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Sample records for agent sodium bicarbonate

  1. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  13. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Peiper, J. Christopher

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  14. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  18. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  19. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  20. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  1. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1996-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:11524863

  2. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1997-01-01

    Early dentifrices contained natural ingredients, mostly in coarse particle form, and were quite abrasive. Salts, either sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, or a mixture of both, have also been used for tooth cleaning because of their ready availability and low cost. Because of both their relatively low intrinsic hardness and their high solubility, another advantage is low abrasivity. Their biggest disadvantage is a salty, unpalatable taste. Many modern dentifrices that contain sodium bicarbonate, either as the sole abrasive or one of several, disguise the saltiness with flavoring and sweetening agents. An almost inverse relationship exists between the percentage of baking soda in a dentifrice and its abrasivity. Sodium bicarbonate has no anticaries activity per se but is compatible with fluoride. In high concentrations, sodium bicarbonate is bactericidal against most periodontal pathogens. Most clinical studies have not found significant differences in periodontal response to baking soda as compared with other commercial dentifrices, probably because of its rapid clearance from the gingival sulcus. Sodium bicarbonate may not be the "magic bullet" for curing dental diseases, but its safety (if ingested), low abrasivity, low cost, and compatibility with fluoride make it a consummate dentifrice ingredient. PMID:12017930

  3. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets fed to dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, T B; Wangsness, P J; Muller, L D; Griel, L C

    1980-11-01

    During two trials, 35 and 27 Holstein calves were fed ad libitum complete, pelleted diets containing either 35% alfalfa (Trial 1) or 35% grass (Trial 2) hay from birth to 12 wk of age. Calves in Trial 1 were fed one of the following diets: control, control + 3.5% sodium chloride, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate. In Trial 2, diets were: control, control + 5% sodium bicarbonate, or control + 5% sodium bicarbonate + loose, chopped grass hay. Intake of dry matter, gain in body weight, ruminal pH, or fecal starch did not differ. Calves fed sodium bicarbonate in Trial 1 but not 2 had a reduced feed efficiency compared with control and supplemented diets. In Trial 1 added sodium bicarbonate did not alter intake or digestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water indigestible energy. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased concentration of ruminal acetate and butyrate and decreased propionate in both trials. Fecal pH was elevated in calves fed sodium bicarbonate diets during both trials. Sodium chloride increased water intake in Trial 1, and sodium bicarbonate increased water intake in Trial 2. Incidence of free-gas bloat was higher in calves fed sodium bicarbonate in both trials. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to complete pelleted diets containing 35% alfalfa or 35% grass hay appeared to have no benefit for young, growing dairy calves in performance and health. PMID:7440817

  4. Chemical kinetic studies on dry sorbents. Final report. [Sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.T.; Keener, T.C.

    1982-02-15

    The scope of this research investigation has included a review of potential additives suitable for dry flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) and a bench scale laboratory study to determine the chemical kinetics for the reaction of five different sorbents with sulfur dioxide. The sorbents chosen included sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/), soda ash (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/), trona, lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). This study has shown that: (1) The reaction rate increases with temperature for soda ash and calcium oxide. The reaction temperature has an inverse effect on sodium bicarbonate and trona due, primarily, to the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. The calcium hydroxide-SO/sub 2/ reaction increased up to 550/sup 0/F, and then decreased, due to uneven gas flow distribution. (2) The reaction rates for soda ash, calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were increased by decreasing their particle size. This effect was not confirmed for sodium bicarbonate and trona where reaction temperature was the most important reaction parameter. (3) Reaction with soda ash was found to be limited by the presence of an impervious ash layer which prevented interparticle gaseous diffusion. Calcium oxide and calcium hydroxide were found to be limited by a slow chemical reaction rate. Results on the rate-limiting steps for sodium bicarbonate and trona were inconclusive because of the simultaneous thermal activation reaction. (4) The effect of thermal activation was to increase the reaction rate for sodium bicarbonate and trona at lower temperatures. This effect was less pronounced at higher temperatures. (5) Results obtained for nitric oxide show limited adsorption for the five sorbents tested as compared to the finding for sulfur dioxide.

  5. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  10. Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

  11. Effects of sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate on lactating Holsteins fed a high grain diet.

    PubMed

    Solorzano, L C; Armentano, L E; Grummer, R R; Dentine, M R

    1989-02-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Orthogonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation vs. sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation. There were no differences among treatments for milk yield (34.9 kg/d), milk fat yield (.99 kg/d), 3.5% FCM (31.1 kg/d), or milk protein concentration (3.15%). There were no treatment effects on total chewing time. Milk fat concentration tended to be greater for cows fed sodium bicarbonate (2.92%) and sodium sesquicarbonate (2.89%) relative to control (2.82%). Relative to control, sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate supplementation increased DM intake (22.0 and 22.7 vs. 21.4 kg/d), digestible DM intake (16.7 and 16.2 vs. 14.8 kg/d), digestible organic matter intake (16.0 and 15.5 vs. 14.3 kg/d); and apparent digestibility of DM (77.3 and 74.8 vs. 73.3%) and NDF (62.6 and 56.5 vs. 54.7%). Relative to sesquicarbonate, bicarbonate supplementation increased apparent digestibilities of CP (82.3 vs. 78.8%) and NDF, and decreased milk protein yield (1.06 vs. 1.11 kg/d). Sesquicarbonate was as effective as bicarbonate in alleviating milk fat depression and increasing intake of digestible organic matter. PMID:2539402

  12. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Abouzeid, Sameh Mohamed; ElHossary, Hossam E

    2016-05-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalinization medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG) with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was -0.60 ± 1.58 versus -0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39). Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of hypokalemia. PMID:27215244

  13. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  14. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  15. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  16. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material

  17. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. [Sodium bicarbonate infusion for intoxication with tricyclic antidepressives: recommended inspite of lack of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Vrijlandt, P J; Bosch, T M; Zijlstra, J G; Tulleken, J E; Ligtenberg, J J; van der Werf, T S

    2001-09-01

    Sodium bicarbonate infusion is widely recommended in textbooks for patients who present with self-poisoning from tricyclic antidepressives. Cardiac conduction disorders could also be treated or prevented by means of such an infusion. The scientific basis for these recommendations was investigated by using Medline to search for publications about clinical studies that supported the use of sodium carbonate; 111 articles were scrutinized. Observational studies and case reports mention a rapid improvement in hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias following the administration of sodium bicarbonate. Results from animal experiments are contentious; it is not clear whether alkalinisation or the administration of extra sodium causes the effect. Randomized studies in patients have not been carried out. As the toxicity of sodium bicarbonate is low, and its potential benefit appears to be high, we recommend its use, despite the lack of scientific evidence. No recommendations concerning dosing, concentration and the length of the therapy can be provided on the basis of the literature. PMID:11561485

  19. Interaction of chloride and bicarbonate transport across the basolateral membrane of rabbit proximal straight tubule. Evidence for sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, S; Yoshiyama, N

    1988-01-01

    The existence of chloride/bicarbonate exchange across the basolateral membrane and its physiologic significance were examined in rabbit proximal tubules. S2 segments of the proximal straight tubule were perfused in vitro and changes in intracellular pH (pHi) and chloride activity (aCli) were monitored by double-barreled microelectrodes. Total peritubular chloride replacement with gluconate increased pHi by 0.8, and this change was inhibited by a pretreatment with an anion transport inhibitor, SITS. Peritubular bicarbonate reduction increased aCli, and most of this increase was lost when ambient sodium was totally removed. The reduction rates of pHi induced by a peritubular bicarbonate reduction or sodium removal were attenuated by 20% by withdrawal of ambient chloride. SITS application to the bath in the control condition quickly increased pHi, but did not change aCli. However, the aCli slightly decreased in response to SITS when the basolateral bicarbonate efflux was increased by reducing peritubular bicarbonate concentration. It is concluded that sodium coupled chloride/bicarbonate exchange is present in parallel with sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the basolateral membrane of the rabbit proximal tubule, and it contributes to the basolateral bicarbonate and chloride transport. PMID:2450891

  20. Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control of citrus green mold.

    PubMed

    Zamani, M; Sharifi Tehrani, A; Ali Abadi, A Alizadeh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if the attacks of green mold on orange could be reduced by edible salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agent. For this purpose toxicity to Pantoea digitatum and practical use of sodium carbonate (SC), sodium bicarbonate (SBC) and potassium carbonate, and potassium bicarbonate alone or in combination with antagonistic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate PN, Bacillus subtilis isolate VHN, Pantoea agglomerans isolate CA) to control green mold were determined. All were fungistatic. SC and SBC were equal and superior to the other salts for control of green mold on oranges inoculated 6h before treatment and were chosen for subsequent trails under cold storage conditions. The biocontrol agents were found completely tolerant to 3% sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate at room temperature; although their culturability was reduced by > 1000-fold after 60 min in 1% other salt solutions. Satisfactory results were also obtained with the combined treatment for control of green mold. A significant increase in biocontrol activity of all isolate was observed when combined with sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate. The treatments comprising CA combined with SB was as effective as fungicide treatment. Thus, use of sodium bicarbonate treatment at 3% followed by the antagonist P. agglomerans CA could be an alternative to chemical fungicides for control of green mold on oranges. PMID:18396809

  1. Reduction in cardiovascular risk by sodium-bicarbonated mineral water in moderately hypercholesterolemic young adults.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Granados, Ana M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Schoppen, Stefanie; Vaquero, M Pilar

    2010-10-01

    The effects of drinking sodium-bicarbonated mineral water on cardiovascular risk in young men and women with moderate cardiovascular risk were studied. Eighteen young volunteers (total cholesterol levels >5.2 mmol/L) without any disease participated. The study consisted of two 8-week intervention periods. Subjects consumed, as supplement to their usual diet, 1 L/day control low mineral water, followed by 1 L/day bicarbonated mineral water (48 mmol/L sodium, 35 mmol/L bicarbonate and 17 mmol/L chloride). Determinations were performed at the end of the control water period and on Weeks 4 and 8 of the bicarbonated water period. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, dietary intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I, Apo B, triacylgycerols, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), soluble adhesion molecules [soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM) and soluble vascular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)], sodium and chloride urinary excretion, and urine pH were measured. Dietary intake, body weight and BMI showed no significant variations. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly after 4 weeks of bicarbonated water consumption, without significant differences between Weeks 4 and 8. After bicarbonated water consumption, significant reductions in total cholesterol (by 6.3%; P=.012), LDL cholesterol (by 10%; P=.001), total/HDL cholesterol (P=.004), LDL/HDL cholesterol (P=.001) and Apo B (P=.017) were observed. Serum triacylglycerol, Apo A-I, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and hs-CRP levels did not change. Serum glucose values tended to decrease during the bicarbonated water intervention (P=.056), but insulin levels did not vary. This sodium-bicarbonated mineral water improves lipid profile in moderately hypercholesterolemic young men and women and could therefore be applied in dietary interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID

  2. Survival after an amniotic fluid embolism following the use of sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sorcha; Brown, Brigid; Mathieson, Matthew; Tay, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. In this case report, we highlight the successful use of sodium bicarbonate in a patient with an AFE. We present a case of a 38-year-old mother admitted for an elective caesarean section. Following the delivery of her baby, the mother suffered a cardiac arrest. Following a protracted resuscitation, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated evidence of acute pulmonary hypertension, with an empty left ventricle and an over-distended right ventricle. In view of these findings and no improvement noted from on-going resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate was infused as a pulmonary vasodilator. Almost instantaneous return of spontaneous circulation was noted, with normalisation of cardiac parameters. We propose that in patients suspected with AFE and who have been unresponsive to advance cardiac life support measures, and where right ventricular failure is present with acidosis and/or hypercarbia, the use of sodium bicarbonate should be considered. PMID:24879737

  3. Survival after an amniotic fluid embolism following the use of sodium bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Sorcha; Brown, Brigid; Mathieson, Matthew; Tay, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. In this case report, we highlight the successful use of sodium bicarbonate in a patient with an AFE. We present a case of a 38-year-old mother admitted for an elective caesarean section. Following the delivery of her baby, the mother suffered a cardiac arrest. Following a protracted resuscitation, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated evidence of acute pulmonary hypertension, with an empty left ventricle and an over-distended right ventricle. In view of these findings and no improvement noted from on-going resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate was infused as a pulmonary vasodilator. Almost instantaneous return of spontaneous circulation was noted, with normalisation of cardiac parameters. We propose that in patients suspected with AFE and who have been unresponsive to advance cardiac life support measures, and where right ventricular failure is present with acidosis and/or hypercarbia, the use of sodium bicarbonate should be considered. PMID:24879737

  4. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  5. Formation of a sodium bicarbonate cluster in the structure of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, M. V.; Kamzin, A. S.

    2015-02-01

    Ceramic sodium-substituted carbonated hydroxyapatite has been synthesized using the method of the solid-phase reaction in the temperature range of 640-820°C in water vapor. It has been established that substitutions of Ca2+ ions in the cation and anion subsystems with Na+ ions and the PO{4/3-} and OH- groups with CO{3/2-} ions lead to a considerable acceleration of the shrinkage and synthesis of dense ceramics at substantially lower temperatures than in the case of unsubstituted hydroxyapatite. Sintering in water vapor leads to densification of carbonate groups in channel positions, which induces the appearance of orderings of A2 and B2 types (bands with wave numbers 867 and 865 cm-1 in IR spectra, respectively) as well as the protonation of carbonate groups both in A and B sites and the formation of sodium bicarbonate clusters (856 and 859 cm-1) in addition to carbonate ordering of A1 and B1 types (879 and 872 cm-1).

  6. Control of blue mold of apple by combining controlled atmosphere, antagonist mixtures and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum, treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO2). The fruit were stored for 2 or 4 months at 1°C. The antagonists survived and their p...

  7. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "bicarbonates" and "cardiac arrest", limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  8. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. Results: A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I2= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I2= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I2= 0%; p= 0.51). Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy. PMID:26600623

  9. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on aspirin-induced damage and potential difference changes in human gastric mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Bruce K; Krause, William J; Ivey, Kevin J

    1977-01-01

    Two aspirin tablets in 100 ml fluid will produce microscopical damage to the human stomach. A study was performed to determine whether a small amount of sodium bicarbonate (equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda) could protect against this damage. Sequential gastric biopsy specimens were taken from 15 healthy subjects before, during, and after intragastric instillation of one of the following isotonic solutions: saline; sodium bicarbonate; 600 mg aspirin suspended in sodium bicarbonate; and aspirin suspended in saline. On a separate day the same solutions were instilled, but gastric transmucosal potential differences were monitored. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy of the biopsy specimens showed occasional mucous degranulation of mucosal surface cells, but no cell damage during instillation of sodium bicarbonate. Light microscopy studies 10 minutes after aspirin in saline showed damage in 20% of surface cells, with focal areas of cellular disruption and microscopic erosions, but only 3·4% of cells were damaged after aspirin in bicarbonate and there were no erosions. Electron microscopy showed a damaged honeycombed appearance of surface epithelium after aspirin in saline and a normal cobblestone appearance after aspirin in bicarbonate. Aspirin dissolved in bicarbonate failed to induce the usual fall in potential difference. These findings indicate that sodium bicarbonate in amounts equivalent to one-third of a teaspoonful of baking soda protects the gastric mucosa against aspirin-induced damage and prevents the usual fall in potential difference after aspirin. ImagesFIG 2FIG 3FIG 4 PMID:922417

  10. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Cardiac Arrest: Current Guidelines and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vassilios; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Koniari, Ioanna; Apostolopoulou, Christina; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the review was to summarize the literature over the last 25 years regarding bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms “bicarbonates” and “cardiac arrest”, limited to human studies and reviews published in English (or at least with a meaningful abstract in English) in the last 25 years. Clinical and experimental data raised questions regarding the safety and effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) administration during cardiac arrest. Earlier advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) guidelines recommended routine bicarbonate administration as part of the ACLS algorithm, but recent guidelines no longer recommend its use. The debate in the literature is ongoing, but at the present time, SB administration is only recommended for cardiac arrest related to hypokalemia or overdose of tricyclic antidepressants. Several studies challenge the assumption that bicarbonate administration is beneficial for treatment of acidosis in cardiac arrest. At the present time, there is a trend against using bicarbonates in cardiac arrest, and this trend is supported by guidelines published by professional societies and organizations. PMID:26985247

  11. Oral rehydration therapy: efficacy of sodium citrate equals to sodium bicarbonate for correction of acidosis in diarrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Islam, M R; Samadi, A R; Ahmed, S M; Bardhan, P K; Ali, A

    1984-01-01

    Forty patients with moderate degrees of dehydration and acidosis because of acute watery diarrhoea were successfully treated randomly with either WHO recommended oral rehydration solution containing 2.5 g sodium bicarbonate or an oral solution containing 2.94 g sodium citrate in place of sodium bicarbonate per litre of oral rehydration rehydration solution. Efficacies were compared by measuring oral fluid intake, stool and vomitus output, change in body weight, hydration status, and rate of correction of acidosis during a period of 48 hours. Seventy five per cent (21 cases) in the citrate group and 83% (19 cases) in the bicarbonate group were successfully rehydrated (p greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences in intake, output, gain in body weight, fall in haematocrit and plasma specific gravity, and correction of acidosis between the two groups of patients within 48 hours after initiation of therapy. The solution with sodium citrate base was as effective as WHO-oral rehydration solution for management of diarrhoea. This study shows the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of citrate containing oral rehydration solution for rehydration and correction of acidosis in diarrhoea. PMID:6086466

  12. Postoperative pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: intraperitoneal sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline

    PubMed Central

    Saadati, Karim; Razavi, Mohammad Reza; Nazemi Salman, Daryoush; Izadi, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate irrigation versus normal saline irrigation in patients undergoing a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Background: Pain in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most common complaint, especially in the abdomen, back, and shoulder region. Patients and methods: In a double blind randomized clinical trial, 150 patients were assigned to the three groups (50 patients in each group). Group A received intraperitoneal irrigation normal saline (NS). Groups B and C received irrigation sodium bicarbonate and none irrigation, respectively. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) for 6, 18 and 24 hours postoperatively, as well as one week after the surgery. Data analysis was performed using SPSS ver18 and chi-square, Fisher’s Exact Test, on-way ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA tests. Results: Patients in groups showed no significant difference in terms of age, gender, past medical history and smoking history (p>0.05). Left shoulder tip pain was significantly lower only between the sodium bicarbonate group and non-washing group at 6, 18, and 24 hours postoperatively (P=0.04, P=0.02 and P=0.009 respectively). There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups in right shoulder tip pain, back pain and port site incisional pain. Conclusion: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy, peritoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate may reduce the intensity of postoperative shoulder tip pain and is an effective method for improving the quality of life within the early recovery period. PMID:27458511

  13. Recent Developments in the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate as an Ergogenic Aid.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Lars R; Gough, Lewis; Deb, Sanjoy; Bentley, David; Sparks, S Andy

    2016-01-01

    This review examines the current status of sodium bicarbonate as an ergogenic aid. It builds on previous reviews in the area. Current research would suggest that as an ergogenic aid, a 300 mg·kg dose of NaHCO3 can improve high-intensity exercise, within a range of exercise modalities, such as a single bout of supramaximal exercise, high-intensity intermittent activity, and skill-based sports. In particular, these benefits seem to be present to a greater extent within trained individuals. Despite this, there appears to exist a high intraindividual variability in response to NaHCO3, and therefore, the ergogenic benefits may not be induced during every exercise bout. Current thinking also suggests that athletes need to individualize their ingestion timings to maximize peak pH or blood bicarbonate to effectively maximize the performance effect, and this may allow individuals to attain the ergogenic benefits of NaHCO3 more consistently. PMID:27399820

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05), pH (P<0.05) and strong ion difference (P<0.05) drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, P<0.05) while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24±0.01 to 7.53±0.03, P<0.05). When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05) so that blood lactate was higher (2.9±1 mmol/l vs. 1.0±0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively). The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05). Conclusions pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load. PMID:23029373

  15. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Ktenopoulos, Nikolaos; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH > 7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis. PMID:26294968

  16. The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tao; LaPara, Timothy M; Novak, Paige J

    2006-07-01

    The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l(-1) bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures to which < or = 500 mg l(-1) bicarbonate was added, suggesting that degradation beyond chlorinated biphenyls occurred. The dynamics of acetate formation were different among the treatments, with high acetate concentrations detected throughout the 303-day experiment in cultures to which 1000 mg l(-1) bicarbonate had been added. Sodium bicarbonate addition also had a significant impact on bacterial community structure as detected by polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Three putative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinators were identified; one Dehalococcoides-like population was detected in all enrichment cultures, whereas two Dehalobacter-like populations were only detected in the enrichment cultures with the most extensive dechlorination. These results suggest that the availability of bicarbonate, and potentially sodium, may affect PCB dechlorination in Hudson River sediment and thus need to be taken into consideration when assessing the fate of PCBs or implementing bioremediation. PMID:16817937

  17. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to rations of postpartum dairy cows: physiological and metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Kilmer, L H; Muller, L D; Snyder, T J

    1981-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Rations consisted of 50% corn silage:50% concentrate. All All cows were fed a similar dry cow ration for a minimum of 7 days prepartum and experimental rations for 2 wk beginning at parturition. Blood, feces, and urine were sampled on days 1, 2, 4, 7, 10, and 14 postpartum. Rumen fluid was sampled on days 7 and 14. Dry matter intake and milk production were 2.75% of body weight and 30.3 kg/day for cows fed buffer and 2.49% and 27.6 kg/day for cows fed control. Higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and base excess in blood in cows fed buffer existed on days 2 and 4 postpartum than for cows fed the control ration. Cows fed buffer had higher concentrations of ruminal ammonia than cows fed control. This difference was less pronounced in blood urea nitrogen and urinary ammonia. Urine pH was higher for cows fed buffer than for control. Addition of sodium bicarbonate improved the acid-base status after abrupt change of ration and may be associated with increased dry matter intake and improved ration adaptation. Concentrations of most minerals and metabolites in blood serum did not differ between rations. PMID:6281321

  18. Can empirical hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate treatment prevent the development of cardiotoxicity during serious amitriptyline poisoning? Experimental research

    PubMed Central

    Sukru Paksu, Muhammet; Zengin, Halit; Uzun, Adem; Ilkaya, Fatih; Guzel, Hasan; Paksu, Sule; Ucar, Durmus; Alacam, Hasan; Duran, Latif; Murat, Naci; Guzel, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this experimental study was to investigate whether hypertonic saline or sodium bicarbonate administration prevented the development of cardiotoxicity in rats that received toxic doses of amitriptyline. Method Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats were used in the study. The animals were divided into six groups. Group 1 received toxic doses of i.p. amitriptyline. Groups 2 and 3 toxic doses of i.p. amitriptyline, plus i.v. sodium bicarbonate and i.v. hypertonic saline, respectively. Group 4 received only i.v. sodium bicarbonate, group 5 received only i.v. hypertonic saline, and group 6 was the control. Electrocardiography was recorded in all rats for a maximum of 60 minutes. Blood samples were obtained to measure the serum levels of sodium and ionised calcium. Results The survival time was shorter in group 1. In this group, the animals’ heart rates also decreased over time, and their QRS and QTc intervals were significantly prolonged. Groups 2 and 3 showed less severe changes in their ECGs and the rats survived for a longer period. The effects of sodium bicarbonate or hypertonic saline treatments on reducing the development of cardiotoxicity were similar. The serum sodium levels decreased in all the amitriptyline-applied groups. Reduction of serum sodium level was most pronounced in group 1. Conclusion Empirical treatment with sodium bicarbonate or hypertonic saline can reduce the development of cardiotoxicity during amitriptyline intoxication. As hypertonic saline has no adverse effects on drug elimination, it should be considered as an alternative to sodium bicarbonate therapy. PMID:25939777

  19. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

  20. The efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Chen, Wenbo; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to explore the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Methods We searched PubMed, Medline and the Cochrane Library from 1 January 2004 to 1 August 2014. The effect estimate was expressed as a pooled OR with 95% CI, using the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Results 20 randomised controlled trials (n=4280) were identified. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96; p=0.027). However, moderate heterogeneity was noted across trials (I2=48%; p=0.008). Subgroup analyses indicated a better effect of sodium bicarbonate in studies using low-osmolar (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.93; p=0.024) compared with iso-osmolar contrast agents (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.34; p=0.351). The odds of CIN with sodium bicarbonate were lower in studies including only patients undergoing emergency (OR 0.16, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.51; p=0.002) compared with elective procedures (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.06; p=0.105). Sodium bicarbonate was more beneficial in patients given a bolus injection before procedures (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.54; p=0.004) compared with continuous infusion (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.53 to 1.05; p=0.091). Sodium bicarbonate plus N-acetylcysteine (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.79; p=0.024) was better than sodium bicarbonate alone (OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03; p=0.071). The effect of sodium bicarbonate was considered greater in papers published before (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.41; p=0.000) compared with after 2008 (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16; p=0.302). However, no significant differences were found in mortality (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.32; p=0.263) or requirement for dialysis (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.52 to 2.25; p=0.841). Conclusions Sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing CIN among patients with pre-existing renal insufficiency. However, it fails to lower the risks of

  1. Sensory and physical properties of peanut brittle prepared in different types of cookware and with different levels of sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Christopher, J; Remmenga, M

    2003-01-01

    Two studies to evaluate peanut brittle containing either raw or roasted peanuts were conducted. In the first study, brittles were prepared in iron, aluminum, stainless steel and nonstick stainless steel pans. In the second study, brittles containing 0, 2 or 4 g of sodium bicarbonate prepared in either stainless steel or nonstick stainless steel pans were evaluated. All brittles were evaluated for color, shear strength and sensory properties at 0, 30 and 60 days. Products prepared in a nonstick stainless steel pan and those with added sodium bicarbonate were lighter, more yellow and slightly greener than other products. Pan type did not affect shear force but increasing sodium bicarbonate was associated with decreasing force needed to shear brittles. Peanut and caramel aromas were not affected by pan type or sodium bicarbonate level but were greater (p < 0.05) in products containing roasted peanuts. Burned flavors were more prevalent in products prepared in iron or stainless steel pans with roasted peanuts. More intense sweet and buttery flavors were detected as level of sodium bicarbonate increased. PMID:12906354

  2. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M.; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards. After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM). Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (−0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: −0.035 to −0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (−0.093 mg/dL (−0.025 to −0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S. In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline. PMID:27227933

  4. Integrated control of Penicillium digitatum by the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis and sodium bicarbonate on oranges

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, R. S.; Silva, J. F. M.; Coelho, C. M.; Morais, P. B.; Rosa, C. A.; Corrêa Jr, A.

    2010-01-01

    Our investigation of integrated biological control (IBC) started with an assay testing activity of the predacious yeast Saccharomycopsis crataegensis UFMG-DC19.2 against Penicillium digitatum LCP 4354, a very aggressive fungus that causes postharvest decay in oranges. Under unfavourable environmental conditions, the yeast showed a high potential for control (39.9% disease severity reduction) of this fungus. This result was decisive for the next step, in which S. crataegensis was tested in association with sodium bicarbonate salt, a generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substance. The yeast was able to survive at different concentrations of the salt (1%, 2% and 5%), and continued to grow for a week at the wound site, remaining viable at high population for 14 days on the fruit surface. The yeast alone reduced the severity of decay by 41.7% and sodium bicarbonate alone reduced severity of decay by 19.8%, whereas the application of both led to a delay in the development of symptoms from 2 to 10 days. Ingredients of the formulations were not aggressive to fruits since no lesions were produced in control experiments. PMID:24031511

  5. Excess sodium bicarbonate in the diet and its effect on Leghorn chickens.

    PubMed

    Davison, S; Wideman, R F

    1992-09-01

    1. A commercial 62-week-old layer flock experienced an acute drop in egg production and an increase in shell-less egg production within 2 days of consuming feed erroneously formulated to contain over 30 g/kg instead of 3 g/kg sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). Other symptoms included increased water consumption, diarrhoea and increased mortality associated with visceral gout. 2. An experiment was conducted to assess the responses of hens under controlled conditions. Twenty Dekalb XL Single Comb White Leghorn hens (50 weeks old) were placed in individual cages, having ad libitum access to water from trough waterers. Ten hens were fed the TEST (High NaHCO3) feed for one week (Test group), and ten hens remained on normal commercial layer ration (Control group). 3. Hens in the Test group had high water consumption and watery droppings, but egg production and mortality were not affected. Physiological evaluations indicated the Test feed caused metabolic alkalosis. Plasma sodium, urine pH and urinary sodium excretion were increased, and glomerular filtration rates were decreased in the Test group. 4. These physiological effects are consistent with known responses to excess sodium intake in domestic fowl. The reduced egg production and increased mortality caused by the Test feed under commercial conditions may be related to more severe dehydration experienced by hens in multi-bird cages supplied by cup-type watering systems. PMID:1327426

  6. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-04-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  7. Interactions in the solid state. I: Interactions of sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid under compressed conditions.

    PubMed

    Usui, F; Carstensen, J T

    1985-12-01

    The interaction of NaHCO3 and tartaric acid in powder mixtures and compressed tablets has been studied. It has been found that in an open system the reaction is simply a decarboxylation of NaHCO3 and that the effect of compression on the reaction rate can be attributed to the brittle fracture (and subsequent surface area increase) that occurs on compaction. In a closed system the decomposition of the mixture is an interaction between the acid and the base, and it is mediated by the amount of moisture in the system. This latter is a product of reaction, and a suitable kinetic scheme is described for this. It is shown that "curing" the sodium bicarbonate by heating it to, e.g., 90 degrees C stabilizes the system by virtue of the formation of surface Na2CO3, which acts as a moisture scavenger. PMID:3003337

  8. Characterization of physical, thermal and chemical contributions of sodium bicarbonate particles in extinguishing counterflow nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Chelliah, H.K.; Krauss, R.H.; Zhou, H.; Lentati, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Based on laminar, nonpremixed methane-air flames established in a counterflow field, the flame extinction effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate particles is investigated here, both experimentally and numerically. In experiments, particles are separated into varying sizes (with the range of each size group approximately 10 {micro}m), and are introduced with the air stream. Flame extinction strain rates estimated using the measured nozzle exit velocities and separation distance are reported, as well as limited comparisons with LDV data (latter are mainly for calibration of the system). Numerical flame extinction results are also reported using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model previously developed for characterization of the flame extinction mechanism of fine-water droplets in a counterflow field. Comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates a similar trend with particular size variation, but uncertainties in the particle decomposition model employed precludes any absolute comparisons at this time.

  9. Feeding value of fermented waste milk with or without sodium bicarbonate for dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Keith, E A; Windle, L M; Keith, N K; Gough, R H

    1983-04-01

    Effects of feeding waste milk from antibiotic-treated cows on growth, feed efficiency, and incidence of scours of dairy calves were studied. Twenty-four newborn Holstein heifer calves were assigned at random to one of the following treatments: 1) fresh normal milk, 2) fresh waste milk, 3) fermented waste milk, or 4) fermented waste milk plus sodium bicarbonate. Means for fat, crude protein, and total solids in normal milk (3.25, 3.05, and 11.84%) were lower than the same components for fresh waste milk (3.82, 3.42, and 12.59%) and fermented waste milk (4.02, 3.42, and 12.74%). Mean pH's for normal milk, fresh waste milk, and fermented waste milk were 6.6, 6.6, and 5.1. Calves were fed colostrum the first 3 days of life, and their respective treatment milk at 10% of body weight for 42 days. Dry calf feed was offered ad libitum beginning on day 4, and water was available at all times. Mean weight gains (kg) and ratios of average dry feed to gain (kg/kg) for the 42-day treatments were: 1) 19.2, .6; 2) 17.6, .6; 3) 19.6, .7; and 4) 20.1, .6. Incidence of scours was measured as number of days that scours were present per calf during the 42 days. Mean scour days for each group were: 1) 2.0, 2) 1.8, 3) 3.0, and 4) 4.8. There were no detrimental effects on calves fed fresh or fermented milk from cows treated with antibiotics. Addition of sodium bicarbonate did not affect acceptance of fermented milk by calves. PMID:6304164

  10. Control of blue mold decay of apple during commercial controlled atmosphere storage with yeast antagonists and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of two yeast antagonists, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus laurentii, originally isolated from apples and having superior biocontrol activity against blue mold of apple over individual application of these yeasts, were used in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in a pilot ...

  11. Investigation of sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and water systems for saturated solar ponds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-28

    The overall objective of this study was to gather relevant data primarily from the published literature to investigate the technical feasibility of using a Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-NaHCO/sub 3/ mixture for a saturated solar pond. This objective was accomplished by a literature search and review of existing chemical information and by performing simple chemistry experiments in the laboratory. Information on density, solubility, phase diagram, equilibrium compositions, reaction rate constant, equilibrium constant, diffusion coefficient, vapor pressure and potentially useful additives is compiled. It is concluded that even though both the saturation density and solubility increase with temperature for trona, it is not chemically stable either at room temperature or higher temperatures (80/sup 0/C). Therefore, as is, trona is not suitable for use in a saturated solar pond. From the literature it has been found that sugar and gum can retard the decomposition of bicarbonate to carbonate in the mixture. Nevertheless, trona is a very attractive solute for an unsaturated solar pond. A laboratory unsaturated pond with a stable density gradient has worked without any problems for about two months at InterTechnology/Solar Corporation.

  12. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevičius, Paulius; Didžiapetrienė, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-dependent Cl−/HCO3− exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl−) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl− efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl− substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl− was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl−-free buffer (Cl− substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl−-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl− efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl− efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl− efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl− efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl− efflux via Cl−/HCO3− exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

  13. Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

    2011-08-01

    Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

  14. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of

  15. [Effect of treatments of hydrogen peroxide and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate on clay minerals of red earth sediments].

    PubMed

    Li, Rong-Biao; Hong, Han-Lie; Yin, Ke; Wang, Chao-Wen; Gao, Wen-Peng; Han, Wen; Wu, Qing-Feng

    2013-04-01

    As classical procedures for pretreatment of soil sediments, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sodium dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) treatment methods are very important in removing the organic matter and iron oxides acting as cementing agents in the soils. However, both of these methods have less been focused on the effect on the clay minerals when separating. Here, we report the comparable methods between H2O2 and DCB to reveal their effect on clay minerals in red earth sediments using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results suggested that mineral particles can be totally decentralized by either H2O2 or DCB method in the soils and high purity clay minerals can be obtained by separating quartz and other impurities from clay minerals effectively. However, the XRD data were distorted by the DCB treatment owning to the cation exchange between Na+ and interlayer cation. On the contrary, the authentic data can be obtained by H2O2 treatment. Therefore, the H2O2 treatment seems to be a more appropriate method to obtain authentic information of clay mineralogy when separating of clay minerals from red earth sediments. PMID:23841441

  16. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  17. Electrochemical concentration and purification of spent sodium bicarbonate blasting media. Final report, 30 December 1994--30 June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.D.; Hicks, R.E.; Gold, H.

    1995-08-21

    The feasibility and economics of recovering the spent blast media generated in sodium bicarbonate depainting operations has been investigated. In laboratory-scale tests, a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was convened to sodium hydroxide in an electrochemical cell containing a Nafion cation exchange membrane. Energy consumption was 2 kWh per pound of sodium bicarbonate treated and could be reduced by a factor of two by operating the cell at higher flow rates. The proposed treatment train will essentially eliminate the need for off-site waste disposal, reducing the quantity of solid hazardous waste by over 99 percent and completely eliminating all liquid hazardous wastes. The capital costs of an electrochemical treatment system was estimated to be $19,400 for a plant sized to treat 25 lb/day blast media. Estimated operating costs amount to $2,270/yr, some 90 percent less than the $26,850/yr needed for makeup of the blast media and off-site waste disposal when treatment is not used. The savings of $24,580/yr correspond to a very short payback period of 0.8 years (9.5 months) for the capital cost. It was concluded that by conserving resources and eliminating off-site waste disposal, treating the spent blast media has the potential for significantly reducing the overall costs for depainting.

  18. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Farag, Aïda M; Harper, David D; Skaar, Don

    2014-09-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO(3) rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO(3) (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed. PMID:24909548

  19. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  20. Dimethyl sulfoxide and sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of refractory cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Dao M; Tran, Hung Q; Nguyen, Phuong T M; Pham, Tuan D; Dang, Hong V T; Ha, Trung V; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Luong, Khue N; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Pain is a major concern of cancer patients and a significant problem for therapy. Pain can become a predominant symptom in advanced cancers. In this open-label clinical study, the authors have treated 26 cancer patients who have been declared as terminal without the option of conventional treatment. These patients suffered from high levels of pain that was poorly managed by all available interventional approaches recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) guideline. The results indicate that intravenous infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) solution can be a viable, effective, and safe treatment for refractory pain in cancer patients. These patients had pain due to the disease progression and complication of chemotherapy and radiation. Moreover, the preliminary clinical outcome of 96-day follow-up suggests that the application of DMSO and SB solution intravenously could lead to better quality of life for patients with nontreatable terminal cancers. The data of this clinical observation indicates that further research and application of the DMSO and SB combination may help the development of an effective, safe, and inexpensive therapy to manage cancer pain. PMID:21426213

  1. Expectancy of ergogenicity from sodium bicarbonate ingestion increases high-intensity cycling capacity.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Shabir, Akbar

    2016-04-01

    This study examined whether expectancy of ergogenicity of a commonly used nutritional supplement (sodium bicarbonate; NaHCO3) influenced subsequent high-intensity cycling capacity. Eight recreationally active males (age, 21 ± 1 years; body mass, 75 ± 8 kg; height, 178 ± 4 cm; WPEAK = 205 ± 22 W) performed a graded incremental test to assess peak power output (WPEAK), one familiarisation trial and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling at 100% WPEAK to volitional exhaustion (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting either a placebo (PLA: 0.1 g·kg(-1) sodium chloride (NaCl), 4 mL·kg(-1) tap water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash) or a sham placebo (SHAM: 0.1 g·kg(-1) NaCl, 4 mL·kg(-1) carbonated water, and 1 mL·kg(-1) squash). SHAM aimed to replicate the previously reported symptoms of gut fullness (GF) and abdominal discomfort (AD) associated with NaHCO3 ingestion. Treatments were administered double blind and accompanied by written scripts designed to remain neutral (PLA) or induce expectancy of ergogenicity (SHAM). After SHAM mean TLIM increased by 9.5% compared to PLA (461 ± 148 s versus 421 ± 150 s; P = 0.048, d = 0.3). Ratings of GF and AD were mild but ~1 unit higher post-ingestion for SHAM. After 3 min TLIM overall ratings of perceived exertion were 1.4 ± 1.3 units lower for SHAM compared to PLA (P = 0.020, d = 0.6). There were no differences between treatments for blood lactate, blood glucose, or heart rate. In summary, ergogenicity after NaHCO3 ingestion may be influenced by expectancy, which mediates perception of effort during subsequent exercise. The observed ergogenicity with SHAM did not affect our measures of cardiorespiratory physiology or metabolic flux. PMID:26863442

  2. Treatment of renal uric acid stone by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy combined with sodium bicarbonate: 2 case reports

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hao-Yong; Lian, Pei-Yu; Zhou, Zhi-Yan; Song, Peng; Yan, Yi; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Uric acid stone is the most comment radiolucent renal stone with high recurrence rate, which would further cause acute upper urinary tract obstruction and kidney failure. Here we report two cases of renal uric acid stone from December 2012 to April 2013. One 43-year-old male patient suffered from chronic uric acid nephrolithiasis caused by the long-term indwelling of bilateral double-J stent. Another 69-year-old patient was also diagnosed with uric acid nephrolithiasis at the right kidney. Both patients were first treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), followed by 1.5% sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy. After a week of the treatment, the uric acid stones in both patients were completely dissolved without retrograde infection. In summary, the use of ESWL and sodium bicarbonate dissolution therapy as a combined modality is a safe, effective, inexpensive treatment for uric acid nephrolithiasis. PMID:26550383

  3. Sodium bicarbonate protects uranium-induced acute nephrotoxicity through uranium-decorporation by urinary alkalinization in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohmachi, Yasushi; Imamura, Tomomi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Shishikura, Eriko; Kim, Eunjoo; Kurihara, Osamu; Sakai, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (SB) in removing uranium and protecting animals from uranium toxicity, we intramuscularly administered 1 mg/kg of uranyl nitrate to 8-wk-old male SD rats, and 20 min after administration of uranyl nitrate, the animals were given a single oral administration of SB at 0.1, 0.3 or 1 g/kg. The SB treatment at a dose of 0.3 g/kg or more raised the pH of the rats’ urine until 4 h after treatment, and it significantly reduced the uranium amounts in the kidneys at 1 day after treatment. In another experiment, rats were intramuscularly administered 1 mg/kg of uranyl nitrate, and 20 min later, the animals were treated with sodium bicarbonate (0.1 or 1 g/kg). The rats were autopsied at 1, 3 and 7 days after uranium treatment. High-dose SB resulted in a significant increase in urinary uranium excretion in the first 24 h and a reduction of uranium deposition in the kidneys and femurs, and it also significantly suppressed uranium-induced renal toxicity, as shown by both histopathology and clinical chemistry at 3 days after uranium treatment. Low-dose SB did not show such marked effects. Our findings demonstrated that the uranium decorporation effect of sodium bicarbonate was observed at the dosage showing urine alkalinization in rats and that decorporation effect of sodium bicarbonate might be beneficial if it is administered immediately after incorporation of soluble uranium. PMID:26028815

  4. [Intraperitoneal irrigation for pseudomyxoma peritonei-a case of critical metabolic alkalosis precipitated by irrigation with 101 of sodium bicarbonate--].

    PubMed

    Shirasaki, Reimi; Yamasaki, Saeko; Wakamatsu, Masaki; Mori, Yasuichiro; Hirano, Hiroko; Kaida, Takeshi; Machino, Asami

    2013-05-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei causes marked accumulation of jelly-like ascites in the peritoneal cavity. Removal of much mucinous ascites by irrigating the cavity appears to be an effective treatment. We describe a patient who underwent the irrigation with sodium bicarbonate solution and developed critical alkalemia. A 68-year-old woman with normal renal function was operated on for recurrent pseudomyxoma peritonei. Fol- lowing the excision of primary lesion, her intraperitoneal cavity was irrigated with 10 1 of 7% sodium bicarbonate in about 45 minutes. Thirty minutes after irrigation, blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic alkalosis (pH 7.714, BE 25.6 mmol x l-1 ) with electrolyte disorder (Na 157.8 mmol x l-1 K 2.31mmol x l-1, Ca 0.73 mmol x l-1). Hypotension (<60 mmHg) and sinus tachycardia (>130 beats x min -1) supervened 75 minutes later. Transferring to the ICU, she was given KC1 solution intravenously based on serial blood analysis while on mechanical ventilation. The next day acid-base disturbance returned spontaneously to normal (pH 7.45, BE 8.0mmol x l-1), leading to endotracheal extubation. Electrolyte imbalance was gradually resolved on 2nd POD and she was discharged from the ICU. Intraperitoneal irrigation with sodium bicarbonate requires special perioperative considerations for lifethreatening alkalemia, especially in a patient with renal impairment. PMID:23772538

  5. Preventive and therapeutic effects of sodium bicarbonate on melamine-induced bladder stones in mice.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shu-Ting; Du, Yun-Xia; Xu, Chang-Fu; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Mo, Li-Ping; Sun, Ying; Gao, Xiao-Li

    2014-10-01

    The actual preventive and therapeutic effects of alkalinizing urine on melamine-induced bladder stones (cystolith) are not completely known. Using an ideal model, two experiments were conducted in Balb/c mice. The mice were fed a normal diet in controls and a melamine diet in the other groups. The first day was set as experiment-day 1. In "Experiment 1", either low-/mid-/high-dose sodium bicarbonate (SB) or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once daily) to the mice for 14 days. Relative to the model group, the mean pH of the urine in the SB groups was significantly elevated at 3 h after SB administration, with a significant decrease in cystolith incidence on experiment-day 14. In "Experiment 2", on experiment-day 12, the melamine diet was replaced by a normal diet in 4 groups with melamine withdrawal (MW). Meanwhile, either mid-/high-dose SB or sterile water was administered by intragastric perfusion (once) to the mice in the corresponding groups. On experiment-day 12, after an additional 8 h, the cystolith incidence was significantly reduced in the high-SB, MW + mid-SB and MW + high-SB groups than in the model group. In conclusion, low urinary pH is one of the main determinants of the formation of melamine-associated stones, urinary alkalinization can be achieved by a proper dose of oral SB, and SB acts to prevent and treat melamine-induced cystoliths in mice. PMID:25092435

  6. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to training improves mitochondrial adaptations in rats.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David J; Thomas, Claire; Moore-Morris, Tom; Tonkonogi, Michail; Sahlin, Kent; Mercier, Jacques

    2010-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that reducing hydrogen ion accumulation during training would result in greater improvements in muscle oxidative capacity and time to exhaustion (TTE). Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups (CON, PLA, and BIC). CON served as a sedentary control, whereas PLA ingested water and BIC ingested sodium bicarbonate 30 min prior to every training session. Training consisted of seven to twelve 2-min intervals performed five times/wk for 5 wk. Following training, TTE was significantly greater in BIC (81.2 +/- 24.7 min) compared with PLA (53.5 +/- 30.4 min), and TTE for both groups was greater than CON (6.5 +/- 2.5 min). Fiber respiration was determined in the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL), with either pyruvate (Pyr) or palmitoyl carnitine (PC) as substrates. Compared with CON (14.3 +/- 2.6 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), there was a significantly greater SOL-Pyr state 3 respiration in both PLA (19.6 +/- 3.0 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)) and BIC (24.4 +/- 2.8 nmol O(2).min(-1).mg dry wt(-1)), with a significantly greater value in BIC. However, state 3 respiration was significantly lower in the EDL from both trained groups compared with CON. These differences remained significant in the SOL, but not the EDL, when respiration was corrected for citrate synthase activity (an indicator of mitochondrial mass). These novel findings suggest that reducing muscle hydrogen ion accumulation during running training is associated with greater improvements in both mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial respiration in the soleus. PMID:20484007

  7. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  8. Toxicity of Sodium Bicarbonate to Fish from Coal-Bed Natural Gas Production in the Tongue and Powder River Drainages, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the sensitivity of aquatic life to sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), a major constituent of coal-bed natural gas-produced water. Excessive amounts of sodium bicarbonate in the wastewater from coal-bed methane natural gas production released to freshwater streams and rivers may adversely affect the ability of fish to regulate their ion uptake. The collaborative study focuses on the acute and chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate on select fish species in the Tongue and Powder River drainages in southeastern Montana and northeastern Wyoming. Sodium bicarbonate is not naturally present in appreciable concentrations within the surface waters of the Tongue and Powder River drainages; however, the coal-bed natural gas wastewater can reach levels over 1,000 milligrams per liter. Large concentrations have been shown to be acutely toxic to native fish (Mount and others, 1997). In 2003, with funding and guidance provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks and the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a collaborative study on the potential effects of coal-bed natural gas wastewater on aquatic life. A major goal of the study is to provide information to the State of Montana Water Quality Program needed to develop an aquatic life standard for sodium bicarbonate. The standard would allow the State, if necessary, to establish targets for sodium bicarbonate load reductions.

  9. Successful correction of D-lactic acid neurotoxicity (drunken lamb syndrome) by bolus administration of oral sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Angell, J W; Jones, G L; Voigt, K; Grove-White, D H

    2013-08-31

    Drunken lamb syndrome (DLS) has recently been described as lamb D-lactic acidosis syndrome (LDLAS). In 2012, 18 lambs aged between 7 days and 28 days with LDLAS were identified. Biochemically, each lamb had a metabolic acidosis characterised by D-lactic acidosis and exhibited clinical signs including: not hyperthermic, no evidence of dehydration, demonstrating an ataxic gait tending to recumbency (DLS) and possibly somnolence. These lambs received 50 mmol of sodium bicarbonate as an 8.4 per cent solution given orally, together with parenteral long-acting amoxicillin. All 18 cases made a full clinical recovery. This study demonstrates a novel effective treatment for a disease that is usually fatal, and also demonstrates a strong correlation between venous plasma bicarbonate concentrations and venous plasma D-lactate concentrations (R(2)=0.49). PMID:23812111

  10. Salt sensitivity of blood pressure is associated with polymorphisms in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert M; Schoeffel, Cynthia D; Gildea, John J; Jones, John E; McGrath, Helen E; Gordon, Lindsay N; Park, Min Jeong; Sobota, Rafal S; Underwood, Patricia C; Williams, Jonathan; Sun, Bei; Raby, Benjamin; Lasky-Su, Jessica; Hopkins, Paul N; Adler, Gail K; Williams, Scott M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the sodium-bicarbonate co-transporter gene (SLC4A5) are associated with hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNPs in SLC4A5 are associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 185 whites consuming an isocaloric constant diet with a randomized order of 7 days of low Na(+) (10 mmol/d) and 7 days of high Na(+) (300 mmol/d) intake. Salt sensitivity was defined as a ≥ 7-mm Hg increase in mean arterial pressure during a randomized transition between high and low Na(+) diet. A total of 35 polymorphisms in 17 candidate genes were assayed, 25 of which were tested for association. Association analyses with salt sensitivity revealed 3 variants that associated with salt sensitivity, 2 in SLC4A5 (P<0.001) and 1 in GRK4 (P=0.020). Of these, 2 SNPs in SLC4A5 (rs7571842 and rs10177833) demonstrated highly significant results and large effects sizes, using logistic regression. These 2 SNPs had P values of 1.0 × 10(-4) and 3.1 × 10(-4) with odds ratios of 0.221 and 0.221 in unadjusted regression models, respectively, with the G allele at both sites conferring protection. These SNPs remained significant after adjusting for body mass index and age (P=8.9 × 10(-5) and 2.6 × 10(-4) and odds ratios 0.210 and 0.286, respectively). Furthermore, the association of these SNPs with salt sensitivity was replicated in a second hypertensive population. Meta-analysis demonstrated significant associations of both SNPs with salt sensitivity (rs7571842 [P=1.2 × 10(-5)]; rs1017783 [P=1.1 × 10(-4)]). In conclusion, SLC4A5 variants are strongly associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure in 2 separate white populations. PMID:22987918

  11. In Situ Investigation of the Remineralizing Effect of Saliva and Fluoride on Enamel Following Prophylaxis Using Sodium Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Grazziotin, Gladis Benjamina; Rios, Daniela; Honório, Heitor Marques; Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio; Lima, José Eduardo Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This in situ study evaluated the effect of saliva, associated or not with fluoride, on enamel previously submitted to prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. Methods: The study was conducted on enamel blocks submitted to in vitro prophylaxis using sodium bicarbonate. The blocks were randomly divided into 2 groups (G1/G2) and mounted on intraoral appliances wore by 10 volunteers. G1 blocks were directly exposed to saliva in situ, while blocks in G2 were exposed to saliva with fluoride (rinsing with 0.2% NaF solution during the initial minute). Enamel alterations were evaluated using surface microhardness and profilometry. Enamel hardness data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey tests and surface wear was evaluated using paired t test (P<.05). Results: No significant differences were found between G1 and G2 for enamel hardness and wear. The wear after prophylaxis was not different from the wear after the in situ stage. Baseline mean values of enamel hardness, after prophylaxis and after the in situ stage were 340±16.6, 329±35.7 and 354±37.8 for G1 and 338±15.6, 312±46.3 and 340±21.8 for G2, respectively. Conclusions: It was concluded that saliva alone exhibited a similar effect to saliva associated with fluoride; after 4h of in situ remineralization, there was no recovery in height of the enamel structure that had been lost due to the application of sodium bicarbonate. PMID:21228955

  12. Diphenhydramine overdose with intraventricular conduction delay treated with hypertonic sodium bicarbonate and i.v. lipid emulsion.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

  13. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  14. Structural and functional characterization of the human NBC3 sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter carboxyl-terminal cytoplasmic domain.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Frederick B; Jaschke, Paul; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    The sodium bicarbonate co-transporter, NBC3, is expressed in a range of tissues including heart, skeletal muscle and kidney, where it modulates intracellular pH and bicarbonate levels. NBC3 has a three-domain structure: 67 kDa N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, 57 kDa membrane domain and an 11 kDa C-terminal cytoplasmic domain (NBC3Ct). The role of C-terminal domains as important regulatory regions is an emerging theme in bicarbonate transporter physiology. This study determined the functional role of human NBC3Ct and characterized its structure using biochemical techniques. The NBC3 C-terminal domain deletion mutant (NBC3DeltaCt) had only 12 +/- 5% of wild-type transport activity. This low activity is attributable to low steady-state levels of NBC3DeltaCt and almost complete retention inside the cell, as assessed by immunoblots and confocal microscopy, suggesting a role of NBC3Ct in cell surface processing. To characterize the structure of NBC3Ct, amino acids 1127-1214 of NBC3 were expressed as a GST fusion protein (GST.NBC3Ct). GST.NBC3Ct was cleaved with PreScission Protease and native NBC3Ct could be purified to 94% homogeneity. Gel permeation chromatography and sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation of NBC3Ct indicated a Stokes radius of 26 and 30 angstroms, respectively. Shape modelling revealed NBC3Ct as a prolate shape with long and short axes of 19 and 2 nm, respectively. The circular dichroism spectra of NBC3Ct did not change over the pH 6.2-7.8 range, which rules out a large change of secondary structure as a component of pH sensor function. Proteolysis with trypsin and chymotrypsin identified two proteolytically sensitive regions, R1129 and K1183-K1186, which could form protein interaction sites. PMID:14578046

  15. Intraoral evaluation of mineralization of cosmetic defects by a toothpaste containing calcium, fluoride, and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Leonard J; Quinlan, Kathleen B; Ross, David R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Winston, Anthony; Charig, Andrew; Flickinger, Mark; Vorwerk, Linda

    2004-09-01

    New dual-phase fluoride toothpastes that contain soluble calcium, phosphate, and baking soda have recently been introduced into the market. These toothpastes are designed to fill in small surface defects in tooth enamel and thereby enhance tooth esthetics such as gloss. This two-part study was designed to assess these superficial mineralizing effects from using one of these products compared with an experimental calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free formulation and a conventional fluoride toothpaste using an intraoral model. Enamel specimens with 4 types of defects were mounted into an intraoral appliance and placed in the mouths of volunteers for 1 month. The four types of defects were whitening toothpaste abrasion, coarse abrasion, natural dimpling, and acid etching. Before and after intraoral exposure, scanning electron microscope photographs of the specimens were made. The surface microhardness of the acid-etched specimens also was determined. The volunteers brushed their specimens twice daily with one of three randomly assigned toothpastes. The toothpastes were a two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-based toothpaste; an experimental, two-phase, calcium-containing, bicarbonate-free toothpaste; and a conventional toothpaste. Only the calcium-containing toothpastes showed unequivocal signs of mineral deposition into surface defects, leading to smoothing of the enamel. All three products significantly increased the hardness of the etched enamel, presumably because of fluoride. However, only the two calcium-containing toothpastes gave significantly greater hardness increases than the conventional toothpaste; the specimens treated with a conventional toothpaste were indistinguishable from those treated with saliva. PMID:15645904

  16. Supported palladium catalysts for the reduction of sodium bicarbonate to sodium formate in aqueous solution at room temperature and one atmosphere of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stalder, C.J.; Chao, S.; Summers, D.P.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1983-10-05

    The reduction has been effected by using a variety of Pd (palladium)-based catalysts. The typical procedure was to suspend 0.25 g of catalyst in 25 cc of an aqueous solution of sodium bicarbonate purged slowly with hydrogen gas. The sodium formate concentration was followed by withdrawing aliquots for formate determination by /sup 13/C, /sup H/NMR. The reduction may be quite rapid; an initial rate of reduction after 1 h reaction produces a turnover rate of 35 formate anions produced/ palladium atom/h. All forms of Pd used appear to be active. The overall results indicate that carbon dioxide may be reduced at room temperature near its thermodynamic potential. 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    PubMed

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (p<0.05) differential negative effects on the A549 cell line in comparison to its unexposed control as well as to their effects on the MRC-5 cell line, presenting a potential promise for their use as cancer biotherapeutics. PMID:23686189

  18. SO sub 2 and NO sub x control by combined dry injection of hydrated lime and sodium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Helfritch, D.J.; Botz, S.J. ); Beittel, R. ); Bergman, P.D. ); Toole-O'Neil, B. )

    1992-01-01

    The dry sorbent injection process for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal form coal-fired boiler flue gas consists of the use of low NO{sub x} burner technology for primary NO{sub x} reduction, injection of hydrated lime at economizer temperatures for primary capture of SO{sub 2} and injection of sodium bicarbonate at the air heater exit for additional SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. This concept has been separately tested at the .25 and 50 MM Btu/hour scales, utilizing test systems that duplicate the flue gas time-temperature profile found in full scale boiler systems. The results of these tests, including the effects of the sorbent injection on particle control devices, are described in this paper.

  19. Interactions in the solid state. II: Interaction of sodium bicarbonate with substituted benzoic acids in the presence of moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, J.L.; Carstensen, J.T.

    1986-06-01

    The interaction of an organic acid with sodium bicarbonate in water produces an effervescent reaction. The reaction products are carbon dioxide, water, and the sodium salt of the acid. The kinetic rate-determining step for this reaction is the dehydration of carbonic acid. The solid-solid interaction with known amounts of moisture was followed by quantitatively determining carbon dioxide evolution as a function of time. The aqueous solubilities, diffusion coefficients, dissociation constants, and solid-solid interaction rates of six different substituted benzoic acids were determined. Using a model based on diffusion of the organic acid through the aqueous layer coupled with chemical reaction, predicted rates and levels of carbon dioxide production were compared with experimental results. Included in the model were the effects of the reaction products on the solution properties of the reactants. It was found that high concentrations of substituted sodium benzoate were generated very quickly and affected the solubility of the reactants, diffusion coefficient of the acid, and the carbonic acid dehydration rate constant. Moisture content was found to have a profound influence on the interaction rate. Water provides a medium for diffusion of the reacting species as well as the reaction solvent.

  20. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    PubMed

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  1. An evaluation of sodium bicarbonate chewing gum as a supplement to toothbrushing for removal of dental plaque from children's teeth.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Davidson, K R; Rhoades, M L

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this human clinical study was to determine whether a commercial chewing gum containing 5% sodium bicarbonate (ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum [AHDC]) was effective in removing dental plaque when used as a supplement to regular toothbrushing by children. Healthy children (N = 28, average age = 11 years) were randomly distributed into 2 groups. One group was instructed to chew 2 tablets of AHDC chewing gum for 20 minutes 2 times each day (after lunch and dinner) in addition to their normal toothbrushing regimen. The other group used a sugarless mint tablet twice daily during the same period in addition to toothbrushing. After 1 week of using their assigned product, all participants were again examined for oral health and plaque. After a 1-week washout period, subjects were crossed over to the opposite group. Among the 21 participants completing the study, the AHDC chewing gum significantly (P < .0001) reduced plaque by 15% after 1 week compared to the mint tablet control, as measured by the Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. When longitudinally compared to the baseline plaque scores, the gum resulted in a significant (P < .01) 10% reduction of plaque on the teeth. Subanalysis of the data showed that the AHDC chewing gum was particularly effective on the lingual surfaces and the posterior teeth and least effective on the facial surfaces of the anterior teeth, which do not readily come into direct contact with the gum during mastication. The bicarbonate gum demonstrated significant plaque reduction in all other areas of the mouth, even on tooth surfaces not directly contacted during chewing. Compliance with the chewing gum regimen was excellent, and oral health exams did not indicate any adverse events among children using either the chewing gum or mint tablets. In this study, regular use of AHDC chewing gum was safe and effective in removing dental plaque and served as a significant complement to the daily toothbrushing regimen of children

  2. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  3. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium sesquicarbonate on animal performance, ruminal metabolism, and systemic acid-base status.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, G R; Jackson, J A; Hemken, R W

    1989-08-01

    Six rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were arranged in a replicated 3 x 3 latin square design with 3-wk periods and offered diets containing concentrate and corn silage in a 60:40 ratio (DM basis). Treatments were: 1) basal diet, 2) basal diet with 1% NaHCO3, and 3) basal diet with 1% sodium sesquicarbonate. There were no differences among treatments in milk production, milk protein, or 3.5% FCM, but sodium sesquicarbonate increased milk fat percentage (3.89, 3.94, 4.06%) compared with that of the control. Rumen pH was higher for cows fed buffered diets than for control cows. Urine pH was higher for cows fed NaHCO3 diet than for those fed sodium sesquicarbonate and control diets. No differences were detected among treatment means for molar percentage of isobutyrate, isovalerate, or total VFA, Dietary sesquicarbonate addition increased molar percentage of acetate, decreased propionate, and resulted in a higher acetate:propionate ratio compared with the cows fed NaHCO3. However, molar percentage of butyrate and valerate decreased in cows fed sodium sesquicarbonate when compared with those fed the control diet. No differences among treatment means were detected for blood pH, pCO2, or HCO3. PMID:2551941

  4. Clinical evaluation of the effect of a hydrogen peroxide mouth rinse, sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, and mouth moisturizer on oral health.

    PubMed

    Shibly, O; Ciancio, S G; Kazmierczak, M; Cohen, R E; Mather, M L; Ho, A; Bessinger, M

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this 60-day single-blind, parallel trial, using 150 subjects, was to evaluate the effect of a 20% sodium bicarbonate dentifrice, a 1.5% hydrogen peroxide solution and a mouth moisturizer on oral tissues and microflora. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups. The treatments were: 1) Sage dentifrice (sodium bicarbonate). Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 2) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda saturated with the hydrogen peroxide solution and use of a mouth moisturizer, 3) Crest dentifrice, Toothette Plus containing baking soda with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, 4) Crest dentifrice, Toothette (without baking soda), saturated with a control solution and no mouth moisturizer, and 5) Crest dentifrice, Toothette saturated with 1.5% flavored H2O2 and no mouth moisturizer. From a subgroup of 35 patients (seven from each group) buccal smears for exfoliative cytology were taken as were supragingival microbiological samples from the mesial aspect of first molars (pooled). Buccal smears were evaluated for signs of histopathological changes. Microbiological samples from supra- and subgingival plaque for P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, A. actinomycetemcomitans. A viscosus, F. nucleatum, F. sanguis and C. albicans were evaluated. Clinical parameters measured were a stain index (SI), the modified gingival index (MGI), and a plaque index (PI). There were no adverse changes in the oral microflora and no anaplastic or other pathological changes in any subjects. Clinical parameters showed a statistically significant reduction in the MGI ranging from 26.7-29.9% with no significant differences among the groups (p > 0.05). The PI showed small reductions in all groups except group 2, but the differences were not statistically significant from each other or baseline (p > 0.05). The SI revealed slight increases in all groups and no differences

  5. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  6. Wet calcining of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and bicarbonate in a mixed solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gärtner, R. S.; Witkamp, G. J.

    2002-04-01

    Trona ore is used in large amounts for the production of soda ash. A key step in this process is the conversion of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate: Na 2CO 3·NaHCO 3·2H 2O) into soda (sodium carbonate anhydrate: Na 2CO 3). Currently, this conversion is done industrially by calcining of the raw ore in rotary calciners at ca. 120°C or higher (Natural Soda Ash—Occurrences, Processing, and Use, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1991, p. 267). Trona can however be converted at lower temperatures by using a "wet calcining" technique. In this technique, trona is contacted with an organic or mixed organic-aqueous solvent at a conversion temperature that depends on the water activity of the used solvent. In pure ethylene glycol this temperature can be as low as 55°C. The conversion by "wet calcining" occurs very similar to that in the regular dry calcining process via a solid phase conversion. The anhydrate crystals form directly from the solid trona. This produces pseudomorphs (J. Chem. Eng. Data 8(3) (1963) 301), i.e. agglomerates of fine anhydrate crystals (1-10 μm). At high temperatures, dense, finely pored agglomerates are formed, while the outer shape of the agglomerate retains the prism shape of the trona crystal. At low conversion temperatures, loosely packed or even unstable agglomerates are found.

  7. Palliative treatment for advanced biliary adenocarcinomas with combination dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Tran, Hung Q; Vu, Ut V; Pham, Quynh T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2014-09-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and cholangiocarcinoma account for 4% and 3%, respectively, of all gastrointestinal cancers. Advanced biliary tract carcinoma has a very poor prognosis with all current available modalities of treatment. In this pilot open-label study, the authors investigated the efficacy and safety of a combination of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) infusion and S-adenosyl-L-methionine (ademetionine) oral supplementation as palliative pharmacotherapy in nine patients with advanced nonresectable biliary tract carcinomas (ABTCs). Patients with evidence of biliary obstruction with a total serum bilirubin ≤300 μmol/L were allowed to join the study. The results of this 6-month study and follow-up of all nine patients with ABTC indicated that the investigated combination treatment improved pain control, blood biochemical parameters, and quality of life for the patients. Moreover, this method of treatment has led to a 6-month progression-free survival for all investigated patients. The treatment was well tolerated for all patients without major adverse reactions. Given that ABTC is a highly fatal malignancy with poor response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs, the authors consider that the combination of DMSO-SB and ademetionine deserves further research and application as a palliative care and survival-enhancing treatment for this group of patients. PMID:25102038

  8. Improvement in lipids extraction processes for biodiesel production from wet microalgal pellets grown on diammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate combinations.

    PubMed

    Shah, Syed Hasnain; Raja, Iftikhar Ahmed; Mahmood, Qaisar; Pervez, Arshid

    2016-08-01

    Biomass productivity and growth kinetics for microalgae grown on sodium bicarbonate and diammonium phosphate were investigated. Different carbon and nitrogen ratios have shown different growth rates and biomass productivity and C:N ratio 50:10 as mgL(-1) has shown the best production than all. For effective lipids extraction from biomass thermolysis and sonolysis were carried out from wet biomass. Sonolysis at 2.3W intensity for 5min has released 8.58mg at neutral pH. More quantity of lipids was extracted when extraction was made at pH 4 and 10 which resulted 9mg and 9.28mg lipids respectively. Thermal treatment at 100°C for 10min has released 12.82mg lipid at neutral pH. In the same thermolysis at pH 4 and 10 more quantity of lipids was extracted which were 15.16mg and 14.81mg respectively. Finally transesterified lipids were analyzed through GC-MS for FAME composition analysis. PMID:27132228

  9. Dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate infusion for palliative care and pain relief in patients with metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ba X; Le, Bao T; Tran, Hau D; Hoang, Cuong; Tran, Hung Q; Tran, Dao M; Pham, Cu Q; Pham, Tuan D; Ha, Trung V; Bui, Nga T; Shaw, D Graeme

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (adenocarcinoma of the prostate) is the most widespread cancer in men. It causes significant suffering and mortality due to metastatic disease. The main therapy for metastatic prostate cancer (MPC) includes androgen manipulation, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy and/or radioisotopes. However, these therapeutic approaches are considered palliative at this stage, and their significant side effects can cause further decline in patients' quality of life and increase non-cancer-related morbidity/mortality. In this study, the authors have used the infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide-sodium bicarbonate (DMSO-SB) to treat 18 patients with MPC. The 90-day follow-up of the patients having undergone the proposed therapeutic regimen showed significant improvement in clinical symptoms, blood and biochemistry tests, and quality of life. There were no major side effects from the treatment. In searching for new and better methods for palliative treatment and pain relief, this study strongly suggested therapy with DMSO-SB infusions could provide a rational alternative to conventional treatment for patients with MPC. PMID:21936635

  10. Solubilities of methane, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Zheng, D.Q.; Guo, T.M.

    1997-01-01

    The solubility of natural gas mixtures in formation water (brine) plays an important role in estimating the natural gas reserve, the formation/dissociation conditions of methane hydrates in situ, and the interfacial tension of the hydrocarbon-formation water system. However, solubility data at high pressure and elevated temperature conditions for aqueous electrolyte systems are rare. Recently, in the reservoirs found at the South China Sea areas, the main salt species in the formation water is sodium bicarbonate, and the solubility data of gases in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions under reservoir conditions have not previously been reported. An apparatus for measuring the solubility of gases in aqueous electrolyte solutions under high pressure and elevated temperature conditions is described. The solubility of methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and a natural gas mixture in aqueous sodium bicarbonate solutions were measured up to 58 MPa and 403 K. The modified Patel-Teja equation of state proposed by Zuo and Guo (1991) for aqueous electrolyte systems was applied to correlate the measured solubility data, and satisfactory results were obtained.

  11. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA). Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47–0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD −0.31 95% CI: −0.55 to −0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD −0.17 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60–2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41–1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD −1.47; 95% CI: −4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries. The evidence that sodium

  12. How Strong Is the Evidence for Sodium Bicarbonate to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury After Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention?

    PubMed

    Dong, Yuhao; Zhang, Bin; Liang, Long; Lian, Zhouyang; Liu, Jing; Liang, Changhong; Zhang, Shuixing

    2016-02-01

    Hydration with sodium bicarbonate is one of the strategies to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The purpose of this study was to determine how strong is the evidence for sodium bicarbonate to prevent CI-AKI after coronary angiography (CAG) and/or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).We conducted PubMed, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases to search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate with sodium chloride to prevent CI-AKI after CAG and/or PCI. Relative risk (RR), standardized mean difference (SMD), or weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated. Heterogeneity, publication bias, and study quality were evaluated, sensitivity analyses, cumulative analyses, and subgroup analyses were performed. The risk of random errors was assessed by trial sequential analysis (TSA).Sixteen RCTs (3537 patients) met the eligibility criteria. Hydration with sodium bicarbonate showed significant beneficial effects in preventing CI-AKI (RR 0.67; 95% CI: 0.47-0.96, P = 0.029), decreasing the change in serum creatinine (SCr) (SMD -0.31 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.07, P = 0.011) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (SMD -0.17 95% CI: -0.30 to -0.04, P = 0.013). But no significant differences were observed in the requirement for dialysis (RR 1.11; 95% CI: 0.60-2.07, P = 0.729), mortality (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.41-1.21, P = 0.204) and reducing the length of hospital stay (LHS) (WMD -1.47; 95% CI: -4.14 to 1.20, P = 0.279). The result of TSA on incidence of CI-AKI showed the required information size (RIS = 6614) was not reached and cumulative z curve did not cross TSA boundary. The result of TSA on the requirement for dialysis and mortality demonstrated the required information sizes (RIS = 170,510 and 19,516, respectively) were not reached, and the cumulative z-curve did not cross any boundaries.The evidence that sodium bicarbonate reduces the incidence of

  13. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:26569471

  14. Regulation of the Cardiac Sodium/Bicarbonate Cotransporter by Angiotensin II: Potential Contribution to Structural, Ionic and Electrophysiological Myocardial Remodelling

    PubMed Central

    Aiello, Ernesto Alejandro; Giusti, Verónica Celeste De

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/ bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is, with the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE), an important alkalinizing mechanism that maintains cellular intracellular pH (pHi). In the heart exists at least three isoforms of NBC, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1molecule of HCO3-(electroneutral isoform; nNBC) and two others that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoforms; eNBC). In addition, the eNBC generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulate the cardiac action potential (CAP), adding to such isoforms the relevance to modulate the electrophysiological function of the heart. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is one of the main hormones that regulate cardiac physiology. The alkalinizing mechanisms (NHE and NBC) are stimulated by Ang II, increasing pHi and intracellular Na+ concentration, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) operating in the reverse form, leads to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Interestingly, it has been shown that Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates the nNBC and inhibits the eNBC. This inhibition generates a CAP prolongation, which could directly increase the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The regulation of the intracellular Na+ and Ca2+ concentrations is crucial for the cardiac cellular physiology, but these ions are also involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases. PMID:23116057

  15. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands

    PubMed Central

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1. PMID:26375462

  16. Structural modifications of the salivary conditioning film upon exposure to sodium bicarbonate: implications for oral lubrication and mouthfeel.

    PubMed

    Ash, A; Wilde, P J; Bradshaw, D J; King, S P; Pratten, J R

    2016-03-14

    The salivary conditioning film (SCF) that forms on all surfaces in the mouth plays a key role in lubricating the oral cavity. As this film acts as an interface between tongue, enamel and oral mucosa, it is likely that any perturbations to its structure could potentially lead to a change in mouthfeel perception. This is often experienced after exposure to oral hygiene products. For example, consumers that use dentifrice that contain a high concentration of sodium bicarbonate (SB) often report a clean mouth feel after use; an attribute that is clearly desirable for oral hygiene products. However, the mechanisms by which SB interacts with the SCF to alter lubrication in the mouth is unknown. Therefore, saliva and the SCF was exposed to high ionic strength and alkaline solutions to elucidate whether the interactions observed were a direct result of SB, its high alkalinity or its ionic strength. Characteristics including bulk viscosity of saliva and the viscoelasticity of the interfacial salivary films that form at both the air/saliva and hydroxyapatite/saliva interfaces were tested. It was hypothesised that SB interacts with the SCF in two ways. Firstly, the ionic strength of SB shields electrostatic charges of salivary proteins, thus preventing protein crosslinking within the film and secondly; the alkaline pH (≈8.3) of SB reduces the gel-like structure of mucins present in the pellicle by disrupting disulphide bridging of the mucins via the ionization of their cysteine's thiol group, which has an isoelectric point of ≈8.3. PMID:26883483

  17. Role of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters in Intracellular pH Regulation and Their Regulatory Mechanisms in Human Submandibular Glands.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Eun; Shin, Yong-Hwan; Bae, Jun-Seok; Choi, Seulki; Kim, Minkyoung; Kim, Nahyun; Hwang, Sung-Min; Park, Kyungpyo

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCs) are involved in the pH regulation of salivary glands. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms among different NBC isotypes have not been rigorously evaluated. We investigated the roles of two different types of NBCs, electroneutral (NBCn1) and electrogenic NBC (NBCe1), with respect to pH regulation and regulatory mechanisms using human submandibular glands (hSMGs) and HSG cells. Intracellular pH (pHi) was measured and the pHi recovery rate from cell acidification induced by an NH4Cl pulse was recorded. Subcellular localization and protein phosphorylation were determined using immunohistochemistry and co-immunoprecipitation techniques. We determined that NBCn1 is expressed on the basolateral side of acinar cells and the apical side of duct cells, while NBCe1 is exclusively expressed on the apical membrane of duct cells. The pHi recovery rate in hSMG acinar cells, which only express NBCn1, was not affected by pre-incubation with 5 μM PP2, an Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor. However, in HSG cells, which express both NBCe1 and NBCn1, the pHi recovery rate was inhibited by PP2. The apparent difference in regulatory mechanisms for NBCn1 and NBCe1 was evaluated by artificial overexpression of NBCn1 or NBCe1 in HSG cells, which revealed that the pHi recovery rate was only inhibited by PP2 in cells overexpressing NBCe1. Furthermore, only NBCe1 was significantly phosphorylated and translocated by NH4Cl, which was inhibited by PP2. Our results suggest that both NBCn1 and NBCe1 play a role in pHi regulation in hSMG acinar cells, and also that Src kinase does not regulate the activity of NBCn1. PMID:26375462

  18. The potential effects of sodium bicarbonate, a major constituent from coalbed natural gas production, on aquatic life

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.

    2012-01-01

    The production water from coalbed natural gas (CBNG) extraction contains many constituents. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has established aquatic life criteria for some of these constituents, and it is therefore possible to evaluate their risk to aquatic life. However, of the major ions associated with produced waters, chloride is the only one with an established aquatic life criterion (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1988). The focus of this research was NaHCO3, a compound that is a major constituent of coalbed natural gas produced waters in the Tongue and Powder River Basins. This project included laboratory experiments, field in situ experiments, a field mixing zone study, and a fishery presence/absence assessment. Though this investigation focuses on the Tongue and Powder River Basins, the information is applicable to other watersheds where sodium bicarbonate is a principle component of product water either from CBNG or from traditional or unconventional oil and gas development. These data can also be used to separate effects of saline discharges from those potentially posed by other constituents. Finally, this research effort and the additional collaboration with USGS Water Resources and Mapping, Bureau of Land Management, US Environmental Protection Agency, State of Montana, State of Wyoming, Montana State University, University of Wyoming, and others as part of a Powder River Aquatic Task Group, can be used as a model for successful approaches to studying landscapes with energy development. The laboratory acute toxicity experiments were completed with a suite of organisms, including 7 species of fish, 5 species of invertebrates, and 1 amphibian species. Experiments performed on these multiple species resulted in LC50s that ranged from 1,120 to greater than (>) 8,000 milligrams sodium bicarbonate per liter (mg NaHCO3/L) (also defined as 769 to >8,000 milligrams bicarbonate per liter (mg HCO3-/L) or total alkalinity expressed as 608 to >4

  19. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  20. Effects of sodium bicarbonate concentration on growth, photosynthesis, and carbonic anhydrase activity of macroalgae Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sui, Zhenghong; Wang, Jinguo; Hu, Yiyi; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Hong, Hye Ran; Niaz, Zeeshan; Wei, Huihui; Du, Qingwei; Peng, Chong; Mi, Ping; Que, Zhou

    2016-06-01

    There is potential for bicarbonate to improve crop yields and economic efficiency of marine algae. However, few studies have focused on the effect of bicarbonate on the growth, photosynthesis, and enzyme activity associated with carbon utilization, especially in commercial macroalgae. Here, the addition of bicarbonate (up to 420 mg L(-1)) to macroalgal cultures has been evaluated for Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, and Gracilaria chouae with respect to growth rate, photosynthetic activity, carbonic anhydrase activity, and biochemical composition. The results showed that the effects of NaHCO3 on growth, chlorophyll a, phycoerythrin, photosynthetic oxygen evolution, photochemical parameters of PSI and PSII, carbonic anhydrase activity, and nitrogen content were significant (P < 0.05) and followed the same pattern in the three species. The parameter values were promoted in lower NaHCO3 concentrations (up to 252 or 336 mg L(-1)) and inhibited in higher NaHCO3 concentrations (>336 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and >420 mg L(-1) for the other two species). Moreover, species-specific differences induced by supplementation with bicarbonate were discovered during culture. Optimal concentrations of NaHCO3 used in this study were 252 mg L(-1) for Gp. lemaneiformis and 336 mg L(-1) for G. vermiculophylla and G. chouae. These results suggest that an adequate supplementation of sodium bicarbonate is a viable strategy for promoting growth and photosynthetic activity in some macroalgae as well as for improving biochemical composition. The study will help to accelerate the growth rate of algae and improve the quality of thalli, and will also be useful for enhancing the understanding of carbon utilization in macroalgae. PMID:26960545

  1. Evaluating the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate, ingested individually or in combination, and a taste-matched placebo on high-intensity cycling capacity in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew F; Wilson, Susie; Hill, Cameron; Price, Mike J; Duncan, Mike; Tallis, Jason

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or caffeine individually or in combination on high-intensity cycling capacity. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, 13 healthy, noncycling trained males (age: 21 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 6 cm, body mass: 76 ± 12 kg, peak power output (Wpeak): 230 ± 34 W, peak oxygen uptake: 46 ± 8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed a graded incremental exercise test, 2 familiarisation trials, and 4 experimental trials. Trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion at 100% Wpeak (TLIM) 60 min after ingesting a solution containing either (i) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate (BIC), (ii) 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine plus 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (CAF), (iii) 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium bicarbonate plus 5 mg·kg(-1) body mass caffeine (BIC-CAF), or (iv) 0.1 g·kg(-1) body mass sodium chloride (PLA). Experimental solutions were administered double-blind. Pre-exercise, at the end of exercise, and 5-min postexercise blood pH, base excess, and bicarbonate ion concentration ([HCO3(-)]) were significantly elevated for BIC and BIC-CAF compared with CAF and PLA. TLIM (median; interquartile range) was significantly greater for CAF (399; 350-415 s; P = 0.039; r = 0.6) and BIC-CAF (367; 333-402 s; P = 0.028; r = 0.6) compared with BIC (313: 284-448 s) although not compared with PLA (358; 290-433 s; P = 0.249, r = 0.3 and P = 0.099 and r = 0.5, respectively). There were no differences between PLA and BIC (P = 0.196; r = 0.4) or between CAF and BIC-CAF (P = 0.753; r = 0.1). Relatively large inter- and intra-individual variation was observed when comparing treatments and therefore an individual approach to supplementation appears warranted. PMID:26988768

  2. A synergistic effect in controlling plum postharvest diseases occurs by applying UV-C light to sodium bicarbonate treated fruit.

    PubMed

    D'Hallewin, G; Cubaiu, L; Ladu, G; Venditti, T

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of ultraviolet-C light (UV-C; 254 nm) alone at 0, 3, 6 and 12 kJm(-2), or combined with 0.0 or 0.5% (w7v) sodium bicarbonate (SBC), to control plum (Prunus domestica cv Stanley) postharvest decay caused by Penicillium expansum L. and Botrytis cinerea was investigated. First, fruit was sanitized and in one experiment plums were artificially wound-inoculated 24 h before treatments and afterwards kept at 25 degrees C with 90% RH for 7 days. In the second experiment, treatments were applied before fruit was spray-contaminated with conidia and then stored for 4 weeks at 5 degrees C and 90% RH (storage conditions). In both experiments, the highest degree of decay caused by the two pathogens was monitored when fruit stayed untreated (control), and a negligible reduction was achieved by treating with the sole salt or with a 3 kJm(-2) UV-C light. Compared to control (89 +/- 3% decay), the treatment of wound-inoculated fruit with 6 kJm(-2) provided a 35 and 38% reduction of P. expansum and B. cinerea decay, respectively. Meanwhile, 12 kJm(-2) provided an additional decrease of 25 and 27%, respectively. In both experiments, the best control of decay was attained when treatments with SBC and UV-C light were combined and the efficacy depended upon the sequence of application. Synergistic effects were found by applying the salt before UV-C light. When 6 or 12 kJm(-2) were employed following the 2% SBC treatment, no disease symptoms developed for either pathogens in both experiments. The same combination with 3 kJm(-2) resulted in a nearly 5 fold increase of efficacy compared to the sole light treatment. The combined treatments controlled the two pathogens to valuable levels and, since no quality losses were observed during storage, they could be considered as a suitable approach to contain postharvest losses of this fruit. PMID:25151834

  3. Lactate Clearance and Vasopressor Seem to Be Predictors for Mortality in Severe Sepsis Patients with Lactic Acidosis Supplementing Sodium Bicarbonate: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Bin; Jeong, Hyo Jin; Son, Young Ki; An, Won Suk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Initial lactate level, lactate clearance, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin in critically ill patients with sepsis are associated with hospital mortality. However, no study has yet discovered which factor is most important for mortality in severe sepsis patients with lactic acidosis. We sought to clarify this issue in patients with lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate. Materials and Methods Data were collected from a single center between May 2011 and April 2014. One hundred nine patients with severe sepsis and lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate were included. Results The 7-day mortality rate was 71.6%. The survivors had higher albumin levels and lower SOFA, APACHE II scores, vasopressor use, and follow-up lactate levels at an elapsed time after their initial lactate levels were checked. In particular, a decrement in lactate clearance of at least 10% for the first 6 hours, 24 hours, and 48 hours of treatment was more dominant among survivors than non-survivors. Although the patients who were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics showed higher illness severity than those who received conventional antibiotics, there was no significant mortality difference. 6-hour, 24-hour, and 48-hour lactate clearance (HR: 4.000, 95% CI: 1.309–12.219, P = 0.015) and vasopressor use (HR: 4.156, 95% CI: 1.461–11.824, P = 0.008) were significantly associated with mortality after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusions Lactate clearance at a discrete time point seems to be a more reliable prognostic index than initial lactate value in severe sepsis patients with lactic acidosis who were supplementing with sodium bicarbonate. Careful consideration of vasopressor use and the initial application of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the first 48 hours may be helpful for improving survival, and further study is warranted. PMID:26692209

  4. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  5. The effect of bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrices on human plaque pH.

    PubMed

    Blake-Haskins, J C; Gaffar, A; Volpe, A R; Bánóczy, J; Gintner, Z; Dombi, C

    1997-01-01

    The acidogenic response in dental plaque after rinsing with sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice slurries was studied using three intra-oral models. In the first model, resting plaque pH was monitored in mesiobuccal plaque on upper molars and premolars in six healthy subjects after abstinence from normal oral hygiene for three days. These measurements were followed by a three-minute rinse with 10% sucrose and, following a two-minute interval, a three-minute rinse with a test dentifrice slurry. After the test dentifrice rinse, pH was monitored at regular intervals up to 60 minutes. Flow rate, pH and buffer capacity of stimulated saliva were also determined. Changes in resting pH, plaque pH minima, and maximum pH drop were calculated. A clear elevation in the resting pH was observed after bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinses, and a significant increase was obtained in the pH minima. The smallest pH drop also was found after treatment with the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice rinse treatment (p < 0.02). A second model using telemetric partial dentures with interproximally placed micro-antimony pH electrodes was used to study the effects of rinsing with increasing concentrations of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate solutions, and with a fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate. The response to these treatments was found to be rapid, dose-dependent, and was the greatest from the sodium bicarbonate. A third model used 24 subjects to assess the effects of sodium bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice on plaque pH before and after a glucose challenge. The use of the bicarbonate/fluoride dentifrice resulted in significantly less measurable plaque acid than the fluoride dentifrice treatment. Collectively, these results indicate bicarbonate in dentifrice to be an effective buffering agent for stabilizing the pH and neutralizing plaque acids in dental plaque. PMID:9586535

  6. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Florian; Meyer, Tim; Such, Ulf; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling. Methods This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg−1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo), respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa) and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test. Results Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05) under BICA (49.5±11.5 min) compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min). No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes. Conclusion The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006198. PMID:25494054

  7. Sodium bicarbonate use and the risk of hypernatremia in thoracic aortic surgical patients with metabolic acidosis following deep hypothermic circulatory arrest

    PubMed Central

    Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Gutsche, Jacob T.; Ramakrishna, Harish; Setegne, Samuel L.; Jackson, Kirk R.; Augoustides, John G.; Ochroch, E. Andrew; Weiss, Stuart J.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Cheung, Albert T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic acidosis after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for thoracic aortic operations is commonly managed with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between total NaHCO3 dose and the severity of metabolic acidosis, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of vasoactive infusions, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or hospital length of stay (LOS). Methods: In a single center, retrospective study, 87 consecutive elective thoracic aortic operations utilizing DHCA, were studied. Linear regression analysis was used to test for the relationships between the total NaHCO3 dose administered through postoperative day 2, clinical variables, arterial blood gas values, and short-term clinical outcomes. Results: Seventy-five patients (86%) received NaHCO3. Total NaHCO3 dose averaged 136 ± 112 mEq (range: 0.0–535 mEq) per patient. Total NaHCO3 dose correlated with minimum pH (r = 0.41, P < 0.0001), minimum serum bicarbonate (r = −0.40, P < 0.001), maximum serum lactate (r = 0.46, P = 0.007), duration of metabolic acidosis (r = 0.33, P = 0.002), and maximum serum sodium concentrations (r = 0.29, P = 0.007). Postoperative hypernatremia was present in 67% of patients and peaked at 12 h following DHCA. Eight percent of patients had a serum sodium ≥ 150 mEq/L. Total NaHCO3 dose did not correlate with anion gap, serum chloride, not the duration of mechanical ventilator support, vasoactive infusions, ICU or hospital LOS. Conclusion: Routine administration of NaHCO3 was common for the management of metabolic acidosis after DHCA. Total dose of NaHCO3 was a function of the severity and duration of metabolic acidosis. NaHCO3 administration contributed to postoperative hypernatremia that was often severe. The total NaHCO3 dose administered was unrelated to short-term clinical outcomes. PMID:27397449

  8. An Outpatient, Ambulant-Design, Controlled Human Infection Model Using Escalating Doses of Salmonella Typhi Challenge Delivered in Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    PubMed Central

    Waddington, Claire S.; Darton, Thomas C.; Jones, Claire; Haworth, Kathryn; Peters, Anna; John, Tessa; Thompson, Ben A. V.; Kerridge, Simon A.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Zhou, Liqing; Holt, Kathryn E.; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lockhart, Stephen; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M.; Pollard, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Typhoid fever is a major global health problem, the control of which is hindered by lack of a suitable animal model in which to study Salmonella Typhi infection. Until 1974, a human challenge model advanced understanding of typhoid and was used in vaccine development. We set out to establish a new human challenge model and ascertain the S. Typhi (Quailes strain) inoculum required for an attack rate of 60%–75% in typhoid-naive volunteers when ingested with sodium bicarbonate solution. Methods. Groups of healthy consenting adults ingested escalating dose levels of S. Typhi and were closely monitored in an outpatient setting for 2 weeks. Antibiotic treatment was initiated if typhoid diagnosis occurred (temperature ≥38°C sustained ≥12 hours or bacteremia) or at day 14 in those remaining untreated. Results. Two dose levels (103 or 104 colony-forming units) were required to achieve the primary objective, resulting in attack rates of 55% (11/20) or 65% (13/20), respectively. Challenge was well tolerated; 4 of 40 participants fulfilled prespecified criteria for severe infection. Most diagnoses (87.5%) were confirmed by blood culture, and asymptomatic bacteremia and stool shedding of S. Typhi was also observed. Participants who developed typhoid infection demonstrated serological responses to flagellin and lipopolysaccharide antigens by day 14; however, no anti-Vi antibody responses were detected. Conclusions. Human challenge with a small inoculum of virulent S. Typhi administered in bicarbonate solution can be performed safely using an ambulant-model design to advance understanding of host–pathogen interactions and immunity. This model should expedite development of diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics for typhoid control. PMID:24519873

  9. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  10. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion augments the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression during recovery from intense interval exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Percival, Michael E; Martin, Brian J; Gillen, Jenna B; Skelly, Lauren E; MacInnis, Martin J; Green, Alex E; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    We tested the hypothesis that ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) prior to an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would augment signaling cascades and gene expression linked to mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle. On two occasions separated by ∼1 wk, nine men (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 yr, weight 78 ± 13 kg, V̇O(2 peak) 48 ± 8 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed 10 × 60-s cycling efforts at an intensity eliciting ∼90% of maximal heart rate (263 ± 40 W), interspersed with 60 s of recovery. In a double-blind, crossover manner, subjects ingested a total of 0.4 g/kg body weight NaHCO3 before exercise (BICARB) or an equimolar amount of a placebo, sodium chloride (PLAC). Venous blood bicarbonate and pH were elevated at all time points after ingestion (P < 0.05) in BICARB vs. PLAC. During exercise, muscle glycogen utilization (126 ± 47 vs. 53 ± 38 mmol/kg dry weight, P < 0.05) and blood lactate accumulation (12.8 ± 2.6 vs. 10.5 ± 2.8 mmol/liter, P < 0.05) were greater in BICARB vs. PLAC. The acute exercise-induced increase in the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a downstream marker of AMP-activated protein kinase activity, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase were similar between treatments (P > 0.05). However, the increase in PGC-1α mRNA expression after 3 h of recovery was higher in BICARB vs. PLAC (approximately sevenfold vs. fivefold compared with rest, P < 0.05). We conclude that NaHCO3 before HIIT alters the mRNA expression of this key regulatory protein associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. The elevated PGC-1α mRNA response provides a putative mechanism to explain the enhanced mitochondrial adaptation observed after chronic HIIT supplemented with NaHCO3 in rats. PMID:26384407

  11. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from OH and NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. PMID:21975008

  12. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    PubMed

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind. PMID:20486661

  13. Bicarbonate Induces Vibrio cholerae Virulence Gene Expression by Enhancing ToxT Activity▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Abuaita, Basel H.; Withey, Jeffrey H.

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a gram-negative bacterium that is the causative agent of cholera, a severe diarrheal illness. The two biotypes of V. cholerae O1 capable of causing cholera, classical and El Tor, require different in vitro growth conditions for induction of virulence gene expression. Growth under the inducing conditions or infection of a host initiates a complex regulatory cascade that results in production of ToxT, a regulatory protein that directly activates transcription of the genes encoding cholera toxin (CT), toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and other virulence genes. Previous studies have shown that sodium bicarbonate induces CT expression in the V. cholerae El Tor biotype. However, the mechanism for bicarbonate-mediated CT induction has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that bicarbonate stimulates virulence gene expression by enhancing ToxT activity. Both the classical and El Tor biotypes produce inactive ToxT protein when they are cultured statically in the absence of bicarbonate. Addition of bicarbonate to the culture medium does not affect ToxT production but causes a significant increase in CT and TCP expression in both biotypes. Ethoxyzolamide, a potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, inhibits bicarbonate-mediated virulence induction, suggesting that conversion of CO2 into bicarbonate by carbonic anhydrase plays a role in virulence induction. Thus, bicarbonate is the first positive effector for ToxT activity to be identified. Given that bicarbonate is present at high concentration in the upper small intestine where V. cholerae colonizes, bicarbonate is likely an important chemical stimulus that V. cholerae senses and that induces virulence during the natural course of infection. PMID:19564378

  14. Effect of bicarbonate ion additives on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride solution

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.J.; Pyun, S.I.; Lee, W.J.; Kim, H.P.

    1999-04-01

    The effect of bicarbonate ions (HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) on pitting corrosion of type 316L stainless steel (SS, UNS S3 1603) was investigated in aqueous 0.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) solution using potentiodynamic polarization, the abrading electrode technique, alternating current (AC) impedance spectroscopy combined with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions extended the passive potential region in width and, at the same time, raised the pitting potential in value on the potentiodynamic polarization curve. Potentiostatic current transients obtained from the moment just after interrupting the abrading action showed the repassivation rate of propagating pits increased and that the pit growth rate decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Over the whole applied potential, the oxide film resistance was higher in the presence of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions. The pit number density decreased with increasing HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ion concentration. Moreover, addition of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions to NaCl solutions retarded lateral pit growth, while promoting downward pit growth from the surface. The bare surface of the specimen repassivated preferentially along the pit mouth and walls, compared to the pit bottom, as a result of formation of a surface film with a high content of protective mixed ferrous-chromous carbonate ([Fe,Cr]CO{sub 3}) that formed from preferential adsorption of HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ions.

  15. Kinetic Analysis of Isothermal Decomposition Process of Sodium Bicarbonate Using the Weibull Probability Function—Estimation of Density Distribution Functions of the Apparent Activation Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janković, Bojan

    2009-10-01

    The decomposition process of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been studied by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions at four different operating temperatures (380 K, 400 K, 420 K, and 440 K). It was found that the experimental integral and differential conversion curves at the different operating temperatures can be successfully described by the isothermal Weibull distribution function with a unique value of the shape parameter ( β = 1.07). It was also established that the Weibull distribution parameters ( β and η) show independent behavior on the operating temperature. Using the integral and differential (Friedman) isoconversional methods, in the conversion (α) range of 0.20 ≤ α ≤ 0.80, the apparent activation energy ( E a ) value was approximately constant ( E a, int = 95.2 kJmol-1 and E a, diff = 96.6 kJmol-1, respectively). The values of E a calculated by both isoconversional methods are in good agreement with the value of E a evaluated from the Arrhenius equation (94.3 kJmol-1), which was expressed through the scale distribution parameter ( η). The Málek isothermal procedure was used for estimation of the kinetic model for the investigated decomposition process. It was found that the two-parameter Šesták-Berggren (SB) autocatalytic model best describes the NaHCO3 decomposition process with the conversion function f(α) = α0.18(1-α)1.19. It was also concluded that the calculated density distribution functions of the apparent activation energies ( ddfE a ’s) are not dependent on the operating temperature, which exhibit the highly symmetrical behavior (shape factor = 1.00). The obtained isothermal decomposition results were compared with corresponding results of the nonisothermal decomposition process of NaHCO3.

  16. Comparison of a dual-phase fluoride toothpaste containing calcium, phosphate, and sodium bicarbonate with a regular fluoride toothpaste on calculus formation.

    PubMed

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Milleman, Jeffery L; Ghassemi, Annahita

    2004-09-01

    This clinical study compared the effect on dental calculus formation of a dual-phase fluoride dentifrice containing sodium bicarbonate, calcium, and phosphate with that of a regular dentifrice using a short-term clinical model in which calculus formation was facilitated. A total of 87 adult volunteers completed this study, which was a double-blind, parallel-group design, consisting of 2-week pretrial and trial periods separated by a washout period. A partial-mouth technique was used wherein the lower anterior teeth were protected from brushing by a custom-fitted toothshield, which doubled as an applicator for an undiluted dentifrice, twice daily. Calculus was measured on the labial/lingual surfaces of six lower anterior teeth by the Volpe-Manhold Index (V-MI). Subjects used a non-tartar-control dentifrice during the pretrial period to determine calculus formation rates, and these V-MI scores were used as baseline data for random allocation to either a control or test product for the trial period. Subjects who were accepted into the study, based on existing tartar deposits, readily formed calculus during the pretrial period using the toothshield method. During the trial period, subjects who were assigned the test dentifrice had comparable amounts of calculus accumulation to those who used the control dentifrice. However, subjects in the test dentifrice group had significantly lower (16%) calculus scores on lingual surfaces than those in the control group. Intragroup comparisons of V-MI data from the pretrial period with those from the trial period provided similar overall results to the comparisons between groups. This study demonstrated that a dual-phase baking soda dentifrice containing calcium and phosphate did not increase calculus accumulation relative to a regular dentifrice when used by adults with a propensity for developing calculus. PMID:15645907

  17. Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ⩾0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

  18. A randomized, crossover pharmacodynamic study of immediate-release omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and delayed-release lansoprazole in healthy adult volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pratha, Vijayalakshmi S; McGraw, Thomas; Tobin, William

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) effectively block gastric acid secretion and are the treatment of choice for heartburn. PPIs differ, however, in onset of action and bioavailability. In this single-center, open-label, three-way crossover study, onset of action of immediate-release omeprazole 20 mg/sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg (IR-OME) and delayed-release (DR) lansoprazole 15 mg was evaluated in 63 healthy fasting adults. Subjects were randomized to once daily IR-OME, or DR-lansoprazole, or no treatment for 7 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the earliest time where a statistically significant difference was observed between IR-OME and DR-lansoprazole in median intragastric pH scores for three consecutive 5-min intervals on day 7. Secondary endpoints compared effects of active treatments on days 1 and 7 (e.g., time to sustained inhibition, percentage of time with pH >4). A significant difference in median intragastric pH favoring IR-OME was observed on day 7 starting at the 10- to 15-min interval postdosing (P = 0.024) and sustaining through the 115- to 120-min interval (P = 0.017). On day 1, IR-OME achieved sustained inhibition of intragastric acidity significantly faster than DR-lansoprazole. IR-OME maintained pH >4 significantly longer than DR-lansoprazole over a 24-h period (P = 0.007) on day 7. Overall, results of this study demonstrate IR-OME is safe and well tolerated and that treatment with IR-OME results in significantly faster onset of action and better gastric acid suppression at steady state than DR-lansoprazole. PMID:27433347

  19. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improved MAOD but is not correlated with 200- and 400-m running performances: a double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brisola, Gabriel Motta Pinheiro; Miyagi, Willian Eiji; da Silva, Henrique Santos; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) determined by a single supramaximal effort (MAODALT) in running and the correlation with 200- and 400-m running performances. Fifteen healthy men (age, 23 ± 4 years; maximal oxygen uptake, 50.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) underwent a maximal incremental exercise test and 2 supramaximal efforts at 110% of the intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake, which was carried out after ingesting either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body weight NaHCO3 or a placebo (dextrose) and completing 200- and 400-m performance tests. The study design was double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled. Significant differences were found between the NaHCO3 and placebo conditions for MAODALT (p = 0.01) and the qualitative inference for substantial changes showed a very likely positive effect (98%). The lactic anaerobic contribution in the NaHCO3 ingestion condition was significantly higher (p < 0.01) and showed a very likely positive effect (99% chance), similar to that verified for peak blood lactate concentration (p < 0.01). No difference was found for time until exhaustion (p = 0.19) or alactic anaerobic contribution (p = 0.81). No significant correlations were observed between MAODALT and 200- and 400-m running performance tests. Therefore, we can conclude that both MAODALT and the anaerobic lactic metabolism are modified after acute NaHCO3 ingestion, but it is not correlated with running performance. PMID:26300016

  20. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  1. Do Intravenous N-Acetylcysteine and Sodium Bicarbonate Prevent High Osmolal Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inda-Filho, Antonio Jose; Caixeta, Adriano; Manggini, Marcia; Schor, Nestor

    2014-01-01

    Background N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). Objective We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone. Methods This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013) hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI) exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1) received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2) received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3) received both treatments, and 125 (group 4) received only saline. Results Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500), measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1· baseline), and 7.6% (38/500), measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL) or > (1.25 · baseline). CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05) lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3. Conclusion: We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast

  2. Improved pH buffering agent for sodium hypochlorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. R.; Veeder, L. N.

    1969-01-01

    Sodium citrate/citric acid was found to be an effective buffer for pH control when used with sodium hypochlorite. The mixture does not corrode aluminum. The buffer appears to form a type of conversion coating that may provide corrosion-resistant properties to aluminum in other applications.

  3. Residue levels, persistence and effectiveness of imazalil against a resistant strain of penicillium digitatum when applied in combination with heat and sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, S; Angioni, A; Suming, D; Palma, A; Schirra, M

    2013-01-01

    Green and blue molds, respectively caused by Penicillium digitatum Sacc., and P. italicum Wehmer, are the most important postharvest diseases of citrus fruit Postharvest management of these pathogens is mainly based on the application of thiabendazole (TBZ) or imazalil (IMZ) fungicides. However, their intensive and prolonged use has led to the selection of TBZ- IMZ-resistant strains of these pathogens and to a reduction of TBZ and IMZ effectiveness to control postharvest decay. However, while TBZ may become completely ineffective against TBZ-resistant strains of P. digitatum, reduction of IMZ efficacy is only partial, and an effective control of decay can still be achieved by increasing its concentration, heating the treatment-solution and/or combining IMZ with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) or other food additives or natural salts. In this study, 'Desiderio' and 'Nova' mandarins were inoculated with spores of a sensitive strain of P. digitatum to IMZ and TBZ (PDs) or with a strain of P. digitatum with double resistance to both fungicides (PDr) and immersed in IMZ or TBZ emulsions at increasing concentrations up to 1000 mg/L or in IMZ (25, 200 or 400 mg/L), SBC (0.5, 1 or 2%) or IMZ + SBC emulsions either at 20 or 40 degrees C. IMZ was superior to TBZ to control decay of 'Desiderio' mandarins incited by PDs and was also effective to control decay in fruit inoculated with PDr, while TBZ even at the highest rate was completely ineffective. In 'Desiderio' mandarins inoculated with PDs, a complete control of decay was achieved with 25 mg/L IMZ but in fruit inoculated with PDr, 25 mg/L IMZ were ineffective to control decay despite in combination with SBC at 2% a synergistic effect was detected. In contrast, a good control of decay was achieved with 400 mg/L IMZ. In 'Nova' mandarins after 1 week of incubation at 20 degrees C decay incidence in fruit dipped in 400 mg/L at 20 degrees C or 200 mg/L IMZ at 40 degrees C was almost completely inhibited, while the addition of SBC at

  4. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    rendering them less aggressive. Indeed, several published studies have concluded that parenteral DHA--sometimes in quite modest doses--can retard the growth of transplanted tumors in rodents. As an alternative or adjunctive strategy, oral administration of sodium bicarbonate, by normalizing the extracellular pH of tumors, has the potential to boost the activity of SCTV2 in tumor cells, thereby promoting increased ascorbate uptake. Indeed, the utility of oral sodium bicarbonate for suppressing metastasis formation in nude mice xenografted with a human breast cancer has been reported. Hence, oral sodium bicarbonate and intravenous DHA may have the potential to blunt the aggressiveness of certain cancers in which suboptimal intracellular ascorbate levels contribute to elevated HIF-1 activity. PMID:23916956

  5. Acetate dialysate versus bicarbonate dialysate: a continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S M; Henrich, W L

    1987-01-01

    The use of bicarbonate dialysate as the buffer during routine dialysis is growing. This discussion reviews several of the comparative trials in which bicarbonate and acetate buffers have been tested. Effects of the two buffers on BP, cardiac function, and pulmonary performance are discussed. Costs of the two systems are also compared. Patients who seem most likely to benefit from bicarbonate dialysate include those with a reduced muscle mass in whom a high sodium dialysate has not prevented hypotension. PMID:3028133

  6. Gram-scale solution-phase synthesis of selective sodium bicarbonate co-transport inhibitor S0859: in vitro efficacy studies in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Ann M; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Niels; Lauritzen, Gitte; Olesen, Christina W; Honoré Hansen, Steen; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Pedersen, Stine F; Bunch, Lennart

    2012-10-01

    Na(+)-coupled HCO(3)(-) transporters (NBCs) mediate the transport of bicarbonate ions across cell membranes and are thus ubiquitous regulators of intracellular pH. NBC dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases; for instance, NBCn1 is strongly up-regulated in a model of ErbB2-dependent breast cancer, a malignant and widespread cancer with no targeted treatment options, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in NBCn1 genetically link to breast cancer development and hypertension. The N-cyanosulfonamide S0859 has been shown to selectively inhibit NBCs, and its availability on the gram scale is therefore of significant interest to the scientific community. Herein we describe a short and efficient synthesis of S0859 with an overall yield of 45 % from commercially available starting materials. The inhibitory effect of S0859 on recovery of intracellular pH after an acid load was verified in human and murine cancer cell lines in Ringer solutions. However, S0859 binds very strongly to components in plasma, and accordingly, measurements on isolated murine tissues showed no effect of S0859 at concentrations up to 50 μM. PMID:22927258

  7. Sodium arsenite potentiates the clastogenicity and mutagenicity of DNA cross linking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, T.C.; Lee, K.C.; Tzeng, Y.J.; Huang, R.Y.; Jan, K.Y.

    1986-01-01

    To see if sodium arsenite enhances the clastogenicity and the mutagenicity of DNA crosslinking agents, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human skin fibroblasts were exposed to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-Pt(II)) or 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA) and then to sodium arsenite. The results indicate that the clastogenicity of cis-Pt(II) and 8-MOP pllus UVA are enhanced by the post-treatment with sodium arsenite. Chromatid breaks and exchanges are predominantly increased in doubly treated cells. Furthermore, the mutagenicity of cis-Pt(II) at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase locus is also potentiated by sodium arsenite in CHO cells

  8. Role of sodium tungstate as a potential antiplatelet agent

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ruiz, Rebeca; Pino, Marc; Hurtado, Begoña; García de Frutos, Pablo; Caballo, Carolina; Escolar, Ginés; Gomis, Ramón; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Platelet inhibition is a key strategy in the management of atherothrombosis. However, the large variability in response to current strategies leads to the search for alternative inhibitors. The antiplatelet effect of the inorganic salt sodium tungstate (Na2O4W), a protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitor, has been investigated in this study. Methods Wild-type (WT) and PTP1B knockout (PTP1B−/−) mice were treated for 1 week with Na2O4W to study platelet function with the platelet function analyzer PFA-100, a cone-and-plate analyzer, a flat perfusion chamber, and thrombus formation in vivo. Human blood aliquots were incubated with Na2O4W for 1 hour to measure platelet function using the PFA-100 and the annular perfusion chamber. Aggregometry and thromboelastometry were also performed. Results In WT mice, Na2O4W treatment prolonged closure times in the PFA-100 and decreased the surface covered (%SC) by platelets on collagen. Thrombi formed in a thrombosis mice model were smaller in animals treated with Na2O4W (4.6±0.7 mg vs 8.9±0.7 mg; P<0.001). Results with Na2O4W were similar to those in untreated PTP1B−/− mice (5.0±0.3 mg). Treatment of the PTP1B−/− mice with Na2O4W modified only slightly this response. In human blood, a dose-dependent effect was observed. At 200 μM, closure times in the PFA-100 were prolonged. On denuded vessels, %SC and thrombi formation (%T) decreased with Na2O4W. Neither the aggregating response nor the viscoelastic clot properties were affected. Conclusion Na2O4W decreases consistently the hemostatic capacity of platelets, inhibiting their adhesive and cohesive properties under flow conditions in mice and in human blood, resulting in smaller thrombi. Although Na2O4W may be acting on platelet PTP1B, other potential targets should not be disregarded. PMID:26060394

  9. Discovery, development, and clinical application of sugammadex sodium, a selective relaxant binding agent

    PubMed Central

    Welliver, Mark; McDonough, John; Kalynych, Nicholas; Redfern, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Neuromuscular blockade, induced by neuromuscular blocking agents, has allowed prescribed immobility, improved surgical exposure, optimal airway management conditions, and facilitated mechanical ventilation. However, termination of the effects of neuromuscular blocking agents has, until now, remained limited. A novel cyclodextrin encapsulation process offers improved termination of the paralytic effects of aminosteroidal non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. Sugammadex sodium is the first in a new class of drug called selective relaxant binding agents. Currently, in clinical trials, sugammadex, a modified gamma cyclodextrin, has shown consistent and rapid termination of neuromuscular blockade with few side effects. The pharmacology of cyclodextrins in general and sugammadex in particular, together with the results of current clinical research are reviewed. The ability of sugammadex to terminate the action of neuromuscular blocking agents by direct encapsulation is compared to the indirect competitive antagonism of their effects by cholinesterase inhibitors. Also discussed are the clinical implications that extend beyond fast, effective reversal, including numerous potential perioperative benefits. PMID:19920893

  10. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to conserve water) Too much salt or sodium bicarbonate in the diet Use of certain medicines, including corticosteroids, laxatives, lithium, and medicines such as ibuprofen or naproxen Lower than normal sodium level is called hyponatremia. It may be due ...

  11. Preventive and curative activity of combined treatments of sodium carbonates and Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 to control postharvest green mold of citrus fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preventive and curative activity of 2 min dips in 3% sodium carbonate (SC) or sodium bicarbonate (SBC) aqueous solutions heated to 40ºC, alone of followed by the application of 2 x 108 CFU/ml of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans CPA-2 (BA), in the control of postharvest green mold, caused by ...

  12. [Half-molar sodium-lactate: The osmotic agent we are looking for?].

    PubMed

    Aramendi, I; Manzanares, W; Biestro, A

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is the most important modifiable factor with predictive negative value in brain injury patients. Osmotherapy is the most important first level specific measure in the treatment of ICH. Mannitol 20%, and 3, 7.5, 10, and 23% hypertonic sodium chloride are the most commonly used osmotic agents in the neurocritical care setting. Currently, controversy about the best osmotic agent remains elusive. Therefore, over the past few years, half-molar sodium lactate has been introduced as a new osmotic agent to be administered in the critically ill. Lactate is able to prevent hyperchloremia, as well as its adverse effects such as hyperchloremic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Furthermore, lactate may also be used by glia as energy substrate in brain injury patients. Half-molar sodium lactate would also have a more potent and long-lasting effect decreasing intracellular osmolarity and by inhibiting neuronal volume control mechanisms. Pioneering researches in patients with traumatic brain injury have shown a more significant effect than mannitol on the control of ICH. In addition, in this group of patients this solution appears to be beneficial in preventing episodes of ICH. However, future research is necessary to corroborate or not these promising results. PMID:26655973

  13. [Functioning biological activity of mean mineralized sodium bicarbonate in water from the "Pitoniakówka" source in Szczawnica, designed for health resort potable cures].

    PubMed

    Drobnik, M; Latour, T

    2001-01-01

    In the experiments on animals the biological activity of the water from its intake "Pitoniakówka" (outflow B + C + D + G) in Szczawnica has been determined. The basic investigations were carried out on rats whom in the course of 24 days the investigated water was being administered to drink ad libitum or by probe in a single daily dose of 10.7 ml/kg of body weight. It has been ascertained that the water caused a statistically significant increase of the concentration of sodium and a fall of the levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium, total cholesterol, the HDL fraction of cholesterol, total lipids in the blood serum, also of hematocrit, hemoglobin and erythrocytes. The investigated water inhibited the motor activity of the small intestine of the rabbit, caused increased urination and increased water turnover in the organism. A long-lasting application of the investigated water may lead to the genesis of metabolic acidosis. There was not observed any cholagonic and any chologenic activity of the investigated water in guinea pigs or any effect of that water on the elements of the carbohydrate metabolism, the protein metabolism or on the peripheral blood smear in rats. PMID:11452742

  14. Leachability of retorted oil shale by strong complexometric agents. [Sodium citrates, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Esmaili, E.; Carroll, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Extraction of solid waste materials with complexometric agents may offer a quick and effective method for assessing the potential long-term release of hazardous chemical constituents. Complexometric agent extraction may establish the maximum amount of elements of environmental concern that can be released to the environment and the capability of waste materials to release them. In this study, four samples of directly (DH) and indirectly (IH) retorted oil shales were extracted with deionized-distilled water and strong complexometric agents. The complexometric agent solutions were composed of 0.5M sodium citrate (citrate), 0.05M diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 0.05M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The water extracts were very alkaline with pH values ranging from 11.0 to 11.8 for IH extracts and 12.2 to 12.8 for DH extracts. Sodium, chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were the predominant dissolved species in the IH water extracts. The DH water extracts contained mainly sodium, calcium, chloride, potassium, and sulfate. Water-extractable minor and trace elements were aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, lithium, magnesium, molybdenum, silicon, and strontium. Complexometric extraction released detectable amounts of arsenic, antimony, selenium, lead, vanadium, and zinc. Other elements of environmental concern, including silver, cobalt, chromium, and nickel, were not detected in excess of the limits of quantitation in complexometric extracts. Based upon the analytical results, it was found that the retorted oil shale mineralogy influenced the extracting solution composition, i.e., when comparing the leachates from the IH and DH samples. Also, the complexometric agents hastened the release of certain constituents into solution compared to water extracts. 17 refs., 12 figs., 20 tabs.

  15. Bicarbonate Availability for Vocal Fold Epithelial Defense to Acidic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Durkes, Abigail; Sivasankar, M. Preeti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bicarbonate is critical for acid-base tissue homeostasis. In this study we investigated the role of bicarbonate ion transport in vocal fold epithelial defense to acid challenges. Acidic insults to the larynx are common in gastric reflux, carcinogenesis and metastasis, and acute inflammation. Methods Ion transport was measured in viable, porcine vocal fold epithelium. First, 18 vocal folds were exposed to either the carbonic anhydrase antagonist acetazolamide or to vehicle. Second, 32 vocal folds were exposed to either a control buffer or a bicarbonate-free buffer on their luminal or basolateral surface or both. Third, vocal folds were challenged with acid in the presence of bicarbonate-free or control buffer. Results The vocal fold transepithelial resistance was greater than 300 Ω*cm2, suggesting robust barrier integrity. Ion transport did not change after exposure to acetazolamide (p > 0.05). Exposure to bicarbonate-free buffer did not compromise vocal fold ion transport (p > 0.05). Ion transport increased after acid challenge. This increase approached statistical significance and was the greatest for the control buffer and for the bicarbonate-free buffer applied to the basolateral surface. Conclusions Bicarbonate secretion may contribute to vocal fold defense against acid challenge. Our data offer a potential novel role for bicarbonate as a therapeutic agent to reduce pH abnormalities in the larynx and prevent associated pathological changes. PMID:24574427

  16. Thermodynamic selectivity of functional agents on zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate sequestration.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Wang, Jian; Qiu, Xianxiu; Zhao, Yanxiang; Yip, Yuk-Wang; Law, Ga-Lai; Shih, Kaimin; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Lee, Po-Heng

    2016-11-15

    This study proposes a thermodynamic approach to effectively select functional agents onto zeolite for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sequestration in greywater reuse. We combine isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and quantum chemistry simulation (QCS) to identify the interactions between SDS and agents at the molecular level. Three potential agents, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14TAB), and 14-hydroxy-N,N,N-trimethyltetradecan-1-aminium bromide (C14HTAB), differ in carbon chain length and hydrophilic groups. The ITC titration of SDS with CTAB released the highest heat, followed by those with C14TAB and C14HTAB, as was the same trend for the amounts of SDS adsorbed by the respective functionalized-zeolites. Results suggest that the favorable SDS sorption occurred at the bilayer CTAB-zeolite is driven by enthalpy as similar as the SDS…CTAB interaction found, regardless of the contribution from electrostatic and/or hydrophobic behaviors, while the declined sorption is entropy-driven via the predominant hydrophobic interaction onto the monolayer CTAB-zeolite. The data presented here interpret the nature of molecularly thermodynamic quantities and enable the manipulation of sorption capacity optimization. PMID:27399145

  17. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  18. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:26142998

  19. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  20. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    PubMed Central

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibitors of SGLT2 lower blood glucose independent of the secretion and action of insulin by inhibiting renal reabsorption of glucose, thereby promoting the increased urinary excretion of excess glucose. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are SGLT2 inhibitors approved as treatments for T2DM in the United States, Europe, and other countries. Canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin increase renal excretion of glucose and improve glycemic parameters in patients with T2DM when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antihyperglycemic agents. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is associated with weight reduction, lowered blood pressure, and a low intrinsic propensity to cause hypoglycemia. Overall, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and empagliflozin are well tolerated. Cases of genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections have been more frequent in canagliflozin-, dapagliflozin-, and empagliflozin-treated patients compared with those receiving placebo. Evidence from clinical trials suggests that SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new treatment option for T2DM. PMID:25598831

  1. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  2. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  3. Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

    2010-10-01

    Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 μm/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 μm/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 μm/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 μm/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

  4. Rod phototransduction modulated by bicarbonate in the frog retina: roles of carbonic anhydrase and bicarbonate exchange.

    PubMed Central

    Donner, K; Hemilä, S; Kalamkarov, G; Koskelainen, A; Shevchenko, T

    1990-01-01

    1. Effects on rod phototransduction following manipulation of retinal CO2-HCO3- and H+ fluxes were studied in dark-adapted retinas of the frog and the tiger salamander. 2. Rod photoresponses to brief flashes of light were recorded from the isolated sensory retina as electroretinogram mass receptor potentials and from isolated rods by the suction-pipette technique. The experimental treatments were: (1) varying [CO2] + [HCO3-] in the perfusion fluid: (2) applying acetazolamide (AAA), which inhibits the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA); and (3) applying 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) which blocks exchange mechanisms transporting HCO3- across cell membranes. 3. The concentration of the internal transmitter of the rods, cyclic GMP, was biochemically determined from the rod outer segment layer of retinas that had been incubated in the same solutions as were used for perfusion in the electrophysiological experiments. 4. The introduction of 6 mM-sodium bicarbonate to replace half the buffer of a nominally CO2-HCO3(-)-free (12 mM-phosphate or HEPES, [Na+] constant) Ringer solution doubled the cyclic GMP concentration in the rod outer segment layer and increased the saturating response amplitude and the relative sensitivity of rods in the intact retina. 5. The introduction of 0.5 mM-AAA into bicarbonate-containing Ringer solution accelerated the growth of saturated responses and sensitivity. Incubation of the retina in AAA-bicarbonate Ringer solution elevated the concentration of cyclic GMP ninefold compared with the phosphate control. 6. No effects of switching to bicarbonate-AAA Ringer solution were observed in the photocurrent of isolated rods drawn into suction pipettes with only the outer segment protruding into the perfusion fluid. The target of AAA is probably the CA-containing Müller cell. 7. The introduction of DIDS into the perfusate (at normal pH 7.5) set off a continuous decay of photoresponses which finally abolished light sensitivity

  5. In-situ method for treating residual sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  6. In-Situ Method for Treating Residual Sodium

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Steven R.; Henslee, S. Paul

    2005-07-19

    A unique process for deactivating residual sodium in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) systems which uses humidified (but not saturated) carbon dioxide at ambient temperature and pressure to convert residual sodium into solid sodium bicarbonate.

  7. Altered expression level of Escherichia coli proteins in response to treatment with the antifouling agent zosteric acid sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Villa, Federica; Remelli, William; Forlani, Fabio; Vitali, Alberto; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2012-07-01

    Zosteric acid sodium salt is a powerful antifouling agent. However, the mode of its antifouling action has not yet been fully elucidated. Whole cell proteome of Escherichia coli was analysed to study the different protein patterns expressed by the surface-exposed planktonic cells without and with sublethal concentrations of the zosteric acid sodium salt. Proteomic analysis revealed that at least 27 proteins showed a significant (19 upregulated and 8 downregulated, P < 0.001) altered expression level in response to the antifoulant. The proteomic signatures of zosteric acid sodium salt-treated cells are characterized by stress-associated (e.g. AhpC, OsmC, SodB, GroES, IscU, DnaK), motility-related (FliC), quorum-sensing-associated (LuxS) and metabolism/biosynthesis-related (e.g. PptA, AroA, FabD, FabB, GapA) proteins. Consistent with the overexpression of LuxS enzyme, the antifouling agent increased autoinducer-2 (AI-2) concentration by twofold. Moreover, treated cells experienced a statistically significant but modest increase of reactive oxygen species (+ 23%), tryptophanase (1.2-fold) and indole (1.2-fold) synthesis. Overall, our data suggest that zosteric acid sodium salt acts as environmental cue leading to global stress on E. coli cells, which favours the expression of various protective proteins, the AI-2 production and the synthesis of flagella, to escape from adverse conditions. PMID:22176949

  8. [Comparison of the thermostability of natural (sulfoprolamine and sodium usnate) and synthetic (climbazole and piroctone olamine) antidandruff agents].

    PubMed

    Coiffard, C; Coiffard, L; de Roeck-Holtzhauer, Y

    1999-09-01

    We compared thermostability of various natural (sulfoprolamine and sodium usnate) or synthetic (climbazol and piroctone olamine) antidandruff agents in aqueous diluted solution at pH around 7. Thermodegradation of these solutions was studied by an isothermal method in thermostatically controlled ovens, at three temperatures (50, 70 and 90 degrees C). For each molecule, we determined at 20 degrees C t90% (time necessary to obtain a decrease of 10% of the initial concentration, value which shows the stability of the product). The present study shows that piroctone olamine is the most stable antidandruff agent among those studied. PMID:10520510

  9. Human cardiovascular response to sympathomimetic agents during head-down bed rest: the effect of dietary sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. J.; Stuart, C. A.; Fortney, S. M.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Chen, Y. M.; Whitson, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in sympathoadrenal function and cardiovascular deconditioning have long been recognized as a feature of the physiological adaptation to microgravity. The deconditioning process, coupled with altered hydration status, is thought to significantly contribute to orthostatic intolerance upon return to Earth gravity. The cardiovascular response to stimulation by sympathomimetic agents before, during, and after exposure to simulated microgravity was determined in healthy volunteers equilibrated on normal or high sodium diets in order to further the understanding of the deconditioning process.

  10. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  13. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  18. Complications from Dual Roles of Sodium Hydride as a Base and as a Reducing Agent

    PubMed Central

    Hesek, Dusan; Lee, Mijoon; Noll, Bruce C.; Fisher, Jed F.; Mobashery, Shahriar

    2012-01-01

    Sodium hydride is a common reagent for substrate activation in nucleophilic substitution reactions. Sodium hydride can behave both as a base and as a source of hydride. This dual ability in the presence of an electrophile such as benzyl bromide results in the formation of byproducts when dimethylformamide or acetonitrile are used as solvents for these reactions. The structural nature of these byproducts is revealed in this report. PMID:19215116

  19. Bicarbonate transport in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Alka, Kumari; Casey, Joseph R

    2014-09-01

    Bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) has a central place in human physiology as the waste product of mitochondrial energy production and for its role in pH buffering throughout the body. Because bicarbonate is impermeable to membranes, bicarbonate transport proteins are necessary to enable control of bicarbonate levels across membranes. In humans, 14 bicarbonate transport proteins, members of the SLC4 and SLC26 families, function by differing transport mechanisms. In addition, some anion channels and ZIP metal transporters contribute to bicarbonate movement across membranes. Defective bicarbonate transport leads to diseases, including systemic acidosis, brain dysfunction, kidney stones, and hypertension. Altered expression levels of bicarbonate transporters in patients with breast, colon, and lung cancer suggest an important role of these transporters in cancer. PMID:25270914

  20. Mobilization of arsenic from subsurface sediments by effect of bicarbonate ions in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Anawar, Hossain M; Akai, Junji; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2004-02-01

    Arsenic leaching by bicarbonate ions has been investigated in this study. Subsurface sediment samples from Bangladesh were treated with different carbonate and bicarbonate ions and the results demonstrate that the arsenic leaching efficiency of the carbonate solutions decreased in the order of Na2CO3>NaHCO3>BaCO3>MnCO3. Sodium carbonate and bicarbonate ions extracted arsenic most efficiently; Na2CO3 leached maximum 118.12 microg/l of arsenic, and NaHCO3, 94.56 microg/l of arsenic from the Ganges delta sediments after six days of incubation. The arsenic concentrations extracted in the batch experiments correlated very well with the bicarbonate concentrations. The kinetics study of arsenic release indicates that arsenic-leaching rate increased with reaction time in bicarbonate solutions. Bicarbonate ions can extract arsenic from sediment samples in both oxic and anoxic conditions. A linear relationship found between arsenic contents in core samples and those in leachates suggests that dissolved arsenic concentration in groundwater is related to the amount of arsenic in aquifer sediments. In batch experiment, bicarbonate solutions effectively extracted arsenic from arsenic adsorbed iron oxyhydroxide, reflecting that bicarbonate solutions may mobilize arsenic from iron and manganese oxyhydroxide in sediments that are ubiquitous in subsurface core samples. Carbonate ion may form complexes on the surface sites of iron hydroxide and substitute arsenic from the surface of minerals and sediments resulting in release of arsenic to groundwater. Like in the batch experiment, arsenic and bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater of Bangladesh correlated very well. Therefore, bicarbonate leaching is presumed to be one important mechanism to mobilize arsenic in bicarbonate dominated reducing aquifer of Bangladesh and other parts of the world as well. PMID:14602108

  1. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 298-14-6) is made by the following processes: (1) By treating a solution of potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide;...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Potassium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. Sodium hypochlorite: A promising agent for reducing Botrytis cinerea infection on rose flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea is a fungal pathogen that greatly reduces the postharvest quality of rose flowers. We determined the potential of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), an oxidizer with antimicrobial activity, to reduce the incidence of disease on flowers. A postharvest dip in 200 µL L-1 NaOCl for 10 s at ...

  8. Rescue of the temperature-sensitive, autosomal-recessive mutation R298S in the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1-A characterized by a weakened dimer and abnormal aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Harindarpal S.; Choi, Kun-Young; Kammili, Lakshmi; Popratiloff, Anastas

    2015-01-01

    Background Band keratopathy, an ocular disease that is characterized by hypercalcemia and opaque bands across the cornea, has been associated with kidney disease. Type-II renal tubular acidosis (RTA), a condition in which the kidneys fail to recover bicarbonate (HCO3−) in the proximal tubule of the nephron, results in HCO3− wastage in the urine and low blood pH. The development of these diseases is associated with autosomal-recessive mutations in the Na+-coupled HCO3− cotransporter NBCe1-A located at the basolateral membranes of either cell type. Methods We provide insight into the devastating R298S mutation found in type-II RTA-afflicted individuals using confocal-microscopy imaging of fluorescently-tagged NBCe1-A and NBCe1-A-R298S molecules expressed in human corneal endothelial and proximal tubule cells and from in-depth biophysical studies of their cytoplasmic N-terminal domains (Nt and Nt-R298S), including Nt crystal structure, melting-temperature, and homodimer dissociation constant (KD) analyses. Results We illuminate and rescue trafficking defects of the R298S mutation of NBCe1-A. The KD for Nt monomer-dimer equilibrium is established. The KD for Nt-R298S is significantly higher, but immeasurable due to environmental factors (pH, temperature, concentration) that result in dimer instability leading to precipitation. The crystal structure of Nt-dimer shows that R298 is part of a putative substrate conduit and resides near the dimer interface held together by hydrogen-bond networks. Conclusions The R298S is a temperature-sensitive mutation in Nt that results in instability of the colloidal system leading to abnormal aggregation. General significance Our findings provide new perspectives to the aberrant mechanism of certain ocular pathologies and type-II RTA associated with the R298S mutation. PMID:25743102

  9. New insights into an ancient antibrowning agent: formation of sulfophenolics in sodium hydrogen sulfite-treated potato extracts.

    PubMed

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Waard, Pieter; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-09-28

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) and 4-O-caffeoyl quinic acid. With S, their 2'-sulfo-adducts were found instead, the structures of which were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Also, for minor caffeoyl derivatives and quercetin glycosides, the corresponding sulfo-adducts were observed. Feruloyl and sinapoyl derivatives were not chemically affected by the presence of S. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was thought to be responsible for the formation of the sulfo-adducts. This was confirmed by preparing 2'-sulfo-5-O-caffeoyl quinic acid in a model system using 5-CQA, sodium hydrogen sulfite, and PPO. This sulfo-adduct exhibited a small bathochromic shift (λmax 329 nm) as compared to 5-CQA (λmax 325 nm) and a strong hypochromic shift with an extinction coefficient of 9357±395 M(-1) cm(-1) as compared to 18494±196 M(-1) cm(-1), respectively. The results suggest that whenever S is used as an antibrowning agent, the O-quinone formed with PPO reacts with S to produce sulfo-O-diphenol, which does not participate in browning reactions. PMID:21854040

  10. Application of a proanthocyanidin agent to improve the bond strength of root dentin treated with sodium hypochlorite

    PubMed Central

    Manimaran, V Sujatha; Srinivasulu, Sakhamuri; Rajesh Ebenezar, AV; Mahalaxmi, S; Srinivasan, N

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the application of PA agent that improves the bond strength of root dentin treated with NaOCl. Materials and Methods: Group 1: root canals were irrigated using 0.9% isotonic saline as an irrigant (negative control); Group 2: root canals were irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl (positive control); Group 3: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 10% sodium ascorbate for 10 minutes; Group 4: root canals were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 5% PA for 10 minutes. All the canals were then coated with self-etch dentin bonding agent, filled with resin cement, stored for one day in water, and then cross sectioned into three slabs of 2-mm thickness that were prepared and tested for microtensile bond strength. Results: The results demonstrated that 5.25% NaOCl caused significant reduction (P<0.05) in the bond strength, but this can be reversed by 5% PA significantly more than the 10% sodium ascorbate. PMID:22025839

  11. Preventive effects of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kaido, Fumie; Kagawa, Toshiki; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2007-08-16

    Although HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as statins are the most widely used cholesterol-lowering agents, there is a risk of myopathy or rhabdmyolysis occurring in patients taking these drugs. It has been reported that a number of lipophilic statins cause apoptosis in various cells, but it is still not clear whether intracellular acidification is involved in statin-induced apoptosis. There have been few studies aimed at identifying compounds that suppress statin-induced myotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the relationship between cerivastatin-induced apoptosis and intracellular acidification and the effect of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis using an RD cell line as a model of in vitro skeletal muscle. Cerivastatin reduced the number of viable cells and caused dramatic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, cerivastatin-induced apoptosis was associated with intracellular acidification and caspase-9 and -3/7 activation. On the other hand, bicarbonate suppressed cerivastatin-induced pH alteration, caspase activation, morphological change and reduction of cell viability. Accordingly, bicarbonate suppressed statin-induced apoptosis. The strategy to combine statins with bicarbonate can lead to reduction in the chance of the severe adverse events including myopathy or rhabdmyolysis. PMID:17553641

  12. The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

  13. [Effect of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and antifoaming agents on the endonuclease activity of Serratia marcescens].

    PubMed

    Serov, G D; Selina, A V

    1982-01-01

    The effect of sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (sulfonol) and certain froth breakers on the activity of endonuclease was studied in the cultural broth of Serratia marcescens in order to find out whether sulfonol could be used for limiting the infection. Sulfonol was found to have no effect on the cultural growth; it increased the activity of endonuclease in the cultural broth, and the peak of the activity appeared earlier than in the control medium. Propanol B-400 was shown to be the best froth breaker. PMID:6292671

  14. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  15. Curcumin, the Main Part of Turmeric, Prevents Learning and Memory Changes Induced by Sodium Metabisulfite, a Preservative Agent, in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Noorafshan, Ali; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Abdollahifar, Mohammad Amin; Rashidiani-Rashidabadi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Sodium metabisulfite is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent in the food, beverage, and drug industries. Neurons are highly sensitive to sulfite toxicity. Curcumin is the main part of turmeric and has neuroprotective effects on a variety of nervous system damages. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of curcumin in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite in rats. The rats were divided into five groups receiving distilled water (solvent of the sulfite), olive oil (solvent of the curcumin), sodium metabisulfite (25 mg/kg/day), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), and sulfite + curcumin. All the animals received daily gavages for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, learning and memory were assessed in a partially-baited eight arm radial maze. The animals treated with sulfite showed fewer correct choices and more reference and working memory errors during the learning phase, at the end of the learning phase, and during the retention testing (p<0.001). The study results demonstrated that sulfite-exposure was associated with impaired learning and memory in rats. Adding curcumin to the rat nutrition plays a protective role in learning and memory after exposure to sulfite. PMID:23585719

  16. Enteric-coated tablet of risedronate sodium in combination with phytic acid, a natural chelating agent, for improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong S; Jang, Sun W; Son, Miwon; Kim, Byoung M; Kang, Myung J

    2016-01-20

    The oral bioavailability (BA) of risedronate sodium (RS), an antiresorptive agent, is less than 1% due to its low membrane permeability as well as the formation of non-absorbable complexes with multivalent cations such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, to increase oral BA of the bisphosphonate, a novel enteric-coated tablet (ECT) dosage form of RS in combination with phytic acid (IP6), a natural chelating agent recognized as safe, was formulated. The chelating behavior of IP6 against Ca(2+), including a stability constant for complex formulation was characterized using the continuous variation method. Subsequently, in vitro dissolution profile and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the novel ECT were evaluated comparatively with that of the marketed product (Altevia, Sanofi, US), an ECT containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, in beagle dogs. The logarithm of stability constant for Ca(2+)-IP6 complex, an equilibrium constant approximating the strength of the interaction between two chemicals to form complex, was 19.05, which was 3.9-fold (p<0.05) and 1.7-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of Ca(2+)-RS and Ca(2+)-EDTA complexes. The release profile of RS from both enteric-coated dosage forms was equivalent, regardless of the type of chelating agent. An in vivo absorption study in beagle dogs revealed that the maximum plasma concentration and area under the curve of RS after oral administration of IP6-containing ECT were approximately 7.9- (p<0.05) and 5.0-fold (p<0.05) higher than those of the marketed product at the same dose (35mg as RS). Therefore, our study demonstrates the potential usefulness of the ECT system in combination with IP6 for an oral therapy with the bisphosphonate for improved BA. PMID:26594027

  17. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  18. Treatment of Severe Metabolic Alkalosis with Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Bicarbonate Kinetic Equations of Clinical Value.

    PubMed

    Yessayan, Lenar; Yee, Jerry; Frinak, Stan; Kwon, David; Szamosfalvi, Balazs

    2015-01-01

    Concomitant severe metabolic alkalosis, hypernatremia, and kidney failure pose a therapeutic challenge. Hemodialysis to correct azotemia and abnormal electrolytes results in rapid correction of serum sodium, bicarbonate, and urea but presents a risk for dialysis disequilibrium and brain edema. We describe a patient with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with persistent encephalopathy, severe metabolic alkalosis (highest bicarbonate 81 mEq/L), hypernatremia (sodium 157 mEq/L), and kidney failure despite 30 hours of intravenous crystalloids and proton pump inhibitor. We used continuous renal replacement therapy (RRT) with delivered hourly urea clearance of ~3 L/hour (24 hour sustained low efficiency dialysis with regional citrate anticoagulation protocol at blood flow rate 60 ml/min and dialysate flow rate 400 ml/min). To mitigate a pronounced decrease in plasma osmolality while removing urea from this hypernatremic patient, dialysate sodium was set to start at 155 mEq/L then at 150 mEq/L after 6 hours. Serum bicarbonate, urea, and sodium were slowly corrected over 26 hours. This case demonstrates how to regulate and predict the systemic bicarbonate level using single pool kinetic modeling during convective or diffusive RRT. Kinetic modeling provides a valuable tool for systemic blood pH control in future combined use of extracorporeal CO2 removal and continuous RRT systems. PMID:25794247

  19. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a) Potassium... potassium hydroxide with carbon dioxide; (2) By treating a solution of potassium carbonate with...

  3. Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate (ZS-9): A Novel Agent for the Treatment of Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Linder, Kristin E; Krawczynski, Michelle A; Laskey, Dayne

    2016-08-01

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening electrolyte abnormality that may be caused by select medications, underlying organ dysfunction, or alterations in potassium homeostasis. Treatment for this condition has remained largely unchanged since the release of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) in 1958. Despite its widespread use, the safety and efficacy of SPS remains controversial. Two novel potassium-binding resins have emerged in recent years. Patiromer was the first of these to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of hyperkalemia in October 2015. A second potassium-binding resin, a zirconium cyclosilicate currently known as ZS-9, may provide yet another alternative to the archetypal treatment with SPS. ZS-9 is an orally administered nonabsorbed inorganic compound that selectively binds potassium ions in vivo. Two phase III multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials have evaluated ZS-9 for the treatment of acute hyperkalemia. In this review, we discuss the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, safety, and potential place in therapy of ZS-9 for the enhanced elimination of potassium in the setting of hyperkalemia. PMID:27393581

  4. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the bound phosphate associated with the sodium-and-potassium ion-stimulated adenosine triphosphatase in ox brain microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Rodnight, R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The effect of chemical agents on the turnover of the Na+-dependent bound phosphate and the simultaneous Na+-dependent hydrolysis of ATP by a membrane preparation from ox brain was studied at an ATP/protein ratio of 12.5pmol/μg. 2. The agents were added immediately after phosphorylation of the preparation in a medium containing 50mm-sodium chloride and 2.5μm-[γ-32P]ATP. 3. Concentrations of sodium chloride above 150mm, calcium chloride to 20mm and suramin to 1.4mm inhibited both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and concomitantly slowed ATP hydrolysis. At 125mm-sodium chloride dephosphorylation and hydrolysis were slightly slowed without affecting phosphorylation. 4. Ethanol to 1.6m concentration inhibited dephosphorylation without affecting phosphorylation; the bound phosphate was increased and ATP hydrolysis slowed. 5. Ouabain to 4mm concentration partially inhibited ATP hydrolysis and caused a transient (1–2s) rise in bound phosphate followed by a rapid fall to a lower plateau value, which eventually declined to zero by the time ATP hydrolysis was complete. 6. Of the detergents examined Lubrol W, Triton X-100 and sodium deoxycholate had no significant effect on turnover. Sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium decyl sulphate to 3.5mm and 20mm respectively completely inhibited turnover and ATP hydrolysis and stabilized the bound phosphate. PMID:4250238

  5. Gadolinium block of calcium channels: influence of bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Boland, L M; Brown, T A; Dingledine, R

    1991-11-01

    The selectivity of block of voltage-activated barium (Ba2+) currents by lanthanide ions was studied in a rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cell line (F11-B9), rat and frog peripheral neurons, and rat cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Gadolinium (Gd3+) produced a dose-dependent and complete inhibition of whole-cell Ba2+ current in all cells studied, including cells expressing identified dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type currents and omega-conotoxin-sensitive N-type currents. Like Gd3+, lutetium (Lu3+) and lanthanum (La3+) blocked all Ba2+ current with little selectivity for different components of the whole-cell current. Gd3+ block of Ba2+ currents was incomplete, however, when sodium bicarbonate (5-22.6 mM) was added to the standard HEPES-buffered external Ba2+ solution. In rat DRG neurons and F11-B9 cells, a fraction of the whole-cell Ba2+ current recorded in the presence of bicarbonate was resistant to block by saturating concentrations of Gd3+ (50-100 microM). The resistant current inactivated more rapidly than the original current giving the appearance that, under these conditions, Gd3+ block is more selective for the slowly inactivating component of the whole-cell current. Bicarbonate modification of Gd3+ block occurred both before and after omega-conotoxin block of N-type currents in rat DRG neurons, suggesting that even in the presence of bicarbonate, Gd3+ block was not selective for N-type currents. PMID:1786527

  6. Cytological and comparative proteomic analyses on male sterility in Brassica napus L. induced by the chemical hybridization agent monosulphuron ester sodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility i...

  7. Assessment of sodium hypochlorite and acidified sodium chlorite as antimicrobial agents to inhibit growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora on shredded carrots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of cold tap water, sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (100, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm) washes on survival and growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated onto shredded carrots was determined after treatment and 7 and 14 days of storage. Growth of total mesophilic...

  8. Hyparrhenia hirta: A potential protective agent against hematotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium nitrate in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz-Ketata, Hanen; Salah, Ghada Ben; Mahjoubi, Amira; Aidi, Zied; Kallel, Choumous; Kammoun, Hassen; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Zeghal, Najiba

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the adverse hematotoxic and genotoxic effects of water nitrate pollution on male adult rats and the use of hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract in alleviating these effects. Sodium nitrate (NaNO3 ) was administered to adult rats by oral gavage at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) bw daily for 50 days, while hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract was given by drinking water at a dose of 1.5 mg mL(-1) (200 mg kg(-1) bw). The NaNO3 -treated group showed a significant decrease in red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit and a significant increase in total white blood cell, in neutrophil and eosinophil counts. Platelet count, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained unchanged in treated groups compared to those of controls. Meanwhile, the results showed a marked reduction in the antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, along with an elevation in the level of lipid peroxidation and a reduction in the total glutathione content, indicating the induction of oxidative stress in the erythrocytes of NaNO3 -treated group. Interestingly, NaNO3 treatment showed a significant increase in the frequencies of total chromosomal aberrations, aberrant metaphases and micronucleus in bone-marrow cells. The oxidative stress induced by nitrate treatment might be the major cause for chromosomal rearrangements as free radicals leading to DNA damage. Hyparrhenia hirta methanolic extract appeared to be effective against hematotoxic and genotoxic changes induced by nitrate, as evidenced by the improvement of the markers cited above. PMID:24740966

  9. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Oscar A; Núñez-Villena, Felipe; Soto, Sarita E; Ugalde, José Manuel; López-Solís, Remigio; Toledo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis. PMID:22688915

  10. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  13. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors from Natural Products: Discovery of Next-Generation Antihyperglycemic Agents.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chang-Ik

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition associated with the metabolic impairment of insulin actions, leading to the development of life-threatening complications. Although many kinds of oral antihyperglycemic agents with different therapeutic mechanisms have been marketed, their undesirable adverse effects, such as hypoglycemia, weight gain, and hepato-renal toxicity, have increased demand for the discovery of novel, safer antidiabetic drugs. Since the important roles of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) for glucose homeostasis in the kidney were recently elucidated, pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 has been considered a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Since the discovery of the first natural SGLT2 inhibitor, phlorizin, several synthetic glucoside analogs have been developed and introduced into the market. Furthermore, many efforts to find new active constituents with SGLT2 inhibition from natural products are still ongoing. This review introduces the history of research on the development of early-generation SGLT2 inhibitors, and recent progress on the discovery of novel candidates for SGLT2 inhibitor from several natural products that are widely used in traditional herbal medicine. PMID:27618891

  14. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  15. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0.1 percent by weight of the pectin. ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin in accordance with the...

  16. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  17. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does not exceed 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385 Food... Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present in pectin...

  18. 21 CFR 173.385 - Sodium methyl sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pectin by sulfuric acid and methyl alcohol and subsequent treatment with sodium bicarbonate. (b) It does... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium methyl sulfate. 173.385 Section 173.385... CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.385 Sodium methyl sulfate. Sodium methyl sulfate may be present...

  19. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. PMID:26574184

  20. Cation-coupled bicarbonate transporters.

    PubMed

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-10-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3(-) transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3(-) and associated with Na(+) and Cl(-) movement. The first Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na(+)-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3(-) transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  1. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2016-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7 gene product); the Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger NDCBE (SLC4A8 gene product); and NBCn2/NCBE (SLC4A10 gene product), which has been characterized as an electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter or a Na+-driven Cl,HCO3-exchanger. Despite the similarity in amino acid sequence and predicted structure among the NCBTs of the SLC4-family, they exhibit distinct differences in ion dependency, transport function, pharmacological properties, and interactions with other proteins. In epithelia, NCBTs are involved in transcellular movement of acid-base equivalents and intracellular pH control. In nonepithelial tissues, NCBTs contribute to intracellular pH regulation; and hence, they are crucial for diverse tissue functions including neuronal discharge, sensory neuron development, performance of the heart, and vascular tone regulation. The function and expression levels of the NCBTs are generally sensitive to intracellular and systemic pH. Animal models have revealed pathophysiological roles of the transporters in disease states including metabolic acidosis, hypertension, visual defects, and epileptic seizures. Studies are being conducted to understand the physiological consequences of genetic polymorphisms in the SLC4-members, which are associated with cancer, hypertension, and drug addiction. Here, we describe the current knowledge regarding the function, structure, and regulation of the mammalian cation-coupled HCO3− transporters of the SLC4-family. PMID:25428855

  2. Sodium bicarbonate makes sense for small plant retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Frounfelker, R.E. )

    1989-10-01

    This article discusses the flue gas scrubbing technologies available for small waste to energy plant use and examines one technology application at a plant in Sitka, Alaska. The topics covered include the Sitka generator, the system description, chemical reactions with baking soda, testing methods and assumptions, system economics and system testing results.

  3. Ability of sat-1 to transport sulfate, bicarbonate, or oxalate under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Krick, Wolfgang; Schnedler, Nina; Burckhardt, Gerhard; Burckhardt, Birgitta C

    2009-07-01

    Tubular reabsorption of sulfate is achieved by the sodium-dependent sulfate transporter, NaSi-1, located at the apical membrane, and the sulfate-anion exchanger, sat-1, located at the basolateral membrane. To delineate the physiological role of rat sat-1, [(35)S]sulfate and [(14)C]oxalate uptake into sat-1-expressing oocytes was determined under various experimental conditions. Influx of [(35)S]sulfate was inhibited by bicarbonate, thiosulfate, sulfite, and oxalate, but not by sulfamate and sulfide, in a competitive manner with K(i) values of 2.7 +/- 1.3 mM, 101.7 +/- 9.7 microM, 53.8 +/- 10.9 microM, and 63.5 +/- 38.7 microM, respectively. Vice versa, [(14)C]oxalate uptake was inhibited by sulfate with a K(i) of 85.9 +/- 9.5 microM. The competitive type of inhibition indicates that these compounds are most likely substrates of sat-1. Physiological plasma bicarbonate concentrations (25 mM) reduced sulfate and oxalate uptake by more than 75%. Simultaneous application of sulfate, bicarbonate, and oxalate abolished sulfate as well as oxalate uptake. These data and electrophysiological studies using a two-electrode voltage-clamp device provide evidence that sat-1 preferentially works as an electroneutral sulfate-bicarbonate or oxalate-bicarbonate exchanger. In kidney proximal tubule cells, sat-1 likely completes sulfate reabsorption from the ultrafiltrate across the basolateral membrane in exchange for bicarbonate. In hepatocytes, oxalate extrusion is most probably mediated either by an exchange for sulfate or bicarbonate. PMID:19369292

  4. Protective Effect of Sodium Ascorbate on MDPC-23 Odontoblast-Like Cells Exposed to a Bleaching Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Lessa, Fernanda Campos Rosetti; Hebling, Josimeri; de Souza Costa, Carlos Alberto; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of a bleaching agent composed of 0.01% carbamide peroxide (CP; 2.21μg/ml H2O2) on the MDPC-23 odontoblastic cell line, and to determine whether sodium ascorbate (SA) is capable of reducing, or even eliminating, the toxic effects caused by this bleaching agent. Methods: The cells were seeded in wells and incubated for 48 hours. CP and SA were dissolved in a culture medium (DMEM) in order to obtain experimental extracts. Six groups of cells (n=10) were treated as follows: G1: no treatment (control); G2: 0.25 mM SA/60 min; G3: 0.5 mM SA/60 min; G4: 0.25 mM SA+0.01% CP/60 min; G5: 0.5 mM SA+0.01% CP/60 min; and G6: 0.01% CP/60 min. The cell metabolism was evaluated by MTT assay, and the cell morphology was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. The data obtained were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey’s test (α=5%). Results: The percentages of cell metabolism were as follows: G1 (control)=100%; G2=110.06%, G3=108.57%, G4=90.35%, G5=97.63%, and G6=66.88%. Group 6 presented a statistically lower cell metabolism than did the other groups, and the cells that remained on the substrate exhibited changes in their morphology. SA decreased the cytotoxic effects caused by CP, demonstrating its protective effect against the toxic components of this dental product. Conclusions: It was concluded that CP gel has cytopathic effects on MDPC-23 odontoblastic cells, even at low concentrations such as 0.01%. SA at 0.25 mM, and that 0.5 mM is able to protect these cultured cells against the cytotoxic effects of CP. PMID:20613910

  5. Formation of chlorinated breakdown products during degradation of sunscreen agent, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate in the presence of sodium hypochlorite.

    PubMed

    Gackowska, Alicja; Przybyłek, Maciej; Studziński, Waldemar; Gaca, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a new degradation path of sunscreen active ingredient, 2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and 4-methoxycinnamic acid (MCA) in the presence of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), was discussed. The reaction products were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Since HOCl treatment leads to more polar products than EHMC, application of polar extracting agents, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate/n-hexane mixture, gave better results in terms of chlorinated breakdown products identification than n-hexane. Reaction of EHMC with HOCl lead to the formation of C=C bridge cleavage products such as 2-ethylhexyl chloroacetate, 1-chloro-4-methoxybenzene, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, and 3-chloro-4-methoxybenzaldehyde. High reactivity of C=C bond attached to benzene ring is also characteristic for MCA, since it can be converted in the presence of HOCl to 2,4-dichlorophenole, 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone, 1,3-dichloro-2-methoxybenzene, 1,2,4-trichloro-3-methoxybenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenole, and 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxyacetophenone. Surprisingly, in case of EHMC/HOCl/UV, much less breakdown products were formed compared to non-UV radiation treatment. In order to describe the nature of EHMC and MCA degradation, local reactivity analysis based on the density functional theory (DFT) was performed. Fukui function values showed that electrophilic attack of HOCl to the C=C bridge in EHMC and MCA is highly favorable (even more preferable than phenyl ring chlorination). This suggests that HOCl electrophilic addition is probably the initial step of EHMC degradation. PMID:26408113

  6. Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Zhongli; Li Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke; Urabe, Osamu

    2001-11-15

    An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm{sup -3} were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel.

  7. [Bicarbonate instead of lactate buffered substitution solution for continuous hemofiltration in intensive care].

    PubMed

    Olbricht, C J; Huxmann-Nägeli, D; Bischoff, H

    1990-04-01

    The substitution fluids applied in continuous haemofiltration contain 40 mmol/l of lactate. This is unphysiological, since administration of large amounts of lactate lowers the phosphorylation potential and increases catabolism. With bicarbonate-buffered fluid three problems may arise: 1. Precipitation of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate; 2. pH is usually 8.4; 3. evaporation of CO2 increases pH. To solve these problems we applied a two-component system consisting of a glass bottle with 160 ml sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and a bag with 4.5 l of acidic solution. Prior to use, the bicarbonate was infused into the bag. The values of Ca++, Mg++, bicarbonate, and pH in this final substitution solution were constant during a 24 hr period after mixing. Precipitation of Ca++ and Mg++ carbonate was prevented by 3 mmol/l of lactic acid in the solution. The pH was 7.37. Evaporation of CO2 was prevented by bags made of special plastic sheeting. The solution was then applied in 7 intensive-care patients suffering from acute renal failure treated by continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration. No side effects of the solution were observed during six days of treatment. The values of Ca++, bicarbonate, pH, and pCO2 remained constant under clinical routine conditions. Hence, bicarbonate-buffered substitution solution is recommended for continuous haemofiltration. Continuous haemofiltration is now also available for patients with impaired liver function and increased lactate levels. PMID:2360710

  8. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197160

  9. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 19, which is incorporated... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  13. Pro: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Madhukar

    2016-08-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis is common in dialysis patients. Bicarbonate administration via the dialysate helps maintain the acid-base balance in these patients. Serum bicarbonate level in dialysis patients is determined by several factors that include dietary protein intake, nutritional status and dialysis prescription, etc. Additionally, a meaningful interpretation of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients requires an understanding of complexities involving its measurement. Both very low as well very high levels of serum bicarbonate have been associated with adverse outcomes in observational studies. However, recent observational data, when adjusted for the confounding effects of nutritional status, do not associate higher predialysis serum bicarbonate with adverse consequences. At this time, there are no prospective studies available that have examined the association of serum bicarbonate with hard outcomes in dialysis patients. The ideal level of serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is therefore unknown. This article examines the available data with regard to the benefits of higher predialysis serum bicarbonate. PMID:27411723

  14. Synergistic effect of calcium and bicarbonate in enhancing arsenate release from ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saalfield, Samantha L.; Bostick, Benjamin C.

    2010-09-01

    Many groundwater systems contain anomalously high arsenic concentrations, associated with less than expected retention of As by adsorption to iron (hydr)oxides. Although carbonates are ubiquitous in aquifers, their relationship to arsenate mobilization is not well characterized. This research examines arsenate release from poorly crystalline iron hydroxides in abiotic systems containing calcium and magnesium with bicarbonate under conditions of static and dynamic flow (pH 7.5-8). Aqueous arsenic levels remained low when arsenate-bearing ferrihydrite was equilibrated with artificial groundwater solution containing Ca, Mg, and HCO 3-. In batch titrations in which a solution of Ca and HCO 3- was added repeatedly, the ferrihydrite surface became saturated with adsorbed Ca and HCO 3-, and aqueous As levels increased by 1-2 orders of magnitude. In columns containing Ca or Mg and HCO 3-, As solubility initially mimicked titrations, but then rapidly increased by an additional order of magnitude (reaching 12 μM As). Separately, calcium chloride and other simple salts did not induce As release, although sodium bicarbonate and lactate facilitated minor As release under flow. Results indicate that adsorption of calcium or magnesium with bicarbonate leads to As desorption from ferrihydrite, to a degree greater than expected from competitive effects alone, especially under dynamic flow. This desorption may be an important mechanism of As mobilization in As-impacted, circumneutral aquifers, especially those undergoing rapid mineralization of organic matter, which induces calcite dissolution and the production of dissolved calcium and bicarbonate.

  15. S-adenosyl-L-methionine is able to reverse micronucleus formation induced by sodium arsenite and other cytoskeleton disrupting agents in cultured human cells.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Tzutzuy; García-Montalvo, Verónica; Wise, Carolyn; Cea-Olivares, Raymundo; Poirier, Lionel A; Herrera, Luis A

    2003-07-25

    Deficiencies of folic acid and methionine, two of the major components of the methyl metabolism, correlate with an increment of chromosome breaks and micronuclei. It has been proposed that these effects may arise from a decrease of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), the universal methyl donor. Some xenobiotics, such as arsenic, originate a reduction of SAM levels, and this is believed to alter some methylation processes (e.g. DNA methylation). The aim of the present work was to analyze the effects of exogenous SAM on the micronucleus (MN) frequency induced by sodium arsenite in human lymphocytes treated in vitro and to investigate whether these effects are related to DNA methylation. Results showed a reduction in the MN frequency in cultures treated with sodium arsenite and SAM compared to those treated with arsenite alone. To understand the mechanism by which SAM reduced the number of micronucleated cells, its effect on MN induced by other xenobiotics was also analyzed. Results showed that SAM did not have any effect on the increase in MN frequency caused by alkylating (mitomycin C or cisplatin) or demethylating agents (5-azacytidine, hydralazine, ethionine and procainamide), but it reduced the number of micronucleated cells in those treated with agents that inhibit microtubule polymerization (albendazole sulphoxide and colcemid). Since albendazole sulphoxide and colcemid inhibit microtubule polymerization, we decided to evaluate the effect of SAM on microtubule integrity. Data obtained from these evaluations showed that sodium arsenite, albendazole sulphoxide, and colcemid affect the integrity and organization of microtubules and that these effects are significantly reduced when cultures were treated at the same time with SAM. The data taken all together point out that the positive effects of SAM could be due to its ability to protect microtubules through an unknown mechanism. PMID:12873724

  16. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them. PMID:25629268

  17. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  18. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO−3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO−3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl−). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  19. Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion Involves Two Proton Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.; Haanes, Kristian A.; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H+/HCO3− transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H+-K+-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H+-K+ pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H+-K+ pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H+/HCO3− and fluid transport shows that the H+-K+ pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H+-K+ pumps in pathophysiology. PMID:20978133

  20. Bicarbonate and functional CFTR channel are required for proper mucin secretion and link cystic fibrosis with its mucus phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Ermund, Anna; Ambort, Daniel; Johansson, Malin E.V.; Nilsson, Harriet E.; Thorell, Kaisa; Hebert, Hans; Sjövall, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by a nonfunctional chloride and bicarbonate ion channel (CF transmembrane regulator [CFTR]), but the link to the phenomenon of stagnant mucus is not well understood. Mice lacking functional CFTR (CftrΔ508) have no lung phenotype but show similar ileal problems to humans. We show that the ileal mucosa in CF have a mucus that adhered to the epithelium, was denser, and was less penetrable than that of wild-type mice. The properties of the ileal mucus of CF mice were normalized by secretion into a high concentration sodium bicarbonate buffer (∼100 mM). In addition, bicarbonate added to already formed CF mucus almost completely restored the mucus properties. This knowledge may provide novel therapeutic options for CF. PMID:22711878

  1. Moderator's view: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2016-08-01

    Several observational studies have reported an association between higher serum bicarbonate level and high mortality risk in dialysis patients. However, in such studies mere discovery of associations does not allow one to infer causal relationships. This association may be related to inadequate dietary protein intake that may lead to less acid generation and hence a higher serum bicarbonate level. Since undernutrition is a strong predictor of death in hemodialysis patients, the observed association may be an epiphenomenon and not a biologically plausible relationship. Higher protein and fluid intake between two subsequent hemodialysis treatments may lead to lower serum bicarbonate level. This low bicarbonate level may appear protective, as patients with higher food intake and better appetite generally exhibit greater survival. In the contemporary three-stream proportioning system of hemodialysis treatment, the bicarbonate concentrate is separate from the acid concentrate, and the contribution of the acid concentrate organic acid (acetate, citrate or diacetate) to the delivered bicarbonate pool of the patient is negligible. The concept of 'total buffer' that assumes that the combination of bicarbonate and acetate concentrations in the dialysate are added equally as bicarbonate equivalents is likely wrong and based on the misleading notion that the acetate of the acid concentrate is fully metabolized to bicarbonate in the dialysate. Given these uncertainties it is prudent to avoid excessively high or low bicarbonate levels in dialysis patients. PMID:27411725

  2. Design and characterization of controlled release gastro-retentive floating tablet of an atypical psychotropic agent

    PubMed Central

    Ukawala, Ravikumar; Singhvi, Gautam; Jain, Suresh; Shukla, Vipin; Yadav, Nilesh; Sharma, Sohiny

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to design and evaluate the once daily sustained release matrix type gastro-retentive floating tablet of Quetiapine Fumarate base on hydrophilic matrices of HPMC, sodium CMC and Carbopol. Sodium bicarbonate was incorporated as a gas-generating agent to give buoyancy. In-vitro drug release studies were performed in pH 1.2 buffer using USP type II paddle at 50 rpm. The release rate of drug decreased with increasing polymer proportion of HPMC K15M from 20 to 60 mg. Formulation with desired drug release achieved with combination of sodium CMC and K15M in ratio of 1:3. The drug release mechanism was predominantly found to be Non-Fickian diffusion and Higuchi controlled. PMID:23066221

  3. Micelle enhanced and native spectrofluorimetric methods for determination of sertindole using sodium dodecyl sulfate as sensitizing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kosasy, Amira M.; Hussein, Lobna A.; Sedki, Nehal G.; Salama, Nahla N.

    2016-01-01

    Two stability indicating spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and validated for the determination of sertindole (SER) in the presence of its acid and oxidative degradates at λex 257 nm and λem 335 nm. Method A was based on measuring the native fluorescence of SER using isopropanol as solvent. Method B was based on the enhancement of native fluorescence of SER quenched in aqueous media by using micellar microenvironment created by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) anionic micelles using Britton Robinson Buffer (BRB) pH 3.29 as solvent. Different factors affecting fluorescence intensity; both native and enhanced, were carefully studied to reach the optimum conditions of measurements. The proposed spectrofluorimetric methods were validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and were successfully applied for the determination of SER in bulk powder and pharmaceutical preparation with high sensitivity and stability indicating power. They were also statistically compared to the manufacturer methods with no significant difference in performance.

  4. Biospeciation of tungsten in the serum of diabetic and healthy rats treated with the antidiabetic agent sodium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Gómez, M Milagros; Rodríguez-Fariñas, Nuria; Cañas-Montalvo, Benito; Domínguez, Jorge; Guinovart, Joan; Cámara-Rica, Carmen

    2011-05-30

    It is known that oral administration of sodium tungstate preserves the pancreatic beta cell function in diabetic rats. Healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with sodium tungstate for one, three or six weeks, after which the species of W in serum, were analysed. An increase in serum W with treatment time was observed. After six weeks, the serum W concentration in diabetic rats (70 mg L(-1)) was about 4.6 times higher than in healthy specimens. This different behaviour was also observed for Cu accumulation, while the Zn pattern follows the contrary. The patterns observed in the retention of Cu and Zn may be attributable to a normalization of glycaemia. The speciation analysis of W was performed using 2D separations, including an immunoaffinity packing and a SEC (Size Exclusion Chromatography) column coupled to an ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) for elemental detection. Ultrafiltration data together with SEC-ICP-MS results proved that around 80% of serum W was bound to proteins, the diabetic rats registering a higher W content than their healthy counterparts. Most of the protein-bound W was due to a complex with albumin. An unknown protein with a molecular weight higher than 100 kDa was also found to bind a small amount of W (about 2%). MALDI-TOF (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight) analysis of the desalted and concentrated chromatographic fractions confirmed albumin as the main protein bound to tungstate in rat serum, while no binding to transferrin (Tf) was detected. The interaction between glutathione and W was also evaluated using standard solutions; however, the formation of complexes was not observed. The stability of the complexes between W and proteins when subjected to more stringent procedures, like those used in proteomic methodologies (denaturing with urea or SDS, boiling, sonication, acid media, reduction with β-mercaptoethanol (BME) or DTT (dithiotreitol) and alkylation with

  5. Carbon dioxide capture using Sodium bicarbonate/Sodium carbonate supported on nanoporous Iron(III) oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutcher, Bryce

    Strong evidence exists suggesting that anthropogenic emissions of CO 2, primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels, have been contributing to global climate change, including warming of the atmosphere and acidification of the oceans. These, in turn, lead to other effects such as melting of ice and snow cover, rising sea levels, severe weather patterns, and extinction of life forms. With these detrimental shifts in ecosystems already being observed, it becomes imperative to mitigate anthropogenic CO2. CO2 capture is typically a costly operation, usually due to the energy required for regeneration of the capture medium. Na2CO3 is one potential capture medium with the potential to decrease this energy requirement. Extensively researched as a potential sorbent for CO2, Na2CO3 is well known for its theoretically low energy requirement, due largely to its relatively low heat of reaction compared to other capture technologies. Its primary pitfalls, however, are its extremely low reaction rate during sorption and slow regeneration of Na2CO 3. Before Na2CO3 can be used as a CO2 sorbent, then, it is critical to increase its reaction rate. In order to do so, this project studied nanoporous FeOOH as a potential supporting material for Na2CO3. Because regeneration of the sorbent is the most energy-intensive step when using Na2CO3 for CO 2 sorption, this project focused on the decomposition of NaHCO 3, which is equivalent to CO2 desorption. Using BET, FTIR, XRD, XPS, SEM, TEM, magnetic susceptibility tests, and Mossbauer spectroscopy, we show FeOOH to be thermally stable both with and without the presence of NaHCO3 at temperatures necessary for sorption and regeneration, up to about 200°C. More significantly, we observe that FeOOH not only increases the surface area of NaHCO3, but also has a catalytic effect on the decomposition of NaHCO3, reducing activation energy from 80 kJ/mol to 44 kJ/mol. This reduction in activation energy leads to a significant increase in the reaction rate by a factor of nearly 50, which could translate into a substantial decrease in the cost of using Na2 CO3 for CO2 capture.

  6. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Safwan Abdel; Carter, Paul A; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer–Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50–54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile. PMID:25848220

  7. Design and evaluation of effervescent floating tablets based on hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate using pentoxifylline as a model drug.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Safwan Abdel; Carter, Paul A; Elkordy, Amal Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to design and evaluate effervescent floating gastro-retentive drug delivery matrix tablets with sustained-release behavior using a binary mixture of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate. Pentoxifylline was used as a highly water-soluble, short half-life model drug with a high density. The floating capacity, swelling, and drug release behaviors of drug-loaded matrix tablets were evaluated in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2) at 37°C±0.5°C. Release data were analyzed by fitting the power law model of Korsmeyer-Peppas. The effect of different formulation variables was investigated, such as wet granulation, sodium bicarbonate gas-forming agent level, and tablet hardness properties. Statistical analysis was applied by paired sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance depending on the type of data to determine significant effect of different parameters. All prepared tablets through wet granulation showed acceptable physicochemical properties and their drug release profiles followed non-Fickian diffusion. They could float on the surface of dissolution medium and sustain drug release over 24 hours. Tablets prepared with 20% w/w sodium bicarbonate at 50-54 N hardness were promising with respect to their floating lag time, floating duration, swelling ability, and sustained drug release profile. PMID:25848220

  8. Revitalization of pioglitazone: the optimum agent to be combined with a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    DeFronzo, R A; Chilton, R; Norton, L; Clarke, G; Ryder, R E J; Abdul-Ghani, M

    2016-05-01

    The recently completed EMPA-REG study showed that empagliflozin significantly decreased the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) endpoint, which comprised cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, in patients with high-risk type 2 diabetes (T2DM), primarily through a reduction in cardiovascular death, without a significant decrease in either MI or stroke. In the PROactive study, pioglitazone decreased the MACE endpoint by a similar degree to that observed in the EMPA-REG study, through a marked reduction in both recurrent MI and stroke and a modest reduction in cardiovascular death. These observations suggest that pioglitazone might be an ideal agent to combine with empagliflozin to further reduce cardiovascular events in patients with high-risk diabetes as empagliflozin also promotes salt/water loss and would be expected to offset any fluid retention associated with pioglitazone therapy. In the present paper, we provide an overview of the potential benefits of combined pioglitazone/empagliflozin therapy to prevent cardiovascular events in patients with T2DM. PMID:26919068

  9. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  10. Synthesis and biological evaluation of [18F]tetrafluoroborate: a PET imaging agent for thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging of the sodium/iodide symporter

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui-Osoro, Maite; Sunassee, Kavitha; Weeks, Amanda J.; Berry, David J.; Paul, Rowena L.; Cleij, Marcel; Banga, Jasvinder Paul; O’Doherty, Michael J.; Marsden, Paul K.; Clarke, Susan E. M.; Ballinger, James R.; Szanda, Istvan; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) is a well-established target in thyroid disease and reporter gene imaging using gamma emitters 123I-iodide, 131I-iodide and 99mTc-pertechnetate. However, no PET imaging agent is routinely available. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate 18F-labelled tetrafluoroborate ([18F]TFB) for PET imaging of hNIS. Methods [18F]TFB was prepared by isotopic exchange of BF4− with [18F]fluoride in hot hydrochloric acid and purified using an alumina column. Its identity, purity and stability in serum were determined by HPLC, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectrometry. Its interaction with NIS was assessed in vitro using FRTL-5 rat thyroid cells, with and without stimulation by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), in the presence and absence of perchlorate. Biodistribution and PET imaging studies were performed using BALB/c mice, with and without perchlorate inhibition. Results [18F]TFB was readily prepared with specific activity of 10 GBq/mg. It showed rapid accumulation in FRTL-5 cells that was stimulated by TSH and inhibited by perchlorate, and rapid specific accumulation in vivo in thyroid (SUV = 72 after 1 h) and stomach that was inhibited 95% by perchlorate. Conclusion [18F]TFB is an easily prepared PET imaging agent for rodent NIS and should be evaluated for hNIS PET imaging in humans. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00259-010-1523-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20577737

  11. The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Emir Burak; Yıldırım, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2 × 1 cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

  12. The Effect of Different Topical Agents (Silver Sulfadiazine, Povidone-Iodine, and Sodium Chloride 0.9%) on Burn Injuries in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yüksel, Emir Burak; Yıldırım, Alpagan Mustafa; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2 × 1 cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment. PMID:25328700

  13. Bicarbonate correction of ketoacidosis alters host-pathogen interactions and alleviates mucormycosis.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lin, Lin; Liu, Mingfu; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; French, Samuel; Edwards, John E; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2016-06-01

    Patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) are uniquely predisposed to mucormycosis, an angioinvasive fungal infection with high mortality. Previously, we demonstrated that Rhizopus invades the endothelium via binding of fungal CotH proteins to the host receptor GRP78. Here, we report that surface expression of GRP78 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to physiological concentrations of β-hydroxy butyrate (BHB), glucose, and iron that are similar to those found in DKA patients. Additionally, expression of R. oryzae CotH was increased within hours of incubation with DKA-associated concentrations of BHB, glucose, and iron, augmenting the ability of R. oryzae to invade and subsequently damage endothelial cells in vitro. BHB exposure also increased fungal growth and attenuated R. oryzae neutrophil-mediated damage. Further, mice given BHB developed clinical acidosis and became extremely susceptible to mucormycosis, but not aspergillosis, while sodium bicarbonate reversed this susceptibility. BHB-related acidosis exerted a direct effect on both GRP78 and CotH expression, an effect not seen with lactic acidosis. However, BHB also indirectly compromised the ability of transferrin to chelate iron, as iron chelation combined with sodium bicarbonate completely protected endothelial cells from Rhizopus-mediated invasion and damage. Our results dissect the pathogenesis of mucormycosis during ketoacidosis and reinforce the importance of careful metabolic control of the acidosis to prevent and manage this infection. PMID:27159390

  14. In silico Logistic Model for Table Olive Related Microorganisms As a Function of Sodium Metabisulphite, Cinnamaldehyde, pH, and Type of Acidifying Agent

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco N.

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic/logistic model, based on binary data (growth/no growth), was used to assess the effects of sodium metabisulphite (SM) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN; 0–1000 mg/L) against the main microbial groups found in table olive environment [lactic acid bacteria (LAB), yeasts, and Enterobacteriaceae], according to pH (range 3.5–5.0), and type of acidifying agent (HCl or pyruvic acid). The inhibitory effect of SM depended on the pH while that of CIN was scarcely influenced by it (except for LAB). LAB were more sensitive to SM, while yeasts were to CIN. The use of pyruvic acid for correction of pH always produced a reduction (compared to HCl) of the inhibitory power of both preservatives. The in silico models for HCl showed that, at pH 4.0, and growth probability 0.01, the LAB population might be inhibited by the presence in the medium of 150 mg/L SM or 1000 mg/L CIN, while in the case of yeasts, 450 mg/L SM, or 150 mg/L CIN are required. No growth of Enterobacteriaceae was observed at this (or lower) pH level. The results obtained may contribute to the stabilization of non-thermally treated table olive packaging.

  15. Bicarbonate uptake by Southern Ocean phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassar, Nicolas; Laws, Edward A.; Bidigare, Robert R.; Popp, Brian N.

    2004-06-01

    Marine phytoplankton have the potential to significantly buffer future increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. However, in order for CO2 fertilization to have an effect on carbon sequestration to the deep ocean, the increase in dissolved CO2 must stimulate primary productivity; that is, marine phototrophs must be CO2 limited [, 1993]. Estimation of the extent of bicarbonate (HCO3-) uptake in the oceans is therefore required to determine whether the anthropogenic carbon sources will enhance carbon flux to the deep ocean. Using short-term 14CO2-disequilibrium experiments during the Southern Ocean Iron Experiment (SOFeX), we show that HCO3- uptake by Southern Ocean phytoplankton is significant. Since the majority of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ocean is in the form of bicarbonate, the biological pump may therefore be insensitive to anthropogenic CO2. Approximately half of the DIC uptake observed was attributable to direct HCO3- uptake, the other half being direct CO2 uptake mediated either by passive diffusion or active uptake mechanisms. The increase in growth rates and decrease in CO2 concentration associated with the iron fertilization did not trigger any noticeable changes in the mode of DIC acquisition, indicating that under most environmental conditions the carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) is constitutive. A low-CO2 treatment induced an increase in uptake of CO2, which we attributed to increased extracellular carbonic anhydrase activity, at the expense of direct HCO3- transport across the plasmalemma. Isotopic disequilibrium experimental results are consistent with Southern Ocean carbon stable isotope fractionation data from this and other studies. Although iron fertilization has been shown to significantly enhance phytoplankton growth and may potentially increase carbon flux to the deep ocean, an important source of the inorganic carbon taken up by phytoplankton in this study was HCO3-, whose concentration is negligibly affected by the

  16. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  17. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  18. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  19. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  20. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  1. Chimeric Agents Derived from the Functionalized Amino Acid, Lacosamide, and the α-Aminoamide, Safinamide: Evaluation of Their Inhibitory Actions on Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels, and Antiseizure and Antinociception Activities and Comparison with Lacosamide and Safinamide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The functionalized amino acid, lacosamide ((R)-2), and the α-aminoamide, safinamide ((S)-3), are neurological agents that have been extensively investigated and have displayed potent anticonvulsant activities in seizure models. Both compounds have been reported to modulate voltage-gated sodium channel activity. We have prepared a series of chimeric compounds, (R)-7–(R)-10, by merging key structural units in these two clinical agents, and then compared their activities with (R)-2 and (S)-3. Compounds were assessed for their ability to alter sodium channel kinetics for inactivation, frequency (use)-dependence, and steady-state activation and fast inactivation. We report that chimeric compounds (R)-7–(R)-10 in catecholamine A-differentiated (CAD) cells and embryonic rat cortical neurons robustly enhanced sodium channel inactivation at concentrations far lower than those required for (R)-2 and (S)-3, and that (R)-9 and (R)-10, unlike (R)-2 and (S)-3, produce sodium channel frequency (use)-dependence at low micromolar concentrations. We further show that (R)-7–(R)-10 displayed excellent anticonvulsant activities and pain-attenuating properties in the animal formalin model. Of these compounds, only (R)-7 reversed mechanical hypersensitivity in the tibial-nerve injury model for neuropathic pain in rats. PMID:25418676

  2. Cytological and Comparative Proteomic Analyses on Male Sterility in Brassica napus L. Induced by the Chemical Hybridization Agent Monosulphuron Ester Sodium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhanjie; Cui, Jianmin; Hu, Shengwu; Zhao, Huixian; Chen, Mingshun

    2013-01-01

    Male sterility induced by a chemical hybridization agent (CHA) is an important tool for utilizing crop heterosis. Monosulphuron ester sodium (MES), a new acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicide belonging to the sulphonylurea family, has been developed as an effective CHA to induce male sterility in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). To understand MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed better, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted in this study. Cytological analysis indicated that defective tapetal cells and abnormal microspores were gradually generated in the developing anthers of MES-treated plants at various development stages, resulting in unviable microspores and male sterility. A total of 141 differentially expressed proteins between the MES-treated and control plants were revealed, and 131 of them were further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. Most of these proteins decreased in abundance in tissues of MES-treated rapeseed plants, and only a few increased. Notably, some proteins were absent or induced in developing anthers after MES treatment. These proteins were involved in several processes that may be crucial for tapetum and microspore development. Down-regulation of these proteins may disrupt the coordination of developmental and metabolic processes, resulting in defective tapetum and abnormal microspores that lead to male sterility in MES-treated plants. Accordingly, a simple model of CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed was established. This study is the first cytological and dynamic proteomic investigation on CHA-MES-induced male sterility in rapeseed, and the results provide new insights into the molecular events of male sterility. PMID:24244648

  3. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:12839751

  4. Serum Bicarbonate and Bone Mineral Density in US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L.; Abramowitz, Matthew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting & Participants 9,724 nationally representative adults aged 20 years or older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. Factor Serum bicarbonate level. Outcomes Lumbar and total BMD as well as low lumbar and total bone mass defined as 1.0 SD below sex-specific mean of young adults. Measurements BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate levels were measured in all participants. Results Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD among the total population as well as in sex-specific models (p=0.02 for all three models, p=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate levels among women but not men (p=0.02 and p=0.1, respectively; p=0.8 for interaction); and a significant association was seen among post-menopausal women but not pre-menopausal women (p=0.02 and p=0.2, respectively; p=0.5 for interaction). Compared to women with serum bicarbonate level <24 mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate ≥27 mEq/L had 0.018 g/cm2 higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; p=0.01) and had 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; p=0.05). Limitations Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate level. The subgroup differences are not definitive. Conclusions Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be

  5. The mechanisms of sodium absorption in the human small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Fordtran, John S.; Rector, Floyd C.; Carter, Norman W.

    1968-01-01

    The present studies were designed to characterize sodium transport in the jejunum and ileum of humans with respect to the effects of water flow, sodium concentration, addition of glucose and galactose, and variations in aniomic composition of luminal fluid. In the ileum, sodium absorption occurred against very steep electrochemical gradients (110 mEq/liter, 5-15 mv), was unaffected by the rate or direction of water flow, and was not stimulated by addition of glucose, galactose, or bicarbonate. These findings led to the conclusion that there is an efficiently active sodium transport across a membrane that is relatively impermeable to sodium. In contrast, jejunal sodium (chloride) absorption can take place against only the modest concentration gradient of 13 mEq/liter, was dramatically influenced by water movement, and was stimulated by addition of glucose, galactose, and bicarbonate. The stimulatory effect of glucose and galactose was evident even when net water movement was inhibited to zero by mannitol. These observations led to the conclusion that a small fraction of jejunal sodium absorption was mediated by active transport coupled either to active absorption of bicarbonate or active secretion of hydrogen ions. The major part of sodium absorption, i.e. sodium chloride absorption, appeared to be mediated by a process of bulk flow of solution along osmotic pressure gradients. The stimulatory effect of glucose and galactose, even at zero water flow, was explained by a model in which the active transport of monosaccharide generates a local osmotic force for the absorption of solution (NaCl and water) from the jejunal lumen, which, in the presence of mannitol, is counterbalanced by a reverse flow of pure solvent (H2O) through a parallel set of channels which are impermeable to sodium. Support for the model was obtained by the demonstration that glucose and bicarbonate stimulated the absorption of the nonactively transported solute urea even when net water flow was

  6. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-08-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  7. Treatment of Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning with a Combination of Intravenous Glucagon, Digoxin and Antioxidant Agents

    PubMed Central

    Oghabian, Zohreh; Mehrpour, Omid

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is used to protect stored grains from rodents. It produces phosphine gas (PH3), a mitochondrial poison thought to cause toxicity by blocking the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme and inhibiting oxidative phosphorylation, which results in cell death. AlP poisoning has a high mortality rate among humans due to the rapid onset of cardiogenic shock and metabolic acidosis, despite aggressive treatment. We report a 21-year-old male who was referred to the Afzalipour Hospital, Kerman, Iran, in 2015 after having intentionally ingested a 3 g AlP tablet. He was successfully treated with crystalloid fluids, vasopressors, sodium bicarbonate, digoxin, glucagon and antioxidant agents and was discharged from the hospital six days after admission in good clinical condition. For the treatment of AlP poisoning, the combination of glucagon and digoxin with antioxidant agents should be considered. However, evaluation of further cases is necessary to optimise treatment protocols. PMID:27606117

  8. [Extravasation of chemotherapeutic agents: prevention and therapy].

    PubMed

    Jordan, K; Grothe, W; Schmoll, H-J

    2005-01-01

    Based on the potential to cause local tissue injury drugs are classified as vesicant, irritant and non-irritant. The frequency of extravasation is considered to be between 0.6 % and 6 %. More frequently an inflammatory reaction is caused by thrombophlebitis or a local hypersensitivity reaction following chemotherapy administration rather than by an extravasation. A number of factors are known to increase the risk of extravasation. By the consideration of these risk factors preventive guidelines for the safe administration of chemotherapeutic agents have been published. Central venous devices significantly reduce the risk of extravasation. To date there are no generally approved treatment guidelines for the management of extravasations. Treatment is mostly empirical. Nevertheless some general measures are to be recommended: Firstly, aspiration of the extravasated fluids should be attempted. Furthermore local supportive care such as intermittent topical warming or cooling is at least palliative and to a certain degree reduces the extent of the injury. Beside these non pharmacological therapies the beneficial effects of Dimethylsulfoxid (DMSO) -- or Hyaluronidase-administration dependent on the type of paravasation have been proven. The use of sodium bicarbonate, sodium thiosulfate or corticosteroids is no longer recommended. In the case of extravasation rapid and correct management is crucial for the benefit of any treatment. Therefore, written guidelines for both the handling of cytotoxic agents and also the management of an extravasation should be present in all Departments where cytotoxic agents are administered. In addition to these guidelines an extravasation kit including all necessary materials and drugs to treat extravasations should be available. PMID:15619172

  9. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  10. Proton Fall or Bicarbonate Rise: GLYCOLYTIC RATE IN MOUSE ASTROCYTES IS PAVED BY INTRACELLULAR ALKALINIZATION.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Weber, Tobias; Schmälzle, Jana; Ruminot, Ivàn; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-09-01

    Glycolysis is the primary step for major energy production in the cell. There is strong evidence suggesting that glucose consumption and rate of glycolysis are highly modulated by cytosolic pH/[H(+)], but those can also be stimulated by an increase in the intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Because proton and bicarbonate shift concomitantly, it remained unclear whether enhanced glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were mediated by the changes in intracellular [H(+)] or [HCO3 (-)]. We have asked whether glucose metabolism is enhanced by either a fall in intracellular [H(+)] or a rise in intracellular [HCO3 (-)], or by both, in mammalian astrocytes. We have recorded intracellular glucose in mouse astrocytes using a FRET-based nanosensor, while imposing different intracellular [H(+)] and [CO2]/[HCO3 (-)]. Glucose consumption and glycolytic rate were augmented by a fall in intracellular [H(+)], irrespective of a concomitant rise or fall in intracellular [HCO3 (-)]. Transport of HCO3 (-) into and out of astrocytes by the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) played a crucial role in causing changes in intracellular pH and [HCO3 (-)], but was not obligatory for the pH-dependent changes in glucose metabolism. Our results clearly show that it is the cytosolic pH that modulates glucose metabolism in cortical astrocytes, and possibly also in other cell types. PMID:27422823

  11. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganić, Z. D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.; Vujošević, S. I.; Navarro-Gonzáles, R.; Albarrán-Sanchez, M. G.; Draganić, I. G.

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G( HCOO-)=2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO -3⤦HCOO -+CO -3. The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO -+CO -3 is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO - + HCO -3)=(2±0.4) x 10 3 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, k(COO -+CO -3) = (5±1) x 10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, k(NH 2+HCO -3)< 10 4 dm 3 mol -1 s -1, and k(NH 2+CO -3) = (1.5±0.5) x 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1.

  12. Con: Higher serum bicarbonate in dialysis patients is protective.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, Philippe; Rigothier, Claire; Combe, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Metabolic acidosis is often observed in advanced chronic kidney disease, with deleterious consequences on the nutritional status, bone and mineral status, inflammation and mortality. Through clearance of the daily acid load and a net gain in alkaline buffers, dialysis therapy is aimed at correcting metabolic acidosis. A normal bicarbonate serum concentration is the recommended target in dialysis patients. However, several studies have shown that a mild degree of metabolic acidosis in patients treated with dialysis is associated with better nutritional status, higher protein intake and improved survival. Conversely, a high bicarbonate serum concentration is associated with poor nutritional status and lower survival. It is likely that mild acidosis results from a dietary acid load linked to animal protein intake. In contrast, a high bicarbonate concentration in patients treated with dialysis could result mainly from an insufficient dietary acid load, i.e. low protein intake. Therefore, a high pre-dialysis serum bicarbonate concentration should prompt nephrologists to carry out nutritional investigations to detect insufficient dietary protein intake. In any case, a high bicarbonate concentration should be neither a goal of dialysis therapy nor an index of adequate dialysis, whereas mild acidosis could be considered as an indicator of appropriate protein intake. PMID:27411724

  13. Low Alloy X100 Pipeline Steel Corrosion and Passivation Behavior in Bicarbonate-Based Solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9 with Groundwater Anions: An Electrochemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadala, Ibrahim M.; Alfantazi, Akram

    2015-07-01

    This research investigates the fundamental corrosion and passivation processes occurring on API-X100 pipeline steels before, during, and after passive layer formation in bicarbonate-based simulated soil solutions of pH 6.7 to 8.9. Free corrosion potentials decrease exponentially with bicarbonate (and pH), owing to increased water and bicarbonate reduction in more alkaline conditions and the coupled iron oxidation reaction. Active corrosion rates at potentials slightly above open circuit potential increase with bicarbonate, until a concentration of 1.68 g L-1 sodium bicarbonate (plus dilute amounts of chlorides/sulfate) at which first signs of film formation appear. Thereon, increased bicarbonate concentration generally decreases current densities and resists ferrous-oxide product formations due to improved iron carbonate formation conditions precipitating more durable passive layers. Potentiodynamic polarization in the anodic regime reveals varying electrochemical processes involving interactions between hydroxide, carbonate, and oxide complexes with ferrous, with diverse pH and potential dependencies. The products of corrosion reactions were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and/or X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  14. Methods for the recovery of sulfur components from flue gas and recycle sodium sulfite by reduction-smelting and carbonating to strip hydrogen sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Farin, W.G.

    1980-12-23

    An improved method for recovering sulfur from flue gas which contains sulfur dioxide formed from burning sulfur containing fuels is disclosed. The method first involves the reduction burning of auxilary fuel in the presence of sodium sulfite to convert it to smelt containing sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate. The smelt is dissolved, and the solution reacted with carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and water vapor forming sodium hydrosulfide. The sodium hydrosulfide is reacted with a high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate and stripped with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate and release the sulfides as hydrogen sulfide from the stripper. The hydrogen sulfide released is then converted to sulfur dioxide, sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur. Pressurized carbon dioxide is used for pressure carbonation of recycled solution from the stripper to convert the sodium carbonate to the high concentration of recycled sodium bicarbonate used for stripping. The sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate from the stripper are reacted under pressure with sodium bisulfite in a decarbonator to form sodium sulfite and release carbon dioxide under pressure for use in the pressure carbonation. A portion of the sodium sulfite formed by decarbonation is then reduced in the smelter. The balance of the sodium sulfite is then used for absorption of the sulfur dioxide from the flue gas forming the sodium bisulfite used for decarbonation.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a...

  20. Studies on the mechanism of action of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate in the human jejunum.

    PubMed Central

    Moriarty, K J; Kelly, M J; Beetham, R; Clark, M L

    1985-01-01

    An intestinal perfusion technique has been used to investigate the mechanism of action of the laxative, dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, in the human jejunum. Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate stimulated net secretion of water, sodium, chloride and potassium and inhibited net absorption of glucose and bicarbonate. These changes in water and solute transport were partially reversed by administration of indomethacin (4 mg/kg/day orally for three days), which suggests that they are mediated in part by endogenous prostaglandins. PMID:2414161

  1. Long-term performance of bicarbonate-form anion exchange: removal of dissolved organic matter and bromide from the St. Johns River, FL, USA.

    PubMed

    Walker, Krystal M; Boyer, Treavor H

    2011-04-01

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the long-term performance of magnetic ion exchange (MIEX) treatment using bicarbonate as the mobile counter ion (i.e., MIEX-HCO(3)) and sodium bicarbonate for regeneration. This work is important because there are many unknowns concerning the affinity and regeneration efficiency of bicarbonate-form anion exchange, whereas chloride-form anion exchange (i.e., MIEX-Cl resin) is well-studied. Raw water samples were collected approximately two times per month for one year from a single location on the St. Johns River (SJR), FL, USA. The SJR is characterized by high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC; 12-26 mg C/L) and bromide (550-1100 μg/L), and is being considered as an alternative drinking water supply. Jar tests were conducted using MIEX-HCO(3) resin, and MIEX-Cl resin was used as a baseline for comparison. The same batch of MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resin was used for the entire study, which was accomplished by regenerating the resins after each jar test in concentrated solutions of sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride, respectively, and resulted in 21 regeneration cycles. Maximum removal efficiency was achieved with fresh MIEX-HCO(3) resin and virgin MIEX-Cl resin. Both forms of fresh/virgin MIEX resin also had the same affinity sequence with sulfate ≈ UV-absorbing substance > DOC > bromide. The removal efficiency of both forms of MIEX resin decreased as the number of regeneration cycles increased, with MIEX-HCO(3) resin showing 7-18% lower removals than MIEX-Cl resin after 21 regeneration cycles. The affinity sequence of regenerated MIEX-HCO(3) and MIEX-Cl resins differed from fresh resin with UV-absorbing substances > DOC > sulfate > bromide. Scanning electron microscopy and simulated MIEX-HCO(3) treatment under rapidly changing water quality were also used to improve the understanding of bicarbonate-form anion exchange. The major contribution of this research is a systematic study of the extended use of

  2. Dynamic volume changes in astrocytes are an intrinsic phenomenon mediated by bicarbonate ion flux.

    PubMed

    Florence, Clare M; Baillie, Landon D; Mulligan, Sean J

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes, the major type of non-neuronal cells in the brain, play an important functional role in extracellular potassium ([K(+)](o)) and pH homeostasis. Pathological brain states that result in [K(+)](o) and pH dysregulation have been shown to cause astrocyte swelling. However, whether astrocyte volume changes occur under physiological conditions is not known. In this study we used two-photon imaging to visualize real-time astrocyte volume changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus CA1 region. Astrocytes were observed to swell by 19.0±0.9% in response to a small physiological increase in the concentration of [K(+)](o) (3 mM). Astrocyte swelling was mediated by the influx of bicarbonate (HCO(3-)) ions as swelling was significantly decreased when the influx of HCO(3-) was reduced. We found: 1) in HCO(3-) free extracellular solution astrocytes swelled by 5.4±0.7%, 2) when the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) was blocked the astrocytes swelled by 8.3±0.7%, and 3) in the presence of an extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor astrocytes swelled by 11.4±0.6%. Because a significant HCO(3-) efflux is known to occur through the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) channel, we performed a series of experiments to determine if astrocytes were capable of HCO(3-) mediated volume shrinkage with GABA channel activation. Astrocytes were found to shrink -7.7±0.5% of control in response to the GABA(A) channel agonist muscimol. Astrocyte shrinkage from GABA(A) channel activation was significantly decreased to -5.0±0.6% of control in the presence of the membrane-permeant CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ). These dynamic astrocyte volume changes may represent a previously unappreciated yet fundamental mechanism by which astrocytes regulate physiological brain functioning. PMID:23226475

  3. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, M. P.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3- <=> CO32- + H+, when HCO3- is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80-100 atoms) to represent the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from -6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 < pH < 6.35, where H2CO30 is the dominant dissolved species. When bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution, 10.35. This means that adsorbed carbonate is stable even when the concentration of dissolved CO32- is several orders of magnitude lower. This has a significant effect on surface charge and thus the behaviour of the calcite surface. Our results help explain the potential determining behaviour of the carbonate species in calcite-water systems, particularly in the pH range where the bicarbonate species dominates in water and where the carbonate species dominates at the surface, i.e. when 7.5 < pH < 10.35. Our atomic scale data for the various calcite surface sites provide the needed input to improve and constrain surface complexation modelling and are especially useful for predicting behaviour in systems where experiments are difficult or impossible, such as at high temperature and pressure.

  4. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Pengelly, J J L; Förster, B; von Caemmerer, S; Badger, M R; Price, G D; Whitney, S M

    2014-07-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tob(BicA) lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tob(BicA) leaves (0.12 μmol m(-2), ≈7mg m(-2)) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 μmol m(-2)) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tob(BicA) plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

  5. Bicarbonate promotes a cleavage of lactone ring of dehydroascorbate.

    PubMed

    Koshiishi, I; Mamura, Y; Imanari, T

    1998-02-01

    The half-life of dehydroascorbate (DHA) in human plasma is only a few minutes. This DHA disappearance is caused by a cleavage of lactone ring. Similarly, when DHA was incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (D-MEM), which stood in atmosphere of 5% CO2-95% air, the rapid transformation of DHA into 2,3-diketogulonate (2,3-DKG) is also observed. These observations suggest that both human plasma and D-MEM contain a common component, which promotes the hydrolysis of DHA. In the present study, this component was identified to be bicarbonate which acts as a general base catalyst. Direct evidence for this mechanism was obtained as follows: (1) significant hydrolysis of DHA in the bicarbonate-free D-MEM (pH 7.40) was not observed; (2) hydrolysis of DHA in Tris-HCl buffer at constant pH (7.4) increases with increasing bicarbonate concentration; and (3) significant hydrolysis of DHA in the decarbonated ultrafiltrate of plasma was not observed. These results suggest that DHA hydrolysis may be controlled by the variation of CO2 pressure in circulating blood. PMID:9528661

  6. The Biological Buffer, Bicarbonate/CO2, Potentiates H2O2-Mediated Inactivation of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haiying; Singh, Harkewal; Parsons, Zachary D.; Lewis, Sarah M.; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Seiner, Derrick R.; LaButti, Jason N.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Tanner, John J.; Gates, Kent S.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is a cell signaling agent that inactivates protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) via oxidation of their catalytic cysteine residue. PTPs are inactivated rapidly during H2O2-mediated cellular signal transduction processes but, paradoxically, hydrogen peroxide is a rather sluggish PTP inactivator in vitro. Here we present evidence that the biological buffer, bicarbonate/CO2, potentiates the ability of H2O2 to inactivate PTPs. The results of biochemical experiments and high resolution crystallographic analysis are consistent with a mechanism involving oxidation of the catalytic cysteine residue by peroxymonocarbonate generated via the reaction of H2O2 with HCO3 −/CO2. PMID:21913686

  7. Determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples by flow injection-cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry using sodium borohydride as the sole reducing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Río Segade, Susana; Tyson, Julian F.

    2003-05-01

    A simple, fast, precise and accurate method to determine inorganic mercury and total mercury in biological and environmental samples was developed. The optimized flow-injection mercury system permitted the separate determination of inorganic mercury and total mercury using sodium borohydride as reducing agent. Inorganic mercury was selectively determined after reduction with 10 -4% w/v sodium borohydride, while total mercury was determined after reduction with 0.75% w/v sodium borohydride. The calibration graphs were linear up to 30 ng ml -1. The detection limits of the method based on three times the standard deviation of the blank were 24 and 3.9 ng l -1 for total mercury and inorganic mercury determination, respectively. The relative standard deviation was less than 1.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 mercury standard. As a means of checking method performance, deionized water and pond water samples were spiked with methylmercury and inorganic mercury; quantitative recovery for total mercury and inorganic mercury was obtained. The accuracy of the method was verified by analyzing alkaline and acid extracts of five biological and sediment reference materials. Microwave-assisted extraction procedures resulted in higher concentrations of recovered mercury species, lower matrix interference with mercury determination and less time involved in sample treatment than conventional extraction procedures. The standard addition method was only needed for calibration when biological samples were analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 1.2-19 and 6.6-18 ng g -1 in biological and sediment samples for inorganic mercury and total mercury determination, respectively.

  8. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination of both, in a double-blind randomized placebo (PLA) controlled design. PT was executed on 4 occasions, on separate days within a week, and in a non-fasted state, with standardized training being performed the day before PT. Protocols were as follows: (i) CAF, 3 mg/kg, 45 min prior to PT + calcium as SB-PLA; (ii) SB, 0.3 g/kg, 75 min prior to PT + dextrose as CAF-PLA; (iii) CAF + SB; and (iv) PLA; CAF-PLA + SB-PLA. The total distance in the CAF (1878 ± 97 m) and CAF + SB (1877 ± 97 m) was longer than in the PLA (1865 ± 104 m; P < 0.05) and SB (1860 ± 96 m; P < 0.01). The mean power in CAF (400 ± 58 W) and CAF + SB (400 ± 58 W) was higher than the PLA (393 ± 61 W; P < 0.05) and SB (389 ± 57 W; P < 0.01). In CAF and CAF + SB, power was higher (P < 0.05) relative to PLA in the last half (4-6 min) of PT. Trials with CAF were more effective in light-weight rowers (1.0% ± 0.8% improvement in distance; P < 0.05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate does not appear to be ergogenic, but it does not abolish the ergogenic effect of caffeine. PMID:24999004

  9. Regulation of pH in rat brain synaptosomes. I. Role of sodium, bicarbonate, and potassium.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Armass, S; Martínez-Zaguilán, R; Martínez, G M; Gillies, R J

    1994-06-01

    1. We investigated the regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) in rat brain isolated nerve terminals (synaptosomes), using fluorescence pH indicators and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. 2. The resting pHi was not significantly affected by the presence or absence of HCO3-. Removal of external Na+, in the absence or presence of HCO3- caused a rapid acidification of pHi. The recovery from acid loads was primarily due to the activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger, confirming the relevance of this transport system in synaptosomes. 3. Our data revealed that in synaptosomes the activity of the Na+/H+ exchanger was not regulated by either protein kinase C or kinase A. In contrast, Ca2+ played an important role in the regulation of Na+/H+ exchanger. This was supported by the observation that 4Br-A23187 induced a Na(+)-dependent alkalinization of the resting pHi and greatly enhanced the initial rate and the degree of the recovery from acid loads. 4. In most eukaryotic cells, HCO3(-)-based transport mechanisms play an important role in pHi regulation. In synaptosomes, however, HCO3- transport is not significantly involved in pHi regulation, because the presence or absence of HCO3- does not affect resting pHi nor the rate of pHi recovery to acid loads. Further studies to address the role of Cl- and HCO3- in pHi regulation in synaptosomes are discussed in the companion paper. 5. Increasing the concentration of Ko+ also resulted in a rise of steady-state pHi by a processes that is Ca2+ and HCO3- independent. This alkalinization could be due to either K+/H+ exchanger activity, K(+)-induced depolarization, reduction of delta microH+, or a direct reduction of delta microK+. Calculated H+ driving forces suggest that the reduction in the inwardly directed H+ leak is sufficient to explain this K(+)-induced alkalinization because it changes the delta microH+ by virtue of setting the membrane potential difference (Em) to the K+ equilibrium potential (EK+). PMID:7931513

  10. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    PubMed

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  11. The divergence, actions, roles, and relatives of sodium-coupled bicarbonate transporters.

    PubMed

    Parker, Mark D; Boron, Walter F

    2013-04-01

    The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1-3), five Na(+)-coupled HCO3(-) transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3(-) across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1-3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

  12. In vitro tooth whitening by a sodium bicarbonate/peroxide dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Kleber, C J; Putt, M S; Nelson, B J

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of this laboratory study was to determine the tooth whitening effect of a baking soda dentifrice containing stabilized 1% hydrogen peroxide following repeated applications to intrinsically stained teeth. Additional objectives were to investigate (1) the influence of tooth surface curvature and moisture on color measurements, (2) preliminary treatment parameters using 1% hydrogen peroxide solution, and (3) the relationship between Vita shade guide standards and instrumental color readings. Human tooth specimens with intrinsic stain were specially prepared and measured for color (L*a*b*) by means of diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry. Specimens were measured under wet and dry conditions with natural and flattened enamel surfaces. A preliminary test was conducted with 1% H2O2 solution to establish tooth whitening versus treatment time. Then, new tooth specimens were treated repeatedly with slurries of silica, baking soda, or baking soda/peroxide dentifrices at 30-minute intervals, and color measurements were taken under both wet and dry conditions after 4, 8, 16 and 24 hours. L*a*b* color measurements of the Vita shade guide teeth were also made in order to relate laboratory color changes to clinical effects. The parameter testing results showed that flattening the enamel surface had no effect on tooth color, but the teeth rapidly became lighter and less yellow upon air-drying. The 1% H2O2 solution caused both a significant decrease in yellow (b*) and an increase in lightness (L*). Since the reduction for b* occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent than the L* factor, the b* component may be the more important indicator of tooth whitening by bleaching. Compared to the silica and baking soda dentifrices, the baking soda/peroxide dentifrice significantly decreased the yellow color (b*) of the teeth after 8 or more hours of topical treatment. The instrumental color readings of the Vita Shade guide teeth showed that the color differences between the standards were not linear or consistent, and their accuracy for assessing clinical changes in tooth whiteness is questionable. PMID:9835828

  13. The Divergence, Actions, Roles, and Relatives of Sodium-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Boron, Walter F.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian Slc4 (Solute carrier 4) family of transporters is a functionally diverse group of 10 multi-spanning membrane proteins that includes three Cl-HCO3 exchangers (AE1–3), five Na+-coupled HCO3− transporters (NCBTs), and two other unusual members (AE4, BTR1). In this review, we mainly focus on the five mammalian NCBTs-NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NDCBE, and NBCn2. Each plays a specialized role in maintaining intracellular pH and, by contributing to the movement of HCO3− across epithelia, in maintaining whole-body pH and otherwise contributing to epithelial transport. Disruptions involving NCBT genes are linked to blindness, deafness, proximal renal tubular acidosis, mental retardation, and epilepsy. We also review AE1–3, AE4, and BTR1, addressing their relevance to the study of NCBTs. This review draws together recent advances in our understanding of the phylogenetic origins and physiological relevance of NCBTs and their progenitors. Underlying these advances is progress in such diverse disciplines as physiology, molecular biology, genetics, immunocytochemistry, proteomics, and structural biology. This review highlights the key similarities and differences between individual NCBTs and the genes that encode them and also clarifies the sometimes confusing NCBT nomenclature. PMID:23589833

  14. Effect of ingested sodium bicarbonate on muscle force, fatigue, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Verbitsky, O; Mizrahi, J; Levin, M; Isakov, E

    1997-08-01

    The influence of acute ingestion of NaHCO3 on fatigue and recovery of teh quadriceps femoris muscle after exercise was studied in six healthy male subjects. A bicycle ergometer was used for exercising under three loading conditions: test A, load corresponding to maximal oxygen consumption; test B, load in test A + 17%; test C, load in test B but performed 1 h after acute ingestion of NaHCO3. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied to provoke isometric contraction of the quadriceps femoris. The resulting knee torque was monitored during fatigue (2-min chronic FES) and recovery (10-s FES every 10 min, for 40 min). Quadriceps torques were higher in the presence of NaHCO3 (P < 0.05): with NaHCO3 the peak, residual, and recovery (after 40 min) normalized torques were, respectively, 0.68 +/- 0.05 (SD), 0.58 +/- 0.05, and 0.73 +/- 0.05; without NaHCO3 the values were 0.45 +/- 0.04, 0.30 +/- 0.06, and 0.63 +/- 0.06. The increased torques obtained after acute ingestion of NaHCO3 indicate the possible existence of improved nonoxidative glycolysis in isometric contraction, resulting in reduced fatigue and enhanced recovery. PMID:9296948

  15. SODIUM BICARBONATE FACILITATES LOW-DOSE ORAL TOLERANCE TO PEANUT IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Oral tolerance specifically inhibits production of allergic IgE antibody and is therefore a potential method for suppressing food allergy. We have previously demonstrated that a single oral dose of one mg is sufficient to induce oral tolerance to egg white but not pean...

  16. Diclofenac sodium.

    PubMed

    Small, R E

    1989-08-01

    The pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical efficacy, adverse effects, and dosage of diclofenac sodium are reviewed. Diclofenac, the first nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) to be approved that is a phenylacetic acid derivative, competes with arachidonic acid for binding to cyclo-oxygenase, resulting in decreased formation of prostaglandins. The drug has both analgesic and antipyretic activities. Diclofenac is efficiently absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract; peak plasma concentrations occur 1.5 to 2.0 hours after ingestion in fasting subjects. Even though diclofenac has a relatively short elimination half-life in plasma (1.5 hours), it persists in synovial fluid. The drug is metabolized in the liver and is eliminated by urinary and biliary excretion. In clinical trials, diclofenac was as effective as aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen in improving function and reducing pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. For treatment of osteoarthritis, diclofenac was equivalent in efficacy to aspirin, diflunisal, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, flurbiprofen, mefenamic acid, and piroxicam. Diclofenac was as effective as indomethacin or sulindac in treating ankylosing spondylitis. The most frequent adverse effects reported for diclofenac were gastrointestinal, but these effects were fewer and less serious than occurred with aspirin or indomethacin; in addition, diclofenac caused fewer central nervous system reactions than indomethacin. Diclofenac is administered in divided doses with meals. The recommended total daily dosage is 100 to 150 mg (osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis) or 150 to 200 mg (rheumatoid arthritis). Diclofenac is effective, but no more so than other NSAIDs. It is structurally distinct and offers another choice in the treatment of rheumatological conditions. PMID:2670397

  17. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gorbatenko, Andrej; Olesen, Christina W.; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Pedersen, Stine F.

    2014-01-01

    A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells toward more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1) and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary carcinomas, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+, HCO−3 cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1), are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transporters in cancer. Furthermore, we present new analyses of publicly available expression data demonstrating widely altered expression levels of SLC4- and SLC26 family transporters in breast-, lung-, and colon cancer patients, and we hypothesize that bicarbonate transporter dysregulation may have both diagnostic and therapeutic potential in cancer treatment. PMID:24795638

  18. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  20. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  1. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  2. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34...-Sanctioned Food Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium... fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red...

  3. 21 CFR 582.2729 - Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. 582.2729... Agents § 582.2729 Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as...

  4. 21 CFR 182.2729 - Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. 182.2729... (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2729 Sodium calcium aluminosilicate, hydrated. (a) Product. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (sodium calcium...

  5. Degradation of organic pollutants in wastewater by bicarbonate-activated hydrogen peroxide with a supported cobalt catalyst.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Song, Wei; Chen, Zhuqi; Yin, Guochuan

    2013-04-16

    Developing novel technologies to cleanup wastewater has attracted attention for a long while in academic and industrial communities not only for environmental issues but also for recycling water sources. This work demonstrates that bicarbonate-activated H2O2 can be applied as a novel oxidant source in pollutant degradation. Using a supported cobalt catalyst, bicarbonate-activated H2O2 can efficiently degrade various dyes and phenol at ambient temperature. Because the reaction media remains weakly basic during degradation, the cobalt leaching from the solid catalyst has been efficiently avoided and the lifetime of the catalyst can be extended to above 180 h without significant activity loss in a fixed-bed test. Different scavengers, including ascorbic acid, t-butanol, sodium azide, benzoquinone, and tiron, have been tested to identify the active species, which may be involved in pollutant degradation, and it was found that singlet oxygen and the carbonate radical may play a key role in the degradation process. PMID:23495717

  6. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you use or have ever used street drugs, or if you have overused prescription medications. Sodium oxybate may be harmful when taken by people other than the person for whom it was prescribed. Do not sell or give your sodium oxybate to anyone else; selling or sharing it is against the law. Store ...

  7. Sodium polyacrylate as a binding agent in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique for the measurement of Cu2+ and Cd2+ in waters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hongtao; Sun, Ting; Li, Weijia; Sui, Dianpeng; Jin, Shuang; Lian, Xiaojing

    2009-10-15

    An aqueous solution containing sodium polyacrylate (PA, 0.0030M) was used in diffusive gradients in thin-films technique (DGT) to measure DGT-labile Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) concentrations. The DGT devices (PA DGT) were validated in four types of solutions, including synthetic river waters containing metal ions with or without complexing EDTA, natural river water (Hun River, Shenyang, China) spiked with Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), and an industrial wastewater (Shenyang, China). Results showed that only free metal ions were measured by PA DGT, recovery=98.79% for Cu(2+) and recovery=97.80% for Cd(2+) in solutions containing only free metal ions, recovery=51.02% for Cu(2+) and recovery=51.92% for Cd(2+) in solution with metal/EDTA molar ratio of 2:1 and recovery=0 in solutions with metal/EDTA molar ratio of 1:1 and 1:2. These indicated that the complexes of Cu-EDTA and Cd-EDTA were DGT-inert or not DGT-labile. The DGT performance in spiked river water (recovery=8.47% for Cu(2+) and recovery=27.48% for Cd(2+)) and in industrial wastewater (recovery=14.16% for Cd(2+)) were also investigated. Conditional stability constants (logK) of PA-Cu and PA-Cd complexes were determined as 6.98 and 5.61, respectively, indicating strong interaction between PA and the metals. PMID:19635351

  8. Evaluation of Perrhenate Spectrophotometric Methods in Bicarbonate and Nitrate Media.

    PubMed

    Lenell, Brian A; Arai, Yuji

    2016-04-01

    2-pyridyl thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime based perrhenate, Re(VII), UV-vis spectrophotometric methods were evaluated in nitrate and bicarbonate solutions ranging from 0.001 M to 0.5 M. Standard curves at [Re]=2.5-50 mg L(-1) for the Re(IV)-thiourea and the Re ketoxime complexes were constructed at 405 nm and 490 nm, respectively. Detection of limits for N-(2-pyridyl) thiourea and methyl-2-pyridyl ketoxime methods in ultrapure water are 3.06 mg/L and 4.03 mg/L, respectively. Influences of NaHCO3 and NaNO3 concentration on absorbance spectra, absorptivity, and linearity were documented. For both methods, samples in ultrapure water and NaHCO3 have an R(2) value>0.99, indicating strong linear relationships. Statistical analysis supports that NaHCO3 does not affect linearity between standards for either method. NaNO3 causes major interference with the ketoxime method above 0.001 M NaNO3. Data provides information for practical use of Re spectrophotometric methods in environmental media that is high in bicarbonate and nitrate. PMID:26838460

  9. A micropuncture investigation of electrolyte transport in the parotid glands of sodium-replete and sodium-depleted sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Compton, J S; Nelson, J; Wright, R D; Young, J A

    1980-01-01

    1. Parotid secretion has been studied by micropuncture in sodium-replete and sodium-deficient sheep. 2. The osmolality of unstimulated primary saliva was slightly higher than in plasma and fell following cholinergic nerve stimulation. In sodium-depleted animals the osmolality of final saliva was hypotonic and exhibited flow dependency, where as in sodium-replete animals it was always isotonic. 3. In sodium-replete sheep, the primary fluid sodium concentration was about 120-130 mmol l-1 but in final saliva it was about 167 mmol l-1 and showed little or no flow-dependency. In sodium-depleted sheep, the primary sodium concentration averaged only 82.2 mmol l-1 and it was concluded that sodium-depleted primary fluid contained some other unidentified solute that allowed it to remain approximately isotonic; in final saliva the unstimulated sodium concentration was about 40 mmol l-1 and it rose with increasing flow rate to a maximum of 114.9 mmol l-1. 4. The primary fluid potassium concentration in sodium-replete animals did not differ significantly from that seen in sodium-depleted animals and the values were uninfluenced by stimulation; the over-all mean value was 11.2 mmol l-1. In final saliva, in sodium-replete sheep, the potassium concentrations averaged 7.8 mmol l-1 but in sodium-depleted sheep the concentrations were between 5 and 10 times greater than in primary fluid. 5. It was calculated from the equilibrium pH that the primary bicarbonate concentration would have been about 35 mmol l-1. In final saliva, where bicarbonate was measured directly, the concentrations were much greater and increased with stimulation to about 115 mmol l-1. 6. The primary fluid phosphate and chloride concentrations were the same in both sodium-replete and sodium-depleted animals and were unchanged by stimulation; the mean concentration of phosphate was 1.30 mmol l-1 and of chloride, 53.0 mmol l-1. In final saliva the phosphate concentrations were little changed but the chloride

  10. Bicarbonate-water interactions in the rat proximal convoluted tubule. An effect of volume flux on active proton secretion

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The effect of volume absorption on bicarbonate absorption was examined in the in vivo perfused rat proximal convoluted tubule. Volume absorption was inhibited by isosmotic replacement of luminal NaCl with raffinose. In tubules perfused with 25 mM bicarbonate, as raffinose was increased from 0 to 55 to 63 mM, volume absorption decreased from 2.18 +/- 0.10 to 0.30 +/- 0.18 to -0.66 +/- 0.30 nl/mm X min, respectively, and bicarbonate absorption decreased from 131 +/- 5 to 106 +/- 8 to 91 +/- 13 pmol/mm X min, respectively. This bicarbonate-water interaction could not be attributed to dilutional changes in luminal or peritubular bulk phase bicarbonate concentrations. Inhibition of active proton secretion by acetazolamide abolished the effect of volume flow on bicarbonate absorption, which implies that the bicarbonate reflection coefficient is close to 1 and eliminates the possibility of solvent drag across the tight junction. When the luminal bicarbonate concentration was varied, the magnitude of the bicarbonate-water interaction increased with increasing luminal bicarbonate concentration. The largest interaction occurred at high luminal bicarbonate concentrations, where the rate of proton secretion has been previously shown to be independent of luminal bicarbonate concentration and pH. The results thus suggest that a peritubular and/or cellular compartment exists that limits bicarbonate diffusion, and where pH changes secondary to bicarbonate-water interactions (solute polarization) alter the rate of active proton secretion. PMID:6096481

  11. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1–98.7, 88.9–92.7, and 74.8–83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  12. Preclinical Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution, and Plasma Protein Binding of Sodium (±)-5-Bromo-2-(α-Hydroxypentyl) Benzoate (BZP), an Innovative Potent Anti-ischemic Stroke Agent.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xin; Li, Hong-Meng; Wei, Jing-Yao; Liu, Bing-Jie; Zhang, Yu-Hai; Wang, Gao-Ju; Chang, Jun-Biao; Qiao, Hai-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Sodium (±)-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl) benzoate (BZP) is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP) in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution, and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive, and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6, and 12 mg/kg; i.v.) and beagle dogs (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt) were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg) of BZP to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats was more than in normal rats (P < 0.05). The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20,000, and 80,000 ng/mL) from rat, beagle dog, and human plasma were 98.1-98.7, 88.9-92.7, and 74.8-83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution, and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials. PMID:27588003

  13. Decommissioning of Experimental Breeder Reactor - II Complex, Post Sodium Draining

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Michelbacher; S. Paul Henslee; Collin J. Knight; Steven R. sherman

    2005-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor - II (EBR-II) was shutdown in September 1994 as mandated by the United States Department of Energy. This sodium-cooled reactor had been in service since 1964. The bulk sodium was drained from the primary and secondary systems and processed. Residual sodium remaining in the systems after draining was converted into sodium bicarbonate using humid carbon dioxide. This technique was tested at Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois under controlled conditions, then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary cooling system, followed by the primary tank. This process, terminated in 2002, was used to place a layer of sodium bicarbonate over all exposed surfaces of sodium. Treatment of the remaining EBR-II sodium is governed by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality issued a RCRA Operating Permit in 2002, mandating that all hazardous materials be removed from EBR-II within a 10 year period, with the ability to extend the permit and treatment period for another 10 years. A preliminary plan has been formulated to remove the remaining sodium and NaK from the primary and secondary systems using moist carbon dioxide, steam and nitrogen, and a water flush. The moist carbon dioxide treatment was resumed in May 2004. As of August 2005, approximately 60% of the residual sodium within the EBR-II primary tank had been treated. This process will continue through the end of 2005, when it is forecast that the process will become increasingly ineffective. At that time, subsequent treatment processes will be planned and initiated. It should be noted that the processes and anticipated costs associated with these processes are preliminary. Detailed engineering has not been performed, and approval for these methods has not been obtained from the regulator or the sponsors.

  14. The effect of feeding on CO2 production and energy expenditure in ponies measured by indirect calorimetry and the 13C-bicarbonate technique.

    PubMed

    Jensen, R B; Kyrstein, T D; Junghans, P; Tauson, A H

    2015-11-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) can be estimated based on respiratory gas exchange measurements, traditionally done in respiration chambers by indirect calorimetry (IC). However, the (13)C-bicarbonate technique ((13)C-BT) might be an alternative minimal invasive method for estimation of CO(2) production and EE in the field. In this study, four Shetland ponies were used to explore the effect of feeding on CO(2) production and EE measured simultaneously by IC and (13)C-BT. The ponies were individually housed in respiration chambers and received either a single oral or intravenous (IV) bolus dose of (13)C-labelled sodium bicarbonate (NaH(13)CO(3)). The ponies were fed haylage 3 h before (T(-3)), simultaneously with (T(0)) or 3 h after (T(+3)) administration of (13)C-bicarbonate. The CO(2) produced and O(2) consumed by the ponies were measured for 6 h with both administration routes of (13)C-bicarbonate at the three different feeding times. Feeding time affected the CO(2) production (P<0.001) and O(2) consumption (P<0.001), but not the respiratory quotient (RQ) measured by IC. The recovery factor (RF) of (13)C in breath CO(2) was affected by feeding time (P<0.01) and three different RF were used in the calculation of CO(2) production measured by 13C-BT. An average RQ was used for the calculations of EE. There was no difference between IC and (13)C-BT for estimation of CO(2) production. An effect of feeding time (P<0.001) on the estimated EE was found, with higher EE when feed was offered (T(0) and T(+3)) compared with when no feed was available (T -3) during measurements. In conclusion, this study showed that feeding time affects the RF and measurements of CO(2) production and EE. This should be considered when the (13)C-BT is used in the field. IV administration of (13)C-bicarbonate is recommended in future studies with horses to avoid complex (13)C enrichment-time curves with maxima and shoulders as observed in several experiments with oral administration of (13)C-bicarbonate

  15. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  16. Calcification generates protons for nutrient and bicarbonate uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnaughey, T. A.; Whelan, J. F.

    1997-03-01

    The biosphere's great carbonate deposits, from caliche soils to deep-sea carbonate oozes, precipitate largely as by-products of autotrophic nutrient acquisition physiologies. Protons constitute the critical link: Calcification generates protons, which plants and photosynthetic symbioses use to assimilate bicarbonate and nutrients. A calcium ATPase-based "trans" mechanism underlies most biological calcification. This permits high calcium carbonate supersaturations and rapid carbonate precipitation. The competitive advantages of calcification become especially apparent in light and nutrient-deficient alkaline environments. Calcareous plants often dominate the lower euphotic zone in both the benthos and the plankton. Geographically and seasonally, massive calcification concentrates in nutrient-deficient environments including alkaline soils, coral reefs, cyanobacterial mats and coccolithophorid blooms. Structural and defensive uses for calcareous skeletons are sometimes overrated.

  17. Treatment of metabolic acidosis in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease with fruits and vegetables or oral bicarbonate reduces urine angiotensinogen and preserves glomerular filtration rate.

    PubMed

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-11-01

    Alkali therapy of metabolic acidosis in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) with plasma total CO2 (TCO2) below 22 mmol/l per KDOQI guidelines appears to preserve estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Since angiotensin II mediates GFR decline in partial nephrectomy models of CKD and even mild metabolic acidosis increases kidney angiotensin II in animals, alkali treatment of CKD-related metabolic acidosis in patients with plasma TCO2 over 22 mmol/l might preserve GFR through reduced kidney angiotensin II. To test this, we randomized 108 patients with stage 3 CKD and plasma TCO2 22-24 mmol/l to Usual Care or interventions designed to reduce dietary acid by 50% using sodium bicarbonate or base-producing fruits and vegetables. All were treated to achieve a systolic blood pressure below 130 mm Hg with regimens including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition and followed for 3 years. Plasma TCO2 decreased in Usual Care but increased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. By contrast, urine excretion of angiotensinogen, an index of kidney angiotensin II, increased in Usual Care but decreased with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables. Creatinine-calculated and cystatin C-calculated eGFR decreased in all groups, but loss was less at 3 years with bicarbonate or fruits and vegetables than Usual Care. Thus, dietary alkali treatment of metabolic acidosis in CKD that is less severe than that for which KDOQI recommends therapy reduces kidney angiotensin II activity and preserves eGFR. PMID:24694986

  18. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H/sub 2/O and/or CO/sub 2/ by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1980-04-24

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO/sub 2/), titanium dioxide (TiO/sub 2/) and sodium titanate (Na/sub 2/TiO/sub 3/) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi/sub 2/O/sub 6/) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  19. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H2O and/or CO2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1982-02-02

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO2), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and sodium titanate (Na2TiO3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi2O6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi2O6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  20. Thermochemical cyclic system for decomposing H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 by means of cerium-titanium-sodium-oxygen compounds

    DOEpatents

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1982-01-01

    A thermochemical closed cyclic process for the decomposition of water and/or carbon dioxide to hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide begins with the reaction of ceric oxide (CeO.sub.2), titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) and sodium titanate (Na.sub.2 TiO.sub.3) to form sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) and oxygen. Sodium cerous titanate (NaCeTi.sub.2 O.sub.6) reacted with sodium carbonate (Na.sub.2 CO.sub.3) in the presence of steam, produces hydrogen. The same reaction, in the absence of steam, produces carbon monoxide. The products, ceric oxide and sodium titanate, obtained in either case, are treated with carbon dioxide and water to produce ceric oxide, titanium dioxide, sodium titanate, and sodium bicarbonate. After dissolving sodium bicarbonate from the mixture in water, the remaining insoluble compounds are used as starting materials for a subsequent cycle. The sodium bicarbonate can be converted to sodium carbonate by heating and returned to the cycle.

  1. Method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor and flue gases

    SciTech Connect

    Rimpi, P.

    1984-09-11

    The invention relates to a method for recovering sodium chemicals from green liquor by precarbonating green liquor by means of flue gases, by bringing a precarbonated solution into contact with a sodium bicarbonate solution and by stripping hydrogen sulphide from the so obtained reaction mixture by means of steam, for producing hydrogen sulphide gas and a sodium carbonate solution, which sodium carbonate solution is so pure, in relation to sodium sulphide that it can directly be led into the washing of the flue gases and into a carbonation stage, for producing the sodium bicarbonate solution. In order to save steam and sodium carbonate all precarbonated solution is not treated to the sodium sulphide free solution, which is required by a scrubber, but a part is discharged at higher sodium sulphide content by dividing the stripping into two stages which take place one above the other in the same tower, whereby a part of a solution obtained from the first stripping stage is led directly into the second stripping stage and the steams containing hydrogen sulphide, obtained from the second stripping stage are led directly into the first stripping stage.

  2. Renal bicarbonate reabsorption in the rat. I. Effects of hypokalemia and carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, G; Kinne, R; Malnic, G; Giebisch, G

    1986-01-01

    Free-flow micropuncture studies were carried out on superficial rat proximal and distal tubules to assess the participation of different nephron segments in bicarbonate transport. Particular emphasis was placed on the role of the distal tubule, and micro-calorimetric methods used to quantitate bicarbonate reabsorption. Experiments were carried out in control conditions, during dietary potassium withdrawal, and after acute intravenous infusions of carbonic anhydrase. We observed highly significant net bicarbonate reabsorption in normal acid-base conditions as evidenced by the maintenance of significant bicarbonate concentration gradients in the presence of vigorous fluid absorption. Distal bicarbonate reabsorption persisted in hypokalemic alkalosis and even steeper transepithelial concentration gradients of bicarbonate were maintained. Enhancement of net bicarbonate reabsorption followed the acute intravenous administration of carbonic anhydrase but was limited to the nephron segments between the late proximal and early distal tubule. The latter observation is consistent with a disequilibrium pH along the proximal straight tubule (S3 segment), the thick ascending limb of Henle, and/or the early distal tubule. PMID:3097074

  3. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  4. Effects of cleaning agents on bond strength to dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Celso; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Netto, Narciso Garone; Luz, Maria Aparecida Alves de Cerqueira

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of cavity walls aims to improve adhesive restorative procedures and longevity of restorations. This study has compared the effect of three cleaning agents--sodium bicarbonate jet (Profi II, Dabi Atlante, São Paulo, Brazil); pumice paste plus a biologic detergent (Tergestesim, Probem, São Paulo, Brazil); air water spray--on the bond strength between dentin and two different adhesive systems: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan) and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil). Six groups (n: 10) of dental fragments obtained from young adult extracted teeth were prepared, and each one received one of the listed surface cleaning techniques. After the adhesive application, a cone-shaped test body was built with AP-X (Kuraray, Kioto, Japan) or Z100 (3M-ESPE, São Paulo, Brazil) composite resins, using a Teflon matrix. The specimens were tested for tensile bond strength after one-week storage in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Two pairs of fractured specimens of each group were randomly chosen and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. ANOVA test of the bond strength values showed no statistical differences among the cleaning agents and neither between their interactions with the bonding systems. Upon SEM analysis, most surfaces showed mixed fractures of adhesive and cohesive failures in bonding resin to dentin. Based on statistical and SEM analysis, it was concluded that the cleaning agents studied did not interfere with the bond strength of the adhesive systems used to dentin. PMID:16292446

  5. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  6. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  7. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  8. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  9. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  10. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  11. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  12. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Misra, Biswapriya B; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  13. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  14. DSR-71167, a novel mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with carbonic anhydrase inhibitory activity, separates urinary sodium excretion and serum potassium elevation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nariai, Tetsuro; Fujita, Katsuya; Kawane, Kenji; Mori, Masaya; Nakayama, Ryo; Matsuda, Koichi; Katayama, Seiji; Fukuda, Nobuhisa; Hori, Seiji; Iwata, Masato; Hasegawa, Futoshi; Suzuki, Kuniko; Kato, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists, such as spironolactone (SPI) and eplerenone (EPL), are useful for treating hypertension and heart failure. However, these two agents have the serious side effect of hyperkalemia. We hypothesized that adding the ability to inhibit carbonic anhydrase (CA) would reduce the risk of hyperkalemia associated with MR antagonists. We investigated the profiles of DSR-71167 [2-([(2,2-difluoroethyl)amino]methyl)-2'-fluoro-N-(3-methoxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide hydrochloride; an MR antagonist with weak CA inhibitory activity] with regard to antimineralocorticoid actions by examining relationships between the urinary excretion of sodium (index of antimineralocorticoid action) in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats and elevation of serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats compared with a DSR-71167 derivative without CA inhibition (2-(hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide), SPI, and EPL. DSR-71167 dose-dependently increased urinary excretion of sodium in deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats without elevating serum levels of potassium in potassium-loaded rats. 2-(Hydroxymethyl)-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl]-2'-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide, SPI, and EPL elevated serum levels of potassium significantly in potassium-loaded rats at doses that increased MR inhibitory activity. We confirmed that DSR-71167 significantly increases urinary bicarbonate and decreases blood bicarbonate, as pharmacodynamic markers of CA inhibition, in intact rats. Chronic DSR-71167 administration showed antihypertensive effects in high salt-loaded Dahl hypertensive rats. These results demonstrate that DSR-71167 is a novel type of MR antagonist, with CA inhibitory activity, which is expected to become a safer MR antagonist with a low potential risk for hyperkalemia. PMID:25922341

  15. Enhanced Sodium Ion Storage Behavior of P2-Type Na(2/3)Fe(1/2)Mn(1/2)O2 Synthesized via a Chelating Agent Assisted Route.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ying; Zhao, Lixiang; Wu, Chuan; Li, Hui; Li, Yu; Wu, Feng

    2016-02-01

    On the basis of resource abundance and low cost, high capacity layered P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 material is regarded as a potential cathode material for sodium-ion batteries but suffers from its unstable structure during cycling. In this work, P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 layered materials were synthesized by a chelating agent assisted sol-gel method with NH3·H2O. With the addition of NH3·H2O and the control of the synthesis conditions, highly active material with a more stable structure and better electrochemical performance was obtained. Furthermore, the influences of structure changes during different voltage ranges (1.5-4.0 V and 1.5-4.3 V vs Na(+)/Na) on the Na(+) storage behaviors were also evaluated and compared. It is confirmed that, when being charged to 4.2 V, an OP4-type phase emerges, which can reduce the damage by the gilding of the MeO2 layers but leads to an unstable crystal structure. For long-term cycling, it is preferred to cut off at 4.0 V rather than at 4.3 V. For the optimized P2-type Na2/3Fe1/2Mn1/2O2 calcined at 900 °C, a discharge capacity of 92 mAh/g remains after 40 cycles in the voltage range of 1.5-4.0 V, and the Coulombic efficiency remains 100%. PMID:26732022

  16. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  17. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower ... and this causes many of the symptoms of low sodium. With low sodium level (hyponatremia), the imbalance of ...

  18. Occurrence of dissolved sodium ground waters in basalts underlying the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Cox, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Basalt aquifers of the Columbia River Basalt Group are a principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use. Concern has been expressed in this agriculture-dependent region about problems associated with the use of groundwaters with a high sodium concentration relative to the calcium and magnesium content (high sodium-adsorption ratio). Continued irrigation with such waters can reduce soil permeability to the degree that water cannot effectively reach plant roots. Groundwaters within a flow path evolved from a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type in shallow and upgradient locations to a sodium potassium bicarbonate type in deeper and downgradient locations. Most of the intermediate and high sodium adsorption ratio values were observed in discharge areas near major streams and in pumping centers within the central part of the plateau. Ninety-six percent of the groundwaters sampled had a low sodium absorption ratio, indicating that, for irrigation purposes, there is probably little danger of harmful levels of exchangeable sodium occurring on soil. However, water from 18 of 418 wells sampled had a sodium absorption ratio grater than 8.0 and were classified as having a medium, high, or very high sodium hazard. (USGS)

  19. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  20. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  1. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a protective

  2. Factors modifying renal tubular bicarbonate reabsorption in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Ullmann, Elisabeth

    1968-01-01

    1. Acute experiments were carried out on anaesthetized dogs during metabolic alkalosis produced by I.V. administration of NaHCO3. Partial constriction of one ureter led to a significant rise in the HCO3- threshold, beyond the simultaneous value for the other kidney. The magnitude of the increase was not correlated with the reduction of glomerular filtration. 2. Stop-flow analysis, following complete unilateral obstruction of urine flow, demonstrated proximal as well as distal tubular reabsorption of bicarbonate. At any given plasma Pco2 the detailed configuration of the concentration changes which developed depended on (a) the presence and concentration of mannitol, (b) the duration of urinary stasis, and (c) the plasma concentration of HCO3-. 3. If a solution containing 15% (w/v) mannitol was infused I.V., the HCO3- concentration in free flow urine was lower than in plasma, and it fell further during arrest of flow in the entire column of trapped fluid. If less mannitol was infused, or none at all, interruption of urine flow led to a striking increase of HCO3- concentration in the distal portion of the occluded column, and to a fall in the fluid arrested in the proximal segments. 4. It was demonstrated that the HCO3- concentration attained after 2½, 6, or 15 min of urinary stasis at any point in the trapped fluid column was due to the combined effects of water reabsorption and HCO3- reabsorption which proceeded independently, and with a different time course. 5. If mannitol was administered the lowest urinary HCO3- concentration in the series moved progressively to a more distal location with increasing duration of urinary stasis. When HCO3- concentration peaks were present in distal fluid they were conspicuous only after short interruptions of urine flow; during extended stop-flow periods they became attenuated, or disappeared. If no mannitol was administered this did not occur. 6. Provided the plasma level of HCO3- was sufficiently elevated, mannitol (15%, w

  3. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  4. Bicarbonate Increases Tumor pH and Inhibits Spontaneous Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Ian F.; Baggett, Brenda K.; Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Roe, Denise J.; Dosescu, Julie; Sloane, Bonnie F.; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Morse, David L.; Raghunand, Natarajan; Gatenby, Robert A.; Gillies, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The external pH of solid tumors is acidic as a consequence of increased metabolism of glucose and poor perfusion. Acid pH has been shown to stimulate tumor cell invasion and metastasis in vitro and in cells before tail vein injection in vivo. The present study investigates whether inhibition of this tumor acidity will reduce the incidence of in vivo metastases. Here, we show that oral NaHCO3 selectively increased the pH of tumors and reduced the formation of spontaneous metastases in mouse models of metastatic breast cancer. This treatment regimen was shown to significantly increase the extracellular pH, but not the intracellular pH, of tumors by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the export of acid from growing tumors by fluorescence microscopy of tumors grown in window chambers. NaHCO3 therapy also reduced the rate of lymph node involvement, yet did not affect the levels of circulating tumor cells, suggesting that reduced organ metastases were not due to increased intravasation. In contrast, NaHCO3 therapy significantly reduced the formation of hepatic metastases following intrasplenic injection, suggesting that it did inhibit extravasation and colonization. In tail vein injections of alternative cancer models, bicarbonate had mixed results, inhibiting the formation of metastases from PC3M prostate cancer cells, but not those of B16 melanoma. Although the mechanism of this therapy is not known with certainty, low pH was shown to increase the release of active cathepsin B, an important matrix remodeling protease. PMID:19276390

  5. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF BICARBONATE POWDERS AS FIRE SUPPRESSANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combustion Dynamics Section of the Navy Technology Center for Safety and Survivability is actively involved in addressing US Navy needs for fire protection, concentrating on the effectiveness of current and future fire extinguishing agents, with the responsibility to recommen...

  6. The geochemical evolution of aqueous sodium in the Black Creek Aquifer, Horry and Georgetown counties, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zack, Allen L.; Roberts, Ivan

    1988-01-01

    The Black Creek aquifer contains dilute seawater near the North Carolina State line, probably the result of incomplete flushing of ancient seawater. Data do not indicate that the dilute seawater has migrated toward areas of fresh ground-water withdrawals. The concentration of chloride in ground-water samples ranges from 5 to 720 milligrams per liter and that of sodium from 160 to 690 milligrams per liter. Ion-exchange reactions (sodium for calcium and fluoride for hydroxyl) occur with the calcium carbonate dissolution reaction which produces calcium, bicarbonate, and hydroxyl ions. The reaction sequence and stoichiometry result in an aqueous solution in which the sum of bicarbonate and chloride equivalents per liter is equal to the equivalents per liter of sodium. Calcium ions are exchanged for sodium ions derived from sodium-rich clays upgradient of the dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction equilibrates at a sodium concentration of 280 milligrams per liter. Amounts of sodium greater than 280 milligrams per liter are contributed from dilute seawater. The cation-exchange reaction approaches an equilibrium which represents a mass-action limit in terms of the ratio of sodium to calcium in solution versus the ratio of exchangeable sodium to calcium on clay surfaces. Where the limit of calcium carbonate solubility is approached and dissolution ceases, some precipitation of calcite probably takes place. The dissolution of calcite exposes fossil shark teeth which release fluoride ions to the ground water through anion exchange with aqueous hydroxyl ions.

  7. Electronmicroscopic observations on the effects of orally administered aspirin and aspirin-bicarbonate mixtures on the development of gastric mucosal damage in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Rainsford, K D

    1975-01-01

    The effects of administering a single dose of (200 mg to 50 mg/kg body weight) aspirin or an equimolar mixture of aspirin (200 mg/kg body wt) with sodium bicarbonate on the fine structure of the rat gastric mucosa were investigated in order to establish the role of particles of the drug in the development of gastric damage. The sequence of cellular events involved in the development of a lesion and the influence of short-term starvation were also investigated. Aspirin-bicarbonate solutions produced much less damage in starved rats than aspirin suspensions given at low (50 mg/kg body weight) or high therapeutic doses (200 mg/kg body weight). Also, when non-starved rats were given 200 mg/kg aspirin, only slight damage was observed. The presence of particles of the drug in intimate contact with the mucosa is thus important in the development of gastric damage. A sequence of events with time involving direct physical exfoliation of mucosal cells and selective structural damage to parietal cells followed by structural damage indicative of a disturbance to oxidative and biosynthetic functions in cells near the developing erosion was observed. The implications of these results on the development of aspirin-induced lesions are discussed. Images Fig 3a Fig 3b Fig 1a Fig 1b Fig 1c Fig 2a Fig 2b Fig 4 Fig 5 PMID:1158188

  8. Floating tablets for controlled release of ofloxacin via compression coating of hydroxypropyl cellulose combined with effervescent agent.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaole; Chen, Haiyan; Rui, Yao; Yang, Fengjiao; Ma, Ning; Wu, Zhenghong

    2015-07-15

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within gastrointestinal trace until all drug released at desired rate was one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery system. Herein, we developed a fine floating tablet via compression coating of hydrophilic polymer (hydroxypropyl cellulose) combined with effervescent agent (sodium bicarbonate) to achieve simultaneous control of release rate and location of ofloxacin. Sodium alginate was also added in the coating layer to regulate the drug release rate. The effects of the weight ratio of drug and the viscosity of HPC on the release profile were investigated. The optimized formulations were found to immediately float within 30s and remain lastingly buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 1.2) without pepsin, indicating a satisfactory floating and zero-order drug release profile. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment in New Zealand rabbits showed that, the relative bioavailability of the ofloxacin after administrated of floating tablets was 172.19%, compared to marketed common release tablets TaiLiBiTuo(®). These results demonstrated that those controlled-released floating tables would be a promising gastro-retentive delivery system for drugs acting in stomach. PMID:25956047

  9. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  10. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg−1 of L and 0.428 g kg−1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  11. Importance of bicarbonate in bile salt independent fraction of bile flow.

    PubMed

    Hardison, W G; Wood, C A

    1978-08-01

    The bile salt independent fraction (BSIF) of canalicular bile flow from the isolated rat liver perfused with bicarbonate-free perfusate is 50% of that from the liver perfused with bicarbonate-containing perfusate. HCO3-excretion is nearly eliminated and Na+ and Cl- excretion is reduced 50%. Replacement of HCO3- into perfusate increased bile flow by 0.3 microliter/g.min without changing bile acid excretion rate. 5.5-Dimethyl-2,4-oxazolidinedione (DMO) produced a similar effect. DMO was passively distributed between bile and plasma. The data indicate that a bicarbonate transport mechanism is responsible for production of up to 50% of the BSIF. Another weak acid, N-5[5-(2-methoxyethoxy)-2-pyrimidinyl]sulfamoylbenzene (glymidine), was rapidly excreted into bile and increased bile flow by over 2.0 microliter/g.min. Glymidine is probably excreted by an independent organic anion transport mechanism, and any effect on the bicarbonate transport mechanism is obscured. Canaliculus-enriched hepatocyte membrane fractions contained no HCO3-stimulated ATPase activity. Either this enzyme is unimportant in hepatocyte bicarbonate transport or transport occurs across membranes other than the bile canalicular membrane. PMID:150796

  12. Absorption of chlorine into aqueous bicarbonate solutions and aqueous hydroxide solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Ashour, S.S.; Rinker, E.B.; Sandall, O.C.

    1996-03-01

    Removal of chlorine from certain gas streams may be of industrial importance for certain chemical processes. The absorption of Cl{sub 2} into aqueous bicarbonate and aqueous hydroxide solutions was studied both experimentally and theoretically. The rate coefficient of the reaction between Cl{sub 2} and OH{sup {minus}} was estimated over the temperature range of 293--312 K and fitted by the Arrhenius equation: k{sub 24} = 3.56 {times} 10{sup 11} exp({minus}1,617/T). If Cl{sub 2} were assumed to react only with water and OH{sup {minus}} in an aqueous bicarbonate solution, the predicted absorption rate would be much lower than that experimentally measured. This suggests that Cl{sub 2} reacts with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} in an aqueous bicarbonate solution. The rate coefficient of the reaction between Cl{sub 2} and HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was estimated over the temperature range of 293--313 K and fitted by the Arrhenius equation: k{sub 21} = 5.63 {times} 10{sup 10} exp({minus}4,925/T). More importantly, under absorption conditions, the amount of hydroxide consumed for absorbing a specific amount of Cl{sub 2} into an aqueous hydroxide solution is almost twice the amount of bicarbonate consumed for absorbing the same amount of Cl{sub 2} into an aqueous bicarbonate solution.

  13. Influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonochemical degradation of Rhodamine B in aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Merouani, Slimane; Hamdaoui, Oualid; Saoudi, Fethi; Chiha, Mahdi; Pétrier, Christian

    2010-03-15

    The influence of bicarbonate and carbonate ions on sonolytic degradation of cationic dye, Rhodamine B (RhB), in water was investigated. As a consequence of ultrasonic cavitation that generates .OH radicals, carbonate radicals were secondary products of water sonochemistry when it contains dissolved bicarbonate or carbonate ions. The results clearly demonstrated the significant intensification of sonolytic destruction of RhB in the presence of bicarbonate and carbonate, especially at lower dye concentrations. Degradation intensification occurs because carbonate radicals sonochemically formed undergo radical-radical recombination at a lesser extent than hydroxyl radicals. The generated carbonate radicals are likely able to migrate far from the cavitation bubbles towards the solution bulk and are suitable for degradation of an organic dye such as RhB. Therefore, at low dye concentrations, carbonate radical presents a more selective reactivity towards RhB molecules than hydroxyl radical. In the presence of bicarbonate, degradation rate reached a maximum at 3 g L(-1) bicarbonate, but subsequent addition retards the destruction process. In RhB solutions containing carbonate, the oxidation rate gradually increased with increasing carbonate concentration up to 10 g L(-1) and slightly decreased afterward. Carbonate radicals sonochemically generated are suitable for total removal of COD of sonicated RhB solutions. PMID:19910116

  14. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  15. [Antimicrobial activity exerted by sodium dichloroisocyanurate].

    PubMed

    D'Auria, F D; Simonetti, G; Strippoli, V

    1989-01-01

    Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is a chlorinated cleaner. It was used for swimming pool sanitation and for the sterilisation of linen. Not recently ago sodium dichloroisocyanurate has substituted hypochlorite for the sterilisation of infant feeding bottles and teats. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate is soluble in water; this condition causes the hydrolysis of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in hypochlorous acid, that is the active agent, isocyanurate and isocyanurate chlorine. These compounds form a chlorine protein that carry out microbicidal activity. In a toxicology study has been shown that no severe changes in the normal metabolic function occurred, furthermore sodium dichloroisocyanurate has not shown teratogenic effects at the concentration of 200 mg/kg. The antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate was evaluated against Gram negative bacteria such as E. coli or Salmonella typhimurium and against some fungi. This study illustrates a rapid antimicrobial activity using concentrations. Our study concentrated on the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate in some experimental conditions. We tested 66 strains of fungi, 28 Gram positive bacteria and 29 Gram negative bacteria. We also evaluated the antimicrobial activity of sodium dichloroisocyanurate against protozoa such as Trichomonas vaginalis. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated in cultural conditions and non cultural conditions; in these experiments we observed similar action in both the commercial product and pure substance. In cultural conditions sodium dichloroisocyanurate shows a good activity against fungi and bacteria, moreover it can be observed that the serum didn't interfere with its activity. In a non cultural condition the Candida was killed rapidly by the sodium dichloroisocyanurate but this activity is influenced by the growth phase of the yeast. Against mycelial form such as Penicillium and Aspergillus the sodium dichloroisocyanurate needs a longer contact time than yeast form

  16. Intracellular pH regulation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes: the activity of sodium/proton exchange is oxygen-dependent.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, A; Rissanen, E; Bogdanova, A; Nikinmaa, M

    2003-06-01

    We studied pH regulation in freshly isolated rainbow trout hepatocytes using microspectrofluorometry with the fluorescent dye BCECF. In accordance with earlier data on rainbow trout hepatocytes, ion substitution (N-methyl D-glucamine for sodium and gluconate for chloride) and transport inhibitor [10 microM M methyl isobutyl amiloride (MIA) to inhibit sodium/proton exchange and 100 microM DIDS to inhibit bicarbonate transport] studies in either Hepes-buffered or bicarbonate/carbon dioxide-buffered media (extracellular pH 7.6) indicated a role for sodium/proton exchange, sodium-dependent bicarbonate transport, and sodium-independent anion exchange in the regulation of hepatocyte pH. In Hepes-buffered medium, the activity of the sodium/proton exchanger (i.e. proton extrusion inhibited by MIA) was greater at 1% than at 21% oxygen. The oxygen dependency of the sodium/proton exchange is not caused by hydroxyl radicals, which appear to mediate the oxygen sensitivity of potassium-chloride cotransport in erythrocytes. PMID:12820008

  17. Crystal Structure of Human Soluble Adenylate Cyclase Reveals a Distinct, Highly Flexible Allosteric Bicarbonate Binding Pocket

    PubMed Central

    Saalau-Bethell, Susanne M; Berdini, Valerio; Cleasby, Anne; Congreve, Miles; Coyle, Joseph E; Lock, Victoria; Murray, Christopher W; O'Brien, M Alistair; Rich, Sharna J; Sambrook, Tracey; Vinkovic, Mladen; Yon, Jeff R; Jhoti, Harren

    2014-01-01

    Soluble adenylate cyclases catalyse the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP through the cyclisation of ATP and are the only known enzymes to be directly activated by bicarbonate. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the human enzyme that reveals a pseudosymmetrical arrangement of two catalytic domains to produce a single competent active site and a novel discrete bicarbonate binding pocket. Crystal structures of the apo protein, the protein in complex with α,β-methylene adenosine 5′-triphosphate (AMPCPP) and calcium, with the allosteric activator bicarbonate, and also with a number of inhibitors identified using fragment screening, all show a flexible active site that undergoes significant conformational changes on binding of ligands. The resulting nanomolar-potent inhibitors that were developed bind at both the substrate binding pocket and the allosteric site, and can be used as chemical probes to further elucidate the function of this protein. PMID:24616449

  18. Light scattering measurement of sodium polyacrylate products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Nisha; Norwood, David; Boone, Steven; Massie-Boyer, Valerie

    2015-03-01

    In the presentation, we will describe the use of a multi-detector HPLC incorporating the DAWN EOS multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) detector to measure the properties such as molecular weight, RMS radius, contour and persistence length and polydispersity of sodium polyacrylate products. The samples of sodium polyacrylate are used in various industries as thickening agents, coating dispersants, artificial snow, laundry detergent and disposable diapers. Data and results obtained from the experiment will be presented.

  19. Sodium thioglycollate enhances pollen germeination and pollen tube elongation in cruciferous species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sodium thioglycollate is a reducing agent used in microbiological growth media to enhance the growth of anerobic, microaerophilic, and facultative organisms, and in eukaryotic tissue extraction buffers to inhibit damaging oxidative reactions. Sodium thioglycollate was added to a ...

  20. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish--why and how?

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rod W; Wilson, Jonathan M; Grosell, Martin

    2002-11-13

    Intestinal fluids of most marine teleosts are alkaline (pH 8.4-9.0) and contain high levels of HCO(3)(-) equivalents (40-130 mM) which are excreted at a significant rate (>100 microEq kg(-1) h(-1)). Recent research reveals the following about this substantial HCO(3)(-) secretion: (1) It is not involved in acid-base regulation or neutralisation of stomach acid, but increases in parallel with drinking rate at elevated ambient salinities suggesting a role in osmoregulation; (2) In species examined so far, all sections of the intestine can secrete bicarbonate; (3) The secretion is dependent on mucosal Cl(-), sensitive to mucosal DIDS, and immuno-histochemistry indicates involvement of an apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. In addition, hydration of CO(2) via carbonic anhydrase in combination with proton extrusion appears to be essential for bicarbonate secretion. The mode of proton extrusion is currently unknown but potential mechanisms are discussed. One consequence of the luminal alkalinity and high bicarbonate concentrations is precipitation of calcium and magnesium as carbonate complexes. This precipitation is hypothesised to reduce the osmolality of intestinal fluids and thus play a potential role in water absorption and osmoregulation. The present studies on European flounder reveal that elevated luminal calcium (but not magnesium) concentrations stimulate intestinal bicarbonate secretion both acutely and chronically, in vitro and in vivo. At the whole animal level, the result of this elevated bicarbonate secretion was increased calcium precipitation with an associated reduction in the osmolality of rectal fluids and plasma. These observations suggest direct functional links between intestinal bicarbonate secretion, divalent cation precipitation and osmoregulation in marine teleost fish. PMID:12421549

  1. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Peck, Brandon W; Workeneh, Biruh; Kadikoy, Huseyin; Abdellatif, Abdul

    2014-03-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (bleach) is commonly used as an irrigant during dental procedures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI). In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis. PMID:24626008

  2. Preoperative Low Serum Bicarbonate Levels Predict Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Young; Park, Jung Tak; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Lee, Sul A.; Park, Seohyun; Jhee, Jong Hyun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery is a common and serious complication. Although lower than normal serum bicarbonate levels are known to be associated with consecutive renal function deterioration in patients with chronic kidney injury, it is not well-known whether preoperative low serum bicarbonate levels are associated with the development of AKI in patients who undergo cardiac surgery. Therefore, the clinical implication of preoperative serum bicarbonate levels on AKI occurrence after cardiac surgery was investigated. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass or valve surgery at Yonsei University Health System from January 2013 to December 2014 were enrolled. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on preoperative serum bicarbonate levels, which represented group 1 (below normal levels) <23 mEq/L; group 2 (normal levels) 23 to 24 mEq/L; and group 3 (elevated levels) >24 mEq/L. The primary outcome was the predicated incidence of AKI 48 hours after cardiac surgery. AKI was defined according to Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. Among 875 patients, 228 (26.1%) developed AKI within 48 hours after cardiac surgery. The incidence of AKI was higher in group 1 (40.9%) than in group 2 (26.5%) and group 3 (19.5%) (P < 0.001). In addition, the duration of postoperative stay in a hospital intensive care unit (ICU) was longer for AKI patients and for those in the low-preoperative-serum-bicarbonate-level groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that low preoperative serum bicarbonate levels were significantly associated with AKI even after adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, operation type, preoperative hemoglobin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In conclusion, low serum bicarbonate levels were associated with higher incidence of AKI and prolonged ICU stay. Further studies are needed to clarify whether strict correction of bicarbonate levels close to normal limits may have a

  3. Transcriptional Responses of a Bicarbonate-Tolerant Monocot, Puccinellia tenuiflora, and a Related Bicarbonate-Sensitive Species, Poa annua, to NaHCO3 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shio; Satone, Hina; Tan, Engkong; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Shuichi; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is an alkaline salt-tolerant monocot found in saline-alkali soil in China. To identify the genes which are determining the higher tolerance of P. tenuiflora compared to bicarbonate sensitive species, we examined the responses of P. tenuiflora and a related bicarbonate-sensitive Poeae plant, Poa annua, to two days of 20 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-seq analysis. We obtained 28 and 38 million reads for P. tenuiflora and P. annua, respectively. For each species, the reads of both unstressed and stressed samples were combined for de novo assembly of contigs. We obtained 77,329 contigs for P. tenuiflora and 115,335 contigs for P. annua. NaHCO3 stress resulted in greater than two-fold absolute expression value changes in 157 of the P. tenuiflora contigs and 1090 of P. annua contigs. Homologs of the genes involved in Fe acquisition, which are important for the survival of plants under alkaline stress, were up-regulated in P. tenuiflora and down-regulated in P. annua. The smaller number of the genes differentially regulated in P. tenuiflora suggests that the genes regulating bicarbonate tolerance are constitutively expressed in P. tenuiflora. PMID:25551599

  4. Effect of Sodium Carboxymethyl Celluloses on Water-catalyzed Self-degradation of 200-degree C-heated Alkali-Activated Cement

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.

    2012-05-01

    We investigated the usefulness of sodium carboxymethyl celluloses (CMC) in promoting self-degradation of 200°C-heated sodium silicate-activated slag/Class C fly ash cementitious material after contact with water. CMC emitted two major volatile compounds, CO2 and acetic acid, creating a porous structure in cement. CMC also reacted with NaOH from sodium silicate to form three water-insensitive solid reaction products, disodium glycolate salt, sodium glucosidic salt, and sodium bicarbonate. Other water-sensitive solid reaction products, such as sodium polysilicate and sodium carbonate, were derived from hydrolysates of sodium silicate. Dissolution of these products upon contact with water generated heat that promoted cement’s self-degradation. Thus, CMC of high molecular weight rendered two important features to the water-catalyzed self-degradation of heated cement: One was the high heat energy generated in exothermic reactions in cement; the other was the introduction of extensive porosity into cement.

  5. Sodium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. This test is usually done as part of an electrolyte or basic metabolic panel blood test . Your blood sodium level represents a balance between the sodium and ...

  6. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  7. ELECTROANTENNOGRAM RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO AMMONIUM BICARBONATE AND PUTRESCINE LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current trapping systems for Anastrepha fruit flies utilize a two-component attractant consisting of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine. Though ammonia-based lures have been highly effective for some tephritids (e.g. Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata), attraction of Anastrepha species has...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  13. Association of erosive esophagitis with Helicobacter pylori eradication: a role of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion.

    PubMed

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Markowski, A R; Leszczyńska, K; Bucki, R; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2009-01-01

    In some populations, Helicobacter pylori eradication is associated with development of erosive esophagitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion to the pathogenesis of erosive esophagitis developing after H. pylori eradication. Gastroscopy and saliva collection were performed at recruitment and 12 months after completion of eradication therapy. Eighty-eight patients with duodenal ulcer were recruited to the study. Erosive esophagitis was found in 13 patients (grade A, 8 patients; grade B, 4 patients; grade C, 1 patient). Among the 74 subjects who completed the study, erosive esophagitis was detected in 21 patients (grade A, 15 patients; grade B, 6 patients); they all were successfully eradicated. Bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion was not found to differ significantly between the subjects with and without erosive esophagitis both before and 1 year after H. pylori eradication. However, it was lower in H. pylori-infected (baseline) than in H. pylori-noninfected erosive esophagitis subjects (1 year after successful eradication) (bicarbonate 2.34 [1.29-3.40)]vs. 3.64 [2.70-4.58]micromol/min and glycoprotein 0.23 [0.15-0.31]vs. 0.35 [0.28-0.43] mg/min, P= 0.04 and P= 0.04, respectively). We conclude that changes in salivary bicarbonate and glycoprotein secretion related to H. pylori eradication do not promote the development of erosive esophagitis in duodenal ulcer patients. PMID:19222537

  14. A Comparison of Treating Metabolic Acidosis in CKD Stage 4 Hypertensive Kidney Disease with Fruits and Vegetables or Sodium Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Goraya, Nimrit; Simoni, Jan; Jo, Chan-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Current guidelines recommend Na+-based alkali for CKD with metabolic acidosis and plasma total CO2 (PTCO2) < 22 mM. Because diets in industrialized societies are typically acid-producing, we compared base-producing fruits and vegetables with oral NaHCO3 (HCO3) regarding the primary outcome of follow-up estimated GFR (eGFR) and secondary outcomes of improved metabolic acidosis and reduced urine indices of kidney injury. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Individuals with stage 4 (eGFR, 15–29 ml/min per 1.73 m2) CKD due to hypertensive nephropathy, had a PTCO2 level < 22 mM, and were receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition were randomly assigned to 1 year of daily oral NaHCO3 at 1.0 mEq/kg per day (n=35) or fruits and vegetables dosed to reduce dietary acid by half (n=36). Results Plasma cystatin C–calculated eGFR did not differ at baseline and 1 year between groups. One-year PTCO2 was higher than baseline in the HCO3 group (21.2±1.3 versus 19.5±1.5 mM; P<0.01) and the fruits and vegetables group (19.9±1.7 versus 19.3±1.9 mM; P<0.01), consistent with improved metabolic acidosis, and was higher in the HCO3 than the fruits and vegetable group (P<0.001). One-year urine indices of kidney injury were lower than baseline in both groups. Plasma [K+] did not increase in either group. Conclusions One year of fruits and vegetables or NaHCO3 in individuals with stage 4 CKD yielded eGFR that was not different, was associated with higher-than-baseline PTCO2, and was associated with lower-than-baseline urine indices of kidney injury. The data indicate that fruits and vegetables improve metabolic acidosis and reduce kidney injury in stage 4 CKD without producing hyperkalemia. PMID:23393104

  15. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on Carcass Characteristics of Lambs Fed Concentrate Diets at Different Ambient Temperature Levels

    PubMed Central

    Jallow, Demba B.; Hsia, Liang Chou

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperatures on carcass characteristics of lambs fed concentrate diets with or without NaHCO3 supplementation. A slaughter study was carried on 12 male Black Belly Barbados lambs randomly drawn from a growth trial (35 weeks). The lambs were divided into four equal groups and allotted in a 2×2 factorial design. The lambs were allotted at random to two dietary treatments of a basal diet (35:65 roughage:concentrate) or basal diet supplemented with 4% NaHCO3 at different ambient temperatures (20°C and 30°C) in an environment controlled chamber for 10 days. Lambs were slaughtered for carcass evaluation at about 262 days of age (245 days of growth trial, 7 days adaptation and 10 days of experimental period). Ambient temperature had significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.01, and p<0.001) effects on meat color from the ribeye area (REA), fat, leg and longissimus dorsi muscles with higher values recorded for lambs in the lower temperature group than those from the higher ambient temperature group. Significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm2) recorded on the leg muscles showed higher values (5.32 vs 4.16) in lambs under the lower ambient temperature group compared to the other group. Dietary treatments had significant (p<0.01, p<0.01, and p<0.05) effects on meat color from the REA, fat, and REA fat depth (cm2) with higher values recorded for lambs in the NaHCO3 supplementation group than the non supplemented group. Similarly, dietary treatments had significant differences (p<0.05) in shear force value (kg/cm2) of the leg muscles with the NaHCO3 groups recording higher (5.30 vs 4.60) values than those from the other group. Neither ambient temperature nor dietary treatments had any significant (p>0.05) effects on pH, and water holding capacity on both muscles. These results indicated that NaHCO3 supplementation at low ambient temperatures had caused an increase in carcass characteristics leading to significant effect on meat quality. PMID:25083103

  16. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NaHCO3 and trona in beef cattle diets. Trace element (n = 28) analysis revealed no toxicological or safety concerns with the use of trona. Trona was more (P less than .05) soluble in ruminal fluid than Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 and had greater (P less than .05) buffering capacity (9.6 meq/g) than NaHCO3 (6.1 meq/g) but less (P less than .05) than Na2CO3 (11.1 meq/g). Calcium carbonate was insoluble and did not buffer ruminal fluid. Six yearling (avg 272 kg) Hereford X Angus steers, each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas, were fed 50:50 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) or 90:10 concentrate diets with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3 or with 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Propionate (mmol/liter) increased (17.6 vs 13.5; P less than .05) and butyrate decreased (3.5 vs 5.2; P less than .05) with trona in the 90:10 diet as compared with no buffer. Propionate (16.8) increased (P less than .05) with NaHCO3 in the 90:10 diet. Average ruminal pH was greater (P less than .05) in 90:10 diets with trona or NaHCO3 than with no buffer (5.61, 5.61 vs 5.55); duodenal pH was greater (P less than .01) with trona than with no buffer (2.66 vs 2.55). Trona reduced ruminal pH-hours (P less than .05) and pH-area (P less than .12; time and area below mean pH of control) below control for both concentrate levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3038823

  17. Membrane distribution of sodium-hydrogen and chloride-bicarbonate exchangers in crypt and villus cell membranes from rabbit ileum.

    PubMed Central

    Knickelbein, R G; Aronson, P S; Dobbins, J W

    1988-01-01

    Present evidence suggests that in the small intestine, villus cells are primarily absorptive and crypt cells are primarily secretory. In order to further confirm that there are differences in transport properties between villus and crypt cells, we have separated villus from crypt cells, using calcium chelations techniques, and determined the distribution of Na:H and Cl:HCO3 exchange activity on brush border membrane and basolateral membrane preparations from these two cell populations. Separation of cells was determined utilizing alkaline phosphatase and maltase activity as a marker of villus cells and thymidine kinase activity as a marker of crypt cells. Utilizing these techniques, we were able to sequentially collect cells along the villus-crypt axis. Na-stimulated glucose and alanine uptake in brush border membrane vesicles diminished from the villus to the crypt region in the sequentially collected cells fractions, further suggesting separation of these cells. Brush border and basolateral membranes were then prepared from cells from the villus and crypt areas, utilizing a continuous sucrose gradient. In the villus cells, Na:H exchange activity was found associated with both the brush border and basolateral membrane, whereas, in crypt cells, Na:H exchange activity was only found on the basolateral membrane. Cl:HCO3 exchange activity was found only on the brush border membrane, in both villus and crypt cells. These studies suggest functional heterogeneity in ion transport between villus and crypt cells. PMID:2848868

  18. X-ray off-specular reflectivity studies of electrochemical pitting of Cu surfaces in sodium bicarbonate solution.

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y. P.; Sinha, S. K.; Melendres, C. A.; Lee, D. D.; Chemical Engineering; Exxon Research and Engineering Co.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech.

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the electrochemically-induced pitting process on a Cu electrode in NaHCO{sub 3} solution using in-situ X-ray off-specular reflectivity measurements. The morphology and growth dynamics of the localized corrosion sites or pits were studied as the applied potential was varied from the cathodic region where the Cu surface is relatively free of oxide films to the anodic region where surface roughening occurs by general corrosion with concomitant formation of an oxide film. Quantitative analysis of the experimental results indicates that early pitting proceeds in favor of nucleation of pit clusters over individual pit growth. It was found that the lateral distribution of the pits is not random but exhibits a short-range order as evidenced by the appearance of a side peak in the transverse off-specular reflectivity. The position, height, and width of the peak was modeled to yield the average size, nearest-neighbor distance (within any one of the clusters), and over-all density of the pits averaged over the entire illuminated surface. In addition, measurements of the longitudinal off-specular reflectivity indicate a bimodal depth distribution for the pits, suggesting a 'film breaking' type of pitting mechanism.

  19. Lipopolysaccharide-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier disruption and lung edema: critical role for bicarbonate stimulation of AC10.

    PubMed

    Nickols, Jordan; Obiako, Boniface; Ramila, K C; Putinta, Kevin; Schilling, Sarah; Sayner, Sarah L

    2015-12-15

    Bacteria-induced sepsis is a common cause of pulmonary endothelial barrier dysfunction and can progress toward acute respiratory distress syndrome. Elevations in intracellular cAMP tightly regulate pulmonary endothelial barrier integrity; however, cAMP signals are highly compartmentalized: whether cAMP is barrier-protective or -disruptive depends on the compartment (plasma membrane or cytosol, respectively) in which the signal is generated. The mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase isoform 10 (AC10) is uniquely stimulated by bicarbonate and is expressed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs). Elevated extracellular bicarbonate increases cAMP in PMVECs to disrupt the endothelial barrier and increase the filtration coefficient (Kf) in the isolated lung. We tested the hypothesis that sepsis-induced endothelial barrier disruption and increased permeability are dependent on extracellular bicarbonate and activation of AC10. Our findings reveal that LPS-induced endothelial barrier disruption is dependent on extracellular bicarbonate: LPS-induced barrier failure and increased permeability are exacerbated in elevated bicarbonate compared with low extracellular bicarbonate. The AC10 inhibitor KH7 attenuated the bicarbonate-dependent LPS-induced barrier disruption. In the isolated lung, LPS failed to increase Kf in the presence of minimal perfusate bicarbonate. An increase in perfusate bicarbonate to the physiological range (24 mM) revealed the LPS-induced increase in Kf, which was attenuated by KH7. Furthermore, in PMVECs treated with LPS for 6 h, there was a dose-dependent increase in AC10 expression. Thus these findings reveal that LPS-induced pulmonary endothelial barrier failure requires bicarbonate activation of AC10. PMID:26475732

  20. Extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires

    DOEpatents

    Riley, John F.; Stauffer, Edgar Eugene

    1976-10-12

    A low chloride extinguishing agent for combustible metal fires comprising from substantially 75 to substantially 94 weight percent of sodium carbonate as the basic fire extinguishing material, from substantially 1 to substantially 5 weight percent of a water-repellent agent such as a metal stearate, from substantially 2 to substantially 10 weight percent of a flow promoting agent such as attapulgus clay, and from substantially 3 to substantially 15 weight percent of a polyamide resin as a crusting agent.

  1. Geochemical controls on dissolved sodium in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, P.P.; Steinkampf, W.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Drost, B.W.

    1985-01-01

    Miocene basaltic aquifers of the Columbia Plateau are the principal source of water for agricultural, domestic, and municipal use in Washington State. Irrigation with groundwaters with relatively high sodium concentrations has been cause for concern in recent years, because of the tendency of such waters to reduce soil permeability. Chemical reactions involving groundwater and the basalts are the primary mechanisms responsible for the input of sodium to groundwater in the plateau. This conclusion is supported by the sequence of secondary alteration products found and by progressive changes in groundwater chemistry with depth and position along regional flow paths. Upgradient and shallow groundwaters have low sodium concentrations and sodium-adsorption ratios (SAR's), and are predominantly calcium sodium bicarbonate waters. Groundwaters from deeper and downgradient locations have higher sodium concentrations and SAR 's and are predominantly sodium bicarbonate water. Volcanic glass and cryptocrystalline matrix are the major sources of groundwater sodium, and are dissolved by a combination of silicate hydrolysis and dissolution by carbonic acid. Magnesium, iron, and calcium are removed from solution by the formation of an iron magnesium smectite, calcite , and amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The addition of sodium, silicon, and potassium by dissolution of basalt exceeds their removal by the precipitation of secondary minerals, and their concentrations increase in the initial stages of this process. In later stages, these continued increases produce a water saturated with clinoptilolite and silica phases, and these begin to precipitate. While the timing of these processes is unclear, the mineralogy of secondary alteration and estimated cooling rates of the basalt flows suggest that observed alteration products formed primarily at low temperature, under conditions similar to those existing at the present time. (USGS)

  2. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents.

    PubMed

    Moshiri, Mohammd; Darchini-Maragheh, Emadodin; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  3. Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) Nerve agents (NAs) are known as the deadliest chemical warfare agents. They are divided into two classes of G and V agents. Most of them are liquid at room temperature. NAs chemical structures and mechanisms of actions are similar to OP pesticides, but their toxicities are higher than these compounds. The main mechanism of action is irreversible inhibition of Acetyl Choline Esterase (AChE) resulting in accumulation of toxic levels of acetylcholine (ACh) at the synaptic junctions and thus induces muscarinic and nicotinic receptors stimulation. However, other mechanisms have recently been described. Central nervous system (CNS) depression particularly on respiratory and vasomotor centers may induce respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Intermediate syndrome after NAs exposure is less common than OP pesticides poisoning. There are four approaches to detect exposure to NAs in biological samples: (I) AChE activity measurement, (II) Determination of hydrolysis products in plasma and urine, (III) Fluoride reactivation of phosphylated binding sites and (IV) Mass spectrometric determination of cholinesterase adducts. The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities. The management should be started as soon as possible. The victims should immediately be removed from the field and treatment is commenced with auto-injector antidotes (atropine and oximes) such as MARK I kit. A 0.5% hypochlorite solution as well as novel products like M291 Resin kit, G117H and Phosphotriesterase isolated from soil bacterias, are now available for decontamination of NAs. Atropine and oximes are the well known antidotes that should be infused as clinically indicated. However, some new adjuvant and additional treatment such as magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants and bioscavengers have recently been used for OP NAs poisoning. PMID:23351280

  4. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438

  5. Cardiopulmonary effects of thiopental versus propofol as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in chair trained rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Park, Hye-Jin; Kim, Hyeon-Ho; Lee, Yun-Jin; Jung, Kyeong-Cheon; Park, Seong-Hoe; Lee, Jae-Il

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiopental versus propofol on cardiopulmonary functions, when used as an induction agent prior to isoflurane anesthesia in rhesus monkeys. Eight healthy rhesus monkeys weighing 3.72 to 5.7 kg, 4-5 years old, were used in the study. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental or propofol intravenous injection, and then maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 45 minutes. Cardiopulmonary measurements were obtained before and 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after induction. The induction doses of thiopental and propofol were 19.41±0.54 and 9.33±1.02 mg/kg, respectively. In both groups, the values of heart rate, respiratory rate, temperature, systolic blood pressure, mean blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pH, and lactate were decreased, while the values of partial pressure of carbon dioxide, partial pressure of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, oxygen saturation, and base excess in the extracellular fluid were increased, as compared with baseline. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in thiopental group compare to propofol group. Induction time was very short in both agents but not revealed a significant difference between both groups. However, recovery time was extremely faster in the propofol group. Our results demonstrated that propofol provides a minor suppression in systolic arterial blood pressure than thiopental sodium. In addition, propofol have a fast recovery effect from the anesthesia as well. Furthermore, it is suggested that thiopental sodium could also be used to induce anesthesia instead of propofol, despite slight more suppression of cardiopulmonary function compared to thiopental sodium. PMID:27051438

  6. Assessments of low emission asphalt mixtures produced using combinations of foaming agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hasan, Mohd Rosli

    The asphalt foaming techniques have been used over the last couple of decades as an alternative to the traditional method of preparing asphalt mixtures. Based on positive feedback from the industry, this study was initiated to explore and evaluate the performance of the Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) mixture produced through a foaming process using physical and chemical foaming agents, which are ethanol and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), respectively. The success of this project may lead to new theories and provide an environmentally friendly technique to produce asphalt mixtures. This may advance the understanding of the foaming process and improve the performance of WMA to support sustainable development. Theoretically, ethanol can function in the same manner as water but requires less energy to foam due to its lower boiling point, 78°C. During the asphalt foaming process, numerous bubbles were generated by the vaporized ethanol, which significantly increased the volume of the asphalt binder, hence the coating potential of aggregates improves. The sodium bicarbonate was incorporated to enhance the quantity of bubbles and its stability. Therefore, understanding foaming agents, their solubility, chemical reactions, chemical function groups and rheological properties of the foamed binder are essential to help control the foam structure and final properties of the foamed WMA mixture. In order to understand the overall performance of newly developed foaming WMA, this material was evaluated for moisture susceptibility, rutting potential, and resistance to fracture and thermal cracking. The coatability, workability and compactability of foamed asphalt mixtures during production were also evaluated. Based on the results, it was found that the newly proposed foaming WMA has high potential to promote sustainable development by lowering the energy consumption and impacts on the environment. The ethanol is efficient in lowering the viscosity of asphalt binders, enhancing the

  7. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain and swelling. It is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Diclofenac sodium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  8. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  9. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  10. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and ... products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  11. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  12. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  13. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  14. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3(-) transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3(-) to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  15. LEACHING OF URANIUM ORES USING ALKALINE CARBONATES AND BICARBONATES AT ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Brown, E.A.; Rabbits, A.T.; Simard, R.; Herbst, H.J.

    1961-07-18

    A method of leaching uranium ores containing sulfides is described. The method consists of adding a leach solution containing alkaline carbonate and alkaline bicarbonate to the ore to form a slurry, passing the slurry through a series of agitators, passing an oxygen containing gas through the slurry in the last agitator in the series, passing the same gas enriched with carbon dioxide formed by the decomposition of bicarbonates in the slurry through the penultimate agitator and in the same manner passing the same gas increasingly enriched with carbon dioxide through the other agitators in the series. The conditions of agitation is such that the extraction of the uranium content will be substantially complete before the slurry reaches the last agitator.

  16. Common variants in the Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter genes and salt sensitivity of blood pressure: the GenSalt study.

    PubMed

    Guo, L; Liu, F; Chen, S; Yang, X; Huang, J; He, J; Jaquish, C E; Zhao, Q; Gu, C C; Hixson, J E; Gu, D

    2016-09-01

    The current study comprehensively examined the association between common variants in the Na(+)-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) genes and blood pressure (BP) responses to dietary sodium intervention. A 7-day low-sodium followed by a 7-day high-sodium dietary intervention was conducted among 1906 Han participants from rural areas of northern China. Nine BP measurements were obtained at baseline and each intervention using a random-zero sphygmomanometer. A mixed-effect model was used to assess the additive associations of 76 common variants in five NCBT genes, including SLC4A4, SLC4A5, SLC4A7, SLC4A8 and SLC4A10, with salt sensitivity phenotypes. The Bonferroni method was used to adjust for multiple testing. SLC4A4 marker rs4254735 was significantly associated with diastolic BP (DBP) response to low-sodium intervention (P=5.05 × 10(-4)), with mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) response of -2.91 (-3.21, -2.61) and -0.40 (-1.84, 1.05) mmHg for genotype AA and AG, respectively. In addition, BP responses to high-sodium intervention significantly increased with the number of minor C alleles of SLC4A4 marker rs10022637. Mean systolic BP responses among those with genotypes TT, CT and CC were 4.62 (4.29, 4.99), 5.94 (5.31, 6.58) and 6.00 (3.57, 8.43) mmHg (P=1.14 × 10(-4)); mean DBP responses were 1.72 (1.41, 2.03), 3.22 (2.52, 3.92) and 3.94 (1.88, 5.99) mmHg (P=2.26 × 10(-5)) and mean arterial pressure responses were 2.69 (2.40, 2.97), 4.13 (3.57, 4.70) and 4.61 (2.51, 6.71) mmHg (P=2.07 × 10(-6)), respectively. In brief, the present study indicated that common variants in the SLC4A4 gene might contribute to the variation of BP responses to dietary sodium intake in Han Chinese population. PMID:26582410

  17. Bicarbonate and Ca2+ Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L.; Sharma, Rameshwar K.

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca2+ levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca2+-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca2+ levels. Independent of Ca2+, ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca2+-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F514S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber’s congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca2+ signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F514S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca2+. Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 “overlapping” phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  18. Bicarbonate and Ca(2+) Sensing Modulators Activate Photoreceptor ROS-GC1 Synergistically.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Pertzev, Alexandre; Makino, Clint L; Sharma, Rameshwar K

    2016-01-01

    Photoreceptor ROS-GC1, a prototype subfamily member of the membrane guanylate cyclase family, is a central component of phototransduction. It is a single transmembrane-spanning protein, composed of modular blocks. In rods, guanylate cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs) 1 and 2 bind to its juxtamembrane domain (JMD) and the C-terminal extension, respectively, to accelerate cyclic GMP synthesis when Ca(2+) levels are low. In cones, the additional expression of the Ca(2+)-dependent guanylate cyclase activating protein (CD-GCAP) S100B which binds to its C-terminal extension, supports acceleration of cyclic GMP synthesis at high Ca(2+) levels. Independent of Ca(2+), ROS-GC1 activity is also stimulated directly by bicarbonate binding to the core catalytic domain (CCD). Several enticing molecular features of this transduction system are revealed in the present study. In combination, bicarbonate and Ca(2+)-dependent modulators raised maximal ROS-GC activity to levels that exceeded the sum of their individual effects. The F(514)S mutation in ROS-GC1 that causes blindness in type 1 Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) severely reduced basal ROS-GC1 activity. GCAP2 and S100B Ca(2+) signaling modes remained functional, while the GCAP1-modulated mode was diminished. Bicarbonate nearly restored basal activity as well as GCAP2- and S100B-stimulated activities of the F(514)S mutant to normal levels but could not resurrect GCAP1 stimulation. We conclude that GCAP1 and GCAP2 forge distinct pathways through domain-specific modules of ROS-GC1 whereas the S100B and GCAP2 pathways may overlap. The synergistic interlinking of bicarbonate to GCAPs- and S100B-modulated pathways intensifies and tunes the dependence of cyclic GMP synthesis on intracellular Ca(2+). Our study challenges the recently proposed GCAP1 and GCAP2 "overlapping" phototransduction model (Peshenko et al., 2015b). PMID:26858600

  19. Acid-base analysis: a critique of the Stewart and bicarbonate-centered approaches.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Ira; Kraut, Jeffrey; Ornekian, Vahram; Nguyen, Minhtri K

    2008-05-01

    When approaching the analysis of disorders of acid-base balance, physical chemists, physiologists, and clinicians, tend to focus on different aspects of the relevant phenomenology. The physical chemist focuses on a quantitative understanding of proton hydration and aqueous proton transfer reactions that alter the acidity of a given solution. The physiologist focuses on molecular, cellular, and whole organ transport processes that modulate the acidity of a given body fluid compartment. The clinician emphasizes the diagnosis, clinical causes, and most appropriate treatment of acid-base disturbances. Historically, two different conceptual frameworks have evolved among clinicians and physiologists for interpreting acid-base phenomena. The traditional or bicarbonate-centered framework relies quantitatively on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, whereas the Stewart or strong ion approach utilizes either the original Stewart equation or its simplified version derived by Constable. In this review, the concepts underlying the bicarbonate-centered and Stewart formulations are analyzed in detail, emphasizing the differences in how each approach characterizes acid-base phenomenology at the molecular level, tissue level, and in the clinical realm. A quantitative comparison of the equations that are currently used in the literature to calculate H(+) concentration ([H(+)]) is included to clear up some of the misconceptions that currently exist in this area. Our analysis demonstrates that while the principle of electroneutrality plays a central role in the strong ion formulation, electroneutrality mechanistically does not dictate a specific [H(+)], and the strong ion and bicarbonate-centered approaches are quantitatively identical even in the presence of nonbicarbonate buffers. Finally, our analysis indicates that the bicarbonate-centered approach utilizing the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation is a mechanistic formulation that reflects the underlying acid-base phenomenology. PMID

  20. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  1. Effect of calcium, bicarbonate, and albumin on capacitation-related events in equine sperm.

    PubMed

    Macías-García, B; González-Fernández, L; Loux, S C; Rocha, A M; Guimarães, T; Peña, F J; Varner, D D; Hinrichs, K

    2015-01-01

    Repeatable methods for IVF have not been established in the horse, reflecting the failure of standard capacitating media to induce changes required for fertilization capacity in equine sperm. One important step in capacitation is membrane cholesterol efflux, which in other species is triggered by cholesterol oxidation and is typically enhanced using albumin as a sterol acceptor. We incubated equine sperm in the presence of calcium, BSA, and bicarbonate, alone or in combination. Bicarbonate induced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was abolished by the addition of calcium or BSA. Bicarbonate induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY), even in the presence of calcium or BSA. Incubation at high pH enhanced PY but did not increase ROS production. Notably, no combination of these factors was associated with significant cholesterol efflux, as assessed by fluorescent quantitative cholesterol assay and confirmed by filipin staining. By contrast, sperm treated with methyl-β-cyclodextrin showed a significant reduction in cholesterol levels, but no significant increase in PY or ROS. Presence of BSA increased sperm binding to bovine zonae pellucidae in all three stallions. These results show that presence of serum albumin is not associated with a reduction in membrane cholesterol levels in equine sperm, highlighting the failure of equine sperm to exhibit core capacitation-related changes in a standard capacitating medium. These data indicate an atypical relationship among cholesterol efflux, ROS production, and PY in equine sperm. Our findings may help to elucidate factors affecting failure of equine IVF under standard conditions. PMID:25349439

  2. Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System with alkalihalophilic cyanobacterium.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Xie, Yuxiao; Elloy, Farah; Zheng, Yubin; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2013-04-01

    An extremely alkalihalophilic cyanobacteria Euhalothece ZM001 was tested in the Bicarbonate-based Integrated Carbon Capture and Algae Production System (BICCAPS), which utilize bicarbonate as carbon source for algae culture and use the regenerated carbonate to absorb CO2. Culture conditions including temperature, inoculation rate, medium composition, pH, and light intensity were investigated. A final biomass concentration of 4.79 g/L was reached in tissue flask culture with 1.0 M NaHCO3/Na2CO3. The biomass productivity of 1.21 g/L/day was achieved under optimal conditions. When pH increased from 9.55 to 10.51, 0.256 M of inorganic carbon was consumed during the culture process. This indicated sufficient carbon can be supplied as bicarbonate to the culture. This study proved that a high biomass production rate can be achieved in a BICCAPS. This strategy can also lead to new design of photobioreactors that provides an alternative supply of CO2 to sparging. PMID:23455223

  3. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H₂O₂ for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ∼ 90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  4. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. PMID:21953119

  5. Differential responses in pear and quince genotypes induced by Fe deficiency and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Donnini, Silvia; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Zocchi, Graziano

    2009-07-15

    Most of the studies carried out on Fe deficiency condition in arboreous plants have been performed, with the exception of those carried out on plants grown in the field, in hydroponic culture utilizing a total iron depletion growth condition. This can cause great stress to plants. By introducing Fe deficiency induced by the presence of bicarbonate, we found significant differences between Pyrus communis L. cv. Conference and Cydonia oblonga Mill. BA29 and MA clones, characterized by different levels of tolerance to chlorosis. Pigment content and the main protein-pigment complexes were investigated by HPLC and protein gel blot analysis, respectively. While similar changes in the structural organization of photosystems (PSs) were observed in both species under Fe deficiency, a different reorganization of the photosynthetic apparatus was found in the presence of bicarbonate between tolerant and susceptible genotypes, in agreement with the photosynthetic electron transport rate measured in isolated thylakoids. In order to characterize the intrinsic factors determining the efficiency of iron uptake in a tolerant genotype, the main mechanisms induced by Fe deficiency in Strategy I species, such as Fe3+-chelate reductase (EC 1.16.1.7) and H+-ATPase (EC 3.6.3.6) activities, were also investigated. We demonstrate that physiological and biochemical root responses in quince and pear are differentially affected by iron starvation and bicarbonate supply, and we show a high correlation between tolerance and Strategy I activation. PMID:19269060

  6. Physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, Riadh; Gharsalli, Mohamed; Lachaal, Mokhtar

    2005-03-01

    Plants are frequently submitted to iron deficiency when growing on calcareous soils, which contain high concentrations of bicarbonate. The purpose of this study was to investigate the variability of physiological responses of Tunisian grapevine varieties to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis. Vine woodcuttings of seven autochthonous Tunisian varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, Blan3, Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Beldi and Balta4), two rootstocks (140Ru and S.O.4), and an introduced table variety (Cardinal) were cultivated on inert sand for 2 months using a complete nutrient solution (20 microM Fe) that was either well supplied or not supplied with 10 mM HCO3-. Young leaves of plants cultivated on bicarbonate-enriched medium showed characteristic symptoms of iron chlorosis, although the intensity of the symptoms depended on the variety and the rootstock. Chlorosis score confirmed these observations since the most sensitive varieties showed the highest values. This variability in tolerance to iron deficiency was also displayed when analysing the physiological parameters (shoot length, plant dry weight, and chlorophyll concentration) and the iron contents in the 4th leaf. Analysis of morphological and physiological parameters showed three behaviour groups. The first one corresponded to tolerant varieties (Khamri, Mahdaoui, and the root-stock: 140Ru), the second included moderately tolerant vines (Saouadi, Arich Dressé, Blanc3, and the rootstock: S.O.4) and the third represented the sensitive ones (Balta4, Beldi, and Cardinal). PMID:15832686

  7. Rechargeable sodium alloy anode

    SciTech Connect

    Jow, T.R.

    1988-06-28

    A secondary battery is described comprising: (a) an anode which comprises an alloy of sodium and one or metals selected from the group consisting of tin, lead antimony, bismuth, selenium and tellerium, (b) an electrolyte comprising one or more organic solvents and one or more sodium salts dissolved therein forming dissolved sodium cations in solution; and (c) a cathode; the sodium cations from the electrolyte alloying with the one or more metals of the alloy in the anode during the charging of the battery and sodium in the alloy disoloving in the electrolyte during the discharging of the battery.

  8. A bicarbonate ion as a general base in the mechanism of peptide hydrolysis by dizinc leucine aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Sträter, Norbert; Sun, Lee; Kantrowitz, E. R.; Lipscomb, William N.

    1999-01-01

    The active sites of aminopeptidase A (PepA) from Escherichia coli and leucine aminopeptidase from bovine lens are isostructural, as shown by x-ray structures at 2.5 Å and 1.6 Å resolution, respectively. In both structures, a bicarbonate anion is bound to an arginine side chain (Arg-356 in PepA and Arg-336 in leucine aminopeptidase) very near two catalytic zinc ions. It is shown that PepA is activated about 10-fold by bicarbonate when l-leucine p-nitroanilide is used as a substrate. No activation by bicarbonate ions is found for mutants R356A, R356K, R356M, and R356E of PepA. In the suggested mechanism, the bicarbonate anion is proposed to facilitate proton transfer from a zinc-bridging water nucleophile to the peptide leaving group. Thus, the function of the bicarbonate ion as a general base is similar to the catalytic role of carboxylate side chains in the presumed mechanisms of other dizinc or monozinc peptidases. A mutational analysis shows that Arg-356 influences activity by binding the bicarbonate ion but is not essential for activity. Mutation of the catalytic Lys-282 reduces kcat/Km about 10,000-fold. PMID:10500145

  9. Specific and Efficient Targeting of Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transporters to the Inner Envelope Membrane of Chloroplasts in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Uehara, Susumu; Adachi, Fumi; Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Inaba, Takehito

    2016-01-01

    Installation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane (IEM) of chloroplasts in C3 plants has been thought to improve photosynthetic performance. However, the method to deliver cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM remains to be established. In this study, we provide evidence that the cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters, BicA and SbtA, can be specifically installed into the chloroplast IEM using the chloroplast IEM targeting signal in conjunction with the transit peptide. We fused the transit peptide and the mature portion of Cor413im1, whose targeting mechanism to the IEM has been characterized in detail, to either BicA or SbtA isolated from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Among the seven chimeric constructs tested, we confirmed that four chimeric bicarbonate transporters, designated as BicAI, BicAII, SbtAII, and SbtAIII, were expressed in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, these chimeric transporters were specifically targeted to the chloroplast IEM. They were also resistant to alkaline extraction but can be solubilized by Triton X-100, indicating that they are integral membrane proteins in the chloroplast IEM. One of the transporters, BicA, could reside in the chloroplast IEM even after removal of the IEM targeting signal. Taken together, our results indicate that the addition of IEM targeting signal, as well as the transit peptide, to bicarbonate transporters allows us to efficiently target nuclear-encoded chimeric bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM. PMID:26870048

  10. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  11. The dissolution of synthetic Na-boltwoodite in sodium carbonate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilton, Eugene S.; Liu, Chongxuan; Yantasee, Wassana; Wang, Zheming; Moore, Dean A.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Zachara, John M.

    2006-10-01

    Uranyl silicates such as uranophane and Na-boltwoodite appear to control the solubility of uranium in certain contaminated sediments at the US Department of Energy Hanford site [Liu, C., Zachara, J.M., Qafoku, O., McKinley, J.P., Heald, S.M., Wang, Z. 2004. Dissolution of uranyl microprecipitates in subsurface sediments at Hanford Site, USA. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta68, 4519-4537.]. Consequently, the solubility of synthetic Na-boltwoodite, Na(UO 2)(SiO 3OH) · 1.5H 2O, was determined over a wide range of bicarbonate concentrations, from circumneutral to alkaline pH, that are representative of porewater and groundwater compositions at the Hanford site and calcareous environments generally. Experiments were open to air. Results show that Na-boltwoodite dissolution was nearly congruent and its solubility and dissolution kinetics increased with increasing bicarbonate concentration and pH. A consistent set of solubility constants were determined from circumneutral pH (0 added bicarbonate) to alkaline pH (50 mM added bicarbonate). Average logKspo=5.86±0.24 or 5.85 ± 0.0.26; using the Pitzer ion-interaction model or Davies equation, respectively. These values are close to the one determined by [Nguyen, S.N., Silva, R.J., Weed, H.C., Andrews, Jr., J.E., 1992. Standard Gibbs free energies of formation at the temperature 303.15 K of four uranyl silicates: soddyite, uranophane, sodium boltwoodite, and sodium weeksite. J. Chem. Thermodynamics24, 359-376.] under very different conditions (pH 4.5, Ar atmosphere).

  12. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  13. Bicarbonate Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Total CO 2 ; TCO 2 ; Carbon Dioxide Content; CO 2 Content; Bicarb; HCO 3 - Formal ... acid-base balance , either by failing to remove carbon dioxide through the lungs or the kidneys or perhaps ...

  14. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  15. Preclinical efficacy of the oncolytic measles virus expressing the sodium iodide symporter in iodine non-avid anaplastic thyroid cancer: a novel therapeutic agent allowing noninvasive imaging and radioiodine therapy.

    PubMed

    Reddi, H V; Madde, P; McDonough, S J; Trujillo, M A; Morris, J C; Myers, R M; Peng, K W; Russell, S J; McIver, B; Eberhardt, N L

    2012-09-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an extremely aggressive disease resistant to radioiodine treatment because of loss of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expression. To enhance prognosis of this fatal cancer, we validated the preclinical efficacy of measles virus (MV)-NIS, the vaccine strain of the oncolytic MV (MV-Edm), modified to include the NIS gene. Western blotting analysis confirmed that a panel of eight anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC)-derived cell lines do not express NIS protein, but do express CD46, the MV receptor. In vitro cell death assays and in vivo xenograft studies demonstrate the oncolytic efficacy of MV-NIS in BHT-101 and KTC-3, ATC-derived cell lines. Radioactive iodine uptake along with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-computed tomography imaging of KTC-3 xenografts after (99)Tc(m) administration confirmed NIS expression in vitro and in vivo, respectively, after virus treatment. Adjuvant administration of RAI, to MV-NIS-treated KTC-3 tumors showed a trend for increased tumor cell killing. As current treatment for ATC is only palliative, and MV-NIS is currently Food and Drug Administration approved for human clinical trials in myeloma, our data indicate that targeting ATC with MV-NIS could prove to be a novel therapeutic strategy for effective treatment of iodine-resistant ATC and will expedite its testing in clinical trials for this aggressive disease. PMID:22790962

  16. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... allergic to sodium polystyrene sulfonate, other polystyrene sulfonate resins, any other medications, or any of the ingredients ... salt substitutes containing potassium or foods that are high in potassium.

  17. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity. PMID:21313993

  18. Quantitative analysis of the chemotaxis of a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to bicarbonate using diffusion-based microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hong Il; Kim, Jaoon Young Hwan; Kwak, Ho Seok; Sung, Young Joon; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the photosynthetic carbon fixation by microalgae for the production of valuable products from carbon dioxide (CO2). Microalgae are capable of transporting bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), the most abundant form of inorganic carbon species in the water, as a source of CO2 for photosynthesis. Despite the importance of HCO3 (-) as the carbon source, little is known about the chemotactic response of microalgae to HCO3 (-). Here, we showed the chemotaxis of a model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, towards HCO3 (-) using an agarose gel-based microfluidic device with a flow-free and stable chemical gradient during the entire assay period. The device was validated by analyzing the chemotactic responses of C. reinhardtii to the previously known chemoattractants (NH4Cl and CoCl2) and chemotactically neutral molecule (NaCl). We found that C. reinhardtii exhibited the strongest chemotactic response to bicarbonate at the concentration of 26 mM in a microfluidic device. The chemotactic response to bicarbonate showed a circadian rhythm with a peak during the dark period and a valley during the light period. We also observed the changes in the chemotaxis to bicarbonate by an inhibitor of bicarbonate transporters and a mutation in CIA5, a transcriptional regulator of carbon concentrating mechanism, indicating the relationship between chemotaxis to bicarbonate and inorganic carbon metabolism in C. reinhardtii. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the chemotaxis of C. reinhardtii towards HCO3 (-), which contributes to the understanding of the physiological role of the chemotaxis to bicarbonate and its relevance to inorganic carbon utilization. PMID:26958101

  19. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. PMID:25746960

  20. Uranium(VI) interactions with mackinawite in the presence and absence of bicarbonate and oxygen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Webb, Samuel M.; Betterton, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Mackinawite, Fe(II)S, samples loaded with uranium (10-5, 10-4, and 10-3 mol U/g FeS) at pH 5, 7, and 9, were characterized using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to determine the effects of pH, bicarbonate, and oxidation on uptake. Under anoxic conditions, a 5 g/L suspension of mackinawite lowered 5 × 10-5 M uranium(VI) to below 30 ppb (1.26 × 10-7 M) U. Between 82 and 88% of the uranium removed from solution by mackinawite was U(IV) and was nearly completely reduced to U(IV) when 0.012 M bicarbonate was added. Near-neighbor coordination consisting of uranium–oxygen and uranium-uranium distances indicates the formation of uraninite in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, suggesting reductive precipitation as the dominant removal mechanism. Following equilibration in air, mackinawite was oxidized to mainly goethite and sulfur and about 76% of U(IV) was reoxidized to U(VI) with coordination of uranium to axial and equatorial oxygen, similar to uranyl. Additionally, uranium-iron distances, typical of coprecipitation of uranium with iron oxides, and uranium-sulfur distances indicating bidentate coordination of U(VI) to sulfate were evident. The affinity of mackinawite and its oxidation products for U(VI) provides impetus for further study of mackinawite as a potential reactive medium for remediation of uranium-contaminated water.

  1. Evidence that bicarbonate is not the substrate in photosynthetic oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Juergen; Beckmann, Katrin; Junge, Wolfgang; Messinger, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    It is widely accepted that the oxygen produced by photosystem II of cyanobacteria, algae, and plants is derived from water. Earlier proposals that bicarbonate may serve as substrate or catalytic intermediate are almost forgotten, though not rigorously disproved. These latter proposals imply that CO2 is an intermediate product of oxygen production in addition to O2. In this work, we investigated this possible role of exchangeable HCO3- in oxygen evolution in two independent ways. (1) We studied a possible product inhibition of the electron transfer into the catalytic Mn4Ca complex during the oxygen-evolving reaction by greatly increasing the pressure of CO2. This was monitored by absorption transients in the near UV. We found that a 3,000-fold increase of the CO2 pressure over ambient conditions did not affect the UV transient, whereas the S(3) --> S(4) --> S(0) transition was half-inhibited by raising the O2 pressure only 10-fold over ambient, as previously established. (2) The flash-induced O2 and CO2 production by photosystem II was followed simultaneously with membrane inlet mass spectrometry under approximately 15% H2(18)O enrichment. Light flashes that revealed the known oscillatory O2 release failed to produce any oscillatory CO2 signal. Both types of results exclude that exchangeable bicarbonate is the substrate for (and CO2 an intermediate product of) oxygen evolution by photosynthesis. The possibility that a tightly bound carbonate or bicarbonate is a cofactor of photosynthetic water oxidation has remained. PMID:16244147

  2. IL-17A induces Pendrin expression and chloride-bicarbonate exchange in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Abraham, Valsamma; Spielman, Daniel; Kolls, Jay K; Rubenstein, Ronald C; Conner, Gregory E; Cohen, Noam A; Kreindler, James L

    2014-01-01

    The epithelium plays an active role in the response to inhaled pathogens in part by responding to signals from the immune system. Epithelial responses may include changes in chemokine expression, increased mucin production and antimicrobial peptide secretion, and changes in ion transport. We previously demonstrated that interleukin-17A (IL-17A), which is critical for lung host defense against extracellular bacteria, significantly raised airway surface pH in vitro, a finding that is common to a number of inflammatory diseases. Using microarray analysis of normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells treated with IL-17A, we identified the electroneutral chloride-bicarbonate exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4) as a potential mediator of this effect. These data were verified by real-time, quantitative PCR that demonstrated a time-dependent increase in Pendrin mRNA expression in HBE cells treated with IL-17A up to 48 h. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, we confirmed that Pendrin protein expression is increased in IL-17 treated HBE cells and that it is primarily localized to the mucosal surface of the cells. Functional studies using live-cell fluorescence to measure intracellular pH demonstrated that IL-17A induced chloride-bicarbonate exchange in HBE cells that was not present in the absence of IL-17A. Furthermore, HBE cells treated with short interfering RNA against Pendrin showed substantially reduced chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These data suggest that Pendrin is part of IL-17A-dependent epithelial changes and that Pendrin may therefore be a therapeutic target in IL-17A-dependent lung disease. PMID:25141009

  3. Effects of pH and bicarbonate on mitochondrial functions of marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Haider, Fouzia; Falfushynska, Halina; Ivanina, Anna V; Sokolova, Inna M

    2016-08-01

    Estuarine organisms including mollusks are exposed to periodic oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) that leads to a decrease in intracellular pH and accumulation of bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). These changes can affect cellular bioenergetics; however, their effects on mitochondria of estuarine mollusks are not well understood. We determined the interactive effects of bicarbonate (0-10mM) and pH (7.2 and 6.5) on mitochondrial oxygen consumption (ṀO2), membrane potential (Δψ) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in two common estuarine bivalves - hard clams Mercenaria mercenaria, and bay scallops Argopecten irradians. In both species, elevated HCO3(-) levels suppressed ADP-stimulated (state 3) ṀO2 but had little effect on the resting (state 4) respiration. These effects were not mediated by the soluble adenylyl cyclase or cyclic AMP. Effects of the low pH (6.5) on mitochondrial traits were species-specific and depended on the substrate oxidized by the mitochondria. Mild acidosis (pH6.5) had minimal effects on ṀO2 and Δψ of the bivalve mitochondria oxidizing pyruvate but led to increased rates of ROS production in clams (ROS production could not be measured in scallops). In succinate-respiring mitochondria of clams, mild acidosis suppressed ṀO2 and increased mitochondrial coupling, while in scallop mitochondria the effects of low pH were opposite. Suppression of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation by bicarbonate and/or acidosis may contribute to the metabolic rate depression during shell closure or environmental hypoxia/hypercapnia. These findings have implications for understanding the physiological mechanisms involved in regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics during hypoxia exposure in estuarine bivalves. PMID:27044911

  4. The choice of dialysate bicarbonate: do different concentrations make a difference?

    PubMed

    Basile, Carlo; Rossi, Luigi; Lomonte, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common complication of chronic kidney disease; it is typically caused by the accumulation of sulfate, phosphorus, and organic anions. Metabolic acidosis is correlated with several adverse outcomes, such as morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality. Thus, correction of metabolic acidosis is fundamental for the adequate management of many systemic complications of chronic kidney disease. In patients undergoing hemodialysis, acid-base homeostasis depends on many factors including the following: net acid production, amount of alkali given by the dialysate bath, duration of the interdialytic period, and residual diuresis, if any. Recent literature data suggest that the development of metabolic alkalosis after dialysis may contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. Our review is focused on the potential effects of different dialysate bicarbonate concentrations on hard outcomes such as mortality. Unfortunately, no randomized studies exist about this issue. Acid-base equilibrium is a complex and vital system whose regulation is impaired in chronic kidney disease. We await further studies to assess the extent to which acid-base status is a major determinant of overall survival in patients undergoing hemodialysis. For the present, the clinician should understand that target values for predialysis serum bicarbonate concentration have been established primarily based on observational studies and expert opinion. Based on this, we should keep the predialysis serum bicarbonate level at least at 22 mmol/l. Furthermore, a specific focus should be addressed by the attending nephrologist to the clinical and nutritional status of the major outliers on both the acid and alkaline sides of the curve. PMID:26924048

  5. Loss of Slc4a1b Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger Function Protects Mechanosensory Hair Cells from Aminoglycoside Damage in the Zebrafish Mutant persephone

    PubMed Central

    Hailey, Dale W.; Roberts, Brock; Owens, Kelly N.; Stewart, Andrew K.; Linbo, Tor; Pujol, Remy; Alper, Seth L.; Rubel, Edwin W.; Raible, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanosensory hair cell death is a leading cause of hearing and balance disorders in the human population. Hair cells are remarkably sensitive to environmental insults such as excessive noise and exposure to some otherwise therapeutic drugs. However, individual responses to damaging agents can vary, in part due to genetic differences. We previously carried out a forward genetic screen using the zebrafish lateral line system to identify mutations that alter the response of larval hair cells to the antibiotic neomycin, one of a class of aminoglycoside compounds that cause hair cell death in humans. The persephone mutation confers resistance to aminoglycosides. 5 dpf homozygous persephone mutants are indistinguishable from wild-type siblings, but differ in their retention of lateral line hair cells upon exposure to neomycin. The mutation in persephone maps to the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger slc4a1b and introduces a single Ser-to-Phe substitution in zSlc4a1b. This mutation prevents delivery of the exchanger to the cell surface and abolishes the ability of the protein to import chloride across the plasma membrane. Loss of function of zSlc4a1b reduces hair cell death caused by exposure to the aminoglycosides neomycin, kanamycin, and gentamicin, and the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin. Pharmacological block of anion transport with the disulfonic stilbene derivatives DIDS and SITS, or exposure to exogenous bicarbonate, also protects hair cells against damage. Both persephone mutant and DIDS-treated wild-type larvae show reduced uptake of labeled aminoglycosides. persephone mutants also show reduced FM1-43 uptake, indicating a potential impact on mechanotransduction-coupled activity in the mutant. We propose that tight regulation of the ionic environment of sensory hair cells, mediated by zSlc4a1b activity, is critical for their sensitivity to aminoglcyoside antibiotics. PMID:23071446

  6. Prediction of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury using the venous bicarbonate concentration.

    PubMed

    Muckart, D J; Moodley, M; Naidu, A G; Reddy, A D; Meineke, K R

    1992-12-01

    Sixty-four patients with soft-tissue injuries were studied prospectively to determine whether an initial venous bicarbonate concentration (VBC) of less than 17 mmol/L would predict the development of myoglobin-induced acute renal failure. The VBC was > 17 mmol/L in 59 patients, seven of whom had myoglobinuria. All recovered without renal complications. The remaining five patients all had VBC < 17 mmol/L and four had myoglobinuria. Acute renal failure developed in four patients (p < 0.001). The VBC on hospital arrival was the most accurate predictor of these patients' risk for the development of acute renal failure following soft-tissue injury. PMID:1474620

  7. Role of microstructures on stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels in carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Asahi, H.; Kushida, T.; Kimura, M.; Fukai, H.; Okano, S.

    1999-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) on the external surface of pipelines contributes to the major failure of pipelines. The great majority of SCC is intergranular and occurs in a carbonate-bicarbonate environment. Metallurgical factors affecting SCC are still vague and therefore have been studied. Uniform microstructures, not mixed structures, are favorable for suppressing SCC. Low-C steels produced in a process such as thermomechanical-controlled processing are less susceptible to SCC. The presence of locally soft microstructures decreases resistance to SCC (mixed structure and decarburized structure). However, SCC resistance is high on hard layers, like grit-blasted surfaces.

  8. Thermophysical properties of sodium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, G. H.; Tokar, J. V.

    1969-01-01

    Assessment is given of physical and thermodynamic properties of sodium. FORTRAN subroutine computes enthalphy and entropy of sodium in given state, and composition, molecular weight, volume, and compressibility factor of corresponding vapor. Tabular results for saturated liquid and vapor are presented for a 500-2500 degree F range.

  9. Association between serum bicarbonate and pH with depression, cognition and sleep quality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Elsurer, Rengin

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common feature in chronic renal failure patients, worsening progressively as renal function declines. There are conflicting data in hemodialysis (HD) patients with regard to acidosis, alkalosis and mortality. In HD patients, cognitive impairment, depression, sleep disorders and impaired quality of life are very common. Besides, these conditions are related with increased morbidity and mortality. However, no previous study investigated the relationship between pH, venous bicarbonate and anion gap with depression, sleep problems and cognitive function in HD patients. In this study we investigated these relationships. In total, 65 HD patients were included. The demographic parameters and laboratory parameters including bicarbonate, pH and anion gap was measured for all patients. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality and cognitive function, were measured by Beck depression inventory, The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and by Mini Mental State Examination, respectively. We found that, sleep quality but not cognitive function or depression was independently related with venous pH and bicarbonate. Anion gap has no independent relationship with sleep quality, cognitive function and depression. In conclusion, metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels were independently related with sleep quality in HD patients. However, there was no association between metabolic acidosis and bicarbonate levels with cognitive function and depression. PMID:25894326

  10. Bicarbonate content of groundwater in carbonate rock in eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trainer, F.W.; Heath, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    In carbonate-rock terrane the most effective solution occurs where soil and vegetative cover facilitate biogenic production and storage of CO2 in the soil until part of it is carried downward in percolating water. Bicarbonate data for groundwater in eastern North America are examined in the light of these conditions, of the CO2 content of soil gas, and of the timing of groundwater recharge relative to seasonal changes in soil temperature. There appears to be no well-marked relation between latitude and bicarbonate content of groundwater in this region. Interplay of all the factors listed above, and of lithology and soil types, is evidently such that under optimum conditions the amount of solution of carbonate rock is roughly comparable, per unit of groundwater recharge, over the region from Ohio to Florida (and, perhaps, to Puerto Rico and Yucatan). Relatively low HCO3 concentrations observed in much of the southern United States are attributed to low production and storage of CO2 in sandy soil that is poor in organic matter. On the other hand, concentrations observed in Ontario, New York and Michigan are markedly higher than is to be expected from interrelations of the factors considered. These high values, apparently anomalous, are attributed in part to solution of granular glacial drift derived largely from carbonate rock. ?? 1976.

  11. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3− transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4γ isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3− to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4γ appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  12. Hypolipidemic Activity of a Natural Mineral Water Rich in Calcium, Magnesium, and Bicarbonate in Hyperlipidemic Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aslanabadi, Naser; Habibi Asl, Bohlool; Bakhshalizadeh, Babak; Ghaderi, Faranak; Nemati, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the effects of a mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium, bicarbonate, and sulfate and a marketed mineral water with a composition similar to that of urban water on the lipid profile of dyslipidemic adults. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, 32 adults received one liter of "rich mineral water" daily for one month, and 37 adults drank the same amount of normal mineral water for the same period. Changes in lipid profiles were compared separately in each studied group at the end of one month. Results: Results showed that mean cholesterol and low density lipoprotein LDL levels were significantly decreased in both studied groups after one month of drinking mineral water (P<0.05); however, no significant differences in high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride (TG) levels were seen in either group one month after drinking. There were no statistically significant differences between the "rich mineral water" and the normal mineral water groups in any of the above-mentioned lipid levels ( P>0.05). Conclusion: A one-month intake of mineral water rich in calcium, magnesium bicarbonate, and sulfate decreased cholesterol and LDL levels but not TG or HDL levels in dyslipidemic adults. PMID:24754016

  13. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  14. Practical synthesis of the new carbapenem antibiotic ertapenem sodium.

    PubMed

    Williams, J Michael; Brands, Karel M J; Skerlj, Renato T; Jobson, Ronald B; Marchesini, George; Conrad, Karen M; Pipik, Brenda; Savary, Kimberly A; Tsay, Fuh-Rong; Houghton, Peter G; Sidler, D Richard; Dolling, Ulf-H; DiMichele, Lisa M; Novak, Thomas J

    2005-09-16

    [reaction: see text] A practical synthesis for the large-scale production of the new carbapenem antibiotic, [4R,5S,6S]-3-[[(3S,5S)-5-[[(3-Carboxyphenyl)amino]carbonyl]-3-pyrrolidinyl]thio]-6-[(1R)-1-hydroxyethyl]-4-methyl-7-oxo-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]hept-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid monosodium salt (ertapenem sodium, 1), has been developed. The synthesis features the novel use of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine as base for the low-temperature reaction of a thiol, derived from trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline, with the carbapenem nucleus activated as the enol phosphate. Hydrogenolysis of a p-nitrobenzyl ester is effected using a palladium on carbon catalyst to give an overall yield for the two steps of 90%. The use of bicarbonate in the hydrogenolysis was key in providing protection of the pyrrolidine amine as the sodium carbamate improving both the performance of the reaction and the stability of the product. This discovery made processing at manufacturing scale possible. Experimental evidence for the formation of the sodium carbamate is provided. A remarkably expedient process for the simultaneous purification and concentration of the aqueous product stream relies on ion-pairing extraction for the removal of the water-soluble 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. Crystallization then affords 59-64% overall yield of the monosodium salt form of the product. PMID:16149774

  15. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  16. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  17. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  18. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  19. THE ROLE OF SODIUM CHANNELS IN CHRONIC PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Levinson, Simon R.; Luo, Songjiang; Henry, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Here we review recent research into the mechanisms of chronic pain that has focused on neuronal sodium channels, a target of classic analgesic agents. We first discuss evidence that specific sodium channel isoforms are essential for the detection and conduction of normal acutely painful stimuli from nociceptors. We then review findings that show changes in sodium channel expression and localization in chronic inflammation and nerve injury in animal and human tissues. We conclude by discussing the role that myelination plays in organizing and maintaining sodium channel clusters at nodes of Ranvier in normal development and how inflammatory processes or nerve injury alter the characteristics of such clusters. Based on these findings, we suggest that chronic pain may in part result from partial demyelination of axons during chronic injury, which creates aberrant sodium channel clusters that serve as sites of ectopic sensitivity or spontaneous activity. PMID:22806363

  20. Thiazolidinediones and Edema: Recent Advances in the Pathogenesis of Thiazolidinediones-Induced Renal Sodium Retention.

    PubMed

    Horita, Shoko; Nakamura, Motonobu; Satoh, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Masashi; Seki, George

    2015-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are one of the major classes of antidiabetic drugs that are used widely. TZDs improve insulin resistance by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and ameliorate diabetic and other nephropathies, at least, in experimental animals. However, TZDs have side effects, such as edema, congestive heart failure, and bone fracture, and may increase bladder cancer risk. Edema and heart failure, which both probably originate from renal sodium retention, are of great importance because these side effects make it difficult to continue the use of TZDs. However, the pathogenesis of edema remains a matter of controversy. Initially, upregulation of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts by TZDs was thought to be the primary cause of edema. However, the results of other studies do not support this view. Recent data suggest the involvement of transporters in the proximal tubule, such as sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter and sodium-proton exchanger. Other studies have suggested that sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of Henle and aquaporins are also possible targets for TZDs. This paper will discuss the recent advances in the pathogenesis of TZD-induced sodium reabsorption in the renal tubules and edema. PMID:26074951

  1. Preformulation studies and optimization of sodium alginate based floating drug delivery system for eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Diós, Péter; Nagy, Sándor; Pál, Szilárd; Pernecker, Tivadar; Kocsis, Béla; Budán, Ferenc; Horváth, Ildikó; Szigeti, Krisztián; Bölcskei, Kata; Máthé, Domokos; Dévay, Attila

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design a local, floating, mucoadhesive drug delivery system containing metronidazole for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Face-centered central composite design (with three factors, in three levels) was used for evaluation and optimization of in vitro floating and dissolution studies. Sodium alginate (X1), low substituted hydroxypropyl cellulose (L-HPC B1, X2) and sodium bicarbonate (X3) concentrations were the independent variables in the development of effervescent floating tablets. All tablets showed acceptable physicochemical properties. Statistical analysis revealed that tablets with 5.00% sodium alginate, 38.63% L-HPC B1 and 8.45% sodium bicarbonate content showed promising in vitro floating and dissolution properties for further examinations. Optimized floating tablets expressed remarkable floating force. Their in vitro dissolution studies were compared with two commercially available non-floating metronidazole products and then microbiologically detected dissolution, ex vivo detachment force, rheological mucoadhesion studies and compatibility studies were carried out. Remarkable similarity (f1, f2) between in vitro spectrophotometrically and microbiologically detected dissolutions was found. Studies revealed significant ex vivo mucoadhesion of optimized tablets, which was considerably increased by L-HPC. In vivo X-ray CT studies of optimized tablets showed 8h gastroretention in rats represented by an animation prepared by special CT technique. PMID:26247118

  2. Sodium hypochlorite poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, especially if the product is mixed with ammonia. This article is for information only. Do NOT ... hypochlorite, which may cause severe injury. NEVER mix ammonia with sodium hypochlorite (bleach or bleach-containing products). ...

  3. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  4. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Medical Management Guidelines for Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) . Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Available at: www.atsdr.cdc. ...

  5. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... comes as a suspension and as an oral powder for suspension to take by mouth. The suspension ... evenly.If you are taking sodium polystyrene sulfonate powder by mouth, mix the powder with 20 to ...

  6. Sodium hypochlorite dental accidents.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Mridula; Chhabra, Nidhi; Kumar, Gyanendra; Verma, Mahesh; Chhabra, Anuj

    2014-02-01

    Sodium hypochlorite is widely used in dentistry as an intra-canal irrigant, for debridement and to disinfect root canals. Although it is considered to be safe, serious mishap can result from its inappropriate use, and this has been reported infrequently in the literature. Two unusual cases of sodium hypochlorite toxicity and their successful non-surgical management are described in a 14-year-old girl and a 13-year-old boy. PMID:24090808

  7. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  8. Adsorption of Nickel (II) from Aqueous Solution by Bicarbonate Modified Coconut Oilcake Residue Carbon.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumari, N; Srinivasan, K

    2014-07-01

    The adsorption of Ni (II) on modified coconut oilcake residue carbon (bicarbonate treated coconut oilcake residue carbon-BCORC) was employed for the removal of Ni (II) from water and wastewater. The influence of various factors such as agitation time, pH and carbon dosage on the adsorption capacity has been studied. Adsorption isothermal data could be interpreted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. In order to understand the reaction mechanism, kinetic data has been studied using reversible first order rate equation. Similar studies were carried out using commercially available activated carbon--CAC, for comparison purposes. Column studies were conducted to obtain breakthrough capacities of BCORC and CAC. Common anions and cations affecting the removal of Ni (II) on both the carbons were also studied. Experiments were also done with wastewater containing Ni (II), to assess the potential of these carbons. PMID:26563074

  9. Production of the carbonate radical anion during xanthine oxidase turnover in the presence of bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Marcelo G; Miyamoto, Sayuri; Di Mascio, Paolo; Augusto, Ohara

    2004-12-10

    Xanthine oxidase is generally recognized as a key enzyme in purine catabolism, but its structural complexity, low substrate specificity, and specialized tissue distribution suggest other functions that remain to be fully identified. The potential of xanthine oxidase to generate superoxide radical anion, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrite has been extensively explored in pathophysiological contexts. Here we demonstrate that xanthine oxidase turnover at physiological pH produces a strong one-electron oxidant, the carbonate radical anion. The radical was shown to be produced from acetaldehyde oxidation by xanthine oxidase in the presence of catalase and bicarbonate on the basis of several lines of evidence such as oxidation of both dihydrorhodamine 123 and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and chemiluminescence and isotope labeling/mass spectrometry studies. In the case of xanthine oxidase acting upon xanthine and hypoxanthine as substrates, carbonate radical anion production was also evidenced by the oxidation of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide and of dihydrorhodamine 123 in the presence of uricase. The results indicated that Fenton chemistry occurring in the bulk solution is not necessary for carbonate radical anion production. Under the conditions employed, the radical was likely to be produced at the enzyme active site by reduction of a peroxymonocarbonate intermediate whose formation and reduction is facilitated by the many xanthine oxidase redox centers. In addition to indicating that the carbonate radical anion may be an important mediator of the pathophysiological effects of xanthine oxidase, the results emphasize the potential of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide pair as a source of biological oxidants. PMID:15448145

  10. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  11. Transport activity of chimaeric AE2-AE3 chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Jocelyne; Loiselle, Frederick B; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AEs), found in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, are involved in pH regulation and bicarbonate metabolism. Although AE2 and AE3 are highly similar in sequence, AE2-transport activity was 10-fold higher than AE3 (41 versus 4 mM x min(-1) respectively), when expressed by transient transfection of HEK-293 cells. AE2-AE3 chimaeras were constructed to define the region responsible for differences in transport activity. The level of AE2 expression was approx. 30% higher than that of AE3. Processing to the cell surface, studied by chemical labelling and confocal microscopy, showed that AE2 is processed to the cell surface approx. 8-fold more efficiently than AE3. The efficiency of cell-surface processing was dependent on the cytoplasmic domain, since the AE2 domain conferred efficient processing upon the AE3 membrane domain, with a predominant role for amino acids 322-677 of AE2. AE2 that was expressed in HEK-293 cells was glycosylated, but little of AE3 was. However, AE2 expressed in the presence of the glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, was not glycosylated, yet retained 85 +/- 8% of anion-transport activity. Therefore glycosylation has little, if any, role in the cell-surface processing or activity of AE2 or AE3. We conclude that the low anion-transport activity of AE3 in HEK-293 cells is due to low level processing to the plasma membrane, possibly owing to protein interactions with the AE3 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:12578559

  12. Bicarbonate Requirement for Elimination of the Lag Period of Hydrogenomonas eutropha

    PubMed Central

    Repaske, Roy; Ambrose, Carol A.; Repaske, Anne C.; De Lacy, Margaret L.

    1971-01-01

    Carbon dioxide and oxygen concentrations have a profound effect on the lag period of chemoautotrophically grown Hydrogenomonas eutropha. Minimum lag periods and high growth rates were obtained in shaken flask cultures with a prepared gas mixture containing 70% H2, 20% O2, and 10% CO2. However, excessively long lag periods resulted when the same gas mixture was sparged through the culture. The lag period was shortened in sparged cultures by decreasing both the pO2 and the pCO2, indicating that gas medium equilibration had not occurred in shaken cultures. The lag period was completely eliminated at certain concentrations of O2 and CO2. The optimum pO2 was 0.05 atm, but the optimum pCO2 varied according to the pH of the medium and physiological age of the inoculum. At pH 6.4, the pCO2 required to obtain immediate growth of exponential, postexponential, and stationary phase inocula at equal specific rates was 0.02, 0.05, and 0.16 atm, respectively. With each 0.3-unit increase in the pH of the medium, a 50% decrease in the CO2 concentration was needed to permit growth to occur at the same rate. The pCO2 changes required to compensate for the pH changes of the medium had the net effect of maintaining a constant bicarbonate ion concentration. Initial growth of H. eutropha was therefore indirectly related to pCO2 and directly dependent upon a constant bicarbonate ion concentration. PMID:4999412

  13. Carbonate precipitates and bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Faggio, Caterina; Torre, Agata; Lando, Gabriele; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Francesca

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the chemical composition of the precipitates found in the intestine of Dicentrarchus labrax and the source of HCO(3)(-) secreted into the intestinal lumen. The chemical analysis was performed by employing the potentiometric double titration method and by means of an electron microscope coupled with a spectrometer and X-ray powder diffraction. The results obtained suggest the presence of very insoluble intestinal precipitates, presumably formed by a mixture of CaCO(3) and MgCO(3), with a higher quantity of the former with respect to the latter. HCO(3)(-) secretion rate was investigated with the aid of the pH stat method in isolated tissues mounted in Ussing chamber, where the transepithelial electrical parameters were also measured. When the serosal surface of the intestinal mucosa was bathed in HCO(3)(-)-Ringer bubbled with 1% CO(2) in O(2) while the serosal surface was bathed in HCO(3)(-) free Ringer solution bubbled with pure O(2), bicarbonate secretion proceeded at an almost stable rate of 0.9 ± 0.05 μeq cm(-2) h(-1) for about 3 h while I(sc) maintained a constant value of 38 ± 1.5 μA cm(-2). The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor ethoxyzolamide elicited a progressive reduction of HCO(3)(-) secretion that was about 75% of the initial value after 80 min. When serosal HCO(3)(-)-CO(2) saline was substituted with Hepes-O(2) saline base secretion progressively declined reaching a value of about 20% of the initial value. It was also strongly inhibited when Na(+) was substituted with the impermeant cation choline and when either DIDS or ouabain were added to the basolateral side. These results suggest that most of the bicarbonate secreted is of extracellular source and is probably transported across the basolateral membrane by both Na(+) independent mechanism and Na(+) dependent transporter, presumably a NaHCO(3) cotransport. PMID:21152925

  14. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or gluco...

  15. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in man. Stimulation by acid and inhibition by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine.

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, L; Flemström, G

    1989-01-01

    A multi-channel small diameter tube was used to study the secretion of bicarbonate by 3 cm long segments of the proximal duodenum isolated between balloons. The tube had an outer diameter of 5.3 mm and two central and four smaller, peripheral channels. Measurements of infused phenol red, 14C-PEG and vitamin B12 and of trypsin activity were performed to rule out contamination of the perfusate by gastric and pancreatic secretions. Basal secretion of bicarbonate by the duodenal mucosa in healthy subjects varied between 135 and 220 mumol/cm of intestine per hour. Perfusion of the lumen with acid (100 mM HCl for five minutes) increased the secretion to greater than 400 mumol/cm/h and the alpha 2-adrenoreceptor agonist clonidine (150 micrograms iv) decreased the HCO3- secretion by 70 mumol/cm/h. Clonidine simultaneously reduced the mean arterial blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline concentration, but did not affect the plasma glucose or adrenaline concentration. Duodenal bicarbonate secretion is important in the protection of this mucosa against acid discharged from the stomach. Increased sympathetic activity may, by inhibiting the bicarbonate secretion, decrease the protection in proximal duodenum in man and facilitate ulceration. Images Fig. 2 PMID:2558985

  16. Determination of erythrocyte sodium sensitivity in man.

    PubMed

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wilhelmi, Marianne

    2013-10-01

    Sodium buffer capacity of vascular endothelium depends on an endothelial glycocalyx rich in negatively charged heparan sulfate. It has been shown recently that after the mechanical interaction of blood with heparan sulfate-depleted endothelium, erythrocytes also lose this glycocalyx constituent. This observation led to the conclusion that the vascular sodium buffer capacity of an individual could be derived from a blood sample. A test system (salt blood test (SBT)) was developed based upon the sodium-dependent erythrocyte zeta potential. Erythrocyte sedimentation velocity was measured in isosmotic, biopolymer-supplemented electrolyte solutions of different sodium concentrations. Erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS), inversely related to erythrocyte sodium buffer capacity, was expressed as the ratio of the erythrocyte sedimentation velocities of 150 mM over 125 mM Na(+) solutions (ESS = Na(+) 150/Na(+) 125). In 61 healthy individuals (mean age, 23 ± 0.5 years), ESS ranged between 2 and 8. The mean value was 4.3 ± 0.19. The frequency distribution shows two peaks, one at about 3 and another one at about 5. To test whether ESS reflects changes of the endothelial glycocalyx, a cultured endothelial monolayer was exposed for 3 hours to a rhythmically moving blood layer (drag force experiment). When applying this procedure, we found that ESS was reduced by about 21 % when the endothelium was pretreated for 4 days with the glycocalyx protective agent WS 1442. In conclusion, the SBT could possibly serve as an in vitro test system for the evaluation of erythrocyte/vascular salt sensitivity allowing follow-up measurements in the prevention and treatment of vascular dysfunctions. PMID:23686295

  17. Mechanisms of CFTR Functional Variants That Impair Regulated Bicarbonate Permeation and Increase Risk for Pancreatitis but Not for Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Michele D.; Park, Hyun Woo; Brand, Randall E.; Gelrud, Andres; Anderson, Michelle A.; Banks, Peter A.; Conwell, Darwin; Lawrence, Christopher; Romagnuolo, Joseph; Baillie, John; Alkaade, Samer; Cote, Gregory; Gardner, Timothy B.; Amann, Stephen T.; Slivka, Adam; Sandhu, Bimaljit; Aloe, Amy; Kienholz, Michelle L.; Yadav, Dhiraj; Barmada, M. Michael; Bahar, Ivet; Lee, Min Goo; Whitcomb, David C.

    2014-01-01

    CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR

  18. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  19. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Katsenovich, Yelena P.; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel E.

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) release from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO2)(PO4)]2•3H2O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of the Arthrobacter oxydans G975 strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorous-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate (ranging between 1 and 10 mM) in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with the G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated that G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile culture-ware with inserts was used in non-contact dissolution experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest that G975 bacteria is able to enhance the release of U(VI) from autunite without direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the release of U(VI) from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  20. Enhanced U(VI) release from autunite mineral by aerobic Arthrobacter sp. in the presence of aqueous bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Katsenovich, Yelena; Carvajal, Denny A.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2012-04-20

    The bacterial effect on U(VI) leaching from the autunite mineral (Ca[(UO{sub 2})(PO{sub 4})]{sub 2} {center_dot} 3H{sub 2}O) was investigated to provide a more comprehensive understanding into important microbiological processes affecting autunite stability within subsurface bicarbonate-bearing environments. Experiments were performed in a culture of G975 Arthrobacter oxydans strain, herein referred to as G975, a soil bacterium previously isolated from Hanford Site soil. 91 mg of autunite powder and 50 mL of phosphorus-limiting sterile media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 1-10 mM in glass reactor bottles and inoculated with G975 strain after the dissolution of autunite was at steady state. SEM observations indicated G975 formed a biofilm on the autunite surface and penetrated the mineral cleavages. The mineral surface colonization by bacteria tended to increase concomitantly with bicarbonate concentrations. Additionally, a sterile cultureware with inserts was used in non-contact bioleaching experiments where autunite and bacteria cells were kept separately. The data suggest the G975 bacteria is able to enhance U(VI) leaching from autunite without the direct contact with the mineral. In the presence of bicarbonate, the damage to bacterial cells caused by U(VI) toxicity was reduced, yielding similar values for total organic carbon (TOC) degradation and cell density compared to U(VI)-free controls. The presence of active bacterial cells greatly enhanced the U(VI) bioleaching from autunite in bicarbonate-amended media.

  1. Io's sodium cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, B. A.; Garneau, G. W.; Lavoie, S. K.

    1984-11-01

    The first two-dimensional images of the source region of Io's neutral sodium cloud have been acquired by ground-based observation. Observed asymmetries in its spatial brightness distribution provide new evidence that the cloud is supplied by sodium that is ejected nonisotropically from Io or its atmosphere. Complementary, high-time-resolution, calibrated image sequences that give the first comprehensive picture of the variations of the fainter regions of the cloud extending more than 100,000 kilometers from Io were also obtained. These data demonstrate that the cloud exhibits a persistent systematic behavior coupled with Io's orbital position, a distinct 'east-west orbital asymmetry', a variety of spatial morphologies, and true temporal changes. The geometric stability of the sodium source is also indicated. Isolation of the cloud's temporal changes constitutes an important milestone toward its utilization as a long-term probe of Io and the inner Jovian magnetosphere.

  2. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  3. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... anticaking agents in animal feeds in accordance with current good manufacturing practices....

  4. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... anticaking agents in animal feeds in accordance with current good manufacturing practices....

  5. 21 CFR 573.280 - Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.280 Feed-grade calcium stearate and sodium stearate... anticaking agents in animal feeds in accordance with current good manufacturing practices....

  6. 21 CFR 172.824 - Sodium mono- and dimethyl naphthalene sulfonates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... systems to reduce hardness and aid in sedimentation and coagulation by raising the pH for the efficient utilization of other coagulation materials. (2) As an anticaking agent in sodium nitrite at a level not...

  7. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  8. Maximizing adhesion of auxin solutions to stem cuttings using sodium cellulose glycolate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Auxin solutions prepared with sodium cellulose glycolate (SCG; a thickening agent, also known as sodium carboxymethylcellulose) and applied to stem cuttings using a basal quick-dip extend the duration of exposure of cuttings to the auxin and have previously been shown to increase root number and/or ...

  9. Fluorescence quenching of flavins by reductive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzkofer, A.; Bansal, A. K.; Song, S.-H.; Dick, B.

    2007-07-01

    The fluorescence behaviour of the flavins riboflavin, flavin mononucleotide (FMN), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and lumiflavin in aqueous solution at pH 8 in the presence of the reducing agents β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME), dithiothreitol (DTT), and sodium nitrite (NaNO 2) is studied under aerobic conditions. The fluorescence quantum yields and fluorescence lifetimes are determined as a function of the reducing agent concentration. For all three reducing agents diffusion controlled dynamic fluorescence quenching is observed which is thought to be due to photo-induced reductive electron transfer. For DTT additionally static fluorescence quenching occurs.

  10. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  11. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  12. Modified Graphene Oxide for Long Cycle Sodium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shareef, Muhamed; Gunn, Harrison; Voigt, Victoria; Singh, Gurpreet

    Hummer's process was modified to produce gram levels of 2-dimensional nanosheets of graphene oxide (GO) with varying degree of exfoliation and chemical functionalization. This was achieved by varying the weight ratios and reaction times of oxidizing agents used in the process. Based on Raman and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy we show that potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is the key oxidizing agent while sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) play minor role during the exfoliation of graphite. Tested as working electrode in sodium-ion half-cell, the GO nanosheets produced using this optimized approach showed high rate capability and exceptionally high energy density of ~500 mAh/g for up to at least 100 cycles, which is among the highest reported for sodium/graphite electrodes. The average Coulombic efficiency was approximately 99 %. NSF Grant No. 1454151.

  13. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control

    PubMed Central

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. METHODS: Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. RESULTS: Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P < 0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83 ± 1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P < 0.001), meat (P < 0.001) and vegetable (P < 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. CONCLUSION: Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake. PMID:22408352

  14. Enhanced morphological transformation of early passage Syrian hamster embryo cells cultured in medium with a reduced bicarbonate concentration and pH.

    PubMed

    LeBoeuf, R A; Kerchaert, G A

    1987-05-01

    Recent studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that clonal cell proliferation of early passage Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells is optimal at a bicarbonate concentration in the culture medium of 8.9 mM (pH 6.65-6.75) under the experimental conditions reported. The purpose of the studies reported here was to examine whether morphological transformation induced by benzo[a]pyrene (BP) was enhanced under optimal culture conditions for SHE cell proliferation. Culture media of pH 6.70, 7.11 and 7.34 under incubator conditions of 10% CO2 in air were obtained by the addition of 0.75 (8.9 mM), 2.25 (26.8 mM) and 3.75 g/l (44.6 mM) of NaHCO3 respectively to a modified formulation of Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium. The frequency of morphological transformation of SHE cells was increased at 8.9 mM bicarbonate (pH 6.70) relative to media containing 26.8 or 44.6 mM bicarbonate (pH 7.11 and 7.34 respectively). Additionally, the isolate of embryo cells and lot of fetal bovine serum used supported transformation induced by BP at 8.9 mM bicarbonate (pH 6.70), but did not with media of higher bicarbonate concentration and pH. The duration of cell culture and the no. of colonies per plate influenced the amount of increase of morphological transformation observed at 8.9 mM bicarbonate relative to media of higher bicarbonate concentration. Initial studies have shown that a fraction of morphologically transformed colonies generated at reduced bicarbonate concentration were tumorigenic in newborn hamsters. These results are discussed in terms of the potential utility of low bicarbonate concentration cultured SHE cells for transformation studies. PMID:3581427

  15. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  16. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  17. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  18. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  19. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  20. INHIBITION OF VIRULENCE FACTORS OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA BY DICLOFENAC SODIUM.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Hisham A

    2015-01-01

    Resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is a major problem. Targeting virulence factors is an alternative option to avoid the emergence of resistance to antibiotics. The effect of sub-inhibitory concentration of diclofenac sodium on the production of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa was investigated. The virulence factors included protease, haemolysin, pyocyanin and pyoverdin, in addition to pathogenic behaviors such as swimming and twitching motilities and biofilm formation. Diclofenac sodium showed significant inhibition of virulence factors as compared to the control. Diclofenac sodium decreased twitching and swimming motilities by 29.27% and 45.36%, respectively. The percentage of inhibition of pyocyanin by diclofenac sodium was 42.32%. On the other hand, pyoverdin was inhibited to a lesser extent (36.72%). Diclofenac sodium reduced protease by 52.58% and biofilm formation by 58.37%. Moreover, haemolytic activity in the presence of diclofenac sodium was 15.64% as compared to the control (100% haemolytic activity). The inhibitory activities may be due to inhibition of quorum sensing that regulates the expression of virulence factors. This study suggests the potential for the use of diclofenac sodium as an anti-virulence agent in the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. PMID:27328521

  1. Angiopoietin-1, angiopoietin-2 and bicarbonate as diagnostic biomarkers in children with severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Bhandari, Vineet; Giuliano, John S; O Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Kirby, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Severe pediatric sepsis continues to be associated with high mortality rates in children. Thus, an important area of biomedical research is to identify biomarkers that can classify sepsis severity and outcomes. The complex and heterogeneous nature of sepsis makes the prospect of the classification of sepsis severity using a single biomarker less likely. Instead, we employ machine learning techniques to validate the use of a multiple biomarkers scoring system to determine the severity of sepsis in critically ill children. The study was based on clinical data and plasma samples provided by a tertiary care center's Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) from a group of 45 patients with varying sepsis severity at the time of admission. Canonical Correlation Analysis with the Forward Selection and Random Forests methods identified a particular set of biomarkers that included Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), and Bicarbonate (HCO[Formula: see text]) as having the strongest correlations with sepsis severity. The robustness and effectiveness of these biomarkers for classifying sepsis severity were validated by constructing a linear Support Vector Machine diagnostic classifier. We also show that the concentrations of Ang-1, Ang-2, and HCO[Formula: see text] enable predictions of the time dependence of sepsis severity in children. PMID:25255212

  2. Bicarbonate-sensitive calcification and lifespan of klotho-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Leibrock, Christina B; Voelkl, Jakob; Kohlhofer, Ursula; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Kuro-O, Makoto; Lang, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Klotho, a protein counteracting aging, is a powerful inhibitor of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] formation and regulator of mineral metabolism. In klotho hypomorphic (kl/kl) mice, excessive 1,25(OH)2D3 formation leads to hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, severe growth deficits, accelerated aging and early death. Kl/kl mice further suffer from extracellular volume depletion and hypotension, leading to the stimulation of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone release. A vitamin D-deficient diet, restriction of dietary phosphate, inhibition of mineralocorticoid receptors with spironolactone, and dietary NaCl all extend the lifespan of kl/kl mice. Kl/kl mice suffer from acidosis. The present study explored whether replacement of tap drinking water by 150 mM NaHCO3 affects the growth, tissue calcification, and lifespan of kl/kl mice. As a result, NaHCO3 administration to kl/kl mice did not reverse the growth deficit but substantially decreased tissue calcification and significantly increased the average lifespan from 78 to 127 days. NaHCO3 did not significantly affect plasma concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 and Ca(2+) but significantly decreased plasma phosphate concentration and plasma aldosterone concentration. The present study reveals a novel effect of bicarbonate, i.e., a favorable influence on vascular calcification and early death of klotho-deficient mice. PMID:26538435

  3. Putative interaction of brush cells with bicarbonate secreting cells in the proximal corpus mucosa.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Julia Anna-Maria; Müller-Roth, Kai L; Widmayer, Patricia; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Breer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is protected from the highly acidic luminal content by alkaline mucus which is secreted from specialized epithelial cells. In the stomach of mice strong secretion of alkaline fluid was observed at the "gastric groove," the border between corpus and fundus mucosa. Since this region is characterized by numerous brush cells it was proposed that these cells might secrete alkaline solution as suggested for brush cells in the bile duct. In fact, it was found that in this region multiple cells express elements which are relevant for the secretion of bicarbonate, including carbonic anhydrase (CAII), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1). However, this cell population was distinct from brush cells which express the TRP-channel TRPM5 and are considered as putative sensory cells. The location of both cell populations in close proximity implies the possibility for a paracrine interaction. This view was substantiated by the finding that brush cells express prostaglandin synthase-1 (COX-1) and the neighboring cells a specific receptor type for prostaglandins. The notion that brush cells may be able to sense a local acidification was supported by the observation that they express the channel PKD1L3 which contributes to the acid responsiveness of gustatory sensory cells. The results support the concept that brush cells may sense the luminal content and influence via prostaglandins the secretion of alkaline solution. PMID:23874305

  4. Bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride water in a shallow, clastic-dominated coastal flow system, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, W.S.; Auge, M.P.; Panarello, H.O.

    1999-03-01

    Most of the cities southeast of Buenos Aires, Argentina, depend heavily on ground water for water supply. Whereas ground water quality is generally good in the region, economic development along the coastal plain has been constrained by high salinities. Fifty-four wells were sampled for major ions in zones of recharge, transport and discharge in an area near La Plata, 50 km southeast of Buenos Aires. The shallow, southwest to northeast coastal flow system is >30 km long but is only 50 to 80 m thick. It consists of Plio-Pleistocene fluvial sand overlain by Pleistocene eolian and fluvial silt and Holocene estuarine silty clay. Hydrochemical endmembers include HCO{sub 3}, SO{sub 4}, and Cl water. Bicarbonate-type water includes high plain recharge water that evolves through cation exchange and calcite dissolution to a high pH, pure Na-HCO{sub 3} endmember at the southwest edge of the coastal plain. Similar Na-HCO{sub 3} water is also found underlying recharge areas of the central coastal plain, and a lens of Ca-HCO{sub 3} water is associated with a ridge of shell debris parallel to the coast. Mixed cation-Cl water near the coastline represents intruded sea water that has undergone cation exchange. Chemically similar water underlying the southwest coastal plain, however, can be shown isotopically to have formed from fairly dilute solutions concentrated many times by evapotranspiration.

  5. Metabolic Communication between Astrocytes and Neurons via Bicarbonate-Responsive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun B.; Gordon, Grant R.J.; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L.; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Ryu, Jae K.; McLarnon, James G.; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response to HCO3− entry via the electrogenic NaHCO3 cotransporter (NBC). Activated sAC increases intracellular cAMP levels, causing glycogen breakdown, enhanced glycolysis, and the release of lactate into the extracellular space, which is subsequently taken up by neurons for use as an energy substrate. This process is recruited over a broad physiological range of [K+]ext and also during aglycemic episodes, helping to maintain synaptic function. These data reveal a molecular pathway in astrocytes that is responsible for brain metabolic coupling to neurons. PMID:22998876

  6. Prediction of Bicarbonate Requirements for Enhanced Reductive Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvent-Contaminated Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, C.; Barry, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Enhanced anaerobic dechlorination is a promising technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated ethene DNAPL source areas. However, the build-up of organic acids and HCl in the source zone can lead to significant groundwater acidification. The resulting pH drop inhibits the activity of the dechlorinating microorganisms and thus may stall the remediation process. Source zone remediation requires extensive dechlorination, such that it may be common for soil's natural buffering capacity to be exceeded, and for acidic conditions to develop. In these cases bicarbonate addition (e.g., NaHCO3, KHCO3) is required for pH control. As a design tool for treatment strategies, we have developed BUCHLORAC, a Windows Graphical User Interface based on an abiotic geochemical model that allows the user to predict the acidity generated during dechlorination and associated buffer requirements for their specific operating conditions. BUCHLORAC was motivated by the SABRE (Source Area BioREmediation) project, which aims to evaluate the effectiveness of enhanced reductive dechlorination in the treatment of chlorinated solvent source zones.

  7. Evaluating Battery-like Reactions to Harvest Energy from Salinity Differences using Ammonium Bicarbonate Salt Solutions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoung; Rahimi, Mohammad; Logan, Bruce E; Gorski, Christopher A

    2016-05-10

    Mixing entropy batteries (MEBs) are a new approach to generate electricity from salinity differences between two aqueous solutions. To date, MEBs have only been prepared from solutions containing chloride salts, owing to their relevance in natural salinity gradients created from seawater and freshwater. We hypothesized that MEBs could capture energy using ammonium bicarbonate (AmB), a thermolytic salt that can be used to convert waste heat into salinity gradients. We examined six battery electrode materials. Several of the electrodes were unstable in AmB solutions or failed to produce expected voltages. Of the electrode materials tested, a cell containing a manganese oxide electrode and a metallic lead electrode produced the highest power density (6.3 mW m(-2) ). However, this power density is still low relative to previously reported NaCl-based MEBs and heat recovery systems. This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that MEBs could indeed be used to generate electricity from AmB salinity gradients. PMID:27030080

  8. Putative interaction of brush cells with bicarbonate secreting cells in the proximal corpus mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Eberle, Julia Anna-Maria; Müller-Roth, Kai L.; Widmayer, Patricia; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas; Breer, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is protected from the highly acidic luminal content by alkaline mucus which is secreted from specialized epithelial cells. In the stomach of mice strong secretion of alkaline fluid was observed at the “gastric groove,” the border between corpus and fundus mucosa. Since this region is characterized by numerous brush cells it was proposed that these cells might secrete alkaline solution as suggested for brush cells in the bile duct. In fact, it was found that in this region multiple cells express elements which are relevant for the secretion of bicarbonate, including carbonic anhydrase (CAII), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1). However, this cell population was distinct from brush cells which express the TRP-channel TRPM5 and are considered as putative sensory cells. The location of both cell populations in close proximity implies the possibility for a paracrine interaction. This view was substantiated by the finding that brush cells express prostaglandin synthase-1 (COX-1) and the neighboring cells a specific receptor type for prostaglandins. The notion that brush cells may be able to sense a local acidification was supported by the observation that they express the channel PKD1L3 which contributes to the acid responsiveness of gustatory sensory cells. The results support the concept that brush cells may sense the luminal content and influence via prostaglandins the secretion of alkaline solution. PMID:23874305

  9. Use of ammonium bicarbonate DTPA soil test to evaluate elemental availability and toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Soltanpour, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The literature published on the use of the Soltanpour and Schwab Ammonium Bicarbonate-DTPA (AB-DTPA) soil test shows that it can be used to determine availability and toxicity indices for many elements. It has been shown to be an effective test for measuring the availability indices of P, K, Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Ni, Cd and Se. Theoretically, it can also be used to determine the availability indices for S, Cu and As. The AB-DTPA test can predict toxicity of B as well as the standard hot water test, although within the non-toxic range of B, it is not as effective as the hot water test. The hot water test alone predicts B availability well, but the AB-DTPA B test result requires inclusion of soil water pH, organic matter and clay contents in a regression equation for predicting B availability. This test is not suitable for determination of exchangeable plus soluble Ca and Mg (high levels), as these precipitate as carbonates during extraction. The AB-DTPA test procedure with analysis by an inductively-coupled plasma spectrometer for simultaneous determination of elements, makes soil and overburden testing very efficient.

  10. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  11. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shinnosuke; Goto, Yasuaki; Ito, Kyo; Hayasaka, Shinya; Kurihara, Shigeo; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Fukuda, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW) has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW) or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26798400

  12. Enzymatic Conversion of CO2 to Bicarbonate in Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Yuehua; Chen, Baowei; Qi, Wen N.; Li, Xiaolin; Shin, Yongsoon; Lei, Chenghong; Liu, Jun

    2012-05-01

    We report here that carbonic anhydrase (CA), the fastest enzyme that can covert carbon dioxide to bicarbonate, can be spontaneously entrapped in functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) with super-high loading density (up to 0.5 mg of protein/mg of FMS) due to the dominant electrostatic interaction. The binding of CA to HOOC-FMS can result in the protein’s conformational change comparing to the enzyme free in solution, but can be overcome with increased protein loading density. The higher the protein loading density, the less conformational change, hence the higher enzymatic activity and the higher enzyme immobilization efficiency. The electrostatically bound CA can be released by changing pH. The released enzyme still displayed the native conformational structure and the same high enzymatic activity as that prior to the enzyme entrapment. This work opens up a new approach converting carbon dioxide to biocarbonate in a biomimetic nanoconfiguration that can be integrated with the other part of biosynthesis process for the assimilation of carbon dioxide.

  13. The Effect of Bicarbonate on the Microbial Dissolution of Autunite Mineral in the Presence of Gram-Positive Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A.oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0-10 mM and metaautunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A.oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A.oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U (VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S.

  14. The effect of bicarbonate on the microbial dissolution of autunite mineral in the presence of gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Medina, Paola M; Katsenovich, Yelena P; Wellman, Dawn M; Lagos, Leonel E

    2015-06-01

    Bacteria are key players in the processes that govern fate and transport of contaminants. The uranium release from Na and Ca-autunite by Arthrobacter oxydans strain G968 was evaluated in the presence of bicarbonate ions. This bacterium was previously isolated from Hanford Site soil and in earlier prescreening tests demonstrated low tolerance to U(VI) toxicity compared to other A. oxydans isolates. Experiments were conducted using glass serum bottles as mixed bioreactors and sterile 6-well cell culture plates with inserts separating bacteria cells from mineral solids. Reactors containing phosphorus-limiting media were amended with bicarbonate ranging between 0 and 10 mM and meta-autunite solids to provide a U(VI) concentration of 4.4 mmol/L. Results showed that in the presence of bicarbonate, A. oxydans G968 was able to enhance the release of U(VI) from Na and Ca autunite at the same capacity as other A. oxydans isolates with relatively high tolerance to U(VI). The effect of bacterial strains on autunite dissolution decreases as the concentration of bicarbonate increases. The results illustrate that direct interaction between the bacteria and the mineral is not necessary to result in U(VI) biorelease from autunite. The formation of secondary calcium-phosphate mineral phases on the surface of the mineral during the dissolution can ultimately reduce the natural autunite mineral contact area, which bacterial cells can access. This thereby reduces the concentration of uranium released into the solution. This study provides a better understanding of the interactions between meta-autunite and microbes in conditions mimicking arid and semiarid subsurface environments of western U.S. PMID:25827574

  15. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis. PMID:25621620

  16. Role of the bicarbonate-responsive soluble adenylyl cyclase in pH sensing and metabolic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jung-Chin; Oude-Elferink, Ronald P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, adcy10) was recently identified as a unique source of cAMP in the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Its activity is regulated by bicarbonate and fine-tuned by calcium. As such, and in conjunction with carbonic anhydrase (CA), sAC constitutes an HCO−3/CO−2/pH sensor. In both alpha-intercalated cells of the collecting duct and the clear cells of the epididymis, sAC is expressed at significant level and involved in pH homeostasis via apical recruitment of vacuolar H+-ATPase (VHA) in a PKA-dependent manner. In addition to maintenance of pH homeostasis, sAC is also involved in metabolic regulation such as coupling of Krebs cycle to oxidative phosphorylation via bicarbonate/CO2 sensing. Additionally, sAC also regulates CFTR channel and plays an important role in regulation of barrier function and apoptosis. These observations suggest that sAC, via bicarbonate-sensing, plays an important role in maintaining homeostatic status of cells against fluctuations in their microenvironment. PMID:24575049

  17. Selection of microalgae and cyanobacteria strains for bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhanyou; Elloy, Farah; Xie, Yuxiao; Hu, Yucai; Chen, Shulin

    2014-01-01

    Using microalgae to capture CO2 from flue gas is an ideal way to reduce CO2 emission, but this is challenged by the high cost of carbon capture and transportation. To address this problem, a bicarbonate-based integrated carbon capture and algae production system (BICCAPS) has been proposed, in which bicarbonate is used for algae culture, and the regenerated carbonate from this process can be used to capture more CO2. High-concentration bicarbonate is obligate for the BICCAPS. Thus, different strains of microalgae and cyanobacteria were tested in this study for their capability to grow in high-concentration NaHCO3. The highest NaHCO3 concentrations they are tolerant to were determined as 0.30 M for Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, 0.60 M for Cyanothece sp., 0.10 M for Chlorella sorokiniana, 0.60 M for Dunaliella salina, and 0.30 M for Dunaliella viridis and Dunaliella primolecta. In further study, biomass production from culture of D. primolecta in an Erlenmeyer flask with either 0.30 M NaHCO3 or 2 % CO2 bubbling was compared, and no significant difference was detected. This indicates BICCAPS can reach the same biomass productivity as regular CO2 bubbling culture, and it is promising for future application. PMID:24092450

  18. Topology mapping to characterize cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters: BicA (SulP/SLC26 family) and SbtA.

    PubMed

    Price, G Dean; Howitt, Susan M

    2014-09-01

    This mini-review addresses advances in understanding the transmembrane topologies of two unrelated, single-subunit bicarbonate transporters from cyanobacteria, namely BicA and SbtA. BicA is a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter that belongs to the SulP/SLC26 family that is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Topology mapping of BicA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 12 transmembrane helices with an unresolved hydrophobic region just beyond helix 8. Re-interpreting this data in the light of a recent topology study on rat prestin leads to a consensus topology of 14 transmembrane domains with a 7+7 inverted repeat structure. SbtA is also a Na(+)-dependent bicarbonate transporter, but of considerably higher affinity (Km 2-5 μM versus >100 μM for BicA). Whilst SbtA is widespread in cyanobacteria and a few bacteria, it appears to be absent from eukaryotes. Topology mapping of SbtA via the phoA/lacZ fusion reporter method identified 10 transmembrane helices. The topology consists of a 5+5 inverted repeat, with the two repeats separated by a large intracellular loop. The unusual location of the N and C-termini outside the cell raises the possibility that SbtA forms a novel fold, not so far identified by structural and topological studies on transport proteins. PMID:25222859

  19. Intestinal GPS: bile and bicarbonate control cyclic di-GMP to provide Vibrio cholerae spatial cues within the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Koestler, Benjamin J; Waters, Christopher M

    2014-01-01

    The second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates numerous phenotypes in response to environmental stimuli to enable bacteria to transition between different lifestyles. Here we discuss our recent findings that the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae recognizes 2 host-specific signals, bile and bicarbonate, to regulate intracellular c-di-GMP. We have demonstrated that bile acids increase intracellular c-di-GMP to promote biofilm formation. We have also shown that this bile-mediated increase of intracellular c-di-GMP is negated by bicarbonate, and that this interaction is dependent on pH, suggesting that V. cholerae uses these 2 environmental cues to sense and adapt to its relative location in the small intestine. Increased intracellular c-di-GMP by bile is attributed to increased c-di-GMP synthesis by 3 diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) and decreased expression of one phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the presence of bile. The molecular mechanisms by which bile controls the activity of the 3 DGCs and the regulators of bile-mediated transcriptional repression of the PDE are not yet known. Moreover, the impact of varying concentrations of bile and bicarbonate at different locations within the small intestine and the response of V. cholerae to these cues remains unclear. The native microbiome and pharmaceuticals, such as omeprazole, can impact bile and pH within the small intestine, suggesting these are potential unappreciated factors that may alter V. cholerae pathogenesis. PMID:25621620

  20. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium