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Sample records for agent-oriented programming language

  1. Introducing ALAS: A Novel Agent-Oriented Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Vidaković, Milan

    2011-09-01

    Agent-oriented programming languages represent a family of programming languages that provide developers with high-level abstractions and constructs necessary for implementing and using agent-related concepts. In this paper a novel agent-oriented programming language for rapid and efficient development of reactive agents, named ALAS, is presented. The simple, but powerful set of language constructs is designed to support the execution of agents in heterogenous environments, and to enable easy employment of advanced agent features, such as mobility and web service integration.

  2. Towards an agent-oriented programming language based on Scala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran

    2012-09-01

    Scala and its multi-threaded model based on actors represent an excellent framework for developing purely reactive agents. This paper presents an early research on extending Scala with declarative programming constructs, which would result in a new agent-oriented programming language suitable for developing more advanced, BDI agent architectures. The main advantage the new language over many other existing solutions for programming BDI agents is a natural and straightforward integration of imperative and declarative programming constructs, fitted under a single development framework.

  3. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  4. Conversion of the agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS into JavaScript

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sredojević, Dejan; Vidaković, Milan; Okanović, Dušan; Mitrović, Dejan; Ivanović, Mirjana

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows generation of JavaScript code from code written in agent-oriented domain-specific language ALAS. ALAS is an agent-oriented domain-specific language for writing software agents that are executed within XJAF middleware. Since the agents can be executed on various platforms, they must be converted into a language of the target platform. We also try to utilize existing tools and technologies to make the whole conversion process as simple as possible, as well as faster and more efficient. We use the Xtext framework that is compatible with Java to implement ALAS infrastructure - editor and code generator. Since Xtext supports Java, generation of Java code from ALAS code is straightforward. To generate a JavaScript code that will be executed within the target JavaScript XJAF implementation, Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is used.

  5. Agent oriented programming: An overview of the framework and summary of recent research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1993-01-01

    This is a short overview of the agent-oriented programming (AOP) framework. AOP can be viewed as an specialization of object-oriented programming. The state of an agent consists of components called beliefs, choices, capabilities, commitments, and possibly others; for this reason the state of an agent is called its mental state. The mental state of agents is captured formally in an extension of standard epistemic logics: beside temporalizing the knowledge and belief operators, AOP introduces operators for commitment, choice and capability. Agents are controlled by agent programs, which include primitives for communicating with other agents. In the spirit of speech-act theory, each communication primitive is of a certain type: informing, requesting, offering, etc. This document describes these features in more detail and summarizes recent results and ongoing AOP-related work.

  6. Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesler, Lawrence G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of programing languages, considering the features of BASIC, LOGO, PASCAL, COBOL, FORTH, APL, and LISP. Also discusses machine/assembly codes, the operation of a compiler, and trends in the evolution of programing languages (including interest in notational systems called object-oriented languages). (JN)

  7. Modern programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, G. H.; Johnson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Structural-programming language is especially-tailored for producing assembly language programs for MODCOMP II and IV mini-computes. Modern programming language consists of set of simple and powerful control structures that include sequencing alternative selection, looping, sub-module linking, comment insertion, statement continuation, and compilation termination capabilities.

  8. C++ Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    C++ Programming Language: The C++ seminar covers the fundamentals of C++ programming language. The C++ fundamentals are grouped into three parts where each part includes both concept and programming examples aimed at for hands-on practice. The first part covers the functional aspect of C++ programming language with emphasis on function parameters and efficient memory utilization. The second part covers the essential framework of C++ programming language, the object-oriented aspects. Information necessary to evaluate various features of object-oriented programming; including encapsulation, polymorphism and inheritance will be discussed. The last part of the seminar covers template and generic programming. Examples include both user defined and standard templates.

  9. Language Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Language program evaluation is a pragmatic mode of inquiry that illuminates the complex nature of language-related interventions of various kinds, the factors that foster or constrain them, and the consequences that ensue. Program evaluation enables a variety of evidence-based decisions and actions, from designing programs and implementing…

  10. Foreign Language Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Sheldon G.

    In order to assess the foreign language programs currently offered by Oakton Community College (OCC), a three-part investigation was undertaken in 1974. First, to examine grade distribution and drop-out rate, the records of students enrolled in language courses were compared with the records of the total student body. During the spring, summer and…

  11. Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelto, E. V.

    1967-01-01

    Assembly processor program converts symbolic programming language to machine language. This program translates symbolic codes into computer understandable instructions, assigns locations in storage for successive instructions, and computer locations from symbolic addresses.

  12. What Is a Programming Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wold, Allen

    1983-01-01

    Explains what a computer programing language is in general, the differences between machine language, assembler languages, and high-level languages, and the functions of compilers and interpreters. High-level languages mentioned in the article are: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PILOT, LOGO, LISP, and SMALLTALK. (EAO)

  13. Programming Languages for Microprocessor Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, James A.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests criteria for choosing a programing language in courseware development. Authoring languages (PILOT, TUTOR, BASIC, and PASCAL) are compared; driver programs' compilers and interpreters are discussed; and the tasks of an authoring system are presented. (RAO)

  14. The programming language EFL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    EFL is a comprehensive language designed to make it easy to write portable, understandable programs. It provides a rich set of data types and structures, a convenient operator set, and good control flow forms. The lexical form is easy to type and to read. Whenever possible, EFL uses the same forms that Ratfor does; in this sense EFL may be viewed as a superset of Ratfor. EFL is a well-defined language; this distinguishes it from most FORTRAN preprocessors which only add simple flow of control constructs to FORTRAN. The EFL compiler generates (possibly tailored) Standard FORTRAN as its output. EFL should catch and diagnose all syntax errors.

  15. Language Arts Program Evaluation: 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret Perea

    In accordance with the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools' curriculum planning process, a language arts program evaluation was conducted during the 1986-87 school year in order: (1) to provide a comprehensive overview of the language arts program; (2) to determine if the language arts program meets the needs of students and parents; and (3)…

  16. Programmed Instruction and Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlewood, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    This article first takes some characteristics of language and suggests that the nature of language makes it, intrinsically, unsuitable to treatment by a fully programmed course. Second, it takes programming and suggests what aspects of language might be assigned to programmed instruction. (Author/LG)

  17. Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-24

    it in pointer and addressing errors. • C2QG: A key feature of Scaffold is a Classical code to Quantum Gates sequence (C2QG) mod- ule. C2QG modules...Scaffold: Quantum Programming Language Ali Javadi Abhari, Arvin Faruque, Mohammad Javad Dousti, Lukas Svec, Oana Catu, Amlan Chakrabati, Chen-Fu...endorsements, either expressed or implied, of IARPA, DoI/NBC, or the U.S. Government. 1 Introduction Quantum computing is of significant research

  18. Java Programming Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    The Java seminar covers the fundamentals of Java programming language. No prior programming experience is required for participation in the seminar. The first part of the seminar covers introductory concepts in Java programming including data types (integer, character, ..), operators, functions and constants, casts, input, output, control flow, scope, conditional statements, and arrays. Furthermore, introduction to Object-Oriented programming in Java, relationships between classes, using packages, constructors, private data and methods, final instance fields, static fields and methods, and overloading are explained. The second part of the seminar covers extending classes, inheritance hierarchies, polymorphism, dynamic binding, abstract classes, protected access. The seminar conclude by introducing interfaces, properties of interfaces, interfaces and abstract classes, interfaces and cailbacks, basics of event handling, user interface components with swing, applet basics, converting applications to applets, the applet HTML tags and attributes, exceptions and debugging.

  19. Programming Languages, Natural Languages, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naur, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Analogies are drawn between the social aspects of programming and similar aspects of mathematics and natural languages. By analogy with the history of auxiliary languages it is suggested that Fortran and Cobol will remain dominant. (Available from the Association of Computing Machinery, 1133 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10036.) (Author/TL)

  20. An Elementary Language Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, Valerie

    A five-year course sequence focusing on the relationship of language and culture in world history is described. The program, beginning in grade 3, prepares students for later study of foreign and classical languages, develops English language skills, and cultivates general cultural interest. At the first level, students are introduced to some…

  1. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  2. Developing the Oral Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, James L.

    The Oral Language Program developed by the Southwestern Cooperative Educational Laboratory is intended to disseminate and implement strategies and materials which will improve the teaching of language skills to preschool and primary children with little or no facility in English. The first version of the program, known as Mark I, did not include…

  3. Programming languages for circuit design.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Yordanov, Boyan

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of a programming language for Genetic Engineering of Cells (GEC). A GEC program specifies a genetic circuit at a high level of abstraction through constraints on otherwise unspecified DNA parts. The GEC compiler then selects parts which satisfy the constraints from a given parts database. GEC further provides more conventional programming language constructs for abstraction, e.g., through modularity. The GEC language and compiler is available through a Web tool which also provides functionality, e.g., for simulation of designed circuits.

  4. Program of Studies. Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    This curriculum guide describes the instructional program in foreign languages to be implemented in Fairfax County Public Schools, kindergarten through Grade 12. Section A describes the program and general goals, curriculum, and course content at levels 1-5. A general introduction to the Greek and Latin programs is also included. Introductions to…

  5. Syntactic adaptability of programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Gusev, V.V.

    1994-11-01

    Development of programming languages has to contend with a variety of conflicting criteria. Moreover, as in any other creative field, it is not always possible to arrive at a clear formulation of these criteria. Nevertheless, one of the main criteria is problem orientation, be it numerical algorithms, database management, simulation of hydraulic systems, or other applications. Idealizing, we can say that the programming language is based on a model of the application domain. This model may vary in its scope, covering some aspects of the application domain and ignoring others. Thus, for one application domain we may have a whole spectrum of models and correspondingly a whole spectrum of languages. Some are special-purpose languages designed for a specific class of problems, others are more general. Both special-purpose and general-purpose languages have definite advantages and find their own clientele, who are willing to ignore their shortcomings.

  6. "Language for Writing": Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martella, Ronald C.; Waldron-Soler, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation investigated the effects of the "Language for Writing" program. Ten classrooms were involved including 201 students at the beginning of the project. Posttest scores were obtained for 126 students. This evaluation was conducted over 2 years. Evaluation I was conducted over a 5-month period from January 2003 to May 2003. Evaluation…

  7. Multi-Language Programs. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio-Papadaki, Evienia; Matsalia, Joan; Bowie, Paula; Wardle, Francis; Bruno, Holly Elissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents five articles on multi-language programs in early childhood education: "Bilingualism/Multilingualism and Language Acquisition Theories" (Evienia Papadaki-D'Onofrio); "Training and Supporting Caregivers Who Speak a Language Different from Those in Their Community" (Joan Matsalia and Paula Bowie); "Language Immersion Programs for Young…

  8. A survey of functional programming language principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Research in the area of functional programming languages has intensified in the 8 years since John Backus' Turing Award Lecture on the topic was published. The purpose of this paper is to present a survey of the ideas of functional programming languages. The paper assumes the reader is comfortable with mathematics and has knowledge of the basic principles of traditional programming languages, but does not assume any prior knowledge of the ideas of functional languages. A simple functional language is defined and used to illustrate the basic ideas. Topics discussed include the reasons for developing functional languages, methods of expressing concurrency, the algebra of functional programming languages, program transformation techniques, and implementations of functional languages. Existing functional languages are also mentioned. The paper concludes with the author's opinions as to the future of functional languages. An annotated bibliography on the subject is also included.

  9. The Foreign Language Requirement: An Alternative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine A.; Smith, Nathaniel B.

    1987-01-01

    A new program at Boston University that identifies students who would have great difficulty fulfilling their foreign language requirement is described. This program offers an alternative sequence of courses designed to help these students achieve foreign language learning success. (LMO)

  10. [Union-Endicott Schools: Foreign Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond S.

    This brochure describing language programs to both parents and prospective high school language students in Endicott, New York focuses on developing student motivation and interest. Topics discussed include: (1) reasons for studying foreign language, (2) stages of foreign language learning, (3) course offerings, (4) homework, and (5) examinations.…

  11. Systems, methods and apparatus for modeling, specifying and deploying policies in autonomous and autonomic systems using agent-oriented software engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Penn, Joaquin (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments, an agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS, is analyzed, flaws in the agent-oriented specification modeled with MaCMAS are corrected, and an implementation is derived from the corrected agent-oriented specification. Described herein are systems, method and apparatus that produce fully (mathematically) tractable development of agent-oriented specification(s) modeled with methodology fragment for analyzing complex multiagent systems (MaCMAS) and policies for autonomic systems from requirements through to code generation. The systems, method and apparatus described herein are illustrated through an example showing how user formulated policies can be translated into a formal mode which can then be converted to code. The requirements-based programming systems, method and apparatus described herein may provide faster, higher quality development and maintenance of autonomic systems based on user formulation of policies.

  12. An IBM 370 assembly language program verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, W. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes a program written in SNOBOL which verifies the correctness of programs written in assembly language for the IBM 360 and 370 series of computers. The motivation for using assembly language as a source language for a program verifier was the realization that many errors in programs are caused by misunderstanding or ignorance of the characteristics of specific computers. The proof of correctness of a program written in assembly language must take these characteristics into account. The program has been compiled and is currently running at the Center for Academic and Administrative Computing of The George Washington University.

  13. The English Language in the School Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Robert F., Ed.

    The 22 papers in this publication, drawn from the 1963 and 1964 NCTE Spring Institutes on Language, Linguistics, and School Programs, concentrate on the relevance of recent scholarship for English language programs in elementary and secondary schools. Language theory is the focus of articles by Harold B. Allen, Sumner Ives, Albert H. Marckwardt,…

  14. An agent-oriented approach to automated mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide

    1994-01-01

    As we plan for the next generation of Mission Operations Control Center (MOCC) systems, there are many opportunities for the increased utilization of innovative knowledge-based technologies. The innovative technology discussed is an advanced use of agent-oriented approaches to the automation of mission operations. The paper presents an overview of this technology and discusses applied operational scenarios currently being investigated and prototyped. A major focus of the current work is the development of a simple user mechanism that would empower operations staff members to create, in real time, software agents to assist them in common, labor intensive operations tasks. These operational tasks would include: handling routine data and information management functions; amplifying the capabilities of a spacecraft analyst/operator to rapidly identify, analyze, and correct spacecraft anomalies by correlating complex data/information sets and filtering error messages; improving routine monitoring and trend analysis by detecting common failure signatures; and serving as a sentinel for spacecraft changes during critical maneuvers enhancing the system's capabilities to support nonroutine operational conditions with minimum additional staff. An agent-based testbed is under development. This testbed will allow us to: (1) more clearly understand the intricacies of applying agent-based technology in support of the advanced automation of mission operations and (2) access the full set of benefits that can be realized by the proper application of agent-oriented technology in a mission operations environment. The testbed under development addresses some of the data management and report generation functions for the Explorer Platform (EP)/Extreme UltraViolet Explorer (EUVE) Flight Operations Team (FOT). We present an overview of agent-oriented technology and a detailed report on the operation's concept for the testbed.

  15. Dynamic electronic institutions in agent oriented cloud robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Nagrath, Vineet; Morel, Olivier; Malik, Aamir; Saad, Naufal; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    The dot-com bubble bursted in the year 2000 followed by a swift movement towards resource virtualization and cloud computing business model. Cloud computing emerged not as new form of computing or network technology but a mere remoulding of existing technologies to suit a new business model. Cloud robotics is understood as adaptation of cloud computing ideas for robotic applications. Current efforts in cloud robotics stress upon developing robots that utilize computing and service infrastructure of the cloud, without debating on the underlying business model. HTM5 is an OMG's MDA based Meta-model for agent oriented development of cloud robotic systems. The trade-view of HTM5 promotes peer-to-peer trade amongst software agents. HTM5 agents represent various cloud entities and implement their business logic on cloud interactions. Trade in a peer-to-peer cloud robotic system is based on relationships and contracts amongst several agent subsets. Electronic Institutions are associations of heterogeneous intelligent agents which interact with each other following predefined norms. In Dynamic Electronic Institutions, the process of formation, reformation and dissolution of institutions is automated leading to run time adaptations in groups of agents. DEIs in agent oriented cloud robotic ecosystems bring order and group intellect. This article presents DEI implementations through HTM5 methodology.

  16. A Methodology to Evaluate Agent Oriented Software Engineering Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Chia-En; Kavi, Krishna M.; Sheldon, Frederick T; Daley, Kristopher M; Abercrombie, Robert K

    2007-01-01

    Systems using software agents (or multi-agent systems, MAS) are becoming more popular within the development mainstream because, as the name suggests, an agent aims to handle tasks autonomously with intelligence. To benefit from autonomous control and reduced running costs, system functions are performed automatically. Agent-oriented considerations are being steadily accepted into the various software design paradigms. Agents may work alone, but most commonly, they cooperate toward achieving some application goal(s). MAS's are components in systems that are viewed as many individuals living in a society working together. From a SE perspective, solving a problem should encompass problem realization, requirements analysis, architecture design and implementation. These steps should be implemented within a life-cycle process including testing, verification, and reengineering to proving the built system is sound. In this paper, we explore the various applications of agent-based systems categorized into different application domains. A baseline is developed herein to help us focus on the core of agent concepts throughout the comparative study and to investigate both the object-oriented and agent-oriented techniques that are available for constructing agent-based systems. In each respect, we address the conceptual background associated with these methodologies and how available tools can be applied within specific domains.

  17. Wave equation modelling using Julia programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ahreum; Ryu, Donghyun; Ha, Wansoo

    2016-04-01

    Julia is a young high-performance dynamic programming language for scientific computations. It provides an extensive mathematical function library, a clean syntax and its own parallel execution model. We developed 2d wave equation modeling programs using Julia and C programming languages and compared their performance. We used the same modeling algorithm for the two modeling programs. We used Julia version 0.3.9 in this comparison. We declared data type of function arguments and used inbounds macro in the Julia program. Numerical results showed that the C programs compiled with Intel and GNU compilers were faster than Julia program, about 18% and 7%, respectively. Taking the simplicity of dynamic programming language into consideration, Julia can be a novel alternative of existing statically typed programming languages.

  18. Research Issues and Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilenman, L. Kathy, Ed.

    This collection of papers is divided into two parts. After "Introduction" (L. Kathy Heilenman), Part 1, "Research and Language Program Directors: The Relationship," includes "Research Domains and Language Program Direction" (Bill VanPatten); "Language Program Direction and the Modernist Agenda" (Celeste…

  19. Structured Design Language for Computer Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, Walter H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Box language used at all stages of program development. Developed to provide improved productivity in designing, coding, and maintaining computer programs. BOX system written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution.

  20. Language constructs for modular parallel programs

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.

    1996-03-01

    We describe programming language constructs that facilitate the application of modular design techniques in parallel programming. These constructs allow us to isolate resource management and processor scheduling decisions from the specification of individual modules, which can themselves encapsulate design decisions concerned with concurrence, communication, process mapping, and data distribution. This approach permits development of libraries of reusable parallel program components and the reuse of these components in different contexts. In particular, alternative mapping strategies can be explored without modifying other aspects of program logic. We describe how these constructs are incorporated in two practical parallel programming languages, PCN and Fortran M. Compilers have been developed for both languages, allowing experimentation in substantial applications.

  1. Laboratory automation in a functional programming language.

    PubMed

    Runciman, Colin; Clare, Amanda; Harkness, Rob

    2014-12-01

    After some years of use in academic and research settings, functional languages are starting to enter the mainstream as an alternative to more conventional programming languages. This article explores one way to use Haskell, a functional programming language, in the development of control programs for laboratory automation systems. We give code for an example system, discuss some programming concepts that we need for this example, and demonstrate how the use of functional programming allows us to express and verify properties of the resulting code.

  2. Computer Languages: A Practical Guide to the Chief Programming Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Peter C.

    All the most commonly-used high-level computer languages are discussed in this book. An introductory discussion provides an overview of the basic components of a digital computer, the general planning of a computer programing problem, and the various types of computer languages. Each chapter is self-contained, emphasizes those features of a…

  3. Flight program language requirements. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Government-sponsored study and development efforts were directed toward design and implementation of high level programming languages suitable for future aerospace applications. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of language requirements was synthesized from these activities.

  4. PILOT: A Programming Language for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnorr, Janice M.

    The presentation describes PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching), a special programing language easy for beginners to learn and available for several brands of microcomputers. PILOT is explained to contain substantially fewer commands than most other languages and to be written in an easy to understand manner. Edit commands and their…

  5. Ada--Programming Language of the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudd, David

    1983-01-01

    Ada is a programing language developed for the Department of Defense, with a registered trademark. It was named for Ada Augusta, coworker of Charles Babbage and the world's first programer. The Department of Defense hopes to prevent variations and to establish Ada as a consistent, standardized language. (MNS)

  6. Programming Language Software For Graphics Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, Brian C.

    1993-01-01

    New approach reduces repetitive development of features common to different applications. High-level programming language and interactive environment with access to graphical hardware and software created by adding graphical commands and other constructs to standardized, general-purpose programming language, "Scheme". Designed for use in developing other software incorporating interactive computer-graphics capabilities into application programs. Provides alternative to programming entire applications in C or FORTRAN, specifically ameliorating design and implementation of complex control and data structures typifying applications with interactive graphics. Enables experimental programming and rapid development of prototype software, and yields high-level programs serving as executable versions of software-design documentation.

  7. The Role of Language Program Directors in the Articulation of American Sign Language Foreign Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knigga, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Lange (1988) has defined "articulation" as "the interrelationship and continuity of contents, curriculum, instruction, and evaluation with programs which focus on the progress of student in learning to both comprehend and communicate in a second language" (p. 16-17). It is the continuity of one course to the next without…

  8. PR and the Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humbach, Nancy

    The yearly task of the foreign language department is to seek new students and to retain current students by convincing them of the value of foreign language study. Therefore, a continuing public relations campaign directed at incoming and continuing students, parents, and administrators is of vital importance. A subtle change in methodology to…

  9. Starting a New Language Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Early years and primary teachers have a unique opportunity to apply their strong teaching practices, classroom management and understanding of childhood literacy development to teaching a language. This paper reports on a project from Independent Schools Queensland to increase language programs in schools by retraining classroom teachers.…

  10. Second Language Proficiency Assessment and Program Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunan, David

    A discussion of the role of second language proficiency assessment in the evaluation of language programs argues that for four reasons, the use of proficiency is inappropriate as a central element in evaluation. The reasons are: (1) the construct of proficiency has not been operationalized in a way that enables it to be used usefully; (2)…

  11. Speech and Language Program for Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Richard T.

    A curriculum in speech and language improvement for migrant children is provided. The overall methodology used is similar to the audiolingual method of teaching a foreign language, emphasizing pattern drill and listening rather than learning rules and their exceptions. Primary goals of the program are (1) the development of listening skills and…

  12. Applied Computer Technology in Cree and Naskapi Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancewicz, Bill; MacKenzie, Marguerite

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the parameters for the application of computer technology in Cree and Naskapi language programs, and shows that the deliberate and structured introduction of these technologies to indigenous language programs can facilitate indigenous language stabilization and development. (Author/VWL)

  13. The Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center Achievement Test Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Robert G.

    This article describes the organization, functions, and components of the Defense Language Institute. The test division is responsible for aptitude, achievement, and proficiency tests and for test development in a variety of resident and non-resident programs. The progress that has been made over a 10-year period is also described and special…

  14. The Dynamics of Language Program Direction. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benseler, David P., Ed.

    This collection papers begins with "Introduction: The Dynamics of Successful Leadership in Foreign Language Programs," then features the following: "The Undergraduate Program: Autonomy and Empowerment" (Wilga M. Rivers); "TA Supervision: Are We Preparing a Future Professoriate?" (Cathy Pons); "Applied Scholarship…

  15. Reconceptualising Learning Programs for Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarino, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the need to reconceptualise teaching and learning programs for intercultural language learning. The shift is from concepts such as "content" and its "coverage" (intended to address "learner needs and interests") to developing programs focused on meaning making in interaction and on learners as…

  16. Career Development in Language Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawer, Saad Fathy; Alkahtani, Saad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the influence of a two-year language program evaluation on program directors and faculty career development. The study makes use of mixed-paradigms (positivism and qualitative interpretive), mixed-strategies (survey research and qualitative evaluation), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a post-hoc test of multiple…

  17. PROGRAMMED LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LANE, HARLAN

    THE PROCESSES OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMING OF A FOREIGN LANGUAGE ARE EXAMINED ACCORDING TO THE PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING, WHICH IS THE BASIS OF PROGRAMING TECHNIQUES. DISCUSSION OF FORMAL REPERTOIRES COVERS THE USE OF SUCH CONDITIONING METHODS AS DISCRIMINATION LEARNING AND TRANSFER, STIMULUS GENERALIZATION, RESPONSE GENERALIZATION, AND…

  18. The Language Improvement Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasso, Rena; Vallone, Kerren

    Two English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) curricula for hotel employees are outlined. The first is limited-English-proficient (LEP) housekeeping staff. It contains notes on initial background and needs assessment, assessment results, course logistics and project design, course content, evaluation, and results. The 60-hour beginning-level curriculum…

  19. Programming language for computations in the Interkosmos program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K.

    1975-01-01

    The programming system for Intercosmos data processing, based on the structural programming theory, which considers a program as an ordered set of standardized elementary parts, from which the user programs are automatically generated, is described. The programs are comprised of several modules, which are briefly summarized. The general structure of the programming system is presented in a block diagram. A programming control language developed to formulate the problem quickly and completely is presented along with basic symbols which are characteristic of the Intercosmos programming system.

  20. The BLAZE language - A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush; Van Rosendale, John

    1987-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, BLAZE, is described. BLAZE contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus BLAZE should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with conceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of BLAZE is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in BLAZE code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of BLAZE are described and it is shown how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  1. The BLAZE language: A parallel language for scientific programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, P.; Vanrosendale, J.

    1985-01-01

    A Pascal-like scientific programming language, Blaze, is described. Blaze contains array arithmetic, forall loops, and APL-style accumulation operators, which allow natural expression of fine grained parallelism. It also employs an applicative or functional procedure invocation mechanism, which makes it easy for compilers to extract coarse grained parallelism using machine specific program restructuring. Thus Blaze should allow one to achieve highly parallel execution on multiprocessor architectures, while still providing the user with onceptually sequential control flow. A central goal in the design of Blaze is portability across a broad range of parallel architectures. The multiple levels of parallelism present in Blaze code, in principle, allow a compiler to extract the types of parallelism appropriate for the given architecture while neglecting the remainder. The features of Blaze are described and shows how this language would be used in typical scientific programming.

  2. On the engineering design for systematic integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyong; Schüller, Andreas; Epple, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In today's automation industry, agent-oriented development of system functionalities appears to have a great potential for increasing autonomy and flexibility of complex operations, while lowering the workload of users. In this paper, we present a reference model for the harmonious and systematical integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation. Considering compatibility with existing automation systems and best practice, this model combines advantages of function block technology, service orientation and native description methods from the automation standard IEC 61131-3. This approach can be applied as a guideline for the engineering design of future agent-oriented automation systems.

  3. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  4. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  5. Do students' programming skills depend on programming language?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savić, Miloš; Ivanović, Mirjana; Budimac, Zoran; Radovanović, Miloš

    2016-06-01

    Bachelor studies in Computer Science at our department in the last decades cover several successive core courses in programming: Introduction to Programming, Data Structures and Algorithms 1 and 2, Operating Systems and Compiler Construction. For a long time our intention was not to insist on the realization of subjects in a specific programming language, but to put emphasis on abstract reasoning and appropriate data structures and algorithms. Also, to avoid teaching different languages and programming environments, we decided to use one good educational language - Modula-2. In the last several years we were under different kinds of pressure to change the language. Starting from the last school-year we decided to adopt Java within the introductory programming course, using the imperative approach first. Some comparisons of students' advancements and success between Modula-2 and Java generations are presented in the paper. The results of the analytical evaluation indicate that the choice of the first programming language does not have a deep influence to students' success at the course.

  6. Visible Languages for Program Visualization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Comments 38 The Presentation of Program Metadata 39 The Spatial Composition of Comments 41 The Typography of Punctuation 42 Typographic Encodings... Typography of Program Punctuation 6. In this example the "" appears in 10 point regular Helvetica type, and thus uses the same typographic parameters as...Results. Conclusions Chapter 4 Graphic Design of C Source Code and Comments Section 4 3 1 he Typography of Punctuation Page 41 l ft. Section

  7. A Spanish-Language Preschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campos, James

    The Carpinteria school district in California has developed a model preschool program to bring Spanish-dominant preschool children up to a level of readiness for school that compares favorably with that of English-speaking children in the same community. That goal is achieved by developing skills in four major areas: Spanish language, cognition,…

  8. English Language Learners' Programs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2007-01-01

    What are programs for ELL? The United States is made up of immigrants and each group has had to face the challenges of learning the culture and/or the English language. There has been a huge backlash in this country against bilingual education. A common sentiment about it has been that if a person lives in America they should speak English and…

  9. English Language Teachers as Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tannacito, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    An administrator, broadly conceived, is a person who has authority to lead and manage people, practices, materials, and policies in an educational unit. Dan Tannacito shows teachers the pathway to becoming English language program administrators (ELPAs) and the myriad benefits they can derive. Most may be surprised to see that they are already on…

  10. The RSZ BASIC programming language manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stattel, R. J.; Niswander, J. K.; Kochhar, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    The RSZ BASIC interactive language is described. The RSZ BASIC interpreter is resident in the Telemetry Data Processor, a system dedicated to the processing and displaying of PCM telemetry data. A series of working examples teaches the fundamentals of RSZ BASIC and shows how to construct, edit, and manage storage of programs.

  11. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  12. Guidelines for Selecting English Language Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Arlington, VA.

    These guidelines are addressed to individuals, organizations, corporations or foreign governments who are considering placing students in English Language Training (ELT) programs. They outline steps to be taken and items to be considered in first determining needs, and then selecting an ELT contractor. Part One describes the necessary procedures…

  13. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATING FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CASTLE, PAT; JAY, CHARLES D.

    A NEED FOR A STATEMENT OF SIMPLIFIED CRITERIA BY WHICH SECONDARY SCHOOLS MAY MEASURE THE EXCELLENCE OF THEIR FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS HAS STIMULATED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THESE GUIDELINES, DESIGNED TO ASSIST IN SETTING UP THE BEST POSSIBLE AUDIOLINGUALLY-ORIENTED CURRICULUM TO MEET THE INDIVIDUAL NEEDS OF SCHOOLS. FOLLOWING AN OUTLINE OF BASIC…

  14. Self Assessment of a Sign Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Mike

    1988-01-01

    The CIPP (Context Input Process Product) Evaluation Model is recommended for use in self-assessment of sign language programs. Five areas should be assessed: personnel selection, curriculum, student placement, media utilization, and supervision. For each area, a checklist is offered to determine whether existing goals and objectives require…

  15. A Programming Language /1500 (APL/1500).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurchie, Thomas D.; And Others

    APL/1500 is an interpretive time-sharing system that builds upon the array operations and structural integrity of APL (A Programming Language) to allow the implementation of the IBM 1500 Instructional System. This is a revision of the original user's guide supplied with the first release of the APL system for the 1500. This version of APL/1500…

  16. PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION AND LANGUAGE LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LUELSDORFF, PHILIP A.

    PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION, A TEACHING METHOD WHICH INCORPORATES (1) A DETAILED SPECIFICATION OF TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, (2) A CAREFUL SEQUENCING OF THE MATERIAL INTO GRADED STEPS, AND (3) THE REINFORCEMENT OF STUDENT RESPONSE, WORKS MORE FAVORABLY IN CERTAIN INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA THAN IN OTHERS. CARROLL AND SKINNER BELIEVE THAT SUCCESS IN PROGRAMED…

  17. Programming as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Justin

    2005-01-01

    Standard methods of teaching an introductory course in computer science, designed to introduce computer programming as a tool for mathematicians and engineers at the university level, are unnecessarily complicated and difficult. They lack a common thread that unifies each unit of material and frequently make use of mathematical notation, technical…

  18. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  19. Teaching Adaptability of Object-Oriented Programming Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of object-oriented programming languages includes update of their own versions, update of development environments, and reform of new languages upon old languages. In this paper, the evolution analysis of object-oriented programming languages is presented in term of the characters and development. The notion of adaptive teaching upon…

  20. HAL/SM language specification. [programming languages and computer programming for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G. P. W., Jr.; Ross, C.

    1975-01-01

    A programming language is presented for the flight software of the NASA Space Shuttle program. It is intended to satisfy virtually all of the flight software requirements of the space shuttle. To achieve this, it incorporates a wide range of features, including applications-oriented data types and organizations, real time control mechanisms, and constructs for systems programming tasks. It is a higher order language designed to allow programmers, analysts, and engineers to communicate with the computer in a form approximating natural mathematical expression. Parts of the English language are combined with standard notation to provide a tool that readily encourages programming without demanding computer hardware expertise. Block diagrams and flow charts are included. The semantics of the language is discussed.

  1. Flexible Language Constructs for Large Parallel Programs

    DOE PAGES

    Rosing, Matt; Schnabel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the research described in this article is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (multiple instruction multiple data [MIMD]) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include single instruction multiple data (SIMD), single program multiple data (SPMD), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression ofmore » the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. In this article, we give an overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. In this article, we give an overview of the language and discuss some of the critical implementation details.« less

  2. Flexible language constructs for large parallel programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosing, Matthew; Schnabel, Robert

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the research described is to develop flexible language constructs for writing large data parallel numerical programs for distributed memory (MIMD) multiprocessors. Previously, several models have been developed to support synchronization and communication. Models for global synchronization include SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data), SPMD (Single Program Multiple Data), and sequential programs annotated with data distribution statements. The two primary models for communication include implicit communication based on shared memory and explicit communication based on messages. None of these models by themselves seem sufficient to permit the natural and efficient expression of the variety of algorithms that occur in large scientific computations. An overview of a new language that combines many of these programming models in a clean manner is given. This is done in a modular fashion such that different models can be combined to support large programs. Within a module, the selection of a model depends on the algorithm and its efficiency requirements. An overview of the language and discussion of some of the critical implementation details is given.

  3. Language Training Opportunities: Today and Tomorrow 2000 Command Language Program Manager Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Highlights the sixth Command Language Program Manager seminar, hosted by the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center, which focused on language training opportunities that are available now as well as those that will be in the future. New initiatives discussed include an Arabic in Action course, Web-based language training, training…

  4. NATAL-74; Towards a Common Programming Language for CAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brahan, J. W.; Colpitts, B. A.

    NATAL-74 is a programing language designed for Canadian computer aided learning (CAL) programs. The language has two fundamental elements: the UNIT provides the interface between the student and the subject matter, and the PROCEDURE element embodies teaching strategy. Desirable features of several programing languages have been adapted to cope…

  5. The BASIC Instructional Program: Conversion into MAINSAIL Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report summarizes the rewriting of the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP) (a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language) from SAIL (a programming language available only on PDP-10 computers) into MAINSAIL (a language designed for portability on a broad class of computers). Four sections contain…

  6. A programming language for composable DNA circuits.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Andrew; Cardelli, Luca

    2009-08-06

    Recently, a range of information-processing circuits have been implemented in DNA by using strand displacement as their main computational mechanism. Examples include digital logic circuits and catalytic signal amplification circuits that function as efficient molecular detectors. As new paradigms for DNA computation emerge, the development of corresponding languages and tools for these paradigms will help to facilitate the design of DNA circuits and their automatic compilation to nucleotide sequences. We present a programming language for designing and simulating DNA circuits in which strand displacement is the main computational mechanism. The language includes basic elements of sequence domains, toeholds and branch migration, and assumes that strands do not possess any secondary structure. The language is used to model and simulate a variety of circuits, including an entropy-driven catalytic gate, a simple gate motif for synthesizing large-scale circuits and a scheme for implementing an arbitrary system of chemical reactions. The language is a first step towards the design of modelling and simulation tools for DNA strand displacement, which complements the emergence of novel implementation strategies for DNA computing.

  7. Programming Language Use in US Academia and Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Arfa Rabai, Latifa; Cohen, Barry; Mili, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In the same way that natural languages influence and shape the way we think, programming languages have a profound impact on the way a programmer analyzes a problem and formulates its solution in the form of a program. To the extent that a first programming course is likely to determine the student's approach to program design, program analysis,…

  8. Language Enabled Airmen Program: Language Intensive Training Events 2011 Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    learning a second language ? Motivational orientations and self-determination theory . Language Learning , 53, 33-64. Nyikos, M...largely on improving language proficiency. Cultural learning and growth was a weak second focus. However, the challenges that the participants most...and motivations in language learning : Advances in theory , research and applications. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell. Gardner, R.C. (1982). Language

  9. Software and the future of programming languages.

    PubMed

    Aho, Alfred V

    2004-02-27

    Although software is the key enabler of the global information infrastructure, the amount and extent of software in use in the world today are not widely understood, nor are the programming languages and paradigms that have been used to create the software. The vast size of the embedded base of existing software and the increasing costs of software maintenance, poor security, and limited functionality are posing significant challenges for the software R&D community.

  10. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

  11. Reshaping Foreign Language Programs: Implications for Department Chairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay-Crosier, Raymond

    1987-01-01

    A chair of a university's department of Romance languages and literature addresses the status of two high priorities in the teaching of foreign languages: the integration of linguistics in the "new" curriculum; the continuing development of language teaching approaches in the classroom; and the commitment of foreign language programs in the…

  12. Award-Winning Foreign Language Programs: Prescriptions for Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, William D.; Hammond, Sandra B.

    The study reviews 50 foreign language programs in the United States that are said to be both inspirational and useful for providing concrete information about the creation and preservation of successful language programs. The programs cited are exemplary and can serve as models for educators and administrators to study and visit. Program selection…

  13. A Program That Acquires Language Using Positive and Negative Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, James

    1987-01-01

    Describes the language learning program "Acquire," which is a sample of grammar induction. It is a learning algorithm based on a pattern-matching scheme, using both a positive and negative network to reduce overgeneration. Language learning programs may be useful as tutorials for learning the syntax of a foreign language. (Author/LMO)

  14. A Practical Handbook for Implementation of Foreign Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreign Language Committee of the California Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

    A handbook for use by curriculum supervisors, teachers, and administrators presents guidelines for the establishment, operation, and evaluation of foreign language programs in California. The first part outlines the state's legal provisions for foreign language study while the second section deals with sources of assistance in language programs.…

  15. Artificial intelligence programming languages for computer aided manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, C.; Samet, H.; Rosenberg, J.

    1979-01-01

    Eight Artificial Intelligence programming languages (SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, CONNIVER, MLISP, POP-2, AL, and QLISP) are presented and surveyed, with examples of their use in an automated shop environment. Control structures are compared, and distinctive features of each language are highlighted. A simple programming task is used to illustrate programs in SAIL, LISP, MICROPLANNER, and CONNIVER. The report assumes reader knowledge of programming concepts, but not necessarily of the languages surveyed.

  16. Investigating Principals' Knowledge and Perceptions of Second Language Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padron, Yolanda N.; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined principals' knowledge and perceptions of second language programs for English language learners (ELLs) operating in their schools. An open-ended survey and in-depth interviews were used to examine elementary school principals' knowledge of the second language programs implemented at their schools. The survey asked principals…

  17. A Different Kind of Language: Prolog, Programming in Logic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrol, D.

    1986-01-01

    Prolog is one of the most successful "very high level languages." Describes this programming language (a product of artificial intelligence research) and attempts to show how it functions by using some short examples to illustrate its essential features. (JN)

  18. Using C++ as a scientific programming language

    SciTech Connect

    Peery, J.S.; Budge, K.G.; Robinson, A.C. ); Whitney, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Large computational physics codes are increasing in complexity as customers demand improved physics packages and more flexible algorithms and problem specifications. It is not uncommon for a code to exceed one hundred thousand lines of FORTRAN, and some codes are much larger. This poses a considerable challenge for program management. The Computational Physics Research and Development Division at Sandia National Laboratories is aggressively pursuing C++ as the language of choice for new coding efforts. We feel that we cannot meet the stringent customer requirements and delivery schedules we now face with either FORTRAN77 or Fortran-90. 8 refs., 3 tabs.

  19. Going Global: Can Dual-Language Programs Save Bilingual Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varghese, Manka M.; Park, Caryn

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, we extend the cautionary tales regarding dual-language programs raised by several scholars by considering the interface of such programs with global education. We consider the possible pitfalls of uncritically framing dual-language programs within the global education movement in the United States, especially in light of how…

  20. Language Programs at Villababel High: Rethinking Ideologies of Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mijares, Laura; Relano Pastor, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores language ideologies underlying two language programs implemented in one secondary school in Madrid (Spain). The Spanish for newcomers immersion program ("Aula de Enlace") is aimed at immigrant origin students who do not know or have a poor command of Spanish; and the Spanish-English bilingual program targets…

  1. The ulam Programming Language for Artificial Life.

    PubMed

    Ackley, David H; Ackley, Elena S

    2016-01-01

    Traditional digital computing demands perfectly reliable memory and processing, so programs can build structures once then use them forever-but such deterministic execution is becoming ever more costly in large-scale systems. By contrast, living systems, viewed as computations, naturally tolerate fallible hardware by repairing and rebuilding structures even while in use-and suggest ways to compute using massive amounts of unreliable, merely best-effort hardware. However, we currently know little about programming without deterministic execution, in architectures where traditional models of computation-and deterministic ALife models such as the Game of Life-need not apply. This expanded article presents ulam, a language designed to balance concurrency and programmability upon best-effort hardware, using lifelike strategies to achieve robust and scalable computations. The article reviews challenges for traditional architecture, introduces the active-media computational model for which ulam is designed, and then presents the language itself, touching on its nomenclature and surface appearance as well as some broader aspects of robust software engineering. Several ulam examples are presented; then the article concludes with a brief consideration of the couplings between a computational model and its physical implementation.

  2. Languages across Borders: Social Network Development in an Adolescent Two-Way Dual-Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibler, Amanda K.; Atteberry, Allison; Hardigree, Christine N.; Salerno, April S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Context: Two-way dual-language programs have become an increasingly popular educational model in the United States for language minority and majority speakers, with a small but growing number of programs at the high school level. Little is known, however, about how adolescents' social networks develop in the contexts of these programs.…

  3. Examining Evaluation System of an English Language Program in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Si-hong, Li

    2007-01-01

    In the field of EFL, effective language evaluation is receiving more and more attention. However, in many Chinese EFL situations, the evaluation of language development is still considered to be product-oriented. It is the purpose of this article to examine an evaluation system of an English language program offered by a university in Yunnan…

  4. Articulation for Elementary School Foreign Language Programs: Challenges and Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesola, Carol Ann

    While foreign language instruction for elementary school children is gaining attention, poor articulation is a problem that has become more complex because of the variety of foreign language program models being developed. Five main types are in use: total immersion, partial immersion, foreign languages in the elementary school (FLES),…

  5. A Parent-Assisted Early Childhood Environmental Language Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemper, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Five children, aged 3 years 5 months to 4 years 11 months, who were speaking only in single word utterances and who exhibited a wide discrepancy between their language comprehension and production, were placed in a 12 week parent assisted environmental language intervention program using a sensorimotor approach to language training. (Author)

  6. Native Language Arts--English as a Second Language Program; School Year 1974-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spivack, Frieda K.

    This Native Language Arts-English as a Second Language Program funded under Elementary Secondary Education Act Title I was designed for economically disadvantaged students who were speakers of a language other than English, and whose ability to read and write in their native tongue and in English was not adequate to permit through June 1975 in 34…

  7. Language and Man: An Exploratory Foreign-Language Program for Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartos, Marilyn; And Others

    This curriculum guide presents a program introducing sixth-grade children to the study of language, of languages other than English, and specifically of French. An initial section includes a variety of activities designed to interest students in the study of language, its peculiarties, complexities, and importance in life. Prior to the first…

  8. Language Choice & Language Power: Children's Use of Korean & English in a Two-Way Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soyong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the phenomenon of children's language choice and language use in a Korean-English two-way immersion (TWI) program. She does so by drawing on situations in which the children spoke of the principles guiding their choice of languages, and instances in which they voluntarily adopted Korean as the means of…

  9. Real-Time Multiprocessor Programming Language (RTMPL) user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A real-time multiprocessor programming language (RTMPL) has been developed to provide for high-order programming of real-time simulations on systems of distributed computers. RTMPL is a structured, engineering-oriented language. The RTMPL utility supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations and types by generating assembly language programs according to user-specified targeting information. Many programming functions are assumed by the utility (e.g., data transfer and scaling) to reduce the programming chore. This manual describes RTMPL from a user's viewpoint. Source generation, applications, utility operation, and utility output are detailed. An example simulation is generated to illustrate many RTMPL features.

  10. Programming parallel architectures: The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1988-01-01

    Programming multiprocessor architectures is a critical research issue. An overview is given of the various approaches to programming these architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. Also described is recent work by the author in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described, as well as the relations of this work to other current language research projects.

  11. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras (Ensayo metodologico) (Programming Foreign Languages [A Methodological Study])

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Stresses the importance of language laboratories and other technical devices used in foreign language teaching, particularly in programed language instruction. Illustrates, by means of taxonomies, the various stages a foreign language learning program should follow. (Text is in Spanish.) (DS)

  12. Programming parallel architectures - The BLAZE family of languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrotra, Piyush

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the various approaches to programming multiprocessor architectures that are currently being explored. It is argued that two of these approaches, interactive programming environments and functional parallel languages, are particularly attractive, since they remove much of the burden of exploiting parallel architectures from the user. This paper also describes recent work in the design of parallel languages. Research on languages for both shared and nonshared memory multiprocessors is described.

  13. Writing Scale Development and Use within a Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Developing assessments within a program can create more useful measures of our students' language. This includes rating scales used in performance assessments such as writing or speaking tests. This article describes the process of development, use, and revision of a writing placement scale by teachers in an intensive English language program. To…

  14. A Program for Reading and Language Development. An Adopter's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Nancy Hay

    "Project SAILS" (Symbolic and Innovative Language Systems) is a special program developed by the Portland, Oregon, public schools for training teachers to work with children who have learning and reading difficulties. Teachers are instructed in the use of the Monterey Reading and Language Programs, highly structured and highly…

  15. Guide to Conducting a Language Immersion/Homestay Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drysdale, Susan; Killelea, Frances

    This handbook, designed to assist foreign language teachers in planning and executing a language immersion/homestay program for their students, is based on a successful program in Switzerland undertaken by Northport (New York) High School French teachers in 1980. The material is presented in three parts: (1) preparation of the exchange, including…

  16. Language constructs and runtime systems for compositional parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, I.; Kesselman, C.

    1995-03-01

    In task-parallel programs, diverse activities can take place concurrently, and communication and synchronization patterns are complex and not easily predictable. Previous work has identified compositionality as an important design principle for task-parallel programs. In this paper, we discuss alternative approaches to the realization of this principle. We first provide a review and critical analysis of Strand, an early compositional programming language. We examine the strengths of the Strand approach and also its weaknesses, which we attribute primarily to the use of a specialized language. Then, we present an alternative programming language framework that overcomes these weaknesses. This framework uses simple extensions to existing sequential languages (C++ and Fortran) and a common runtime system to provide a basis for the construction of large, task-parallel programs. We also discuss the runtime system techniques required to support these languages on parallel and distributed computer systems.

  17. Foreign Language Immersion Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Met, Myriam

    Immersion is defined as a method of foreign language instruction in which the regular school curriculum is taught through the medium of the language. The foreign language is the vehicle for content instruction; it is not the subject of instruction. Different questions pertaining to the following subjects are answered: (1) long-range goals of a…

  18. A strategy for automatically generating programs in the lucid programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sally C.

    1987-01-01

    A strategy for automatically generating and verifying simple computer programs is described. The programs are specified by a precondition and a postcondition in predicate calculus. The programs generated are in the Lucid programming language, a high-level, data-flow language known for its attractive mathematical properties and ease of program verification. The Lucid programming is described, and the automatic program generation strategy is described and applied to several example problems.

  19. Programmed Learning and Computer-Assisted Instruction in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.

    Following an introductory review of foreign language teaching since the Second World War, the author discusses the cybernetic aspects and psychological basis of instructional technology; programmed learning/computer-assisted instruction and behavioral objectives; hardware versus software; linear programming; branching programs; programming verbal…

  20. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  1. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  2. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  3. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  4. 25 CFR 39.132 - Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school integrate Language Development programs into... Language Development Programs § 39.132 Can a school integrate Language Development programs into its regular instructional program? A school may offer Language Development programs to students as part of...

  5. 75 FR 12221 - Foreign Language Assistance Program-Local Educational Agencies with Institutions of Higher Education

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Foreign Language Assistance Program--Local Educational Agencies with Institutions of Higher Education... Announcement I. Funding Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The Foreign Language Assistance Program... the establishment, improvement, or expansion of foreign language study for elementary and...

  6. Processing sequence annotation data using the Lua programming language.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yutaka; Arita, Masanori; Kumagai, Toshitaka; Asai, Kiyoshi

    2003-01-01

    The data processing language in a graphical software tool that manages sequence annotation data from genome databases should provide flexible functions for the tasks in molecular biology research. Among currently available languages we adopted the Lua programming language. It fulfills our requirements to perform computational tasks for sequence map layouts, i.e. the handling of data containers, symbolic reference to data, and a simple programming syntax. Upon importing a foreign file, the original data are first decomposed in the Lua language while maintaining the original data schema. The converted data are parsed by the Lua interpreter and the contents are stored in our data warehouse. Then, portions of annotations are selected and arranged into our catalog format to be depicted on the sequence map. Our sequence visualization program was successfully implemented, embedding the Lua language for processing of annotation data and layout script. The program is available at http://staff.aist.go.jp/yutaka.ueno/guppy/.

  7. A Debate over the Teaching of a Legacy Programming Language in an Information Technology (IT) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a debate between two faculty members regarding the teaching of the legacy programming course (COBOL) in a Computer Science (CS) program. Among the two faculty members, one calls for the continuation of teaching this language and the other calls for replacing it with another modern language. Although CS programs are notorious…

  8. Assessment and Evaluation in Whole Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Bill, Ed.

    Intended for practioners, this book discusses many of the critical questions being asked about the role of whole language in schools. The book not only examines the growing research base that supports whole language, but also offers practical and realistic suggestions for tackling the many thorny issues involved in the assessment and evaluation of…

  9. A VOCABULARY PROGRAM USING "LANGUAGE REDUNDANCY."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCHAEFER, HALMUTH H.

    THE THESIS OF THIS REPORT IS THAT REDUNDANT PARTS OF A SENTENCE MAY EITHER BE OMITTED OR REPLACED BY NONSENSE WORDS WITHOUT LOSS OF COMPREHENSION. AND IF THE NONSENSE WORDS ARE IN A LANGUAGE FOREIGN TO THE READER, THEIR CONSISTENT USE SHOULD EVENTUALLY EQUATE THEM TO EQUIVALENTS IN THE READER'S LANGUAGE. GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE WILL ALSO BE ACQUIRED…

  10. Business Language: Programs and Resources in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Robert

    An overview of business education in four European countries (Italy, Great Britain, France, and West Germany) is presented and the development of business language instruction in Europe is surveyed, with emphasis on the experiences in Great Britain and Denmark. Suggestions are given for future cooperation in business language between the United…

  11. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  12. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  13. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  14. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  15. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  16. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  17. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  18. 25 CFR 39.131 - What is a Language Development Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is a Language Development Program? 39.131 Section 39... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.131 What is a Language Development Program? A Language Development program is one that serves students who either:...

  19. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  20. 25 CFR 39.136 - What is the WSU for Language Development programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the WSU for Language Development programs? 39.136... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.136 What is the WSU for Language Development programs? Language Development programs are funded at 0.13 WSUs per student....

  1. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... implement Language Development programs that demonstrate the positive effects of Native language programs on... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs §...

  2. Spanish-Language Assessment in a Bilingual Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    A diagnostic Spanish proficiency exam for a bilingual education teacher preparation program was pilot tested with 38 students, both native and non-native speakers. Other standardized proficiency exams were considered but judged inappropriate. The Modern Language Association Cooperative Foreign Language Proficiency Test: Spanish seemed more useful…

  3. Learning in Two Languages: A Bilingual Program in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barratt-Pugh, Caroline; Rohl, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes a one-year research project in a Western Australia primary school in a low socioeconomic area, which has a Khmer-English bilingual program to develop and extend children's English and Khmer language and literacy. Discusses findings concerning the children's written progress in both languages, and children's perceptions of their identity…

  4. A Survey of Object Oriented Languages in Programming Environments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    Chairman. Depart fient of Computer Science Dean of Information and Policy .c$ 4iAI ABSTRACT This thesis addresses object oriented programming languages...5. Instances......................................... 55 6. Methods......................................... 5 C. INFORMATION HIDING...56 1. Definition ........................................ 56 2. Information Hiding in Object Oriented Languages .......... 56 D. DATA

  5. Impact of Language Immersion Programs on Foreign Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    autonomous learner as a potentially rich source of feedback or can be discarded if it is 29 judged to be irrelevant or unhelpful. According to...Nunan (1997) found that strategy instruction led to increased English as a Foreign Language ( EFL ) learning motivation. Similarly, Chamot et al...0.31, p < .01). However, in other studies, such as that of Mullins (1992) with EFL learners in Thailand, affective strategies showed a negative

  6. The Ethics of Test Preparation at Intensive English Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Ian C.

    It is concluded from a review of the literature and consideration of the type and objectives of tests and programs in English as a second language that, just as limiting an instructional program to what is to be tested in standardized tests would be inappropriate, so would constructing such a program without regard for what was to be tested. It is…

  7. Creating a Speech-Language Pathology Assistant Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrecht, Georgia, Ed.; Stimley, Mark, Ed.

    This document consists of 11 short articles about the development of the Associate of Science degree program for speech-language pathology assistants (SLPAs) at Indiana State University. The three sections address the program's background, course planning, and program implementation, respectively. Individual articles are: (1) "Top 10 List of…

  8. Language Arts Program Objectives (Grades 7, 8, and 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East Allen County Schools, New Haven, IN.

    A language arts program for the seventh, eighth, and ninth grades is detailed in this document. Outlines of the scope and sequence of course components and lists of program objectives are given for each grade. Following these program objectives, the document consists of outline sketches for each course topic, including the scope and sequence of…

  9. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; And Others

    LOGO is a programming language developed at Bolt, Beranek and Newman, Inc., specifically for use in teaching. It provides the student with a set of numerical and symbolic primitives as elements for gradually building extended, complex program structures. The building of these structures is facilitated by a procedure-oriented programming heuristic…

  10. Modern & Classical Languages: K-12 Program EValuation 1988-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Margaret Perea

    This evaluation of the modern and classical languages programs, K-12, in the Albuquerque (New Mexico) public school system provides general information on the program's history, philosophy, recognition, curriculum development, teachers, and activities. Specific information is offered on the different program components, namely, the elementary…

  11. Teacher and Student Language Practices and Ideologies in a Third-Grade Two-Way Dual Language Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Kathryn I.; Palmer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth exploration of the language ecologies of two classrooms attempting to implement a two-way dual language (TWDL) program and its mediating conditions. Drawing on ethnographic methods and a sociocultural understanding of language, we examined both teachers' and students' language ideologies and language practices,…

  12. Real-Time MENTAT programming language and architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; Silberman, Ami; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Real-time MENTAT, a programming environment designed to simplify the task of programming real-time applications in distributed and parallel environments, is described. It is based on the same data-driven computation model and object-oriented programming paradigm as MENTAT. It provides an easy-to-use mechanism to exploit parallelism, language constructs for the expression and enforcement of timing constraints, and run-time support for scheduling and exciting real-time programs. The real-time MENTAT programming language is an extended C++. The extensions are added to facilitate automatic detection of data flow and generation of data flow graphs, to express the timing constraints of individual granules of computation, and to provide scheduling directives for the runtime system. A high-level view of the real-time MENTAT system architecture and programming language constructs is provided.

  13. Money and Policy Make Languages Go Round: Language Programs in Australia after NALSAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Yvette

    2009-01-01

    This article considers telling differences that have emerged in participation rates in languages other than English study in the States of Victoria and New South Wales since the introduction and completion of the NALSAS program. It explores the role that language planning, policy and funding, both at a State and Federal level, have played in this…

  14. Challenges in the 1990s for College Foreign Language Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnan, Sally Seiloff, Ed.

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Style Wars: Teacher-Student Style Conflicts in the Language Classroom" (Rebecca L. Oxford, Madeline E. Ehrman, and Roberta Z. Lavine); "Articulating Learning in High School and College Programs: Holistic Theory in the Foreign Language Curriculum" (Janet Swaffar);…

  15. On a programming language for graph algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rheinboldt, W. C.; Basili, V. R.; Mesztenyi, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    An algorithmic language, GRAAL, is presented for describing and implementing graph algorithms of the type primarily arising in applications. The language is based on a set algebraic model of graph theory which defines the graph structure in terms of morphisms between certain set algebraic structures over the node set and arc set. GRAAL is modular in the sense that the user specifies which of these mappings are available with any graph. This allows flexibility in the selection of the storage representation for different graph structures. In line with its set theoretic foundation, the language introduces sets as a basic data type and provides for the efficient execution of all set and graph operators. At present, GRAAL is defined as an extension of ALGOL 60 (revised) and its formal description is given as a supplement to the syntactic and semantic definition of ALGOL. Several typical graph algorithms are written in GRAAL to illustrate various features of the language and to show its applicability.

  16. Towards programming languages for genetic engineering of living cells.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Michael; Phillips, Andrew

    2009-08-06

    Synthetic biology aims at producing novel biological systems to carry out some desired and well-defined functions. An ultimate dream is to design these systems at a high level of abstraction using engineering-based tools and programming languages, press a button, and have the design translated to DNA sequences that can be synthesized and put to work in living cells. We introduce such a programming language, which allows logical interactions between potentially undetermined proteins and genes to be expressed in a modular manner. Programs can be translated by a compiler into sequences of standard biological parts, a process that relies on logic programming and prototype databases that contain known biological parts and protein interactions. Programs can also be translated to reactions, allowing simulations to be carried out. While current limitations on available data prevent full use of the language in practical applications, the language can be used to develop formal models of synthetic systems, which are otherwise often presented by informal notations. The language can also serve as a concrete proposal on which future language designs can be discussed, and can help to guide the emerging standard of biological parts which so far has focused on biological, rather than logical, properties of parts.

  17. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  18. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  19. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  20. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  1. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  2. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is the Language Resource Centers Program? The Language Resource Centers Program makes awards, through grants...

  3. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  4. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  5. 34 CFR 658.1 - What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Foreign Language Program? 658.1 Section 658.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.1 What is the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program is...

  6. Trends in programming languages for neuroscience simulations.

    PubMed

    Davison, Andrew P; Hines, Michael L; Muller, Eilif

    2009-01-01

    Neuroscience simulators allow scientists to express models in terms of biological concepts, without having to concern themselves with low-level computational details of their implementation. The expressiveness, power and ease-of-use of the simulator interface is critical in efficiently and accurately translating ideas into a working simulation. We review long-term trends in the development of programmable simulator interfaces, and examine the benefits of moving from proprietary, domain-specific languages to modern dynamic general-purpose languages, in particular Python, which provide neuroscientists with an interactive and expressive simulation development environment and easy access to state-of-the-art general-purpose tools for scientific computing.

  7. Chinese Treasure Chest: An Integrated Exploratory Chinese Language & Culture Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Inge-Lise; Verg-in, Yen-ti

    This publication describes the Chinese Treasure Chest project, an exploratory Chinese language and culture program developed by two elementary school teachers in the Aleutians East Borough (Alaska) School District. The project centers on the use of a large box of materials and a program plan designed to introduce elementary students in…

  8. Equating in Small-Scale Language Testing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFlair, Geoffrey T.; Isbell, Daniel; May, L. D. Nicolas; Gutierrez Arvizu, Maria Nelly; Jamieson, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Language programs need multiple test forms for secure administrations and effective placement decisions, but can they have confidence that scores on alternate test forms have the same meaning? In large-scale testing programs, various equating methods are available to ensure the comparability of forms. The choice of equating method is informed by…

  9. Commercial Video Programs: A Component to Enhance Language Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linares, H. A.

    After the passage of a resolution by the South Dakota Board of Regents to place greater emphasis on the study of foreign language, Northern State College introduced commercial video programs in Spanish for classroom use. After installing a parabolic antenna and the other necessary equipment, the department selected and edited a series of programs,…

  10. English as a Second Language: Implementing Effective Adult Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Adult, Alternative, and Continuation Education Div.

    The manual is designed to assist California educators and public in understanding the various aspects of an effective English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) program for adults. It provides theory-based and practical guidelines for conceptualizing, planning, designing, managing, and evaluating such programs. Chapters address these topics: the adult ESL…

  11. Foreign Language Immersion Programs and School Policy: Conflicting Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson Beal, Heather K.; Haj-Broussard, Michelle; Boudreaux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    In this position article, we explore what happens when school district policies regarding desegregation, accountability, and foreign language immersion education collide. Specifically, we contrast 2 immersion programs that experienced distinct outcomes as a result of the conflicting agendas underlying these 3 policies. One program, originally…

  12. Language Program as Ecology: A Perspective for Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Hoekje, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    A language program is a delicate and intricate system of interacting resources or components, which, like a biological ecology, is in a constant state of evolution and change. The interactive system making up the program's internal culture is connected ecologically to the external environment. The ecological model is introduced as a useful…

  13. Dynamic Learning Objects to Teach Java Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narasimhamurthy, Uma; Al Shawkani, Khuloud

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a model for teaching Java Programming Language through Dynamic Learning Objects. The design of the learning objects was based on effective learning design principles to help students learn the complex topic of Java Programming. Visualization was also used to facilitate the learning of the concepts. (Contains 1 figure and 2…

  14. Developing College English as a Second Language (ESL) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlova, Irina A.; Kennedy, Jelane A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines available literature on college English as a Second Language (ESL) programs. The literature available on college ESL programs falls into three categories: (1) research reports and articles, (2) recent theoretical discussions on ESL teaching, and (3) thought pieces discussing college ESL curriculum development and assessment…

  15. HAL/S - The programming language for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    HAL/S is a higher order language and system, now operational, adopted by NASA for programming Space Shuttle on-board software. Program reliability is enhanced through language clarity and readability, modularity through program structure, and protection of code and data. Salient features of HAL/S include output orientation, automatic checking (with strictly enforced compiler rules), the availability of linear algebra, real-time control, a statement-level simulator, and compiler transferability (for applying HAL/S to additional object and host computers). The compiler is described briefly.

  16. Classroom Application of a Language Remediation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Douglas E.

    Definitions and specific breakdowns of four (auditory reception, visual sequential memory, verbal expression, and auditory closure) of the 12 language areas of the new Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) are presented. Auditory reception is defined as the ability to understand the meaning of materials or stimuli that are heard and…

  17. Language Programing for the Foreign Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocklyn, Eugene H.

    The desirability of and problems inherent in a core language course designed to teach the speaking and understanding skills of English on a completely automated or self-instructional basis are considered. Such courses could be developed for specific countries to instruct foreign students prior to their arrival for technical instruction here, or…

  18. Blackfeet Language Coloring Book. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elizabeth, Comp.

    A part of the Blackfeet Indian Heritage Project, this coloring book features 21 pages of pictures of animal and plant life, foods, and numbers. Arranged in alphabetical order, the pictures are accompanied with their names printed in both the English and Blackfeet languages. The reverse side of each page is left blank to give the student room to…

  19. Articulation in Programs of Chinese Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenn, Henry C.

    1970-01-01

    The teaching of the Chinese language in the United States needs first to depart from the classical attitude that the sole goal is research, and to include among its objectives the occupational needs of all types of learners. To meet the problem of student "nomadism" at home and abroad, there should be certification of all transfers in terms of…

  20. Between Language as Problem and Resource: Examining Teachers' Language Orientations in Dual-Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zúñiga, Christian E.

    2016-01-01

    Using a case study methodology, the article examines the language practices of two third-grade bilingual, dual-language education teachers as they prepare their students for their state's standardized assessment. Findings revealed that both teachers taught in between the contradicting tensions of the language-as-problem and -resource orientations…

  1. Programming a real code in a functional language (part 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, C.P.

    1991-09-10

    For some, functional languages hold the promise of allowing ease of programming massively parallel computers that imperative languages such as Fortran and C do not offer. At LLNL, we have initiated a project to write the physics of a major production code in Sisal, a functional language developed at LLNL in collaboration with researchers throughout the world. We are investigating the expressibility of Sisal, as well as its performance on a shared-memory multiprocessor, the Y-MP. An interesting aspect of the project is that Sisal modules can call Fortran modules, and are callable by them. This eliminates the rewriting of 80% of the production code that would not benefit from parallel execution. Preliminary results indicate that the restrictive nature of the language does not cause problems in expressing the algorithms we have chosen. Some interesting aspects of programming in a mixed functional-imperative environment have surfaced, but can be managed. 8 refs.

  2. Defining an Appropriate Role for Language Tests in Intensive English Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Des Brisay, Margaret; Ready, Doreen

    The use of test results as a criterion for evaluating the design of an intensive English language program is examined in one Canadian university program in Indonesia. The study was investigating whether: (1) realistic estimates of training needs were being made; (2) data from other tests would enable better prediction of student outcomes, and…

  3. The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration FALCON Program in Chinese Language at Cornell University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, John

    The Full-Year Asian Language Concentration (FALCON) program was designed for students who need an intensive program in Chinese to make them proficient enough for graduate study. Using L1, FALCON teaches students to express adult concepts in L2. Since good writing requires a great degree of proficiency, it is neglected initially for the sake of a…

  4. A Comparison of Programming Languages and Algebraic Notation as Expressive Languages for Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    Considers some of the implications of replacing, for the purposes of physics instruction, algebraic notation with programming language. Introduces a framework based on two theoretical constructs. Concludes that algebra-physics can be characterized as the physics of balance and equilibrium and programming-physics as the physics of processes and…

  5. Requirements for a geometry programming language for CFD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, Arvel E.

    1992-01-01

    A number of typical problems faced by the aerodynamicist in using computational fluid dynamics are presented to illustrate the need for a geometry programming language. The overall requirements for such a language are illustrated by examples from the Boeing Aero Grid and Paneling System (AGPS). Some of the problems in building such a system are also reviewed along with suggestions as to what to look for when evaluating new software problems.

  6. Solving the problem of overloading for the CMSL programming languages

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    One of the most important, not yet achieved, goals in the computer science field is to design a language that approximates natural languages. In any natural language the same word can have more than one meaning. The distinction between the different meanings of a word comes from its context of use in different sentences. This is the problem in the widest view, but some of the prominent computer programming languages have adopted the concept of overloading, each in different way. Ada allows operator, enumeration, and subprogram name overloading but it does not allow variable name overloading within the same scope. Modula and Pascal allow a restricted form of overloading on literals and operators but then do not allow overloading for subprogram and variable names. Modcap allows operator and variable name overloading, but it does not allow subprogram name overloading. C allows a restricted form of overloading on operators, but it does not allow subprogram, variable, and literal name overloading. Fortran allows a restricted form of overloading on operators, but it does not allow subprogram, variable, and literal name overloading. Smalltalk allows subprogram (method) name overloading as far as they belong to different classes, but it does not allow literal or variable name overloading. CMSL (Contour Model Source Language) is a new language which has some novel semantic properties. The author develops an algorithm which solves the problem of overloading in the CMSL language, and which could be exploited by other languages.

  7. Spot: A Programming Language for Verified Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bocchino, Robert L., Jr.; Gamble, Edward; Gostelow, Kim P.; Some, Raphael R.

    2014-01-01

    The C programming language is widely used for programming space flight software and other safety-critical real time systems. C, however, is far from ideal for this purpose: as is well known, it is both low-level and unsafe. This paper describes Spot, a language derived from C for programming space flight systems. Spot aims to maintain compatibility with existing C code while improving the language and supporting verification with the SPIN model checker. The major features of Spot include actor-based concurrency, distributed state with message passing and transactional updates, and annotations for testing and verification. Spot also supports domain-specific annotations for managing spacecraft state, e.g., communicating telemetry information to the ground. We describe the motivation and design rationale for Spot, give an overview of the design, provide examples of Spot's capabilities, and discuss the current status of the implementation.

  8. Do They Make a Difference? The Impact of English Language Programs on Second Language Students in Canadian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Janna; Cheng, Liying; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of English language programs on second language (L2) students studying in Canadian universities (Cheng & Fox, 2008; Fox, 2005, 2009). This article reports on questionnaire responses of 641 L2 students studying in 36 English language programs in 26 Canadian universities. The researchers identified…

  9. Evaluating Locally-Developed Language Testing: A Predictive Study of "Direct Entry" Language Programs at an Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cope, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here investigates the predictive validity of language assessments by "Direct Entry" programs at an Australian University--programs developed on site for Non English Speaking Background international students, principally to provide (i) pre-entry academic and language preparation and (ii) language assessment for…

  10. The Scratch Programming Language and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel; Rusk, Natalie; Silverman, Brian; Eastmond, Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    Scratch is a visual programming environment that allows users (primarily ages 8 to 16) to learn computer programming while working on personally meaningful projects such as animated stories and games. A key design goal of Scratch is to support self-directed learning through tinkering and collaboration with peers. This article explores how the…

  11. Visual Teaching Model for Introducing Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehane, Ronald; Sherman, Steven

    2014-01-01

    This study examines detailed usage of online training videos that were designed to address specific course problems that were encountered in an online computer programming course. The study presents the specifics of a programming course where training videos were used to provide students with a quick start path to learning a new programming…

  12. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  13. Integrated Task And Data Parallel Programming: Language Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimshaw, Andrew S.; West, Emily A.

    1998-01-01

    his research investigates the combination of task and data parallel language constructs within a single programming language. There are an number of applications that exhibit properties which would be well served by such an integrated language. Examples include global climate models, aircraft design problems, and multidisciplinary design optimization problems. Our approach incorporates data parallel language constructs into an existing, object oriented, task parallel language. The language will support creation and manipulation of parallel classes and objects of both types (task parallel and data parallel). Ultimately, the language will allow data parallel and task parallel classes to be used either as building blocks or managers of parallel objects of either type, thus allowing the development of single and multi-paradigm parallel applications. 1995 Research Accomplishments In February I presented a paper at Frontiers '95 describing the design of the data parallel language subset. During the spring I wrote and defended my dissertation proposal. Since that time I have developed a runtime model for the language subset. I have begun implementing the model and hand-coding simple examples which demonstrate the language subset. I have identified an astrophysical fluid flow application which will validate the data parallel language subset. 1996 Research Agenda Milestones for the coming year include implementing a significant portion of the data parallel language subset over the Legion system. Using simple hand-coded methods, I plan to demonstrate (1) concurrent task and data parallel objects and (2) task parallel objects managing both task and data parallel objects. My next steps will focus on constructing a compiler and implementing the fluid flow application with the language. Concurrently, I will conduct a search for a real-world application exhibiting both task and data parallelism within the same program m. Additional 1995 Activities During the fall I collaborated

  14. Implementing embedded artificial intelligence rules within algorithmic programming languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, Stefan

    1988-01-01

    Most integrations of artificial intelligence (AI) capabilities with non-AI (usually FORTRAN-based) application programs require the latter to execute separately to run as a subprogram or, at best, as a coroutine, of the AI system. In many cases, this organization is unacceptable; instead, the requirement is for an AI facility that runs in embedded mode; i.e., is called as subprogram by the application program. The design and implementation of a Prolog-based AI capability that can be invoked in embedded mode are described. The significance of this system is twofold: Provision of Prolog-based symbol-manipulation and deduction facilities makes a powerful symbolic reasoning mechanism available to applications programs written in non-AI languages. The power of the deductive and non-procedural descriptive capabilities of Prolog, which allow the user to describe the problem to be solved, rather than the solution, is to a large extent vitiated by the absence of the standard control structures provided by other languages. Embedding invocations of Prolog rule bases in programs written in non-AI languages makes it possible to put Prolog calls inside DO loops and similar control constructs. The resulting merger of non-AI and AI languages thus results in a symbiotic system in which the advantages of both programming systems are retained, and their deficiencies largely remedied.

  15. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  16. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  17. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  18. 25 CFR 39.130 - Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Language Development Programs § 39.130 Can ISEF funds be used for Language Development Programs? Yes, schools can use ISEF funds...

  19. The Development of an Indigenous Knowledge Program in a New Zealand Maori-Language Immersion School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Barbara; Papa, Rahui

    2005-01-01

    In 1985, Te Wharekura o Rakaumangamanga initiated a Maori-language immersion program for children ages 5 through 18. In recent years, a program based on Waikato-Tainui tribal epistemology has been incorporated into the language immersion program. This article describes the community context and the language immersion and tribal knowledge programs.…

  20. The FORCE - A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    This paper explains why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory multiprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low-level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high-level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared-memory multiprocessor executing them.

  1. The FORCE: A highly portable parallel programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Harry F.; Benten, Muhammad S.; Alaghband, Gita; Jakob, Ruediger

    1989-01-01

    Here, it is explained why the FORCE parallel programming language is easily portable among six different shared-memory microprocessors, and how a two-level macro preprocessor makes it possible to hide low level machine dependencies and to build machine-independent high level constructs on top of them. These FORCE constructs make it possible to write portable parallel programs largely independent of the number of processes and the specific shared memory multiprocessor executing them.

  2. Language Is the Key: A Multilingual Language Building Program for Young Children. Training Manual To Accompany the Video Programs: Talking and Books [and] Talking and Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notari-Syverson, Angela; Madddox, Mary; Lim, Young Sook; Cole, Kevin

    This educational program, comprised of a training manual and 2 accompanying videotapes (each about 25 minutes long), is designed to develop language skills in young children with language disorders and/or children from minority backgrounds. The program model is based on the following principles: (1) early language is critical to later academic…

  3. Tutorial on Generalized Programming Language s and Systems. Instructor Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasana, Paul J., Ed.; Shank, Russell, Ed.

    This instructor's manual is a comparative analysis and review of the various computer programing languages currently available and their capabilities for performing text manipulation, information storage, and data retrieval tasks. Based on materials presented at the 1967 Convention of the American Society for Information Science, the manual…

  4. Programming-Languages as a Conceptual Framework for Teaching Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feurzeig, Wallace; Papert, Seymour A.

    2011-01-01

    Formal mathematical methods remain, for most high school students, mysterious, artificial and not a part of their regular intuitive thinking. The authors develop some themes that could lead to a radically new approach. According to this thesis, the teaching of programming languages as a regular part of academic progress can contribute effectively…

  5. Fast Track: A Language Arts Program for Middle School Gifted

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jean

    2008-01-01

    "Fast Track" is a pseudonym for an accelerated, advanced language arts program for verbally gifted and high potential students in grades 6-8. The critical thinking model used for "Fast Track" was gleaned from Coalition of Essential Schools founder Ted Sizer's Habits of Mind: significance, evidence, connections, perspective, and supposition, as…

  6. Toward Useful Program Evaluation in College Foreign Language Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, John M., Ed.; Davis, John McE., Ed.; Sinicrope, Castle, Ed.; Watanabe, Yukiko, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume reports on innovative, useful evaluation work conducted within U.S. college foreign language programs. An introductory chapter scopes out the territory, reporting key findings from research into the concerns, impetuses, and uses for evaluation that FL educators identify. Seven chapters then highlight examples of evaluations conducted…

  7. Designing the Holographic Whole Language Program. Opinion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry

    A paper describes how David Bohm's holographic world view can be used to design a whole language program. Characterized by interconnectedness and multidimensionality, Bohm's holographic paradigm joins Eastern and Western belief systems in an old fashion pursuit of wisdom, on the one hand, and a new fashion pursuit of solutions to nonlinear…

  8. Effective Strategies for a Successful R-9 Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Miriam

    2003-01-01

    Highlights strategies and processes implemented across two schools as part of the Languages Focus Schools project in Australia. The intention was to improve outcomes for student learning in Spanish through a streamlined approach to programming, assessment, and transition from the first year of primary school to Grade 9, with a focus on the middle…

  9. PAL--A Language Designed for Teaching Programming Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Arthur, Jr.

    This paper describes PAL--a new computer language. It is used as a pedagogical vehicle in an undergraduate subject called "Programming Linguistics." This subject is designed primarily for sophomores who anticipate a major professional interest in computer science and has two objectives. The first is to study linguistic constructs for the…

  10. The Computer "Glass Box": Teaching With A Programming Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peelle, Howard A.

    Using A Programing Language (APL), a "computer glass box" was designed to stimulate students to think about selected concepts as well as to elucidate and reveal understanding. This approach is pedagogically suitable for a wide range of educational levels--from elementary school children to university graduate students. Using APL computer…

  11. Handbook for First Year Experimental Language Development Program, Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppe, J., Comp.

    This hand book is to be used in conjunction with Book Two of an English as a second language program for young aboriginal children. It outlines in detail suggested activities for each week of class, emphasizing oral and reading skills. There are numerous games, poems, and short stories. Also included are appendixes on teaching equipment,…

  12. More than Words, A Way of Life: Language Restoration Programs Reach beyond Tribal Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paskus, Laura

    2013-01-01

    In North America, and worldwide, Indigenous languages are disappearing at an alarming rate. There are, however, models of success for language revitalization in immersion language programs, usually found in tribal colleges and universities. Whether the language learners are tribal college students greeting one another in their native language,…

  13. A Comparison of String Handling in Four Programming Languages. Technical Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Carol Loeb

    Character string handling in the programing languages SNOBOL 4, TRAC, APL, and PL/I are compared. The first two of these are representatives of string processing languages, while the latter two represent general purpose programing languages. A description of each language is given and examples of string handling problems coded in the four…

  14. The Family of Concurrent Logic Programming Languages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    nature , such as the solution of large numerical problems. Following Harel [70], we call concurrent systems that are transforma- tional as a whole parallel...nondeterminitic finite mtompla, and logic programs. Reactive systems are also nondeter- ministic. However, the nature of nondetaminism in the former is very...0l) Im(EXIXs],S) fail Figure 4: Examples of input matching of goals with clause heads The dataflow nature of matching is evident: an "instruction

  15. The Effect of the English Language Learner Pull out Program on Primary Students' Language Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penke, Heidi T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the English Language Learner (ELL) pull out program on student achievement. Schools are facing the unprecedented challenge to educate a multicultural and multilingual student body with varied abilities and backgrounds of learning. The independent variables in this study were the…

  16. Language Learning Shifts and Attitudes towards Language Learning in an Online Tandem Program for Beginner Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolosa, Constanza; Ordóñez, Claudia Lucía; Guevara, Diana Carolina

    2017-01-01

    We present findings of a project that investigated the potential of an online tandem program to enhance the foreign language learning of two groups of school-aged beginner learners, one learning English in Colombia and the other learning Spanish in New Zealand. We assessed the impact of the project on students' learning with a free writing…

  17. Theoretical Foundations of the Language Development Program and Rationale for the Learning System: Language Development Program for Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Four theoretical papers and fourteen modules are presented that are to be used by local school systems to educate teachers and staff members in the understanding of curriculum content and acquisition of skills in teaching-learning procedures. The papers discuss the selected theories upon which the language program of the Southwest Educational…

  18. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, Charleene

    1995-04-05

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. A set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.

  19. The programming language HAL: A specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    HAL accomplishes three significant objectives: (1) increased readability, through the use of a natural two-dimensional mathematical format; (2) increased reliability, by providing for selective recognition of common data and subroutines, and by incorporating specific data-protect features; (3) real-time control facility, by including a comprehensive set of real-time control commands and signal conditions. Although HAL is designed primarily for programming on-board computers, it is general enough to meet nearly all the needs in the production, verification and support of aerospace, and other real-time applications.

  20. Implementing Task-Based Language Teaching to Integrate Language Skills in an EFL Program at a Colombian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Córdoba Zúñiga, Eulices

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a qualitative research study conducted with six first semester students of an English as a foreign language program in a public university in Colombia. The aim of the study was to implement task-based language teaching as a way to integrate language skills and help learners to improve their communicative…

  1. A Classroom-Home Language Intervention Program for Preschool Children "At Risk" for Language/Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quin, Paul E.; And Others

    The Children's Language Institute Preschool Project developed a successful classroom-home language intervention program for mildly to mildly-to-moderately language-impaired preschool children. An overview of the project, its rationale, and its results in terms of positive change in families and children are described. This volume is designed to…

  2. Associative programming language and virtual associative access manager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, C.

    1978-01-01

    APL provides convenient associative data manipulation functions in a high level language. Six statements were added to PL/1 via a preprocessor: CREATE, INSERT, FIND, FOR EACH, REMOVE, and DELETE. They allow complete control of all data base operations. During execution, data base management programs perform the functions required to support the APL language. VAAM is the data base management system designed to support the APL language. APL/VAAM is used by CADANCE, an interactive graphic computer system. VAAM is designed to support heavily referenced files. Virtual memory files, which utilize the paging mechanism of the operating system, are used. VAAM supports a full network data structure. The two basic blocks in a VAAM file are entities and sets. Entities are the basic information element and correspond to PL/1 based structures defined by the user. Sets contain the relationship information and are implemented as arrays.

  3. 75 FR 10225 - Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Language Resource Centers Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...; Language Resource Centers Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2010... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The Language Resource Centers (LRC) program provides grants to... improving the Nation's capacity for teaching and learning foreign languages. Priorities: This...

  4. Declarative Programming with Temporal Constraints, in the Language CG.

    PubMed

    Negreanu, Lorina

    2015-01-01

    Specifying and interpreting temporal constraints are key elements of knowledge representation and reasoning, with applications in temporal databases, agent programming, and ambient intelligence. We present and formally characterize the language CG, which tackles this issue. In CG, users are able to develop time-dependent programs, in a flexible and straightforward manner. Such programs can, in turn, be coupled with evolving environments, thus empowering users to control the environment's evolution. CG relies on a structure for storing temporal information, together with a dedicated query mechanism. Hence, we explore the computational complexity of our query satisfaction problem. We discuss previous implementation attempts of CG and introduce a novel prototype which relies on logic programming. Finally, we address the issue of consistency and correctness of CG program execution, using the Event-B modeling approach.

  5. A Multicultural Awareness Program To Improve Language and Thinking Skills to a Group of Language Deficient Preschool Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altamura, Marilyn T.

    This practicum project exposed seven preschool students with language deficiencies to multicultural experiences and strategies, resulting in improvements in both language and thinking skills. The children were included in a regular preschool program serving low-income families. The program was based on a multicultural awareness curriculum which…

  6. Porta-SIMD: An Optimally Portable SIMD Programming Language

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    AD-A228 676 Porta-SIMD: An Optimally Portable SIMD Programming Language Duke CS-1990-12 UNC CS TR90-021 May 1990 D TIC o E NOV 0 7 1990 F-" CTE D...3.2.4.2 Scan (S) . . . . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . . . . 25 3.2.5 Parallel I/ O ................. ... .... ......... 25 3.2.5.1 Input (1...25 3.2.5.2 Output (0) .......................... .. 25 3.2.6 PE to Host I/ O

  7. A Syntax-Directed Programming Environment for the ADA Programming Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    SPECIFICATION A language’s syntax (or grammar ) precisely defines the rules which govein the structure of programs written in the language. Several... grammar is producible from the original grammar . This property determines the type of syntactic elements, discussed below, that may be removed to produce...a subset grammar . Conditional elements (options and repeaters) represent syntactic units that may be omitted while still producing a syntactically

  8. Advanced Foreign Language Learning: A Challenge to College Programs. Issues in Language Program Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrnes, Heidi, Ed.; Maxim, Hiram H., Ed.

    This book includes the following chapters: "Literacy and Advanced Foreign Language Learning: Rethinking he Curriculum" (Richard G. Kern); "A Template for Advanced Learner Tasks: Staging Genre Reading and Cultural Literacy Through the Precis" (Janet Swaffar); "Fostering Advanced L2 Literacy: A Genre-Based, Cognitive…

  9. Cost/Benefit Evaluation of Three English Language Training Programs for Potential Navy Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swope, William M.; And Others

    As part of its plans to recruit Hispanic personnel who speak English as a second language, the U.S. Navy will have to provide English language training as well as technical training to prepare these personnel for fleet duty. A cost/benefit analysis was conducted of three English language training programs: the English Technical Language School…

  10. A Proposal for a CA-Integrated English Language Teacher Education Program in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sert, Olcay

    2010-01-01

    This study proposes a comprehensive framework for a Conversation Analysis (CA) informed English language teacher education program in Turkey. By reviewing recent studies in CA, Critical Reflective Practice, Teacher Language Awareness and language teacher education in general; the author calls for a more effective language teacher education program…

  11. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  12. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  13. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  14. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  15. 34 CFR 657.1 - What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fellowships Program? 657.1 Section 657.1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education... FELLOWSHIPS PROGRAM General § 657.1 What is the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program? Under the Foreign Language and Area Studies Fellowships Program, the Secretary awards fellowships,...

  16. 34 CFR 669.1 - What is the Language Resource Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... improving the nation's capacity for teaching and learning foreign languages effectively. (Authority: 20 U.S... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Language Resource Centers Program? 669.1... POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS PROGRAM General § 669.1 What is...

  17. Learning Through Survival: An Approach to Foreign Language Teaching. A Program Description and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Claudia S.; Reilly, Joseph T. M.

    A foreign travel program for eighth grade French language students from Shoreham, New York was developed to provide language speaking practice in Quebec, Canada. The program was designed to allow students to spend as much time as possible speaking the language and interacting with the people. The following "survival through speaking"…

  18. Building a Cross-Cultural Community through a Dual Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This research study evaluates the effectiveness of a Spanish-English dual language immersion (DLI) program. Many researchers have found that high-quality and long-term DLI programs promote academic achievement and high levels of language proficiency for both language groups. Despite the evidence, leaders from the field of bilingual education have…

  19. An Evaluation of the Impact of the Preservice Teacher Education Program at the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center on the Foreign Language Teaching Beliefs of Preservice Language Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Preservice foreign-language teachers are adults with well-established beliefs. They start teacher-education programs with traditional beliefs about language teaching reflecting their own experiences. The field of foreign-language teaching, however, underwent a paradigm shift from grammar-based to communicative foreign-language instruction.…

  20. Where Do We Stand? Language Program Direction as Reflected in the "MLA Job Information List."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glew, Ellen

    2000-01-01

    Compares information gleaned from the Modern Language Association's "MLA Job Information List" seeking language program directors in 1996 and provides an overview of changes in the profession during that time. (Author/VWL)

  1. Discussion on copy constructor in C++ programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Fafen; Du, Ruiqing

    2011-12-01

    C++ is a widely used object-orientated programming language in the software industry. The purpose of this paper is to discuss concept and application of the copy constructor, a special constructor in C++. As fundamental knowledge, constructor and destructor were introduced at first. Several examples of copy constructor were presented to illustrate concept of copy constructor and its use. Shallow copy and deep copy were also presented. After discussions on copy constructor by analyzing all the examples of copy constructor, the conclusion was made about that how to define a copy constructor and how to use it properly.

  2. Introductory Computer Programming Course Teaching Improvement Using Immersion Language, Extreme Programming, and Education Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez-Rubio, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Teaching computer programming to freshmen students in Computer Sciences and other Information Technology areas has been identified as a complex activity. Different approaches have been studied looking for the best one that could help to improve this teaching process. A proposed approach was implemented which is based in the language immersion…

  3. A Program Evaluation of the Language Lab™: Response to Intervention Program for Teaching Grammar, Vocabulary, and Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiechmann, JoAnn; Richardson, Martha; Jones, Don

    2014-01-01

    This program evaluation study addressed the struggle of local elementary school speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in a school district to provide evidence-based intervention in language for students below grade level as required by the U.S. Department of Education. Recently, Language Lab™ was published to address the needs of oral language…

  4. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed. PMID:25264401

  5. Dual Language Development of Latino Children: Effect of Instructional Program Type and the Home and School Language Environment.

    PubMed

    Collins, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Latino dual language children typically enter school with a wide range of proficiencies in Spanish and English, many with low proficiency in both languages, yet do make gains in one or both languages during their first school years. Dual language development is associated with how language is used at home and school, as well as the type of instructional program children receive at school. The present study investigates how changes in both Spanish and English proficiencies of Latino, second-generation immigrant children (n =163) from kindergarten to second grade relate to instructional program type as well as language use at home and school. A series of MANCOVAs demonstrated significant dual language gains in children who were in bilingual classrooms and schools where Spanish was used among the teachers, students, and staff. Furthermore, only in classrooms where both Spanish and English were used did children reach age-appropriate levels of academic proficiency in both languages. Home language use was also significantly associated with dual language gains as was maternal Spanish vocabulary knowledge before controlling for maternal education. Educational implications and potential benefits associated with bilingualism are discussed.

  6. The Effect of an English Language Learner Program on Student Achievement Outcomes in Language, Reading, and Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the reading, math, and language proficiency outcomes of 4th-grade through 7th-grade students with limited English proficiency following nearly two years or more of instruction in the English Language Learner Program (ELL) and concurrent general education studies. The maximum accrual for this study was…

  7. Teaching Practices and Language Use in Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Programs in a Large Public School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer; Steele, Jennifer; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Many educators and policy makers look to two-way dual language immersion as one of the most promising options to close achievement gaps for English learners. However, the programs' effectiveness depends on the quality of their implementation. This article reports on a large-scale study of the implementation of dual language immersion across a…

  8. Examination of Sign Language Education According to the Opinions of Members from a Basic Sign Language Certification Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akmese, Pelin Pistav

    2016-01-01

    Being hearing impaired limits one's ability to communicate in that it affects all areas of development, particularly speech. One of the methods the hearing impaired use to communicate is sign language. This study, a descriptive study, intends to examine the opinions of individuals who had enrolled in a sign language certification program by using…

  9. An iconic programming language for sensor-based robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertz, Matthew; Stewart, David B.; Khosla, Pradeep K.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we describe an iconic programming language called Onika for sensor-based robotic systems. Onika is both modular and reconfigurable and can be used with any system architecture and real-time operating system. Onika is also a multi-level programming environment wherein tasks are built by connecting a series of icons which, in turn, can be defined in terms of other icons at the lower levels. Expert users are also allowed to use control block form to define servo tasks. The icons in Onika are both shape and color coded, like the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle, thus providing a form of error control in the development of high level applications.

  10. Business with Words: Language Programs That Generate Revenue and Impact Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the "business" of language programs. In particular, it focuses on the economic impact of English as a Second language programs physically located in Calgary, Alberta, Canada which draw and serve foreign students. The impact such programs have on the wider community will also be explored. A bibliography is included.…

  11. Children Learning Computer Programming: Experiments with Languages, Curricula and Programmable Devices. Technical Report No. 250.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyer, S. A.; Cannara, A. B.

    An experiment was conducted to study how children, aged 10-15 years, learn concepts relevant to computer programing and how they learn modern programing languages. The implicit educational goal was to teach thinking strategies through the medium of programing concepts and their applications. The computer languages Simper and Logo were chosen…

  12. Peterson's Summer Study Abroad: A Guide to Summer Academic and Language Programs. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson's Guides, Inc., Princeton, NJ.

    This guide provides descriptions of over 900 summer academic and language study-abroad programs in 80 countries that range from 1-week language study courses to full-summer university programs. An introductory section provides general information on study abroad programs and the use of the guide. The bulk of the guide consists of individual…

  13. Planning for Success: Common Pitfalls in the Planning of Early Foreign Language Programs. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtain, Helena; Dahlberg, Carol Ann Pesola

    There has been a significant increase in new foreign language programs at the elementary school level in recent years. Many of these programs, often referred to as foreign language in the elementary school or FLES programs, have been implemented to comply with state mandates, while others have been developed in response to parental pressure for…

  14. Language Arts Grades 6-12. Program Evaluation 1992-93. Focus on Program Evaluation 93-144.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Language Arts Supervisor of the Des Moines, Iowa Independent Community School District is responsible for supervising and coordinating all aspects of the middle and high school language arts program. Aspects of the program include curriculum development, instructional material selection and implementation, staff development, evaluation, and…

  15. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  16. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  17. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May schools operate a language development program without... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  18. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  19. 25 CFR 39.137 - May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May schools operate a language development program... Formula Language Development Programs § 39.137 May schools operate a language development program without a specific appropriation from Congress? Yes, a school may operate a language development...

  20. An Experience with Language. Fort Smith T.E.P. (Teacher Education Program).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    The booklet offers activities, language lessons (oral and written), and suggestions from students and teachers participating in the language programs of four dialects of the Dene Language (Loucheux, Slavey, Dogrib, and Chipewyan) spoken in the Northwest Territories. Beginning consonant sounds are also offered for Inuktitut. Suggested activities…

  1. The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals. REL 2014-027

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Matthew W.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    REL Northeast & Islands at Education Development Center, in partnership with the English Language Learners Alliance, has developed a new survey tool--The English Language Learner Program Survey for Principals--to help state education departments collect consistent data on the education of English language learner students. Designed for school…

  2. Analyzing Student Performance and Attitudes toward Textual versus Iconic Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Janet Mei-Chuen; Yang, Mei-Ching

    2009-01-01

    In this study half of 52 sixth graders learned to program in MSWLogo and the other half in Drape. An analysis of students' test scores revealed that Drape (an iconic language) seemed to have a steeper learning curve than MSWLogo (a textual language). However, as students gradually became more familiar with either language, the difference in…

  3. Foreign Language Writing Fellows Programs: A Model for Improving Advanced Writing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Delys Waite; Nielson, Rex P.; Kurzer, Kendon

    2016-01-01

    Within the growing field of scholarly literature on foreign language (FL) writing pedagogy, few studies have addressed pedagogical questions regarding the teaching of writing to advanced language learners. Writing fellows peer tutoring programs, although typically associated with first language writing instruction, likely can benefit and support…

  4. Handbook for Classroom Testing in Peace Corps Language Programs. Manual T0068.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Neil J.

    This manual provides instructors in Peace Corps language training programs with information about two kinds of classroom testing: formative, ongoing testing and summative testing that occurs at the end of an instructional period. The first of the manual's four chapters on the purposes of language testing, discusses language testing within a…

  5. Funding Policy for Language Programs = Politique de financement des programmes de langue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This policy statement, presented in both English and French, describes the funding support available for heritage language and English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs for K-12 students in the province of Manitoba, Canada. The two parts of the statement, headed "Heritage Language Instruction" and "ESL for Students with Limited…

  6. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming.

    PubMed

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir.

  7. Language-Agnostic Reproducible Data Analysis Using Literate Programming

    PubMed Central

    Vassilev, Boris; Louhimo, Riku; Ikonen, Elina; Hautaniemi, Sampsa

    2016-01-01

    A modern biomedical research project can easily contain hundreds of analysis steps and lack of reproducibility of the analyses has been recognized as a severe issue. While thorough documentation enables reproducibility, the number of analysis programs used can be so large that in reality reproducibility cannot be easily achieved. Literate programming is an approach to present computer programs to human readers. The code is rearranged to follow the logic of the program, and to explain that logic in a natural language. The code executed by the computer is extracted from the literate source code. As such, literate programming is an ideal formalism for systematizing analysis steps in biomedical research. We have developed the reproducible computing tool Lir (literate, reproducible computing) that allows a tool-agnostic approach to biomedical data analysis. We demonstrate the utility of Lir by applying it to a case study. Our aim was to investigate the role of endosomal trafficking regulators to the progression of breast cancer. In this analysis, a variety of tools were combined to interpret the available data: a relational database, standard command-line tools, and a statistical computing environment. The analysis revealed that the lipid transport related genes LAPTM4B and NDRG1 are coamplified in breast cancer patients, and identified genes potentially cooperating with LAPTM4B in breast cancer progression. Our case study demonstrates that with Lir, an array of tools can be combined in the same data analysis to improve efficiency, reproducibility, and ease of understanding. Lir is an open-source software available at github.com/borisvassilev/lir. PMID:27711123

  8. Computationally intensive econometrics using a distributed matrix-programming language.

    PubMed

    Doornik, Jurgen A; Hendry, David F; Shephard, Neil

    2002-06-15

    This paper reviews the need for powerful computing facilities in econometrics, focusing on concrete problems which arise in financial economics and in macroeconomics. We argue that the profession is being held back by the lack of easy-to-use generic software which is able to exploit the availability of cheap clusters of distributed computers. Our response is to extend, in a number of directions, the well-known matrix-programming interpreted language Ox developed by the first author. We note three possible levels of extensions: (i) Ox with parallelization explicit in the Ox code; (ii) Ox with a parallelized run-time library; and (iii) Ox with a parallelized interpreter. This paper studies and implements the first case, emphasizing the need for deterministic computing in science. We give examples in the context of financial economics and time-series modelling.

  9. SPPTOOLS: Programming tools for the IRAF SPP language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.

    1992-01-01

    An IRAF package to assist in SPP code development and debugging is described. SPP is the machine-independent programming language used by virtually all IRAF tasks. Tools have been written to aide both novice and advanced SPP programmers with development and debugging by providing tasks to check the code for the number and type of arguments in all calls to IRAF VOS library procedures, list the calling sequences of IRAF tasks, create a database of identifiers for quick access, check for memory which is not freed, and a source code formatter. Debugging is simplified since the programmer is able to get a better understanding of the structure of his/her code, and IRAF library procedure calls (probably the most common source of errors) are automatically checked for correctness.

  10. Lowering the Barriers to Programming: A Survey of Programming Environments and Languages for Novice Programmers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-05-12

    DARPA, NSF, NASA, or ONR. School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213 Lowering the Barriers to...languages, novice, Computer Science Education, learning 1. INTRODUCTION Learning to program can be very difficult for beginning students of all ages. In...designed to have rapid turn-around time and sacrifice computer time for user time (in 1963, the computer science community was arguing against high

  11. Biocoder: A programming language for standardizing and automating biology protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Published descriptions of biology protocols are often ambiguous and incomplete, making them difficult to replicate in other laboratories. However, there is increasing benefit to formalizing the descriptions of protocols, as laboratory automation systems (such as microfluidic chips) are becoming increasingly capable of executing them. Our goal in this paper is to improve both the reproducibility and automation of biology experiments by using a programming language to express the precise series of steps taken. Results We have developed BioCoder, a C++ library that enables biologists to express the exact steps needed to execute a protocol. In addition to being suitable for automation, BioCoder converts the code into a readable, English-language description for use by biologists. We have implemented over 65 protocols in BioCoder; the most complex of these was successfully executed by a biologist in the laboratory using BioCoder as the only reference. We argue that BioCoder exposes and resolves ambiguities in existing protocols, and could provide the software foundations for future automation platforms. BioCoder is freely available for download at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/india/projects/biocoder/. Conclusions BioCoder represents the first practical programming system for standardizing and automating biology protocols. Our vision is to change the way that experimental methods are communicated: rather than publishing a written account of the protocols used, researchers will simply publish the code. Our experience suggests that this practice is tractable and offers many benefits. We invite other researchers to leverage BioCoder to improve the precision and completeness of their protocols, and also to adapt and extend BioCoder to new domains. PMID:21059251

  12. The Effect of Data-Based Translation Program Used in Foreign Language Education on the Correct Use of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darancik, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    It has been observed that data-based translation programs are often used both in and outside the class unconsciously and thus there occurs many problems in foreign language learning and teaching. To draw attention to this problem, with this study, whether the program has satisfactory results or not has been revealed by making translations from…

  13. A Parallel Vector Machine for the PM Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerby, Tim

    2016-04-01

    PM is a new programming language which aims to make the writing of computational geoscience models on parallel hardware accessible to scientists who are not themselves expert parallel programmers. It is based around the concept of communicating operators: language constructs that enable variables local to a single invocation of a parallelised loop to be viewed as if they were arrays spanning the entire loop domain. This mechanism enables different loop invocations (which may or may not be executing on different processors) to exchange information in a manner that extends the successful Communicating Sequential Processes idiom from single messages to collective communication. Communicating operators avoid the additional synchronisation mechanisms, such as atomic variables, required when programming using the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) paradigm. Using a single loop invocation as the fundamental unit of concurrency enables PM to uniformly represent different levels of parallelism from vector operations through shared memory systems to distributed grids. This paper describes an implementation of PM based on a vectorised virtual machine. On a single processor node, concurrent operations are implemented using masked vector operations. Virtual machine instructions operate on vectors of values and may be unmasked, masked using a Boolean field, or masked using an array of active vector cell locations. Conditional structures (such as if-then-else or while statement implementations) calculate and apply masks to the operations they control. A shift in mask representation from Boolean to location-list occurs when active locations become sufficiently sparse. Parallel loops unfold data structures (or vectors of data structures for nested loops) into vectors of values that may additionally be distributed over multiple computational nodes and then split into micro-threads compatible with the size of the local cache. Inter-node communication is accomplished using

  14. Integrating English as a Second Language into Special Education Teacher Personnel Preparation Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappamihiel, N. Eleni; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Hudson, Roxanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Preparing educators who are culturally responsive and prepared to meet the needs of English-language learners is a national priority. Consequently, many teacher preparation programs are being encouraged to include English as a second-language content in their programs of study. The following case study describes the development and implementation…

  15. What about a Simple Language? Analyzing the Difficulties in Learning to Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mannila, Linda; Peltomaki, Mia; Salakoski, Tapio

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results from a two-part study. We analyze 60 programs written by novice programmers aged 16-19 after their first programming course, in either Java or Python. The aim is to find difficulties independent of the language used, and such originating from the language. Second, we analyze the transition from a…

  16. Incidental Foreign-Language Acquisition by Children Watching Subtitled Television Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ina, Lekkai

    2014-01-01

    Series of international studies have shown that subtitled television programs provide a rich context for foreign language acquisition. This study investigated whether incidental language acquisition occurs from watching a television program with/without subtitles. Children in the experimental conditions watch: (a) a 15 minute snapshot of a well…

  17. Master Program in Foreign Language Education at New York University Steinhardt (US)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikonnikova, Maryna

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with master program in foreign language education at New York University Steinhardt (US). Thus, its peculiarities have been revealed. It has been defined that the study program presupposes mastering of foreign language teaching approaches that meet various needs of learners. It has been indicated that students acquire the…

  18. Language Development and Science Inquiry: A Child-Initiated and Teacher-Facilitated Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Evelyn R.; Hammrich, Penny L.; Bloom, Stefanie; Ragins, Anika

    The Head Start on Science and Communication Program (HSSC) is a model that fosters science learning for young children through a systematic approach to language development. The HSSC program emphasizes the development of language skills through an explicit teacher-directed and exploratory child-centered approach to acquiring science knowledge and…

  19. MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGES, A SIX-YEAR PROGRAM (GRADES 7-12)--FRENCH, GERMAN, SPANISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LADU, TORA TUVE

    THIS BRIEF BULLETIN, OUTLINING A 6-YEAR FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM IN FRENCH, GERMAN, AND SPANISH, COMPLEMENTS A 1962 CURRICULUM GUIDE OF A 4-YEAR SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE STUDY ISSUED BY THE NORTH CAROLINA STATE DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. OF SPECIAL SIGNIFICANCE IN THE DOCUMENT IS A CHART OF A 6-YEAR PROGRAM HIGHLIGHTING, AT EVERY LEVEL,…

  20. The Relationships among Group Size, Participation, and Performance of Programming Language Learning Supported with Online Forums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ruey-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among group size, participation, and learning performance factors when learning a programming language in a computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) context. An online forum was used as the CSCL environment for learning the Microsoft ASP.NET programming language. The collaborative-learning experiment…

  1. Language Immersion Programs for Young Children? Yes . . . but Proceed with Caution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderman, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    A dual immersion program in Chinese and English at the 3e International School in Beijing is helping children become fluent in both languages, even though many students spoke neither language when they entered the school. Children enter the program as young as two years old. Studies indicate that bilingual children have higher levels of cognitive…

  2. Dual Language Immersion Program Equity and Access: Is There Equity for All Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Patricia Espinoza

    2016-01-01

    This is a mixed methods study of K-12 school administrators with dual language immersion school leadership expertise. The paramount research focus was to identify equity and access issues in dual language immersion programs serving grades K-12, as identified by school administrators who have led such programs. A total pool of 498 were invited to…

  3. Language Arts Grades 6-12 Program Evaluation, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Jerry M.

    The Language Arts 6-12 Program of the Des Moines Independent Community School District (Iowa) is directed by its mission statement to provide a quality educational program to a diverse community of students where all are expected to learn. The Language Arts supervisor is responsible for supervising and coordinating all aspects of the middle and…

  4. The Adequacy of the Army’s Foreign Language Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    a twelve-week beginning level course using state-of-the-art methods for second language acquisition . An innovative language contract supplies...state of the art methodologies for second languAge acquisition and to create a non-traditional classroom environment. Both the methods and the...in nature and uses modern theories of second language acquisition such as Total Physical Response, the Natural Approach, the Textual Approach used at

  5. A Literature Based Language Arts Program for Secondary Gifted Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jo; Hughes, Bob

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a philosophy of education for the gifted and place that philosophy within the framework of practical education. The paper sketches the philosophy--language arts must be taught in a way that emphasizes the wholeness of the language experience--and discusses two key points: (1) If language arts consist of…

  6. When technology became language: the origins of the linguistic conception of computer programming, 1950-1960.

    PubMed

    Nofre, David; Priestley, Mark; Alberts, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Language is one of the central metaphors around which the discipline of computer science has been built. The language metaphor entered modern computing as part of a cybernetic discourse, but during the second half of the 1950s acquired a more abstract meaning, closely related to the formal languages of logic and linguistics. The article argues that this transformation was related to the appearance of the commercial computer in the mid-1950s. Managers of computing installations and specialists on computer programming in academic computer centers, confronted with an increasing variety of machines, called for the creation of "common" or "universal languages" to enable the migration of computer code from machine to machine. Finally, the article shows how the idea of a universal language was a decisive step in the emergence of programming languages, in the recognition of computer programming as a proper field of knowledge, and eventually in the way we think of the computer.

  7. An evaluation framework and comparative analysis of the widely used first programming languages.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores.

  8. An Evaluation Framework and Comparative Analysis of the Widely Used First Programming Languages

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad Shoaib; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed; Abid, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    Computer programming is the core of computer science curriculum. Several programming languages have been used to teach the first course in computer programming, and such languages are referred to as first programming language (FPL). The pool of programming languages has been evolving with the development of new languages, and from this pool different languages have been used as FPL at different times. Though the selection of an appropriate FPL is very important, yet it has been a controversial issue in the presence of many choices. Many efforts have been made for designing a good FPL, however, there is no ample way to evaluate and compare the existing languages so as to find the most suitable FPL. In this article, we have proposed a framework to evaluate the existing imperative, and object oriented languages for their suitability as an appropriate FPL. Furthermore, based on the proposed framework we have devised a customizable scoring function to compute a quantitative suitability score for a language, which reflects its conformance to the proposed framework. Lastly, we have also evaluated the conformance of the widely used FPLs to the proposed framework, and have also computed their suitability scores. PMID:24586449

  9. A Program Evaluation Process to Meet the Needs of English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cellante, Donna; Donne, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    The process of program evaluation was utilized to evaluate the education program, provide information to make decisions on its ability to comply with mandates from the state education department, and develop or improve the program to meet the goals of the new initiative to meet the needs of English language learners. The program evaluation process…

  10. Benchmarks of programming languages for special purposes in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoebel, Arthur

    1986-01-01

    Although Ada is likely to be chosen as the principal programming language for the Space Station, certain needs, such as expert systems and robotics, may be better developed in special languages. The languages, LISP and Prolog, are studied and some benchmarks derived. The mathematical foundations for these languages are reviewed. Likely areas of the space station are sought out where automation and robotics might be applicable. Benchmarks are designed which are functional, mathematical, relational, and expert in nature. The coding will depend on the particular versions of the languages which become available for testing.

  11. An informal introduction to programming data processing problems in a functional language

    SciTech Connect

    Senichkin, V.I.

    1994-07-01

    The basic idea behind the proposed language CORAL (Conceptual Recursive Applicative Language) is that of functional programming and the functional model of data. The type system of the language includes abstraction, classification, generalization, and aggregation. The set of built-in type constructors makes it possible to describe set-theoretic operations over extensional types. The basis functions are defined as functions over lists, which are the only form of data organization in the language. The computational model of the language, which is based on notions of polymorphism and inheritance and treats data types as objects, is adequate to the needs of data processing in applications with complex relations between objects.

  12. Evaluation of verifiability in HAL/S. [programming language for aerospace computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. D.; Tripathi, A. R.; Good, D. I.; Browne, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The ability of HAL/S to write verifiable programs, a characteristic which is highly desirable in aerospace applications, is lacking since many of the features of HAL/S do not lend themselves to existing verification techniques. The methods of language evaluation are described along with the means in which language features are evaluated for verifiability. These methods are applied in this study to various features of HAL/S to identify specific areas in which the language fails with respect to verifiability. Some conclusions are drawn for the design of programming languages for aerospace applications and ongoing work to identify a verifiable subset of HAL/S is described.

  13. Considerations in the Evaluation of Language for Inclusion in a Programmed Language System for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spidal, David A.

    The paper examines aspects of language (morphology, syntax, and semology) as they relate to effective instruction in the area of language with deaf students. Pointed out are language factors to keep in mind when preparing instructional materials for the deaf, such as words with more than one meaning and other problems affecting comprehension of a…

  14. Language Modeling and Reading Achievement: Variations across Different Types of Language Instruction Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Francesca; Scanlan, Martin; Gorman, Brenda K.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which the quality of teachers' language modeling contributed to reading achievement for 995 students, both English language learners and native English speakers, across developmental bilingual, dual language, and monolingual English classrooms. Covariates included prior reading achievement, gender, eligibility…

  15. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to...

  16. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to...

  17. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to...

  18. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to...

  19. Dual Language Programs as a Strand within a Secondary School: Dilemmas of School Organization and the TWI Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Ester J.; Bearse, Carol I.

    2014-01-01

    Dual language (DL) programs aim to create additive bilingual learning environments where the dominant language and the minority language are given equal status at the program, curricular, and instructional level. While several studies have documented the effectiveness of DL programs and classroom-based practices, few have considered how the…

  20. 34 CFR 658.4 - What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... International Studies and Foreign Language Program? 658.4 Section 658.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of... UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM General § 658.4 What definitions apply to the Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program? The definitions in 34 CFR 655.4 apply to...

  1. Reverse engineering GTPase programming languages with reconstituted signaling networks.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Scott M

    2016-07-02

    The Ras superfamily GTPases represent one of the most prolific signaling currencies used in Eukaryotes. With these remarkable molecules, evolution has built GTPase networks that control diverse cellular processes such as growth, morphology, motility and trafficking. (1-4) Our knowledge of the individual players that underlie the function of these networks is deep; decades of biochemical and structural data has provided a mechanistic understanding of the molecules that turn GTPases ON and OFF, as well as how those GTPase states signal by controlling the assembly of downstream effectors. However, we know less about how these different activities work together as a system to specify complex dynamic signaling outcomes. Decoding this molecular "programming language" would help us understand how different species and cell types have used the same GTPase machinery in different ways to accomplish different tasks, and would also provide new insights as to how mutations to these networks can cause disease. We recently developed a bead-based microscopy assay to watch reconstituted H-Ras signaling systems at work under arbitrary configurations of regulators and effectors. (5) Here we highlight key observations and insights from this study and propose extensions to our method to further study this and other GTPase signaling systems.

  2. Genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for the knapsack problem: first results.

    PubMed

    Bruhn, Peter; Geyer-Schulz, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints for combinatorial optimization, apply this method to several variants of the multidimensional knapsack problem, and discuss its performance relative to Michalewicz's genetic algorithm with penalty functions. With respect to Michalewicz's approach, we demonstrate that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints improves convergence. A final result is that genetic programming over context-free languages with linear constraints is ideally suited to modeling complementarities between items in a knapsack problem: The more complementarities in the problem, the stronger the performance in comparison to its competitors.

  3. Using a visual programming language to bridge the cognitive gap between a novice's mental model and program code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Bryan J.

    Current research suggests that many students do not know how to program very well at the conclusion of their introductory programming course. We believe that a reason novices have such difficulties learning programming is because engineering novices often learn through a lecture format where someone with programming knowledge lectures to novices, the novices attempt to absorb the content, and then reproduce it during exams. By primarily appealing to programming novices who prefer to understand visually, we research whether programming novices understand programming better if computer science concepts are presented using a visual programming language than if these programs are presented using a text-based programming language. This method builds upon previous research that suggests that most engineering students are visual learners, and we propose that using a flow-based visual programming language will address some of the most important and difficult topics to novices of programming. We use an existing flow-model tool, RAPTOR, to test this method, and share the program understanding results using this theory.

  4. A Global View Programming Abstraction for Transitioning MPI Codes to PGAS Languages

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, Tiffany M; Hernandez, Oscar R; Bernholdt, David E

    2014-01-01

    The multicore generation of scientific high performance computing has provided a platform for the realization of Exascale computing, and has also underscored the need for new paradigms in coding parallel applications. The current standard for writing parallel applications requires programmers to use languages designed for sequential execution. These languages have abstractions that only allow programmers to operate on the process centric local view of data. To provide suitable languages for parallel execution, many research efforts have designed languages based on the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) programming model. Chapel is one of the more recent languages to be developed using this model. Chapel supports multithreaded execution with high-level abstractions for parallelism. With Chapel in mind, we have developed a set of directives that serve as intermediate expressions for transitioning scientific applications from languages designed for sequential execution to PGAS languages like Chapel that are being developed with parallelism in mind.

  5. Visual Education and the Language Arts: Toward the Incorporation of Visual Concepts and Skills in the Secondary Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David Robert

    The purpose of this study was to develop a rationale for and to organize sequences of visual education concepts and skills that could function as a part of a secondary language arts program embodying the approaches of James Moffett. The literature on visual education was studied to identify those factors related specifically to professional…

  6. Development and Supervision of Teaching Assistants in Foreign Languages. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel C., Ed.

    This collection of papers includes three parts. Part 1, "TA Development Programs," offers "Undergraduate Teaching Assistants: One Model" (Katherine M. Kulick); "Teaching Assistant Development: A Case Study" (Julia Herschensohn); and "Breaking Out of the Vicious Circle: TA Training, Education, and Supervision for the Less Commonly Taught Languages"…

  7. The Effects of the Extended Foreign Language Programs on Spanish-Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shneyderman, Aleksandr; Abella, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the effects of a two-way immersion bilingual program on maintenance/acquisition of Spanish-language proficiency and on reading and mathematics achievement in English over a period of 4 academic years. The researchers used Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) techniques to compare the effects of two different…

  8. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  9. THE ROLE OF THE LABORATORY IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    REINDORP, REGINALD C.

    A 10-WEEK INTENSIVE COURSE IN ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE WAS DEVELOPED AT MISSISSIPPI SOUTHERN COLLEGE AND CONSIDERABLE EXPERIMENTING WAS DONE WITH DIFFERENT METHODS, MATERIALS, AND TECHNIQUES. THE GOVERNING ASSUMPTIONS WERE THAT LANGUAGE BASICALLY CONSISTS OF SPEECH OR SOUND, AND THAT THE MASTERY OF A SOUND SYSTEM INVOLVES THE MASTERY OF THE…

  10. Power within Blended Language Learning Programs in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Don; Gruba, Paul

    2012-01-01

    As blended language learning environments evolve within tertiary foreign language institutions, issues of power with regards to the privileging of electronic technologies come to the fore. Blended learning, or the principled mix of online and classroom-based activities, challenges the practices of traditional CALL and face-to-face teaching within…

  11. Tools for Language Programs. ICEM Technical Information Bulletin No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezard, M.; Bourguignon, C.

    This overview of available technologies and how they can be used in teaching languages is divided into three sections. The first, "Multimedia Inputs," examines digitized multimedia tools and their role in language courses, electronic books, encyclopedias and dictionaries, and games, and takes a closer look at "unimedia"…

  12. A Comprehensive Evaluation of a K-5 Chinese Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Shoufen

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation was designed to provide a comprehensive data-driven evaluation of a Chinese language Immersion Program (CIP) for the stakeholders. CIP was implemented in 2006 with a goal for students to become proficient in the Chinese language and develop increased cultural awareness while reaching at least the same level of academic…

  13. Effects of a Professional Development Program on Classroom Practices and Outcomes for Latino Dual Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buysse, Virginia; Castro, Dina C.; Peisner-Feinberg, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, controlled study was conducted to assess the effects of the Nuestros Ninos professional development program on classroom practices and child outcomes related to language development and early literacy skills in both English and Spanish. Fifty-five teachers and 193 Latino dual language learners (DLLs) enrolled in the North Carolina…

  14. Effects Upon Children's Oral Syntactic Language Development Under Two Kindergarten Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Katharine Eleanor Meyer

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of two kindergarten programs--AK and NK (a regular curriculum with and without an adaptation from the language-experience approach to reading), social class, and sex upon children's oral syntactic language facility after a five-month period. Eighty subjects were distributed among eight classrooms and…

  15. Motivators for Demotivators Affecting English Language Acquisition of Saudi Preparatory Year Program Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daif-Allah, Ayman Sabry; Alsamani, Abdulaziz Saleh

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the demotivating factors that discourage Preparatory Year Program (PYP) students from learning the English language. It also proposes and tests the effectiveness of a set of academic and administrative approaches on enhancing English language acquisition of 102 Saudi PYP Students taking an EFL summer course in the…

  16. A Randomized Field Trial of the Fast ForWord Language Computer-Based Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borman, Geoffrey D.; Benson, James G.; Overman, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an independent assessment of the Fast ForWord Language computer-based training program developed by Scientific Learning Corporation. Previous laboratory research involving children with language-based learning impairments showed strong effects on their abilities to recognize brief and fast sequences of nonspeech and speech…

  17. Selection and Use of General-Purpose Programming Languages--Overview. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cugini, John V.

    This study presents a review of selection factors for the seven major general-purpose programming languages: Ada, BASIC, C, COBOL, FORTRAN, PASCAL, and PL/I. The factors covered include not only the logical operations within each language, but also the advantages and disadvantages stemming from the current computing environment, e.g., software…

  18. A Critical Multicultural Analysis of a Romanian Textbook Taught in Elementary International Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2014-01-01

    This case study proposes a critical multicultural analysis of a Romanian language textbook used for instructing students in grades one and two in the Elementary Language International Program (ELIP) in Toronto public schools in Ontario, Canada. Based on an analysis developed from Fairclough and Parker's criteria, this paper determined stereotypes…

  19. Children Literature Based Program for Developing EFL Primary Pupils' Life Skills and Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelhalim, Safaa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a proposed English language program based on integrating two forms of children literature, mainly short stories and songs, in developing the needed life skills and language learning strategies of primary school students. Besides, it emphasized the importance of providing EFL fifth year primary students with…

  20. Three Methods for Language Acquisition: Total Physical Response; the Tomatis Program; Suggestopedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bancroft, W. Jane

    Total Physical Response is a strategy for learning second languages developed by James J. Asher. The Tomatis program, developed in France by Alfred Tomatis, is a method for treating dyslexia and communication problems and is also used for teaching basic elements of foreign languages. Suggestology is a psychotherapeutic system based on yogic…

  1. Bilingual Program Evaluation Report on Idea Language Proficiency Tests, 1996-97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarangarm, Isara; And Others

    The report presents findings concerning the language proficiency of elementary, middle, and high school students receiving bilingual services in the Las Cruces Public Schools (New Mexico). The report contains five sections: general information about the bilingual program in the school district; the Idea Language Proficiency Tests (IPT); results of…

  2. Students' Perceptions of Bilingualism in Spanish and Mandarin Dual Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm-Leary, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Considerable research documents students' outcomes in dual language (DL) programs, but there is little examination of students' perceptions of bilingualism and its impact on students' cognitive functioning and social relationships, especially with comparative studies across different target languages and student backgrounds. This study, which…

  3. Research in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition at the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Costa, Peter I.; Bernales, Carolina; Merrill, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Faculty and graduate students in the Doctoral Program in Second Language Acquisition (SLA) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison engage in a broad spectrum of research. From Professor Sally Magnan's research on study abroad and Professor Monika Chavez's work in foreign language policy through Professor Richard Young's examination of…

  4. An Analysis of Language Teacher Education Programs: A Comparative Study of Turkey and Other European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altmisdort, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to analyze and discuss the similarities and the differences between English language teacher educational programs at universities in Turkey, and to identify the undergraduate students' ideas about their current curriculum. In addition to this, the study aims to compare the education of English language teacher…

  5. Examining Strategies for Embedding Literacy Skills within a Whole Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botenhagen, Jennifer L.

    A study examined strategies for embedding literacy skills within a whole language program. A questionnaire was given to full-time whole language elementary school teachers who taught in kindergarten through second-grade classrooms. All the participants teach in suburban school districts in the Bay Area including San Francisco, Marin, Sonoma, and…

  6. Monk, Bird, "Trane, and Miles" Jazz in the English Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemek, Francis E.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses why jazz is important for English Language Arts education. Describes some contemporary literature for young adults that the author and others have found to be engaging. Presents some general strategies for incorporating the music and literature into the English Language Arts program. Explores in more detail one specific strategy and…

  7. Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Selecting Textbooks for College-Level Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angell, John; DuBravac, Stayc; Gonglewski, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the process by which college-level foreign language programs evaluate and select instructional materials for beginning level courses. A review of the relevant literature reveals an ambivalent relationship with textbooks, often the default curriculum for language courses. Despite textbooks' apparent key role in language…

  8. Evaluation of a School District's English as a Second Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rolland, Kathy A.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of the English as a Second Language (ESL) program provided to the English Language Learners (ELLs) in elementary and middle schools in one local school district. The study evaluated two factors: model of service provided and teacher effectiveness. The models of service provided were a push-in model and a…

  9. Policies and Practices regarding Students with Accents in Speech-Language Pathology Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Erika S.; Crowley, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathology (SLP) training programs are the initial gateway for nonnative speakers of English to join the SLP profession. An anonymous web-based survey in New York State examined policies and practices implemented when SLP students have foreign accents in English or in other languages. Responses were elicited from 530 students and 28…

  10. Competing Language Ideologies in a Bilingual/Bicultural After-School Program in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pastor, Ana Maria Relano

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the competing language ideologies that preschool children negotiate in "Mi Clase Magica" (MCM), a Spanish-English bilingual/bicultural after-school program in San Diego. It examines children's language choice in interactions with peers and adults taking place at computer and "tareas" (homework) activities.…

  11. The Heterogeneous Second-Language Population in US Colleges and the Impact on Writing Program Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gennaro, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    To effectively address the needs of second language (L2) learners in college writing courses, many postsecondary institutions, especially those located in cities with high concentrations of immigrants, offer college-level courses for L2 students. Such courses include noncredit English language courses in an intensive English program, developmental…

  12. Cognitive characteristics of learning Java, an object-oriented programming language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Garry Lynn

    Industry and Academia are moving from procedural programming languages (e.g., COBOL) to object-oriented programming languages, such as Java for the Internet. Past studies in the cognitive aspects of programming have focused primarily on procedural programming languages. Some of the languages used have been Pascal, C, Basic, FORTAN, and COBOL. Object-oriented programming (OOP) represents a new paradigm for computing. Industry is finding that programmers are having difficulty shifting to this new programming paradigm. This instruction in OOP is currently starting in colleges and universities across the country. What are the cognitive aspects for this new OOP language Java? When is a student developmentally ready to handle the cognitive characteristics of the OOP language Java? Which cognitive teaching style is best for this OOP language Java? Questions such as the aforementioned are the focus of this research Such research is needed to improve understanding of the learning process and identify students' difficulties with OOP methods. This can enhance academic teaching and industry training (Scholtz, 1993; Sheetz, 1997; Rosson, 1990). Cognitive development as measured by the Propositional Logic Test, cognitive style as measured by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator, and physical hemispheric dominance as measured by a self-report survey were obtained from thirty-six university students studying Java programming. Findings reveal that physical hemispheric dominance is unrelated to cognitive and programming language variables. However, both procedural and object oriented programming require Piaget's formal operation cognitive level as indicated by the Propositional Logic Test. This is consistent with prior research A new finding is that object oriented programming also requires formal operation cognitive level. Another new finding is that object oriented programming appears to be unrelated to hemispheric cognitive style as indicated by the Hemispheric Mode Indicator (HMI

  13. Foreign Language Education in Elementary Schools: Revitalizing and Maintaining a Workable Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Rachel Elaine

    A discussion of foreign languages in elementary schools (FLES) includes both historical and current overviews of FLES in the United States and makes recommendations for development of FLES programs. The historical review looks at program design and methods during the 1950s and 1960s and the successes and failures of program types and approaches.…

  14. English Language and Skills Training for Entry-Level Health Care Jobs. Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaidya, Elma

    The guide describes a vocational English-as-a-Second-Language program for pre-employment training of Southeast Asians seeking work in entry-level health care jobs. The program was conducted in cooperation with a hospital in Massachusetts. The guide describes the program and its four instructional units in detail, and includes lesson plans,…

  15. Design and Implementation of an English as a Second Language Program in a Bilingual College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velazquez, Clara Virgen

    This dissertation focuses on the development of a complete English as a Second Language (ESL) program for a bilingual college-level curriculum. It includes the theoretical basis, the linguistic sociological, and self-oriented goals, the personnel and funding needed for the program and the relationship of the program to the surrounding community.…

  16. "We Only Speak English Here": English Dominance in Language Diverse, Immigrant After-School Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Melanie Jones; Okamoto, Dina G.; Feldman, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Past research suggests that community after-school programs (ASPs) are crucial sites for culturally relevant programming for minority and immigrant youth; yet, we know little about how ASPs address language in their programming. Using an ethnographic fieldwork approach, we examine the goals and practices of ASP workers serving immigrant youth with…

  17. Constructing the ScratchJr Programming Language in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portelance, Dylan J.; Strawhacker, Amanda L.; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to contribute to the growing literature on children and computer programming by focusing on a programming language for children in Kindergarten through second grade. Sixty-two students were exposed to a 6-week curriculum using ScartchJr. They learned foundational programming concepts and applied those concepts to create personally…

  18. A Description of Teacher and Child Language in Two Preschool Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Joseph T.; Fowell, Nancy

    This descriptive study compared language used by teachers and children in Ausubelian and Piagetian preschool programs during small group instruction and related learning activities. Instruction in the Ausubelian program (AP) was based on Ausubel's subsumption theory of learning while that in the Piagetian program (PP) was based on Piaget's theory…

  19. TERMINAL REVISION OF THE ALLP-II PROGRAMMED SPANISH LANGUAGE COURSE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORTON, F. RAND

    A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE ORIGINAL MORTON-MICHIGAN ALLP-II PROGRAMMED SPANISH LANGUAGE COURSE IS PRESENTED. AN ENUMERATION OF THE "TERMINAL REVISIONS" MADE ON THE PROGRAM TO INCREASE ITS PEDAGOGICAL EFFECTIVENESS FOLLOWS. FOUR TASKS COMPRISING THE PROGRAM INVOLVE INSTRUCTION IN SOUND DISCRIMINATION, VOCALIZATION OF SPANISH SOUNDS, STUDENT…

  20. Workshop on programming languages for high performance computing (HPCWPL): final report.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes the deliberations and conclusions of the Workshop on Programming Languages for High Performance Computing (HPCWPL) held at the Sandia CSRI facility in Albuquerque, NM on December 12-13, 2006.

  1. The Rhythm of Language: Fostering Oral and Listening Skills in Singapore Pre-School Children through an Integrated Music and Language Arts Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…

  2. Exploring the Synergy between Science Literacy and Language Literacy with English Language Learners: Lessons Learned within a Sustained Professional Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrejo, David J.; Reinhartz, Judy

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-five elementary teachers participated in a yearlong professional development (PD) program whose goal was to foster science content learning while promoting language literacy for English Language Learners (ELL). The researchers utilized an explanatory design methodology to determine the degree to which science and language literacy…

  3. The Impact of Language Policy Issues on Program Development and Management at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich Language Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffner, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the impact of language policy issues on program development and management at the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich Language Center. Based on the analysis of the language policy approach of the University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, the article reflects both current practices and policy elements with the help of the…

  4. A Comparison of Inter-Professional Education Programs in Preparing Prospective Teachers and Speech and Language Pathologists for Collaborative Language-Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Leanne; McNeill, Brigid; Gillon, Gail T.

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring teacher and speech and language pathology graduates are prepared to work collaboratively together to meet the diverse language literacy learning needs of children is an important goal. This study investigated the efficacy of a 3-h inter-professional education program focused on explicit instruction in the language skills that underpin…

  5. Foreign Language Program Articulation: Current Practice and Future Prospects. Contemporary Language Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, Carolyn Gascoigne, Ed.

    Few matters induce more dialogue among foreign language among educators than the problem of students' transition between levels of language study. Secondary school teachers worry about how best to integrate a diversely prepared freshman population into their curriculum. The aim of this edited volume is to assemble the theory, research, and vision…

  6. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of kindergarten language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "Let's Eat Together"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia.…

  7. Teaching an Algonkian Language as a Second Language: A Core Program for Grade One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.

    Ten units of first grade language instruction are presented in English, as a course guide for teachers who are expected to use only an Algonkian language in the classroom. The units, which are thematically titled (e.g. "The Little House"), cover two to four weeks' teaching time each. Classroom activities involve a variety of realia.…

  8. The NINDS Hearing, Speech, and Language Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Presented is an overview of hearing, speech and language research being sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS). Described is research in such areas as infant audiological screening, auditory prostheses, larynx surgery, and developmental dysphasia. (LS)

  9. International Education Programs: Access to the World and Its Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Education Programs Service (IEPS) administers 14 education programs. These programs are complementary in nature and designed to benefit a variety of audiences through training programs, research, start-up or enhancement projects, and fellowships. This paper provides brief descriptions of these programs.

  10. A Systematic Meta-Analytic Review of Evidence for the Effectiveness of the "Fast ForWord" Language Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Gemma K.; Torgerson, Carole J.; Torgerson, David; Hulme, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background: Fast ForWord is a suite of computer-based language intervention programs designed to improve children's reading and oral language skills. The programs are based on the hypothesis that oral language difficulties often arise from a rapid auditory temporal processing deficit that compromises the development of phonological…

  11. Development of Reading Skills from K-3 in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners Following Three Programs of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamoto, Jonathan; Lindsey, Kim A.; Manis, Franklin R.

    2012-01-01

    The development of English and Spanish reading and oral language skills from kindergarten to third grade was examined with a sample of 502 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) enrolled in three instructional programs. The students in the transitional bilingual and dual-language programs had significantly higher scores than the…

  12. Implementing Two-Way Dual-Language Immersion Programs: Classroom Insights from an Urban District. Research Brief. RB-9921

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer J.; Steele, Jennifer L.; Slater, Robert; Bacon, Michael; Miller, Trey

    2016-01-01

    Dual-language immersion programs--in which students learn core subjects (language arts, math, science, and social studies) in both English and a "partner" language--have been gaining in popularity across the United States. Such programs may use a "two-way model," in which roughly half the students are native speakers of the…

  13. Race, Power, and Equity in a Multiethnic Urban Elementary School with a Dual-Language "Strand" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Dual-language education is often lauded for providing high-caliber bilingual instruction in an integrated classroom. This is complicated, however, when a dual-language program does not include all members of a school community. This article examines a "strand" dual-language program that attracts middle-class white students to a predominantly black…

  14. Interactive debug program for evaluation and modification of assembly-language software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arpasi, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    An assembly-language debug program written for the Honeywell HDC-601 and DDP-516/316 computers is described. Names and relative addressing to improve operator-machine interaction are used. Features include versatile display, on-line assembly, and improved program execution and analysis. The program is discussed from both a programmer's and an operator's standpoint. Functional diagrams are included to describe the program, and each command is illustrated.

  15. Toward a Unified Logical Basis for Programming Languages,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    NX ) Each Petri net must obey the following axioms: VNX(isf:red(o# NX ) D isenablcd(# NX )) A 3NX(%senabled(# NX )) D NX ’(isfired(o... NX ’)) A VNXVNX’(# NX # # NX ’ D -(tssired(#N),)Aisfired(#NA’))) data- baseI data~ j l.- l I vi v5 send- I J tail I - -- --. - empty It 1 4" ) I limit v6...Base Language Of XYZ." [Chinese.1 Computer Science, No. 2, 1980. [191, Teller, J. "Intermediate Language." Draft, Siemens , 1980. 21 I

  16. Instructional Preferences of Students in Transnational Chinese and English Language MBA Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambacas, Mary; Sanderson, Gavin B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on Stage 1 of a learning and teaching project focused on students studying in the Chinese and English language delivery of transnational Master of Business Administration (MBA) programs of an Australian university. The programs are delivered using limited and intensive face-to-face teaching augmented by self-directed and…

  17. Determining the ROI of an Online English as a Second Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathan, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the methodology used to determine the return on investment (ROI) of an online English as a Second Language (ESL) program. The online ESL program was implemented in over 20 countries, and the scope of the analysis includes data from all participating countries. A form of ROI analysis had been conducted annually prior to the…

  18. Preparing Bilingual Speech-Language Pathologists: The Development of an Innovative Master's Degree Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright-Harp, Wilhelmina; Munoz, Emma

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the two-year master's degree program for speech-language pathologists with a specialization in bilingualism (Spanish/English) developed at the University of the District of Columbia. First, the article describes the program's curriculum, clinical practicum, recruitment, and retention activities. It then discusses the student…

  19. Learner Performance in Mandarin Immersion and High School World Language Programs: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the Mandarin performance of elementary immersion program students and high school world language program students in the same school district. A cross-sectional design was employed to gather information on Mandarin proficiency of fourth and fifth graders and Level 4 and Level 5 (AP Chinese) high school students who took the…

  20. Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): A Review of the Foundational Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner-Bond, Molly; Waring, Sara; Forte, Ellen; Crenshaw, Rhonda L.; Tindle, Kathleen; Belknap, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the U.S. Department of Education (the Department) contracted with Synergy Enterprises, Inc. and edCount, LLC, to complete a study titled Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs): Lessons From the Research and Profiles of Promising Programs. This study includes a review of the foundational literature related to LIEPs, case studies…

  1. English as a Second Language Curriculum Resource Handbook. A Practical Guide for K-12 ESL Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Italiano, Graciela; Rounds, Patricia

    Resources and strategies for teachers, administrators, and curriculum specialists working in K-12 English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs are presented in this handbook. The book is designed to provide information on the background of ESL programs as well as current information on publications, standards, and special materials. Contents are…

  2. From Distress to Success: Developing a Coping Language and Programs for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Eacott, Chelsea; Clark, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article highlights the authors' research, beginning with the development of a language to define and discuss coping, then the development of two coping programs for adolescent-aged youth, and concluding with evaluations of these programs for youth who are low in resources. (Contains 2 tables.)

  3. Starting an English-as-a-Second-Language Program. Bilingual Education Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Placer-Barber, Venus

    A guide to the development of programs in English as a second language (ESL) outlines the program development process and necessary considerations. A foreword describes the two major types of limited-English-proficient (LEP) students and notes differences between LEP students in general and their monolingual English-speaking counterparts. Chapters…

  4. A Case Study of English Language Learners Who Have Successfully Completed a Healthcare Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloud Smith, Theresa Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if English Language Learners (ELLs), who had successfully completed a healthcare education program, identified support services as having an impact on their academic success, and to identify what support services were critical to their successful completion of the healthcare education program. The…

  5. The New Senior High School French as a Second Language Program: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    Information is offered, in question-and-answer format, on the design, objectives, standards, and procedures for the revised French second language program to be offered in Alberta's (Canada) high schools. The new program consists of 3 well-defined levels of competency: beginning, intermediate, and advanced. Learner expectations exist at each level…

  6. Early Childhood Programs for Language Minority Children. Focus, Occasional Papers in Bilingual Education, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissani, Helen

    1990-01-01

    General issues in the development of programs for language minority children at the preschool level, ages 2-4, are discussed. Focus is on the need to meet their comprehensive needs, and the five following points are made: (1) programs should be designed to serve the child's social/emotional, physical, and cognitive development within the context…

  7. Creating an Innovative English as a Second Language in the Workplace Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, David; Larrotta, Clarena; Zub, Vyacheslav

    This paper summarizes a 4-month-long preparation process to implement an innovative English-as-a-Second-Language workplace program (ESLWP) at a large university with a sizable non-English speaking workforce in the United States. There is also a proposed plan of action for implementing a program guided by constructivist views of teaching and…

  8. Their Words and Worlds: English as a Second Language Students in Adult Basic Education Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csepelyi, Tünde

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this article is on adult literacy in adult basic education (ABE) programs with special emphasis on English as a Second Language (ESL) students. The article intends to highlight several relevant points in ABE ESL literacy instruction. It focuses on (a) the nature of adult learning, (b) the structure of ABE programs, (c) who the…

  9. Curriculum Guide, English as a Second Language for the Workplace, Worker Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeastern Illinois Univ., Chicago. Chicago Teachers' Center.

    This guide describes a worker-centered, holistic, English-language training program for the textile industry in Illinois, now in its fifth funding cycle. The program, which provides training to approximately 500 workers, requires cooperation among business, labor unions, and educational organizations. A 5-unit curriculum covers work issues, health…

  10. Scheduling language and algorithm development study. Volume 2, phase 2: Introduction to plans programming. [user guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, D. R.; Ishikawa, M. K.; Paulson, R. E.; Ramsey, H. R.

    1975-01-01

    A user guide for the Programming Language for Allocation and Network Scheduling (PLANS) is presented. Information is included for the construction of PLANS programs. The basic philosophy of PLANS is discussed, and access and update reference techniques are described along with the use of tree structures.

  11. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  12. Instructors' Perceived Effectiveness of Current Professional Development Programs at Taif University English Language Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tawalbeh, Tha'er Issa

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aimed to explore the EFL instructors perceived effectiveness of current professional development programs run at Taif University English Language Center (TUELC) in Saudi Arabia, and to provide suggestions to improve the current situation of these programs. To achieve these purposes, the researcher tried to answer three questions.…

  13. The English Language Arts and Basic Skills Program of the Bellevue Public Schools. Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellevue Public Schools, WA.

    This curriculum guide discusses an English language arts and basic skills program for the junior high school level. The program is designed to reflect the learner's point of view. The authors argue that education is not so much a matter of objectives or subject content as it is a matter of what happens to the student. Accordingly, this guide…

  14. Cognitive and Language Development in an Additive-Bilingual Program: Report after Four Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamford, Kathryn W.; Mizokawa, Donald T.

    The fourth phase of a longitudinal study focusing on the cognitive and language development of children in a primary-grade Spanish immersion program (SIP) is reported. Subjects were the remaining 13 members of an SIP cohort beginning in 1987, 15 members of a standard program comparison classroom, 18 members of another class in the 1987 SIP cohort,…

  15. Programs for English Language Learners: Resource Materials for Planning and Self-Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    These resource materials were developed in response to requests from school districts for a reference tool to assist them through the process of developing a comprehensive English language learners (ELL) program. The districts desired a program that would be in compliance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VI was passed in the…

  16. Policies and Practices of the Doctoral Programs in English Language Teaching in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmen, Kemal Sinan; Kinik, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The present review focuses on the doctoral programs and dissertations in the field of English language teaching between the period 2010 and 2015 in Turkey to reveal how the latest reforms on higher education shaped the programs, supervisors, students and dissertations. This research focus requires immediate attention as there is not yet an…

  17. An Exploration of Elementary Teachers' Views of Informal Reading Inventories in Dual Language Bilingual Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascenzi-Moreno, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how elementary teachers (grades three through five) in dual-language, bilingual programs (Spanish/English) view informal reading inventories (IRIs) to support their students' reading growth. The research, conducted in an urban district in the Northeastern United States, draws on interviews with 20 teachers in these programs.…

  18. Rationale, Structure and Methodology of a French Language Program for American Bankers and Traders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finel-Honigman, Irene

    1986-01-01

    Describes an in-house French language training program for U.S. employees at the New York City branch of the Credit Lyonnais. The program was developed to provide American bankers, traders, and other commercial staff with instruction in basic through advanced oral and written communication skills, French banking history, semantics, and literature.…

  19. Impacts of a Prekindergarten Program on Children's Mathematics, Language, Literacy, Executive Function, and Emotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness,…

  20. An Aphasia Mentoring Program: Perspectives of Speech-Language Pathology Students and of Mentors with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purves, Barbara A.; Petersen, Jill; Puurveen, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In contrast to clinician-as-expert models, social models of clinical practice typically acknowledge people with aphasia as equal partners in intervention. Given this, there may be a place within speech-language pathology education for programs situating people with aphasia as experts. This paper describes an aphasia mentoring program that…

  1. Algorithm Building and Learning Programming Languages Using a New Educational Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Anshul K.; Singhal, Manik; Gupta, Manu Sheel

    2011-08-01

    This research paper presents a new concept of using a single tool to associate syntax of various programming languages, algorithms and basic coding techniques. A simple framework has been programmed in Python that helps students learn skills to develop algorithms, and implement them in various programming languages. The tool provides an innovative and a unified graphical user interface for development of multimedia objects, educational games and applications. It also aids collaborative learning amongst students and teachers through an integrated mechanism based on Remote Procedure Calls. The paper also elucidates an innovative method for code generation to enable students to learn the basics of programming languages using drag-n-drop methods for image objects.

  2. Racial Diversity, Romance Language and Literature Departments, and Interdisciplinary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpley-Whiting, T. Denean

    1999-01-01

    Discusses francophone studies as a race-diversifying strategy in higher education, examining the role of Romance language and literature departments. Francophonia requires an intercultural examination of French culture in the context of the cross-cultural (which could occur through an interdisciplinary alliance of the French department and African…

  3. Program Evaluation: English Grammar in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azimi, Mozhgan

    2014-01-01

    The present study wants to find out the reasons for choosing the current methods/techniques for teaching grammar and it also wants to investigate whether there is a relation between teachers' thinking and their actions in the class or not. For this reason, four language teachers were selected. The subjects were selected by non-random sampling.…

  4. High-Level Operations in Nonprocedural Programming Languages.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    defining type specific operators. Abstract data type has been applied to the nonprocedural language NOPAL [Sang8O]. It was primarily used as a tool...Navigation............24 Network data model. ...... 24 NEXT...............98, 100 Nonterminals .......... 118 NOPAL .............19 Optimization .......... 80

  5. Photos Can Work Magic for Your Language Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Myrtle; Graham, Adele

    1987-01-01

    Class-made scrapbooks with mounted photographs (taken by the teacher) of hearing-impaired preschool students in previous learning activities were used to encourage students' language development and improve their communication skills. Suggestions for teachers regarding supplies and equipment and hints for taking good pictures are offered. (CB)

  6. Programmed Latin I, Part 1. Foreign Language: 7513.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This curriculum guide is designed to be used in conjunction with the text "Artes Latinae," units 1-10. The course focuses on the listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills as well as on cultural background material. Emphasis is placed on developing a positive student attitude toward language learning. The student moves at his own…

  7. English Language Learners Utilizing the Accelerated Reader Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Frank, II

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact (positive, negative, or neutral) of Accelerated Readers (AR), a standard based intervention, on the academic achievement of English Language Learners at Carolina Herrera Elementary School. Carolina Herrera Elementary School, was analyzed using these specific lenses: (1) curriculum and…

  8. Grammar as a Programming Language. Artificial Intelligence Memo 391.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Neil

    Student projects that involve writing generative grammars in the computer language, "LOGO," are described in this paper, which presents a grammar-running control structure that allows students to modify and improve the grammar interpreter itself while learning how a simple kind of computer parser works. Included are procedures for…

  9. Preparation of Programmed Chinese Language Materials. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, William L.

    A project to convert part of a Chinese language course ("Standard Chinese: A Modular Approach") to the PLATO computerized teaching system is reported. The project involved: (1) transcribing all the first sequence audiotapes for the first six instructional modules (these tapes present the material of each lesson); (2) rewriting the lesson…

  10. Computer Programming Languages and Expertise Needed by Practicing Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doelling, Irvin

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is the present engineering computer environment of a large aerospace company recognized as a leader in the application and development of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing techniques. A review is given of the exposure spectrum of engineers to the world of computing, the computer languages used, and the career impacts…

  11. Allocating Federal Funds for State Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As the United States continues to be a nation of immigrants and their children, the nation's school systems face increased enrollments of students whose primary language is not English. With the 2001 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) in the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), the allocation of federal funds for…

  12. Back from the Brink: Innovative Language Program Involves Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selden, Ron

    2004-01-01

    Fort Belknap College has embarked on an ambitious project in Montana to pull the Gros Ventre and the Assiniboine languages back from the brink. On the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, where there are two principal tribes, only a handful of Gros Ventre, or White Clay, members are still fluent in the traditional tongue. The "tribal…

  13. DEMONSTRATION PROGRAM IN REMEDIAL READING AND LANGUAGE ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MILLER, ARTHUR; AND OTHERS

    A SUMMER CAMP WAS SET UP AT AGASSIZ VILLAGE, MAINE, IN 1964, TO HELP DEVELOP READING ABILITY FOR CHILDREN OF BOSTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS. OBJECTIVES WERE TO IMPROVE EACH CHILD'S READING ACHIEVEMENT AND RELATED LANGUAGE ARTS ABILITY. INFORMAL AND STANDARDIZED TESTS WERE USED TO MEASURE RESULTS. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS WERE GIVEN TO DETECT ANY PHYSICAL…

  14. Translator program converts computer printout into braille language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, R. A.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program converts print image tape files into six dot Braille cells, enabling a blind computer programmer to monitor and evaluate data generated by his own programs. The Braille output is printed 8 lines per inch.

  15. Marine Language Exchange Program: A 21st Century International and Interdisciplinary Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robigou, V.; Nichols-Pecceu, M.

    2001-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world\\'{}s oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even rarer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences who address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including Eckerd College (Florida), University of Washington (Washington), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their Marine Sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad including marine sciences specialization for full academic credit. This session will review the Marine Language Exchange program activities since 2000 and will discuss the ideological and practical aspects of the program. The program successes, difficulties and future directions will also be presented. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies. Based on this case study, other universities could initiate their own international and interdisciplinary

  16. Teaching an Introductory Programming Language in a General Education Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Azad; Smith, David

    2014-01-01

    A department of computer science (CS) has faced a peculiar situation regarding their selection of introductory programming course. This course is a required course for the students enrolled in the CS program and is a prerequisite to their other advanced programming courses. At the same time, the course can be considered a general education course…

  17. Language delays, reading delays, and learning difficulties: interactive elements requiring multidimensional programming.

    PubMed

    Hay, Ian; Elias, Gordon; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Homel, Ross; Freiberg, Kate

    2007-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized four levels of instructional dialogue and claimed that teachers can improve children's language development by incorporating these dialogue levels in their classrooms. It has also been hypothesized that enhancing children's early language development enhances children's later reading development. This quasi-experimental research study investigated both of these hypotheses using a collaborative service delivery model for Grade 1 children with language difficulties from a socially and economically disadvantaged urban community in Australia. Comparing the end-of-year reading achievement scores for the 57 children who received the language intervention with those of the 59 children in the comparison group, the findings from this research are supportive of both hypotheses. The interrelationships between learning difficulties, reading difficulties, and language difficulties are discussed along with children's development in vocabulary, use of memory strategies and verbal reasoning, and the need for multidimensional programming.

  18. Pre-Service Teachers' Uses of and Barriers from Adopting Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samani, Ebrahim; Baki, Roselan; Razali, Abu Bakar

    2014-01-01

    Success in implementation of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs depends on the teachers' understanding of the roles of CALL programs in education. Consequently, it is also important to understand the barriers teachers face in the use of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) programs. The current study was conducted on 14…

  19. The comparison and selection of programming languages for high energy physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1991-06-01

    This paper discusses the issues surrounding the comparison and selection of a programming language to be used in high energy physics software applications. The evaluation method used was specifically devised to address the issues of particular importance to high energy physics (HEP) applications, not just the technical features of the languages considered. The method assumes a knowledge of the requirements of current HEP applications, the data-processing environments expected to support these applications and relevant non-technical issues. The languages evaluated were Ada, C, FORTRAN 77, FORTRAN 99 (formerly 8X), Pascal and PL/1. Particular emphasis is placed upon the past, present and anticipated future role of FORTRAN in HEP software applications. Upon examination of the technical and practical issues, conclusions are reached and some recommendations are made regarding the role of FORTRAN and other programming languages in the current and future development of HEP software. 54 refs.

  20. Redefining the Boundaries of Language Study. Issues in Language Program Direction: A Series of Annual Volumes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramsch, Claire, Ed.

    The papers in this volume fall into five categories. After "Introduction: Making the Invisible Visible" (Claire Kramsch), Part 1, "Theoretical Boundaries," includes "The Metamorphosis of the Foreign Language Director, or: Waking Up to Theory" (Mark Webber) and "Subjects-in-Process: Revisioning TA Development…

  1. "It's Very Complicated" Exploring Heritage Language Identity with Heritage Language Teachers in a Teacher Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyesun

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of research in heritage language (HL) education, pedagogically based research that examines teacher education practice for promoting critical reflection of HL teachers is sparse. This article describes how preservice teachers working in community-based HL schools changed their views of HL identity during their…

  2. Formal semantic specifications as implementation blueprints for real-time programming languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feyock, S.

    1981-01-01

    Formal definitions of language and system semantics provide highly desirable checks on the correctness of implementations of programming languages and their runtime support systems. If these definitions can give concrete guidance to the implementor, major increases in implementation accuracy and decreases in implementation effort can be achieved. It is shown that of the wide variety of available methods the Hgraph (hypergraph) definitional technique (Pratt, 1975), is best suited to serve as such an implementation blueprint. A discussion and example of the Hgraph technique is presented, as well as an overview of the growing body of implementation experience of real-time languages based on Hgraph semantic definitions.

  3. The Marine Language Exchange Program: an International Approach to Ocean Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowell, A.; Robigou, V.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of scientists to communicate across cultural and linguistic barriers is crucial for the global economic sustainability and protection of the world's oceans. Yet students with majors in the sciences and engineering constitute less than 2% of those who study abroad each year. And even fewer are students who study in countries where English is not the first language. The Marine Language Exchange program is a case study of an international and interdisciplinary collaboration between faculties in the languages and the sciences that address this gap. A consortium of U.S. and European institutions including University of Washington (Washington), Eckerd College (Florida), University of Hilo (Hawaii), Université de la Rochelle (France), Université de Liège (Belgium), and Universidad de Las Palmas (Spain) is developing a multilingual, marine sciences exchange program in an effort to internationalize their ocean sciences departments. The program includes a three-week, intensive "bridge" course designed to reinforce second language skills in the context of marine sciences, and prepare undergraduate students for the cultural and educational differences of their host country. Following this preparatory immersion experience students from each institution enroll in courses abroad for 6 to 12 months to study marine sciences for full academic credit. Different disciplinary approaches -Second Language Acquisition, English as a Second Language and Marine Science- prepare science students to contribute to the study and the management of the world\\'{}s oceans with an awareness of the cultural issues reflected by national marine policies.

  4. Enhancement of the Work in Scia Engineer's Environment by Employment of XML Programming Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortiš, Ján

    2015-12-01

    The productivity of the work of engineers in the design of building structures by applying the rules of technical standards [1] has been increasing by using different software products for recent years. The software products offer engineers new possibilities to design different structures. However, there are problems especially for design of structures with similar static schemes as it is needed to follow the same work-steps. This can be more effective if the steps are done automatically by using a programming language for leading the processes that are done by software. The design process of timber structure which is done in the environment of Scia Engineer software is presented in the article. XML Programming Language is used for automatization of the design and the XML code is modified in the Excel environment by using VBA Programming language [2], [3].

  5. Concurrent extensions to the FORTRAN language for parallel programming of computational fluid dynamics algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, Cindy Lou

    1986-01-01

    Experiments were conducted at NASA Ames Research Center to define multi-tasking software requirements for multiple-instruction, multiple-data stream (MIMD) computer architectures. The focus was on specifying solutions for algorithms in the field of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The program objectives were to allow researchers to produce usable parallel application software as soon as possible after acquiring MIMD computer equipment, to provide researchers with an easy-to-learn and easy-to-use parallel software language which could be implemented on several different MIMD machines, and to enable researchers to list preferred design specifications for future MIMD computer architectures. Analysis of CFD algorithms indicated that extensions of an existing programming language, adaptable to new computer architectures, provided the best solution to meeting program objectives. The CoFORTRAN Language was written in response to these objectives and to provide researchers a means to experiment with parallel software solutions to CFD algorithms on machines with parallel architectures.

  6. STRCMACS: An extensive set of Macros for structured programming in OS/360 assembly language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, C. W.

    1974-01-01

    Two techniques are discussed that have been most often referred to as structured programming. One is that of programming with high level control structures (such as the if and while) replacing the branch instruction (goto-less programming); the other is the process of developing a program by progressively refining descriptions of components in terms of more primitive components (called stepwise refinement or top-down programming). In addition to discussing what these techniques are, it is shown why their use is advised and how both can be implemented in OS assembly language by the use of a special macro instruction package.

  7. Language Facilities for Programming User-Computer Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafuente, J. M.; Gries, D.

    1978-01-01

    Proposes extensions to PASCAL that provide for programing man-computer dialogues. An interactive dialogue application program is viewed as a sequence of frames and separate computational steps. PASCAL extensions allow the description of the items of information in each frame and the inclusion of behavior rules specifying the interactive dialogue.…

  8. A brief description and comparison of programming languages FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 from a critical standpoint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Several common higher level program languages are described. FORTRAN, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/1, and LISP 1.5 are summarized and compared. FORTRAN is the most widely used scientific programming language. ALGOL is a more powerful language for scientific programming. COBOL is used for most commercial programming applications. LISP 1.5 is primarily a list-processing language. PL/1 attempts to combine the desirable features of FORTRAN, ALGOL, and COBOL into a single language.

  9. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  10. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras: ensayo metodologico (Notions on the Programming of Foreign Languages: Methodological Experiment)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    Presents a computerized program for foreign language learning giving drills for all the major language skills. The drills are followed by an extensive bibliography of documents in some way dealing with computer based instruction, particularly foreign language instruction. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  11. Project BOLT--Final Report for the Experimental and Demonstration Phase of the Basic Occupational Language Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rican Forum, Inc., New York, NY.

    The Puerto Rican Forum's Basic Occupational Language Training (BOLT) program teaches English language skills to Spanish-speaking people, and Spanish language skills to English-speaking people. Special BOLT curricula emphasize high-skilled instructors, audio-visual and audio-lingual techniques, job-oriented vocabularies, and on-site instruction.…

  12. Serving a diverse population: the role of speech-language pathology professional preparation programs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Sharon R; Gonzalez, Lori S

    2002-01-01

    A national survey of 228 program directors was conducted to determine how master's level professional preparation programs are meeting the challenge of preparing speech-language pathologists to provide quality services to an increasingly diverse population. A total of 91 respondents provided information regarding their programs' efforts to address diversity by increasing the diversity of speech-language pathology professionals, preparing students in research for diverse populations, and providing students with the didactic knowledge and clinical experience required to serve diverse populations. Results indicated that professional preparation programs continue to lag in their enrollment of minority students, but there are efforts actively to recruit and retain students from diverse groups. Much variation in preparation in research was found across programs. Graduate students are being presented with information concerning diversity issues, but clinical experiences vary greatly according to the geographic location of the preparation program and individual practicum placements. Implications of these findings for speech-language pathology preparation programs and other allied health programs are discussed.

  13. AFL-1: A programming Language for Massively Concurrent Computers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-11-01

    Bibliography Ackley, D.H., Hinton, G.E., Sejnowski, T.J., "A Learning Algorithm for boltzmann Machines", Cognitive Science, 1985, 9, 147-169. Agre...P.E., "Routines", Memo 828, MIT AI Laboratory, Many 1985. Ballard, D.H., Hayes, P.J., "Parallel Logical Inference", Conference of the Cognitive Science...34Experiments on Semantic Memory and Language Com- 125 prehension", in L.W. Greg (Ed.), Cognition in Learning and Memory, New York, Wiley, 1972._ Collins

  14. A phenomenographic study of the ways of understanding conditional and repetition structures in computer programming languages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucks, Gregory Warren

    Computers have become an integral part of how engineers complete their work, allowing them to collect and analyze data, model potential solutions and aiding in production through automation and robotics. In addition, computers are essential elements of the products themselves, from tennis shoes to construction materials. An understanding of how computers function, both at the hardware and software level, is essential for the next generation of engineers. Despite the need for engineers to develop a strong background in computing, little opportunity is given for engineering students to develop these skills. Learning to program is widely seen as a difficult task, requiring students to develop not only an understanding of specific concepts, but also a way of thinking. In addition, students are forced to learn a new tool, in the form of the programming environment employed, along with these concepts and thought processes. Because of this, many students will not develop a sufficient proficiency in programming, even after progressing through the traditional introductory programming sequence. This is a significant problem, especially in the engineering disciplines, where very few students receive more than one or two semesters' worth of instruction in an already crowded engineering curriculum. To address these issues, new pedagogical techniques must be investigated in an effort to enhance the ability of engineering students to develop strong computing skills. However, these efforts are hindered by the lack of published assessment instruments available for probing an individual's understanding of programming concepts across programming languages. Traditionally, programming knowledge has been assessed by producing written code in a specific language. This can be an effective method, but does not lend itself well to comparing the pedagogical impact of different programming environments, languages or paradigms. This dissertation presents a phenomenographic research study

  15. English-as-a-Second-Language Programs in Basic Skills Education Program 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    structures that the drills teach. (Benseler & Schulz, 1979). Even though "current second - language acquisition research appears to show that manipulative...because they were immersed in the culture. (According to Schumann [19781, second - language acquisition is a by-product of acculturation.) Because they... Second - language acquisition and foreign lanuage teaching (ed.). Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1978, pp. 88-97. Hornby, P.A

  16. Language Is the Key: A Program for Building Language and Literacy. "Talking and Books" [and]"Talking and Play" Resource Guide [with Videotapes].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kevin; Maddox, Mary; Lim, Young Sook; Notari-Syverson, Angela

    This training manual and companion videotapes comprise an educational program for professionals and paraprofessionals who work with young children with language disorders. The program is particularly helpful in serving children from linguistic minority backgrounds and their families. The program's strategies are also appropriate for teachers and…

  17. Language Is the Key: Building Language with Picture Books and Play. A Training Manual To Accompany the Video Programs: "Talking and Books" [and]"Talking and Play."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notari-Syverson, Angela; Maddox, Mary; Cole, Kevin

    This training manual and two companion videotapes comprise an educational program for professionals and paraprofessionals who work with young children with language disorders. The program is particularly helpful in serving children from linguistic minority backgrounds and their families. The program's strategies are also appropriate for teachers…

  18. Differences in Achievement between Students Enrolled in a Transitional, Early Exit Bilingual Program and in a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion Bilingual Program--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nascimento, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    The current pilot study compares the overall academic achievement in the area of language arts literacy among elementary bilingual students enrolled in either a Dual Language: Two-Way Immersion program or in an Early Exit, Transitional Bilingual program in a large urban public school district. By analyzing the results of curriculum based measures…

  19. Evaluation of English Language Development Programs in the Santa Ana Unified School District. A Report on Data System Reliability and Statistical Modeling of Program Impacts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Douglas E.; Destino, Tom; Karam, Rita

    In response to concern about the effectiveness of programs for English-as-a-Second-Language students in California's schools, the Santa Ana Unified School District, in which over 80 percent of students are limited-English-proficient (LEP) conducted a study of both the operations and effectiveness of the district's language development program,…

  20. Spanish Heritage Language Programs: A Snapshot of Current Programs in the Southwestern United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudrie, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation into current Spanish heritage language (SHL) course offerings and their content in 4-year public and private universities in the American Southwest. Prior research has indicated that the number of language departments in the United States offering SHL courses remains small (18 and 17.8%,…

  1. F-Nets and Software Cabling: Deriving a Formal Model and Language for Portable Parallel Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiNucci, David C.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Parallel programming is still being based upon antiquated sequence-based definitions of the terms "algorithm" and "computation", resulting in programs which are architecture dependent and difficult to design and analyze. By focusing on obstacles inherent in existing practice, a more portable model is derived here, which is then formalized into a model called Soviets which utilizes a combination of imperative and functional styles. This formalization suggests more general notions of algorithm and computation, as well as insights into the meaning of structured programming in a parallel setting. To illustrate how these principles can be applied, a very-high-level graphical architecture-independent parallel language, called Software Cabling, is described, with many of the features normally expected from today's computer languages (e.g. data abstraction, data parallelism, and object-based programming constructs).

  2. Impacts of a prekindergarten program on children's mathematics, language, literacy, executive function, and emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Christina; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Publicly funded prekindergarten programs have achieved small-to-large impacts on children's cognitive outcomes. The current study examined the impact of a prekindergarten program that implemented a coaching system and consistent literacy, language, and mathematics curricula on these and other nontargeted, essential components of school readiness, such as executive functioning. Participants included 2,018 four and five-year-old children. Findings indicated that the program had moderate-to-large impacts on children's language, literacy, numeracy and mathematics skills, and small impacts on children's executive functioning and a measure of emotion recognition. Some impacts were considerably larger for some subgroups. For urban public school districts, results inform important programmatic decisions. For policy makers, results confirm that prekindergarten programs can improve educationally vital outcomes for children in meaningful, important ways.

  3. Talk it out: a conflict resolution program for preschool children with speech and language impairments.

    PubMed

    Kiernan, Barbara; Gray, Shelley

    2013-05-01

    Talk It Out was developed by speech-language pathologists to teach young children, especially those with speech and language impairments, to recognize problems, use words to solve them, and verbally negotiate solutions. One of the very successful by-products is that these same strategies help children avoid harming their voice. Across a school year, Talk It Out provides teaching and practice in predictable contexts so that children become competent problem solvers. It is especially powerful when implemented as part of the tier 1 preschool curriculum. The purpose of this article is to help school-based speech-language pathologists (1) articulate the need and rationale for early implementation of conflict resolution programs, (2) develop practical skills to implement Talk It Out strategies in their programs, and (3) transfer this knowledge to classroom teachers who can use and reinforce these strategies on a daily basis with the children they serve.

  4. Effect of an auditory training program on reading, phoneme awareness, and language.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Daniel; Hedrick, Mark S; Swanson, Lori A

    2006-08-01

    This investigation examined the effect of an auditory training program, Fast ForWord-Language, with 26 children ages 7 to 10 years. As two subgroups based on reading ability, all children received 6 wk. of intervention. Thresholds for three conditions of backward masking were obtained pre- and postintervention, and 6 mo. afterward. Immediately following the intervention period, backward masking thresholds improved for all backward masking conditions. Participants also showed increases in language skills and in phoneme awareness but not in reading skills. Six months after intervention, there were improvements in thresholds for backward masking but no improvements in language or reading skills for either group. This study calls into question the efficacy of an intensive auditory training program to improve reading skills.

  5. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  6. Learning from Success Stories: Leadership Structures that Support Dual Language Programs over Time in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This research considers the role of the principal and teachers in promoting and supporting dual language bilingual education in three established elementary school programs in New York City. Through a comparative case study in different dual language programs that have each been in existence from more than 10 years, data were collected to consider…

  7. Beyond Rassias: Intensive Language Programs at Large and Small Institutions. Intensive and Super German at Earlham College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurasek, Richard

    Two approaches to college second language instruction are described. One, an on-campus option, gives students a classroom opportunity that is similar to the intensive/immersion program, which is a ten-week intensive language course followed by a ten-week program in Mexico, France, or Germany. The on-campus option, called "Super," is a…

  8. Nociones de la programacion de lenguas extranjeras; Ensayo metodologico (II) (Notions on Programed Instruction in Foreign Languages; Methodological Essay II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David

    1975-01-01

    This paper discusses the prerequisites to programed language instruction, the role of the native language and the level of skill, and then explains materials and machines needed for such a program. Particular attention is given to phonetics. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  9. Comparison of and conversion between different implementations of the FORTRAN programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treinish, L.

    1980-01-01

    A guideline for computer programmers who may need to exchange FORTRAN programs between several computers is presented. The characteristics of the FORTRAN language available on three different types of computers are outlined, and procedures and other considerations for the transfer of programs from one type of FORTRAN to another are discussed. In addition, the variance of these different FORTRAN's from the FORTRAN 77 standard are discussed.

  10. Sequence and batch language programs and alarm-related ``C`` programs for the 242-A MCS. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A Distributive Process Control system was purchased by Project B-534, ``242-A Evaporator/Crystallizer Upgrades``. This control system, called the Monitor and Control System (MCS), was installed in the 242-A Evaporator located in the 200 East Area. The purpose of the MCS is to monitor and control the Evaporator and monitor a number of alarms and other signals from various Tank Farm facilities. Applications software for the MCS was developed by the Waste Treatment Systems Engineering (WTSE) group of Westinghouse. The standard displays and alarm scheme provide for control and monitoring, but do not directly indicate the signal location or depict the overall process. To do this, WTSE developed a second alarm scheme which uses special programs, annunciator keys, and process graphics. The special programs are written in two languages; Sequence and Batch Language (SABL), and ``C`` language. The WTSE-developed alarm scheme works as described below: SABL relates signals and alarms to the annunciator keys, called SKID keys. When an alarm occurs, a SABL program causes a SKID key to flash, and if the alarm is of yellow or white priority then a ``C`` program turns on an audible horn (the D/3 system uses a different audible horn for the red priority alarms). The horn and flashing key draws the attention of the operator.

  11. English as a Second Language: Program Approaches at Community Colleges. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Elaine W.

    This digest presents an overview of English as a Second Language (ESL) curriculum, discussing various approaches and assessment efforts at community colleges, and examining some current issues facing ESL instruction. Although the general goals of ESL programs are similar, instruction within community colleges is not standardized. Different…

  12. WORLD Program Description, Goals and Objectives. Vocational English-as-a-Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Cynthia

    A vocational English-as-a-Second Language program for limited-English-proficient adults enrolled in North Orange County Community College District courses was developed to meet the needs of this population. The limited-English-speaking population of the district is an immigrant and refugee population with people from a variety of language…

  13. Toward a Capacity Framework for Useful Student Learning Outcomes Assessment in College Foreign Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John McEwan

    2016-01-01

    The educational impacts of mandated assessment in U.S. colleges is part of a growing research agenda focused on how methodologies of program evaluation best enable educators to improve teaching and learning. Accordingly, research has tried to identify the key aspects of evaluation/assessment "capacity" in college language departments…

  14. American Sign Language-English Interpreting Program Faculty: Characteristics, Tenure Perceptions, and Productivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Kimberly J.

    2012-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL)-English interpreting education, which began as a community apprenticeship and vetting process, has within the last several decades moved into higher education. Most recently, the number of baccalaureate-granting ASL-English interpreting programs have continued to increase while the number of associate's degree…

  15. Grade 9 English Language Arts, Student Achievement Testing Program, 1985-86 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Intended for both teachers and students, this bulletin presents specific information about the design, parts, and scoring of the Grade 9 English Language Arts Achievement Test for the 1985-86 school year in Alberta, Canada. General information is presented regarding the (1) purpose and nature of the Achievement Testing Program (ATP), (2) students…

  16. A Whole Language Program in the Intermediate Grades: Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Norma; Davies, Anne

    Focusing on a whole language program for the middle grades in Canada's Northwest Territories, this interview transcript consists of responses by Anne Davies, a teacher from Yellow Knife, in the Northwest Territories, and currently a doctoral student, to questions posed by Norma Mickelson, a professor at the University of Victoria in British…

  17. Digest of State Laws and Regulations for School Language, Speech, and Hearing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, Elaine, Ed.; Bolick, Nancy, Ed.

    Summarized in the digest are state laws and regulations relating to educational programs for children with speech, hearing and language problems. It is recommended that the digest be used in conjunction with model regulations developed by the American Speech and Hearing Association to serve the following purposes: to facilitate better…

  18. Experimental Use of A Programming Language (APL) at the Goddard Space Flight Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creveling, Cyrus J., Ed.

    This document explains A Programming Language (APL) and describes the experiment that the Information Processing Division has undertaken to introduce APL to the Goddard Scientific Community. A brief historical sketch of steps taken to date is included and appendices giving illustrative examples of how APL actually has been used at the Goddard…

  19. Programming in Polygon R&D: Explorations with a Spatial Language II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Jim

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the language associated with a polygon microworld called Polygon R&D, which has the mathematical crispness of Logo and has the discreteness and simplicity of a Turing machine. In this microworld, polygons serve two purposes: as agents (similar to the turtles in Logo), and as data (landmarks in the plane). Programming the…

  20. Social Networking in an Intensive English Program Classroom: A Language Socialization Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Jonathon; Zander, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    This ongoing project seeks to investigate the impact, inside and outside of class, of instruction focused on developing learner awareness of social-networking site (SNS) use in an American Intensive English Program (IEP). With language socialization as an interpretative framework (Duff, in press; Ochs, 1988; Watson-Gegeo, 2004), the project uses a…

  1. State University System of Florida Foreign Language and Linguistics Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alatis, James E.

    The third systemwide review of Florida's state university second language programs is reported. The executive summary presents some institutional enrollment data and capsulizes findings and recommendations for improvement. The report's introductory section addresses systemwide concerns and issues, including state policy initiatives and comments on…

  2. The Changing Context for Sign Bilingual Education Programs: Issues in Language and the Development of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Connie; Leigh, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The widespread implementation of newborn hearing screening and advances in amplification technologies (including cochlear implants) have fundamentally changed the educational landscape for deaf learners. These changes are discussed in terms of their impact on sign bilingual education programs with a focus on the relationships between language and…

  3. Improving Educational Outcomes of English Language Learners in Schools and Programs in Boston Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uriarte, Miren; Karp, Faye; Gagnon, Laurie; Tung, Rosann; Rustan, Sarah; Chen, Jie; Berardino, Michael; Stazesky, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    "Identifying Success in Schools and Programs for English Language Learners in Boston Public Schools," of which this report is one part, is a project commissioned by the Boston Public Schools as part of this process of change set in motion by the intervention of the state and the federal governments on behalf of Boston's English language…

  4. Monitoring Processes in Spanish as a Second Language during a Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeKeyser, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to understand better how and why accuracy in speaking develops during study abroad, a group of 16 U.S. students of Spanish as a second language were followed during their 6-week program in Argentina. They were interviewed in Spanish at the beginning and the end of their stay, each time followed by a stimulated recall session. They…

  5. Importance of Including Language Arts Instruction as Part of the Vocational Agriculture Program of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Richard M.; Kahler, Alan A.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the importance of including language arts instruction as part of the vocational agriculture program. Perceptions of students, parents, teachers, principals, and counselors were examined to identify specific skills to be integrated into vocational agriculture instruction. (SK)

  6. The Importance of Questioning & Questions for Consideration in Programming for Intercultural Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    The significance of questioning in intercultural language learning was highlighted during Phase 1 of the project as project team members worked with teachers preparing units of work and long-term programs. This paper explores the types of questions asked by team members to elicit teachers' thinking regarding students' learning and teachers' roles…

  7. The Effects of Self-Explanation and Reading Questions and Answers on Learning Computer Programming Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The current study explored the differential effects of two learning strategies, self-explanation and reading questions and answers, on students' test performance in the computer programming language JavaScript. Students' perceptions toward the two strategies as to their effectiveness in learning JavaScript was also explored by examining students'…

  8. Interpreting beyond Syntactics: A Semiotic Learning Model for Computer Programming Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Jeffrey; Dhillon, Gurpreet

    2009-01-01

    In the information systems field there are numerous programming languages that can be used in specifying the behavior of concurrent and distributed systems. In the literature it has been argued that a lack of pragmatic and semantic consideration decreases the effectiveness of such specifications. In other words, to simply understand the syntactic…

  9. Continued advancement of the programming language HAL to an operational status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The continued advancement of the programming language HAL to operational status is reported. It is demonstrated that the compiler itself can be written in HAL. A HAL-in-HAL experiment proves conclusively that HAL can be used successfully as a compiler implementation tool.

  10. Gender Difference in CALL Programs for English as a Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Cheng-Chieh; Kuo, Ming-Mu

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of gender differences on the application of CALL programs for second language acquisition. Gender difference is an important theme in linguistic education because it influences the design of curriculum, teaching method, instructional strategy, and students' learning processes. This study applied…

  11. Research on the Integrated Performance Assessment in an Early Foreign Language Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davin, Kristin; Troyan, Francis J.; Donato, Richard; Hellman, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the implementation of the Integrated Performance Assessment (IPA) in an Early Foreign Language Learning program. The goal of this research was to examine the performance of grade 4 and 5 students of Spanish on the IPA. Performance across the three communicative tasks is described and modifications to IPA procedures based on…

  12. Globalisation of English Language Programs for Young Children in Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Beverley

    2008-01-01

    The specific purpose of education is to "prepare" children so that they are able to maximise their potential and participate in the society or community around them. In order for many Third World nations to access information technology, the provision of language programs, particularly English, has become necessary. However, in the…

  13. A Collaborative Naturalistic Service Delivery Program for Enhancing Pragmatic Language and Participation in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchick, Barbara B.; Day, Karen H.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a speech-language pathology and occupational therapy service delivery program for preschoolers with developmental delays and communication and related impairments. Key features included interprofessional collaboration; parent professional partnerships; naturalistic environment; opportunities for choice and control; use of a…

  14. A Random-Access Multiple-Program System for the U of M Language Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, David L.

    1969-01-01

    The operational characteristics of a modern equipment facility (random-access multiple-program system) being planned and constructed for the University of Michigan language laboratory and how it compares with the system it is to replace are summarized in this article. A technical description of the structural makeup of the system precedes an…

  15. French as a Second Language: Nine-Year Program of Studies (Grade 4 to Grade 12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The nine-year program of studies for French as a Second Language (FSL) is a legal document that specifies from Grade 4 to 12 what Alberta students are expected to acquire as attitudes and linguistic, cultural, and strategic knowledge as they develop and demonstrate their communicative skills. This document contains an introduction, a rationale,…

  16. A Review of Research on Effective Community Programs for English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2010-01-01

    This article synthesized current research on effective communities for English Language Learners (ELLs). The findings are discussed under the following categories: parents, community resources, and peers. The results of the review indicate that parenting programs are effective, but they must be carefully developed and often require specific…

  17. Assessment of Programming Language Learning Based on Peer Code Review Model: Implementation and Experience Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Li, Hang; Feng, Yuqiang; Jiang, Yu; Liu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The traditional assessment approach, in which one single written examination counts toward a student's total score, no longer meets new demands of programming language education. Based on a peer code review process model, we developed an online assessment system called "EduPCR" and used a novel approach to assess the learning of computer…

  18. Teaching a Survey of Mathematics for College Students Using a Programming Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeCuyer, Edward J., Jr.

    Using a textbook entitled "A Survey of Mathematics for College Students Using a Programming Language," an exploratory study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of using APL and the computer in teaching a survey of mathematics course. The course was taught in two sections: one section was taught using APL, access to a computer…

  19. The Effectiveness of the Skillsstreaming Social Skills Program for Students with Learning and Language Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timochko, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    The "Skillstreaming" Social Skills Program was piloted to determine its effects on learning and language disabled students' perception of their social skills. Teacher and parent perceptions of these students' use of social skills were also examined. Seventh and eighth grade students (N = 16) from a city public school completed social skills…

  20. Combining Self-Explaining with Computer Architecture Diagrams to Enhance the Learning of Assembly Language Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Y.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of combining self explaining (SE) with computer architecture diagrams to help novice students learn assembly language programming. Pre- and post-test scores for the experimental and control groups were compared and subjected to covariance (ANCOVA) statistical analysis. Results indicate that the SE-plus-diagram…

  1. Literacy at the Core of the Delaware World Language Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton-Archer, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Certain aspects of the implementation of language immersion programs in Delaware are unique given the state's size, demographics, and role in national education initiatives including Race to the Top, Common Core, and Smarter Balance. The Delaware experience typifies what every state, district, or even school goes through as they try to provide…

  2. Multiple Intelligences Theory and Foreign Language Education: Perspectives of College Students in a German Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Segler, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to explore and comprehend the role of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI) in foreign language learning by analyzing the perspectives of college students in a German immersion program at a liberal arts college in the Midwest. Data collection included 10 in-depth student…

  3. A Native Language Immersion Program for Adults: Reflections on Year 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maracle, David Kanatawakhon; Richards, Merle

    An adult immersion program in the Mohawk language took place in an Iroquois community in southern Ontario. The class was limited to 12 students who had taken a readiness course that introduced them to basic grammar and vocabulary. The class met daily in the relaxed setting of a house. The preparation and sharing of meals, the presence of fluent…

  4. Effective Professional Development Programs for Teachers of English Language Learners. Spotlight on Student Success. No. 803

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellez, Kip; Waxman, Hersh C.

    2005-01-01

    One of our greatest educational challenges continues to be improving the education of English language learners (ELLs). Because many new teachers are underprepared and many veteran teachers wholly unprepared for teaching ELLs, school districts nationwide have initiated professional development programs for inservice teachers. In this article, the…

  5. An Evaluation of the Language Arts Program of the District of Columbia. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dailey, John T.; Neyman, Clinton A., Jr.

    In an evaluation of a language arts program for oral and written facility and comprehension among children of an urban culture, 262 children in kindergarten comprised the experimental group, and 369 students served as controls. Children in both groups were presented with three pictures and instructed to tell a story about each. Observers rated…

  6. Student Writing from NYC Programs in English for Speakers of Other Languages: September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Winston, Comp.

    This publication contains a collection of writings by New York City adult learners enrolled in English for Speakers of Other Languages programs. The writings focus on their feelings about and experiences with the World Trade Center attacks of September 11, 2001. Some of the titles include: "Why?"; "Sad Feeling"; "A Day of…

  7. Collaboration in Workplace Literacy: The Vancouver Municipal Workplace Language Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darville, Richard

    Ways that workplace literacy programs can be made to work and the circumstances or forces that promote or hinder them are discussed, based on experiences in Vancouver, British Columbia, where 26 percent of the population is minority and 20 percent of the 8,000 city employees speak English as a Second Language. The story documented in this report…

  8. REPORT OF EVALUATION OF THIRD AND FOURTH GRADE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1964

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAM WERE TO PROVIDE OPPORTUNITIES FOR THIRD AND FOURTH GRADE STUDENTS WHO HAVE POTENTIAL IN TERMS OF MENTAL ABILITY AND BEHAVIORAL STABILITY, AND TO CLOSE THE GAP BETWEEN THEIR RETARDED READING AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT AND REASONABLE GRADE EXPECTANCY. REMEDIAL READING TEACHERS WERE ASSIGNED TO TWO PROJECT SCHOOLS, EACH…

  9. A Proposed Program to Develop Teaching for Thinking in Pre-Service English Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alwehaibi, Huda U.

    2012-01-01

    Students' thinking is an integral part of English language pedagogy. Teachers need the pedagogical competence to teach thinking effectively. This research suggests a program to develop the teaching skills for thinking of pre-service teachers (fourth-year college students) in the English Department of the Faculty of Education at Princess Noura…

  10. A CLOSE LOOK AT THE IMPORTANCE AND PLACE OF TESTING IN THE FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARRUTIA, RICHARD

    TESTING IS ESPECIALLY IMPORTANT IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS BECAUSE THE NATURE OF AUDIOLINGUAL TEACHING REQUIRES GREAT AMOUNTS OF FEEDBACK, REINFORCEMENT, AND VERIFICATION. TESTS CAN MEASURE APTITUDE AND ACHIEVEMENT, CAN DIAGNOSE, AND, MOST IMPORTANT, CAN BE AN EFFECTIVE TEACHING TOOL. MANY TEACHING TECHNIQUES ARE EXCELLENT FOR TESTING AND SOME…

  11. Programming Languages or Generic Software Tools, for Beginners' Courses in Computer Literacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuwirth, Erich

    1987-01-01

    Discussion of methods that can be used to teach beginner courses in computer literacy focuses on students aged 10-12. The value of using a programing language versus using a generic software package is highlighted; Logo and Prolog are reviewed; and the use of databases is discussed. (LRW)

  12. Building Better Bridges: Middle School to High School Articulation in Foreign Language Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieken, Elizabeth; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Surveys factors easing foreign language students' transition from middle to high school, including the type of program, degree of success in transition, problems in achieving effective articulation, and effective articulation strategies. Findings indicate that the greater the number of articulation strategies practiced, the greater likelihood…

  13. Literature in Foreign Language Education Programs: A New Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abukhattala, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many of the studies on the subject of literature as an essential part of the English education programs in Arab universities has concentrated on only professors' views and attitudes to these courses. By contrast, the following article describes a qualitative investigation on how former students and presently in-service English teachers felt about…

  14. The New Brunswick Writing Assessment Program: "The Language of Growth".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Bryan

    The New Brunswick Writing Assessment Program implemented in grades five, eight, and eleven in New Brunswick (Canada) public schools in 1978 is described in this report, which includes the specific assignments for each grade, a discussion of the general holistic scoring approach used, and characteristics of the responses at each grade, including…

  15. Stan: A Probabilistic Programming Language for Bayesian Inference and Optimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelman, Andrew; Lee, Daniel; Guo, Jiqiang

    2015-01-01

    Stan is a free and open-source C++ program that performs Bayesian inference or optimization for arbitrary user-specified models and can be called from the command line, R, Python, Matlab, or Julia and has great promise for fitting large and complex statistical models in many areas of application. We discuss Stan from users' and developers'…

  16. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; Sato, Mitsuhisa; Tang, William; Wang, Bei

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensional gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.

  17. Hybrid-view programming of nuclear fusion simulation code in the PGAS parallel programming language XcalableMP

    DOE PAGES

    Tsugane, Keisuke; Boku, Taisuke; Murai, Hitoshi; ...

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) parallel programming model has emerged as a usable distributed memory programming model. XcalableMP (XMP) is a PGAS parallel programming language that extends base languages such as C and Fortran with directives in OpenMP-like style. XMP supports a global-view model that allows programmers to define global data and to map them to a set of processors, which execute the distributed global data as a single thread. In XMP, the concept of a coarray is also employed for local-view programming. In this study, we port Gyrokinetic Toroidal Code - Princeton (GTC-P), which is a three-dimensionalmore » gyrokinetic PIC code developed at Princeton University to study the microturbulence phenomenon in magnetically confined fusion plasmas, to XMP as an example of hybrid memory model coding with the global-view and local-view programming models. In local-view programming, the coarray notation is simple and intuitive compared with Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming while the performance is comparable to that of the MPI version. Thus, because the global-view programming model is suitable for expressing the data parallelism for a field of grid space data, we implement a hybrid-view version using a global-view programming model to compute the field and a local-view programming model to compute the movement of particles. Finally, the performance is degraded by 20% compared with the original MPI version, but the hybrid-view version facilitates more natural data expression for static grid space data (in the global-view model) and dynamic particle data (in the local-view model), and it also increases the readability of the code for higher productivity.« less

  18. A Survey of Quantum Programming Languages: History, Methods, and Tools

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Simulating physics with computers,” in International Journal of Theoretical Physics 21(6–7), pp. 467–488, 1982. [5] J. Preskill, “ Lecture notes...time [4]. Preskill credits Paul Benioff [5] with making this proposal concomitantly with Feynman . However, the roots of quantum programming go far... physically realizable quantum computer [25]. In 2004 van Tonder [26] defined a quantum lambda calculus for pure quantum computation (no measurements take

  19. Integrating Syntax, Semantics, and Discourse DARPA Nautral Language Understanding Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-13

    the printers connected to the Vax for hardcopy and screen dumps. A lot of small customisations and modifications have been made to tailor the machines...Wieckert. Dowding and Wieckert attended tutorials on ??, as well as attending sessions on ... IEEE Logic Programming Symposium (July 15-18, Boston, Mass ...served to introduce and organise the seven NL contractors into two groups: SDC, NYU and SRI for text processing; BBN, ISI, U. Mass and Penn for user

  20. CNF and F77 -- Mixed Language Programming: Fortran and C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.; Chipperfield, A. J.; Warren-Smith, R. F.; Draper, P. W.; Berry, D. S.

    The CNF package comprises two sets of software which ease the task of writing portable programs in a mixture of FORTRAN and C. F77 is a set of C macros for handling the FORTRAN/C subroutine linkage in a portable way, and CNF is a set of functions to handle the difference between FORTRAN and C character strings, logical values and pointers to dynamically allocated memory.

  1. Visual Meta-Programming Language Graphical User Interface for Generative Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    background, there is a need to define a grammar and language of symbols that all people involved in the same project understand . Like any language, one...variable of type Edit_Strip -- OUTPUT: The string representing the expression type -- PRECONDITIONS: An existing edit strip -- DESCRIPTION: This funtion ...edit strip -- DESCRIPTION: This funtion returns either a user entered -- string or the default string if nothing is entered in the -- expression field

  2. User-Defined Data Distributions in High-Level Programming Languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaconescu, Roxana E.; Zima, Hans P.

    2006-01-01

    One of the characteristic features of today s high performance computing systems is a physically distributed memory. Efficient management of locality is essential for meeting key performance requirements for these architectures. The standard technique for dealing with this issue has involved the extension of traditional sequential programming languages with explicit message passing, in the context of a processor-centric view of parallel computation. This has resulted in complex and error-prone assembly-style codes in which algorithms and communication are inextricably interwoven. This paper presents a high-level approach to the design and implementation of data distributions. Our work is motivated by the need to improve the current parallel programming methodology by introducing a paradigm supporting the development of efficient and reusable parallel code. This approach is currently being implemented in the context of a new programming language called Chapel, which is designed in the HPCS project Cascade.

  3. RIPE/RIPL. Robot Independent Programming Environment and Language

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D; Lennox, R C; Fahrenholtz, J; Shinn, R; Rhea, R; Rogers, M

    1990-01-01

    RIPE is an object-oriented approach to robot system architectures; it is a software environment which facilitates rapid design and implementation of complex robot systems for diverse applications. The robot work cell is modeled using software objects and supports model-based automated programming of robotic and machining devices, real-time sensor-based control, error handling, robust communications and graphical interfaces for robot system control. The objects include robots, sensors, end effectors, workpieces, NC machines and various other devices. A set of generic classes is defined to represent these objects, and the interfaces to them become RIPL.

  4. Resolutions of the Coulomb operator: VIII. Parallel implementation using the modern programming language X10.

    PubMed

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Milthorpe, Josh; Rendell, Alistair P

    2014-10-30

    Use of the modern parallel programming language X10 for computing long-range Coulomb and exchange interactions is presented. By using X10, a partitioned global address space language with support for task parallelism and the explicit representation of data locality, the resolution of the Ewald operator can be parallelized in a straightforward manner including use of both intranode and internode parallelism. We evaluate four different schemes for dynamic load balancing of integral calculation using X10's work stealing runtime, and report performance results for long-range HF energy calculation of large molecule/high quality basis running on up to 1024 cores of a high performance cluster machine.

  5. Skil: An imperative language with algorithmic skeletons for efficient distributed programming

    SciTech Connect

    Botorog, G.H.; Kuchen, H.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper we present Skil, an imperative language enhanced with higher-order functions and currying, as well as with a polymorphic type system. The high level of Skil allows the integration of algorithmic skeletons, i.e. of higher-order functions representing parallel computation patterns. At the same time, the language can be efficiently implemented. After describing a series of skeletons which work with distributed arrays, we give two examples of parallel programs implemented on the basis of skeletons, namely shortest paths in graphs and Gaussian elimination. Runtime measurements show that we approach the efficiency of message-passing C up to a factor between 1 and 2.5.

  6. Teaching for English Proficiency: The Need for an Evaluation of Language Programs in the New York City Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrum-Grunstein, Eva; And Others

    Although nearly 90,000 students in the New York (New York) public schools participate in bilingual education programs and English as a Second Language (ESL) programs, insufficient data are available to conduct effective program evaluations. The school system's bilingual and ESL programs achieved their size and permanence as a result of two…

  7. An adaptive structure data acquisition system using a graphical-based programming language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baroth, Edmund C.; Clark, Douglas J.; Losey, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    An example of the implementation of data fusion using a PC and a graphical programming language is discussed. A schematic of the data acquisition system and user interface panel for an adaptive structure test are presented. The computer programs (a series of icons 'wired' together) are also discussed. The way in which using graphical-based programming software to control a data acquisition system can simplify analysis of data, promote multidisciplinary interaction, and provide users a more visual key to understanding their data are shown.

  8. The effects of program model and language on science TAKS scores among fifth graders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenak, Stephanie

    This study examined the conditions of learning allowing students in one classroom to succeed on the fifth grade science TAKS test whereas students in other classrooms on the same campus do not succeed. It focused on the relationship of program models, specifically as it pertains to the influence of language within the content area of science and student performance on the fifth grade science TAKS scores. To compare the academic achievement, as measured by the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) test, in grade five students as a function of program model, the mean levels of achievement of students served by straight monolingual, 50/50 TWB (Spanish component of dual), 50/50 TWM (English component of dual) and 90/10 OWB programs were examined. The mean levels of achievement of students on the fifth grade science TAKS were also compared as a function of language of instruction and the language in which the test was administered to the students. The mean levels of achievement of students were also compared as a function of various teacher characteristics. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was the statistical procedure used in this study. The findings of this study revealed that a statistically significant difference was present in TAKS science scores as a function of Program Model. Students in a Two-Way (dual) program model outperformed the students in the One-Way model. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of students as a function of teachers' area of certification, teachers' source of certification, teachers' first language, teachers' language of formal education, or teacher/student language match. In the analysis of teacher characteristics, students taught by teachers educated in the U.S. in grades K-12 significantly outscored the students taught by teachers educated in Mexico in grades K-12. Students taught by teachers with a master's degree significantly outscored students taught by teachers without a master's degree. The students

  9. Incorporating Language Structure in a Communicative Task: An Analysis of the Language Component of a Communicative Task in the LINC Home Study Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenchuk, Iryna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze a task included in the LINC Home Study (LHS) program. LHS is a federally funded distance education program offered to newcomers to Canada who are unable to attend regular LINC classes. A task, in which a language structure (a gerund) is chosen and analyzed, was selected from one instructional module of LHS…

  10. A Cultural Diffusion Model for the Rise and Fall of Programming Languages.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-07-01

    Our interaction with complex computing machines is mediated by programming languages (PLs), which constitute one of the major innovations in the evolution of technology. PLs allow flexible, scalable, and fast use of hardware and are largely responsible for shaping the history of information technology since the rise of computers in the 1950s. The rapid growth and impact of computers were followed closely by the development of PLs. As occurs with natural, human languages, PLs have emerged and gone extinct. There has been always a diversity of coexisting PLs that compete somewhat while occupying special niches. Here we show that the statistical patterns of language adoption, rise, and fall can be accounted for by a simple model in which a set of programmers can use several PLs, decide to use existing PLs used by other programmers, or decide not to use them. Our results highlight the influence of strong communities of practice in the diffusion of PL innovations.

  11. Teachers' experiences of English-language-taught degree programs within health care sector of Finnish polytechnics.

    PubMed

    Pitkajarvi, Marianne; Eriksson, Elina; Kekki, Pertti

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to research teachers' experiences of the English-Language-Taught Degree Programs in the health care sector of Finnish polytechnics. More specifically, the focus was on teachers' experiences of teaching methods and clinical practice. The data were collected from eighteen teachers in six polytechnics through focus group interviews. Content analysis was used to analyse the data. The results suggested that despite the positive interaction between students and teachers, choosing appropriate teaching methods provided a challenge for teachers, due to cultural diversity of students as well as to the use of a foreign language in tuition. Due to students' language-related difficulties, clinical practice was found to be the biggest challenge in the educational process. Staffs' attitudes were perceived to be significant for students' clinical experience. Further research using stronger designs is needed.

  12. Punctuated equilibrium in the large-scale evolution of programming languages.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Sergi; Solé, Ricard V

    2015-06-06

    The analogies and differences between biological and cultural evolution have been explored by evolutionary biologists, historians, engineers and linguists alike. Two well-known domains of cultural change are language and technology. Both share some traits relating the evolution of species, but technological change is very difficult to study. A major challenge in our way towards a scientific theory of technological evolution is how to properly define evolutionary trees or clades and how to weight the role played by horizontal transfer of information. Here, we study the large-scale historical development of programming languages, which have deeply marked social and technological advances in the last half century. We analyse their historical connections using network theory and reconstructed phylogenetic networks. Using both data analysis and network modelling, it is shown that their evolution is highly uneven, marked by innovation events where new languages are created out of improved combinations of different structural components belonging to previous languages. These radiation events occur in a bursty pattern and are tied to novel technological and social niches. The method can be extrapolated to other systems and consistently captures the major classes of languages and the widespread horizontal design exchanges, revealing a punctuated evolutionary path.

  13. Programming an offline-analyzer of motor imagery signals via python language.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Valerdi, Luz María; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Brain Computer Interface (BCI) systems control the user's environment via his/her brain signals. Brain signals related to motor imagery (MI) have become a widespread method employed by the BCI community. Despite the large number of references describing the MI signal treatment, there is not enough information related to the available programming languages that could be suitable to develop a specific-purpose MI-based BCI. The present paper describes the development of an offline-analysis system based on MI-EEG signals via open-source programming languages, and the assessment of the system using electrical activity recorded from three subjects. The analyzer recognized at least 63% of the MI signals corresponding to three classes. The results of the offline analysis showed a promising performance considering that the subjects have never undergone MI trainings.

  14. Assessment for English Language Education on the Programs at the Agricultural Engineering School of Madrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; San José Martínez, Fernando; Hontoria, Kira; Adán, Angeles; Blanco, María; Calderón, Fernando; Carbonell, Victoria; Chaya, Carolina; Fondevila, Guillermo; González, Trinidad; Marín, Carmen; Mira, Sara; Molina, Antonio; Pereira, David; Quemada, Miguel; Ricote, Luis; Sánchez Monje, Rosa; Sanz, Alberto; Albir, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The convergence process among European academic degrees pursues the exchange of graduate students and the adaptation of university programs to social demand. Within the framework of the European Higher Education, European universities will need to be more competitive not only by increasing or maintaining the student enrolment, but also in their academic performance. Thus, the reinforcing of English language education within the University Programs might play an important role to reach these objectives. In this sense, a complete survey was accomplished at the Agricultural Egineering School of Madrid (ETSIA ) addressing issues such as: identification the needs for bilingual instruction at ETSIA, identification resources needed and interest and background in English language of students and professors (San José et al., 2013). The conclusions and recommendations to promote the bilingual instruction in the ETSIA, taking into account the approaches followed by other Spanish universities, are presented in this work.

  15. Assessing the predictive validity of the admission process in a master's level speech language pathology program.

    PubMed

    Kjelgaard, Margaret M; Guarino, A J

    2012-10-01

    Astin's Input-Environment-Outcome (I-E-O) model served as the theoretical foundation to assess (a) undergraduate GPA, (b) undergraduate Speech Language Pathology majors, and (c, d) GRE-Q and GRE-V scores (Input) as predictors of students' graduate GPA (Environment), and graduate GPA as a predictor of PRAXIS scores (Outcome). The sample for this study was 122 students who completed the Speech-Language Pathology Program in recent academic cycles at a graduate school in the northeastern United States. The sample was representative of other programs in the country in terms of gender, undergraduate GPA, and GRE scores. Results appear to support the predictive validity of the linear combination of the input predictors of the environment variable (GPA) and of the environment variable on the outcome, i.e., PRAXIS scores.

  16. Selecting Television Programs for Language Learning: Investigating Television Programs from the Same Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The scripts of 288 television episodes were analysed to determine the extent to which vocabulary reoccurs in television programs from the same subgenres and unrelated television programs from different genres. Episodes from two programs from each of the following three subgenres of the American drama genre: medical, spy/action, and criminal…

  17. Program Design Language Architecture Specification for the AN/UYK-7 Central Processor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    description of the central processor architecture of the Navy Standard AN/UYK-7 computer.-i... architecture was described using a Program Design Language...Information Center Cameron Station Alexandria, VA 22314 (12) Defense Printing Service Washinqton Navy Yard Washinqton, DC 20374 Library of Conqress Washington...GCfIu G Sall Ditqo, r ’’ I 𔃼.17 NAVSEC Code 6122 Department of the Navy Washington, DC 20362 ATTN: Joe Mallonee NUSC Code 313 New London, CONN 06320

  18. The Definition and Implementation of a Computer Programming Language Based on Constraints.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    NUSER2. Govt ACCESSION NO. 11. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER AI-TR-595 ’~ 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. TiTLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED The...Difinition and Implementation of a Technical Report Computer Programing Language Based on Constraints 6. PER11FORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTI4OR(q...Artificial Intelligence Laboratory ASIOKUI USR 545 Technology Square Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 It. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS It. REPORT

  19. The Interface Between Distributed Operating System and High-Level Programming Language. Revision.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    O.S. pair. Relatively little attention has been devoted to the relationship between languages and O.S. kernels in a distributed setting. Amoeba [161...interaction not only between the pieces of a multi-process appli- cation, but also between separate applications and between user programs and long- lived ...a process the right to send requests (it is still free to send replies). Allow restores that right. Retry is equivalent to forbid followed by allon

  20. Measuring Language Acquisition of Students in a Dual-Immersion Program versus Their Mainstream Classroom Peers: The First Two Years of a Dual Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Will participation in a Dual-Immersion program increase students English language literacy compared to their mainstream classroom peers? Literacy scores on the DIBELS and WIDA Access were assessed over two years for 144 students to see if English Language Learners (ELL) are having more success in English literacy acquisition than their mainstream…