both pathogens was also measured. In addition, ovotransferrin solutions containing either 100 mM NaHCO(3) or 0.5% citric acid were applied to commercial hams inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes and stored at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin increased as the concentration of added NaHCO(3) increased. Sodium bicarbonate (100 mM) significantly improved the antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Citric acid (0.5%) combined with ovotransferrin resulted in a synergistic antibacterial effect against E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes was susceptible to 0.5% citric acid alone. Sodium bicarbonate diminished the strong antibacterial activity of ovotransferrin + citric acid against E. coli O157:H7, and use of sodium citrate instead of citric acid did not produce any antibacterial activity against the pathogens. The antimicrobial activity of ovotransferrin increased significantly under acidic conditions. The Zn-bound ovotransferrin prevented the growth of L. monocytogenes as detected in the apo-ovotransferrin combined with 100 mM NaHCO(3) treatment, but Fe-bound ovotransferrin had little or no inhibitory activity against E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. Ovotransferrin + 100 mM NaHCO(3) did not exhibit any antibacterial activity against the 2 pathogens in commercial hams, whereas ovotransferrin + 0.5% citric acid suppressed the growth of L. monocytogenes in irradiated hams. In conclusion, combinations of

  8. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 in the kidney medullary thick ascending limb cell line is upregulated under acidic conditions and enhances ammonium transport.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M; Bevensee, Mark O; Choi, Inyeong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mm ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH(4)(+) transport, and the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-methylammonium/methylammonia ((14)C-MA) was determined. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated (14)C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) solution, however, cells markedly accumulated (14)C-MA over the experimental period of 30 min. This CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl(-) with gluconate reduced the accumulation, but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubation of cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO(3) in 5% CO(2)) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for control cells. The presence of DIDS reduced (14)C-MA accumulation in control conditions but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblotting showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH(4)Cl-containing media. The Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 was present, but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated (14)C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na(+). Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH(4)Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion normally governs NH(4)(+)/NH(3) uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cells. We propose that, in acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion is inactivated, while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH(4)(+) transport.

  9. Therapeutic effect of egualen sodium (KT1-32), a new antiulcer agent, on chronic gastritis induced by sodium taurocholate in rats.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Matsumoto, M; Wakabayashi, S; Kosakai, K; Tomiyama, A; Kishimoto, S

    1996-12-01

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of egualen sodium (KT1-32), a new antiulcer agent, on chronic erosive and atrophic gastritis induced by 5 months' administration of sodium taurocholate (TCA; 5 mM) in rats. The chronic gastritis was manifested by mucosal surface injuries (erosions), reduced mucosal thickness, reduction of the number of parietal cells, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and proliferation of collagenous fiber. Egualen sodium, (10-100 mg/kg, t.i.d.) administered orally to the rats for 2 weeks after the withdrawal of TCA, dose-dependently and significantly decreased the total length of erosions. The indicators of atrophic gastritis, i.e., reduced mucosal thickness and reduction in the number of parietal cells, were improved dose-dependently by the administration of this agent. Egualen sodium also reduced the inflammatory cell infiltration and the proliferation of collagenous fiber in the gastric mucosa in a dose-dependent manner. The reduced staining of neutral gastric mucus was improved by a high dose (100 mg/kg) of egualen sodium. The therapeutic effects of egualen sodium on experimental gastritis were superior to those of sofalcone and sodium guaiazulene 3-sulfonate. These results suggest that egualen sodium may be a promising agent for the treatment of erosive and atrophic gastritis. PMID:9027640

  10. [Half-molar sodium-lactate: The osmotic agent we are looking for?].

    PubMed

    Aramendi, I; Manzanares, W; Biestro, A

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is the most important modifiable factor with predictive negative value in brain injury patients. Osmotherapy is the most important first level specific measure in the treatment of ICH. Mannitol 20%, and 3, 7.5, 10, and 23% hypertonic sodium chloride are the most commonly used osmotic agents in the neurocritical care setting. Currently, controversy about the best osmotic agent remains elusive. Therefore, over the past few years, half-molar sodium lactate has been introduced as a new osmotic agent to be administered in the critically ill. Lactate is able to prevent hyperchloremia, as well as its adverse effects such as hyperchloremic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Furthermore, lactate may also be used by glia as energy substrate in brain injury patients. Half-molar sodium lactate would also have a more potent and long-lasting effect decreasing intracellular osmolarity and by inhibiting neuronal volume control mechanisms. Pioneering researches in patients with traumatic brain injury have shown a more significant effect than mannitol on the control of ICH. In addition, in this group of patients this solution appears to be beneficial in preventing episodes of ICH. However, future research is necessary to corroborate or not these promising results.

  11. Propofol versus thiopental sodium as anaesthetic agents for oocyte retrieval: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Goutziomitrou, Evangelia; Venetis, Christos A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Bosdou, Julia K; Parlapani, Aggeliki; Grimbizis, Gregoris; Tarlatzis, Basil C

    2015-12-01

    Clinical outcomes of IVF cycles using propofol or thiopental sodium as anaesthetic agents for oocyte retrieval were compared. The primary outcome measure was fertilization rate per patient. One hundred and eighty patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with gonadotrophins and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for IVF were randomized to receive either propofol (n = 90) or thiopental sodium (n = 90). No significant differences in baseline characteristics were present between the two groups. Overall fertilization rates were similar between propofol and thiopental sodium groups, respectively: median (IQR): 54.8 (29.2) versus 54.6 (29.7); fertilization rates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection only: median (IQR): 70 (50) versus 75 (50), respectively. For secondary outcome measures, time under anaesthesia was significantly increased in the thiopental sodium group: median (IQR): 12(5) versus 10 (4.5) min, P = 0.019 compared with the propofol group. Number of cumulus oocyte complexes retrieved [median (IQR): 7.1 (6.3) versus 6.5 (5.6)] did not differ significantly between the two groups. A non-significant difference in live birth rates per randomized patient of +4.4% (95% CI: -5.7 to +14.6) in favour of propofol was observed. Use of propofol compared with thiopental sodium for general anaesthesia during oocyte retrieval results in similar fertilization rates and IVF outcomes.

  12. Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

  13. [Functioning biological activity of mean mineralized sodium bicarbonate in water from the "Pitoniakówka" source in Szczawnica, designed for health resort potable cures].

    PubMed

    Drobnik, M; Latour, T

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments on animals the biological activity of the water from its intake "Pitoniakówka" (outflow B + C + D + G) in Szczawnica has been determined. The basic investigations were carried out on rats whom in the course of 24 days the investigated water was being administered to drink ad libitum or by probe in a single daily dose of 10.7 ml/kg of body weight. It has been ascertained that the water caused a statistically significant increase of the concentration of sodium and a fall of the levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium, total cholesterol, the HDL fraction of cholesterol, total lipids in the blood serum, also of hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocytes. The investigated water inhibited the motor activity of the small intestine of the rabbit, caused increased urination and increased water turnover in the organism. A long-lasting application of the investigated water may lead to the genesis of metabolic acidosis. There was not observed any cholagonic and any chologenic activity of the investigated water in guinea pigs or any effect of that water on the elements of the carbohydrate metabolism, the protein metabolism or on the peripheral blood smear in rats. PMID:11452742

  14. Prospective randomized comparison of sodium tetradecyl sulfate and polidocanol as variceal sclerosing agents.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, D K; Singh, B; Dogra, R; Dasarathy, S; Sharma, M P

    1992-02-01

    A prospective randomized controlled study was designed to evaluate differences in efficacy and complication rate between the two most commonly used sclerosing agents, sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STD) and polidocanol. Of 52 patients with esophageal variceal bleeding, 26 were randomized to receive sclerotherapy with 1.5% STD and 26 to receive 1% polidocanol at weekly intervals. Eradication of varices was achieved in 88% patients each of the STD and polidocanol group. There was no significant difference between patients injected with STD and polidocanol with regard to re-bleeding (27% vs. 15%) and mortality (11.5% in both). The use of STD, in contrast to polidocanol, was associated with a higher incidence of complications in terms of severe retrosternal pain (27% vs. 4%), deep ulceration (53% vs. 23%), dysphagia (88% vs. 46%), and stricture formation (27% vs. 8%). It was concluded that these two agents were similar in efficacy. However, polidocanol was superior due to a lower incidence of complications.

  15. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  16. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization. PMID:27399145

  17. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM. PMID:25598831

  18. The bicarbonate-dependence of zinc(II)-transferrin binding.

    PubMed

    Harris, W R; Stenback, J Z

    1988-07-01

    The binding of zinc(II) to human serum transferrin has been studied as a function of the solution concentration of sodium bicarbonate in 100 mM, pH 7.4 hepes buffer at 25 degrees C. The apparent molar absorptivity of the zinc-transferrin complex has been determined from the initial slopes of titration curves of delta epsilon versus the ratio of [Zn]/[Tf]. This absorptivity represents the difference between the positive absorbance of the ternary Zn-HCO3-Tf species in the sample cuvette and the negative absorbance of binary HCO3-Tf species in the reference cuvette. Higher concentrations of bicarbonate increase the degree of saturation of apo-Tf with bicarbonate and thus increase the apparent absorptivity of the zinc-Tf complex. Titrations of apo- and monoferric transferrins with bicarbonate indicate that there is little, if any, difference in the bicarbonate binding constants of the two specific transferrin binding sites. An equilibrium constant of log K = 2.49 has been used to calculate the degree of saturation of the C-terminal binding site with bicarbonate. The zinc-binding affinity of this site depends linearly on this degree of saturation. The scatter in the zinc-binding constants of the weaker N-terminal site precludes a similar analysis of the bicarbonate-dependence of binding at this site. The results strongly support the previous proposal that binding of the synergistic bicarbonate anion is responsible for the uv absorption observed upon addition of bicarbonate to apoTf.

  19. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  2. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production.

  3. Optimization of isolation of cellulose from orange peel using sodium hydroxide and chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Bicu, Ioan; Mustata, Fanica

    2013-10-15

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize cellulose recovery from orange peel using sodium hydroxide (NaOH) as isolation reagent, and to minimize its ash content using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as chelating agent. The independent variables were NaOH charge, EDTA charge and cooking time. Other two constant parameters were cooking temperature (98 °C) and liquid-to-solid ratio (7.5). The dependent variables were cellulose yield and ash content. A second-order polynomial model was used for plotting response surfaces and for determining optimum cooking conditions. The analysis of coefficient values for independent variables in the regression equation showed that NaOH and EDTA charges were major factors influencing the cellulose yield and ash content, respectively. Optimum conditions were defined by: NaOH charge 38.2%, EDTA charge 9.56%, and cooking time 317 min. The predicted cellulose yield was 24.06% and ash content 0.69%. A good agreement between the experimental values and the predicted was observed.

  4. Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg 1-2 h before exercise) can temporarily increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, enhancing extracellular buffering of hydrogen ions which accumulate and efflux from the working muscle. Such 'bicarbonate loading' provides an ergogenic strategy for sporting events involving high rates of anaerobic glycolysis which are otherwise limited by the body's capacity to manage the progressive increase in intracellular acidity. Studies show that bicarbonate loading strategies have a moderate positive effect on the performance of sports involving 1-7 min of sustained strenuous exercise, and may also be useful for prolonged sports involving intermittent or sustained periods of high-intensity work rates. This potential to enhance sports performance requires further investigation using appropriate research design, but may be limited by practical considerations such as gut discomfort or the logistics of the event. The effect of chronic use of bicarbonate supplementation prior to high-intensity workouts to promote better training performance and adaptations is worthy of further investigation. While this relatively simple dietary strategy has been studied and used by sports people for over 80 years, it is likely that there are still ways in which further benefits from bicarbonate supplementation can be developed and individualized for specific athletes or specific events.

  5. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status.

    PubMed

    de Brito-Ashurst, Ione; Varagunam, Mira; Raftery, Martin J; Yaqoob, Muhammad M

    2009-09-01

    Bicarbonate supplementation preserves renal function in experimental chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether the same benefit occurs in humans is unknown. Here, we randomly assigned 134 adult patients with CKD (creatinine clearance [CrCl] 15 to 30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) and serum bicarbonate 16 to 20 mmol/L to either supplementation with oral sodium bicarbonate or standard care for 2 yr. The primary end points were rate of CrCl decline, the proportion of patients with rapid decline of CrCl (>3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr), and ESRD (CrCl <10 ml/min). Secondary end points were dietary protein intake, normalized protein nitrogen appearance, serum albumin, and mid-arm muscle circumference. Compared with the control group, decline in CrCl was slower with bicarbonate supplementation (5.93 versus 1.88 ml/min 1.73 m(2); P < 0.0001). Patients supplemented with bicarbonate were significantly less likely to experience rapid progression (9 versus 45%; relative risk 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.40; P < 0.0001). Similarly, fewer patients supplemented with bicarbonate developed ESRD (6.5 versus 33%; relative risk 0.13; 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.40; P < 0.001). Nutritional parameters improved significantly with bicarbonate supplementation, which was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of progression of renal failure to ESRD and improves nutritional status among patients with CKD.

  6. [Comparison of the thermostability of natural (sulfoprolamine and sodium usnate) and synthetic (climbazole and piroctone olamine) antidandruff agents].

    PubMed

    Coiffard, C; Coiffard, L; de Roeck-Holtzhauer, Y

    1999-09-01

    We compared thermostability of various natural (sulfoprolamine and sodium usnate) or synthetic (climbazol and piroctone olamine) antidandruff agents in aqueous diluted solution at pH around 7. Thermodegradation of these solutions was studied by an isothermal method in thermostatically controlled ovens, at three temperatures (50, 70 and 90 degrees C). For each molecule, we determined at 20 degrees C t90% (time necessary to obtain a decrease of 10% of the initial concentration, value which shows the stability of the product). The present study shows that piroctone olamine is the most stable antidandruff agent among those studied. PMID:10520510

  7. Human cardiovascular response to sympathomimetic agents during head-down bed rest: the effect of dietary sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. J.; Stuart, C. A.; Fortney, S. M.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Chen, Y. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular deconditioning have long been recognized as a feature of the physiological adaptation to microgravity. The deconditioning process, coupled with altered hydration status, is thought to significantly contribute to orthostatic intolerance upon return to Earth gravity. The cardiovascular response to stimulation by sympathomimetic agents before, during, and after exposure to simulated microgravity was determined in healthy volunteers equilibrated on normal or high sodium diets in order to further the understanding of the deconditioning process.

  8. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  9. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  19. Production of L-lactic acid by a thermophilic Bacillus mutant using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiayang; Wang, Xiuwen; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    A sodium lactate tolerant mutant strain named Bacillus sp. Na-2 was obtained and applied to sodium hydroxide-based L-lactic acid (LA) production process. The influences of aeration and pH were investigated to further improve the resistance of strain Na-2 against sodium lactate stress and to obtain the most efficient L-LA production process. Although mild aeration was favorable for cell growth and L-LA production, vigorous aeration resulted in a metabolic shift from homolactic to mixed-acid/acetoin fermentation. Therefore, a two-stage aeration control strategy was employed. Optimum pH was found to be 6.0. A total of 106.0 g/l L-LA was produced in 30 h by Bacillus sp. Na-2 using sodium hydroxide as neutralizing agent. Productivity, conversion rate and optical purity were 3.53 g/l/h, 94% and 99.5%, respectively. The remarkable fermentation traits of Bacillus sp. Na-2 and the environment-friendly characteristics of NaOH-based process represent new insight for industrial scale production of L-LA.

  20. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  1. Sodium hypochlorite: A promising agent for reducing Botrytis cinerea infection on rose flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal pathogen that greatly reduces the postharvest quality of rose flowers. We determined the potential of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an oxidizer with antimicrobial activity, to reduce the incidence of disease on flowers. A postharvest dip in 200 µL L-1 NaOCl for 10 s at ...

  2. Application of a proanthocyanidin agent to improve the bond strength of root dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, V Sujatha; Srinivasulu, Sakhamuri; Rajesh Ebenezar, AV; Mahalaxmi, S; Srinivasan, N

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the application of PA agent that improves the bond strength of root dentin treated with NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Group 1: root canals were irrigated using 0.9% isotonic saline as an irrigant (negative control); Group 2: root canals were irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl (positive control); Group 3: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes; Group 4: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 5% PA for 10 minutes. All the canals were then coated with self-etch dentin bonding agent, filled with resin cement, stored for one day in water, and then cross sectioned into three slabs of 2-mm thickness that were prepared and tested for microtensile bond strength. Results: The results demonstrated that 5.25% NaOCl caused significant reduction (P<0.05) in the bond strength, but this can be reversed by 5% PA significantly more than the 10% sodium ascorbate. PMID:22025839

  3. New insights into an ancient antibrowning agent: formation of sulfophenolics in sodium hydrogen sulfite-treated potato extracts.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-09-28

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (λmax 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (λmax 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357±395 M(-1) cm(-1) as compared to 18494±196 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions. PMID:21854040

  4. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  6. Bicarbonate transport in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Alka, Kumari; Casey, Joseph R

    2014-09-01

    Bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has a central place in human physiology as the waste product of mitochondrial energy production and for its role in pH buffering throughout the body. Because bicarbonate is impermeable to membranes, bicarbonate transport proteins are necessary to enable control of bicarbonate levels across membranes. In humans, 14 bicarbonate transport proteins, members of the SLC4 and SLC26 families, function by differing transport mechanisms. In addition, some anion channels and ZIP metal transporters contribute to bicarbonate movement across membranes. Defective bicarbonate transport leads to diseases, including systemic acidosis, brain dysfunction, kidney stones, and hypertension. Altered expression levels of bicarbonate transporters in patients with breast, colon, and lung cancer suggest an important role of these transporters in cancer.

  7. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Rescue of the temperature-sensitive, autosomal-recessive mutation R298S in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A characterized by a weakened dimer and abnormal aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harindarpal S.; Choi, Kun-Young; Kammili, Lakshmi; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Background Band keratopathy, an ocular disease that is characterized by hypercalcemia and opaque bands across the cornea, has been associated with kidney disease. Type-II renal tubular acidosis (RTA), a condition in which the kidneys fail to recover bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the proximal tubule of the nephron, results in HCO3− wastage in the urine and low blood pH. The development of these diseases is associated with autosomal-recessive mutations in the Na+-coupled HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-A located at the basolateral membranes of either cell type. Methods We provide insight into the devastating R298S mutation found in type-II RTA-afflicted individuals using confocal-microscopy imaging of fluorescently-tagged NBCe1-A and NBCe1-A-R298S molecules expressed in human corneal endothelial and proximal tubule cells and from in-depth biophysical studies of their cytoplasmic N-terminal domains (Nt and Nt-R298S), including Nt crystal structure, melting-temperature, and homodimer dissociation constant (KD) analyses. Results We illuminate and rescue trafficking defects of the R298S mutation of NBCe1-A. The KD for Nt monomer-dimer equilibrium is established. The KD for Nt-R298S is significantly higher, but immeasurable due to environmental factors (pH, temperature, concentration) that result in dimer instability leading to precipitation. The crystal structure of Nt-dimer shows that R298 is part of a putative substrate conduit and resides near the dimer interface held together by hydrogen-bond networks. Conclusions The R298S is a temperature-sensitive mutation in Nt that results in instability of the colloidal system leading to abnormal aggregation. General significance Our findings provide new perspectives to the aberrant mechanism of certain ocular pathologies and type-II RTA associated with the R298S mutation. PMID:25743102

  15. Curcumin, the main part of turmeric, prevents learning and memory changes induced by sodium metabisulfite, a preservative agent, in rats.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Abdollahifar, Mohammad Amin; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali

    2013-03-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent in the food, beverage, and drug industries. Neurons are highly sensitive to sulfite toxicity. Curcumin is the main part of turmeric and has neuroprotective effects on a variety of nervous system damages. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite in rats. The rats were divided into five groups receiving distilled water (solvent of the sulfite), olive oil (solvent of the curcumin), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin. All the animals received daily gavages for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8(th) week, learning and memory were assessed in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The animals treated with sulfite showed fewer correct choices and more reference and working memory errors during the learning phase, at the end of the learning phase, and during the retention testing (p<0.001). The study results demonstrated that sulfite-exposure was associated with impaired learning and memory in rats. Adding curcumin to the rat nutrition plays a protective role in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite.

  16. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums.

  17. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  18. Aluminum bioavailability from basic sodium aluminum phosphate, an approved food additive emulsifying agent, incorporated in cheese.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Hicks, Clair L; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-06-01

    Oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water has been previously estimated, but there is little information on Al bioavailability from foods. It was suggested that oral Al bioavailability from drinking water is much greater than from foods. The objective was to further test this hypothesis. Oral Al bioavailability was determined in the rat from basic [26Al]-sodium aluminum phosphate (basic SALP) in a process cheese. Consumption of approximately 1g cheese containing 1.5% or 3% basic SALP resulted in oral Al bioavailability (F) of approximately 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, and time to maximum serum 26Al concentration (Tmax) of 8-9h. These Al bioavailability results were intermediate to previously reported results from drinking water (F approximately 0.3%) and acidic-SALP incorporated into a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%), using the same methods. Considering the similar oral bioavailability of Al from food vs. water, and their contribution to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 95% and 1.5%, respectively), these results suggest food contributes much more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water. These results do not support the hypothesis that drinking water provides a disproportionate contribution to total Al absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (ZS-9): A Novel Agent for the Treatment of Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Linder, Kristin E; Krawczynski, Michelle A; Laskey, Dayne

    2016-08-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte abnormality that may be caused by select medications, underlying organ dysfunction, or alterations in potassium homeostasis. Treatment for this condition has remained largely unchanged since the release of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) in 1958. Despite its widespread use, the safety and efficacy of SPS remains controversial. Two novel potassium-binding resins have emerged in recent years. Patiromer was the first of these to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of hyperkalemia in October 2015. A second potassium-binding resin, a zirconium cyclosilicate currently known as ZS-9, may provide yet another alternative to the archetypal treatment with SPS. ZS-9 is an orally administered nonabsorbed inorganic compound that selectively binds potassium ions in vivo. Two phase III multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials have evaluated ZS-9 for the treatment of acute hyperkalemia. In this review, we discuss the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, and potential place in therapy of ZS-9 for the enhanced elimination of potassium in the setting of hyperkalemia. PMID:27393581

  20. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the bound phosphate associated with the sodium-and-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase in ox brain microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Rodnight, R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the Na+-dependent bound phosphate and the simultaneous Na+-dependent hydrolysis of ATP by a membrane preparation from ox brain was studied at an ATP/protein ratio of 12.5pmol/μg. 2. The agents were added immediately after phosphorylation of the preparation in a medium containing 50mm-sodium chloride and 2.5μm-[γ-32P]ATP. 3. Concentrations of sodium chloride above 150mm, calcium chloride to 20mm and suramin to 1.4mm inhibited both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and concomitantly slowed ATP hydrolysis. At 125mm-sodium chloride dephosphorylation and hydrolysis were slightly slowed without affecting phosphorylation. 4. Ethanol to 1.6m concentration inhibited dephosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation; the bound phosphate was increased and ATP hydrolysis slowed. 5. Ouabain to 4mm concentration partially inhibited ATP hydrolysis and caused a transient (1–2s) rise in bound phosphate followed by a rapid fall to a lower plateau value, which eventually declined to zero by the time ATP hydrolysis was complete. 6. Of the detergents examined Lubrol W, Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate had no significant effect on turnover. Sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium decyl sulphate to 3.5mm and 20mm respectively completely inhibited turnover and ATP hydrolysis and stabilized the bound phosphate. PMID:4250238

  1. The structure and spectroscopy of cyanate and bicarbonate ions. Astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Maté, B; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y; Gálvez, O; Gómez, P C; Herrero, V J; Escribano, R

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed. PMID:23360125

  2. The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

  3. Effect of chilling, polyphosphate and bicarbonate on quality characteristics of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Sen, A R; Naveena, B M; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Murthy, T R K

    2005-08-01

    1. An experiment was conducted to assess the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate on colour and sensory attributes of pre- and post-chilled breast meat. 2. Three groups of 6 halves of breasts (pre-chill) immediately after slaughter were treated with 3% tetrasodium pyrophosphate, 3% sodium bicarbonate in 2% NaCl or 2% NaCl alone (control); the remaining 6 halves (post-chill) were stored overnight at 4 degrees C and then treated similarly. Both the pre- and post-chill samples were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h and pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, CIE colour values and sensory attributes were recorded. 3. Chilling had few effects on the meat characteristics measured in this study. 4. Treatment with phosphate and bicarbonate increased pH in both the pre- and post-chill groups. Treated breasts exhibited lower L* and higher a* value (more red) than controls. 5. A sensory evaluation study revealed improvements in colour and other sensory attributes of cooked broiler breast meat in all treated samples compared to the control. 6. The findings suggest that tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium bicarbonate, when injected post mortem, will have beneficial effects on several physico-chemical (pH, colour, WHC %, cooking loss) and sensory attributes of broiler meat. However, phosphate had a smaller effect than bicarbonate.

  4. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  5. Interaction of water activity and bicarbonate salts in the inhibition of growth and mycotoxin production by Fusarium and Aspergillus species of importance to corn.

    PubMed

    Samapundo, S; Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Lamboni, Y; Osei-Nimoh, D; Debevere, J M

    2007-05-10

    The combined effects of water activity (a(w)) and ammonium/sodium bicarbonate on growth and mycotoxin production in corn by Fusarium and Aspergillus species were investigated. Interaction was observed between the salts and a(w) on the colony growth rates and lag phase durations of all isolates. Growth stimulation at low salt levels was observed only for the Fusarium isolates as the fastest growth of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum occurred at levels of 0.1-0.2 and 0.5% ammonium and sodium bicarbonate, respectively. Although the complete inhibition of the growth of the Fusarium and Aspergillus isolates investigated took place at a level of 1% ammonium bicarbonate as much as 4% sodium bicarbonate failed to completely inhibit the growth of the Aspergillus isolates. Increase in concentration of either salt generally resulted in large reductions of both fumonisin B(1) and aflatoxin B(1) production. According to the sensorial analysis performed, corn treated with up to 1% ammonium bicarbonate was still acceptable for consumption, whereas corn treated with at least 2% sodium bicarbonate was determined to be sensorially unsuitable. Ammonium bicarbonate can be concluded to be more suitable for protecting stored corn from fungal contamination as it was capable of completely inhibiting both growth and mycotoxin production of the Fusarium and Aspergillus isolates of most importance to corn at levels that were still sensorially acceptable. Therefore ammonium bicarbonate could possibly be applied as a cheap and easy to apply treatment for use in resource limited developing countries.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  10. Treatment of Severe Metabolic Alkalosis with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Bicarbonate Kinetic Equations of Clinical Value.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Kwon, David; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant severe metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, and kidney failure pose a therapeutic challenge. Hemodialysis to correct azotemia and abnormal electrolytes results in rapid correction of serum sodium, bicarbonate, and urea but presents a risk for dialysis disequilibrium and brain edema. We describe a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with persistent encephalopathy, severe metabolic alkalosis (highest bicarbonate 81 mEq/L), hypernatremia (sodium 157 mEq/L), and kidney failure despite 30 hours of intravenous crystalloids and proton pump inhibitor. We used continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) with delivered hourly urea clearance of ~3 L/hour (24 hour sustained low efficiency dialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation protocol at blood flow rate 60 ml/min and dialysate flow rate 400 ml/min). To mitigate a pronounced decrease in plasma osmolality while removing urea from this hypernatremic patient, dialysate sodium was set to start at 155 mEq/L then at 150 mEq/L after 6 hours. Serum bicarbonate, urea, and sodium were slowly corrected over 26 hours. This case demonstrates how to regulate and predict the systemic bicarbonate level using single pool kinetic modeling during convective or diffusive RRT. Kinetic modeling provides a valuable tool for systemic blood pH control in future combined use of extracorporeal CO2 removal and continuous RRT systems.

  11. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  12. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors from Natural Products: Discovery of Next-Generation Antihyperglycemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery of the first natural SGLT2 inhibitor, phlorizin, several synthetic glucoside analogs have been developed and introduced into the market. Furthermore, many efforts to find new active constituents with SGLT2 inhibition from natural products are still ongoing. This review introduces the history of research on the development of early-generation SGLT2 inhibitors, and recent progress on the discovery of novel candidates for SGLT2 inhibitor from several natural products that are widely used in traditional herbal medicine. PMID:27618891

  13. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  18. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  19. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  20. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the...

  1. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  2. Protection of gastric mucosa against hypertonic sodium chloride by 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 or sodium thiosulfate in the rat: Evidence for decreased mucosal penetration of damaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Pihan, G.; Szabo, S. )

    1989-12-01

    Protection of the gastric mucosa may be the result of either increased cellular resistance to injury (cytoprotection) or, alternatively, decreased exposure of mucosal cells to the damaging agent. To determine whether decreased exposure of mucosal cells to damaging agents plays a role in mucosal protection by 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate, we estimated the intramucosal concentration of 22NaCl and measured its absorption from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after intragastric administration of hypertonic (25% w/v) 22NaCl. In an attempt to explain the differences observed, we also measured the net transmucosal water flux in control animals and rats pretreated with the protective agents. Administration of hypertonic NaCl rapidly (within 1 min) induced extensive hemorrhagic mucosal lesions that were significantly reduced by pretreatment with 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate. Ultra-low temperature autoradiography indicated that luminal hypertonic 22NaCl penetrates the upper layers of the mucosa in relatively high concentrations (12.5% w/v) within 1 min but its concentration decreases rapidly and reached low levels (3.12% w/v) by 5 min. Absorption of NaCl from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after hypertonic NaCl was lower in both pretreatment groups than in the control. Net gastric transmucosal water flux (from serosa to mucosa) increased (P less than 0.05) from 100 +/- 2 in controls, to 1470 +/- 8 and 715 +/- 9 microliters in rats pretreated with 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate, respectively. We conclude that 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate protect the gastric mucosa against hypertonic NaCl, diminish mucosal penetration of NaCl, decrease mucosal absorption of NaCl, and significantly increase serosal to mucosal transmucosal water flux.

  3. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdown products identification than n-hexane. Reaction of EHMC with HOCl lead to the formation of C=C bridge cleavage products such as 2-ethylhexyl chloroacetate, 1-chloro-4-methoxybenzene, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. High reactivity of C=C bond attached to benzene ring is also characteristic for MCA, since it can be converted in the presence of HOCl to 2,4-dichlorophenole, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxybenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenole, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. Surprisingly, in case of EHMC/HOCl/UV, much less breakdown products were formed compared to non-UV radiation treatment. In order to describe the nature of EHMC and MCA degradation, local reactivity analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed. Fukui function values showed that electrophilic attack of HOCl to the C=C bridge in EHMC and MCA is highly favorable (even more preferable than phenyl ring chlorination). This suggests that HOCl electrophilic addition is probably the initial step of EHMC degradation.

  4. Radiolabeling of a cyclic RGD (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys) peptide using sodium hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent.

    PubMed

    Doll, Stephanie; Woolum, Karen; Kumar, Krishan

    2016-09-01

    A simple and rapid nonradioactive iodide labeling/radiolabeling method for peptides, using an inexpensive oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite and a cyclic peptide, cRGDyK (cyclo Arg-Gly-Asp-d-Tyr-Lys), was developed in this work. Labeling reaction was optimized by conducting experiments under variable ratios of the reagents, the reaction times, and the pH. The study demonstrated that radiolabeling of the cyclic peptide was fast and pH independent. Monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK were formed under all conditions and varied with the ratio of the reagents and the reaction time. Total percent of the iodinated cRGDyK (monoiodinated and di-iodinated cRGDyK) varied between 44 and 100 depending on the reaction conditions. Excess cyclic peptide over equal molar ratio of sodium iodide and sodium hypochlorite yielded in predominant amounts of monoiodinated cRGDyK, ie, >60% under 2:1:1 ratio and ~88% under 5:1:1 ratio of cRGDyK:sodium iodide:sodium hypochlorite. PMID:27577980

  5. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  6. Sodium bicarbonate makes sense for small plant retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Frounfelker, R.E. )

    1989-10-01

    This article discusses the flue gas scrubbing technologies available for small waste to energy plant use and examines one technology application at a plant in Sitka, Alaska. The topics covered include the Sitka generator, the system description, chemical reactions with baking soda, testing methods and assumptions, system economics and system testing results.

  7. Bicarbonate exchange through the human red cell membrane determined with [14C] bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Wieth, J O

    1979-09-01

    1. Bicarbonate transport across human red cell membranes was studied between 0 and 10 degrees C at alkaline pH values by determining the efflux of 14C-labelled bicarbonate from resealed erythrocyte ghosts. Transfer of labelled CO2 was eliminated as a source of error, when formation of intracellular 14CO2 was inhibited with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The study showed that there are no fundamental differences between the characteristics of bicarbonate and of chloride self-exchange as has been inferred from previous studies of chloride-bicarbonate exchange. 2. Efflux of radioactivity could be reduced more than 99% by reversible and irreversible inhibitors of anion transport. Inhibition of both chloride and bicarbonate self-exchange was linearly related to the binding of 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) to the membranes. Complete (i.e. greater than 99%) inhibition was obtained after binding of 1.2 x 10(6) DIDS molecules per cell. 3. Bicarbonate self-exchange proved a saturable function of bicarbonate concentration, with a maximum at external and internal concentrations of approximately 100 mM, showing self-depression at higher bicarbonate concentrations, and half-maximum exchange flux at a concentration of 10 mM. The results were consistent with the hypothesis that the exchange mechanism has two anion binding sites, one mediating ion transport and the other causing transport inhibition. 4. Maximum exchange flux of bicarbonate was about 30% larger thant that of chloride, and the affinity of bicarbonate for the transport site was about three times larger than that of chloride. The apparent activation energy of bicarbonate exchange was 28 kcal/mole, the same order of magnitude as found for other inorganic anions between 0 and 10 degrees C. 5. The ability of other inorganic anions to exchange with bicarbonate decreased in the sequence Cl greater than NO3 greater than F greater than Br greater than or equal to I, corresponding to the sequence of

  8. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  9. How acidic is the lidocaine we are injecting, and how much bicarbonate should we add?

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Simon G; Lalonde, Donald H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The infiltration of local anesthetics can be painful, which is likely due, in part, to their acidity. In spite of a Cochrane study that recommended neutralizing lidocaine with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection, not many surgeons have adopted the practice, and there are many ‘recipes’ for how much bicarbonate one should add. OBJECTIVE: To determine the acidity of lidocaine and the correct ratio of bicarbonate that should be added to neutralize lidocaine to achieve body pH. METHODS: Fifty samples each of commonly used anesthetics (lidocaine 1% and 2%, with and without epinephrine 1:100,000) were obtained and tested for pH. Data were also analyzed according to whether the vials had been previously opened. Ten additional samples of lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine were titrated against sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and tested for pH and the presence of precipitate. RESULTS: A solution of 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean (± SD) pH of 4.24±0.42, and 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine had a mean pH of 3.93±0.43. Plain 1% lidocaine had a pH of 6.09±0.16, and plain 2% lidocaine had a pH of 6.00±0.27. Epinephrine-containing solutions were more acidic when they had been previously opened. One per cent lidocaine with epinephrine required 8.4% sodium bicarbonate at a ratio of 1.1 mL:10 mL to 1.8 mL:10 mL to achieve the target tissue pH of 7.38 to 7.62. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine with epinephrine was approximately 1000 times more acidic than subcutaneous tissue. The addition of bicarbonate to the local anesthetic solution is simple to perform and is inexpensive. The proper volume ratio of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate to 1% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine is approximately 1 mL:10 mL. Surgeons should be more aware of the simplicity and value of buffering with bicarbonate to decrease the pain of injection. PMID:23730153

  10. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  11. Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Zhongli; Li Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke; Urabe, Osamu

    2001-11-15

    An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm{sup -3} were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel.

  12. Neurogenic regulation of proximal bicarbonate and chloride reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Cogan, M G

    1986-01-01

    Although a change in renal nerve activity is known to alter proximal reabsorption, it is unclear whether reabsorption of NaHCO3 or NaCl or both are affected. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10) were studied using free-flow micropuncture techniques during euvolemia and following acute ipsilateral denervation. Glomerular filtration rate and single nephron glomerular filtration rate were stable. Absolute proximal bicarbonate reabsorption fell following denervation (933 +/- 40 to 817 +/- 30 pmol/min) with a parallel reduction in chloride reabsorption (1,643 +/- 116 to 1,341 +/- 129 peq/min). Urinary sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and chloride excretion all increased significantly. To further assess the physiological significance of neurogenic modulation of proximal transport, other rats (n = 6) were subjected to acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN). There is evidence that AUN induces a contralateral natriuresis (renorenal reflex) at least partially by causing inhibition of efferent renal nerve traffic. AUN caused significant changes in proximal NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption as well as in whole kidney electrolyte excretion in the same pattern as had denervation. Prior denervation of the remaining kidney prevented the proximal and whole kidney response to AUN (n = 6). In conclusion, depression of renal nerve activity inhibits both NaHCO3 and NaCl reabsorption in the rat superficial proximal convoluted tubule. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that changes in renal nerve activity modify whole kidney electrolyte excretion under physiological conditions at least partially by regulating proximal transport.

  13. Bicarbonate secretion and solute absorption in forestomach of the llama.

    PubMed

    Rübsamen, K; Engelhardt, W V

    1978-07-01

    Bicarbonate appearance in the lumen and its relationship to solute absorption were studied in a Pavlov pouch in the cardiac region of the first compartment of the llama forestomach. HCO3- appearance showed no diurnal variation. HCO3- accumulation was highly dependent on the pH of the solution used. The HCO3- ion probably is formed from CO2 diffusing into the lumen from the serosal side, as a result of cell metabolism and of OH- ions. HCO3- accumulation was closely related to volatile fatty acid (VFA) absorption. The ratio of HCO3- appearance to VFA absorption depended on the pH of the solution. At a pH of 6.6, about 0.1 mol HCO3- and, at a pH of 7.8, 0.9 mol HCO3- appeared per mole absorbed VFA, indicating that at slightly alkaline pH nearly all H+ ions required for the nonionic absorption of VFA appeared to be delivered from the dissociation of H2CO3. Bicarbonate gain and VFA absorption were increased when animals were not fed for 48 h. Sodium absorption was related to VFA as well as water absorption. PMID:677305

  14. Bicarbonate is a recycling substrate for cyanase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W V; Anderson, P M

    1987-07-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes bicarbonate-dependent decomposition of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. Previous studies provided evidence that carbamate is an initial product and that the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium random (bicarbonate serving as substrate as opposed to activator); the following mechanism was proposed (Anderson, P. M. (1980) Biochemistry 19, 2282-2888; Anderson, P. M., and Little, R. M. (1986) Biochemistry 25, 1621-1626). (formula; see text) Direct evidence for this mechanism was obtained in this study by 1) determining whether CO2 or HCO3- serves as substrate and is formed as product, 2) identifying the products formed from [14C]HCO3- and [14C] OCN-, 3) identifying the products formed from [13C] HCO3- and [12C]OCN- in the presence of [18O]H2O, and 4) determining whether 18O from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. Bicarbonate (not CO2) is the substrate. Carbon dioxide (not HCO3-) is produced in stoichiometric amounts from both HCO3- and OCN-. 18O from [18O]H2O is not incorporated into CO2 formed from either HCO3- or OCN-. Oxygen-18 from [18O]HCO3- is incorporated into CO2 derived from OCN-. These results support the above mechanism, indicating that decomposition of cyanate catalyzed by cyanase is not a hydrolysis reaction and that bicarbonate functions as a recycling substrate.

  15. An in vivo microperfusion study of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in normal and ammonium chloride rats.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D Z

    1985-01-01

    For many years it has been thought that distal nephron hydrogen ion secretion can be importantly modulated by factors such as sodium delivery, sodium avidity, and potassium stores. Free flow micropuncture studies have also indicated that the rate of bicarbonate delivery may also alter the rate of bicarbonate reabsorption. The present studies were undertaken to examine possible luminal influences on total CO2 reabsorption in microperfused distal tubules in the rat in vivo. Tubules from normal and acidotic rats were perfused with five solutions in a manner that induced changes in bicarbonate load, sodium and potassium fluxes (JNa, JK), and luminal sulfate concentration. in each collected perfusate, simultaneous analyses were undertaken to determine water reabsorption, Na, and K concentrations using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and total CO2 by microcalorimetry. Using factorial analysis of covariance to account for confounding effects on total CO2 flux (JtCO2) such as water reabsorption, distal tubules of acidotic rats reabsorbed CO2 in the range of 50-112 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 X These JtCO2 values were not significantly correlated with HCO3 load, JNa, or JK despite changes in the latter from net reabsorption to net secretion. Distal tubules of rats with normal acid-base status had JtCO2 values which were neither significantly different from zero nor correlated with changes in JK and JNa. Further, doubling the load from 250-500 pmol/min (by doubling the perfusion rate of 25-mM HCO3 solutions) did not stimulate JtCO2 in these normal animals. Accordingly, these acute in vivo microperfusion studies indicate for the first time that neither load nor potassium or sodium fluxes are important modulators of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption. PMID:2982915

  16. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  17. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them. PMID:25629268

  18. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197160

  19. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section...

  20. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  1. Pro: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in dialysis patients. Bicarbonate administration via the dialysate helps maintain the acid-base balance in these patients. Serum bicarbonate level in dialysis patients is determined by several factors that include dietary protein intake, nutritional status and dialysis prescription, etc. Additionally, a meaningful interpretation of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients requires an understanding of complexities involving its measurement. Both very low as well very high levels of serum bicarbonate have been associated with adverse outcomes in observational studies. However, recent observational data, when adjusted for the confounding effects of nutritional status, do not associate higher predialysis serum bicarbonate with adverse consequences. At this time, there are no prospective studies available that have examined the association of serum bicarbonate with hard outcomes in dialysis patients. The ideal level of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is therefore unknown. This article examines the available data with regard to the benefits of higher predialysis serum bicarbonate. PMID:27411723

  2. Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

    2010-09-01

    Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 μM As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

  3. Garlic oil as a modulating agent for oxidative stress and neurotoxicity induced by sodium nitrite in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hanaa A; Hafez, Hani S; Zeghebar, Fawzia E

    2010-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the neurobiochemical alterations and oxidative stress induced by food preservative; sodium nitrite (NaNO2) as well as the role of the garlic oil in amelioration of the neurotoxicity in male albino rats. Serum and brain homogenates of the rats received NaNO2 (80 mg/kg body weight) for 3 months exhibited significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity as well as the levels of phospholipids, total protein and the endogenous antioxidant system (glutathione; GSH and superoxide dismutase; SOD). In contrast, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were significantly increased. On the other hand, the oral administration of garlic oil (5 ml/kg body weight) daily for 3 months significantly improved the neurobiochemical disorders and inhibited the oxidative stress induced by NaNO2 ingestion. So, this study reveals the neural toxic effects of NaNO2 by exerting oxidative stress and retrograde the endogenous antioxidant system. However, garlic oil has a promising role in attenuating the obtained hazard effects of sodium nitrite by its high antioxidant properties which may eventually be related with the preservation of SOD activity and primary mitochondrial role against nitrite-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  4. Separation and determination of rare earth elements by Dowex 2-X8 resin using sodium trimetaphosphate as elution agent.

    PubMed

    Sungur, S K; Akseli, A

    2000-04-01

    The distribution coefficients of rare earth elements and thorium with Dowex 2-X8, 200-400 mesh, a strongly basic anion-exchange resin, have been determined regarding four different concentrations of sodium trimetaphosphate (3 x 10(-3), 5 x 10(-3), 7 x 10(-3) and 0.01 M). The separation of the rare earths and thorium obtained from an Australian monazite has been investigated by anion-exchange chromatography with sodium trimetaphosphate concentration gradient on a Dowex 2-X8 ion-exchange columns. The order of elution of the elements was the reverse of the order of elution of the same elements on Dowex 1 resin. The elution was investigated using 5 mg and 250 mg samples. In the separation of 5 mg samples, all elements were separated in 29 min. It has been seen that the elution peaks are narrow, tailing effects are very small, Dy and Y are well separated. Qualitative and quantitative determinations were realized by spectrofluorometry. PMID:10817370

  5. Studies of single-step electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 thin films with sodium citrate as a complexing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whang, Thou-Jen; Hsieh, Mu-Tao; Kao, Ya-Chun

    2010-12-01

    The influences of various parameters in a single-step electrodeposition of CuInSe 2 from aqueous solution containing CuCl 2, InCl 3, and SeO 2, with sodium citrate as the complexing agent, are investigated. Co-deposition of CuInSe 2 from a room temperature, aqueous bath of these electrolytes is accomplished by the aid of sodium citrate. In this work the optimum potential for deposition of CuInSe 2 is found to be -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl, the deposition time is 800 s, the concentration ratio of CuCl 2, InCl 3, and SeO 2 is 9 mM:22 mM:22 mM in aqueous solution, and the annealing temperature is 225 °C. Under the optimum conditions, crystalline layers of CuInSe 2 having the chalcopyrite structure can be successfully synthesized. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) were used to examine the electrochemistry, morphologies, structures, and compositions of CuInSe 2 thin films deposited on ITO glass.

  6. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M.; Hussein, Lobna A.; Sedki, Nehal G.; Salama, Nahla N.

    2016-01-01

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λex 257 nm and λem 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH 3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  7. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent.

    PubMed

    El-Kosasy, Amira M; Hussein, Lobna A; Sedki, Nehal G; Salama, Nahla N

    2016-01-15

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λ(ex) 257 nm and λ(em) 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  8. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Cetin, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC); carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO); placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE); placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE). Blood lactate (BLa), blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138 ± 9, 124 ± 6, and 121 ± 6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3−). Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3− values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3− was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC. PMID:25431775

  9. Repeated high intensity bouts with long recovery: are bicarbonate or carbohydrate supplements an option?

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Cetin, Ebru; Nagasaki, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC); carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO); placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE); placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE). Blood lactate (BLa), blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138 ± 9, 124 ± 6, and 121 ± 6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3(-) values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3(-) was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  10. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  11. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO−3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO−3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl−). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  12. Bicarbonate and functional CFTR channel are required for proper mucin secretion and link cystic fibrosis with its mucus phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Ermund, Anna; Ambort, Daniel; Johansson, Malin E.V.; Nilsson, Harriet E.; Thorell, Kaisa; Hebert, Hans; Sjövall, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a nonfunctional chloride and bicarbonate ion channel (CF transmembrane regulator [CFTR]), but the link to the phenomenon of stagnant mucus is not well understood. Mice lacking functional CFTR (CftrΔ508) have no lung phenotype but show similar ileal problems to humans. We show that the ileal mucosa in CF have a mucus that adhered to the epithelium, was denser, and was less penetrable than that of wild-type mice. The properties of the ileal mucus of CF mice were normalized by secretion into a high concentration sodium bicarbonate buffer (∼100 mM). In addition, bicarbonate added to already formed CF mucus almost completely restored the mucus properties. This knowledge may provide novel therapeutic options for CF. PMID:22711878

  13. Drug-drug interactions with sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, new oral glucose-lowering agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2014-04-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering arterial blood pressure. As they may be used concomitantly with many other drugs, we review the potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) regarding the three leaders in the class (dapagliglozin, canagliflozin and empagliflozin). Most of the available studies were performed in healthy volunteers and have assessed the pharmacokinetic interferences with a single administration of the SGLT2 inhibitor. The exposure [assessed by peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)] to each SGLT2 inhibitor tested was not significantly influenced by the concomitant administration of other glucose-lowering agents or cardiovascular agents commonly used in patients with type 2 diabetes. Reciprocally, these medications did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. Some modest changes were not considered as clinically relevant. However, drugs that could specifically interfere with the metabolic pathways of SGLT2 inhibitors [rifampicin, inhibitors or inducers of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)] may result in significant changes in the exposure of SGLT2 inhibitors, as shown for dapagliflozin and canagliflozin. Potential DDIs in patients with type 2 diabetes receiving chronic treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor deserve further attention, especially in individuals treated with several medications or in more fragile patients with hepatic and/or renal impairment.

  14. Moderator's view: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Several observational studies have reported an association between higher serum bicarbonate level and high mortality risk in dialysis patients. However, in such studies mere discovery of associations does not allow one to infer causal relationships. This association may be related to inadequate dietary protein intake that may lead to less acid generation and hence a higher serum bicarbonate level. Since undernutrition is a strong predictor of death in hemodialysis patients, the observed association may be an epiphenomenon and not a biologically plausible relationship. Higher protein and fluid intake between two subsequent hemodialysis treatments may lead to lower serum bicarbonate level. This low bicarbonate level may appear protective, as patients with higher food intake and better appetite generally exhibit greater survival. In the contemporary three-stream proportioning system of hemodialysis treatment, the bicarbonate concentrate is separate from the acid concentrate, and the contribution of the acid concentrate organic acid (acetate, citrate or diacetate) to the delivered bicarbonate pool of the patient is negligible. The concept of 'total buffer' that assumes that the combination of bicarbonate and acetate concentrations in the dialysate are added equally as bicarbonate equivalents is likely wrong and based on the misleading notion that the acetate of the acid concentrate is fully metabolized to bicarbonate in the dialysate. Given these uncertainties it is prudent to avoid excessively high or low bicarbonate levels in dialysis patients. PMID:27411725

  15. Dietary acid reduction with fruits and vegetables or bicarbonate attenuates kidney injury in patients with a moderately reduced glomerular filtration rate due to hypertensive nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chanhee; Wesson, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    The neutralization of dietary acid with sodium bicarbonate decreases kidney injury and slows the decline of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. The sodium intake, however, could be problematic in patients with reduced GFR. As alkali-induced dietary protein decreased kidney injury in animals, we compared the efficacy of alkali-inducing fruits and vegetables with oral sodium bicarbonate to diminish kidney injury in patients with hypertensive nephropathy at stage 1 or 2 estimated GFR. All patients were evaluated 30 days after no intervention; daily oral sodium bicarbonate; or fruits and vegetables in amounts calculated to reduce dietary acid by half. All patients had 6 months of antihypertensive control by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition before and during these studies, and otherwise ate ad lib. Indices of kidney injury were not changed in the stage 1 group. By contrast, each treatment of stage 2 patients decreased urinary albumin, N-acetyl β-D-glucosaminidase, and transforming growth factor β from the controls to a similar extent. Thus, a reduction in dietary acid decreased kidney injury in patients with moderately reduced eGFR due to hypertensive nephropathy and that with fruits and vegetables was comparable to sodium bicarbonate. Fruits and vegetables appear to be an effective kidney protective adjunct to blood pressure reduction and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertensive and possibly other nephropathies.

  16. Current Status of Bicarbonate in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis was one of the earliest complications to be recognized and explained pathologically in patients with CKD. Despite the accumulated evidence of deleterious effects of acidosis, treatment of acidosis has been tested very little, especially with respect to standard clinical outcomes. On the basis of fundamental research and small alkali supplementation trials, correcting metabolic acidosis has a strikingly broad array of potential benefits. This review summarizes the published evidence on the association between serum bicarbonate and clinical outcomes. We discuss the role of alkali supplementation in CKD as it relates to retarding kidney disease progression, improving metabolic and musculoskeletal complications. PMID:25150154

  17. The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Emir Burak; Yıldırım, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2 × 1 cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment.

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; O’Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Clarke, Susan E. M.; Ballinger, James R.; Szanda, Istvan; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. Methods [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4− with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. Results [18F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. Conclusion [18F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1523-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20577737

  19. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  20. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Safwan Abdel; Carter, Paul A; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer–Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50–54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile. PMID:25848220

  1. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Safwan Abdel; Carter, Paul A; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer-Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50-54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile. PMID:25848220

  2. L-arginine and L-glutamine as immunonutrients and modulating agents for oxidative stress and toxicity induced by sodium nitrite in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Nora M; Khalil, Fatma A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) is a flavoring, coloring and preservative agent in meat and fish products. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L-arginine and L-glutamine supplementation as a potentially novel and useful strategy for the modulation of oxidative stress and toxicity induced by NaNO(2) in male rats. Rats were divided into six groups each of 10 rats and treated for 6 weeks: group 1 as normal control; group 2 fed standard diet containing 0.2% NaNO(2); group 3 and 4 fed the previous diet supplemented with 1% and 2% arginine, respectively; group 5 and 6 fed NaNO(2) diet supplemented with 1% and 2% glutamine, respectively. NaNO(2) treatment induced a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, arginase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, urea and creatinine as well as differential leucocytes%. However, a significant decrease was recorded in reduced glutathione, catalase activity, total protein, albumin and some hematological parameters as well as immunoglobulin G. On the other hand, arginine or glutamine showed a remarkable modulation of these abnormalities as indicated by reduction of malondialdehyde and improvement of the investigated antioxidant and hematological parameters. It can be concluded that arginine or glutamine supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve the hazard effects of NaNO(2).

  3. In silico Logistic Model for Table Olive Related Microorganisms As a Function of Sodium Metabisulphite, Cinnamaldehyde, pH, and Type of Acidifying Agent

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco N.

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0–1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5–5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN. The use of pyruvic acid for correction of pH always produced a reduction (compared to HCl) of the inhibitory power of both preservatives. The in silico models for HCl showed that, at pH 4.0, and growth probability 0.01, the LAB population might be inhibited by the presence in the medium of 150 mg/L SM or 1000 mg/L CIN, while in the case of yeasts, 450 mg/L SM, or 150 mg/L CIN are required. No growth of Enterobacteriaceae was observed at this (or lower) pH level. The results obtained may contribute to the stabilization of non-thermally treated table olive packaging. PMID:27630627

  4. C-Cl bond activation and catalytic hydrodechlorination of hexachlorobenzene by cobalt and nickel complexes with sodium formate as a reducing agent.

    PubMed

    Li, Junye; Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lin; Hu, Qingping; Sun, Hongjian

    2014-05-14

    A benzyne cobalt complex, Co(η(2)-C6Cl4)(PMe3)3 (2), was generated from the reaction of hexachlorobenzene with 2 equiv. of Co(PMe3)4 through selective activation of two C-Cl bonds of hexachlorobenzene. Meanwhile, the byproduct CoCl2(PMe3)3 was also confirmed by IR spectra. The cobalt(II) complex, CoCl(C6Cl5)(PMe3)3 (1), as an intermediate in the formation of aryne complex 2, was also isolated by the reaction of hexachlorobenzene with the stoichiometric amount of Co(PMe3)4. Complex 2 could be obtained by the reaction of 1 with Co(PMe3)4. Under similar reaction conditions, the reaction of Ni(PMe3)4 with hexachlorobenzene afforded only a mono-(C-Cl) bond activation nickel(II) complex, NiCl(C6H5)(PMe3)2 (5). The expected benzyne nickel complex was not formed. The structures of complexes 2 and 5 were determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction. Successful selective hydrodechlorinations of hexachlorobenzene were studied and in the presence of Co(PMe3)4 or Ni(PMe3)4 as catalysts and sodium formate as a reducing agent pentachlorobenzene and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene were obtained. The catalytic hydrodechlorination mechanism is proposed and discussed.

  5. In silico Logistic Model for Table Olive Related Microorganisms As a Function of Sodium Metabisulphite, Cinnamaldehyde, pH, and Type of Acidifying Agent.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco N

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0-1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5-5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN. The use of pyruvic acid for correction of pH always produced a reduction (compared to HCl) of the inhibitory power of both preservatives. The in silico models for HCl showed that, at pH 4.0, and growth probability 0.01, the LAB population might be inhibited by the presence in the medium of 150 mg/L SM or 1000 mg/L CIN, while in the case of yeasts, 450 mg/L SM, or 150 mg/L CIN are required. No growth of Enterobacteriaceae was observed at this (or lower) pH level. The results obtained may contribute to the stabilization of non-thermally treated table olive packaging.

  6. In silico Logistic Model for Table Olive Related Microorganisms As a Function of Sodium Metabisulphite, Cinnamaldehyde, pH, and Type of Acidifying Agent

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco N.

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0–1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5–5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN. The use of pyruvic acid for correction of pH always produced a reduction (compared to HCl) of the inhibitory power of both preservatives. The in silico models for HCl showed that, at pH 4.0, and growth probability 0.01, the LAB population might be inhibited by the presence in the medium of 150 mg/L SM or 1000 mg/L CIN, while in the case of yeasts, 450 mg/L SM, or 150 mg/L CIN are required. No growth of Enterobacteriaceae was observed at this (or lower) pH level. The results obtained may contribute to the stabilization of non-thermally treated table olive packaging.

  7. In silico Logistic Model for Table Olive Related Microorganisms As a Function of Sodium Metabisulphite, Cinnamaldehyde, pH, and Type of Acidifying Agent.

    PubMed

    Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco N

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0-1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5-5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN. The use of pyruvic acid for correction of pH always produced a reduction (compared to HCl) of the inhibitory power of both preservatives. The in silico models for HCl showed that, at pH 4.0, and growth probability 0.01, the LAB population might be inhibited by the presence in the medium of 150 mg/L SM or 1000 mg/L CIN, while in the case of yeasts, 450 mg/L SM, or 150 mg/L CIN are required. No growth of Enterobacteriaceae was observed at this (or lower) pH level. The results obtained may contribute to the stabilization of non-thermally treated table olive packaging. PMID:27630627

  8. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-03-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

  9. Bicarbonate surfoxidants: micellar oxidations of aryl sulfides with bicarbonate-activated hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yao, Huirong; Richardson, David E

    2003-05-21

    The mechanism and kinetics of bicarbonate-catalyzed oxidations of sulfides by H(2)O(2) at the aqueous /cationic micellar interface have been investigated. The general term surfoxidant is introduced to describe the combination of an ionic surfactant with a reactive counterion that is itself an oxidant or activates an oxidant from the bulk solution to form an oxidant counterion. It is shown that the new catalytic cationic surfoxidant CTAHCO(3) (cetyltrimethylammonium bicarbonate) significantly enhances the overall oxidation rates as compared to the addition of bicarbonate salts to CTACl and CTABr, for which the halide counterions must undergo equilibrium displacement by the oxidant anion (peroxymonocarbonate, HCO(4)(-)). General equations based on the classic pseudophase model have been derived to account for the preequilibrium reaction in the aqueous and micellar phases, and the resulting model can be used to describe any micellar reaction with associated preequilibria. Rate constants and relevant equilibrium constants for HCO(4)(-) oxidations of aryl sulfides at micellar surfaces have been estimated for CTAHCO(3), CTACl, and CTABr. The second-order rate constants in the Stern layer (k(2)(m)) for sulfide oxidations by HCO(4)(-) are estimated to be approximately 50-fold (PhSEtOH) and approximately 180-fold (PhSEt) greater than the background rate constant k(m)(0) for oxidation by H(2)O(2) at the micellar surface. The estimated values of k(2)(m) are lower than the corresponding values in water by a factor of 20-70 depending on the substrate, but the high local concentration of the bicarbonate activator in the surfoxidant and the local accumulation of substrate as a result of strong binding to the micelle lead to a net increase in the observed reaction rates. Comparisons of CTAHCO(3)-activated peroxide to other highly reactive oxidants such as peroxymonosulfate (HSO(5)(-)) in aqueous surfactant media suggest a wide variety of potential applications for this green

  10. High effective cytosolic H+ buffering in mouse cortical astrocytes attributable to fast bicarbonate transport.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-09-01

    Cytosolic H(+) buffering plays a major role for shaping intracellular H(+) shifts and hence for the availability of H(+) for biochemical reactions and acid/base-coupled transport processes. H(+) buffering is one of the prime means to protect the cell from large acid/base shifts. We have used the H(+) indicator dye BCECF and confocal microscopy to monitor the cytosolic H(+) concentration, [H(+)]i, in cultured cortical astrocytes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (NBCe1-KO) or in carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII-KO). The steady-state buffer strength was calculated from the amplitude of [H(+)]i transients as evoked by CO2/HCO3(-) and by butyric acid in the presence and absence of CO2/HCO3(-). We tested the hypotheses if, in addition to instantaneous physicochemical H(+) buffering, rapid acid/base transport across the cell membrane contributes to the total, "effective" cytosolic H(+) buffering. In the presence of 5% CO2/26 mM HCO3(-), H(+) buffer strength in astrocytes was increased 4-6 fold, as compared with that in non-bicarbonate, HEPES-buffered solution, which was largely attributable to fast HCO3 (-) transport into the cells via NBCe1, supported by CAII activity. Our results show that within the time frame of determining physiological H(+) buffering in cells, fast transport and equilibration of CO2/H(+)/HCO3(-) can make a major contribution to the total "effective" H(+) buffer strength. Thus, "effective" cellular H(+) buffering is, to a large extent, attributable to membrane transport of base equivalents rather than a purely passive physicochemical process, and can be much larger than reported so far. Not only physicochemical H(+) buffering, but also rapid import of HCO3(-) via the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), was identified to enhance cytosolic H(+) buffer strength substantially.

  11. Aluminum bioavailability from the approved food additive leavening agent acidic sodium aluminum phosphate, incorporated into a baked good, is lower than from water.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2006-10-01

    There are estimates of oral aluminum (Al) bioavailability from drinking water, but little information on Al bioavailability from foods. Foods contribute approximately 95% and drinking water 1-2% of the typical human's daily Al intake. The objectives were to estimate oral Al bioavailability from a representative food containing the food additive acidic sodium aluminum phosphate (acidic SALP), a leavening agent in baked goods. Rats were acclimated to a special diet that resulted in no stomach contents 14 h after its withdrawal. They were trained to rapidly consume a biscuit containing 1.5% acidic SALP. Oral Al bioavailability was then determined from a biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic SALP, synthesized to contain (26)Al. The rats received concurrent (27)Al infusion. Blood was repeatedly withdrawn and serum analyzed for (26)Al by accelerator mass spectrometry. Total Al was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Oral (26)Al bioavailability was determined from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentrationxtime curves. Oral Al bioavailability (F) from biscuit containing 1% or 2% acidic (26)Al-SALP averaged approximately 0.11% and 0.13%; significantly less than from water, which was previously shown to be approximately 0.3%. The time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 4.2 and 6h after consumption of biscuit containing 1% or 2% (26)Al-acidic SALP, respectively, compared to 1-2h following (26)Al in water. These results of oral Al bioavailability from acidic (26)Al-SALP in a biscuit (F approximately 0.1%) and results from (26)Al in water (F approximately 0.3%) x the contributions of food and drinking water to the typical human's daily Al intake ( approximately 5-10mg from food and 0.1mg from water, respectively) suggest food provides approximately 25-fold more Al to systemic circulation, and potential Al body burden, than does drinking water.

  12. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  13. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  14. Bicarbonate correction of ketoacidosis alters host-pathogen interactions and alleviates mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lin, Lin; Liu, Mingfu; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; French, Samuel; Edwards, John E.; Filler, Scott G.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are uniquely predisposed to mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection with high mortality. Previously, we demonstrated that Rhizopus invades the endothelium via binding of fungal CotH proteins to the host receptor GRP78. Here, we report that surface expression of GRP78 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to physiological concentrations of β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), glucose, and iron that are similar to those found in DKA patients. Additionally, expression of R. oryzae CotH was increased within hours of incubation with DKA-associated concentrations of BHB, glucose, and iron, augmenting the ability of R. oryzae to invade and subsequently damage endothelial cells in vitro. BHB exposure also increased fungal growth and attenuated R. oryzae neutrophil-mediated damage. Further, mice given BHB developed clinical acidosis and became extremely susceptible to mucormycosis, but not aspergillosis, while sodium bicarbonate reversed this susceptibility. BHB-related acidosis exerted a direct effect on both GRP78 and CotH expression, an effect not seen with lactic acidosis. However, BHB also indirectly compromised the ability of transferrin to chelate iron, as iron chelation combined with sodium bicarbonate completely protected endothelial cells from Rhizopus-mediated invasion and damage. Our results dissect the pathogenesis of mucormycosis during ketoacidosis and reinforce the importance of careful metabolic control of the acidosis to prevent and manage this infection. PMID:27159390

  15. Bicarbonate correction of ketoacidosis alters host-pathogen interactions and alleviates mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lin, Lin; Liu, Mingfu; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; French, Samuel; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2016-06-01

    Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are uniquely predisposed to mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection with high mortality. Previously, we demonstrated that Rhizopus invades the endothelium via binding of fungal CotH proteins to the host receptor GRP78. Here, we report that surface expression of GRP78 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to physiological concentrations of β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), glucose, and iron that are similar to those found in DKA patients. Additionally, expression of R. oryzae CotH was increased within hours of incubation with DKA-associated concentrations of BHB, glucose, and iron, augmenting the ability of R. oryzae to invade and subsequently damage endothelial cells in vitro. BHB exposure also increased fungal growth and attenuated R. oryzae neutrophil-mediated damage. Further, mice given BHB developed clinical acidosis and became extremely susceptible to mucormycosis, but not aspergillosis, while sodium bicarbonate reversed this susceptibility. BHB-related acidosis exerted a direct effect on both GRP78 and CotH expression, an effect not seen with lactic acidosis. However, BHB also indirectly compromised the ability of transferrin to chelate iron, as iron chelation combined with sodium bicarbonate completely protected endothelial cells from Rhizopus-mediated invasion and damage. Our results dissect the pathogenesis of mucormycosis during ketoacidosis and reinforce the importance of careful metabolic control of the acidosis to prevent and manage this infection. PMID:27159390

  16. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:12839751

  17. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  18. Calcium mass balances in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Dialysate calcium (Ca) concentration should be viewed as part of the integrated therapeutic regimen to control renal osteodystrophy and maintain normal mineral metabolism. The goals of this integrated approach are to keep the patient in a mild positive Ca mass balance (CaMB), to maintain normal serum Ca levels, to control plasma parathyroid hormone values to two to three times above normal levels, and to avoid soft-tissue calcifications. Thus, a correct net CaMB during hemodialysis (HD) is crucial in the treatment of renal osteodystrophy. Very few studies have been published which measured CaMBs in bicarbonate HD. This is mainly due to the technical difficulties in achieving an accurate measurement of CaMBs owing to the need for the collection of the total spent dialysate or of a proportional aliquot of it. Whereas no doubt exists about the fact that an inlet dialysate Ca concentration (CaD) of 1.75 mmol/L leads to a positive CaMB, more controversial is this issue, when dealing with a CaD of 1.50 mmol/L and, even more, when dealing with a CaD of 1.25 mmol/L. Another important issue is the appropriate CaD in long-hour slow-flow nocturnal HD. Finally, which CaMB should we study: ionized CaMB or total CaMB? This issue is largely discussed in the review.

  19. The importance of bicarbonate and nonbicarbonate buffer systems in batch and continuous flow bioreactors for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Khan, Aasma A; Surrao, Denver C

    2012-05-01

    In cartilage tissue engineering an optimized culture system, maintaining an appropriate extracellular environment (e.g., pH of media), can increase cell proliferation and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. We have previously reported on a continuous-flow bioreactor that improves tissue growth by supplying the cells with a near infinite supply of medium. Previous studies have observed that acidic environments reduce ECM synthesis and chondrocyte proliferation. Hence, in this study we investigated the combined effects of a continuous culture system (bioreactor) together with additional buffering agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO₃]) on cartilaginous tissue growth in vitro. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown in three-dimensional cultures, either in static conditions or in a continuous-flow bioreactor, in media with or without NaHCO₃. Tissue constructs cultivated in the bioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were characterized with significantly increased (p<0.05) ECM accumulation (glycosaminoglycans a 98-fold increase; collagen a 25-fold increase) and a 13-fold increase in cell proliferation, in comparison with static cultures. Additionally, constructs grown in the bioreactor with NaHCO₃-supplemented media were significantly thicker than all other constructs (p<0.05). Further, the chondrocytes from the primary construct expanded and synthesized ECM, forming a secondary construct without a separate expansion phase, with a diameter and thickness of 4 mm and 0.72 mm respectively. Tissue outgrowth was negligible in all other culturing conditions. Thus this study demonstrates the advantage of employing a continuous flow bioreactor coupled with NaHCO₃ supplemented media for articular cartilage tissue engineering.

  20. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  2. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols.

  3. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  4. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  5. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  6. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  7. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  8. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  9. Antidotal action of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate against cyanide poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, S.I.; Horowitz, A.M.; Nealley, E.W.

    1992-04-01

    The combination of sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite has been used in the United States since the 1930s as the primary antidote for cyanide intoxication. Although this combination was shown to exhibit much greater efficacy than either ingredient alone, the two compounds could not be used prophylactically because each exhibits a number of side effects. This review discusses the pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology of the individual agents, and their combination....Cyanide, Blood agent, Chemical warfare agents, Antidotes, Sodium nitrite, Sodium thiosulfate.

  10. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160... Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device intended to measure bicarbonate/carbon dioxide in plasma, serum, and...

  11. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  12. Review of insulin-dependent and insulin-independent agents for treating patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and potential role for sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Jeffrey S

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), continues to be a global health care problem. Although the beneficial effects of glycemic control are well established, in the United States, > 40% of adults with diabetes fail to achieve target glycated hemoglobin levels. Antidiabetic drug classes vary with respect to their mechanisms of action, glucose-lowering potential, and safety and tolerability profiles. Antidiabetic drug classes include some agents that depend on the presence or action of insulin for their therapeutic effect. As the disease state of T2DM progresses, patient pancreatic β-cell function declines, and therapies that stimulate insulin secretion or improve insulin sensitivity become less effective for this population. Therefore, the development of additional antidiabetic agents with novel mechanisms of action that can be used alone or in combination with currently approved medications may help patients achieve glycemic control. Agents that have comparable glucose-lowering capabilities but different mechanisms of action may fill treatment gaps or meet the needs of patient subpopulations. For example, inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) represent an emerging class of glucose-lowering agents. The SGLT2 inhibitors reduce glucose reabsorption by the kidney, leading to increased urinary glucose excretion and caloric loss. In clinical trials, these agents have been shown to improve glycemic control and to reduce body weight in patients with T2DM. Additionally, SGLT2 inhibitors pose a low risk for hypoglycemia and are generally well tolerated; however, their use has been associated with an increase in the frequency of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors may provide an alternative or an addition to existing therapies for the treatment of patients with T2DM.

  13. Effect of Bicarbonate Supplementation on Renal Function and Nutritional Indices in Predialysis Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jiwon; Kwon, Soon Kil

    2014-01-01

    Current practice guidelines recommend alkali therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic acidosis to prevent complications. This study aims to investigate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation on the progression of renal function and nutritional indices in patients with predialysis advanced CKD. Forty patients with predialysis stage 5 CKD(estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR <15mL/min per 1.73m2) and 40 patients with stage 4 CKD (eGFR 15 to 30mL/min per 1.73m2) who had a total CO2 less than 22mEq/L were assigned into the bicarbonate treatment group or control group for 12 months. In stage 4 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of eGFR during the study between the treatment group and the control group (-2.30±4.49 versus -6.58±6.32mL/min/1.73m2, p<0.05). However, in stage 5 CKD, there were no significant differences in the change of eGFR during the study between the two groups (-2.10±2.06 versus -3.23±1.95mL/min/1.73 m2).There were no significant differences in the changes of nutritional indices such as albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, total lymphocyte count (TLC), and Ondodera's prognostic nutritional index (OPNI) during the study between the two groups. In stage 5 CKD, there were significant differences in the changes of TLC and OPNI between the two groups. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that bicarbonate supplementation slows the rate of decline of renal function in stage 4 CKD and improves nutritional indices in stage 5 CKD. Alkali therapy in advanced CKD may have beneficial effect on renal function and malnutrition. PMID:25606047

  14. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  15. Proton Fall or Bicarbonate Rise: GLYCOLYTIC RATE IN MOUSE ASTROCYTES IS PAVED BY INTRACELLULAR ALKALINIZATION.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Weber, Tobias; Schmälzle, Jana; Ruminot, Ivàn; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-09-01

    Glycolysis is the primary step for major energy production in the cell. There is strong evidence suggesting that glucose consumption and rate of glycolysis are highly modulated by cytosolic pH/[H(+)], but those can also be stimulated by an increase in the intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Because proton and bicarbonate shift concomitantly, it remained unclear whether enhanced glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were mediated by the changes in intracellular [H(+)] or [HCO3 (-)]. We have asked whether glucose metabolism is enhanced by either a fall in intracellular [H(+)] or a rise in intracellular [HCO3 (-)], or by both, in mammalian astrocytes. We have recorded intracellular glucose in mouse astrocytes using a FRET-based nanosensor, while imposing different intracellular [H(+)] and [CO2]/[HCO3 (-)]. Glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were augmented by a fall in intracellular [H(+)], irrespective of a concomitant rise or fall in intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Transport of HCO3 (-) into and out of astrocytes by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) played a crucial role in causing changes in intracellular pH and [HCO3 (-)], but was not obligatory for the pH-dependent changes in glucose metabolism. Our results clearly show that it is the cytosolic pH that modulates glucose metabolism in cortical astrocytes, and possibly also in other cell types. PMID:27422823

  16. Proton Fall or Bicarbonate Rise: GLYCOLYTIC RATE IN MOUSE ASTROCYTES IS PAVED BY INTRACELLULAR ALKALINIZATION.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Weber, Tobias; Schmälzle, Jana; Ruminot, Ivàn; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-09-01

    Glycolysis is the primary step for major energy production in the cell. There is strong evidence suggesting that glucose consumption and rate of glycolysis are highly modulated by cytosolic pH/[H(+)], but those can also be stimulated by an increase in the intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Because proton and bicarbonate shift concomitantly, it remained unclear whether enhanced glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were mediated by the changes in intracellular [H(+)] or [HCO3 (-)]. We have asked whether glucose metabolism is enhanced by either a fall in intracellular [H(+)] or a rise in intracellular [HCO3 (-)], or by both, in mammalian astrocytes. We have recorded intracellular glucose in mouse astrocytes using a FRET-based nanosensor, while imposing different intracellular [H(+)] and [CO2]/[HCO3 (-)]. Glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were augmented by a fall in intracellular [H(+)], irrespective of a concomitant rise or fall in intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Transport of HCO3 (-) into and out of astrocytes by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) played a crucial role in causing changes in intracellular pH and [HCO3 (-)], but was not obligatory for the pH-dependent changes in glucose metabolism. Our results clearly show that it is the cytosolic pH that modulates glucose metabolism in cortical astrocytes, and possibly also in other cell types.

  17. Role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinsei; Lee, Min Goo

    2014-06-01

    Transepithelial bicarbonate secretion plays a key role in the maintenance of fluid and protein secretion from epithelial cells and the protection of the epithelial cell surface from various pathogens. Epithelial bicarbonate secretion is mainly under the control of cAMP and calcium signaling. While the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of cAMP-induced bicarbonate secretion are relatively well defined, those induced by calcium signaling remain poorly understood in most epithelia. The present review summarizes the current status of knowledge on the role of calcium signaling in epithelial bicarbonate secretion. Specifically, this review introduces how cytosolic calcium signaling can increase bicarbonate secretion by regulating membrane transport proteins and how it synergizes with cAMP-induced mechanisms in epithelial cells. In addition, tissue-specific variations in the pancreas, salivary glands, intestines, bile ducts, and airways are discussed. We hope that the present report will stimulate further research into this important topic. These studies will provide the basis for future medicines for a wide spectrum of epithelial disorders including cystic fibrosis, Sjögren's syndrome, and chronic pancreatitis.

  18. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  19. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. PMID:27411724

  20. Agreement between two plasma bicarbonate assays in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Story, D A; Poustie, S

    2000-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that measurement of plasma bicarbonate concentration using the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation may be unreliable, particularly in critically ill patients. We examined the agreement between two plasma bicarbonate concentration assays in critically ill patients. Data were collected from records of routine daily blood samples. Paired samples were taken at the same time from arterial lines. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare two bicarbonate assays in clinical use. The first used the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation for blood-gas machine calculations. The second used a spectrophotometric enzymatic technique. Comparing the enzymatic method to the calculated method (enzymatic minus calculated) the bias was -1.6 mmol/l (95% CI: -1.2 to -2.0 mmol/l). The limits of agreement were -5.85 mmol/l to 2.65 mmol/l. This study found poor agreement between the two bicarbonate assays. This poor agreement is clinically important but the causes are unclear. We suggest further investigation of the reliability of bicarbonate assays.

  1. Functional properties of bicarbonates and lactic acid on chicken breast retail display properties and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; P<0.05) and led to better cook yield (83.84 to 91.96%). Shear force values were lower at the 0.5% level for both SB and PB compared to the control. PB performed better on retail display and cooked meat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB.

  2. Efficacy of sodium hypochlorite and coconut soap used as disinfecting agents in the reduction of denture stomatitis, Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Barnabé, W; de Mendonça Neto, T; Pimenta, F C; Pegoraro, L F; Scolaro, J M

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated the reduction of denture stomatitis and the antimicrobial activity of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite opposed to Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans (SGM) when associated with brushing complete dentures with coconut soap. The mucosal characteristics were evaluated according to Newton's classification at baseline, after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap for 15 days in group 1 (nine patients). In the other group (19 patients) the analysis were made before and after cleansing the dentures with coconut soap and with disinfection in a soak solution of 0.05% sodium hypochlorite for 10 min during 15 days. Microbiological tests were used to isolate C. albicans and SGM. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare the mucosal characteristics and Fisher test and McNemar test to compare C. albicans and SGM levels. Statistical analysis at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05) showed that: (i) the association of coconut soap and 0.05% sodium hypochlorite significantly reduced clinical signs of denture stomatitis, (ii) C. albicans did not reduce in counts, (iii) SGM were reduced but not significantly and (iv) the association of coconut soap and 0.5% sodium hypochlorite was effective in controlling denture biofilm.

  3. Bicarbonate produced from carbon capture for algae culture.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; O'Fallon, James V; Chen, Shulin

    2011-11-01

    Using captured CO(2) to grow microalgae is limited by the high cost of CO(2) capture and transportation, as well as significant CO(2) loss during algae culture. Moreover, algae grow poorly at night, but CO(2) cannot be temporarily stored until sunrise. To address these challenges, we discuss a process where CO(2) is captured as bicarbonate and used as feedstock for algae culture, and the carbonate regenerated by the culture process is used as an absorbent to capture more CO(2). This process would significantly reduce carbon capture costs because it does not require additional energy for carbonate regeneration. Furthermore, not only would transport of the aqueous bicarbonate solution cost less than for that of compressed CO(2), but using bicarbonate would also provide a superior alternative for CO(2) delivery to an algae culture system.

  4. Methods for the recovery of sulfur components from flue gas and recycle sodium sulfite by reduction-smelting and carbonating to strip hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farin, W.G.

    1980-12-23

    An improved method for recovering sulfur from flue gas which contains sulfur dioxide formed from burning sulfur containing fuels is disclosed. The method first involves the reduction burning of auxilary fuel in the presence of sodium sulfite to convert it to smelt containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The smelt is dissolved, and the solution reacted with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor forming sodium hydrosulfide. The sodium hydrosulfide is reacted with a high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate and stripped with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate and release the sulfides as hydrogen sulfide from the stripper. The hydrogen sulfide released is then converted to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. Pressurized carbon dioxide is used for pressure carbonation of recycled solution from the stripper to convert the sodium carbonate to the high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate used for stripping. The sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripper are reacted under pressure with sodium bisulfite in a decarbonator to form sodium sulfite and release carbon dioxide under pressure for use in the pressure carbonation. A portion of the sodium sulfite formed by decarbonation is then reduced in the smelter. The balance of the sodium sulfite is then used for absorption of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas forming the sodium bisulfite used for decarbonation.

  5. Low sodium intake does not impair renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Claudia; Boemke, Willehad; Schleyer, Nora; Francis, Roland C; Krebs, Martin O; Kaczmarczyk, Gabriele

    2002-05-01

    Acute hypoxia causes hyperventilation and respiratory alkalosis, often combined with increased diuresis and sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate excretion. With a low sodium intake, the excretion of the anion bicarbonate may be limited by the lower excretion rate of the cation sodium through activated sodium-retaining mechanisms. This study investigates whether the short-term renal compensation of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis is impaired by a low sodium intake. Nine conscious, tracheotomized dogs were studied twice either on a low-sodium (LS = 0.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) or high-sodium (HS = 7.5 mmol sodium x kg body wt-1 x day-1) diet. The dogs breathed spontaneously via a ventilator circuit during the experiments: first hour, normoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.21); second to fourth hour, hypoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction = 0.1). During hypoxia (arterial PO2 34.4 +/- 2.1 Torr), plasma pH increased from 7.37 +/- 0.01 to 7.48 +/- 0.01 (P < 0.05) because of hyperventilation (arterial PCO2 25.6 +/- 2.4 Torr). Urinary pH and urinary bicarbonate excretion increased irrespective of the sodium intake. Sodium excretion increased more during HS than during LS, whereas the increase in potassium excretion was comparable in both groups. Thus the quick onset of bicarbonate excretion within the first hour of hypoxia-induced respiratory alkalosis was not impaired by a low sodium intake. The increased sodium excretion during hypoxia seems to be combined with a decrease in plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II in LS as well as in HS dogs. Other factors, e.g., increased mean arterial blood pressure, minute ventilation, and renal blood flow, may have contributed.

  6. Low Alloy X100 Pipeline Steel Corrosion and Passivation Behavior in Bicarbonate-Based Solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9 with Groundwater Anions: An Electrochemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates the fundamental corrosion and passivation processes occurring on API-X100 pipeline steels before, during, and after passive layer formation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9. Free corrosion potentials decrease exponentially with bicarbonate (and pH), owing to increased water and bicarbonate reduction in more alkaline conditions and the coupled iron oxidation reaction. Active corrosion rates at potentials slightly above open circuit potential increase with bicarbonate, until a concentration of 1.68 g L-1 sodium bicarbonate (plus dilute amounts of chlorides/sulfate) at which first signs of film formation appear. Thereon, increased bicarbonate concentration generally decreases current densities and resists ferrous-oxide product formations due to improved iron carbonate formation conditions precipitating more durable passive layers. Potentiodynamic polarization in the anodic regime reveals varying electrochemical processes involving interactions between hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide complexes with ferrous, with diverse pH and potential dependencies. The products of corrosion reactions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and/or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  8. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  13. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions.

  14. Inactivation of biological agents using neutral oxone-chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; Bushway, Karen E; Henley, Michael V

    2006-04-15

    Bleach solutions containing the active ingredient hypochlorite (OCl-) serve as powerful biological disinfectants but are highly caustic and present a significant compatibility issue when applied to contaminated equipment or terrain. A neutral, bicarbonate-buffered aqueous solution of Oxone (2K2HSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) and sodium chloride that rapidly generates hypochlorite and hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in situ was evaluated as a new alternative to bleach for the inactivation of biological agents. The solution produced a free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-) concentration of 3.3 g/L and achieved > or =5.8-log inactivation of spores of Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Aspergillus niger, and Escherichia coli vegetative cells in 1 min at 22 degrees C. Seawaterwas an effective substitute for solid sodium chloride and inactivated 5 to 8 logs of each organism in 10 min over temperatures ranging from -5 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Sporicidal effectiveness increased as free chlorine concentrations shifted from OCl- to HOCl. Neutrally buffered Oxone-chloride and Oxone-seawater solutions are mitigation alternatives for biologically contaminated equipment and environments that would otherwise be decontaminated using caustic bleach solutions. PMID:16683620

  15. Dynamic volume changes in astrocytes are an intrinsic phenomenon mediated by bicarbonate ion flux.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clare M; Baillie, Landon D; Mulligan, Sean J

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes, the major type of non-neuronal cells in the brain, play an important functional role in extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) and pH homeostasis. Pathological brain states that result in [K(+)](o) and pH dysregulation have been shown to cause astrocyte swelling. However, whether astrocyte volume changes occur under physiological conditions is not known. In this study we used two-photon imaging to visualize real-time astrocyte volume changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus CA1 region. Astrocytes were observed to swell by 19.0±0.9% in response to a small physiological increase in the concentration of [K(+)](o) (3 mM). Astrocyte swelling was mediated by the influx of bicarbonate (HCO(3-)) ions as swelling was significantly decreased when the influx of HCO(3-) was reduced. We found: 1) in HCO(3-) free extracellular solution astrocytes swelled by 5.4±0.7%, 2) when the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) was blocked the astrocytes swelled by 8.3±0.7%, and 3) in the presence of an extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor astrocytes swelled by 11.4±0.6%. Because a significant HCO(3-) efflux is known to occur through the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) channel, we performed a series of experiments to determine if astrocytes were capable of HCO(3-) mediated volume shrinkage with GABA channel activation. Astrocytes were found to shrink -7.7±0.5% of control in response to the GABA(A) channel agonist muscimol. Astrocyte shrinkage from GABA(A) channel activation was significantly decreased to -5.0±0.6% of control in the presence of the membrane-permeant CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ). These dynamic astrocyte volume changes may represent a previously unappreciated yet fundamental mechanism by which astrocytes regulate physiological brain functioning. PMID:23226475

  16. Bicarbonate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis and its influence on zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Lopez; Hyne, Ross V; Patra, Ron; Ramasamy, Sunderam; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-05-01

    Bicarbonate is often a major ionic constituent associated with produced waters from methane gas extraction and coal mining, yet few studies have determined its specific toxicity. Currently, the environmental risk of bicarbonate anion in water discharges is assessed based on the toxicity of sodium chloride or artificial seawater and is regulated via electrical conductivity. Increased NaHCO(3) added to Ceriodaphnia dubia in synthetic or natural water gave similar 48-h 10% effective concentration (EC10) values of 1750 ± 125 mg NaHCO(3)/L (mean ± standard error) and 1670 ± 180 mg NaHCO(3)/L, respectively. Bicarbonate was toxic to C. dubia in both waters with conductivities above 1900 µS/cm. In contrast, when conductivity was elevated with NaCl, toxicity to C. dubia was observed only above 2800 µS/cm. Bicarbonate also impaired C. dubia reproduction with an EC10 of 340 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Major ion composition also influenced Zn bioavailability, a common co-occurring metal contaminant in coal mine waters, with sublethal concentrations of NaHCO(3) and elevated pH increasing Zn toxicity. Higher pH was the dominant parameter determining a 10-fold increase in the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) for Zn toxicity to C. dubia at pH 8.6 of 34 µg Zn/L (95% confidence limit = 32-37 µg Zn/L) compared with the Zn toxicity at approximately circumneutral pH. Exposure of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis (Atyidae) in natural water to increasing bicarbonate gave a mean 10-d 10% lethal concentration (LC10) of 850 ± 115 mg NaHCO(3)/L, associated with a mean conductivity EC10 of 1145 µS/cm, which is considerably lower than toxicity of NaCl and artificial seawater to this species reported elsewhere. Because toxicity was influenced by salt composition, specific ions should be regulated rather than conductivity alone in mine wastewater discharges. PMID:24497317

  17. Bicarbonate toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis and its influence on zinc toxicity.

    PubMed

    Vera, Carolina Lopez; Hyne, Ross V; Patra, Ron; Ramasamy, Sunderam; Pablo, Fleur; Julli, Moreno; Kefford, Ben J

    2014-05-01

    Bicarbonate is often a major ionic constituent associated with produced waters from methane gas extraction and coal mining, yet few studies have determined its specific toxicity. Currently, the environmental risk of bicarbonate anion in water discharges is assessed based on the toxicity of sodium chloride or artificial seawater and is regulated via electrical conductivity. Increased NaHCO(3) added to Ceriodaphnia dubia in synthetic or natural water gave similar 48-h 10% effective concentration (EC10) values of 1750 ± 125 mg NaHCO(3)/L (mean ± standard error) and 1670 ± 180 mg NaHCO(3)/L, respectively. Bicarbonate was toxic to C. dubia in both waters with conductivities above 1900 µS/cm. In contrast, when conductivity was elevated with NaCl, toxicity to C. dubia was observed only above 2800 µS/cm. Bicarbonate also impaired C. dubia reproduction with an EC10 of 340 mg NaHCO(3)/L. Major ion composition also influenced Zn bioavailability, a common co-occurring metal contaminant in coal mine waters, with sublethal concentrations of NaHCO(3) and elevated pH increasing Zn toxicity. Higher pH was the dominant parameter determining a 10-fold increase in the 48-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) for Zn toxicity to C. dubia at pH 8.6 of 34 µg Zn/L (95% confidence limit = 32-37 µg Zn/L) compared with the Zn toxicity at approximately circumneutral pH. Exposure of the freshwater shrimp Paratya australiensis (Atyidae) in natural water to increasing bicarbonate gave a mean 10-d 10% lethal concentration (LC10) of 850 ± 115 mg NaHCO(3)/L, associated with a mean conductivity EC10 of 1145 µS/cm, which is considerably lower than toxicity of NaCl and artificial seawater to this species reported elsewhere. Because toxicity was influenced by salt composition, specific ions should be regulated rather than conductivity alone in mine wastewater discharges.

  18. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, J J L; Förster, B; von Caemmerer, S; Badger, M R; Price, G D; Whitney, S M

    2014-07-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tob(BicA) lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tob(BicA) leaves (0.12 μmol m(-2), ≈7mg m(-2)) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 μmol m(-2)) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tob(BicA) plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts.

  19. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Pengelly, J. J. L.; Förster, B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Badger, M. R.; Price, G. D.; Whitney, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tobBicA lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tobBicA leaves (0.12 μmol m–2, ≈7mg m–2) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 μmol m–2) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tobBicA plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

  20. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3- <=> CO32- + H+, when HCO3- is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80-100 atoms) to represent the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from -6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 < pH < 6.35, where H2CO30 is the dominant dissolved species. When bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution, 10.35. This means that adsorbed carbonate is stable even when the concentration of dissolved CO32- is several orders of magnitude lower. This has a significant effect on surface charge and thus the behaviour of the calcite surface. Our results help explain the potential determining behaviour of the carbonate species in calcite-water systems, particularly in the pH range where the bicarbonate species dominates in water and where the carbonate species dominates at the surface, i.e. when 7.5 < pH < 10.35. Our atomic scale data for the various calcite surface sites provide the needed input to improve and constrain surface complexation modelling and are especially useful for predicting behaviour in systems where experiments are difficult or impossible, such as at high temperature and pressure.

  1. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, J J L; Förster, B; von Caemmerer, S; Badger, M R; Price, G D; Whitney, S M

    2014-07-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tob(BicA) lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tob(BicA) leaves (0.12 μmol m(-2), ≈7mg m(-2)) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 μmol m(-2)) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tob(BicA) plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

  2. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  3. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  5. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  6. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  7. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  9. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  12. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  13. Immunopharmacologic profile of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S I

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a pyranoquinolone, was specifically designed as an agent to suppress allergic inflammation. Nedocromil sodium significantly affects not only the early-phase of allergen-induced responses, but also expression of late-phase inflammation, even when administered after the onset of early-phase responses. Nedocromil sodium also limits bronchoconstriction induced by nonallergic factors, including cold air and sulfur dioxide at dosages lower than required with cromolyn sodium. Nedocromil sodium is more potent than cromolyn sodium in preventing mast cell degranulation in selective animal models. In addition, nedocromil sodium limits leukotriene C4 production by calcium ionophore-stimulated eosinophils and also limits the activity of platelet activating factor to induce neutrophil generation of superoxides. Diurnal variation of peak flow rates in asthmatics and requirement for both beta 2-agonists and inhaled beclomethasone have been noted to be reduced in several trials employing nedocromil sodium, suggesting that its in vivo activity parallels its in vitro activity as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Searching for novel anti-myotonic agents: Pharmacophore requirement for use-dependent block of skeletal muscle sodium channels by N-benzylated cyclic derivatives of tocainide

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Annamaria; De Bellis, Michela; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo; Muraglia, Marilena; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Drug screening on sodium currents of native myofibers by means of voltage-clamp recordings is predictive of pre-clinical anti-myotonic activity in vivo and ex vivo. By this approach we identified the N-benzylated beta-proline derivative of tocainide (To10) as the most potent use-dependent blocker of Nav1.4 so far. We tested novel analogs with modifications on the pharmacophore groups of To10. The substitution of the proline cycle with less planar piperidine or piperazine rings disclosed the importance of a two carbon atom distance and/or an additional nitrogen atom for potency. Structural changes on the xylididic group corroborated the role of a proper electronic cloud for hydrophobic interactions with the binding site. The N-benzylated moiety lead to a stereoselective behavior only in the rigid alpha-proline analog To11 vs. To10 and N-benzylated tocainide (To12). The results confirm the strict structural requirements of Nav1.4 blockers and allow to refine the drug design toward novel anti-myotonic drugs. PMID:21802953

  15. Sodium bicarbonate treatment prevents gastric emptying delay caused by acute exercise in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Moisés T B; Palheta-Junior, Raimundo C; Sousa, Daniel F; Fonseca-Magalhães, Patrícia A; Okoba, Willy; Campos, Caio P S; Oliveira, Ricardo B; Magalhães, Pedro J C; Santos, Armenio A

    2014-05-01

    Physical exercise, mainly after vigorous activity, may induce gastrointestinal dysmotility whose mechanisms are still unknown. We hypothesized that physical exercise and ensuing lactate-related acidemia alter gastrointestinal motor behavior. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of short-term exercise on gastric emptying rate in awake rats subjected to 15-min swimming sessions against a load equivalent to 5% of their body weight. After 0, 10, or 20 min of exercise testing, the rats were gavage fed with 1.5 ml of a liquid test meal (0.5 mg/ml of phenol red in 5% glucose solution) and euthanized 10 min postprandially to measure fractional gastric dye recovery. In addition to inducing acidemia and increasing blood lactate levels, acute exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric retention. Such a phenomenon presented a positive correlation (P < 0.001) between blood lactate levels and fractional gastric dye recovery. Gastric retention and other acidbase-related changes were all prevented by NaHCO3 pretreatment. Additionally, exercise enhanced (P < 0.05) the marker's progression through the small intestine. In anesthetized rats, exercise increased (P < 0.05) gastric volume, measured by a balloon catheter in a barostat system. Compared with sedentary control rats, acute exercise also inhibited (P < 0.05) the contractility of gastric fundus strips in vitro. In conclusion, acute exercise delayed the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal by interfering with the acid-base balance. PMID:24557800

  16. S0859, an N-cyanosulphonamide inhibitor of sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Ch'En, F F-T; Villafuerte, F C; Swietach, P; Cobden, P M; Vaughan-Jones, R D

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intracellular pH (pHi) in heart is regulated by sarcolemmal H+-equivalent transporters such as Na+-H+ exchange (NHE) and Na+-HCO3 − cotransport (NBC). Inhibition of NBC influences pHi and can be cardioprotective in animal models of post-ischaemic reperfusion. Apart from a rabbit polyclonal NBC-antibody, a selective NBC inhibitor compound has not been studied. Compound S0859 (C29H24ClN3O3S) is a putative NBC inhibitor. Here, we provide the drug's chemical structure, test its potency and selectivity in ventricular cells and assess its suitability for experiments on cardiac contraction. Experimental approach: pHi recovery from intracellular acidosis was monitored using pH-epifluorescence (SNARF-fluorophore) in guinea pig, rat and rabbit isolated ventricular myocytes. Electrically evoked cell shortening (contraction) was measured optically. With CO2/HCO3 −-buffered superfusates containing 30 μM cariporide (to inhibit NHE), pHi recovery is mediated by NBC. Key results: S0859, an N-cyanosulphonamide compound, reversibly inhibited NBC-mediated pHi recovery (K i=1.7 μM, full inhibition at ∼30 μM). In HEPES-buffered superfusates, NHE-mediated pHi recovery was unaffected by 30 μM S0859. With CO2/HCO3 − buffer, pHi recovery from intracellular alkalosis (mediated by Cl−/HCO3 − and Cl−/OH− exchange) was also unaffected. Selective NBC-inhibition was not due to action on carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes, as 100 μM acetazolamide (a membrane-permeant CA-inhibitor) had no significant effect on NBC activity. pHi recovery from acidosis was associated with increased contractile-amplitude. The time course of recovery of pHi and contraction was slowed by S0859, confirming that NBC is a significant controller of contractility during acidosis. Conclusions and implications: Compound S0859 is a selective, high-affinity generic NBC inhibitor, potentially important for probing the transporter's functional role in heart and other tissues. PMID:18204485

  17. The Divergence, Actions, Roles, and Relatives of Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Boron, Walter F.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1–3), five Na+-coupled HCO3− transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3− across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1–3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

  18. SODIUM BICARBONATE FACILITATES LOW-DOSE ORAL TOLERANCE TO PEANUT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Oral tolerance specifically inhibits production of allergic IgE antibody and is therefore a potential method for suppressing food allergy. We have previously demonstrated that a single oral dose of one mg is sufficient to induce oral tolerance to egg white but not pean...

  19. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between the standards were not linear or consistent, and their accuracy for assessing clinical changes in tooth whiteness is questionable. PMID:9835828

  20. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    PubMed

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  1. Postharvest behaviour of two Sardinian apple varieties following immersion in heated sodium bicarbonate solution.

    PubMed

    Venditti, T; Molinu, M G; Dore, A; Agabbio, M; D'Hallewin, G

    2010-01-01

    'Miali' and 'Caddina' are apple varieties of Sardinian germplasm, mainly produced under sustainable conditions. Fruit is rarely subjected to cold storage and postharvest losses are generally high. In order to prolong the marketing period and contain postharvest decay of these local varieties, we investigated on their storage behaviour and on the efficacy of combined alternative postharvest treatments. Pre-climateric fruit was harvested and immersed for 0 (control), 15, 30, 45 or 60 sec. in water at 20, 50, 55 or 60 degrees C with or without 2% (W/V) NaHCO3 (SBC). Then, fruit was stored for 4 months at 5 degrees C and 90% RH followed by a 6 day simulated marketing period (SMP) at 10 degrees C and 75% RH. Decay was monitored at the end of storage and after the SMP, while appearance and physiological disorders were evaluated after SMP. During storage 56 and 62% of the untreated 'Caddina' and 'Miali' apples rotted, respectively. During the SMP, an additional 3% of 'Caddina' and 5% of 'Miali' was lost. Among the treatments the best decay control, for both varieties, was attained when fruit was immersed in the SBC solution at 55 degrees C for 60 sec. Compared to control, decay was reduced by 91 and 95% for 'Caddina' and 'Miali', respectively. This combination induced some rind damage, mainly on 'Caddina' fruit. Superficial scald was evident on 'Caddina' and scored as medium while, cold storage induced a significant deposition of epicuticular wax in 'Miali' fruit, affecting significantly fruit appearance. A significant reduction of decay was also achieved when fruit was immersed at 60 degrees C for 30 or 45 sec., attaining for 'Caddina' a reduction of 82 and 88% of decay, respectively. Other combinations were lesser effective or produced rind damages and most decay was caused by Penicillium expansum.

  2. Electrogenic sodium-dependent bicarbonate secretion by glial cells of the leech central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    The ability to move acid/base equivalents across the membrane of identified glial cells was investigated in isolated segmental ganglia of the leech Hirudo medicinalis. The intracellular pH (pHi) of the glial cells was measured with double-barreled, neutral-ligand, ion- sensitive microelectrodes during step changes of the external pH (pHo 7.4-7.0). The rate of intracellular acidification after the decrease in extracellular pH (pHo) was taken as a measure of the rate of acid/base transport across the glial membrane. Taking into account the total intracellular buffering power, the maximum rate of acid/base flux was 0.4 mM/min in CO2/HCO3-free saline, and 3.92 mM/min in the presence of 5% CO2/10 mM HCO-3, suggesting that the acid/base flux was dependent upon HCO3-. The rate of acid influx/base efflux increased both with the external HCO3- concentration and with increasing pHi (and hence HCO3- i). This suggested that the decrease in pHi was due to HCO3- efflux. The rapid decrease of pHi was accompanied by a HCO3--dependent depolarization of the glial membrane from -74 +/- 5 mV (n = 20) to -54 +/- 7 mV (n = 13). Both this depolarization and the rate of intracellular acidification were greatly reduced by the anion exchange inhibitor 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS; 0.3- 0.5 mM), but were not affected by the removal of external Cl-. Reduction of the external Na+ concentration to one-tenth normal affected the rate of intracellular acidification only in the presence of CO2/HCO3-: the rate increased within the first 3-5 min after lowering external Na+; after longer exposures in low external Na+ the rate decreased, presumably due to depletion of intracellular Na+. Amiloride (1 mM), which inhibits the Na+-H+ exchange in these cells, had no effect on the rate of intracellular acidification. The intracellular Na activity (aNai) of the glial cells was measured to be 5.2 +/- 1.0 mM (n = 8) in CO2/HCO3-free saline; aNai increased to 7.3 +/- 2.2 mM (n = 8) after the addition of 5% CO2/24 mM HCO3-. Upon a change in pHo to 7.0 in the presence of CO2/HCO3-, aNai decreased by an average of 2 +/- 1.1 mM (n = 5); in CO2/HCO3--free saline external acidification produced a transient increase in aNai. It is concluded that, in the presence of CO2/HCO3-, the rate of intracellular acidification in glial cells is dominated by an outwardly directed, electrogenic Na+-HCO3-cotransport. Neurons, which do not possess this cotransporter, acidify at much lower rates under similar conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1761972

  3. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between the standards were not linear or consistent, and their accuracy for assessing clinical changes in tooth whiteness is questionable.

  4. [Correlation between the use of sodium bicarbonate and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterms].

    PubMed

    García-Pasquel, María José; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: nacer prematuro conlleva riesgos, como la posibilidad de sufrir hemorragia intraventricular. El 90 % de los casos se presenta dentro de los primeros 4 a 7 días; Se ha relacionado el uso de bicarbonato de sodio con su aparición. El propósito de este estudio fue determinar si el uso de bicarbonato en infusión continua, en las primeras 24 horas, aumenta el riesgo de hemorragia intraventricular. Métodos: cohorte retrospectiva, se revisaron 160 expedientes formándose 2 grupos: uno sin y otro con uso de bicarbonato. Posteriormente, el grupo con uso se dividió en dos: uso terapéutico y profiláctico. Resultados: Del total de los prematuros, 10 % presentaron hemorragia intraventricular, tenían un peso promedio de 1,500 g y una edad gestacional promedio de 31 semanas. La incidencia fue idéntica entre los grupos, aunque en el grupo con bicarbonato había pacientes más prematuros, y clínicamente más inestables. Se realizó una regresión logística donde se observó asociación entre la incidencia de hemorragia intraventricular y el peso al nacimiento (OR de 0.99); así como en el caso del uso de bicarbonato de sodio con una OR 1.22. Conclusiones: Nuestros datos indican la necesidad de evaluación sistemática del uso de bicarbonato, con el fin de determinar si los beneficios sobrepasan el riesgo de hemorragia intraventricular.

  5. Simultaneous determination of trace levels of ethylmercury and methylmercury in biological samples and vaccines using sodium tetra(n-propyl)borate as derivatizing agent.

    PubMed

    Gibicar, Darija; Logar, Martina; Horvat, Nusa; Marn-Pernat, Andreja; Ponikvar, Rafael; Horvat, Milena

    2007-05-01

    Because of increasing awareness of the potential neurotoxicity of even low levels of organomercury compounds, analytical techniques are required for determination of low concentrations of ethylmercury (EtHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in biological samples. An accurate and sensitive method has been developed for simultaneous determination of methylmercury and ethylmercury in vaccines and biological samples. MeHg and EtHg were isolated by acid leaching (H2SO4-KBr-CuSO4), extraction of MeHg and EtHg bromides into an organic solvent (CH2Cl2), then back-extraction into Milli-Q water. MeHg and EtHg bromides were derivatized with sodium tetrapropylborate (NaBPr4), collected at room temperature on Tenax, separated by isothermal gas chromatography (GC), pyrolysed, and detected by cold-vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV AFS). The repeatability of results from the method was approximately 5-10% for EtHg and 5-15% for MeHg. Detection limits achieved were 0.01 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in blood, saliva, and vaccines and 5 ng g-1 for EtHg and MeHg in hair. The method presented has been shown to be suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in biological samples and can be used in studies related to the health effects of mercury and its species in man. This work illustrates the possibility of using hair and blood as potential biomarkers of exposure to thiomersal.

  6. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine. PMID:24999004

  7. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1–98.7, 88.9–92.7, and 74.8–83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  8. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1-98.7, 88.9-92.7, and 74.8-83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  9. A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

    1980-01-01

    1. Parotid secretion has been studied by micropuncture in sodium-replete and sodium-deficient sheep. 2. The osmolality of unstimulated primary saliva was slightly higher than in plasma and fell following cholinergic nerve stimulation. In sodium-depleted animals the osmolality of final saliva was hypotonic and exhibited flow dependency, where as in sodium-replete animals it was always isotonic. 3. In sodium-replete sheep, the primary fluid sodium concentration was about 120-130 mmol l-1 but in final saliva it was about 167 mmol l-1 and showed little or no flow-dependency. In sodium-depleted sheep, the primary sodium concentration averaged only 82.2 mmol l-1 and it was concluded that sodium-depleted primary fluid contained some other unidentified solute that allowed it to remain approximately isotonic; in final saliva the unstimulated sodium concentration was about 40 mmol l-1 and it rose with increasing flow rate to a maximum of 114.9 mmol l-1. 4. The primary fluid potassium concentration in sodium-replete animals did not differ significantly from that seen in sodium-depleted animals and the values were uninfluenced by stimulation; the over-all mean value was 11.2 mmol l-1. In final saliva, in sodium-replete sheep, the potassium concentrations averaged 7.8 mmol l-1 but in sodium-depleted sheep the concentrations were between 5 and 10 times greater than in primary fluid. 5. It was calculated from the equilibrium pH that the primary bicarbonate concentration would have been about 35 mmol l-1. In final saliva, where bicarbonate was measured directly, the concentrations were much greater and increased with stimulation to about 115 mmol l-1. 6. The primary fluid phosphate and chloride concentrations were the same in both sodium-replete and sodium-depleted animals and were unchanged by stimulation; the mean concentration of phosphate was 1.30 mmol l-1 and of chloride, 53.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva the phosphate concentrations were little changed but the chloride

  10. 40 CFR Appendix P to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in... with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix P to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in... with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix P to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in... with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix P to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in... with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix P to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension with any agent other than ammonium polyphosphate or sodium bicarbonate additive (Envirogel with sodium bicarbonate additive) Acceptable subject to narrowed use limits For use only in... with the sodium bicarbonate additive to be acceptable as total flooding agents in both occupied...

  15. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  16. Manganese complexes with bicarbonate and sulfate in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    The association constant for the dissolved species MnHCO3+ was experimentally determined to be 63. From this value and a published constant for the species MNSO4 aq., a diagram was prepared showing per cent of dissolved manganese complexed in the presence of 10 to 10,000 p.p.m. bicarbonate and 1.0 to 10,000 p.p.m. sulfate. The rate of oxidation of Mn+2 in aerated water is greatly increased by increasing pH, and is retarded when SO4-2and HCO3- are present.

  17. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  18. Study of postnatal effects of chemopreventive agents on offspring of ethylnitrosourea-induced transplacental carcinogenesis in rats. I. Influence of retinol acetate, alpha-tocopherol acetate, thiamine chloride, sodium selenite, and alpha-difluoromethylornithine.

    PubMed

    Alexandrov, V A; Bespalov, V G; Boone, C W; Kelloff, G J; Malone, W F

    1991-11-01

    We studied the influence of the vitamins retinol acetate, alpha-tocopherol acetate and thiamine chloride; the antioxidant sodium selenite and an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine, on the offspring of transplacental carcinogenesis by ethylnitrosourea in rats. Ethylnitrosourea was given to pregnant rats as a single i.v. injection, at a dose of 75 mg/kg body wt. or 5.5 mg/kg body wt., on the 21st day after conception. Retinol, tocopherol or thiamine was added to the diet, and selenite and alpha-difluoromethylornithine to drinking water of the offspring throughout their postnatal life at moderate doses. In control groups, ethylnitrosourea induced tumors of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nervous system and kidneys in the offspring. alpha-Difluoromethylornithine exerted a slight inhibitory effect; this agent decreased the total tumor multiplicity and the multiplicity of peripheral nervous system tumors and also prolonged survival time. Retinol, tocopherol, thiamine and selenite did not influence the development of the transplacentally-induced tumors.

  19. Evaluation of Perrhenate Spectrophotometric Methods in Bicarbonate and Nitrate Media.

    PubMed

    Lenell, Brian A; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    2-pyridyl thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime based perrhenate, Re(VII), UV-vis spectrophotometric methods were evaluated in nitrate and bicarbonate solutions ranging from 0.001 M to 0.5 M. Standard curves at [Re]=2.5-50 mg L(-1) for the Re(IV)-thiourea and the Re ketoxime complexes were constructed at 405 nm and 490 nm, respectively. Detection of limits for N-(2-pyridyl) thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime methods in ultrapure water are 3.06 mg/L and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. Influences of NaHCO3 and NaNO3 concentration on absorbance spectra, absorptivity, and linearity were documented. For both methods, samples in ultrapure water and NaHCO3 have an R(2) value>0.99, indicating strong linear relationships. Statistical analysis supports that NaHCO3 does not affect linearity between standards for either method. NaNO3 causes major interference with the ketoxime method above 0.001 M NaNO3. Data provides information for practical use of Re spectrophotometric methods in environmental media that is high in bicarbonate and nitrate. PMID:26838460

  20. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  1. Method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P.

    1984-09-11

    The invention relates to a method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor by precarbonating green liquor by means of flue gases, by bringing a precarbonated solution into contact with a sodium bicarbonate solution and by stripping hydrogen sulphide from the so obtained reaction mixture by means of steam, for producing hydrogen sulphide gas and a sodium carbonate solution, which sodium carbonate solution is so pure, in relation to sodium sulphide that it can directly be led into the washing of the flue gases and into a carbonation stage, for producing the sodium bicarbonate solution. In order to save steam and sodium carbonate all precarbonated solution is not treated to the sodium sulphide free solution, which is required by a scrubber, but a part is discharged at higher sodium sulphide content by dividing the stripping into two stages which take place one above the other in the same tower, whereby a part of a solution obtained from the first stripping stage is led directly into the second stripping stage and the steams containing hydrogen sulphide, obtained from the second stripping stage are led directly into the first stripping stage.

  2. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO.sub.2), titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) and sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  3. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H/sub 2/O and/or CO/sub 2/ by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-04-24

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO/sub 2/), titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  4. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244 Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244 Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of tolerance is established for residues of...

  10. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR.

  11. Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, T. A.; Whelan, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    The biosphere's great carbonate deposits, from caliche soils to deep-sea carbonate oozes, precipitate largely as by-products of autotrophic nutrient acquisition physiologies. Protons constitute the critical link: Calcification generates protons, which plants and photosynthetic symbioses use to assimilate bicarbonate and nutrients. A calcium ATPase-based "trans" mechanism underlies most biological calcification. This permits high calcium carbonate supersaturations and rapid carbonate precipitation. The competitive advantages of calcification become especially apparent in light and nutrient-deficient alkaline environments. Calcareous plants often dominate the lower euphotic zone in both the benthos and the plankton. Geographically and seasonally, massive calcification concentrates in nutrient-deficient environments including alkaline soils, coral reefs, cyanobacterial mats and coccolithophorid blooms. Structural and defensive uses for calcareous skeletons are sometimes overrated.

  12. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  13. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  17. Enhanced Sodium Ion Storage Behavior of P2-Type Na(2/3)Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)O2 Synthesized via a Chelating Agent Assisted Route.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Zhao, Lixiang; Wu, Chuan; Li, Hui; Li, Yu; Wu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    On the basis of resource abundance and low cost, high capacity layered P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 material is regarded as a potential cathode material for sodium-ion batteries but suffers from its unstable structure during cycling. In this work, P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 layered materials were synthesized by a chelating agent assisted sol-gel method with NH3·H2O. With the addition of NH3·H2O and the control of the synthesis conditions, highly active material with a more stable structure and better electrochemical performance was obtained. Furthermore, the influences of structure changes during different voltage ranges (1.5-4.0 V and 1.5-4.3 V vs Na(+)/Na) on the Na(+) storage behaviors were also evaluated and compared. It is confirmed that, when being charged to 4.2 V, an OP4-type phase emerges, which can reduce the damage by the gilding of the MeO2 layers but leads to an unstable crystal structure. For long-term cycling, it is preferred to cut off at 4.0 V rather than at 4.3 V. For the optimized P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 calcined at 900 °C, a discharge capacity of 92 mAh/g remains after 40 cycles in the voltage range of 1.5-4.0 V, and the Coulombic efficiency remains 100%.

  18. Enhanced Sodium Ion Storage Behavior of P2-Type Na(2/3)Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)O2 Synthesized via a Chelating Agent Assisted Route.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Zhao, Lixiang; Wu, Chuan; Li, Hui; Li, Yu; Wu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    On the basis of resource abundance and low cost, high capacity layered P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 material is regarded as a potential cathode material for sodium-ion batteries but suffers from its unstable structure during cycling. In this work, P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 layered materials were synthesized by a chelating agent assisted sol-gel method with NH3·H2O. With the addition of NH3·H2O and the control of the synthesis conditions, highly active material with a more stable structure and better electrochemical performance was obtained. Furthermore, the influences of structure changes during different voltage ranges (1.5-4.0 V and 1.5-4.3 V vs Na(+)/Na) on the Na(+) storage behaviors were also evaluated and compared. It is confirmed that, when being charged to 4.2 V, an OP4-type phase emerges, which can reduce the damage by the gilding of the MeO2 layers but leads to an unstable crystal structure. For long-term cycling, it is preferred to cut off at 4.0 V rather than at 4.3 V. For the optimized P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 calcined at 900 °C, a discharge capacity of 92 mAh/g remains after 40 cycles in the voltage range of 1.5-4.0 V, and the Coulombic efficiency remains 100%. PMID:26732022

  19. Effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibition on superficial and deep nephron bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    DuBose, T D; Lucci, M S

    1983-01-01

    The nephron segment responsible for the acetazolamide-insensitive fraction of renal bicarbonate reabsorption has not been clearly delineated. This study compares superficial and deep nephron bicarbonate reabsorption before and after acetazolamide at two dose levels (20 and 50 mg/kg per h) in mutant Munich-Wistar rats employing both cortical and papillary micropuncture and microcalorimetry. Systemic acid-base balance and right whole kidney glomerular filtration rate were similar in all groups examined. The effects of the two doses of acetazolamide were indistinguishable and resulted in a significant increase in whole kidney bicarbonate excretion that compared favorably with the fraction delivered out of the left papillary tip. Acetazolamide inhibited superficial proximal bicarbonate reabsorption by 80.0%, whereas reabsorption up to the deep loop of Henle was decreased by only 52% (P less than 0.001). Bicarbonate reabsorption that was insensitive to acetazolamide occurred in the superficial and deep loop of Henle and between the distal tubule and base collecting duct. Because water reabsorption in these segments could serve to generate transepithelial bicarbonate concentration gradients favorable for reabsorption, we attempted to minimize water abstraction by combined administration of mannitol and acetazolamide. During this condition a significant increase in bicarbonate delivery up to the deep loop of Henle was noted (52 vs. 65%), whereas superficial nephron reabsorption was not altered. Furthermore, an outwardly directed bicarbonate concentration gradient from the deep loop of Henle to vasa recta was demonstrated during acetazolamide (delta tCO2 = 20.9 +/- 3.3 mM), but was abolished during combined mannitol and acetazolamide administration (delta tCO2 = 3.5 +/- 0.9 mM). It is concluded that carbonic anhydrase inhibition results in a disparate effect on nephron bicarbonate reabsorption when juxtamedullary and superficial nephron segments are compared. Our findings

  20. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  1. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  2. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  3. Occurrence of dissolved sodium ground waters in basalts underlying the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Cox, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Basalt aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group are a principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use. Concern has been expressed in this agriculture-dependent region about problems associated with the use of groundwaters with a high sodium concentration relative to the calcium and magnesium content (high sodium-adsorption ratio). Continued irrigation with such waters can reduce soil permeability to the degree that water cannot effectively reach plant roots. Groundwaters within a flow path evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type in shallow and upgradient locations to a sodium potassium bicarbonate type in deeper and downgradient locations. Most of the intermediate and high sodium adsorption ratio values were observed in discharge areas near major streams and in pumping centers within the central part of the plateau. Ninety-six percent of the groundwaters sampled had a low sodium absorption ratio, indicating that, for irrigation purposes, there is probably little danger of harmful levels of exchangeable sodium occurring on soil. However, water from 18 of 418 wells sampled had a sodium absorption ratio grater than 8.0 and were classified as having a medium, high, or very high sodium hazard. (USGS)

  4. Some aspects of proximal tubular sodium chloride reabsorption in Necturus kidney.

    PubMed

    Whittembury, G; Diezi, F; Diezi, J; Spring, K; Giebisch, G

    1975-05-01

    Some aspects of proximal tubular sodium chloride reabsorption in Necturus kidney. Renal tubular reabsorption of fluid and sodium was measured by clearance methods in the doubly perfused Necturus kidney in which the bicarbonate concentration was varied between 0 and 60 mEq/liter. The effects of Damox (2.2 times 10-3M), ocubain (10-5M) and ethacrynic acid (10-4M) and of acidosis were also investigated. In addition to clearance experiments, stationary microperfusion experiments were carried out on promimal tubules to measure volume flow and steady-state sodium and chloride concentration differences across the tubular epithelium. In some experiments, the transepithelial electrical potential difference was also measured using an axial electrode system. The following results were obtained: 1) Bicarbonate is not essential to the operation of renal tubular fluid and sodium transport. 2) Total renal and proximal tubular fluid and sodium transport are partially inhibited by Diamox, ouabian and ethacrynic acid. 3) The proximal tubule maintains a significant transepithelial sodium and chloride concentration difference and a significant electrical potential difference (lumen-negative) in the presence of a poorly permeant nonelectrolyte. The direction and magnitude of the electrical polarization fully accounts for the observed chloride concentration difference. The data support the thesis that sodium chloride transport accross the proximal tubular epithelium takes place by active sodium transport and electically coupled passive chloride reabsorption. Important species differences with respect to mammalian transport mechanisms are discussed.

  5. Effects of metabolic acidosis and alkalosis on sodium and calcium transport in the dog kidney.

    PubMed

    Sutton, R A; Wong, N L; Dirks, J H

    1979-05-01

    Clearance and micropuncture studies have been performed in dogs to examine the effects of acute and chronic metabolic acidosis and acute alkalosis on tubular sodium and calcium transport. Acute metabolic acidosis, induced by the infusion of hydrochloric acid, decreased proximal fluid reabsorption and increased the fractional delivery of sodium and calcium to the distal tubule, but not to the final urine. In comparison with normal dogs, dogs with chronic metabolic acidosis (induced by feeding ammonium chloride) showed an increase in proximal fluid reabsorption and a dissociation of calcium from sodium reabsorption more distally, leading to an increased delivery of calcium relative to sodium at the distal tubule and in the final urine. The infusion of sodium bicarbonate to correct chronic metabolic acidosis, both in intact and thyroparathyroidectomized (TPTX) dogs, reduced proximal fluid reabsorption and caused a selective enhancement of calcium reabsorption relative to sodium in the more distal nephron, resulting in a reversal of the dissociation observed in acidosis, both at the distal tubule and in the final urine. By contrastin fusion of sodium chloride in parathyroid-intact acidotic dogs did not reduce proximal fluid reabsorption or enhance tubular calcium reabsorption. In nonacidotic dogs, both intact and TPTX, infusion of sodium bicarconate to induce acute alkalosis resulted in selhese data demonstrate the presence of a component of tubular calcium reabsorption situated beyond the proximal tubule, which is inhibited by chronic (but not acute) metabolic acidosis and enhanced by metabolic alkalosis (or bicarbonate infusion) independently of parathyroid hormone. PMID:480784

  6. Provocative agents in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Malinge, M; Guitton, B

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacological challenge strategy involves giving a provoking agent under controlled rules to clarify some aspect of behavioural or biological function. Various agents such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, caffeine, yohimbine, isoprenaline and now cholecystokinin have been used as provoking agents in healthy volunteers as well as in panic patients. Results obtained in this field are updated, with emphasis on the potential mechanisms of action. It is concluded that there may be a final pathway between carbon dioxide, sodium lactate, and cholecystokinin inducing panic attacks.

  7. Bicarbonate and Alkyl Carbonate Radicals: Structural Integrity and Reactions with Lipid Components.

    PubMed

    Bühl, Michael; DaBell, Peter; Manley, David W; McCaughan, Rory P; Walton, John C

    2015-12-30

    The elusive neutral bicarbonate radical and the carbonate radical anion form an acid/conjugate base pair. We now report experimental studies for a model of bicarbonate radical, namely, methyl carbonate (methoxycarbonyloxyl) radical, complemented by DFT computations at the CAM-B3LYP level applied to the bicarbonate radical itself. Methyl carbonate radicals were generated by UV irradiation of oxime carbonate precursors. Kinetic EPR was employed to measure rate constants and Arrhenius parameters for their dissociation to CO2 and methoxyl radicals. With oleate and cholesterol lipid components, methyl carbonate radicals preferentially added to their double bonds; with linoleate and linolenate substrates, abstraction of the bis-allylic H atoms competed with addition. This contrasts with the behavior of ROS such as hydroxyl radicals that selectively abstract allylic and/or bis-allylic H atoms. The thermodynamic and activation parameters for bicarbonate radical dissociation, obtained from DFT computations, predicted it would indeed have substantial lifetime in gas and nonpolar solvents. The acidity of bicarbonate radicals was also examined by DFT methods. A noteworthy linear relationship was discovered between the known pKa's of strong acids and the computed numbers of microsolvating water molecules needed to bring about their ionization. DFT computations with bicarbonate radicals, solvated with up to eight water molecules, predicted that only five water molecules were needed to bring about its complete ionization. On comparing with the correlation, this indicated a pKa of about -2 units. This marks the bicarbonate radical as the strongest known carboxylic acid.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix O to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use... Systems.Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level... potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix O to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use... Systems.Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level... potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix O to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use... Systems.Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level... potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix O to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use... Systems.Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level... potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix O to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Listed in the September 27, 2006 Final Rule, Effective November 27, 2006

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Chemical Suspension (Envirogel) with sodium bicarbonate additive Acceptable subject to use conditions Use... Systems.Sodium bicarbonate release in all settings should be targeted so that increased blood pH level... potential hazards associated with the use of the HFC agent and sodium bicarbonate, to individuals...

  13. Alkalinization by chloride/bicarbonate pathway in larval mosquito midgut

    PubMed Central

    Boudko, Dmitri Y.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Harvey, William R.; Linser, Paul J.

    2001-01-01

    The midgut of mosquito larvae maintains a specific lumen alkalinization profile with large longitudinal gradients (pH ≈ 3 units⋅mm−1) in which an extremely alkaline (pH ≈ 11) anterior midgut lies between near-neutral posterior midgut and gastric cecum (pH 7–8). A plasma membrane H+ V-ATPase energizes this alkalinization but the ion carriers involved are unknown. Capillary zone electrophoresis of body samples with outlet conductivity detection showed a specific transepithelial distribution of chloride and bicarbonate/carbonate ions, with high concentrations of both anions in the midgut tissue: 68.3 ± 5.64 and 50.8 ± 4.21 mM, respectively. Chloride was higher in the hemolymph, 57.6 ± 7.84, than in the lumen, 3.51 ± 2.58, whereas bicarbonate was higher in the lumen, 58.1 ± 7.34, than the hemolymph, 3.96 ± 2.89. Time-lapse video assays of pH profiles in vivo revealed that ingestion of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide and the ion exchange inhibitor DIDS (4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid), at 10−4 M eliminates lumen alkalinization. Basal application of these inhibitors in situ also reduced gradients recorded with self-referencing pH-sensitive microelectrodes near the basal membrane by ≈65% and 85% respectively. Self-referencing chloride-selective microelectrodes revealed a specific spatial profile of transepithelial chloride transport with an efflux maximum in anterior midgut. Both acetazolamide and DIDS reduced chloride effluxes. These data suggest that an H+ V-ATPase-energized anion exchange occurs across the apical membrane of the epithelial cells and implicate an electrophoretic Cl−/HCO\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} \\begin{equation*}{\\mathrm{_{3}^{-}}}\\end{equation*}\\end{document} exchanger and carbonic anhydrase as

  14. 21 CFR 176.200 - Defoaming agents used in coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., potassium, or sodium salt Petrolatum Pine oil Polyacrylic acid, sodium salt As a stabilizer and thickener in... Triethanolamine Triisopropanolamine Waxes, petroleum (e) The defoaming agents are used as follows: (1)...

  15. 21 CFR 176.200 - Defoaming agents used in coatings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., potassium, or sodium salt Petrolatum Pine oil Polyacrylic acid, sodium salt As a stabilizer and thickener in... Triethanolamine Triisopropanolamine Waxes, petroleum (e) The defoaming agents are used as follows: (1)...

  16. Characterization of bicarbonate-dependent potassium uptake in cultured corneal endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savion, N.; Farzame, N.; Berlin, H.B.

    1989-04-01

    Bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture demonstrated 86Rb+ uptake which was mostly ouabain-sensitive with some (15 to 50%) ouabain-insensitive uptake that was dependent on the presence of bicarbonate in the incubation medium. Bovine smooth muscle (SM) cells demonstrated ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake but the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake was not bicarbonate-dependent. Although omission of bicarbonate from the incubation buffer resulted in some reduction in the pH, this change was not responsible for the reduction in the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake. Furthermore, the removal of bicarbonate decreased the 86Rb+ influx but not its efflux. This ouabain-insensitive and bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ influx in BCE cells proceeded at a linear rate for at least 60 min and increased as a function of bicarbonate concentration such that almost maximal uptake was observed at a concentration of about 10 to 15 mM. Saturation of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ pump in BCE cells occurred at a concentration of 2 mM Rb+ in the incubation buffer, similar to the previously observed value for the Na+, K+-ATPase. Competition experiments with both unlabeled Rb+ and K+ demonstrated that likewise in the Na+, K+-ATPase the 86Rb+ influx represented physiological influx of K+. Furthermore, the energy requirements of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ uptake were similar to those of the 86Rb+ uptake via the Na+, K+-ATPase. The results described in this work demonstrated a novel bicarbonate-dependent K+ pump in addition to the Na+, K+-ATPase pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Toward an in vivo dissolution methodology: a comparison of phosphate and bicarbonate buffers.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Jennifer J; McNamara, Daniel P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the difference between the pharmaceutical phosphate buffers and the gastrointestinal bicarbonates in dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin, to illustrate the dependence of buffer differential on biopharmaceutical properties of BCS II weak acids, and to recommend phosphate buffers equivalent to bicarbonates. The intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin were experimentally measured using a rotating disk method at 37 degrees C in USP SIF/FaSSIF and various concentrations of bicarbonates. Theoretical models including an improved reaction plane model and a film model were applied to estimate the surrogate phosphate buffers equivalent to the bicarbonates. Experimental results show that the intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin in USP and FaSSIF phosphate buffers are 1.5-3.0 times that in the 15 mM bicarbonates. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the buffer differential is largely dependent on the drug pK(a) and second on solubility, and weakly dependent on the drug diffusivity. Further, in accordance with the drug pK(a), solubility and diffusivity, a simple phosphate surrogate was proposed to match an average bicarbonate value (15 mM) of the upper gastrointestinal region. Specifically, phosphate buffers of 13-15 mM and 3-4 mM were recommended for ketoprofen and indomethacin, respectively. For both ketoprofen and indomethacin, the intrinsic dissolution using the phosphate surrogate buffers closely approximated the 15 mM bicarbonate buffer. This work demonstrates the substantial difference between pharmaceutical phosphates and physiological bicarbonates in determining the drug intrinsic dissolution rates of BCS II weak acids, such as ketoprofen and indomethacin. Surrogate phosphates were recommended in order to closely reflect the in vivo dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin in gastrointestinal bicarbonates, which has significant implications for defining buffer systems for

  18. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  19. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  20. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage.

  1. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  2. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  3. A bicarbonate cofactor modulates 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl-coenzyme a synthase in menaquinone biosynthesis of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ming; Chen, Minjiao; Guo, Zu-Feng; Guo, Zhihong

    2010-09-24

    1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoyl coenzyme A (DHNA-CoA) synthase is a typical crotonase-fold protein catalyzing an intramolecular Claisen condensation in the menaquinone biosynthetic pathway. We have characterized this enzyme from Escherichia coli and found that it is activated by bicarbonate in a concentration-dependent manner. The bicarbonate binding site has been identified in the crystal structure of a virtually identical ortholog (96.8% sequence identity) from Salmonella typhimurium through comparison with a bicarbonate-insensitive orthologue. Kinetic properties of the enzyme and its site-directed mutants of the bicarbonate binding site indicate that the exogenous bicarbonate anion is essential to the enzyme activity. With this essential catalytic role, the simple bicarbonate anion is an enzyme cofactor, which is usually a small organic molecule derived from vitamins, a metal ion, or a metal-containing polyatomic anionic complex. This finding leads to classification of the DHNA-CoA synthases into two evolutionarily conserved subfamilies: type I enzymes that are bicarbonate-dependent and contain a conserved glycine at the bicarbonate binding site; and type II enzymes that are bicarbonate-independent and contain a conserved aspartate at the position similar to the enzyme-bound bicarbonate. In addition, the unique location of the enzyme-bound bicarbonate allows it to be proposed as a catalytic base responsible for abstraction of the α-proton of the thioester substrate in the enzymatic reaction, suggesting a unified catalytic mechanism for all DHNA-CoA synthases.

  4. Role of bicarbonate/CO2 in the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyanate.

    PubMed Central

    Kozliak, E I; Fuchs, J A; Guilloton, M B; Anderson, P M

    1995-01-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give two CO2 molecules. The gene for cyanase is part of the cyn operon, which includes cynT and cynS, encoding carbonic anhydrase and cyanase, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase functions to prevent depletion of cellular bicarbonate during cyanate decomposition (the product CO2 can diffuse out of the cell faster than noncatalyzed hydration back to bicarbonate). Addition of cyanate to the culture medium of a delta cynT mutant strain of E. coli (having a nonfunctional carbonic anhydrase) results in depletion of cellular bicarbonate, which leads to inhibition of growth and an inability to catalyze cyanate degradation. These effects can be overcome by aeration with a higher partial CO2 pressure (M. B. Guilloton, A. F. Lamblin, E. I. Kozliak, M. Gerami-Nejad, C. Tu, D. Silverman, P. M. Anderson, and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 175:1443-1451, 1993). The question considered here is why depletion of bicarbonate/CO2 due to the action of cyanase on cyanate in a delta cynT strain has such an inhibitory effect. Growth of wild-type E. coli in minimal medium under conditions of limited CO2 was severely inhibited, and this inhibition could be overcome by adding certain Krebs cycle intermediates, indicating that one consequence of limiting CO2 is inhibition of carboxylation reactions. However, supplementation of the growth medium with metabolites whose syntheses are known to depend on a carboxylation reaction was not effective in overcoming inhibition related to the bicarbonate deficiency induced in the delta cynT strain by addition of cyanate. Similar results were obtained with a deltacyn strain (since cyanase is absent, this strain does not develop a bicarbonate deficiency when cyanate is added); however, as with the deltacynT strain, a higher partial CO(2) pressure in the aerating gas or expression of carbonic anhydrase activity (which contributes to a higher intercellular

  5. Role of bicarbonate/CO2 in the inhibition of Escherichia coli growth by cyanate.

    PubMed

    Kozliak, E I; Fuchs, J A; Guilloton, M B; Anderson, P M

    1995-06-01

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate to give two CO2 molecules. The gene for cyanase is part of the cyn operon, which includes cynT and cynS, encoding carbonic anhydrase and cyanase, respectively. Carbonic anhydrase functions to prevent depletion of cellular bicarbonate during cyanate decomposition (the product CO2 can diffuse out of the cell faster than noncatalyzed hydration back to bicarbonate). Addition of cyanate to the culture medium of a delta cynT mutant strain of E. coli (having a nonfunctional carbonic anhydrase) results in depletion of cellular bicarbonate, which leads to inhibition of growth and an inability to catalyze cyanate degradation. These effects can be overcome by aeration with a higher partial CO2 pressure (M. B. Guilloton, A. F. Lamblin, E. I. Kozliak, M. Gerami-Nejad, C. Tu, D. Silverman, P. M. Anderson, and J. A. Fuchs, J. Bacteriol. 175:1443-1451, 1993). The question considered here is why depletion of bicarbonate/CO2 due to the action of cyanase on cyanate in a delta cynT strain has such an inhibitory effect. Growth of wild-type E. coli in minimal medium under conditions of limited CO2 was severely inhibited, and this inhibition could be overcome by adding certain Krebs cycle intermediates, indicating that one consequence of limiting CO2 is inhibition of carboxylation reactions. However, supplementation of the growth medium with metabolites whose syntheses are known to depend on a carboxylation reaction was not effective in overcoming inhibition related to the bicarbonate deficiency induced in the delta cynT strain by addition of cyanate. Similar results were obtained with a deltacyn strain (since cyanase is absent, this strain does not develop a bicarbonate deficiency when cyanate is added); however, as with the deltacynT strain, a higher partial CO(2) pressure in the aerating gas or expression of carbonic anhydrase activity (which contributes to a higher intercellular

  6. Acetate and Bicarbonate Assimilation and Metabolite Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A 13C-NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Himanshu; Shukla, Manish R.; Chary, Kandala V. R.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular metabolite analyses by 13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly 13C-labelled acetate (13CH3-COOH or CH3-13COOH) supported that both the 13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2aq. The observed metabolite(s) upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG) in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25207648

  7. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective

  8. Determination of urinary bicarbonate with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Comparison using two different methods.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Silvia B; Voyer, Luis E; Corti, Silvia; Quadri, Beatriz E; Gogorza, Cecilia; Bortolazzo, Carolina; Alvarado, Caupolicán

    2004-12-01

    The determination of urinary bicarbonate with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation was compared using two methods: (1) correcting the pK in every urine sample according to ionic strength and using the solubility constant of CO2 in urine (alpha=0.0309) and (2) using a fixed pK value (6.1) and a CO2 solubility constant of 0.0301, which we use to calculate blood bicarbonate. Nine patients were studied and 29 determinations were performed. A high correlation was found between the methods (r=0.99). Bicarbonate calculated with corrected pK was 24.3+/-6.6 mEq/l (95% confidence interval 11.4-37.2) and bicarbonate calculated with pK fixed at 6.1 was 25.6+/-6.6 mEq/l (95% confidence interval 12.7-38.5). For each urine sample, the delta bicarbonate was calculated as the difference between the bicarbonate obtained with pK at 6.1 minus that obtained with the corrected pK (mean 1.25, standard error 0.83, P=0.15). This indicates that the difference between the methods was not significant. No difference was found whether pK was corrected or fixed (6.1). Therefore, our results suggest that it is valid to take the value shown by the equipment for blood gas determination as the urinary bicarbonate value. This would allow the rapid and accurate determination of urinary bicarbonate in patients with hyperchloremic acidosis, especially those with renal tubular acidosis.

  9. Haemodynamic consequences of changing bicarbonate and calcium concentrations in haemodialysis fluids

    PubMed Central

    Gabutti, Luca; Bianchi, Giorgia; Soldini, Davide; Marone, Claudio; Burnier, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Background. In a previous study we demonstrated that mild metabolic alkalosis resulting from standard bicarbonate haemodialysis induces hypotension. In this study, we have further investigated the changes in systemic haemodynamics induced by bicarbonate and calcium, using non-invasive procedures. Methods. In a randomized controlled trial with a single-blind, crossover design, we sequentially changed the dialysate bicarbonate and calcium concentrations (between 26 and 35 mmol/l for bicarbonate and either 1.25 or 1.50 mmol/l for calcium). Twenty-one patients were enrolled for a total of 756 dialysis sessions. Systemic haemodynamics was evaluated using pulse wave analysers. Bioimpedance and BNP were used to compare the fluid status pattern. Results. The haemodynamic parameters and the pre-dialysis BNP using either a high calcium or bicarbonate concentration were as follows: systolic blood pressure (+5.6 and −4.7 mmHg; P < 0.05 for both), stroke volume (+12.3 and +5.2 ml; P < 0.05 and ns), peripheral resistances (−190 and −171 dyne s cm−5; P < 0.05 for both), central augmentation index (+1.1% and −2.9%; ns and P < 0.05) and BNP (−5 and −170 ng/l; ns and P < 0.05). The need of staff intervention was similar in all modalities. Conclusions. Both high bicarbonate and calcium concentrations in the dialysate improve the haemodynamic pattern during dialysis. Bicarbonate reduces arterial stiffness and ameliorates the heart tolerance for volume overload in the interdialytic phase, whereas calcium directly increases stroke volume. The slight hypotensive effect of alkalaemia should motivate a probative reduction of bicarbonate concentration in dialysis fluid for haemodynamic reasons, only in the event of failure of classical tools to prevent intradialytic hypotension. PMID:18842671

  10. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  11. Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Baggett, Brenda K.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Roe, Denise J.; Dosescu, Julie; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Morse, David L.; Raghunand, Natarajan; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The external pH of solid tumors is acidic as a consequence of increased metabolism of glucose and poor perfusion. Acid pH has been shown to stimulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in cells before tail vein injection in vivo. The present study investigates whether inhibition of this tumor acidity will reduce the incidence of in vivo metastases. Here, we show that oral NaHCO3 selectively increased the pH of tumors and reduced the formation of spontaneous metastases in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer. This treatment regimen was shown to significantly increase the extracellular pH, but not the intracellular pH, of tumors by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the export of acid from growing tumors by fluorescence microscopy of tumors grown in window chambers. NaHCO3 therapy also reduced the rate of lymph node involvement, yet did not affect the levels of circulating tumor cells, suggesting that reduced organ metastases were not due to increased intravasation. In contrast, NaHCO3 therapy significantly reduced the formation of hepatic metastases following intrasplenic injection, suggesting that it did inhibit extravasation and colonization. In tail vein injections of alternative cancer models, bicarbonate had mixed results, inhibiting the formation of metastases from PC3M prostate cancer cells, but not those of B16 melanoma. Although the mechanism of this therapy is not known with certainty, low pH was shown to increase the release of active cathepsin B, an important matrix remodeling protease. PMID:19276390

  12. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  13. Floating tablets for controlled release of ofloxacin via compression coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose combined with effervescent agent.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Haiyan; Rui, Yao; Yang, Fengjiao; Ma, Ning; Wu, Zhenghong

    2015-07-15

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within gastrointestinal trace until all drug released at desired rate was one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery system. Herein, we developed a fine floating tablet via compression coating of hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropyl cellulose) combined with effervescent agent (sodium bicarbonate) to achieve simultaneous control of release rate and location of ofloxacin. Sodium alginate was also added in the coating layer to regulate the drug release rate. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated. The optimized formulations were found to immediately float within 30s and remain lastingly buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) without pepsin, indicating a satisfactory floating and zero-order drug release profile. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment in New Zealand rabbits showed that, the relative bioavailability of the ofloxacin after administrated of floating tablets was 172.19%, compared to marketed common release tablets TaiLiBiTuo(®). These results demonstrated that those controlled-released floating tables would be a promising gastro-retentive delivery system for drugs acting in stomach.

  14. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  15. [Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

    1989-01-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form

  16. Sodium thioglycollate enhances pollen germeination and pollen tube elongation in cruciferous species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sodium thioglycollate is a reducing agent used in microbiological growth media to enhance the growth of anerobic, microaerophilic, and facultative organisms, and in eukaryotic tissue extraction buffers to inhibit damaging oxidative reactions. Sodium thioglycollate was added to a ...

  17. Characterisation of Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transporters in E. coli Shows that SbtA Homologs Are Functional in This Heterologous Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jiahui; Förster, Britta; Rourke, Loraine; Howitt, Susan M.; Price, G. Dean

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacterial HCO3- transporters BCT1, SbtA and BicA are important components of cyanobacterial CO2-concentration mechanisms. They also show potential in applications aimed at improving photosynthetic rates and yield when expressed in the chloroplasts of C3 crop species. The present study investigated the feasibility of using Escherichia coli to assess function of a range of SbtA and BicA transporters in a heterologous expression system, ultimately for selection of transporters suitable for chloroplast expression. Here, we demonstrate that six β-forms of SbtA are active in E. coli, although other tested bicarbonate transporters were inactive. The sbtA clones were derived from Synechococcus sp. WH5701, Cyanobium sp. PCC7001, Cyanobium sp. PCC6307, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942, Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and Synechococcus sp. PCC7002. The six SbtA homologs varied in bicarbonate uptake kinetics and sodium requirements in E. coli. In particular, SbtA from PCC7001 showed the lowest uptake affinity and highest flux rate and was capable of increasing the internal inorganic carbon pool by more than 8 mM relative to controls lacking transporters. Importantly, we were able to show that the SbtB protein (encoded by a companion gene near sbtA) binds to SbtA and suppresses bicarbonate uptake function of SbtA in E. coli, suggesting a role in post-translational regulation of SbtA, possibly as an inhibitor in the dark. This study established E. coli as a heterologous expression and analysis system for HCO3- transporters from cyanobacteria, and identified several SbtA transporters as useful for expression in the chloroplast inner envelope membranes of higher plants. PMID:25536191

  18. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  19. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  20. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-12-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry.

  1. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg−1 of L and 0.428 g kg−1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  2. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  3. Urinary sodium and chloride during renal salt retention.

    PubMed

    Sherman, R A; Eisinger, R P

    1983-09-01

    One hundred ten episodes of renal salt retention (urinary sodium and/or chloride less than 10 mEq/L) were studied retrospectively to determine the significance of discordance of urinary sodium from chloride. In 16 episodes the urinary sodium exceeded chloride by at least 15 mEq/L. This disparity was associated with the necessity for urinary excretion of substantial quantities of poorly reabsorbed anions (penicillin, ketones, or diatrizoate), a rapidly falling serum bicarbonate level (due to resolving metabolic or developing respiratory alkalosis), or substantial renal insufficiency (serum creatinine greater than 3 mg/dL). In 14 of 110 episodes, urinary chloride exceeded urinary sodium by at least 15 mEq/L. These patients were more often oliguric and had a higher mean serum chloride than patients without this dissociation. In patients with oliguria, hyponatremia, or metabolic alkalosis, measurement of urinary sodium or chloride alone will, in a substantial number of cases, fail to detect renal salt retention. When evidence is sought for renal salt retention, both urinary sodium and chloride should be determined. PMID:6613992

  4. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  5. Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Saoudi, Fethi; Chiha, Mahdi; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    The influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonolytic degradation of cationic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), in water was investigated. As a consequence of ultrasonic cavitation that generates .OH radicals, carbonate radicals were secondary products of water sonochemistry when it contains dissolved bicarbonate or carbonate ions. The results clearly demonstrated the significant intensification of sonolytic destruction of RhB in the presence of bicarbonate and carbonate, especially at lower dye concentrations. Degradation intensification occurs because carbonate radicals sonochemically formed undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals. The generated carbonate radicals are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as RhB. Therefore, at low dye concentrations, carbonate radical presents a more selective reactivity towards RhB molecules than hydroxyl radical. In the presence of bicarbonate, degradation rate reached a maximum at 3 g L(-1) bicarbonate, but subsequent addition retards the destruction process. In RhB solutions containing carbonate, the oxidation rate gradually increased with increasing carbonate concentration up to 10 g L(-1) and slightly decreased afterward. Carbonate radicals sonochemically generated are suitable for total removal of COD of sonicated RhB solutions. PMID:19910116

  6. Importance of bicarbonate in bile salt independent fraction of bile flow.

    PubMed

    Hardison, W G; Wood, C A

    1978-08-01

    The bile salt independent fraction (BSIF) of canalicular bile flow from the isolated rat liver perfused with bicarbonate-free perfusate is 50% of that from the liver perfused with bicarbonate-containing perfusate. HCO3-excretion is nearly eliminated and Na+ and Cl- excretion is reduced 50%. Replacement of HCO3- into perfusate increased bile flow by 0.3 microliter/g.min without changing bile acid excretion rate. 5.5-Dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) produced a similar effect. DMO was passively distributed between bile and plasma. The data indicate that a bicarbonate transport mechanism is responsible for production of up to 50% of the BSIF. Another weak acid, N-5[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2-pyrimidinyl]sulfamoylbenzene (glymidine), was rapidly excreted into bile and increased bile flow by over 2.0 microliter/g.min. Glymidine is probably excreted by an independent organic anion transport mechanism, and any effect on the bicarbonate transport mechanism is obscured. Canaliculus-enriched hepatocyte membrane fractions contained no HCO3-stimulated ATPase activity. Either this enzyme is unimportant in hepatocyte bicarbonate transport or transport occurs across membranes other than the bile canalicular membrane. PMID:150796

  7. Bicarbonate increases binding affinity of Vibrio cholerae ToxT to virulence gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Joshua J; Withey, Jeffrey H

    2014-11-01

    The major Vibrio cholerae virulence gene transcription activator, ToxT, is responsible for the production of the diarrhea-inducing cholera toxin (CT) and the major colonization factor, toxin coregulated pilus (TCP). In addition to the two primary virulence factors mentioned, ToxT is responsible for the activation of accessory virulence genes, such as aldA, tagA, acfA, acfD, tcpI, and tarAB. ToxT activity is negatively modulated by bile and unsaturated fatty acids found in the upper small intestine. Conversely, previous work identified another intestinal signal, bicarbonate, which enhances the ability of ToxT to activate production of CT and TCP. The work presented here further elucidates the mechanism for the enhancement of ToxT activity by bicarbonate. Bicarbonate was found to increase the activation of ToxT-dependent accessory virulence promoters in addition to those that produce CT and TCP. Bicarbonate is taken up into the V. cholerae cell, where it positively affects ToxT activity by increasing DNA binding affinity for the virulence gene promoters that ToxT activates regardless of toxbox configuration. The increase in ToxT binding affinity in the presence of bicarbonate explains the elevated level of virulence gene transcription.

  8. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOEpatents

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  9. Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Saalau-Bethell, Susanne M; Berdini, Valerio; Cleasby, Anne; Congreve, Miles; Coyle, Joseph E; Lock, Victoria; Murray, Christopher W; O'Brien, M Alistair; Rich, Sharna J; Sambrook, Tracey; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff R; Jhoti, Harren

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein. PMID:24616449

  10. Interaction between some common genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1986-01-01

    The clastogenic effects of arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide and the protective effect of selenium were studied in short-term lymphocyte cultures. The three agents selected are the major toxic substances in emissions from copper smelters. Cells from non-smoking, healthy individuals were exposed to individual agents and combinations of the four agents (sodium arsenite, lead acetate, sodium sulphite and sodium selenite) and the cells were analysed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatide exchanges. Selenium showed an antagonistic (protective) effect against the other agents. No synergistic effects were found, and the interactions between arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide were mainly antagonistic. These rather unexpected findings indicate that mixed exposure from copper smelters, and other mixed exposures where arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide are involved, may cause less genetic damage than expected and that an adequate dietary supplement of selenium may reduce the genotoxic effects of these agents. PMID:3793119

  11. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A.; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a

  12. Rationale for a novel nutraceutical complex 'K-water': potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB).

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    Potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB), an equimolar blend of potassium bicarbonate and taurine, provides a convenient and feasible means of delivering physiologically significant doses of potassium, taurine, and organic base when dissolved in water ("K-water"). This brief essay reviews the versatile and complementary health benefits that likely would accrue in individuals making regular use of K-water; in particular, an adequate intake of PTB could be expected to aid blood pressure control, lessen risk for atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications (particularly stroke), promote maintenance of bone density, help to prevent calcium renal stones, and possibly reduce risk for weight gain and diabetes.

  13. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density.

  14. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    PubMed

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  15. Transcriptional responses of a bicarbonate-tolerant monocot, Puccinellia tenuiflora, and a related bicarbonate-sensitive species, Poa annua, to NaHCO3 stress.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shio; Satone, Hina; Tan, Engkong; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Shuichi; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is an alkaline salt-tolerant monocot found in saline-alkali soil in China. To identify the genes which are determining the higher tolerance of P. tenuiflora compared to bicarbonate sensitive species, we examined the responses of P. tenuiflora and a related bicarbonate-sensitive Poeae plant, Poa annua, to two days of 20 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-seq analysis. We obtained 28 and 38 million reads for P. tenuiflora and P. annua, respectively. For each species, the reads of both unstressed and stressed samples were combined for de novo assembly of contigs. We obtained 77,329 contigs for P. tenuiflora and 115,335 contigs for P. annua. NaHCO3 stress resulted in greater than two-fold absolute expression value changes in 157 of the P. tenuiflora contigs and 1090 of P. annua contigs. Homologs of the genes involved in Fe acquisition, which are important for the survival of plants under alkaline stress, were up-regulated in P. tenuiflora and down-regulated in P. annua. The smaller number of the genes differentially regulated in P. tenuiflora suggests that the genes regulating bicarbonate tolerance are constitutively expressed in P. tenuiflora. PMID:25551599

  16. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  17. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  18. Geochemical controls on dissolved sodium in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Drost, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene basaltic aquifers of the Columbia Plateau are the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use in Washington State. Irrigation with groundwaters with relatively high sodium concentrations has been cause for concern in recent years, because of the tendency of such waters to reduce soil permeability. Chemical reactions involving groundwater and the basalts are the primary mechanisms responsible for the input of sodium to groundwater in the plateau. This conclusion is supported by the sequence of secondary alteration products found and by progressive changes in groundwater chemistry with depth and position along regional flow paths. Upgradient and shallow groundwaters have low sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's), and are predominantly calcium sodium bicarbonate waters. Groundwaters from deeper and downgradient locations have higher sodium concentrations and SAR 's and are predominantly sodium bicarbonate water. Volcanic glass and cryptocrystalline matrix are the major sources of groundwater sodium, and are dissolved by a combination of silicate hydrolysis and dissolution by carbonic acid. Magnesium, iron, and calcium are removed from solution by the formation of an iron magnesium smectite, calcite , and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The addition of sodium, silicon, and potassium by dissolution of basalt exceeds their removal by the precipitation of secondary minerals, and their concentrations increase in the initial stages of this process. In later stages, these continued increases produce a water saturated with clinoptilolite and silica phases, and these begin to precipitate. While the timing of these processes is unclear, the mineralogy of secondary alteration and estimated cooling rates of the basalt flows suggest that observed alteration products formed primarily at low temperature, under conditions similar to those existing at the present time. (USGS)

  19. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438

  20. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438