Science.gov

Sample records for agents areas covered

  1. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  2. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  3. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  4. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  5. 36 CFR 312.1 - Areas covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Areas covered. 312.1 Section 312.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATORY PRACTICES IN WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS § 312.1 Areas covered. The regulation covered...

  6. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... other area classified under 40 CFR part 81, subpart C as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe ozone... paragraph (j) shall be the nonattainment area boundaries as specified in 40 CFR part 81, subpart C. (1... in this paragraph (k) shall be the nonattainment area boundaries as specified in 40 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-northeast across Ky 53 on to the La Grange Water Filtration Plant; (I) Proceeding on to the east-southeast... City of Baltimore. (h) The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas area, comprised of the following Texas... other area classified under 40 CFR part 81, subpart C as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe...

  8. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-northeast across Ky 53 on to the La Grange Water Filtration Plant; (I) Proceeding on to the east-southeast... City of Baltimore. (h) The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas area, comprised of the following Texas... other area classified under 40 CFR part 81, subpart C as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe...

  9. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-northeast across Ky 53 on to the La Grange Water Filtration Plant; (I) Proceeding on to the east-southeast... City of Baltimore. (h) The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas area, comprised of the following Texas... other area classified under 40 CFR part 81, subpart C as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe...

  10. 40 CFR 80.70 - Covered areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-northeast across Ky 53 on to the La Grange Water Filtration Plant; (I) Proceeding on to the east-southeast... City of Baltimore. (h) The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, Texas area, comprised of the following Texas... other area classified under 40 CFR part 81, subpart C as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe...

  11. Assessing Landslide Risk Areas Using Statistical Models and Land Cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. G.; Lee, D. K.; Park, C.; Ahn, Y.; Sung, S.; Park, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, damages due to landslides have increased in Republic of Korea. Extreme weathers like typhoon, heavy rainfall related to climate change are the main factor of the damages. Especially, Inje-gun, Gangwon-do had severe landslide damages in 2006 and 2007. In Inje-gun, 91% areas are forest, therefore, many land covers related to human activities were adjacent to forest land. Thus, establishment of adaptation plans to landslides was urgently needed. Landslide risk assessment can serve as a good information to policy makers. The objective of this study was assessing landslide risk areas to support establishment of adaptation plans to reduce landslide damages. Statistical distribution models (SDMs) were used to evaluate probability of landslide occurrence. Various SDMs were used to make landslide probability maps considering uncertainty of SDMs. The types of land cover were classified into 5 grades considering vulnerable level to landslide. The landslide probability maps were overlaid with land cover map to calculate landslide risk. As a result of overlay analysis, landslide risk areas were derived. Especially agricultural areas and transportation areas showed high risk and large areas in the risk map. In conclusion, policy makers in Inje-gun must consider the landslide risk map to establish adaptation plans effectively.

  12. [Effects of ground cover and water-retaining agent on winter wheat growth and precipitation utilization].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ji-Cheng; Guan, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Yong-Hui

    2011-01-01

    An investigation was made at a hilly upland in western Henan Province to understand the effects of water-retaining agent (0, 45, and 60 kg x hm(-2)), straw mulching (3000 and 6000 kg x hm(-2)), and plastic mulching (thickness < 0.005 mm) on winter wheat growth, soil moisture and nutrition conditions, and precipitation use. All the three measures promoted winter wheat growth, enhanced grain yield and precipitation use efficiency, and improved soil moisture and nutritional regimes. These positive effects were more obvious when the straw- or plastic mulching was combined with the use of water-retaining agent. Comparing with the control, all the measures increased the soil moisture content at different growth stages by 0.1%-6.5%. Plastic film mulching had the best water-retention effect before jointing stage, whereas water-retaining agent showed its best effect after jointing stage. Soil moisture content was the lowest at flowering and grain-filling stages. Land cover increased the grain yield by 2.6%-20.1%. The yield increment was the greatest (14.2%-20.1%) by the combined use of straw mulching and water-retaining agent, followed by plastic mulching combined with water-retaining agent (11.9% on average). Land cover also improved the precipitation use efficiency (0.4-3.2 kg x mm(-1) x hm(-2)) in a similar trend as the grain yield. This study showed that land cover and water-retaining agent improved soil moisture and nutrition conditions and precipitation utilization, which in turn, promoted the tillering of winter wheat, and increased the grain number per ear and the 1000-grain mass.

  13. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss, and land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-10-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the data sets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalously high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010, which was not reported by PRODES. The burned area data indicated that this was predominantly related to increased burned area occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicated that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover

  14. [Markov process of vegetation cover change in arid area of northwest China based on FVC index].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Chang, Shun-li; Shi, Qing-dong; Ma, Ke; Liang, Feng-chao

    2010-05-01

    Based on the fractional vegetation cover (FVC) data of 1982-2000 NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images, the whole arid area of Northwest China was divided into three sub-areas, and then, the vegetation cover in each sub-area was classified by altitude. Furthermore, the Markov process of vegetation cover change was analyzed and tested through calculating the limit probability of any two years and the continuous and interval mean transition matrixes of vegetation cover change with 8 km x 8 km spatial resolution. By this method, the Markov process of vegetation cover change and its indicative significance were approached. The results showed that the vegetation cover change in the study area was controlled by some random processes and affected by long-term stable driving factors, and the transitional change of vegetation cover was a multiple Markov process. Therefore, only using two term image data, no matter they were successive or intervallic, Markov process could not accurately estimate the trend of vegetation cover change. As for the arid area of Northwest China, more than 10 years successive data could basically reflect all the factors affecting regional vegetation cover change, and using long term average transition matrix data could reliably simulate and predict the vegetation cover change. Vegetation cover change was a long term dynamic balance. Once the balance was broken down, it should be a long time process to establish a new balance.

  15. Area and perimeter covered by anomalous diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luković, Mirko; Geisel, Theo; Eule, Stephan

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the geometric properties of two-dimensional continuous time random walks that are used extensively to model stochastic processes exhibiting anomalous diffusion in a variety of different fields. Using the concept of subordination, we determine exact analytical expressions for the average perimeter and area of the convex hulls for this class of non-Markovian processes. As the convex hull is a simple measure to estimate the home range of animals, our results give analytical estimates for the home range of foraging animals that perform sub-diffusive search strategies such as some Mediterranean seabirds and animals that ambush their prey. We also apply our results to Levy flights where possible.

  16. Effect of Antithrombotic Agents on the Patency of PTFE-Covered Stents in the Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Makutani, Shiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Uchida, Hideo; Maeda, Munehiro; Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kimura, Yukio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system. Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n= 5), warfarin potassium (n= 5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n= 5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups. Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group. Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system.

  17. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Predicting the presence and cover of management relevant invasive plant species on protected areas.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gwenllian; Price, Franklin D; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-01-15

    Invasive species are a management concern on protected areas worldwide. Conservation managers need to predict infestations of invasive plants they aim to treat if they want to plan for long term management. Many studies predict the presence of invasive species, but predictions of cover are more relevant for management. Here we examined how predictors of invasive plant presence and cover differ across species that vary in their management priority. To do so, we used data on management effort and cover of invasive plant species on central Florida protected areas. Using a zero-inflated multiple regression framework, we showed that protected area features can predict the presence and cover of the focal species but the same features rarely explain both. There were several predictors of either presence or cover that were important across multiple species. Protected areas with three days of frost per year or fewer were more likely to have occurrences of four of the six focal species. When invasive plants were present, their proportional cover was greater on small preserves for all species, and varied with surrounding household density for three species. None of the predictive features were clearly related to whether species were prioritized for management or not. Our results suggest that predictors of cover and presence can differ both within and across species but do not covary with management priority. We conclude that conservation managers need to select predictors of invasion with care as species identity can determine the relationship between predictors of presence and the more management relevant predictors of cover.

  19. 24 CFR 203.43e - Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas. 203.43e Section 203.43e Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Properties § 203.43e Eligibility of mortgages covering...

  20. 24 CFR 203.43e - Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eligibility of mortgages covering houses in federally impacted areas. 203.43e Section 203.43e Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Properties § 203.43e Eligibility of mortgages covering...

  1. A reference-based approach for estimating leaf area and cover in the forest herbaceous layer.

    PubMed

    Walter, Christopher A; Burnham, Mark B; Gilliam, Frank S; Peterjohn, William T

    2015-10-01

    Cover data are used to assess vegetative response to a variety of ecological factors. Estimating cover in the herbaceous layer of forests presents a problem because the communities are structurally complex and rich in species. The currently employed techniques for estimating cover are less than optimal for measuring such rich understories because they are inaccurate, slow, or impracticable. A reference-based approach to estimating cover is presented that compares the area of foliar surfaces to the area of an observer's hand. While this technique has been used to estimate cover in prior studies, its accuracy has not been tested. We tested this hand-area method at the individual plant, population, and community scales in a deciduous forest herbaceous layer, and in a separate farm experiment. The precision, accuracy, observer bias, and species bias of the method were tested by comparing the hand-estimated leaf area index values with actual leaf area index, measured using a leaf area meter. The hand-area method was very precise when regressed against actual leaf area index at the plant, population, and community scales (R(2) of 0.97, 0.93, and 0.87). Among the deciduous sites, the hand-area method overestimated leaf area index consistently by 39.1% at all scales. There was no observer bias detected at any scale, but plant overestimation bias was detected in one species at the population scale. The hand-area method is a rapid and reliable technique for estimating leaf area index or cover in the forest herbaceous layer and should be useful to field ecologists interested in answering questions at the plant, population, or community level.

  2. Seeing the Snow through the Trees: Towards a Validated Canopy Adjustment for Fractional Snow Covered Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coons, L.; Nolin, A. W.; Painter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite remote sensing is an important tool for monitoring the spatial distribution of snow cover, which acts as a vital reservoir of water for human and ecosystem needs. Current methods exist mapping the fraction of snow in each image pixel from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). Although these methods can effectively detect this fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) in open areas, snow cover is underestimated in forested areas where canopy cover obscures the snow. Accounting for obscured snow cover will significantly improve estimates of fSCA for hydrologic forecasting and monitoring. This study will address how individual trees and the overall forest canopy affect snow distributions on the ground with the goal of determining metrics that can parameterize the spatial patterns of sub-canopy snow cover. Snow cover measurements were made during winter 2011-2012 at multiple sites representing a range of canopy densities. In the snow-free season, we used terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and manual field methods to fully characterize the forest canopy height, canopy gap fraction, crown width, tree diameter at breast height (DBH), and stand density. We also use multi-angle satellite imagery from MISR and airborne photos to map canopy characteristics over larger areas. Certain canopy structure characteristics can be represented with remote sensing data. These data serve as a key first step in developing canopy adjustment factors for fSCA from MODIS, TM, and other snow mapping sensors.

  3. Monitoring urban growth and detecting land-cover changes on the Istanbul metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Istanbul is the most populated city of Turkey with a population of around 10.58 M (2000) living on around 5,750 km2. In 1980, the population was only 4.7 M and then it has been more than doubled in only two decades. The population has been increasing as a result of mass immigration. An urbanization process continues and it causes serious increases in urban areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. This rapid, uncontrolled, and illegal urbanization accompanied by insufficient infrastructure has caused degradation of forest and barren lands in the metropolitan area, especially through the last two decades. The watershed basins inside the metropolitan area and the transportation network have accelerated the land-cover changes, which have negative impacts on water quality of the basins. Monitoring urban growth and land cover change will enable better management of this complex urban area by the Greater Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (GIMM). A temporal assessment of land-cover changes of Istanbul has been documented in this study. The study mainly focuses on the acquisition and analysis of Landsat TM and Landsat GeoCover LC satellite images reflecting the significant land-cover changes between the years of 1990 and 2005. Raster data were converted to vector data and used in Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database was created for Istanbul metropolitan area to plan, manage, and utilize statistical attribute data covering population, water, forest, industry, and topographic position. Consequently an overlay analysis was carried out and land use/cover changes through years have been detected for the case study area. The capability of Landsat images in determining the alterations in the macro form of the city are also discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  5. 40 CFR 51.25 - What geographic area must my state's inventory cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emissions Reporting Requirements Specific Reporting Requirements § 51.25 What geographic area must my state... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What geographic area must my state's inventory cover? 51.25 Section 51.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  6. Simulation of Land-Cover Change in Taipei Metropolitan Area under Climate Change Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Ching; Huang, Thomas C. C.

    2014-02-01

    Climate change causes environment change and shows up on land covers. Through observing the change of land use, researchers can find out the trend and potential mechanism of the land cover change. Effective adaptation policies can affect pattern of land cover change and may decrease the risks of climate change impacts. By simulating land use dynamics with scenario settings, this paper attempts to explore the relationship between climate change and land-cover change through efficient adaptation polices. It involves spatial statistical model in estimating possibility of land-cover change, cellular automata model in modeling land-cover dynamics, and scenario analysis in response to adaptation polices. The results show that, without any control, the critical eco-areas, such as estuarine areas, will be destroyed and people may move to the vulnerable and important economic development areas. In the other hand, under the limited development condition for adaptation, people migration to peri-urban and critical eco-areas may be deterred.

  7. Assessment of Four Typical Topographic Corrections in Landsat TM Data for Snow Cover Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Wang, Zhe; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2016-06-01

    The accuracy of snow cover information extraction in remote-sensing images dependent on a variety of factors, especially in mountain area with complex terrain. This paper aims at analyzing the accuracy of snow cover information extraction from remot esensing images, using Landsat5 TM images and DEM data, with the study area of Xinjiang Tianshan, measuring topographic correction effects of Cosine correction, C correction, SCS correction, and SCS + C correction from four aspects: visual comparison, standard deviation, correlation analysis and histogram, then extract snow cover area for study area. Results showed that C correction and SCS+C correction performed better among four classic terrain correction models, which indicated changes in snow pixel rat io after correction with variation range of 2% , and correlation coefficient of each band is highest before and after correction.

  8. Assessment of Performance for Alternative Cover Systems on a Waste Rock Storage Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argunhan, C.; Yazicigil, H.

    2015-12-01

    A cover is usually applied to the top of the mining wastes to prevent exposure of sulphide minerals in the waste to water and oxygen ingress in order to mitigate the unwanted consequences such as acid rock drainage. Hence, the selection and design of the appropriate cover system by considering the climatic conditions, local unsaturated and saturated properties and the availability of the cover materials become an important issue. This study aims to investigate the performance of various cover systems and designs for the North Waste Rock Storage Area in Kışladağ Gold Mine located in Uşak in Western Turkey. SEEP/W and VADOSE/W softwares are used to model the flow in unsaturated and saturated zones and to assess the performance of various cover systems. The soil water characteristics and parameters used in the model for saturated and unsaturated conditions were taken from field tests and literature. Accuracy of input data is checked during calibration for steady state conditions with SEEP/W. Then, bedrock, waste rock and cover alternatives are modeled under transient conditions for 20 years using daily climatic data. The effectiveness of the various cover systems for minimizing the ingress of water and air that cause acid rock drainage is evaluated and recommendations are made so that the impacts to groundwater from the waste rock storage areas during closure period are minimized.

  9. Optimization of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Closure Cover

    SciTech Connect

    Shott, Greg; Yucel, Vefa

    2009-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” requires that performance assessments demonstrate that releases of radionuclides to the environment are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Quantitative cost benefit analysis of radiation protection options is one component of the ALARA process. This report summarizes a quantitative cost benefit analysis of closure cover thickness for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada Test Site. The optimum cover thickness that maintains doses ALARA is shown to be the thickness with the minimum total closure cost. Total closure cost is the sum of cover construction cost and the health detriment cost. Cover construction cost is estimated based on detailed cost estimates for closure of the 92-acre Low-Level Waste Management Unit (LLWMU). The health detriment cost is calculated as the product of collective dose and a constant monetary value of health detriment in units of dollars per unit collective dose. Collective dose is the sum of all individual doses in an exposed population and has units of person-sievert (Sv). Five discrete cover thickness options ranging from 2.5 to 4.5 meters (m) (8.2 to 15 feet [ft]) are evaluated. The optimization was subject to the constraints that (1) options must meet all applicable regulatory requirements and that (2) individual doses be a small fraction of background radiation dose. Total closure cost is found to be a monotonically increasing function of cover thickness for the 92-ac LLWMU, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire Area 5 RWMS. The cover construction cost is orders of magnitude greater than the health detriment cost. Two-thousand Latin hypercube sampling realizations of the relationship between total closure cost and cover thickness are generated. In every realization, the optimum cover thickness is 2.5 m (8.2 ft) for the 92-ac Low-Level Waste Management Unit, the Northern Expansion Area, and the entire

  10. Assessing the use of global land cover data for guiding large area population distribution modelling.

    PubMed

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Tatem, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Gridded population distribution data are finding increasing use in a wide range of fields, including resource allocation, disease burden estimation and climate change impact assessment. Land cover information can be used in combination with detailed settlement extents to redistribute aggregated census counts to improve the accuracy of national-scale gridded population data. In East Africa, such analyses have been done using regional land cover data, thus restricting application of the approach to this region. If gridded population data are to be improved across Africa, an alternative, consistent and comparable source of land cover data is required. Here these analyses were repeated for Kenya using four continent-wide land cover datasets combined with detailed settlement extents and accuracies were assessed against detailed census data. The aim was to identify the large area land cover dataset that, combined with detailed settlement extents, produce the most accurate population distribution data. The effectiveness of the population distribution modelling procedures in the absence of high resolution census data was evaluated, as was the extrapolation ability of population densities between different regions. Results showed that the use of the GlobCover dataset refined with detailed settlement extents provided significantly more accurate gridded population data compared to the use of refined AVHRR-derived, MODIS-derived and GLC2000 land cover datasets. This study supports the hypothesis that land cover information is important for improving population distribution model accuracies, particularly in countries where only coarse resolution census data are available. Obtaining high resolution census data must however remain the priority. With its higher spatial resolution and its more recent data acquisition, the GlobCover dataset was found as the most valuable resource to use in combination with detailed settlement extents for the production of gridded population datasets

  11. Engineered covers for mud pit closures Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. D. Madsen

    2000-06-30

    Two abandoned drilling mud pits impacted with petroleum hydrocarbons were determined to require closure action at the Central Nevada Test Area. The UC-4 Mud Pit C is approximately 0.12 hectares (0.3 acres) and 1.2 meters (4 feet) in depth. The UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) is approximately 1.54 hectares (3.8 acres) and 2.4 meters (8 feet) in depth. Both mud pits contain bentonite drilling muds with a thin dry crust, low shear strength, low permeability, and high moisture content. The following closure methodologies were evaluated: stabilization by mixing/injection with soil, fly ash, and lime; excavation and disposal; on-site drying; thermal destruction; wick drains; administrative closure (postings and land-use restrictions); and engineered covers. Based upon regulatory closure criteria, implementation, and cost considerations, the selected remedial alternative was the construction of an engineered cover. A multilayered cover with a geo-grid and geo-synthetic clay liner (GCL) was designed and constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit C to evaluate the constructability and applicability of the design for the CMP cover. The geo-grid provided structural strength for equipment and material loads during cover construction, and the GCL was used as a moisture infiltration barrier. The design was determined to be constructable and applicable. To reduce project costs for the CMP cover, a vegetative cover was designed with drainage toward the center of the cover rather than the perimeter. The vegetative cover with the internal drainage design resulted in a fill volume reduction of approximately 63 percent compared to the multilayered cover design with a GCL.

  12. Forest classes and tree cover gradient: tick habitat in encroached areas of southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Vanwambeke, S O; Van Doninck, J; Artois, J; Davidson, R K; Meyfroidt, P; Jore, S

    2016-03-01

    Forest, in particular deciduous forest, is a key element in determining areas with a high probability of tick presence. The way forest is generally monitored may be ill suited to some landscapes where Ixodes ricinus is found, as forest is usually characterised using crisp land cover classes. However, tree vegetation can be found outside of forests and continuous gradations of tree density can be found in a variety of landscapes. In this paper we investigate the probability of tick presence in southern Norway using landscape description based both on land cover classes and continuous data describing the tree cover fraction. Both perspectives on the landscape are significant in the logistic model, indicating that the usual approach based solely on land cover classes may not be comprehensive enough in capturing tick habitat, and characterising the landscape with variables focused on single specific elements may be insufficient.

  13. Estimation of daily Snow Cover Area combining MODIS and LANDSAT information by using cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    The snow availability in Alpine catchments is essential for the economy of these areas. It plays an important role in tourist development but also in the management of the Water Resources Snow is an important water resource in many river basins with mountains in the catchment area. The determination of the snow water equivalent requires the estimation of the evolution of the snow pack (cover area, thickness and snow density) along the time. Although there are complex physical models of the dynamics of the snow pack, sometimes the data available are scarce and a stochastic model like the cellular automata (CA) can be of great practical interest. CA can be used to model the dynamics of growth and wane of the snow pack. The CA is calibrated with historical data. This requires the determination of transition rules that are capable of modeling the evolution of the spatial pattern of snow cover area. Furthermore, CA requires the definition of states and neighborhoods. We have included topographical variables and climatological variables in order to define the state of each pixel. The evolution of snow cover in a pixel depends on its state, the state of the neighboring pixels and the transition rules. The calibration of the CA is done using daily MODIS data, available for the period 24/02/2002 to present with a spatial resolution of 500 m, and the LANDSAT information available with a sixteen-day periodicity from 1984 to the present and with spatial resolution of 30 m. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area of Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain to obtain snow cover area daily information with 500 m spatial resolution for the period 1980-2014. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank NASA DAAC and LANDSAT project for the data provided for this study.

  14. LARGE AREA LAND COVER MAPPING THROUGH SCENE-BASED CLASSIFICATION COMPOSITING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create definitive national and global data sets consisting of precision corrected Landsat MSS and TM scenes. One important application of these data is the derivation of large area land cover products spanning ...

  15. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale, and corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The AquaCrop model requires canopy cover (CC) measurements to define crop growth and development. Some previously collected data sets that would be useful for calibrating and validating AquaCrop contain only leaf area index (LAI) data, but could be used if relationships were available relating LAI t...

  16. ACCURACY OF THE 1992 NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES: AN ANALYSIS AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract for poster presentation:

    Site-specific accuracy assessments evaluate fine-scale accuracy of land-use/land-cover(LULC) datasets but provide little insight into accuracy of area estimates of LULC

    classes derived from sampling units of varying size. Additiona...

  17. 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility computer software release cover sheet and revision record

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, R.J.

    1994-11-28

    This supporting document contains the computer software release cover sheet and revision records for the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The previous revision was controlled by CH2M Hill which developed the software. A 7-page listing of the contents of directory C:{backslash}TEDF is contained in this report.

  18. Using different remote sensing data to improve snow cover area representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    The crucial role of an accurate estimation of the snow cover fraction distribution in mountain hydrology increases in low and warm latitudes, where water scarcity makes the snowpack a fundamental resource. In Mediterranean mountain regions, the snow has a seasonal character; it is not permanent during all year or the whole cold season, which is also variable year to year because of the highly variable and sometimes extreme climatic conditions. These characteristics results in a very heterogeneous snow cover distribution, usually in not easy to access areas that lack ground monitoring systems. Remote sensing information constitutes one of the best ways to monitor the snow cover evolution; however, this high variability sometimes conditions the suitability of the available sources of information needed to best represent the snow processes involved. This study proposed the combination of three different remote sensing data sources to improve the seasonal representation of the snow cover fraction (SCF) distribution in Sierra Nevada Mountains in southern Spain, a representative example of snow areas in semiarid regions: 1) terrestrial photography; 2) Landsat imagery (spectral mixture analysis); and 3) MODIS products (MOD10.A1) to improve the estimation of the snow cover fraction distribution over mountain areas at different scales. For this, three different study sites were selected over the study area: 1) a detail-scale piece of area (900 m2) at the snow monitoring point of Refugio Poqueira in the Guadalfeo River basin (South face of Sierra Nevada Mountains); 2) a hillslope-scale area (2,5 km2) nearby the latter but in the North face; and 3) a large-scale area (4585 km2) over the 3479 m.a.s.l. altitude in Sierra Nevada. The analysis was performed during the hydrological year 2010-2011. The results show that terrestrial photography, whose spatial and temporal resolution can be adapted to the process under study, constitutes the best technique to monitor snow dynamics at

  19. Using different remote sensing data to improve snow cover area representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; José Pérez-Palazón, María; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2016-04-01

    The crucial role of an accurate estimation of the snow cover fraction distribution in mountain hydrology increases in low and warm latitudes, where water scarcity makes the snowpack a fundamental resource. In Mediterranean mountain regions, the snow has a seasonal character; it is not permanent during all year or the whole cold season, which is also variable year to year because of the highly variable and sometimes extreme climatic conditions. These characteristics results in a very heterogeneous snow cover distribution, usually in not easy to access areas that lack ground monitoring systems. Remote sensing information constitutes one of the best ways to monitor the snow cover evolution; however, this high variability sometimes conditions the suitability of the available sources of information needed to best represent the snow processes involved. This study proposed the combination of three different remote sensing data sources to improve the seasonal representation of the snow cover fraction (SCF) distribution in Sierra Nevada Mountains in southern Spain, a representative example of snow areas in semiarid regions: 1) terrestrial photography; 2) Landsat imagery (spectral mixture analysis); and 3) MODIS products (MOD10.A1) to improve the estimation of the snow cover fraction distribution over mountain areas at different scales. For this, three different study sites were selected over the study area: 1) a detail-scale piece of area (900 m2) at the snow monitoring point of Refugio Poqueira in the Guadalfeo River basin (South face of Sierra Nevada Mountains); 2) a hillslope-scale area (2,5 km2) nearby the latter but in the North face; and 3) a large-scale area (4585 km2) over the 3479 m.a.s.l. altitude in Sierra Nevada. The analysis was performed during the hydrological year 2010-2011. The results show that terrestrial photography, whose spatial and temporal resolution can be adapted to the process under study, constitutes the best technique to monitor snow dynamics at

  20. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos. PMID:14555402

  1. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and coplanar PCB levels in Laotian blood and milk from agent orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas, 2001.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Päpke, Olaf; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-14

    Agent Orange, a phenoxyherbicide contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), was used by American military forces during the United States-Vietnam war between 1962 and 1971 primarily as a defoliant to destroy forests where enemy troops might find cover. Agent Orange was used mainly in Vietnam, but also to a lesser extent in Laos and Cambodia. In Laos, there have been no prior studies of TCDD contamination from Agent Orange, despite known defoliation and documented records of Agent Orange spraying. This article presents findings of TCDD in human blood and milk from two geographic areas in Laos: Vientiane, a nonsprayed area, and Sepone, an Agent Orange-sprayed area. German and Canadian laboratories used high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to measure 7 dioxin, 10 dibenzofuran, and 4 non-ortho or coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in Laotian blood and milk samples. Most subjects tested in this Laos Ministry of Health Study showed low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels, consistent with what would be expected in a primarily rural nonindustrial country. These findings are consistent with relatively low dioxin and dibenzofuran levels recently found in food from these same areas. The chemically and toxicologically related non-ortho PCBs were measured but were found at low levels compared to specimens from other countries, presumably because of less industrialization and industrial pollution in Laos.

  2. Using CORINE land cover and the point survey LUCAS for area estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Javier; Bamps, Catharina

    2008-12-01

    CORINE land cover 2000 (CLC2000) is a European land cover map produced by photo-interpretation of Landsat ETM+ images. Its direct use for area estimation can be strongly biased and does not generally report single crops. CLC areas need to be calibrated to give acceptable statistical results. LUCAS (land use/cover area frame survey) is a point survey carried out in 2001 and 2003 in the European Union (EU15) on a systematic sample of clusters of points. LUCAS is especially useful for area estimation in geographic units that do not coincide with administrative regions, such as set of coastal areas defined with a 10 km buffer. Some variance estimation issues with systematic sampling of clusters are analysed. The contingency table obtained overlaying CLC and LUCAS gives the fine scale composition of CLC classes. Using CLC for post-stratification of LUCAS is equivalent to the direct calibration estimator when the sampling units are points. Stratification is easier to adapt to a scheme in which the sampling units are the clusters of points used in LUCAS 2001/2003.

  3. Regional flood susceptibility analysis in mountainous areas through the use of morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2013-12-01

    A classification of susceptibility to flooding of 106 mountain watersheds was carried out in Bogotá (Colombia) through the use of an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator. Susceptibility was considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows. Morphological variables recognised in literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows were used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator was compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in indentifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped in four categories: size, shape, hypsometry and energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement, showing that even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. On the contrary, if good morphometric conditions are present but deterioration of the land cover in the watershed takes place then the susceptibility to debris flow events increases.

  4. Analysis of urban area land cover using SEASAT Synthetic Aperture Radar data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, F. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Digitally processed SEASAT synthetic aperture raar (SAR) imagery of the Denver, Colorado urban area was examined to explore the potential of SAR data for mapping urban land cover and the compatability of SAR derived land cover classes with the United States Geological Survey classification system. The imagery is examined at three different scales to determine the effect of image enlargement on accuracy and level of detail extractable. At each scale the value of employing a simplistic preprocessing smoothing algorithm to improve image interpretation is addressed. A visual interpretation approach and an automated machine/visual approach are employed to evaluate the feasibility of producing a semiautomated land cover classification from SAR data. Confusion matrices of omission and commission errors are employed to define classification accuracies for each interpretation approach and image scale.

  5. Generation of 2D Land Cover Maps for Urban Areas Using Decision Tree Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhle, J.

    2014-09-01

    A 2D land cover map can automatically and efficiently be generated from high-resolution multispectral aerial images. First, a digital surface model is produced and each cell of the elevation model is then supplemented with attributes. A decision tree classification is applied to extract map objects like buildings, roads, grassland, trees, hedges, and walls from such an "intelligent" point cloud. The decision tree is derived from training areas which borders are digitized on top of a false-colour orthoimage. The produced 2D land cover map with six classes is then subsequently refined by using image analysis techniques. The proposed methodology is described step by step. The classification, assessment, and refinement is carried out by the open source software "R"; the generation of the dense and accurate digital surface model by the "Match-T DSM" program of the Trimble Company. A practical example of a 2D land cover map generation is carried out. Images of a multispectral medium-format aerial camera covering an urban area in Switzerland are used. The assessment of the produced land cover map is based on class-wise stratified sampling where reference values of samples are determined by means of stereo-observations of false-colour stereopairs. The stratified statistical assessment of the produced land cover map with six classes and based on 91 points per class reveals a high thematic accuracy for classes "building" (99 %, 95 % CI: 95 %-100 %) and "road and parking lot" (90 %, 95 % CI: 83 %-95 %). Some other accuracy measures (overall accuracy, kappa value) and their 95 % confidence intervals are derived as well. The proposed methodology has a high potential for automation and fast processing and may be applied to other scenes and sensors.

  6. Cloud obstruction and snow cover in Alpine areas from MODIS products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Ronco, P.; De Michele, C.

    2014-11-01

    Snow cover maps provide information of great practical interest for hydrologic purposes: when combined with point values of snow water equivalent (SWE), they enable estimation of the regional snow resource. In this context, Earth observation satellites are an interesting tool for evaluating large scale snow distribution and extension. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on board Terra and Aqua satellites) daily Snow Covered Area product has been widely tested and proved to be appropriate for hydrologic applications. However, within a daily map the presence of cloud cover can hide the ground, thus obstructing snow detection. Here, we consider MODIS binary products for daily snow mapping over the Po River basin. Ten years (2003-2012) of MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 snow maps have been analysed and processed with the support of a 500 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM). We first investigate the issue of cloud obstruction, highlighting its dependence on altitude and season. Snow maps seem to suffer the influence of overcast conditions mainly in mountain and during the melting period. Thus, cloud cover highly influences those areas where snow detection is regarded with more interest. In spring, the average percentages of area lying beneath clouds are in the order of 70%, for altitudes over 1000 m a.s.l. Then, starting from previous studies, we propose a cloud removal procedure and we apply it to a wide area, characterized by high geomorphological heterogeneity such as the Po River basin. In conceiving the new procedure, our first target was to preserve the daily temporal resolution of the product. Regional snow and land lines were estimated for detecting snow cover dependence on elevation. In cases when there was not enough information on the same day within the cloud-free areas, we used temporal filters with the aim of reproducing the micro-cycles which characterize the transition altitudes, where snow does not stand continually over the entire winter

  7. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  8. Heat absorption in sedimentary cover in some areas of the USA and Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Pilchin, A.N.

    1995-09-01

    For study of geothermal state and presence of heat absorption intervals (HAI) in some areas of the USA and Canada the methods of HAI discovery in sedimentary cover (Pilchin 1978, 1983) were used. HAI are determined on the Paleozoic surface of all areas in the Southern Alberta and in the north part of Williston Basin (Canada). In the Swan Hills area the HAI are observed in Grosmont and Beaverhile intervals. In the USA the HAI have been found in sedimentary cover of areas Fifth Water Site (Utah), Valles Caldera (New Mexico) and also in Michigan Basin, Central Ventura Basin and Salton Sea. Average heat generation is -0.04 mW/m{sup 3} in Cretaceous-Paleocene of Fifth Water Site area, -0.11 mW/m{sup 3} in VC-1 Well (Valles Caldera, 20-760 m), -0.06 mW/m{sup 3} in State 2-14 Well (Salton Sea, 300-900 m). In Michigan Basin the HAI are discovered in upper Michigan Formation, Sunbury Shale, Clinton Shale. In Central Ventura Basin the average heat generation is -0.007 mW/m{sup 3} and -0.018 mW/m{sup 3} correspondingly for Pfeiler-10 and Diedrich-1 Wells (Oxnard Field) and 0 for Lloyd-26 and Lloyd-161 Wells (Ventura Avenue Field). The conducted investigations show that in all studied regions the HAI are present.

  9. Expert-derived monitoring thresholds for impacts of megaherbivores on vegetation cover in a protected area.

    PubMed

    Smit, Izak P J; Landman, Marietjie; Cowling, Richard M; Gaylard, Angela

    2016-07-15

    Monitoring is meant to inform conservation authorities, yet managers often don't know when to respond to monitoring results. One of the reasons is that management often lacks consensus on monitoring thresholds for intervention. This results in aimless monitoring without a clear directive on when monitoring indicates a trajectory towards an unacceptable state or impending change, which possibly necessitates intervention. Although experts rarely provide simple, measureable and quantifiable monitoring thresholds as required by management, they are often more comfortable expressing opinions on whether a specific area is desirable or not. This allows thresholds to be reverse engineered: by getting experts to identify sites as desirable and undesirable, field variables can subsequently be measured to derive the boundary between subjectively identified desirable and undesirable states. Such a boundary provides a defendable point for management to assess and consider intervention. Here we describe the identification of monitoring thresholds by defining the limits of desirable canopy cover, derived from expert stakeholder preferences, in the Sundays Spekboom Thicket vegetation of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. The park has experienced variable utilization intensity by large herbivores, especially elephant. For years managers have grappled with the question of what percentage shrub canopy cover is desirable as a management target, but science has failed to provide this. Using experts to assess pre-selected sites as desirable or undesirable across a range of canopy covers, we showed that a canopy cover of ∼65% (±15%) would be desirable for expert stakeholders. We then used satellite imagery to map canopy cover, providing managers for the first time with a large-scale map of canopy cover, indicating desirability status. This approach was useful for facilitating joint-decision making between conservation agencies and stakeholders on tangible indicators of

  10. Expert-derived monitoring thresholds for impacts of megaherbivores on vegetation cover in a protected area.

    PubMed

    Smit, Izak P J; Landman, Marietjie; Cowling, Richard M; Gaylard, Angela

    2016-07-15

    Monitoring is meant to inform conservation authorities, yet managers often don't know when to respond to monitoring results. One of the reasons is that management often lacks consensus on monitoring thresholds for intervention. This results in aimless monitoring without a clear directive on when monitoring indicates a trajectory towards an unacceptable state or impending change, which possibly necessitates intervention. Although experts rarely provide simple, measureable and quantifiable monitoring thresholds as required by management, they are often more comfortable expressing opinions on whether a specific area is desirable or not. This allows thresholds to be reverse engineered: by getting experts to identify sites as desirable and undesirable, field variables can subsequently be measured to derive the boundary between subjectively identified desirable and undesirable states. Such a boundary provides a defendable point for management to assess and consider intervention. Here we describe the identification of monitoring thresholds by defining the limits of desirable canopy cover, derived from expert stakeholder preferences, in the Sundays Spekboom Thicket vegetation of the Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. The park has experienced variable utilization intensity by large herbivores, especially elephant. For years managers have grappled with the question of what percentage shrub canopy cover is desirable as a management target, but science has failed to provide this. Using experts to assess pre-selected sites as desirable or undesirable across a range of canopy covers, we showed that a canopy cover of ∼65% (±15%) would be desirable for expert stakeholders. We then used satellite imagery to map canopy cover, providing managers for the first time with a large-scale map of canopy cover, indicating desirability status. This approach was useful for facilitating joint-decision making between conservation agencies and stakeholders on tangible indicators of

  11. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of land cover change and grassland degradation pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area].

    PubMed

    Guo, Luo; Du, Shi-Hong; Xue, Da-Yuan; Cai, Liang

    2012-05-01

    Based on field survey data, remote sensing images and statistical data, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal differentiation of land use and grassland degradation patterns in Yangtze River headwaters area in 1987-2007, and discussed the main natural factors (elevation, position and slope) leading to the changes of this area's grassland ecological environment. In 1987-2007, the fragmentation of this area' s landscape patterns had an increasing trend, and natural environment and climate change were the main driving forces of land use pattern change. There existed significant differences in the areas of grassland degradation at different altitudes. Grassland degradation mainly occurred at altitudes 4800-5100 m. The grassland degradation area tended to increase with increasing elevation, and the proportions of the degradation area varied greatly over different slopes and aspects. The climate in the study area became warm and dry, and the spatial structure of regional land cover changed obviously. The distribution patterns of grassland degradation at different elevation, position and slope coincided with alpine environment and human disturbances, suggesting that alpine environment and climatic change were the decisive factors to the grassland ecosystem pattern in Yangtze River headwaters area. PMID:22919830

  12. [Radioecological investigation of the soil cover of eastern Urals State radioactive reserve and neighboring areas].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlovskaia, L N; Molchanova, I V; Karavaeva, E N; Pozolotina, V N; Tarasov, O V

    2011-01-01

    The contamination levels and spatial distribution of 90Sr and 137Cs in the soil cover of the Eastern Ural State Radioactive Reserve and neighboring areas have been studied. Situated in the Chelyabinsk region, the Reserve embraces the frontal part of the Eastern Urals Radioactive Trace. This Trace emerged in 1957 as a result of the nuclear accident at the Production Association "Mayak". In the studied areas, the content of radionuclides in soils decreases exponentially as the distance from the source of contamination increases. 90Sr received by the soil cover as a result of the accident in 1957 has remained the main contaminant of the Reserve central part (97% of the total contamination). Its contribution throughout western neighboring areas reduces up to 67%, which decreases the effect of 90Sr on the environment. Within eastern neighboring areas, soil is mainly contaminated by 137Cs received as a result of the wind disseminated dried sediments from the shores of Lake Karachay (1967) that was used for dumping high-level radioactive waste. Also observed was enrichment of forest litters with this radionuclide due to current atmospheric fallout.

  13. Subpixel Snow-Covered-Area and Snow Grain Size From Mixture Analysis with AVIRIS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green Robert O.; Painter, Thomas H.; Roberts, Dar A.; Dozier, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Snow-covered-area (SCA) and snow grain size are crucial inputs to hydrologic and climatologic modeling of alpine and other seasonally snow-covered regions. SCA is necessary to parameterize energy budget calculations in climate models, to determine in which regions point snowmelt models are to be run for distributed snowmelt modeling efforts and to provide a basis from which estimates of snow water equivalent (SWE) may be made. Snow grain size, SWE and snow impurities determine the spectral albedo of snow, which controls the net solar flux at the snowpack surface. Snow albedo is of the utmost importance in snowmelt modeling, yet the difficulty with which grain size, SWE, and impurities are mapped has left the spatial distribution of snow albedo in alpine catchments poorly understood. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) has been used to estimate sub-pixel snow-covered-area and snow grain size independently. In this paper we present a technique which improves estimates of both snow parameters by treating their mapping simultaneously.

  14. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Rebecca R.; Hoffacker, Madison K.; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L.; Wu, Grace C.; Allen, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in “Compatible” areas. The majority of “Incompatible” USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  15. Solar Energy Development Impacts on Land-Cover Change and Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffacker, M. K.; Hernandez, R. R.; Murphy-Mariscal, M. L.; Wu, G. C.; Allen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE; i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt [MW]) development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land-cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type (photovoltaic [PV] vs. concentrating solar power [CSP]), area (km2), and capacity (MW) within the global solar hotspot of the state of California (USA). Additionally, we utilized the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility Model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Lastly, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrub- and scrublands, comprising 375 km2 of land-cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km2 of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in compatible areas. The majority of incompatible USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure and all USSE installations average at most seven and five km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  16. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions.

  17. Projecting large-scale area changes in land use and land cover for terrestrial carbon analyses.

    PubMed

    Alig, Ralph J; Butler, Brett J

    2004-04-01

    One of the largest changes in US forest type areas over the last half-century has involved pine types in the South. The area of planted pine has increased more than 10-fold since 1950, mostly on private lands. Private landowners have responded to market incentives and government programs, including subsidized afforestation on marginal agricultural land. Timber harvest is a crucial disturbance affecting planted pine area, as other forest types are converted to planted pine after harvest. Conversely, however, many harvested pine plantations revert to other forest types, mainly due to passive regeneration behavior on nonindustrial private timberlands. We model land use and land cover changes as a basis for projecting future changes in planted pine area, to aid policy analysts concerned with mitigation activities for global climate change. Projections are prepared in two stages. Projected land use changes include deforestation due to pressures to develop rural land as the human population expands, which is a larger area than that converted from other rural lands (e.g., agriculture) to forestry. In the second stage, transitions among forest types are projected on land allocated to forestry. We consider reforestation, influences of timber harvest, and natural succession and disturbance processes. Baseline projections indicate a net increase of about 5.6 million ha in planted pine area in the South over the next 50 years, with a notable increase in sequestered carbon. Additional opportunities to expand pine plantation area warrant study of landowner behavior to aid in designing more effective incentives for inducing land use and land cover changes to help mitigate climate change and attain other goals.

  18. Solar energy development impacts on land cover change and protected areas.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Rebecca R; Hoffacker, Madison K; Murphy-Mariscal, Michelle L; Wu, Grace C; Allen, Michael F

    2015-11-01

    Decisions determining the use of land for energy are of exigent concern as land scarcity, the need for ecosystem services, and demands for energy generation have concomitantly increased globally. Utility-scale solar energy (USSE) [i.e., ≥ 1 megawatt (MW)] development requires large quantities of space and land; however, studies quantifying the effect of USSE on land cover change and protected areas are limited. We assessed siting impacts of >160 USSE installations by technology type [photovoltaic (PV) vs. concentrating solar power (CSP)], area (in square kilometers), and capacity (in MW) within the global solar hot spot of the state of California (United States). Additionally, we used the Carnegie Energy and Environmental Compatibility model, a multiple criteria model, to quantify each installation according to environmental and technical compatibility. Last, we evaluated installations according to their proximity to protected areas, including inventoried roadless areas, endangered and threatened species habitat, and federally protected areas. We found the plurality of USSE (6,995 MW) in California is sited in shrublands and scrublands, comprising 375 km(2) of land cover change. Twenty-eight percent of USSE installations are located in croplands and pastures, comprising 155 km(2) of change. Less than 15% of USSE installations are sited in "Compatible" areas. The majority of "Incompatible" USSE power plants are sited far from existing transmission infrastructure, and all USSE installations average at most 7 and 5 km from protected areas, for PV and CSP, respectively. Where energy, food, and conservation goals intersect, environmental compatibility can be achieved when resource opportunities, constraints, and trade-offs are integrated into siting decisions. PMID:26483467

  19. Methodology to obtain 30 m resolution of snow cover area from FSCA MODIS and NDSI Landsat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cepeda, Javier; Vargas, Ximena

    2016-04-01

    In the last years numerous free images and product satellites have been released, with different spatial and temporal resolution. Out of them, the most commonly used to describe the snow area are MODIS and Landsat. Fractional snow cover area (FSCA) is a daily MODIS product with a 500 m spatial resolution; Landsat images have around 16 days and 30 m respectively. In this work we use both images to obtain a new daily 30 m resolution snow distribution product based in probabilistic and geospatial information. This can be useful because a higher resolution can be used to improve the estimation of the accuracy of a physically-based distributed model to represent the snow cover distribution. We choose three basins in central Chile, with an important snow and glacier presence, to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of snow using (1) the mean value between MOD10A1 (terra) and MYD10A1 (aqua) and (2) the corrected images by topography and atmosphere from Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 computing the normalized difference snow index (NDSI). When both satellites data are available in the same day, each MODIS pixel is studied considering the Landsat pixels contained in it. A new matrix is created, covering all MODIS pixels, using a 30 m spatial resolution, where each pixel value represents the probability of snow presence in time from Landsat images, and then each pixel is corrected by its neighbour's pixels, elevation, slope and aspect. Then snow is distributed, for each MODIS pixel, considering the corrected probability matrix and sorted between pixels with high probability until the area from FSCA is completed.

  20. Hydrological Modelling and data assimilation of Satellite Snow Cover Area using a Land Surface Model, VIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naha, Shaini; Thakur, Praveen K.; Aggarwal, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    The snow cover plays an important role in Himalayan region as it contributes a useful amount to the river discharge. So, besides estimating rainfall runoff, proper assessment of snowmelt runoff for efficient management and water resources planning is also required. A Land Surface Model, VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) is used at a high resolution grid size of 1 km. Beas river basin up to Thalot in North West Himalayas (NWH) have been selected as the study area. At first model setup is done and VIC has been run in its energy balance mode. The fluxes obtained from VIC has been routed to simulate the discharge for the time period of (2003-2006). Data Assimilation is done for the year 2006 and the techniques of Data Assimilation considered in this study are Direct Insertion (D.I) and Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA) to update hydrologic model states. The meteorological forcings were taken from 0.5 deg. resolution VIC global forcing data from 1979-2006 with daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature from Climate Research unit (CRU), rainfall from daily variability of NCEP and wind speed from NCEP-NCAR analysis as main inputs and Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) data of 0.25 °. NBSSLUP soil map and land use land cover map of ISRO-GBP project for year 2014 were used for generating the soil parameters and vegetation parameters respectively. The threshold temperature i.e. the minimum rain temperature is -0.5°C and maximum snow temperature is about +0.5°C at which VIC can generate snow fluxes. Hydrological simulations were done using both NCEP and IMD based meteorological Forcing datasets, but very few snow fluxes were obtained using IMD data met forcing, whereas NCEP based met forcing has given significantly better snow fluxes throughout the simulation years as the temperature resolution as given by IMD data is 0.5°C and rainfall resolution of 0.25°C. The simulated discharge has been validated using observed

  1. Anticipated climate and land-cover changes reveal refuge areas for Borneo's orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Struebig, Matthew J; Fischer, Manuela; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Wich, Serge A; Gonner, Catherine; Sykes, Rachel; Wilting, Andreas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Habitat loss and climate change pose a double jeopardy for many threatened taxa, making the identification of optimal habitat for the future a conservation priority. Using a case study of the endangered Bornean orang-utan, we identify environmental refuges by integrating bioclimatic models with projected deforestation and oil-palm agriculture suitability from the 1950s to 2080s. We coupled a maximum entropy algorithm with information on habitat needs to predict suitable habitat for the present day and 1950s. We then projected to the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s in models incorporating only land-cover change, climate change or both processes combined. For future climate, we incorporated projections from four model and emission scenario combinations. For future land cover, we developed spatial deforestation predictions from 10 years of satellite data. Refuges were delineated as suitable forested habitats identified by all models that were also unsuitable for oil palm - a major threat to tropical biodiversity. Our analyses indicate that in 2010 up to 260,000 km(2) of Borneo was suitable habitat within the core orang-utan range; an 18-24% reduction since the 1950s. Land-cover models predicted further decline of 15-30% by the 2080s. Although habitat extent under future climate conditions varied among projections, there was majority consensus, particularly in north-eastern and western regions. Across projections habitat loss due to climate change alone averaged 63% by 2080, but 74% when also considering land-cover change. Refuge areas amounted to 2000-42,000 km(2) depending on thresholds used, with 900-17,000 km(2) outside the current species range. We demonstrate that efforts to halt deforestation could mediate some orang-utan habitat loss, but further decline of the most suitable areas is to be expected given projected changes to climate. Protected refuge areas could therefore become increasingly important for ongoing translocation efforts. We present an approach to help

  2. Anticipated climate and land-cover changes reveal refuge areas for Borneo's orang-utans.

    PubMed

    Struebig, Matthew J; Fischer, Manuela; Gaveau, David L A; Meijaard, Erik; Wich, Serge A; Gonner, Catherine; Sykes, Rachel; Wilting, Andreas; Kramer-Schadt, Stephanie

    2015-08-01

    Habitat loss and climate change pose a double jeopardy for many threatened taxa, making the identification of optimal habitat for the future a conservation priority. Using a case study of the endangered Bornean orang-utan, we identify environmental refuges by integrating bioclimatic models with projected deforestation and oil-palm agriculture suitability from the 1950s to 2080s. We coupled a maximum entropy algorithm with information on habitat needs to predict suitable habitat for the present day and 1950s. We then projected to the 2020s, 2050s and 2080s in models incorporating only land-cover change, climate change or both processes combined. For future climate, we incorporated projections from four model and emission scenario combinations. For future land cover, we developed spatial deforestation predictions from 10 years of satellite data. Refuges were delineated as suitable forested habitats identified by all models that were also unsuitable for oil palm - a major threat to tropical biodiversity. Our analyses indicate that in 2010 up to 260,000 km(2) of Borneo was suitable habitat within the core orang-utan range; an 18-24% reduction since the 1950s. Land-cover models predicted further decline of 15-30% by the 2080s. Although habitat extent under future climate conditions varied among projections, there was majority consensus, particularly in north-eastern and western regions. Across projections habitat loss due to climate change alone averaged 63% by 2080, but 74% when also considering land-cover change. Refuge areas amounted to 2000-42,000 km(2) depending on thresholds used, with 900-17,000 km(2) outside the current species range. We demonstrate that efforts to halt deforestation could mediate some orang-utan habitat loss, but further decline of the most suitable areas is to be expected given projected changes to climate. Protected refuge areas could therefore become increasingly important for ongoing translocation efforts. We present an approach to help

  3. Forward-looking Assimilation of MODIS-derived Snow Covered Area into a Land Surface Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Rodell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Snow cover over land has a significant impact on the surface radiation budget, turbulent energy fluxes to the atmosphere, and local hydrological fluxes. For this reason, inaccuracies in the representation of snow covered area (SCA) within a land surface model (LSM) can lead to substantial errors in both offline and coupled simulations. Data assimilation algorithms have the potential to address this problem. However, the assimilation of SCA observations is complicated by an information deficit in the observation SCA indicates only the presence or absence of snow, and not snow volume and by the fact that assimilated SCA observations can introduce inconsistencies with atmospheric forcing data, leading to non-physical artifacts in the local water balance. In this paper we present a novel assimilation algorithm that introduces MODIS SCA observations to the Noah LSM in global, uncoupled simulations. The algorithm utilizes observations from up to 72 hours ahead of the model simulation in order to correct against emerging errors in the simulation of snow cover while preserving the local hydrologic balance. This is accomplished by using future snow observations to adjust air temperature and, when necessary, precipitation within the LSM. In global, offline integrations, this new assimilation algorithm provided improved simulation of SCA and snow water equivalent relative to open loop integrations and integrations that used an earlier SCA assimilation algorithm. These improvements, in turn, influenced the simulation of surface water and energy fluxes both during the snow season and, in some regions, on into the following spring.

  4. Dust pollution of snow cover in the industrial areas of Tomsk city (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Nadeina, L. V.

    2016-03-01

    This article describes the results of long-term monitoring (2007-2014) of snow cover pollution in the territory of Tomsk city. Snow samples were collected in the territory of Tomsk. Determination of dust load level was carried out by comparing with the background and reference values. It has been determined that the north-east and central parts of Tomsk are the most contaminated areas, where brickworks, coal and gas-fired thermal power plant are located. The analysis of long-term dynamics showed a dust load decrease in the vicinity of coal and gas-fired thermal power plant due to upgrading of the existing dust collecting systems. During the monitoring period the high dust load in the vicinity of brickworks did not change. The lowest value of the dust load on snow cover was detected in the vicinity of the petrochemical plant and concrete product plants. The near and far zones of dust load on snow cover were determined with the reference to the location of the studied plants.

  5. [Difference of Karst Carbon Sink Under Different Land Use and Land Cover Areas in Dry Season].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rui-yi; Liang, Zuo-bing; Wang, Zun-bo; Yu, Zheng-liang; Jiang, Ze-li

    2015-05-01

    In order to identify the distinction of soil CO2 consumed by carbonate rock dissolution, Baishuwan spring, Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring were selected as objects to monitor the hydrochemistry from November 2013 to May 2014. The results showed that the highest HCO3- concentration was observed in Baishuwan spring which is covered by pine forest, while the lowest HCO3- concentration was observed in Hougou spring which is mainly covered by cultivated land. In Baishuwan spring, HCO3- was mainly derived from carbonic acid dissolving carbonate rock and the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- was close to 0. 5; while the molar ratio between Ca(2+) + Mg2+ and HCO3- exceeded 0.5 because the carbonate rock in Lanhuagou spring and Hougou spring was mainly dissolved by nitric acid and sulfuric acid. Because of the input of litter and the fact that gas-permeability of soil was limited in Baishuwan spring catchment, most of soil CO2 was dissolved in infiltrated water and reacted with bedrock. However, in Lanhuagou spring catchment and Hougou spring catchment, porous soil made soil CO2 easier to return to the atmosphere in the form of soil respiration. Therefore, in order to accurately estimate karst carbon sink, it was required to clarify the distinction of CO2 consumption by carbonate rock dissolution under different land use and land cover areas. PMID:26314105

  6. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  7. Assimilation of snow covered area information into hydrologic and land-surface models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, M.P.; Slater, A.G.; Barrett, A.P.; Hay, L.E.; McCabe, G.J.; Rajagopalan, B.; Leavesley, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a data assimilation method that uses observations of snow covered area (SCA) to update hydrologic model states in a mountainous catchment in Colorado. The assimilation method uses SCA information as part of an ensemble Kalman filter to alter the sub-basin distribution of snow as well as the basin water balance. This method permits an optimal combination of model simulations and observations, as well as propagation of information across model states. Sensitivity experiments are conducted with a fairly simple snowpack/water-balance model to evaluate effects of the data assimilation scheme on simulations of streamflow. The assimilation of SCA information results in minor improvements in the accuracy of streamflow simulations near the end of the snowmelt season. The small effect from SCA assimilation is initially surprising. It can be explained both because a substantial portion of snowmelts before any bare ground is exposed, and because the transition from 100% to 0% snow coverage occurs fairly quickly. Both of these factors are basin-dependent. Satellite SCA information is expected to be most useful in basins where snow cover is ephemeral. The data assimilation strategy presented in this study improved the accuracy of the streamflow simulation, indicating that SCA is a useful source of independent information that can be used as part of an integrated data assimilation strategy. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the satellite derived snow cover area - Runoff forecasting models for the inaccessible basins of western Himalayas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dey, B.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, the existing seasonal snow cover area runoff forecasting models of the Indus, Kabul, Sutlej and Chenab basins were evaluated with the concurrent flow correlation model for the period 1975-79. In all the basins under study, correlation of concurrent flow model explained the variability in flow better than by the snow cover area runoff models. Actually, the concurrent flow correlation model explained more than 90 percent of the variability in the flow of these rivers. Compared to this model, the snow cover area runoff models explained less of the variability in flow. In the Himalayan river basins under study and at least for the period under observation, the concurrent flow correlation model provided a set of results with which to compare the estimates from the snow cover area runoff models.

  9. Accuracy assessment of land cover/land use classifiers in dry and humid areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Saleh; Khatami, Reza; Mountrakis, Giorgos; Mirzaee, Somayeh; Pourghasemi, Hamid Reza; Tazeh, Mehdi

    2015-10-01

    Land cover/land use (LCLU) maps are essential inputs for environmental analysis. Remote sensing provides an opportunity to construct LCLU maps of large geographic areas in a timely fashion. Knowing the most accurate classification method to produce LCLU maps based on site characteristics is necessary for the environment managers. The aim of this research is to examine the performance of various classification algorithms for LCLU mapping in dry and humid climates (from June to August). Testing is performed in three case studies from each of the two climates in Iran. The reference dataset of each image was randomly selected from the entire images and was randomly divided into training and validation set. Training sets included 400 pixels, and validation sets included 200 pixels of each LCLU. Results indicate that the support vector machine (SVM) and neural network methods can achieve higher overall accuracy (86.7 and 86.6%) than other examined algorithms, with a slight advantage for the SVM. Dry areas exhibit higher classification difficulty as man-made features often have overlapping spectral responses to soil. A further observation is that spatial segregation and lower mixture of LCLU classes can increase classification overall accuracy.

  10. Study on mosaic method for new mode satellite images with high spatial resolution covering urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, Qiong; Wang, Zhiyong; Wen, Qiang; Li, Wei; Gao, Lianru

    2014-11-01

    New imaging mode has been brought up for collecting multiple scenes in one pass, as is implemented on World View-II. This greatly helps for acquiring high spatial resolution images that cover urban areas, and is to be adopted in the coming Chinese satellites. This paper is to discuss the mosaic characteristic and propose a mosaic line generation method by integrating correlation and the road information. The mosaic line is formed by linking the unique mosaic point on each line restricted within the road. We position the starting point by connectivity analysis of the road lines, and then locate the adjacent point along the road with connectivity analysis. A weighed vector, combining correlation and distance to centre of the road, is used to pick the best point. The points are located on the road unless it is unavoidable, for example, the road ends or the line touches edge of the image. This method provides instant mosaic line generation for urban areas with road information available in most cases. By resorting to the road, the mosaic line is more applicable since many problems for mosaic of high spatial resolution images are solved, for example, tilting of the buildings, the shadows, motions of the vehicles etc. Experiments have been done with WV-II images and gained favorable results.

  11. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident staff, research…

  12. Classification and area estimation of land covers in Kansas using ground-gathered and LANDSAT digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, G. A.; Holko, M. L.; Anderson, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Ground-gathered data and LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) digital data from 1981 were analyzed to produce a classification of Kansas land areas into specific types called land covers. The land covers included rangeland, forest, residential, commercial/industrial, and various types of water. The analysis produced two outputs: acreage estimates with measures of precision, and map-type or photo products of the classification which can be overlaid on maps at specific scales. State-level acreage estimates were obtained and substate-level land cover classification overlays and estimates were generated for selected geographical areas. These products were found to be of potential use in managing land and water resources.

  13. Molecular effective coverage surface area of optical clearing agents for predicting optical clearing potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Wei; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The improvement of methods for optical clearing agent prediction exerts an important impact on tissue optical clearing technique. The molecular dynamic simulation is one of the most convincing and simplest approaches to predict the optical clearing potential of agents by analyzing the hydrogen bonds, hydrogen bridges and hydrogen bridges type forming between agents and collagen. However, the above analysis methods still suffer from some problem such as analysis of cyclic molecule by reason of molecular conformation. In this study, a molecular effective coverage surface area based on the molecular dynamic simulation was proposed to predict the potential of optical clearing agents. Several typical cyclic molecules, fructose, glucose and chain molecules, sorbitol, xylitol were analyzed by calculating their molecular effective coverage surface area, hydrogen bonds, hydrogen bridges and hydrogen bridges type, respectively. In order to verify this analysis methods, in vitro skin samples optical clearing efficacy were measured after 25 min immersing in the solutions, fructose, glucose, sorbitol and xylitol at concentration of 3.5 M using 1951 USAF resolution test target. The experimental results show accordance with prediction of molecular effective coverage surface area. Further to compare molecular effective coverage surface area with other parameters, it can show that molecular effective coverage surface area has a better performance in predicting OCP of agents.

  14. Improvement of Operational Streamflow Prediction with MODIS-derived Fractional Snow Covered Area Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Burgess, A.; Goodale, C. E.; Mattmann, C. A.; Miller, W. P.; Painter, T. H.; Rittger, K. E.; Stokes, M.; Werner, K.

    2013-12-01

    Water managers in the western United States depend heavily on the timing and magnitude of snowmelt-driven runoff for municipal supply, irrigation, maintenance of environmental flows, and power generation. The Colorado Basin River Forecast Center (CBRFC) of the National Weather Service issues operational forecasts of snowmelt-driven streamflow for watersheds within the Colorado River Basin (CRB) and eastern Great Basin (EGB), across a wide variety of scales. Therefore, the CBRFC and its stakeholders consider snowpack observations to be highly valuable. Observations of fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from satellite-borne instrumentation can better inform both forecasters and water users with respect to subsequent snowmelt runoff, particularly when combined with observations from ground-based station networks and/or airborne platforms. As part of a multi-year collaborative effort, CBRFC has partnered with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under funding from NASA to incorporate observations of fSCA from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) into the operational CBRFC hydrologic forecasting and modeling process. In the first year of the collaboration, CBRFC and NASA/JPL integrated snow products into the forecasting and decision making processes of the CBRFC and showed preliminary improvement in operational streamflow forecasts. In late 2012, CBRFC and NASA/JPL began retrospective analysis of relationships between the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size (MODSCAG) fSCA and streamflow patterns for several watersheds within the CRB and the EGB. During the 2013 snowmelt runoff season, CBRFC forecasters used MODIS-derived fSCA semi-quantitatively as a binary indicator of the presence or lack of snow. Indication of the presence or lack of snow by MODIS assisted CBRFC forecasters in determining the cause of divergence between modeled and recently observed streamflow. Several examples of improved forecasts from across the CRB and EGB, informed by

  15. Reclassified Cropland Active Fire and Burned Area Detections by the MODIS 1 km Sensor in Canadian Provinces by land cover type, 2001 - 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, T. F.; Ernst, C. L.; McCarty, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Fire is a primary disturbance agent in Canadian ecosystems and has significant social, environmental, and economic consequences. Accurate location and identification of biomass burning is critical to understanding the transfer of gases and particles into earth's atmosphere, especially in Northern latitudes. This data is an important aid in producing accurate atmospheric models that estimate black carbon (BC) deposition on arctic snow. Previous research has indicated that cropland burning contributes to BC distribution in the arctic which alters the balance in snow-albedo reflectance and radiation transmission in the atmosphere. The locations and numbers of fires were identified using the 1km MODIS Active Fire Product and the 500m MODIS Burned Area Product. Land cover type was assigned based on the 1 km MODIS Land Cover Product, to the post-processed active fire points. They were then reclassified into seven (7) classes: Croplands, Forest, Grasslands, Urban, Water Bodies, Wetlands, and Barren. The results show that Forest, Cropland, and Grassland land cover types are the main sources of active fire detections in Canada from 2001 to 2010. The peak fire months are April, May, September, and October for Cropland active fire burns in all Canadian Provinces from 2001 to 2010. By province, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are the leading sources of Cropland detected active fires. Cropland burned area estimations were calculated using the burned area pixel count (post-processing of MODIS Burned Area Product) within cropland identified by the 1 km MODIS Land Cover data set (LC-12) for the years 2003-2010. Cropland burned area detection was most significant in 2003 during which 27.3% of all detected hectares burned from 2003 to 2010 occurred. The year with least impact was 2004 in which 3.5% of all detected hectares burned. The peak months for Cropland burned area detections were May, September, and October across all Canadian Provinces from 2003 to 2010. Saskatchewan, Manitoba

  16. Evolution of snow-covered area at hillslope scale using terrestrial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    José Pérez-Palazón, María; Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; María Perales, José; José Polo, María

    2015-04-01

    The spatial distribution of snow is conditioned by both meteorological driving processes and topography. Monitoring by remote sensing is a powerful source of data in medium-large areas, but poses some constraints when heterogeneity is significant at scales smaller than the spatial resolution of the GIS-modeling. Such is the case of Mediterranean mountainous watersheds, especially during melting cycles. In these cases terrestrial photography, whose spatial and temporal resolutions can be adapted to the study problem, is an economic and also efficient alternative. This study uses terrestrial photography to quantify the relationship between the elevation gradient and the presence-absence of snow during the snowmelt cycles. The study was carried out in Sierra Nevada Mountain, southern, Spain, specifically, on a hillside of the Ducal River basin, where terrestrial images were taken with a frequency ranging from 1 to 4 days from May to July, 2009. These images were referenced using a digital elevation model (DEM) and an algorithm based on graphics design principles. The presence of snow was detected using machine learning techniques, a clustering method in which two clusters are selected: pixels with and without snow. The results of this process are snow map series with the same temporal frequency of the image acquisition and the spatial resolution of the DEM (10 x 10 m). An exponential trend was clearly observed in the behavior of the evolution of snow with elevation, with a high determination coefficient value (R2>0.98). Moreover, this trend could be fitted with only two parameters, which were also related to elevation. The trend was validated in another monitored location during a different snowmelt period of 2013, when similar results were obtained (RMSE<0.15 m2m-2 in terms of snow cover area). From the results, further assessment was performed in the study site in reference to other hydrological processes with a strong snow influence, such as the recession curve in

  17. Hydropedology of a mildly-arid loess covered area, southern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Aaron; Goldshleger, Naftali

    2016-04-01

    Extensive loess covered areas characterize the mildly arid areas of western Israel, where average annual rainfall is 280 mm. Hydrological data available point to a peculiar hydrological behavior of the ephemeral streams. The frequency of channel flow is very high. Four to eight flows are recorded annually. However, even in extreme rain events peak discharges are extremely low representing 0.002-0.005% of the rain amount received by the basin at peak flow. In addition, hydrographs are usually characterized by very steep rising and falling limbs, representative of saturated or nearly saturated areas, extending over a limited part of the watershed. Following this observation we advanced the hypothesis that storm channel runoff originated in the channel itself, with negligible contribution from the adjoining hillslopes. The study was based on two complementary approaches. The hydrological approach was based on the detailed analysis of rainfall-runoff relationships in a small watershed (11 km2). The second approach was based on the toposequence concept. According to this concept soil's properties are closely related to the position of a soil along a slope. Constituents and water lost by the upper part of the slope accumulate in its lower part, which is richer in clay and better leached. Several boreholes were dug along a hillslope 400 m long. Soil samples were collected for chemical and particle size analysis. In addition, samples for soil moisture data were taken following each major rain event. Chemical data obtained show no significant observable difference in the downslope direction. Similar results were also obtained for the particle size distribution and soil moisture content. However, particle size distribution in the active channel reveals very high clay content down to 60 cm. Data obtained lead to two main conclusions. 1. Data presented perfectly fit the concept of "Partial Area Contribution", in its narrow sense, as it presents an extreme case of hydrological

  18. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas.

  19. Is forest cover conserved and restored by protected areas?: The case of two wild protected areas inthe Central Pacific of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Antonio Guzmán, J; Heiner Vega, S

    2015-09-01

    Changes in land use are mainly a consequence of anthropogenic actions. The current agricultural and urban transformations in Costa Rica have raised questions about the effectiveness of conservation and restoration within protected areas. Herein we analyzed the patterns of land use change between three periods: 1997, 2005 and 2010 in terms of magnitude, direction, and pace through categorical maps generated by the photointerpretation for La Cangreja National Park (LCNP), Rancho Mastatal Wildlife Refuge (RMWR), and their surrounding areas (SA), this last compound of one kilometer radius outside the protected areas' boundaries. The matrix which describes the landscape within the protected areas is natural coverage, composed mainly by forest cover and thickets. We found that the most abundant natural cover for both protected areas was forest cover for all years tested. The stability and large areas of forest cover in LCNP and RMWR for 2005 and 2010, reflected that policies, management actions and vigilance, have a positive impact on the conservation and restoration of natural habitats in these Costa Rican Central Pacific areas. However, the high landscape complexity of the SA in 1997, 2005 and 2010 was an evidence of the anthropogenic pressure on these protected areas, and suggested the ineffectiveness of local governments to monitor and abate land use changes, that could hinder the management, conservation and restoration of species in the protected areas. PMID:26666116

  20. A Water Balance Study of Four Landfill Cover Designs at Material Disposal Area B in Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    David D. Breshears; Fairley J. Barnes; John W. Nyhan; Johnny A. Salazar

    1998-09-01

    The goal of disposing of low-level radioactive and hazardous waste in shallow landfills is to reduce risk to human health and the environment by isolating contaminants until they no longer pose an unacceptable hazard. In order to achieve this, the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Program is comparing the performance of several different surface covers at Material Disposal Area (MDA) B in Los Alamos. Two conventional landfill were compared with an improved cover designed to minimize plant and animal intrusion and to minimize water infiltration into the underlying wastes. The conventional covers varied in depth and both conventional and improved designs had different combinations of vegetation (grass verses shrub) and gravel mulch (no mulch verses mulch). These treatments were applied to each of 12 plots and water balance parameters were measured from March1987 through June 1995. Adding a gravel mulch significantly influenced the plant covered field plots receiving no gravel mulch averaged 21.2% shrub cover, while plots with gravel had a 20% larger percent cover of shrubs. However, the influence of gravel mulch on the grass cover was even larger than the influence on shrub cover, average grass cover on the plots with no gravel was 16.3%, compared with a 42% increase in grass cover due to gravel mulch. These cover relationships are important to reduce runoff on the landfill cover, as shown by a regression model that predicts that as ground cover is increased from 30 to 90%,annual runoff is reduced from 8.8 to 0.98 cm-a nine-fold increase. We also found that decreasing the slope of the landfill cover from 6 to 2% reduced runoff from the landfill cover by 2.7-fold. To minimize the risk of hazardous waste from landfills to humans, runoff and seepage need to be minimized and evapotranspiration maximized on the landfill cover. This has to be accomplished for dry and wet years at MDA B. Seepage consisted of 1.9% and 6.2% of the precipitation in the average and

  1. Assessing surface water quality and its relation with urban land cover changes in the Lake Calumet area, Greater Chicago.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Cyril; Weng, Qihao

    2010-05-01

    Urban land use and land cover change significantly affect spatial and temporal patterns of runoff, which in turn impacts surface water quality. With the exponential growth in urban areas over the past three decades, changes in land use and land cover to cater for the growth of cities has been a conspicuous spectacle in urban spaces. The main goal of this study was to assess the impacts of land cover change on runoff and surface water quality using a partial area hydrology framework. The study employed ArcHydro GIS extension and a modified version of Long-Term Hydrologic and Nonpoint Source Pollution model (L-THIA-NPS) in estimating runoff and nonpoint source pollutant concentration around Lake Calumet between 1992 and 2001. Data employed include National Land Cover Data set, rainfall data, digital elevation model (DEM), Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) data, and The United States Environmental Protection Agency's STORET (storage and retrieval) water quality data. The model was able to predict surface water quality reasonably well over the study period. Sensitivity analysis facilitated a manual calibration of the model. Model validation was executed by comparing simulated results following calibration and observed water quality data for the study area. The study demonstrates that the level of concentration of nonpoint source pollutants in surface water within an urban watershed heavily depends on the spatiotemporal variations in areas that contribute towards runoff compared to the spatial extent of change in major land use/land cover.

  2. Estimating snow depth from observations of remotely-sensed snow covered area and the terrain's snow holding capacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Molotch, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Snowmelt is the primary water source in the Western United States and mountainous regions globally. Forecasts of streamflow and water supply rely heavily on snow measurements from sparse observation networks that may not provide adequate information during abnormal climatic conditions. Satellite observations of snow covered area are available globally and in near real-time. In this regard, we have developed a method to estimate snow depth from remotely-sensed images of snow covered area by considering the snow holding capacity of the terrain. We show that the relationship between basin-wide average snow depth, as interpolated from snow surveys, and Landsat TM/ETM+-derived basin snow covered area yields an r2 of 0.64 and 0.68 in two alpine basins of different climatologies in California and Colorado, respectively. Regression analyses that use fractional snow covered as the independent variable to estimate snow depth from a high resolution Lidar survey result in relative mean squared errors between 39% and 58% of measured snow depth for different roughness classifications near the date of peak accumulation. Future work will look at the changes in the relationship between snow depth and snow covered area through the ablation season to determine the relationship's utility to water supply forecasting. The importance of this work is illustrated through examples that estimate snow depths for select alpine regions globally.

  3. Land use/cover changes in European mountain areas: identifying links between global driving forces and local consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Schröter, Dagmar; Glade, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Minor land use/cover changes in mountain areas can aggravate the consequences of hydro-meteorological hazards such as landslides, avalanches, rockfall and flash floods. What is more, they change the provisioning of ecosystem services; also as their recovery after anthropogenic induced changes in mountains are slower or not occurring at all due to harsh climate and soil conditions. Examples of these changes are urbanization in high risk areas or deforestation on slopes. To understand the driving forces behind land use/cover changes in European mountain areas, the focus is on the two case study areas: The Val Canale valley in the Italian Alps and the Buzau valley in the Romanian Carpathians. Land use/cover changes were analyzed in the recent decades applying various remote sensing techniques, such as satellite imagery classification and visual interpretation, as well as integration of various databases (e.g. forestry, spatial planning and cadaster plans). Instead of identifying the statistical significance of particular variables (e.g. population change), the links between different driving forces of global change (e.g. political and policy changes, infrastructural plans) and local socio-economic variables were investigated further through interviewing local and regional stakeholders. The results show how both areas differ in the consequences of global changes in terms of land use/cover change. The Italian area witnessed a trajectory from a commercially active and competitive area, to an area with a large portion of abandoned commercial, customs, industrial and mining zones. These processes were accompanied by the expansion of settlements comprised mostly of secondary housing on areas with high risk, resulting in catastrophic consequences in recent flash floods and debris flows events. The Romanian site also witnessed a breakdown of local commercial and industrial activities. Together with land ownership reforms, this has resulted in the emergence of subsistence

  4. Relationships between burned area, forest cover loss and land use change in the Brazilian Amazon based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanin, T.; van der Werf, G. R.

    2015-06-01

    Fires are used as a tool in the deforestation process. Yet, the relationship between fire and deforestation may vary temporally and spatially depending on the type of deforestation and climatic conditions. This study evaluates spatiotemporal dynamics of deforestation and fire represented by burned area over the 2002-2012 period in the Brazilian Legal Amazon. As a first step, we compared newly available Landsat-based maps of gross forest cover loss from the Global Forest Change (GFC) project with maps of deforestation extent from the Amazon Deforestation Monitoring Project (PRODES) produced by the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE). As a second step, we rescaled the Landsat-based data to the 500 m resolution of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area data (MCD64A1) and stratified this using MODIS land cover data to study the role of burned area in forest cover loss and deforestation. We found that while GFC forest cover loss and PRODES deforestation generally agreed on spatial and temporal dynamics, there were several key differences between the datasets. Both showed a decrease in the extent of forest cover loss or deforestation after 2004, but the drop was larger and more continuous in PRODES than in GFC. The observed decrease in forest cover loss or deforestation rates over our study period was mainly due to lower clearing rates in the evergreen broadleaf forests in the states of Mato Grosso, Pará and Rondônia. GFC indicated anomalous high forest cover loss in the years 2007 and 2010 not reported by PRODES. The burned area data showed that this was predominantly related to increased fire activity occurring outside of the tropical forest area during these dry years, mainly in Pará. This indicates that fire and forest loss dynamics in woodlands or secondary forests may be equally important as deforestation in regulating atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In addition to the decrease in forest cover loss rates, we also

  5. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    level, using stepwise multiple linear regression and cross validation on the dataset which is consisting of 44 groups of copper ion content information in the polluted vegetation leaves from Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi Province to build up a statistical model by also incorporating the HJ-1 satellite images. This model was then used to estimate the copper content distribution over the whole research area at Dexing Copper Mine. The result has shown that there is strong statistical significance of the model which revealed the most sensitive waveband to copper ion is located at 516 nm. The distribution map illustrated that the copper ion content is generally in the range of 0-130 mg · kg⁻¹ in the vegetation covering area at Dexing Copper Mine and the most seriously polluted area is located at the South-east corner of Dexing City as well as the mining spots with a higher value between 80 and 100 mg · kg⁻¹. This result is consistent with the ground observation experiment data. The distribution map can certainly provide some important basic data on the copper pollution monitoring and treatment. PMID:26978931

  6. [Retrieval of Copper Pollution Information from Hyperspectral Satellite Data in a Vegetation Cover Mining Area].

    PubMed

    Qu, Yong-hua; Jiao, Si-hong; Liu, Su-hong; Zhu, Ye-qing

    2015-11-01

    level, using stepwise multiple linear regression and cross validation on the dataset which is consisting of 44 groups of copper ion content information in the polluted vegetation leaves from Dexing Copper Mine in Jiangxi Province to build up a statistical model by also incorporating the HJ-1 satellite images. This model was then used to estimate the copper content distribution over the whole research area at Dexing Copper Mine. The result has shown that there is strong statistical significance of the model which revealed the most sensitive waveband to copper ion is located at 516 nm. The distribution map illustrated that the copper ion content is generally in the range of 0-130 mg · kg⁻¹ in the vegetation covering area at Dexing Copper Mine and the most seriously polluted area is located at the South-east corner of Dexing City as well as the mining spots with a higher value between 80 and 100 mg · kg⁻¹. This result is consistent with the ground observation experiment data. The distribution map can certainly provide some important basic data on the copper pollution monitoring and treatment.

  7. Distribution of fish and macrozooplankton in ice-covered and open-water areas of the eastern Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, Alex; Cokelet, Edward D.

    2012-06-01

    The eastern Bering Sea shelf is a productive ecosystem with extensive commercial fisheries. Although the area is well-studied during summer months, little is known about the abundance and distribution of fish and macrozooplankton during periods of seasonal ice cover. The use of an icebreaker during the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST) provided a platform for spring acoustic surveys of fish and zooplankton in ice-covered areas for the first time. Icebreaker measurements were complemented with observations from conventional vessels during spring and summer. In spring, very little backscatter from fish (dominated by walleye pollock, Theragra chalcogramma) was observed in the ice-covered northern areas where near-bottom waters were cold (<˜0.5 °C), including areas where walleye pollock are abundant in summer. The majority of fish were observed within 40 km (and often slightly inside) the ice edge over similar seafloor depths as in summer. Together, these observations suggest that pollock, a dominant component of the ecosystem, shift their distribution to a more restricted geographic area in spring, following the ice edge southeast along the bathymetry, away from areas of cold water and extensive ice cover, then reoccupying these areas in summer. In contrast, acoustic backscatter attributed to zooplankton (likely dominated by euphausiids) was more evenly distributed, and less restricted by water temperature and ice cover. The implications of this seasonal shift in fish distribution are uncertain, but this may affect predator-prey interactions by reducing overlap of pollock with euphausiids, an important prey source, while increasing overlap of adult and juvenile pollock and potentially increasing cannibalism.

  8. Exploration of long-term reanalysis of Sierra Nevada snowpack inferred from snow covered area information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girotto, M.; Margulis, S. A.; Durand, M.

    2012-04-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the mountain snowpack and a continuously changing climate affects a variety of processes including surface water discharge. An apparent shift in ablation time and loss of snow water equivalent (SWE) in the Sierra Nevada range in California (CA), U.S.A. has been reported from several past studies based on downstream flow and/or point scale in-situ observations records. Understanding the geophysical controls and interannual variability of the spatial patterns of snow accumulation and ablation are critical for predicting the effects of climate variability on the snowpack water storage. Therefore, a continuous space-time characterization of snow distribution that uses spatially and temporally extensive remotely sensed information is necessary to improve our ability to predict and monitor this vital resource in complex mountainous terrain. Toward this end, this research generates spatial and temporal SWE estimates over a snow-dominated watershed located in the Southern Sierra Nevada, CA. We use a reanalysis data assimilation approach that is capable of merging remotely sensed Snow Covered Area (SCA) data into snow prediction models, while at the same time accounting for the limitations of each. SCA information derived from the long-term record of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper measurements are used. The assimilation of SCA into the land surface model, coupled together with a snow depletion model, predicts continuous (in space and time) SWE at a high spatial resolution. The resulting SWE dataset from the reanalysis framework, and its relation to physiographic properties, is studied to explore specific information related to how snow accumulation and snow melt has evolved and been effected by climate variability and change. In particular, the analysis focuses on highlighting how patterns related to different physiographic components respond to observed climate signals (e.g. Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Oceanic El Niño Index (ONI)) and

  9. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  10. Cover design for radioactive and AMD-producing mine waste in the Ronneburg area, eastern Thuringia.

    PubMed

    Gatzweiler, R; Jahn, S; Neubert, G; Paul, M

    2001-01-01

    At the former uranium mining site of Ronneburg, large scale underground and open pit mining for nearly 40 years resulted in a production of about 113,000 tonnes of uranium and about 200 million cubic metres of mine waste. In their present state, these materials cause risks to human health and strong environmental impacts and therefore demand remedial action. The remediation options available are relocation of mine spoil into the open pit and on site remediation by landscaping/contouring, placement of a cover and revegetation. A suitable vegetated cover system combined with a surface water drainage system provides long-term stability against erosion and reduces acid generation thereby meeting the main remediation objectives which are long-term reduction of radiological exposure and contaminant emissions and recultivation. The design of the cover system includes the evaluation of geotechnical, radiological, hydrological, geochemical and ecological criteria and models. The optimized overall model for the cover system has to comply with general conditions as, e.g. economic efficiency, public acceptance and sustainability. Most critical elements for the long-term performance of the cover system designed for the Beerwalde dump are the barrier system and its long-term integrity and a largely self-sustainable vegetation.

  11. Low-cost computer classification of land cover in the Portland area, Oregon, by signature extension techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaydos, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    The cost of classifying 5,607 square kilometers (2,165 sq. mi.) in the Portland area was less than 8 cents per square kilometer ($0.0788, or $0.2041 per square mile). Besides saving in costs, this and other signature extension techniques may be useful in completing land use and land cover mapping in other large areas where multispectral and multitemporal Landsat data are available in digital form but other source materials are generally lacking.

  12. Associations of forest cover, fragment area, and connectivity with neotropical understory bird species richness and abundance.

    PubMed

    Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Prado, Paulo Inácio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the total amount of forest and the size and connectivity of fragments have nonlinear effects on species survival. We tested how habitat amount and configuration affect understory bird species richness and abundance. We used mist nets (almost 34,000 net hours) to sample birds in 53 Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. Fragments were distributed among 3 10,800-ha landscapes. The remaining forest in these landscapes was below (10% forest cover), similar to (30%), and above (50%) the theoretical fragmentation threshold (approximately 30%) below which the effects of fragmentation should be intensified. Species-richness estimates were significantly higher (F= 3715, p = 0.00) where 50% of the forest remained, which suggests a species occurrence threshold of 30-50% forest, which is higher than usually occurs (<30%). Relations between forest cover and species richness differed depending on species sensitivity to forest conversion and fragmentation. For less sensitive species, species richness decreased as forest cover increased, whereas for highly sensitive species the opposite occurred. For sensitive species, species richness and the amount of forest cover were positively related, particularly when forest cover was 30-50%. Fragment size and connectivity were related to species richness and abundance in all landscapes, not just below the 30% threshold. Where 10% of the forest remained, fragment size was more related to species richness and abundance than connectivity. However, the relation between connectivity and species richness and abundance was stronger where 30% of the landscape was forested. Where 50% of the landscape was forested, fragment size and connectivity were both related to species richness and abundance. Our results demonstrated a rapid loss of species at relatively high levels of forest cover (30-50%). Highly sensitive species were 3-4 times more common above the 30-50% threshold than below it

  13. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance Tribes/Consortia... workmen's compensation; (3) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims...

  14. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance Tribes/Consortia... workmen's compensation; (3) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims...

  15. 25 CFR 1000.272 - Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Federal Tort Claims § 1000.272 Do Tribes/Consortia need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover? Yes, there are claims against Self-Governance Tribes/Consortia... workmen's compensation; (3) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims...

  16. Characterization ReportOperational Closure Covers for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada Geotechnical Sciences

    2005-06-01

    Bechtel Nevada (BN) manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites (RWMSs) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The Area 3 RWMS is located in south-central Yucca Flat and the Area 5 RWMS is located about 15 miles south, in north-central Frenchman Flat. Though located in two separate topographically closed basins, they are similar in climate and hydrogeologic setting. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste, while the Area 3 RWMS uses subsidence craters formed from underground testing of nuclear weapons for the disposal of packaged and unpackaged bulk waste. Over the next several decades, most waste disposal units at both the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs are anticipated to be closed. Closure of the Area 3 and Area 5 RWMSs will proceed through three phases: operational closure, final closure, and institutional control. Many waste disposal units at the Area 5RWMS are operationally closed and final closure has been placed on one unit at the Area 3 RWMS (U-3ax/bl). Because of the similarities between the two sites (e.g., type of wastes, environmental factors, operational closure cover designs, etc.), many characterization studies and data collected at the Area 3 RWMS are relevant and applicable to the Area 5 RWMS. For this reason, data and closure strategies from the Area 3 RWMS are referred to as applicable. This document is an interim Characterization Report – Operational Closure Covers, for the Area 5 RWMS. The report briefly describes the Area 5 RWMS and the physical environment where it is located, identifies the regulatory requirements, reviews the approach and schedule for closing, summarizes the monitoring programs, summarizes characterization studies and results, and then presents conclusions and recommendations.

  17. A MODELING APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING WATERSHED IMPERVIOUS SURFACE AREA FROM NATIONAL LAND COVER DATA 92

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used National Land Cover Data 92 (NLCD92), vector impervious surface data, and raster GIS overlay methods to derive impervious surface coefficients per NLCD92 class in portions of the Nfid-Atlantic physiographic region. The methods involve a vector to raster conversion of the ...

  18. Near Road Tree Cover in the Portland, ME EnviroAtlas Community Area

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally, local air pollution from busy roadways is a significant issue for public health. Recent studies have shown that having tree cover between highly-traveled roads and people living, working, and going to school nearby can help to mitigate pollution and potentially r...

  19. Evaluating source area contributions from aircraft flux measurements over heterogeneous land cover by large eddy simulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The estimation of spatial patterns in surface fluxes from aircraft observations poses several challenges in presence of heterogeneous land cover. In particular, the effects of turbulence on scalar transport and the different behavior of passive (e.g. moisture) versus active (e.g. temperature) scalar...

  20. ASSESSING THE ACCURACY OF NATIONAL LAND COVER DATASET AREA ESTIMATES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL EXTENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Site specific accuracy assessments provide fine-scale evaluation of the thematic accuracy of land use/land cover (LULC) datasets; however, they provide little insight into LULC accuracy across varying spatial extents. Additionally, LULC data are typically used to describe lands...

  1. Effect of partial covering of the visitor viewing area window on positioning and orientation of zoo orangutans: A preference test.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Rachel C; Gillespie, Graeme R; Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The window of the visitor viewing area adjacent to an animal platform in an orangutan enclosure was altered to produce three viewing treatments in a randomized controlled experiment. These treatments were window uncovered, left side of the window covered or right side of the window covered. Observations were conducted on the orangutans present on the platform, and on their location (left or right side), and orientation (towards or away from the window) while on the platform. The partial covering of the window had little effect on the proportion of time orangutans spent on the viewing platform, or on the direction they faced when on the platform. When the orangutans were facing towards the window, and the right side was uncovered, irrespective of whether the left side was covered, they spent about three quarters of the time on the right side, suggesting a preference for the right side of the platform. However, when the right side was covered and the left side uncovered, the animals facing towards the window spent only about a quarter of the time on the right side, that is, they spent more time on the uncovered side. The results suggest that the orangutans have a preference to position themselves to face the window of the visitor viewing area.

  2. Effect of partial covering of the visitor viewing area window on positioning and orientation of zoo orangutans: A preference test.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Rachel C; Gillespie, Graeme R; Kerswell, Keven J; Butler, Kym L; Hemsworth, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    The window of the visitor viewing area adjacent to an animal platform in an orangutan enclosure was altered to produce three viewing treatments in a randomized controlled experiment. These treatments were window uncovered, left side of the window covered or right side of the window covered. Observations were conducted on the orangutans present on the platform, and on their location (left or right side), and orientation (towards or away from the window) while on the platform. The partial covering of the window had little effect on the proportion of time orangutans spent on the viewing platform, or on the direction they faced when on the platform. When the orangutans were facing towards the window, and the right side was uncovered, irrespective of whether the left side was covered, they spent about three quarters of the time on the right side, suggesting a preference for the right side of the platform. However, when the right side was covered and the left side uncovered, the animals facing towards the window spent only about a quarter of the time on the right side, that is, they spent more time on the uncovered side. The results suggest that the orangutans have a preference to position themselves to face the window of the visitor viewing area. PMID:25716803

  3. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  4. Land-cover change in upper Barataria Basin estuary, Louisiana, 1972-1992: increases in Wetland area.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stacy A C; Soranno, Patricia A; Qi, Jiaguo

    2002-05-01

    The Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA, is an extensive wetland and coastal estuary system of great economic and intrinsic value. Although high rates of wetland loss along the coastal margin of the Barataria Basin have been well documented, little information exists on whether freshwater wetlands in the upper basin have changed. Our objectives were to quantify land-cover change in the upper basin over 20 years from 1972-1992 and to determine land-cover transition rates among land-cover types. Using 80-m resolution Landsat MSS data from the North American Landscape Characterization (NALC) data archive, we classified images from three time steps (1972, 1985, 1992) into six land-cover types: agriculture, urban, bottomland hardwood forest, swamp forest, freshwater marsh, and open water. Significant changes in land cover occurred within the upper Barataria Basin over the study period. Urban land increased from 8% to 17% of the total upper basin area, primarily due to conversions from agricultural land, and to a lesser degree, bottomland forest. Swamp forest increased from 30% to 41%, associated with conversions from bottomland hardwood forest and freshwater marsh. Overall, bottomland forest decreased 38% and total wetland area increased 21%. Within the upper Barataria, increases in total wetland area may be due to land subsidence. Based on our results, if present trends in the reduction of bottomland forest land cover were to continue, the upper Barataria Basin may have no bottomland hardwood forests left by the year 2025, as it is subjected to multiple stressors both in the higher elevations (from urbanization) and lower elevations (most likely from land subsidence). These results suggest that changes in the upper freshwater portions of coastal estuaries can be large and quite different from patterns observed in the more saline coastal margins.

  5. Forecasting land-cover growth using remotely sensed data: a case study of the Igneada protection area in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, A Gonca; Balcik, Filiz Bektas; Goksel, Cigdem; Esbah, Hayriye

    2015-03-01

    Human activities in many parts of the world have greatly affected natural areas. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of land-cover changes are important components for sustainable utilization, conservation, and development of these areas. This research has been conducted on Igneada, a legally protected area on the northwest coast of Turkey, which is famous for its unique, mangrove forests. The main focus of this study was to apply a land use and cover model that could quantitatively and graphically present the changes and its impacts on Igneada landscapes in the future. In this study, a Markov chain-based, stochastic Markov model and cellular automata Markov model were used. These models were calibrated using a time series of developed areas derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery between 1990 and 2010 that also projected future growth to 2030. The results showed that CA Markov yielded reliable information better than St. Markov model. The findings displayed constant but overall slight increase of settlement and forest cover, and slight decrease of agricultural lands. However, even the slightest unsustainable change can put a significant pressure on the sensitive ecosystems of Igneada. Therefore, the management of the protected area should not only focus on the landscape composition but also pay attention to landscape configuration. PMID:25647805

  6. Forecasting land-cover growth using remotely sensed data: a case study of the Igneada protection area in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozkaya, A Gonca; Balcik, Filiz Bektas; Goksel, Cigdem; Esbah, Hayriye

    2015-03-01

    Human activities in many parts of the world have greatly affected natural areas. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of land-cover changes are important components for sustainable utilization, conservation, and development of these areas. This research has been conducted on Igneada, a legally protected area on the northwest coast of Turkey, which is famous for its unique, mangrove forests. The main focus of this study was to apply a land use and cover model that could quantitatively and graphically present the changes and its impacts on Igneada landscapes in the future. In this study, a Markov chain-based, stochastic Markov model and cellular automata Markov model were used. These models were calibrated using a time series of developed areas derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery between 1990 and 2010 that also projected future growth to 2030. The results showed that CA Markov yielded reliable information better than St. Markov model. The findings displayed constant but overall slight increase of settlement and forest cover, and slight decrease of agricultural lands. However, even the slightest unsustainable change can put a significant pressure on the sensitive ecosystems of Igneada. Therefore, the management of the protected area should not only focus on the landscape composition but also pay attention to landscape configuration.

  7. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source.

  8. Agent Orange footprint still visible in rural areas of central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Banout, Jan; Urban, Ondrej; Musil, Vojtech; Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968-1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  9. Agent Orange Footprint Still Visible in Rural Areas of Central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Szakova, Jirina; Balik, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Levels of polychlorinated dioxins/furans (PCDD/PCDF) in selected environmental samples (soils, sediments, fish, and farm animals) were analyzed from the area of Phong My commune (Thua Thien-Hue province, Vietnam). This area was affected by Agent Orange spraying during the Vietnam war (1968–1971). Whereas PCDD/PCDF content in soil and sediment samples is relatively low and ranges between 0.05 and 5.1 pg WHO-TEQ/g for soils and between 0.7 and 6.4 pg WHO-TEQ/g for sediments, the PCDD/PCDF content in poultry muscle and liver in most cases exceeded the maximum permissible limit of dioxin content per unit fat mass. In some cases of soil and sediments samples, 2,3,7,8-TCDD represented more than 90% of the total PCDD/PCDF, which indicates Agent Orange as the main source. PMID:24639878

  10. Annual Evaluation Report for Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents Covering Period from June 2004 to May 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulp, Sherri L.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities and findings of Horizon Research, Inc. (HRI) in its external evaluation of the American Association of Physic Teachers (APPT's) Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents (PTRA) project. The report details HRI's work and findings since June 2004. The report is divided into five main sections. The first provides an…

  11. Annual Evaluation Report for Rural Physics Teacher Resource Agents Covering Period from June 2005 to April 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulp, Sherri L.; Banilower, Eric R.

    2006-01-01

    In July of 2005, the American Association of Physics Teachers/Physics Teacher Resource Agents (AAPT/PTRA) Rural Project gathered 73 PTRAs at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City for the annual AAPT/PTRA Leadership Institute. The major goal for the summer institute is to provide the PTRAs with the knowledge and skills needed to effectively lead…

  12. Proposal of an agent-based analytical model to convert industrial areas in industrial eco-systems.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elena; Ruiz, M Carmen

    2014-01-15

    The transformation of industrial areas towards greater sustainability results from a strategic objective to address the effects of economic and environmental crisis. Such transformation, however, requires methodologies and tools that support and facilitate the process. This paper proposes an analytical model that favours the redesign of industrial areas based on sustainable strategies for eco-industrial parks. The proposed model is enhanced by the definition of building blocks of an agent-based modelling method. The methodology that was followed favours the detailed description of the objectives of the system, with individual elements and adaptation to the surrounding environment, amongst other features. The proposed model integrates a knowledge database that supports the process of identification of cooperative strategies such as material exchange networks in industrial areas. The underlying theory for the assessment of cooperative interactions is game theory, which supports the resolution of problems with strategic choices. This work covers the stage of analytical model formulation that is essential for advancement towards the inference process based on simulation models.

  13. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  14. Monitoring urbanization and land cover change in the Yangtze River Delta: a case study of Pudong New Area, Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Junshi; Du, Peijun; Cao, Wen

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, Pudong New Area in Shanghai was selected as the study area, and medium resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ and CBERS (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) images were used as data source. Two classification methods were applied to generate land cover maps: Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and a hierarchical method based on the V-I-S model (H-VIS). After comparing the results derived from these two methods, H-VIS model provides more accurate results than MLC. By analyzing the land cover change from 1989 to 2008, it was found that agricultural land has decreased greatly, while impervious surface area (ISA, including residential and commercial/industrial/traffic land) has increased year by year. In order to better monitor urbanization, diversity index, shape index, fractal dimension and isolation were selected to analyze the landscape pattern in the study area. The results show that the complexity of landscape structure and the fragmentation of the landscape increased from 1989 to 2008, however, the intensity and tendency of the landscape changes varied during the two comparative periods: 1989-2001 and 2001-2008. Finally, using data obtained from image interpretation and other data source, land cover change patterns and their driving forces, including economy, population and policies were analyzed.

  15. Towards an enhanced method to map snow cover areas and derive snow-water equivalent in Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mhawej, Mario; Faour, Ghaleb; Fayad, Abbas; Shaban, Amin

    2014-05-01

    Snow cover contributes to the definition of the hydrologic system of most River Basins in Lebanon. Despite its importance little is known about the proper quantification of snow cover extent and snow water equivalent (SWE), as well as the snow contribution to the hydrologic budget at the national scale. By taking advantage of the moderate-resolution optical sensors (MODIS) from both Terra and Aqua satellites it was possible to generate enhanced, eight-days, Terra-Aqua Combined (TAC) product set at a spatial resolution of 500 m. An innovative method that combines the AMSR-E SWE data (∼25 km spatial resolution) and the enhanced TAC dataset was developed to derive a SWE product at a sub-pixel spatial resolution of 500 m. Both the enhanced TAC and the downscaled SWE were developed for the entire Lebanon. The enhanced TAC dataset was found to reduce cloud cover area by ∼13% when compared to the original MOD10A2 dataset. Snow cover area was validated against ETM+ data and the SWE was assessed against in situ measurements; the overall accuracy of the snow cover maps was ∼85%, whereas, the comparison between ground points measured and remotely sensed derived SWE indicates a poor correlation. This study concluded that while the use of TAC is well suited for the assessment of snow cover extent nationwide, the derived SWE from AMSR-E is not fully deployable in Lebanon. Meanwhile, a snow melt method that takes advantage from the remotely sensed SWE is needed to better achieve results suitable for hydrologic studies.

  16. Generating local scale land use/cover change scenarios: case studies of high-risk mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Žiga; Glade, Thomas; Boerboom, Luc

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between land use/cover changes and consequences to human well-being is well acknowledged and has led to higher interest of both researchers and decision makers in driving forces and consequences of such changes. For example, removal of natural vegetation cover or urban expansion resulting in new elements at risk can increase hydro-meteorological risk. This is why it is necessary to study how the land use/cover could evolve in the future. Emphasis should especially be given to areas experiencing, or expecting, high rates of socio-economic change. A suitable approach to address these changes is scenario development; it offers exploring possible futures and the corresponding environmental consequences, and aids decision-making, as it enables to analyse possible options. Scenarios provide a creative methodology to depict possible futures, resulting from existing decisions, based on different assumptions of future socio-economic development. They have been used in various disciplines and on various scales, such as flood risk and soil erosion. Several studies have simulated future scenarios of land use/cover changes at a very high success rate, however usually these approaches are tailor made for specific case study areas and fit to available data. This study presents a multi-step scenario generation framework, which can be transferable to other local scale case study areas, taking into account the case study specific consequences of land use/cover changes. Through the use of experts' and decision-makers' knowledge, we aimed to develop a framework with the following characteristics: (1) it enables development of scenarios that are plausible, (2) it can overcome data inaccessibility, (3) it can address intangible and external driving forces of land use/cover change, and (4) it ensures transferability to other local scale case study areas with different land use/cover change processes and consequences. To achieve this, a set of different methods is applied

  17. Land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration program areas in China from 2000 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The grassland restoration areas in China, most of which was located in arid and semi-arid areas, are affected by climate change and anthropogenic activities. Using the 3S (RS, GIS, GPS) technologies, quantitative analysis method of landscape patterns and ecological simulation, this study examines the spatiotemporal characteristics of land use/ land cover and ecosystem functions change in the grassland restoration areas in China from 2000 to 2010. We apply two parameters land use transfer matrix and land use dynamic degree to explore the speed and regional differentiation of land use change. We propose vegetation coverage, net primary production (NPP), soil and water conservation capacity to assess the ecosystem functions. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape patterns at the class and landscape levels and explores the ecological effect of land use pattern and regional ecological processes. The results show that: (1) Grassland and others were the main landscape types in the study area in the past decade. The ecosystem structure was stable. About 0.37% of the total grassland area in 2000 experienced change in land use / land cover types. The area of woodlands, wetlands, farmlands, and built-up areas expanded. The area of others has declined. (2) The dynamic degree of regional land use was less than one percent in the recent ten years. The speed of land use and land cover change was low, and regional differentiation of change between the provinces was small. (3) The matrix of the landscape did not change in the study area. Landscape fragmentation index values decreased progressively; landscape diversity rose continuously; landscape aggregation and continuity decreased slightly; the landscape maintained relative integrity. (4) Ecosystem functions has increased as a whole. The vegetation coverages with significant increase (with a 1.99% yr-1 slope of regression) in the total study area; NPP has a fluctuating and increasing tendency, ranging from 218.23 g

  18. Exploring Land use and Land cover change in the mining areas of Wa East District, Ghana using Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basommi, Prosper Laari; Guan, Qingfeng; Cheng, Dandan

    2015-11-01

    Satellite imagery has been widely used to monitor the extent of environmental change in both mine and post mine areas. This study uses Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques for the assessment of land use/land cover dynamics of mine related areas in Wa East District of Ghana. Landsat satellite imageries of three different time periods, i.e., 1991, 2000 and 2014 were used to quantify the land use/cover changes in the area. Supervised Classification using Maximum Likelihood Technique in ERDAS was utilized. The images were categorized into five different classes: Open Savannah, Closed Savannah, Bare Areas, Settlement and Water. Image differencing method of change detection was used to investigate the changes. Normalized Differential Vegetative Index valueswere used to correlate the state of healthy vegetation. The image differencing showed a positive correlation to the changes in the Land use and Land cover classes. NDVI values reduced from 0.48 to 0.11. The land use change matrix also showed conversion of savannah areas into bare ground and settlement. Open and close savannah reduced from 50.80% to 36.5% and 27.80% to 22.67% respectively whiles bare land and settlement increased. Overall accuracy of classified 2014 image and kappa statistics was 83.20% and 0.761 respectively. The study revealed the declining nature of the vegetation and the significance of using satellite imagery. A higher resolution satellite Imagery is however needed to satisfactorily delineate mine areas from other bare areas in such Savannah zones.

  19. Mapping Land Use/Land Cover in the Ambos Nogales Study Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norman, Laura M.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.

    2008-01-01

    The Ambos Nogales watershed, which surrounds the twin cities of Nogales, Arizona, United States and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, has a history of problems related to flooding. This paper describes the process of creating a high-resolution, binational land-cover dataset to be used in modeling the Ambos Nogales watershed. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment tool will be used to model the Ambos Nogales watershed to identify focal points for planning efforts and to anticipate ramifications of implementing detention reservoirs at certain watershed planes.

  20. An integrated approach for automated cover-type mapping of large inaccessible areas in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, Michael D.

    1988-01-01

    The lack of any detailed cover type maps in the state necessitated that a rapid and accurate approach to be employed to develop maps for 329 million acres of Alaska within a seven-year period. This goal has been addressed by using an integrated approach to computer-aided analysis which combines efficient use of field data with the only consistent statewide spatial data sets available: Landsat multispectral scanner data, digital elevation data derived from 1:250 000-scale maps, and 1:60 000-scale color-infrared aerial photographs.

  1. Spatial configuration of land-use/land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Reyes Hernández, Humberto; Aguilar Robledo, Miguel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Fortanelli Martínez, Javier

    2008-07-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between the configuration and spatial reorganization of land-use and land-cover in the Pujal-Coy project area, Huasteca Potosina region, eastern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, as well as the relationship between these changes and the environmental conditions prevailing in the area. Land-use and land-cover changes were determined through the analysis and interpretation of satellite images from different dates. The changes identified in the different study periods were correlated with the prevailing physical factors. The results show that the spatial configuration of farming activities, initially induced by the implementation of a regional development project, is highly correlated to the presence of limiting factors such as soil type, slope, and climate. Particularly, the former represents the element that has led to the establishment of the current distribution pattern of farming activities.

  2. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    PubMed

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  3. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    PubMed Central

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  4. Walrus areas of use in the Chukchi Sea during sparse sea ice cover

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Fischbach, Anthony S.; Kochnev, Anatoly A.

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens feeds on benthic invertebrates on the continental shelf of the Chukchi and Bering Seas and rests on sea ice between foraging trips. With climate warming, ice-free periods in the Chukchi Sea have increased and are projected to increase further in frequency and duration. We radio-tracked walruses to estimate areas of walrus foraging and occupancy in the Chukchi Sea from June to November of 2008 to 2011, years when sea ice was sparse over the continental shelf in comparison to historical records. The earlier and more extensive sea ice retreat in June to September, and delayed freeze-up of sea ice in October to November, created conditions for walruses to arrive earlier and stay later in the Chukchi Sea than in the past. The lack of sea ice over the continental shelf from September to October caused walruses to forage in nearshore areas instead of offshore areas as in the past. Walruses did not frequent the deep waters of the Arctic Basin when sea ice retreated off the shelf. Walruses foraged in most areas they occupied, and areas of concentrated foraging generally corresponded to regions of high benthic biomass, such as in the northeastern (Hanna Shoal) and southwestern Chukchi Sea. A notable exception was the occurrence of concentrated foraging in a nearshore area of northwestern Alaska that is apparently depauperate in walrus prey. With increasing sea ice loss, it is likely that walruses will increase their use of coastal haul-outs and nearshore foraging areas, with consequences to the population that are yet to be understood.

  5. Radioelement distributions and analysis of microtopographical influences in a shallow covered area, Inner Mongolia, China: Implications for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengbin; Chen, Jianguo; Xiao, Fan; Fode, Tounkara; Li, Liqing

    2016-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry is one of the most cost-effective prospecting methods for investigating anomalies in potassium, uranium, thorium and alteration indexes associated with hydrothermal and radioactive ore deposits. In this work, we selected an arid grass covered landscape micro-region in Inner Mongolia as the study area to examine the radioelement distributions and microtopographical influences on a gamma ray spectrometry survey. In general, concentrations of K, U, Th and TC (total count) of intrusive rocks are higher than the overburden cover. Overburden mixing with the eolian dust and in-situ weathered material reduces the gamma radiation penetrating into the Earth's surface. Similar to overburden, the thin layers of eolian dust in the concave areas of intrusive rock also reduce the measured radioelement concentrations. The decreasing order of radioelement concentrations in the study area is: Jurassic granodiorite > Carboniferous biotite porphyry > overburden. Th, U, K and TC increase with elevation, and all show positive correlations with elevation. The Th and TC have stronger correlations with elevation than K and U. Thus, K and U show relative local enrichment in low-lying areas, whilst Th and TC do not; alteration indices proposed to improve the discrimination of potassic alteration also generate false anomalies, caused by local enrichment of the K and U in low-lying areas. Therefore, the geological interpretation of gamma ray surveys for mineral exploration needs to consider the topography in order to reject false anomalies and retain the true anomalies associated with ore deposits.

  6. The impact of land use and land cover changes on land surface temperature in a karst area of China.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Honglin; Weng, Qihao

    2007-10-01

    Satellite images have been used extensively to study temporal changes in land use and land cover (LULC) in China. However, few studies have been conducted in the karst areas despite the large area and population involved and the fragile ecosystem. In this study, LULC changes were examined in part of Guizhou Province of southern China from 1991 to 2001 based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of November 7, 1991, December 5, 1994, and December 19, 2001. Land surface temperature (LST) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were computed based on LULC types. The results show that agricultural land decreased, while urban areas expanded dramatically, and forest land increased slightly. Barren land increased from 1991 to 1994, and then decreased from 1994 to 2001. These changes in LULC widened the temperature difference between the urban and the rural areas. The change in LST was mainly associated with changes in construction materials in the urban area and in vegetation abundance both in the urban and rural areas. Vegetation had a dual function in the temperatures of different LULC types. While it could ease the warming trend in the urban or built-up areas, it helped to keep other lands warmer in the cold weather. The study also reveals that due to the government's efforts on reforestation, rural ecosystems in some of the study area were being restored. The time required for the karst ecosystem to recover was shorter than previously thought.

  7. Relationship between surface area of nonperfused myocardium and extravascular extraction of contrast agent following coronary microembolization.

    PubMed

    Malyar, Nasser M; Lerman, Lilach O; Gössl, Mario; Beighley, Patricia E; Ritman, Erik L

    2011-08-01

    Myocardial microvascular permeability and coronary sinus concentration of muscle metabolites have been shown to increase after myocardial ischemia due to epicardial coronary artery occlusion and reperfusion. However, their association with coronary microembolization is not well defined. This study tested the hypothesis that acute coronary microembolization increases microvascular permeability in the porcine heart. The left anterior descending perfusion territories of 34 anesthetized pigs (32 ± 3 kg) were embolized with equal volumes of microspheres of one of three diameters (10, 30, or 100 μm) and at three different doses for each size. Electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used to assess in vivo, microvascular extraction of a nonionic contrast agent (an index of microvascular permeability) before and after microembolization with microspheres at baseline and during adenosine infusion. A high-resolution three-dimensional microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) scanner was subsequently used to obtain ex vivo, the volume and corresponding surface area of the embolized myocardial islands within the perfusion territories of the microembolized coronary artery. EBCT-derived microvascular extraction of contrast agent increased within minutes after coronary microembolization (P < 0.001 vs. baseline and vs. control values). The increase in coronary microvascular permeability was highly correlated to the micro-CT-derived total surface area of the nonperfused myocardium (r = 0.83, P < 0.001). In conclusion, myocardial extravascular accumulation of contrast agent is markedly increased after coronary microembolization and its magnitude is in proportion to the surface area of the interface between the nonperfused and perfused territories. PMID:21543631

  8. Trace element distribution in the snow cover from an urban area in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Siudek, Patrycja; Frankowski, Marcin; Siepak, Jerzy

    2015-05-01

    This work presents the first results from winter field campaigns focusing on trace metals and metalloid chemistry in the snow cover from an urbanized region in central Poland. Samples were collected between January and March 2013 and trace element concentrations were determined using GF-AAS. A large inter-seasonal variability depending on anthropogenic emission, depositional processes, and meteorological conditions was observed. The highest concentration (in μg L(-1)) was reported for Pb (34.90), followed by Ni (31.37), Zn (31.00), Cu (13.71), Cr (2.36), As (1.58), and Cd (0.25). In addition, several major anthropogenic sources were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA), among which the most significant was the activity of industry and coal combustion for residential heating. It was stated that elevated concentrations of some trace metals in snow samples were associated with frequent occurrence of south and southeast advection of highly polluted air masses toward the sampling site, suggesting a large impact of regional urban/industrial pollution plumes.

  9. Object Based Agricultural Land Cover Classification Map of Shadowed Areas from Aerial Image and LIDAR Data Using Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberto, R. T.; Serrano, S. C.; Damian, G. B.; Camaso, E. E.; Celestino, A. B.; Hernando, P. J. C.; Isip, M. F.; Orge, K. M.; Quinto, M. J. C.; Tagaca, R. C.

    2016-06-01

    Aerial image and LiDAR data offers a great possibility for agricultural land cover mapping. Unfortunately, these images leads to shadowy pixels. Management of shadowed areas for classification without image enhancement were investigated. Image segmentation approach using three different segmentation scales were used and tested to segment the image for ground features since only the ground features are affected by shadow caused by tall features. The RGB band and intensity were the layers used for the segmentation having an equal weights. A segmentation scale of 25 was found to be the optimal scale that will best fit for the shadowed and non-shadowed area classification. The SVM using Radial Basis Function kernel was then applied to extract classes based on properties extracted from the Lidar data and orthophoto. Training points for different classes including shadowed areas were selected homogeneously from the orthophoto. Separate training points for shadowed areas were made to create additional classes to reduced misclassification. Texture classification and object-oriented classifiers have been examined to reduced heterogeneity problem. The accuracy of the land cover classification using 25 scale segmentation after accounting for the shadow detection and classification was significantly higher compared to higher scale of segmentation.

  10. Analysis of passive microwave signatures over snow-covered mountainous area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, R. S.; Durand, M. T.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate knowledge of snow distribution over mountainous area is critical for climate studies and the passive microwave(PM) measurements have been widely used and invested in order to obtain information about snowpack properties. Understanding and analyzing the signatures for the explicit inversion of the remote sensing data from land surfaces is required for successful using of passive microwave sensors but this task is often ambiguous due to the large variability of physical conditions and object types. In this paper, we discuss the pattern of measured brightness temperatures and emissivities at vertical and horizontal polarization over the frequency range of 10.7 to 89 GHz of land surfaces under various snow and vegetation conditions. The Multiband polarimetric Scanning Radiometer(PSR) imagery is used over NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment(CLPX) study area with ground-based measurements of snow depth and snow properties. Classification of snow under various conditions in mountainous area is implemented based on different patterns of microwave signatures.

  11. Analysis of Land Use/Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing Data and GIS at an Urban Area, Tirupati, India

    PubMed Central

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  12. Analysis of land use/land cover changes using remote sensing data and GIS at an urban area, Tirupati, India.

    PubMed

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003. PMID:23781152

  13. Analysis of land use/land cover changes using remote sensing data and GIS at an urban area, Tirupati, India.

    PubMed

    Mallupattu, Praveen Kumar; Sreenivasula Reddy, Jayarama Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes were determined in an urban area, Tirupati, from 1976 to 2003 by using Geographical Information Systems (GISs) and remote sensing technology. These studies were employed by using the Survey of India topographic map 57 O/6 and the remote sensing data of LISS III and PAN of IRS ID of 2003. The study area was classified into eight categories on the basis of field study, geographical conditions, and remote sensing data. The comparison of LU/LC in 1976 and 2003 derived from toposheet and satellite imagery interpretation indicates that there is a significant increase in built-up area, open forest, plantation, and other lands. It is also noted that substantial amount of agriculture land, water spread area, and dense forest area vanished during the period of study which may be due to rapid urbanization of the study area. No mining activities were found in the study area in 1976, but a small addition of mining land was found in 2003.

  14. Regional debris flow susceptibility analysis in mountainous peri-urban areas through morphometric and land cover indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelis, M. C.; Werner, M.

    2014-11-01

    A method for assessing regional debris flow susceptibility at the watershed scale, based on an index composed of a morphometric indicator and a land cover indicator, is proposed and applied in 106 peri-urban mountainous watersheds in Bogotá, Colombia. The indicator of debris flow susceptibility is obtained from readily available information common to most peri-urban mountainous areas and can be used to prioritise watersheds that can subsequently be subjected to detailed hazard analysis. Susceptibility is considered to increase with flashiness and the possibility of debris flows occurring. Morphological variables recognised in the literature to significantly influence flashiness and occurrence of debris flows are used to construct the morphometric indicator by applying principal component analysis. Subsequently, this indicator is compared with the results of debris flow propagation to assess its capacity in identifying the morphological conditions of a watershed that make it able to transport debris flows. Propagation of debris flows was carried out using the Modified Single Flow Direction algorithm, following identification of source areas by applying thresholds identified in the slope-area curve of the watersheds. Results show that the morphometric variables can be grouped into four indicators: size, shape, hypsometry and (potential) energy, with energy being the component that best explains the capability of a watershed to transport debris flows. However, the morphometric indicator was found to not sufficiently explain the records of past floods in the study area. Combining the morphometric indicator with land cover indicators improved the agreement and provided a more reliable assessment of debris flow susceptibility in the study area. The analysis shows that, even if morphometric parameters identify a high disposition to the occurrence of debris flow, improving land cover can reduce the susceptibility. However, if favourable morphometric conditions are present

  15. Soil resources, land cover changes and rural areas: towards a spatial mismatch?

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Agostino; Salvati, Luca; Sabbi, Alberto; Colantoni, Andrea

    2014-04-15

    The present study analyzes the impact of long-term urban expansion on soil depletion in Emilia-Romagna, an agricultural-specialized region of northern Italy. Using settlement density maps at three points in time (1945, 1971 and 2001) dense and diffused urbanization trends were assessed and correlated with soil quality. Non-urbanized land decreased from 11.8% in 1945 to 6.3% in 2001. Urbanization dynamics between 1945 and 1971 reflect the increase of dense settlements around pre-existing urban centers. To the contrary, a discontinuous, low- and medium-density urban expansion along the road network and in the most fertile lowland areas was observed between 1971 and 2001. Overall, urbanization consumed soils with progressively higher quality. However, a diverging trend was observed in the two investigated time intervals: soil with high quality was occupied by compact and dense settlements during 1945-1971 and by discontinuous, medium- and low-density settlements during 1971-2001. These findings document the polarization in areas with low and high soil capital and may reflect disparities in agricultural production and increasing environmental degradation. Moreover, the analysis shows a diverging trend between land and soil consumption patterns suggesting that the edification of pervious land is an unreliable indicator of soil quality depletion. Taken together, the results of this study illustrate the (increasing) spatial mismatch between agricultural land and high-quality soils as a consequence of urbanization-driven landscape transformations and may inform measures to contain soil depletion driven by economic growth.

  16. A priori evaluation of two-stage cluster sampling for accuracy assessment of large-area land-cover maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Stehman, S.V.; Smith, J.H.; Wade, T.G.; Yang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Two-stage cluster sampling reduces the cost of collecting accuracy assessment reference data by constraining sample elements to fall within a limited number of geographic domains (clusters). However, because classification error is typically positively spatially correlated, within-cluster correlation may reduce the precision of the accuracy estimates. The detailed population information to quantify a priori the effect of within-cluster correlation on precision is typically unavailable. Consequently, a convenient, practical approach to evaluate the likely performance of a two-stage cluster sample is needed. We describe such an a priori evaluation protocol focusing on the spatial distribution of the sample by land-cover class across different cluster sizes and costs of different sampling options, including options not imposing clustering. This protocol also assesses the two-stage design's adequacy for estimating the precision of accuracy estimates for rare land-cover classes. We illustrate the approach using two large-area, regional accuracy assessments from the National Land-Cover Data (NLCD), and describe how the a priorievaluation was used as a decision-making tool when implementing the NLCD design.

  17. Effect of exposure area on nerve agent absorption through skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher; Graham, Stuart; Jenner, John

    2015-12-25

    Diffusion cells are used to determine the penetration of chemicals through skin in vitro. The cells have a limited surface area defined by the edge of the donor chamber. Should the penetrant spread rapidly to this containment limit the penetration rate can be accurately quantified. For the hazard assessment of small droplets of toxic chemicals, such as cholinesterase inhibitors, limiting skin surface spread in vitro could lead to underestimation of percutaneous penetration and hence underestimation of systemic toxicity in vivo. The current study investigated the dependency of the percutaneous penetration of undiluted radiolabelled nerve agents (VX and soman (GD), 10 μl) on skin surface spread (pig and guinea pig) using Franz-type glass diffusion cells with an area available for diffusion of either 2.54 cm(2) or 14.87 cm(2). Both VX and GD spread to the edge of the 2.54 cm(2) cells, but, not the 14.87 cm(2) cells over the study duration. Amounts of VX and GD penetrating pig and guinea pig skin in the 2.54 cm(2) cells were less than in the 14.87 cm(2) cells (except for GD under unoccluded conditions); however, penetration rates expressed per unit area were similar. Artificial limitation of skin surface spread in vitro does not impact percutaneous penetration in vitro as long as penetration is expressed in terms of mass per unit area.

  18. Long-term behavior of groundwater chemistry in a periodically rewetted fen area covered with macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Maassen, Sebastian; Balla, Dagmar; Dannowski, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We studied the long-term changes in groundwater composition in the context of peat restoration at a degraded water-table managed peatland site typical for many agriculturally used fen areas in the northern hemisphere. At the study site, peatland rewetting with groundwater control and pumped canal water was carried out in two periods: from 1997 to 2002 and from 2011 to 2013. The site was not managed between 2002 and 2011, which led to an unstable groundwater table that had declined in part. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of rewetting and desiccation on groundwater chemistry. We pursued a multivariate approach using nonlinear principal component analysis (Isomap) to identify the prevailing processes that control the groundwater quality in this system. Sixteen years after peatland restoration, the groundwater quality had significantly improved. Principal component analysis revealed that hydrological processes had a major impact on groundwater quality, i.e. fluctuations between upwelling of local, salt-influenced groundwater and downwelling of surface and rainwater (first principal component) as well as upwelling of regional groundwater from deeper layers (second principal component) which originated from the catchment. In particular, the upwelling of regional deep groundwater had a strong positive impact on the groundwater quality of upper layers at the Biesenbrow site. Another major impact on groundwater quality was nutrient withdrawal by macrophytes and incorporation into organic matter. In the upper groundwater layer, peat mineralization processes resulted in substantially increased SO4 concentrations. We concluded that potential matter release after rewetting is buffered by hydrological barriers, and seems to be marginal with little impact on adjacent environments in the long term. The ecosystem is sustainably stabilized, and therefore has no negative impact on groundwater quality during periods of water shortage. Due to the strong

  19. Long-term behavior of groundwater chemistry in a periodically rewetted fen area covered with macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Maassen, Sebastian; Balla, Dagmar; Dannowski, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We studied the long-term changes in groundwater composition in the context of peat restoration at a degraded water-table managed peatland site typical for many agriculturally used fen areas in the northern hemisphere. At the study site, peatland rewetting with groundwater control and pumped canal water was carried out in two periods: from 1997 to 2002 and from 2011 to 2013. The site was not managed between 2002 and 2011, which led to an unstable groundwater table that had declined in part. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of rewetting and desiccation on groundwater chemistry. We pursued a multivariate approach using nonlinear principal component analysis (Isomap) to identify the prevailing processes that control the groundwater quality in this system. Sixteen years after peatland restoration, the groundwater quality had significantly improved. Principal component analysis revealed that hydrological processes had a major impact on groundwater quality, i.e. fluctuations between upwelling of local, salt-influenced groundwater and downwelling of surface and rainwater (first principal component) as well as upwelling of regional groundwater from deeper layers (second principal component) which originated from the catchment. In particular, the upwelling of regional deep groundwater had a strong positive impact on the groundwater quality of upper layers at the Biesenbrow site. Another major impact on groundwater quality was nutrient withdrawal by macrophytes and incorporation into organic matter. In the upper groundwater layer, peat mineralization processes resulted in substantially increased SO4 concentrations. We concluded that potential matter release after rewetting is buffered by hydrological barriers, and seems to be marginal with little impact on adjacent environments in the long term. The ecosystem is sustainably stabilized, and therefore has no negative impact on groundwater quality during periods of water shortage. Due to the strong

  20. A study on monitoring land use/cover change of mining area based on ticket-voting SVM classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi; Yu, Jie; Ying, Min; Shen, Mingge

    2015-08-01

    Based on the development of classification algorithm applied in monitoring spatio-temporal dynamic changes of coal-- mining areas, several improvements were made on feature space and classification model in this paper. There were two innovations in our study: 1) During building the feature spaces, a new index for extracting information about mining area was created, which can classify mining area and settlements efficiently; 2) a special ticket-voting SVM algorithm with wavelet kernel function was proposed, which provides higher classification accuracy than other traditional classifiers via the secondary classification. Here we took the northeast plain of Pei county in Xuzhou city as a studying region, applying the proposed method to implement the classification by using the image of multi-temporal TM/ETM from the year of 1987 to 2013. How to carry on deep analysis combined with various non-spatial data is much more significant. Then we studied the rules of dynamic changes of land use/cover and further analyzed their driving factors by combining RS interpretation with GIS spatial analysis techniques. In this study, image recognition technology was applied to the problems of environmental change in coal mining area. These explanations provide some valuable supports for human to recognize and deal with the conflicts between economic development and environmental protection in coal mining areas.

  1. Stretchable Multichannel Electromyography Sensor Array Covering Large Area for Controlling Home Electronics with Distinguishable Signals from Multiple Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namyun; Lim, Taehoon; Song, Kwangsun; Yang, Sung; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-17

    Physiological signals provide important information for biomedical applications and, more recently, in the form of wearable electronics for active interactions between bodies and external environments. Multiple physiological sensors are often required to map distinct signals from multiple points over large areas for more diverse applications. In this paper, we present a reusable, multichannel, surface electromyography (EMG) sensor array that covers multiple muscles over relatively large areas, with compliant designs that provide different levels of stiffness for repetitive uses, without backing layers. Mechanical and electrical characteristics along with distinct measurements from different muscles demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The results should be useful to actively control devices in the environment with one array of wearable sensors, as demonstrated with home electronics. PMID:27500864

  2. Stretchable Multichannel Electromyography Sensor Array Covering Large Area for Controlling Home Electronics with Distinguishable Signals from Multiple Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namyun; Lim, Taehoon; Song, Kwangsun; Yang, Sung; Lee, Jongho

    2016-08-17

    Physiological signals provide important information for biomedical applications and, more recently, in the form of wearable electronics for active interactions between bodies and external environments. Multiple physiological sensors are often required to map distinct signals from multiple points over large areas for more diverse applications. In this paper, we present a reusable, multichannel, surface electromyography (EMG) sensor array that covers multiple muscles over relatively large areas, with compliant designs that provide different levels of stiffness for repetitive uses, without backing layers. Mechanical and electrical characteristics along with distinct measurements from different muscles demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. The results should be useful to actively control devices in the environment with one array of wearable sensors, as demonstrated with home electronics.

  3. Predicting soil erosion under land-cover area and climate changes using the revised universal soil loss equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Soyoung; Jin, Cheunggil; Choi, Chuluong

    2011-11-01

    Loss of soil has become a problem worldwide, and as concerns about the environment grow, active research has begun regarding soil erosion and soil-preservation polices. This study analyzed the trend of soil loss in South Korea over the past 30-year and predicted future soil loss in 2020 using the revised universal soil loss equation. In the period 1975-2005, soil loss showed an increasing trend, the 2005 value represents a 0.59 Mg/ha (2.58%) increase. Scenario 1 assumes that urban areas have a similar trend to that between 1975 and 2005 and that precipitation amount follows scenario A1B of the IPCC. The soil loss amount for 2020 land-cover map that account for the ECVAM should increase by 25.0~26.3% compared to 1975. In the case where the ECVAM is not considered, soil loss should increase by 27.7~31.8%. In Scenario 2, in which the urban area and precipitation follow the same trend as between 1975 and 2005, soil loss for 2020 land-cover map that consider the ECVAM will increase by 6.8%~7.9% compared to 1975. When the ECVAM is not considered, soil loss will increase by 9.1~12.6%. The environmental and legislative value of preservation should be considered to minimize erosion and allow for more sustainable development.

  4. Land cover mapping of the upper Kuskokwim Resource Managment Area using LANDSAT and a digital data base approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markon, Carl J.

    1988-01-01

    Digital land cover and terrain data for the Upper Kuskokwim Resource Hanagement Area (UKRMA) were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey, Earth Resources Observation Systems Field Office, Anchorage, Alaska for the Bureau of Land Management. These and other environmental data, were incorporated into a digital data base to assist in the management and planning of the UKRMA. The digital data base includes land cover classifications, elevation, slope, and aspect data centering on the UKRMA boundaries. The data are stored on computer compatible tapes at a 50-m pixel size. Additional digital data in the data base include: (a) summer and winter Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data registered to a 50-m Universal Transverse Mercator grid; (b) elevation, slope, aspect, and solar illumination data; (c) soils and surficial geology; and (e) study area boundary. The classification of Landsat MSS data resulted in seven major classes and 24 subclasses. Major classes include: forest, shrubland, dwarf scrub, herbaceous, barren, water, and other. The final data base will be used by resource personnel for management and planning within the UKRMA.

  5. Changing landscape in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Yangtze River from 1977 to 2005: Land use/land cover, vegetation cover changes estimated using multi-source satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jixian; Zhengjun, Liu; Xiaoxia, Sun

    2009-12-01

    The eco-environment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) in China has received much attention due to the construction of the Three Gorges Hydropower Station. Land use/land cover changes (LUCC) are a major cause of ecological environmental changes. In this paper, the spatial landscape dynamics from 1978 to 2005 in this area are monitored and recent changes are analyzed, using the Landsat TM (MSS) images of 1978, 1988, 1995, 2000 and 2005. Vegetation cover fractions for a vegetation cover analysis are retrieved from MODIS/Terra imagery from 2000 to 2006, being the period before and after the rising water level of the reservoir. Several analytical indices have been used to analyze spatial and temporal changes. Results indicate that cropland, woodland, and grassland areas reduced continuously over the past 30 years, while river and built-up area increased by 2.79% and 4.45% from 2000 to 2005, respectively. The built-up area increased at the cost of decreased cropland, woodland and grassland. The vegetation cover fraction increased slightly. We conclude that significant changes in land use/land cover have occurred in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The main cause is a continuous economic and urban/rural development, followed by environmental management policies after construction of the Three Gorges Dam.

  6. Uncertainty of spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different type of land cover and anthropogenic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Fabijańczyk, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    There is still a high interest in the improvement of soil magnetometry procedures that would increase its accuracy. Soil magnetometry is usually used as a fast screening method that is used to assess the degree of soil pollution. As the magnetometric measurements do not provide the exact information about the concentration of elements in soil, it is very important to determine the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility. The goal of this study was to analyze and present geostatistical methods of assessing the uncertainty of spatial distribution of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different land cover and anthropogenic pressure. In particular, spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device were calculated using indicator methods that make it possible to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical levels of soil magnetic susceptibility. Measurements were performed in areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements that included the determination of a concentration of selected elements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development underthe Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  7. Influence of shrub species and biological soil crust cover on nutrient distribution in a semiarid sand dune area (Negev, Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drahorad, S.; Felix-Henningsen, P.

    2009-04-01

    Deserts are expanding and the restoration of barren lands is of great importance. To achieve this goal the understanding of soil-plant interactions is necessary. In semiarid systems the biogeochemical cycles are strongly linked to "fertile islands" which are surrounded by bare interspaces, areas mostly covered by biological soil crusts. These microbiological communities have great influence runoff, nutrient fixation and soil stability. This spatial horizontal pattern on the surface leads to vertical distribution patterns of nutrients. For a re-established sand dune system in the Negev (Israel) this pattern is highly depending on surface cover. Here unconsolidated sand dunes have been stabilised by the growth of biological soil crust leading to an establishment of perennial shrubs. After 15 years of landuse exclusion a clear spatial pattern in the amount of different soil cations and anions can be proofed. Our results show significant difference for potassium, manganese, calcium, sodium and chloride under biological soil crusts, the chenopod Anabasis articulata and the legume Retama raetam. This redistribution on behalf of biological processes can be shown for 3 study sites along a sharp precipitation gradient (90 mm per year up to 170 mm per year). The comparison of the study sites shows changes in the distribution patterns with increasing precipitation not only due to higher leaching or differences in dust input but changes in plant activity. The plant essential potassium proofs to be the best indicator for redistribution processes. The not plant essential sodium is non-normally distributed as Anabasis articulata and the biological soil crust accumulate this cation. Perennial shrubs and biological soil crusts are important ecosystem engineers. They have the ability to enrich ecosystems with cations and anions. The mechanisms of redistribution depend on soil cover and amount of precipitation and are, contradictory to earlier results, not independent from shrub

  8. Making silica nanoparticle-covered graphene oxide nanohybrids as general building blocks for large-area superhydrophilic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Liang; Gao, Chao

    2011-02-01

    We report a facile strategy to synthesize silica nanoparticles-coated graphene oxide (GO-SiO2) nanohybrids in a water-alcohol mixture at room temperature. AFM observations revealed that silica nanoparticles with ca. 50 nm in size were densely and evenly covered on graphene oxide sheets. Due to the space layer of silica nanoparticles, micro-scale GO-SiO2 hybrid plates could be individually dispersed in water and polar organic solvents, promising good solution-based processibility. The growth process of GO-supported silica is traced by TGA and XRD measurements, showing that 24 hours is enough to achieve a fine cover effect for the disappearance of (002) diffraction peak of GO. Based on the high dense overlaying of silica nanoparticles, up to micro-scale silica sheets with thickness of ca. 8 nm were readily fabricated by burning GO-SiO2 at 650 °C in air. Likewise, a centimeter-scale semitransparent film of silica nanosheets was prepared by calcining a GO-SiO2 film. Interestingly, the GO-SiO2 nanohybrids exhibit excellent hydrophilic nature and can be directly applied as a general kind of building blocks to construct large-area superhydrophilic surfaces on arbitrary substrates (e.g., lotus leaf, ceramic tile and polypropylene) through the simple drop-coating method. Such a coating methodology paves the way for making large-area superhydrophilic surface without extra process treatments and damaging the intrinsic structure of substrates.We report a facile strategy to synthesize silica nanoparticles-coated graphene oxide (GO-SiO2) nanohybrids in a water-alcohol mixture at room temperature. AFM observations revealed that silica nanoparticles with ca. 50 nm in size were densely and evenly covered on graphene oxide sheets. Due to the space layer of silica nanoparticles, micro-scale GO-SiO2 hybrid plates could be individually dispersed in water and polar organic solvents, promising good solution-based processibility. The growth process of GO-supported silica is traced by TGA

  9. Variability of snow covered area and snow line elevation in the main Slovak river basins in winters 2001-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajci, Pavel; Holko, Ladislav; Parajka, Juraj

    2015-04-01

    We have analysed spatial and temporal variablity of snow cover patterns in ten main river basins of Slovakia in winters 2001-2014. The main objective was to investigate the factors that control the differences between the basins and winter seasons. Snow cover area (SCA) and snow line elevation (SLE) was determined from MODIS (MOD10A1 and MYD10A1) datasets by using method proposed by Krajčí et al. (2014). The analyzed river basins cover different physiographic conditions of Slovakia. Their size varies between 1966 and 9421 km2 and mean elevation ranges between 152 and 852 m a.s.l.. The results show that larger SCA typically tends to start in December. January and February are the months with maximum SCA values in all basins. The median of maximum SCA, however, exceeds 90% only in two basins situated in northern Slovakia. In April, larger SCA (5-10%) occur only in half of the basins. The assessment of SLE indicates that SLE varies between 250 and 650 m a.s.l. in January and increases approximately to 750-1500 m a.sl. in March and April. The evaluation indicates that snow poor winters with lower SCA occurred in winters 2001, 2007 and 2014. In opposite, the largest SCA was observed in 2006 and partly (in some basins) in 2007. The poster will also investigate the role of climate factors (air temperature and precipitation) on spatio-temporal variability of SCA and SLE. Sum of negative daily air temperatures and precipitation during the winter months (December-March) will be used to construct typical SCA reduction curves in selected headwater sub-basins. The implications of changing SCA on snowmelt runoff variability will be discussed and an attempt to predict streamflow behavior during the spring (snowmelt) period will be presented. References Krajčí, P., Holko, L., Perdigão, R.A.P., Parajka, J., Estimation of regional snowline elevation (RSLE) from MODIS images for seasonally snow covered mountain basins,2014,Journal of Hydrology,519,1769-1778.

  10. Advanced Algorithms for Rapidly Reconstructing Clandestine Releases of Biological Agents in Urban Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Hall, C.H.; Neher, L.A.; Wilder, F.J.; Gouveia, D.W.; Layton, D.W.; Daniels, J.I.

    2000-02-25

    As the United States plays a greater role in the 21st Century as global peacekeeper and international defender of human rights and democratic principles, there is an increasing likelihood that it will become the focus of acts of terrorism. Such acts of terrorism--sometimes described as ''asymmetric''--could involve the threat or use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), particularly those considered unconventional, which include ones designed to release chemical or biological agents. In fact, biological agents are of great concern because, as noted by D.A. Henderson of the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD, ''... with shortages of hospital space, vaccines, antibiotics, there would be chaos.'' (Williams, 2000). Unfortunately, potential aggressor nations, terrorist groups, and even individuals, can, for a modest cost and effort, develop covert capabilities for manufacturing, transporting, and offensively using biological weapons of mass destruction. Furthermore, there is evidence to indicate that terrorist increasingly are targeting civilian populations--in order to inflict indiscriminate casualties--as well as other more traditional targets such as symbolic buildings or organizations (see Tucker, 1999), which suggest that introducing rapid treatment after a biological event may be more practical than concentrating on prevention (see Siegrist, 1999), especially because sensors are unlikely to be placed in all major urban areas to detect even an atmospheric biological release. For these reasons, and because symptoms for the majority of those effected may not occur or be directly identified for several days, early identification of a covert undetected biological event (CUBE) will contribute to timely medical intervention, which can save many lives.

  11. Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Land-use and Land-cover Change: A Multi-agent Simulation Model and Its Application to an Upland Watershed in Central Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Q.; Vlek, P. L.; Park, S.

    2005-12-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LUCC) is an essential environmental process that should be monitored and prognosticated to provide a basis for better land management policy. However, LUCC modeling is a challenge due to the complex nature and unexpected behavior of both human drivers and natural constraints. This paper presents a multi-agent-based model to simulate spatio-temporal land-use changes and the interdependent socio-economic dynamics emerging from the complex socio-ecological interactions at micro levels resulting from land-use policy interventions. The model provides land-use scenarios under alternative policy to support decisions on land management for improved rural livelihoods while protecting the environment. In the multi-agent simulation model, the human community is represented by household agents (heterogeneous farming households) with their profiles and decision-making mechanisms about land use. The household profile defines the five asset dimensions of household livelihood (e.g., social, human, financial, natural and physical assets). The land-use decision-making program works by taking inputs from the household profile, perceived spatial environmental attributes, and introduced policies. The decision-making program is a logical procedure that combines a land-use choice model (multi-nominal logistic choices) and anthropological rules. The landscape environment is represented by landscape agents (congruent land patches of 30mx30m) with their state variables and ecological response mechanisms to environmental changes and human interventions. State variables of landscape agents correspond to spatial GIS-raster layers of biophysical, economic, and institutional variables. Ecological mechanisms of landscape agents are represented by internal sub-models of agricultural and forest productivity dynamics, which work in response to the current state, history, and spatial neighbourhood of the landscape agents. A multi-agent based protocol coordinates the

  12. Changes of acetylcholinesterase activity in different rat brain areas following intoxication with nerve agents: biochemical and histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bajgar, Jiri; Hajek, Petr; Slizova, Dasa; Krs, Otakar; Fusek, Josef; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel; Bartosova, Lucie; Blaha, Vaclav

    2007-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase activity in defined brain regions was determined using biochemical and histochemical methods 30 min after treating rats with sarin, soman or VX (0.5 x LD(50)). Enzyme inhibition was high in the pontomedullar area and frontal cortex, but was low in the basal ganglia. Histochemical and biochemical results correlated well. Determination of the activity in defined brain structures was a more sensitive parameter than determination in whole brain homogenate where the activity was a "mean" of the activities in different structures. The pontomedullar area controls respiration, so that the special sensitivity of acetylcholinesterase to inhibition by nerve agents in this area is important for understanding the mechanism of death caused by nerve agents. Thus, acetylcholinesterase activity is the main parameter investigated in studies searching for target sites following nerve agent poisoning.

  13. Monitoring Ground Subsidence in Areas Covered by Dense Vegetation Using Terrasar-X Images: a Case Study of Hangzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, H. A.; Zhang, Y. H.; Luo, G. F.; Kang, Y. K.; Zhu, Y. M.

    2016-06-01

    Hangzhou, the capital of Zhejiang province has suffered serious ground subsidence during the past several decades, due to long term over-exploration of groundwater. In this paper, the time series InSAR technique using high resolution SAR images is investigated for the generation of subsidence maps over Hangzhou region. 29 TerraSAR-X images acquired from May 2012 to Sep 2015 are used. The results show that serious subsidence has mainly taken place in suburban area, including Yuhang district, Xiaoshan district and Binjiang district. 4 subsidence centers are discovered, namely Tangqi town in Yuhang with an average subsiding velocity of -29.6 mm/year, Xintang (-30.7 mm/year) in Xiaoshan, Zhujiaqiao town (-25.6mm/year) in Xiaoshan, and Miaohouwang town (-30.1mm/year) in Binjiang. The urban area is stable and ground rebound even take place in some places. The results are compared with 19 levelling measurements. The RMS error between them is 2.9 mm/year, which demonstrates that the high resolution TerraSAR-X images has good accuracy for subsidence monitoring in the southeast of China, covered by dense vegetation.

  14. Etiologic Agents of Otomycosis in the North-Western Area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Majidinia, Maryam; Jaafari, Abbasali; Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali; Alikhah, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Otomycosis is a superficial fungal infection often involves the pinna and external auditory canal. It is a pathologic condition, with Candida and Aspergillus, the most common fungal species. It is common worldwide but more prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic agents and local epidemiologic pattern of otomycosis in northwest Iran. Patients and Methods: A series of 140 patients with clinically symptomatic otomycosis were studied in 21 cities, towns, and villages throughout northwest Iran between 2009 and 2011. Clinical samples were collected by swabs and then assessed by mycological investigation. Results: Otomycosis was diagnosed in 129 cases (92%, 76 male, 53 female) with the highest prevalence of cases occurring in males between 21 - 40 years of age. From an etiological point of view, 116 patients (90%, 21 - 40 years old) were infected by saprophytic mold and 9 patients (7%) were infected by yeast. Three cases (2%) involved dermatophytes, and in one case (1%) the subject was infected with Eurotium (the perfect stage of Aspergillus fumigatus). Aspergillus niger was the most common mold that was isolated, followed by A. flavus, A. fumigatus, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus spp. A total of 2 yeasts belonging to genus Candida, C. albicans and C. tropicalis, were isolated. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of otomycosis in the northwestern area of Iran. As such, proper diagnosis and treatment by aseptic techniques for this disease is urgently needed. PMID:26495108

  15. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A. )

    1996-01-01

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68[degrees] and 72[degrees] is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  16. Basin development and structure of the area covered by Tertiary basalts, offshore central West Greenland - implications of subvolcanic plays

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, R.C.; Bate, K.J.; Chalmers, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The West Greenland shelf area between 68{degrees} and 72{degrees} is covered by Lower Tertiary basalts and has so far proved difficult to explore seismically compared to the offshore basins farther north (Melville Bay) and south (southern West Greenland). A first seismic and geological interpretation of the basalt area has lead to a better understanding of the tectonic events during the Tertiary and their implications for hydrocarbon exploration. After a period of extension accompanied by basalt volcanic in the Paleocene, a period of transpression occurred related to sea-floor spreading in the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The crests of the anticlines formed were then eroded and transgressive marine sediments infilled the irregular topography and formed a number of restricted basins. Strike-slip faulting continued throughout the Eocene. Ongoing geophysical studies, including acquisition of additional seismic data in 1995, are aimed at improving seismic resolution beneath the basalts and deter- mining the structure and nature of the underlying sedimentary section. It has been possible, locally, to interpret horizons beneath the Paleocene volcanics where a thick sedimentary section is inferred to be present. The geological development of this succession has to be extrapolated from offshore southern West Greenland and the nearby onshore Nuussuaq basin. Active exploration including drilling started in the onshore basin in 1995 after the discovery of hydrocarbons in basalts at the surface and in shallow wells. The most promising play concept is subbasaltic reservoir sandstones with a mid- Cretaceous marine or a Paleocene deltaic oil-prone source rock. A possible post - basaltic play has also been identified and several large structural leads have been identified by mapping the Top Paleocene Volcanics horizon.

  17. How the physical properties of food influence its selection by infant Japanese macaques inhabiting a snow-covered area.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Haruka

    2015-03-01

    Dietary differences exist between infant and adult female non-human primates. These differences are considered to be related to the low ability of infants to bite, handle, and obtain food items. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive examination of how the physical properties of food items (fracture toughness, size, processing, and height) influence food selection by infant primates. In this study, four mother-infant Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) pairs were investigated in a snow-covered area during winter. The feeding behavior of both mothers and infants was recorded. The size, need for processing, and height of food items were recorded by direct observation, while the fracture toughness of food items (evaluating the required bite force by incisors) was measured using a rheometer. On average, infants spent 14% less time feeding than their mothers, and there were dietary differences between mothers and infants. Compared to their mothers, infants fed relatively more frequently on food items that were small, at a low position, or that could be consumed without processing. In addition, infants spent less time feeding on food items that were tougher than 2,000 J/m(2) . Thus, infants fed relatively more frequently on food items that are easy to obtain. This food selection by infants reduced the costs of feeding and allowed them to avoid falling from high trees.

  18. Detecting land-use/land-cover change in rural-urban fringe areas using extended change-vector analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunyang; Wei, Anni; Shi, Peijun; Zhang, Qiaofeng; Zhao, Yuanyuan

    2011-08-01

    Detecting land-use/land-cover (LULC) changes in rural-urban fringe areas (RUFAs) timely and accurately using satellite imagery is essential for land-use planning and management in China. Although traditional spectral-based change-vector analysis (CVA) can effectively detect LULC change in many cases, it encounters difficulties in RUFAs because of deficiencies in the spectral information of satellite images. To detect LULC changes in RUFAs effectively, this paper proposes an extended CVA approach that incorporates textural change information into the traditional spectral-based CVA. The extended CVA was applied to three different pilot RUFAs in China with different remotely sensed data, including Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) and Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) images. The results demonstrated the improvement of the extended CVA compared to the traditional spectral-based CVA with the overall accuracy increased between 4.66% and 8.00% and the kappa coefficient increased between 0.10 and 0.15, respectively. The advantage of the extended CVA lies in its integration of both spectral and textural change information to detect LULC changes, allowing for effective discrimination of LULC changes that are spectrally similar but texturally different in RUFAs. The extended CVA has great potential to be widely used for LULC-change detection in RUFAs, which are often heterogeneous and fragmental in nature, with rich textural information.

  19. Assessment of the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago using remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis (Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Remond, Ricardo; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.

    2015-04-01

    The study aim was to characterize the vegetation cover in a burned area 22-years ago considering the previous situation to wildfire in 1991 and the current one in 2013. The objectives were to: (i) compare the current and previous vegetation cover to widlfire; (ii) evaluate whether the current vegetation has recovered the previous cover to wildfire; and (iii) determine the spatial variability of vegetation recovery after 22-years since the wildfire. The study area is located in Sierra de las Nieves, South of Spain. It corresponds to an area affected by a wildfire in August 8th, 1991. The burned area was equal to 8156 ha. The burn severity was spatially very high. The main geographic features of the burned area are: mountainous topography (altitudes ranging from 250 m to 1500 m; slope gradient >25%; exposure mainly southfacing); igneous (peridotites), metamorphic (gneiss) and calcareous rocks (limestones); and predominant forest land use (Pinus pinaster sp. woodlands, 10%; pinus opened forest + shrubland, 40%; shrubland, 35%; and bare soil + grassland, 15%). Remote sensing techniques and GIS analysis has been applied to achieve the objectives. Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images were used: July 13th, 1991 and July 1st, 2013, for the previous wildfire situation and 22-years after, respectively. The 1990 CORINE land cover was also considered to map 1991 land uses prior the wildfire. Likewise, the Andalucía Regional Government wildfire historic records were used to select the burned area and its geographical limit. 1991 and 2013 land cover map were obtained by means of object-oriented classifications. Also, NDVI and PVI1 vegetation indexes were calculated and mapped for both years. Finally, some images transformations and kernel density images were applied to determine the most recovered areas and to map the spatial concentration of bare soil and pine cover areas in 1991 and 2013, respectively. According to the results, the combination of remote sensing and GIS analysis let

  20. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis of a Conceptual HBV Raınfall-Runoff MODEL Using Eumetsat Snow Covered Area Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurek, Z.; Surer, S.; Parajka, J.

    2014-12-01

    HBV is a conceptual hydrological model extensively used in operational hydrological forecasting and water balance studies. In this study, we apply the HBV model on the upper Euphrates basin in Turkey, which has 10 624 km2 area. The Euphrates basin is largely fed from snow precipitation whereby nearly two-thirds occur in winter and may remain in the form of snow for half of the year. We analyze individual sensitivity of the parameters by calibrating the model using the Multi-Objective Shuffled Complex Evolution (MOSCEM) algorithm. The calibration is performed against snow cover area (SCA) in addition to runoff data for the water years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013. The SCA product has been developed in the framework of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), Satellite Application Facility on Support to Operational Hydrology and Water Management (H-SAF) Project. The product is generated by using data from Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) instrument making observations from a geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation (MSG). In the previous study evaluation of the model was done with commonly used statistical performance metrics (Nash-Sutcliffe) for high and low flows, volume error and root mean square error (RMSE). In this study signature metrics, which are based on the flow duration curve (FDC) are used to see the performance of the model for low flows. In order to consider a fairly balanced evaluation between high and low flow phases we divided the flow duration curve into segments of high, medium and low flow phases, and additionally into very high and very low phases. Root mean square error (RMSE) is used to evaluate the performance in these segments. The sensitivity analysis of the parameters around the calibrated optimum points showed that parameters of the soil moisture and evapotranspiration (FC, beta and LPrat) have a strong effect in the total volume error of the model. The

  2. Analysis of land use and land cover change in a coastal area of Rio de Janeiro using high-resolution remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avelar, Silvania; Tokarczyk, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Coastal areas offer great recreational and economic opportunities, but require intensive resource management and environmental protection. Land use and land cover information provides a rapid and cost-effective means for monitoring and planning coastal area development. This study quantitatively describes spatiotemporal changes of land use and land cover over the last four decades in a coastal area of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Historical aerial photographs from 1976 and satellite images from 1990 and 2012 were classified and analyzed. We used supervised classification and machine learning techniques to classify the images. An accuracy assessment of results was performed. Land use change statistics for the period indicate that urban areas have increased to the detriment of dense vegetation, salines, and bare soil. The analysis provides a basis for better control of anthropogenic impacts and geoconservation activities in this coastal area of Rio de Janeiro.

  3. Comparative analysis of the soil cover diversity in floodplain areas of the Partizanskaya River valley (Sikhote-Alin Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarkina, A. V.

    2010-12-01

    The regularities of the soil cover formation and pattern in the Partizanskaya River valley (Sikhote-Alin Mountains) were revealed. The diversity of the soil cover was shown to depend on the landscape hydrological zone of the river basin, the structure of the floodplain, and the difference in flooding of the floodplain sections. The comparative assessment of the soil cover diversity using the Shannon index showed that, in the zone of accumulative landscapes, the soil cover diversity of the floodplain sections that were formed under the meandering of the river was higher than the diversity of the soil cover in the sections formed upon branching (furcation) of the channel. The maximum values of the Shannon index and the maximum supply with water characterize the floodplain in the mouth zone of the valley with the most stable conditions of soil formation. The determination of the diversity index for the soil cover and water supply of the floodplain sections is expedient in planning the economic activities in the valley.

  4. Establishing Transferable Sub-Pixel Relationships for Estimating Snow Depth from Remotely-Sensed Snow Covered Area and Terrain Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, D.; Molotch, N. P.

    2014-12-01

    Snowmelt is the primary water source in the Western United States and mountainous regions globally. Forecasts of streamflow and water supply rely heavily on snow measurements from sparse observation networks that may not provide adequate information during abnormal climatic conditions. In this regard, remote sensing can be used to monitor snow covered area (SCA), which we hypothesize can be used in conjunction with terrain information to estimate spatially explicit snow depth (SD). Small-scale terrain variability can be considered a proxy for the snow holding capacity of the ground. SCA should be more sensitive to changes in snow depth for smooth, or low variable terrain, and less sensitive to rougher terrain. To this end, we have developed a method that is not expected to depend on repeated climatic conditions because it accounts for the static accumulation capacity rather than dynamic processes. In preliminary investigations, a LiDaR dataset from 2010 from Green Lakes Valley, Colorado, USA (Harpold et al. 2014) was used to relate snow depth with fSCA and the sub-pixel terrain variability. Snow depth (dependent variable) and fSCA (independent variable) were aggregated from 1 meter to 30 meters from the LiDaR snow depth product while terrain variability metrics such as the coefficient of variation of elevation were calculated using the 900 1-meter elevation pixels inside each 30 meter pixel. Single linear regression of SD fit with fSCA explains 38% of the variability with a mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.36 m, but the goodness of fit increases to an average of 53% with MAE of 0.25 m as the data is binned by elev-cv; this may indicate that SD-SCA relationships vary by terrain type (slope, aspect, etc.). Further analysis of the scales at which these relationships are applicable and the viability with off-the-shelf DEM and fSCA products is needed. The utility of these relationships is such that snow depth could be estimated above treeline for any set of climatic

  5. On how much biodiversity is covered in Europe by national protected areas and by the Natura 2000 network: insights from terrestrial vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, L; Amori, G; Montemaggiori, A; Rondinini, C; Santini, L; Saura, S; Boitani, L

    2015-08-01

    The European Union has made extensive biodiversity conservation efforts with the Habitats and Birds Directives and with the establishment of the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, one of the largest networks of conservation areas worldwide. We performed a gap analysis of the entire Natura 2000 system plus national protected areas and all terrestrial vertebrates (freshwater fish excluded). We also evaluated the level of connectivity of both systems, providing therefore a first estimate of the functionality of the Natura 2000 system as an effective network of protected areas. Together national protected areas and the Natura 2000 network covered more than one-third of the European Union. National protected areas did not offer protection to 13 total gap species (i.e., species not covered by any protected area) or to almost 300 partial gap species (i.e., species whose representation target is not met). Together the Natura 2000 network and national protected areas left 1 total gap species and 121 partial gap species unprotected. The terrestrial vertebrates listed in the Habitats and Birds Directives were relatively well covered (especially birds), and overall connectivity was improved considerably by Natura 2000 sites that act as stepping stones between national protected areas. Overall, we found that the Natura 2000 network represents at continental level an important network of protected areas that acts as a good complement to existing national protected areas. However, a number of problems remain that are mainly linked to the criteria used to list the species in the Habitats and Birds Directives. The European Commission initiated in 2014 a process aimed at assessing the importance of the Birds and Habitats Directives for biodiversity conservation. Our results contribute to this assessment and suggest the system is largely effective for terrestrial vertebrates but would benefit from further updating of the species lists and field management.

  6. USING CLASSIFICATION CONSISTENCY IN INTER-SCENE OVERLAP AREAS TO MODEL SPATIAL VARIATIONS IN LAND-COVER ACCURACY OVER LARGE GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the last decade, a number of initiatives have been undertaken to create systematic national and global data sets of processed satellite imagery. An important application of these data is the derivation of large area (i.e. multi-scene) land cover products. Such products, ho...

  7. Infectious agents identified in aborted swine fetuses in a high-density breeding area: a three-year study.

    PubMed

    Salogni, Cristian; Lazzaro, Massimiliano; Giacomini, Enrico; Giovannini, Stefano; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Giuliani, Matteo; Ruggeri, Jessica; Pozzi, Paolo; Pasquali, Paolo; Boniotti, Maria Beatrice; Alborali, Giovanni Loris

    2016-09-01

    Reproductive failure in sows is one of the most important factors affecting pig breeding. Many reproductive disorders are linked to both environmental factors and infectious agents. The goal of our study was to determine the presence of pathogens that are known to cause abortion, considering a set of conditioning factors, such as seasonality and pregnancy period. A large number of aborted fetuses (1,625 fetuses from 140 farms) from a high-density breeding area in northern Italy was analyzed for a period of 3 years. The pigs were diagnosed based on direct (culture, PCR) or indirect (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) evidence. An infectious etiologic agent was found in 323 of 549 cases of abortion (58.8%). These included viral agents (Porcine circovirus-2, 138/323; Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, 108/323; porcine parvovirus, 20/323; pseudorabies virus, 6/323; and Encephalomyocarditis virus, 3/323) and bacteria (Escherichia coli, 64/323; Streptococcus sp., 63/323; Staphylococcus sp., 5/323; Pasteurella sp., 3/323; Shigella sp., 1/323; and Yersinia sp., 1/323). This study describes the prevalence of infectious agents involved in reproductive failure in a high-density swine population. The data can be useful to swine breeders, practitioners, and medical specialists in monitoring animal health and in supervising the breeding process. PMID:27400956

  8. Effects of tourism and globalization on land cover and the influence on the quality of life of Paphos area in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Italos, Chrysostomos; Akylas, Evangelos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.

    2014-08-01

    Since 1960 most of the coastal area cites across the Mediterranean Sea concentrates people due mass immigration of people from the rural to urban areas. The extensive tourism development especially across the coastal areas, create demand of infrastructures and new work positions and intensive pressure to the environment. The new spirit of the globalization creates movability of people and goods around the word. The free transfer of people from countries with big population and low economical wealth, which are moved to areas where they can work. All the above generate demands of labor and Paphos is one of these areas where during the last decades was transformed from a small agriculture village in one excellent tourist destination. Across the coastal areas big tourist infrastructure was built and lot of different people travel from all areas around the word especially during the summer months. All these generate continuous changes to the environment, to the people and the society. The globalization of the universe commerce and the free transfer of goods and people modify the community stratification. The inflow of agricultures products from third countries reduces the local production and generates degradation and desertification of the rural areas. The periodical variation of the population of the area during the summer and winter periods affect to the environment. The increment demand of sources (water, energy and food) during the summer months pressurize the coastal strip area. By estimating a ratio of inflows by the outflows of goods, people and services of the study area and a ratio of the tourists by the local population, a general index can by arise which will clarify the effects on the environment on the study area. This paper presents the results obtained by this study by examining the effects of tourism on land cover and effects on quality of life for the Paphos area in Cyprus. The authors explores the potential of blending in the sustainability study the

  9. Dynamic change analyses on the land use/land cover in arid areas of northwest China with RS and GIS: the case of Liangzhou County in Wuwei City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zengxiang; Tan, Wenbin; Dong, Tingting; Wei, Xianhu

    2008-12-01

    In a long period, arid area is in the special natural environment which is drought and lack of water. Land use/land cover pattern is formed stably with the arid area characteristics. Nowadays, in the arid area of northwest China, with the implementation of the great western development and the increased industrialization process, land use pattern is affected by human activities significantly and the evolution of the land use pattern accelerates ceaselessly. Liangzhou county of Wuwei city is one typical arid area of northwest China, so it is significant to choose it to be the research region to study land use temporal and spatial characteristics of China's western arid area for understanding the arid area's land use status and the national economy production by adopting remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies. The research plays a guiding role for the reasonable land use in the future.

  10. Deactivation in the Sensorimotor Area during Observation of a Human Agent Performing Robotic Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Sotaro

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that several motor areas, called the mirror-neuron system (MNS), are activated when an individual observes other's actions. However, whether the MNS responds similarly to robotic actions compared with human actions is still controversial. The present study investigated whether and how the motor area activity is influenced by…

  11. A comparison of pixel-based and object-based approaches for land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, H. E.; Csaplovics, E.; Elhaja, M. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the comparison between application of pixel-based and object- based approaches in land use land cover classification in semi-arid areas in Sudan. The second aim is to assess the accuracy of classification for each approach. The study was conducted in the gum arabic belt in North Kordofan State, which is affected by modifications in conditions and composition of vegetation cover trends. The study used ASTER L1B registered radiance at the sensor image acquired on (19.10.2010). The image was radiometrically corrected by using ENVI-FLAASH software. Subset with an area of (40880) ha was created. The image classification (pixel-based and object-based) and accuracy assessment were conducted. Total number of (47) GCPs were surveyed and used in accuracy assessment using ERDAS 9.1. Image segmentation process was implemented using Definiens eCognition 7.1 software. Segmentation level 4 of scale parameter 25 was selected for classification based on colour and form homogeneity. Land use land cover classes were derived by classification using the nearest neighbor classifier with membership functions (fuzzy logic) for each class. The land use land cover distribution in the area for forest dominated by Acacia Senegal is (20%) and for residential area is (1.50%) for the two methods of classification. While for bare and farm land, grass and bush land and mixed woodland classes are (6.69% and 1.63%), (18.62% and 15.16%) and (53% and 61%) for pixel based and object based methods, respectively. The overall accuracy and Kappa statistic of the classification produced by the pixel-based and object-based were (72.92%, and 54.17%) and (0.6259 and 0.3810), respectively. The pixel based approach performed slightly better than the object-based approach in land use land cover classification in the semi-arid land in gum Arabic belt.

  12. Arctic layer salinity controls heat loss from deep Atlantic layer in seasonally ice-covered areas of the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, Sigrid; Ingvaldsen, Randi B.; Furevik, Tore

    2016-05-01

    In the seasonally ice-covered northern Barents Sea an intermediate layer of cold and relatively fresh Arctic Water at ~25-110 m depth isolates the sea surface and ice cover from a layer of warm and saline Atlantic Water below, a situation that resembles the cold halocline layer in the Eurasian Basin. The upward heat flux from the Atlantic layer is of major concern. What causes variations in the heat flux and how is the Arctic layer maintained? Using observations, we found that interannual variability in Arctic layer salinity determines the heat flux from the Atlantic layer through its control of stratification and vertical mixing. A relatively fresh Arctic layer effectively suppresses the upward heat flux, while a more saline Arctic layer enhances the heat flux. The corresponding upward salt flux causes a positive feedback. The Arctic layer salinity and the water column structures have been remarkably stable during 1970-2011.

  13. Tipping Points towards Regional Forest or Urban Transition in Stressed Rural Areas: An Agent-based Modelling Application of Socio-Economic Shifts in Rural Vermont US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Y.; Turnbull, S.; Zia, A.

    2015-12-01

    In rural areas where farming competes with urban development and environmental amenities, urban and forest transitions occur simultaneously at different locales with different rates due to the underlying socio-economic shifts. Here we develop an interactive land use transition agent-based model (ILUTABM) in which farmers' land use decisions are made contingent on expansion and location choices of urban businesses and urban residences, as well as farmers' perceived ecosystem services produced by their land holdings. The ILUTABM simulates heterogeneity in land use decisions at parcel levels by differentiating decision making processes for agricultural and urban landowners. Landowners are simulated to make land-use transition decisions as bounded rational agents that maximize their partial expected utility functions under different underlying socio-economic conditions given the category of a landowner and the spatial characteristics of the landowner's landholdings. The ILUTABM is parameterized by spatial data sets such as National Land Cover Database (NLCD), zoning, parcels, property prices, US census, farmers surveys, building/facility characteristics, soil, slope and elevation. We then apply the ILUTABM to the rural Vermont landscape, located in the Northeast Arm District of Lake Champlain and the downstream sub-watersheds of Missisquoi River, to generate phase transitions of rural land towards urban land near peri-urban areas and towards forest land near financially stressed farmlands during 2001-2051. Possible tipping point trajectories of rural land towards regional forest or urban transition are simulated under three socio-economic scenarios: business as usual (ILUTABM calibrated to 2011 NLCD), increased incentives for conservation easements, and increased incentives for attracting urban residences and businesses.

  14. Ecological studies on the revegetation process of surface coal mined areas in North Dakota. 6. Relationship between cover and aboveground biomass. Final report Aug 75-Jun 82

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmelpfennig, D.K.

    1982-06-01

    Assessment of revegetation success on mined lands is a difficult, time consuming task and has been the subject of a number of controversies. Present regulations require that both plant cover and aboveground plant biomass be measured for use in making that assessment. Of these two variables, biomass is the most time consuming to measure and requires destructive sampling, a most undesirable, requirement on fragile, recently revegetated areas. A study was done to evaluate the predictability of aboveground biomass production on revegetated mined sites and adjacent native prairies using plant cover estimates made with the point frame method. A positive, statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between plant cover and aboveground biomass regardless of the community type, species composition, diversity or level of biomass production. However, the latter did have their effects on the relationship and must be accounted for in any predictive equations.

  15. Drivers of land cover and land use changes in St. Louis metropolitan area over the past 40 years characterized by remote sensing and census population data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sandoval, J. S. Onésimo; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explored the spatial and temporal patterns of land cover and land use (LCLU) and population change dynamics in the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. The goal of this paper was to quantify the drivers of LCLU using long-term Landsat data from 1972 to 2010. First, we produced LCLU maps by using Landsat images from 1972, 1982, 1990, 2000, and 2010. Next, tract level population data of 1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, and 2010 were converted to 1-km square grid cells. Then, the LCLU maps were integrated with basic grid cell data to represent the proportion of each land cover category within a grid cell area. Finally, the proportional land cover maps and population census data were combined to investigate the relationship between land cover and population change based on grid cells using Pearson's correlation coefficient, ordinary least square (OLS), and local level geographically weighted regression (GWR). Land cover changes in terms of the percentage of area affected and rates of change were compared with population census data with a focus on the analysis of the spatial-temporal dynamics of urban growth patterns. The correlation coefficients of land cover categories and population changes were calculated for two decadal intervals between 1970 and 2010. Our results showed a causal relationship between LCLU changes and population dynamics over the last 40 years. Urban sprawl was positively correlated with population change. However, the relationship was not linear over space and time. Spatial heterogeneity and variations in the relationship demonstrate that urban sprawl was positively correlated with population changes in suburban area and negatively correlated in urban core and inner suburban area of the St. Louis Metropolitan Statistical Area. These results suggest that the imagery reflects processes of urban growth, inner-city decline, population migration, and social spatial inequality. The implications provide guidance for sustainable urban

  16. Area-wide biological control of disease vectors and agents affecting wildlife.

    PubMed

    Reichard, R E

    2002-04-01

    Two examples of area-wide programmes, employing the sterile insect technique (SIT), which have eradicated a parasite and a disease vector common to domestic and wild animals are described. New World screwworm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax, caused significant morbidity and mortality of livestock and wild mammals in tropical and subtropical areas of America before eradication was achieved in North America using the SIT and other components of an integrated pest management (IPM) programme. Movement of wild as well as domestic animals from an area which is infested with screwworm to a free area requires prophylactic treatment. Tsetse fly-borne trypanosomosis has an immense influence on the distribution of people and livestock in Africa. The immunotolerance of wildlife to the parasites is an important factor in maintaining some areas livestock free as wildlife refuges. Slaughter has ceased of wild hoofstock species considered to be disease reservoirs for control purposes. The SIT, combined with other IPM measures, has resulted in the eradication of the tsetse fly and trypanosomosis from Zanzibar. Other programmes in Africa are underway. Microbial 'biopesticides' have also been employed successfully against plant insect pests and some vectors of human disease. It seems likely that for the immediate future, wildlife may benefit from area-wide biological control programmes, intended mainly to protect humans and/or domestic animals.

  17. Estimation of Land Surface Temperature for the Quantitative Analysis of Land Cover of Lower Areas of Sindh to Assess the Impacts of Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaisar, Maha

    2016-07-01

    Due to the present land use practices and climate variability, drastic shifts in regional climate and land covers are easily seen and their future reduction and gain are too well predicted. Therefore, there is an increasing need for data on land-cover changes at narrow and broad spatial scales. In this study, a remote sensing-based technique for land-cover-change analysis is applied to the lower Sindh areas for the last decade. Landsat satellite products were analyzed on an alternate yearly basis, from 1990 to 2016. Then Land-cover-change magnitudes were measured and mapped for alternate years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the critical elements in the natural phenomena of surface energy and water balance at local and global extent. However, LST was computed by using Landsat thermal bands via brightness temperature and a vegetation index. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was interpreted and maps were achieved. LST reflected NDVI patterns with complexity of vegetation patterns. Along with this, Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) was done for classifying 5 major classes of water, vegetation, urban, marshy lands and barren lands with significant map layouts. Pakistan Meteorological Department provided the climate data in which rainfall, temperature and air temperature are included. Once the LST and OBIA are performed, overlay analysis was done to correlate the results of LST with OBIA and LST with meteorological data to ascertain the changes in land covers due to increasing centigrade of LST. However, satellite derived LST was also correlated with climate data for environmental analysis and to estimate Land Surface Temperature for assessing the inverse impacts of climate variability. This study's results demonstrate the land-cover changes in Lower Areas of Sindh including the Indus Delta mostly involve variations in land-cover conditions due to inter-annual climatic variability and temporary shifts in seasonality. However it is too concluded

  18. A tyrosine PEG-micelle magnetic resonance contrast agent for the detection of lipid rich areas in atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Beilvert, Anne; Cormode, David P.; Chaubet, Frédéric; Briley-Saebo, Karen C.; Mani, Venkatesh; Mulder, Willem J.M.; Vucic, Esad; Toussaint, Jean-François; Letourneur, Didier; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2010-01-01

    Vulnerable or high-risk atherosclerotic plaques often exhibit large lipid cores and thin fibrous caps that can lead to deadly vascular events via their rupture. In this study, PEG-micelles that incorporate a Gd-DTPA amphiphile were used as an MR contrast agent. In an approach inspired by lipoproteins, the micelles were functionalized with tyrosine residues, an aromatic, lipophilic amino acid, to reach the lipid rich areas of atherosclerotic plaque in a highly efficient manner. These micelles were applied to apolipoprotein E −/− mice as a model of atherosclerosis. The abdominal aortas of the animals were imaged using T1-weighted high-resolution MRI at 9.4 T before and up to 48 hours after the administration of the micelles. PEG-micelles modified with 15% tyrosine residues, yielded a significant enhancement of the abdominal aortic wall at 6 and 24 hours post-injection as compared to unmodified micelles. Fluorescence microscopy on histological sections of the abdominal aorta showed a correlation between lipid rich areas and the distribution of the functionalized contrast agent in plaque. Using a simple approach, we demonstrated that lipid-rich areas in atherosclerotic plaque of ApoE −/− mice can be detected by MRI using Gd-DTPA micelles. PMID:19780153

  19. Snow Cover Mapping in the Northern Area of Pakistan and Jammu Kashmir (hindu Kush Himalayas) Using Ndsi, Unmixing Method and Srtm dem Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Din, A. U.; Oki, K.; Takeuchi, W.; Oki, T.

    2015-12-01

    Snow area measurement is very important for hydrologists, glaciologists and for climate change researchers. Field measurement is very difficult as in case of a steep and in a complex terrain such as Himalayas, therefore we rely on remote sensing (both active and passive) data. Usually snow area is calculated from reflectance data using different snow index e.g. Normalize difference snow index (NDSI) and then it is translated into snow area. However, in most cases we are actually calculating the planimetric area or grid area of every pixel. The actual snow is along the surface of the terrain and proper estimation can only be done if actual surface area is calculated along the slope within each pixel. In the past, some researchers have introduced methodologies and optimized old mechanisms. However, the orographical impact in calculating snow area (fraction), especially in steep mountainous regions, still has many problems, and many times these problems are usually ignored which leads to under estimation of total snow amount. In this study we calculated the actual surface area from SRTM version 4.1 90m (at equator) processed DEM data provided by CGIAR-CSI. MODIS Reflectance (MOD09A1 L3 Product) composite data of 500m resolution for 2010 and 2011 in the northern areas of Pakistan, Jammu & Kashmir region where great Himalayas are stretched was used to calculate snow cover using NDSI index. Threshold of NDSI>0.4 was set to classify snow or no snow for the clear pixels and for further classification, unmixing method (subjective pixel method only) was used to calculate snow fraction within each pixel. Results shows that in a complex terrain such as Himalayas, ratio of surface to planimetric snow area is more than 50%. This means that it should be taken into consideration for more realistic snow amount estimation. Seasonal snow fraction histogram from unmixing method indicates that NDSI measures snow cover area by 1.86 times more in cold season (maximum snow area) and 1

  20. Testing the Enemies Hypothesis in Peach Orchards in Two Different Geographic Areas in Eastern China: The Role of Ground Cover Vegetation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010–2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas. PMID:24963719

  1. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas. PMID:24963719

  2. Testing the enemies hypothesis in peach orchards in two different geographic areas in eastern China: the role of ground cover vegetation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have supported the enemies hypothesis, which suggests that natural enemies are more efficient at controlling arthropod pests in polyculture than in monoculture agro-ecosystems. However, we do not yet have evidence as to whether this hypothesis holds true in peach orchards over several geographic locations. In the two different geographic areas in eastern China (Xinchang a town in the Shanghai municipality, and Hudai, a town in Jiangsu Province) during a continuous three-year (2010-2012) investigation, we sampled arthropod pests and predators in Trifolium repens L. and in tree canopies of peach orchards with and without the ground cover plant T. repens. No significant differences were found in the abundances of the main groups of arthropod pests and predators in T. repens between Hudai and Xinchang. The abundance, richness, Simpson's index, Shannon-Wiener index, and Pielou evenness index of canopy predators in ground cover areas increased by 85.5, 27.5, 3.5, 16.7, and 7.9% in Xinchang, and by 87.0, 27.6, 3.5, 17.0 and 8.0% in Hudai compared to those in the controls, respectively. The average abundance of Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera, true bugs and Acarina canopy pests in ground cover areas decreased by 9.2, 10.2, 17.2, 19.5 and 14.1% in Xinchang, and decreased by 9.5, 8.2, 16.8, 20.1 and 16.6% in Hudai compared to that in control areas, respectively. Our study also found a higher density of arthropod species resources in T. repens, as some omnivorous pests and predators residing in T. repens could move between the ground cover and the orchard canopy. In conclusion, ground cover in peach orchards supported the enemies hypothesis, as indicated by the fact that ground cover T. repens promoted the abundance and diversity of predators and reduced the number of arthropod pests in tree canopies in both geographical areas.

  3. Dioxin, dibenzofuran, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in food from Agent Orange-sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos.

    PubMed

    Schecter, Arnold; Pavuk, Marian; Malisch, Rainer; Ryan, John Jake

    2003-11-28

    During the Vietnam War, a phenoxy-herbicide mixture called Agent Orange, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, or TCDD, was used primarily for destruction of forest and other foliage in order to prevent enemy troop movement and protect American and allied troops and military bases in the south of Vietnam. Smaller areas of Laos and Cambodia were also sprayed with Agent Orange between 1962 and 1971 from fixed-wing aircraft. In 2001, 28 food samples consisting of meat, fish, and dairy products were collected in sprayed and nonsprayed areas of Laos and analyzed for dioxins, dioxinlike dibenzofurans, and selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry at laboratories in Germany and Canada. Low levels of dioxin and other dioxinlike substances were found in Laotian food, similar to levels present in recent exported Vietnamese food to United States. Vietnam is geographically adjacent to Laos. Total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels were similar in samples from sprayed and non-sprayed areas, ranging from 0.009 to 0.851 pg/g or parts per trillion (ppt) in sprayed Sepone, and from 0.022 to 0.537 pg/g or ppt wet weight in non sprayed Vientiane. However, the Laotian fish samples from the Agent Orange-sprayed area had, on average, a higher proportion of total TEQ from TCDD (31.7% vs. 9.4%) compared to the nonsprayed area. Some other food items, duck eggs and pork liver from Sepone, also had severalfold higher TCDD levels than similar food samples from Vientiane, 0.029 vs. 0.011 pg/g and 0.070 vs. 0.004 pg/g wet weight, respectively. There were no substantial differences in levels of dibenzofuran and PCB congeners. In general, elevated TCDD levels were not found in Laotian food samples. It is possible that dioxin-contaminated areas, or "hot spots," exist in Laos as they do in Vietnam, although they have not yet been identified. PMID:14710598

  4. The analysis of spatial and temporal changes of land cover and land use in the reclaimed areas with the application of airborne orthophotomaps and LANDSAT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, Marta; Wężyk, Piotr; Hawryło, Paweł; Pietrzykowski, Marcin

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible use of geoinformatics tools and generally available geodata for mapping land cover/use on the reclaimed areas. The choice of subject was dictated by the growing number of such areas and the related problem of their restoration. Modern technology, including GIS, photogrammetry and remote sensing are relevant in assessing the reclamation effects and monitoring of changes taking place on such sites. The LULC classes mapping, supported with thorough knowledge of the operator, is useful tool for the proper reclamation process evaluation. The study was performed for two post-mine sites: reclaimed external spoil heap of the sulfur mine Machów and areas after exploitation of sulfur mine Jeziórko, which are located in the Tarnobrzeski district. The research materials consisted of aerial orthophotos, which were the basis of on-screen vectorization; LANDSAT satellite images, which were used in the pixel and object based classification; and the CORINE Land Cover database as a general reference to the global maps of land cover and land use.

  5. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  6. Freshwater river diversions for marsh restoration in Louisiana: Twenty-six years of changing vegetative cover and marsh area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Michael S.; Riter, J. C. Alexis; Turner, R. Eugene

    2011-08-01

    The restoration of Louisiana's coastal wetlands will be one of the largest, most costly and longest environmental remediation projects undertaken. We use Landsat data to show that freshwater diversions, a major restoration strategy, have not increased vegetation and marsh coverage in three freshwater diversions operating for ˜19 years. Two analytic methods indicate no significant changes in either relative vegetation or overall marsh area from 1984 to 2005 in zones closest to diversion inlets. After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, these zones sustained dramatic and enduring losses in vegetation and overall marsh area, whereas the changes in similar marshes of the adjacent reference sites were relatively moderate and short-lived. We suggest that this vulnerability to storm damage reflects the introduction of nutrients in the freshwater diversions (that add insignificant amounts of additional sediments), which promotes poor rhizome and root growth in marshes where below-ground biomass historically played the dominant role in vertical accretion.

  7. The potential of remote sensing for monitoring land cover changes and effects on physical geography in the area of Kayisdagi Mountain and its surroundings (Istanbul).

    PubMed

    Geymen, Abdurrahman; Baz, Ibrahim

    2008-05-01

    The effect of land cover change, from natural to anthropogenic, on physical geography conditions has been studied in Kayisdagi Mountain. Land degradation is the most important environmental issue involved in this study. Most forms of land degradation are natural processes accelerated by human activity. Land degradation is a human induced or natural process that negatively affects the ability of land to function effectively within an ecosystem. Environmental degradation from human pressure and land use has become a major problem in the study area because of high population growth, urbanization rate, and the associated rapid depletion of natural resources. When studying the cost of land degradation, it is not possible to ignore the role of urbanization. In particular, a major cause of deforestation is conversion to urban land. The paper reviews the principles of current remote sensing techniques considered particularly suitable for monitoring Kayisdagi Mountain and its surrounding land cover changes and their effects on physical geography conditions. In addition, this paper addresses the problem of how spatially explicit information about degradation processes in the study area rangelands can be derived from different time series of satellite data. The monitoring approach comprises the time period between 1990 and 2005. Satellite remote sensing techniques have proven to be cost effective in widespread land cover changes. Physical geography and particularly natural geomorphologic processes like erosion, mass movement, physical weathering, and chemical weathering features etc. have faced significant unnatural variation.

  8. Mangrove Forest Cover Extraction of the Coastal Areas of Negros Occidental, Western Visayas, Philippines Using LIDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pada, A. V.; Silapan, J.; Cabanlit, M. A.; Campomanes, F.; Garcia, J. J.

    2016-06-01

    Mangroves have a lot of economic and ecological advantages which include coastal protection, habitat for wildlife, fisheries and forestry products. Determination of the extent of mangrove patches in the coastal areas of the Philippines is therefore important especially in resource conservation, protection and management. This starts with a well-defined and accurate map. LiDARwas used in the mangrove extraction in the different coastal areas of Negros Occidental in Western Visayas, Philippines. Total coastal study area is 1,082.55 km² for the 14 municipalities/ cities processed. Derivatives that were used in the extraction include, DSM, DTM, Hillshade, Intensity, Number of Returns and PCA. The RGB bands of the Orthographic photographs taken at the same time with the LiDAR data were also used as one of the layers during the processing. NDVI, GRVI and Hillshade using Canny Edge Layer were derived as well to produce an enhanced segmentation. Training and Validation points were collected through field validation and visual inspection using Stratified Random Sampling. The points were then used to feed the Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on tall structures. Only four classes were used, namely, Built-up, Mangroves, Other Trees and Sugarcane. Buffering and contextual editing were incorporated to reclassify the extracted mangroves. Overall accuracy assessment is at 98.73% (KIA of 98.24%) while overall accuracy assessment for Mangroves only is at 98.00%. Using this workflow, mangroves can already be extracted in a large-scale level with acceptable overall accuracy assessments.

  9. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  10. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts. PMID:25793871

  11. Using lidar data to analyse sinkhole characteristics relevant for understory vegetation under forest cover-case study of a high karst area in the dinaric mountains.

    PubMed

    Kobal, Milan; Bertoncelj, Irena; Pirotti, Francesco; Dakskobler, Igor; Kutnar, Lado

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the potential for detection and characterization of sinkholes under dense forest cover by using airborne laser scanning data. Laser pulse returns from the ground provide important data for the estimation of digital elevation model (DEM), which can be used for further processing. The main objectives of this study were to map and determine the geomorphometric characteristics of a large number of sinkholes and to investigate the correlations between geomorphology and vegetation in areas with such characteristics. The selected study area has very low anthropogenic influences and is particularly suitable for studying undisturbed karst sinkholes. The information extracted from this study regarding the shapes and depths of sinkholes show significant directionality for both orientation of sinkholes and their distribution over the area. Furthermore, significant differences in vegetation diversity and composition occur inside and outside the sinkholes, which indicates their presence has important ecological impacts.

  12. Improving Running Times for the Determination of Fractional Snow-Covered Area from Landsat TM/ETM+ via Utilization of the CUDA® Programming Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGibbney, L. J.; Rittger, K.; Painter, T. H.; Selkowitz, D.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a JPL-USGS collaboration to expand distribution of essential climate variables (ECV) to include on-demand fractional snow cover we describe our experience and implementation of a shift towards the use of NVIDIA's CUDA® parallel computing platform and programming model. In particular the on-demand aspect of this work involves the improvement (via faster processing and a reduction in overall running times) for determination of fractional snow-covered area (fSCA) from Landsat TM/ETM+. Our observations indicate that processing tasks associated with remote sensing including the Snow Covered Area and Grain Size Model (SCAG) when applied to MODIS or LANDSAT TM/ETM+ are computationally intensive processes. We believe the shift to the CUDA programming paradigm represents a significant improvement in the ability to more quickly assert the outcomes of such activities. We use the TMSCAG model as our subject to highlight this argument. We do this by describing how we can ingest a LANDSAT surface reflectance image (typically provided in HDF format), perform spectral mixture analysis to produce land cover fractions including snow, vegetation and rock/soil whilst greatly reducing running time for such tasks. Within the scope of this work we first document the original workflow used to assert fSCA for Landsat TM and it's primary shortcomings. We then introduce the logic and justification behind the switch to the CUDA paradigm for running single as well as batch jobs on the GPU in order to achieve parallel processing. Finally we share lessons learned from the implementation of myriad of existing algorithms to a single set of code in a single target language as well as benefits this ultimately provides scientists at the USGS.

  13. Estimating the distribution of snow depth via artificial neural networks combined with MODIS snow cover area and ancillary topographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jinliang; Huang, Chunlin

    2016-04-01

    Accurately estimate the distribution of snow depth (SD) is particularly difficult in mountainous environments given the complex topography, strong seasonal transition, and scarce observations. Passive microwave snow depth retrievals are too coarse to resolve small-scale terrain-induced variability; Optical sensors have the ability to determine the snow coverage extent at higher spatial resolution but not SD. By taking advantage of long time moderate-resolution optical sensors (MODIS) fractional snow cover (FSC) data series, the cubic spline interpolation algorithm is used to fill in data gaps caused by clouds in MODIS FSC Products. An innovative method based on multilayer feedforward artificial neural network (ANN) is presented to generate SD at a 500 m spatial resolution. This is trained with back propagation to learn the relationship between SD and FSC, Latitude and longitude, and ancillary topographic (e.g. elevation, slope, aspect) data. In this study, daily snow depth observations at 42 meteorological stationsare chosen to examine the proposed method during 2004 to 2005 snow seasons (from 1 November 2004 to 31 March 2005, 151 days) in northern Xinjiang Province, China. Among them, FSC, Latitude and longitude, and ancillary topographic data extracted from 35 sites are used as input information, and corresponding ground-based SD observations are used as desired output of ANN, thus a total of 151*35 samples are included in the ANN training set; Corresponding data from other 7 sites are used as independent test sample set (151*7 samples) to test the generalization ability of the ANN. Preliminary experimental results are very encouraging compared with the traditional multiple regression method. The performance evaluation results shows that the ANN derived SD have much higher coefficient of determination (R2) and lower root-mean-square error (RMSE), with R2 of 0.89 and 0.88, RMSE of 0.07 and 0.08, the mean absolute error of 2.3 and 2.3 cm for training and test

  14. Control of odour nuisance in urban areas: the efficiency and social acceptance of the application of masking agents.

    PubMed

    Lazarova, Valentina; Abed, Brahim; Markovska, Gabriela; Dezenclos, Thierry; Amara, Aït

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the results of the project named 'Jasmin' implemented in Algiers to control the strong odours of the river named Oued El Harrach, one of the largest rivers in the centre of the city. Pending the achievement of curative solutions, a temporary option for mitigation of nuisance odour by masking agents was implemented in the vicinity of the main bridges. The efficiency of this technology has been followed by means of an odour panel with the participation of representatives of all stakeholders. A sociological study by means of 1,000 questionnaires and face-to-face interviews of the local population demonstrated the benefits and the positive outcomes of the attenuation of odour nuisance: 70% of the surveyed population is satisfied or very satisfied with the application of masking agents and 96% of respondents support the continuation of the project. In terms of size and public access, the project Jasmin is a world-first demonstration of odour control in urban areas in developing countries.

  15. Land use/land cover change and urban expansion during 1983-2008 in the coastal area of Dakshina Kannada district, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhagyanagar, Rajagopal; Kawal, Babita M.; Dwarakish, Gowdagere S.; Surathkal, Shrihari

    2012-01-01

    Urban settlements in developing countries are, at present, growing five times as fast as those in developed countries. This paper presents the urban expansion and land use/land cover changes in the fast urbanizing coastal area of the Dakshina Kannada district in Karnataka state, South India, during the years 1983-2008 as a case study. Six Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite images were used in the present work. Supervised classification was carried out using maximum likelihood algorithm. The overall accuracy of the classification varied from 79% to 86.6%, and the kappa statistics varied from 0.761 to 0.850. The results indicate that the urban/built-up area in the study area has almost tripled during the study period. During the same time, the population has increased by 215%. The major driving forces for the urbanization were the enhanced economic activity due to the port and industrialization in the area. The urban/built-up area is projected to increase to 381 km2 and the population in the study area is expected to reach 2.68 million by the year 2028. Urban growth prediction helps urban planners and policymakers provide better infrastructure services to a huge number of new urban residents.

  16. Impact of Land Use / Land Cover Changes on Water Quality Using Remote Sensing and GIS - a Case Study of Katedhan Industrial Area, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayaker, T.

    2001-12-01

    Land Use, the anthropogenic use of the land and Land Cover, the physical state of such land, are among the most evident impacts of human activities on natural resources. Rapid global industrialisation during the last two decades in general and in the Katedhan industrial area in particular has a profound adverse effect on the land use / land cover practices and the water quality. Remote sensing and GIS techniques have been employed to identify and quantify measures for mitigating the adverse impacts of industrialisation on the quality of environment. The specific objective of this paper is to study the correlation between impact of land use and water quality. There are about 400 - 500 industries in this area whose effluent outlet is directly mixing into the near by canal or stream. Due to this the lakes present in this catchment area are being polluted. The methodology employed in this study involves the generation of various thematic layers so as to find out the impacts on water quality. According to the results, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulphates and some heavy metals are very high in the surface water near to Noor Mohammad lake. When compared with ground water, all the above parameters are high near to Sivarampally lake which is around 1 km form Noor Mohammad tank. This is because of the slope of the area due to which the ground water is polluted in lower region of this area. To control further degradation of the water quality it is recommended that a common effluent treatment plant should be constructed so as to control the pollution at the source itself.

  17. [Utilization of generics in an area covered by a family health unit in a southern Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    Vosgerau, Milene Zanoni da Silva; de Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno; Soares, Darli Antonio

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate the prevalence of generics and their associated factors in a population of adults aged 20 to 59 years. The sample consisted of 374 individuals from the catchment area of a Family Health Unit in Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil. Data were collected in home interviews. Study variables were divided into 3 groups: sociodemographic, health status and the use of health services. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of generics was 9.9%. Of those interviewed, 96.5% claimed to know about generic drugs, 64.3% believed they had the same quality as brand-name drugs and 88.9% reported they were cheaper. The most commonly-used groups of drugs were those for the nervous system and those for the cardiovascular system. After univariate analysis, the following factors were found to be statistically significant: economic status, employment status, health insurance, presence of chronic disease, medical consultation in the previous three months and hospitalization within the previous 12 months. The low prevalence of the use of generic drugs emphasizes the fact that stronger policies are needed to make generics available to the public, especially through the Family Health Strategy, since it is the studied population's principal form of access to these medications.

  18. How to reduce day-to-day variation of leaf area index derived from digital cover photography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Y. R.; Ryu, Y.; Kimm, H.; Macfarlane, C.; Lang, M.; Sonnentag, O.

    2014-12-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is essential for computing canopy level carbon and water fluxes. Nowadays, it is possible to automatically monitor daily LAI using low-cost sensors, such as digital cameras and LED-sensors. Recent studies have shown that RAW camera format images can improve the estimation of gap fractions and LAI compared to JPEG format. However, whether RAW-based methods can effectively reduce day-to-day variation of LAI time series has not been investigated. In this study, we used two methods to compute gap fraction. The first method separates sky and vegetation pixels using a single threshold in the blue band histogram. The second method interpolates the background sky image from pure sky pixels, and computes the transmittance from original and reconstructed images. In order to investigate which method is more accurate in reducing day-to-day variation of LAI, we first conducted a controlled experiment with punched panels which included different hole size and gap fractions on the rooftop. Then, we applied both methods to photos collected daily over a year at deciduous forest and evergreen forest in South Korea.

  19. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-04-30

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  20. Using Gridded Snow Covered Area and Snow-Water Equivalence Spatial Data Sets to Improve Snow-Pack Depletion Simulation in a Continental Scale Hydrologic Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risley, J. C.; Tracey, J. A.; Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2014-12-01

    Snow cover areal depletion curves were used in a continuous daily hydrologic model to simulate seasonal spring snowmelt during the period between maximum snowpack accumulation and total melt. The curves are defined as the ratio of snow-water equivalence (SWE) divided by the seasonal maximum snow-water equivalence (Ai) (Y axis) versus the percent snow cover area (SCA) (X axis). The slope of the curve can vary depending on local watershed conditions. Windy sparsely vegetated high elevation watersheds, for example, can have a steeper slope than lower elevation forested watersheds. To improve the accuracy of simulated runoff at ungaged watersheds, individual snow cover areal depletion curves were created for over 100,000 hydrologic response units (HRU) in the continental scale U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrologic Model (NHM). NHM includes the same components of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff-Modeling System (PRMS), except it uses consistent land surface characterization and model parameterization across the U.S. continent. Weighted-mean daily time series of 1-kilometer gridded SWE, from Snow Data Assimilation System (SNODAS), and 500-meter gridded SCA, from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), for 2003-2014 were computed for each HRU using the USGS Geo Data Portal. Using a screening process, pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA from the snowmelt period of each year were selected. SCA values derived from imagery that did not have any cloud cover and were >0 and <100 percent were selected. Unrealistically low and high SCA values that were paired with high and low SWE/Ai ratios, respectively, were removed. Second order polynomial equations were then fit to the remaining pairs of SWE/Ai and SCA to create a unique curve for each HRU. Simulations comparing these new curves with an existing single default curve in NHM will be made to determine if there are significant improvements in runoff.

  1. Modeling the effect of land use/land cover on nitrogen, phosphorous and dissolved oxygen loads in the Velhas River using the concept of exclusive contribution area.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lília Maria; Maillard, Philippe; de Andrade Pinto, Éber José

    2016-06-01

    Non-point source water pollution is a major problem in most parts of the world, but is also very difficult to quantify and control since it is not easily separated from point sources and can theoretically originate from the whole watershed. In this article, we evaluate the relationship between land use and land cover and four water pollution parameters in a watershed in Southeast Brazil. The four parameters are nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved oxygen. To help concentrate on non-point source pollution, only data from the wet seasons of the time period (2001-2013) were analysed, based on the fact that precipitation causes runoff which is the main cause of diffuse pollution. The parameters measured were transformed into loads, which were in turn associated with an exclusive contribution area, so that every measuring station could be considered independent. Analyses were also performed on riparian zones of different widths to verify if the effect of the land cover on the water quality of the stream decreases with the increased distance. Pearson correlation coefficients indicate that urban areas and agriculture/pasture tend to worsen water quality (source). Conversely, forest and riparian areas have a reducing effect on pollution (sink). The best results were obtained for total ammonia nitrogen and dissolved oxygen using the whole exclusive contribution areas with determination coefficients better than R (2)≈0.8. Nitrate and total phosphorous did not produce valid models. We suspect that the transformation delay from total ammonia nitrogen to nitrate might be an important factor for the poor result for this parameter. For phosphorous, we think that the phosphorous sink in the bottom sediment might be the most limiting factor explaining the failure of our models. PMID:27154054

  2. Modeling the effect of land use/land cover on nitrogen, phosphorous and dissolved oxygen loads in the Velhas River using the concept of exclusive contribution area.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Lília Maria; Maillard, Philippe; de Andrade Pinto, Éber José

    2016-06-01

    Non-point source water pollution is a major problem in most parts of the world, but is also very difficult to quantify and control since it is not easily separated from point sources and can theoretically originate from the whole watershed. In this article, we evaluate the relationship between land use and land cover and four water pollution parameters in a watershed in Southeast Brazil. The four parameters are nitrate, total ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved oxygen. To help concentrate on non-point source pollution, only data from the wet seasons of the time period (2001-2013) were analysed, based on the fact that precipitation causes runoff which is the main cause of diffuse pollution. The parameters measured were transformed into loads, which were in turn associated with an exclusive contribution area, so that every measuring station could be considered independent. Analyses were also performed on riparian zones of different widths to verify if the effect of the land cover on the water quality of the stream decreases with the increased distance. Pearson correlation coefficients indicate that urban areas and agriculture/pasture tend to worsen water quality (source). Conversely, forest and riparian areas have a reducing effect on pollution (sink). The best results were obtained for total ammonia nitrogen and dissolved oxygen using the whole exclusive contribution areas with determination coefficients better than R (2)≈0.8. Nitrate and total phosphorous did not produce valid models. We suspect that the transformation delay from total ammonia nitrogen to nitrate might be an important factor for the poor result for this parameter. For phosphorous, we think that the phosphorous sink in the bottom sediment might be the most limiting factor explaining the failure of our models.

  3. Land-cover mapping of Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J. LaRue; Damar, Nancy A.; Charlet, David A.; Westenburg, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    DigitalGlobe’s QuickBird satellite high-resolution multispectral imagery was classified by using Visual Learning Systems’ Feature Analyst feature extraction software to produce land-cover data sets for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and the Coyote Springs, Piute-Eldorado Valley, and Mormon Mesa Areas of Critical Environmental Concern in Clark County, Nevada. Over 1,000 vegetation field samples were collected at the stand level. The field samples were classified to the National Vegetation Classification Standard, Version 2 hierarchy at the alliance level and above. Feature extraction models were developed for vegetation on the basis of the spectral and spatial characteristics of selected field samples by using the Feature Analyst hierarchical learning process. Individual model results were merged to create one data set for the Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area and one for each of the Areas of Critical Environmental Concern. Field sample points and photographs were used to validate and update the data set after model results were merged. Non-vegetation data layers, such as roads and disturbed areas, were delineated from the imagery and added to the final data sets. The resulting land-cover data sets are significantly more detailed than previously were available, both in resolution and in vegetation classes.

  4. Land cover change monitoring within the east central Louisiana study site: A case for large area surveys with LANDSAT multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, G. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results established for four digital procedures developed for characterizing the radiometric changes between multidate LANDSAT spectral data sets into meaningful measures of land cover/use dynamics are documented. Each technique's performance was contrasted against digitized land use change maps, which were produced from contemporaneous, retrospective aerophoto coverage, in a cell by cell comparison over a one half by one degree area in east central Louisiana as a standard for comparison. The four techniques identify from 10.5 to 13.0% loss in area of forestland in a five year period; however, they differ more by how accurately this amount of change is distributed, the need for ancillary ground truth, and amount of usable information that is extractable. All require some method of digitally co-registering the two data sets. All are capable of providing tabular statistics as well as map products. Two are capable of detecting changes and identifying their locations. The other two, in addition to this, provide information to qualify land cover conditions at each end of the study interval.

  5. A Study of the Role of Clouds in the Relationship Between Land Use/Land Cover and the Climate and Air Quality of the Atlanta Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The goal of Project ATLANTA is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization affect climate and air quality. In this project the role that clouds play in this relationship was studied. Through GOES satellite observations and RAMS modeling of the Atlanta area, we found that in Atlanta (1) clouds are more frequent than in the surrounding rural areas; (2) clouds cool the surface by shading and thus tend to counteract the warming effect of urbanization; (3) clouds reflect sunlight, which might other wise be used to produce ozone; and (4) clouds decrease biogenic emission of ozone precursors, and they probably decrease ozone concentration. We also found that mesoscale modeling of clouds, especially of small, summertime clouds, needs to be improved and that coupled mesoscale and air quality models are needed to completely understand the mediating role that clouds play in the relationship between land use/land cover change and the climate and air quality of Atlanta. It is strongly recommended that more cities be studied to strengthen and extend these results.

  6. Comparison Between Fractional Vegetation Cover Retrievals from Vegetation Indices and Spectral Mixture Analysis: Case Study of PROBA/CHRIS Data Over an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Sobrino, José A; Plaza, Antonio; Guanter, Luis; Moreno, José; Martínez, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different methodologies for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) retrieval from Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) data onboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Project for On-Board Autonomy (PROBA) platform. The first methodology is based on empirical approaches using Vegetation Indices (VIs), in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Variable Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI). The second methodology is based on the Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) technique, in which a Linear Spectral Unmixing model has been considered in order to retrieve the abundance of the different constituent materials within pixel elements, called Endmembers (EMs). These EMs were extracted from the image using three different methods: i) manual extraction using a land cover map, ii) Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and iii) Automated Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE). The different methodologies for FVC retrieval were applied to one PROBA/CHRIS image acquired over an agricultural area in Spain, and they were calibrated and tested against in situ measurements of FVC estimated with hemispherical photographs. The results obtained from VIs show that VARI correlates better with FVC than NDVI does, with standard errors of estimation of less than 8% in the case of VARI and less than 13% in the case of NDVI when calibrated using the in situ measurements. The results obtained from the SMA-LSU technique show Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) below 12% when EMs are extracted from the AMEE method and around 9% when extracted from the PPI method. A RMSE value below 9% was obtained for manual extraction of EMs using a land cover use map.

  7. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston Metropolitan area: Part II. Air quality simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Kim, Soontae; Byun, Daewon W.

    In the companion paper, we showed that MM5 simulation using a satellite-derived high resolution Texas Forest Service (TFS) land use and land cover (LULC) data set (M2), compared to the MM5 results with the default USGS-LULC (M1), improved representation of the complicated features of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer (PBL) in the Houston ship channel (HSC) area, where large industrial emission sources are concentrated. In the present paper, the study is extended to investigate these effects on air quality simulations. Two emission inputs, namely E1 and E2, are prepared with the M1 and M2 meteorology data, respectively, to reflect the differences in the point source plume rise estimates while keeping the biogenic and mobile emissions the same. Air quality simulations were performed with CMAQ using the M1E1 and M2E2 inputs. The simulation results demonstrate the importance of utilizing high resolution LULC data. In the default LULC data, the HSC area was classified as grass land cover, and MM5 predicted confined mixing, resulting in over-prediction of ozone (O 3) precursors, such as NO x (NO plus NO 2), and highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOC) species, including ethylene and propylene, over the HSC area. In the TFS data, the area was classified as the impervious "urban" land use and MM5 predicted enhanced mixing of the precursor species, leading to better agreements with measurements. The high resolution LULC also resolves the location of water body near the HSC more accurately, predicting shallower PBL heights than the default LULC during daytime. With favorable wind conditions, the O 3 precursors were transported from the HSC emission source towards the area, trapping the pollutants in a confined shallow mixing layer that occasionally led to a rapid photochemical production of O 3. The above comparison includes the changes in both meteorological and plume-rise emissions inputs. We performed two additional CMAQ simulations using the same

  8. A novel approach to model dynamic flow interactions between storm sewer system and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tsang-Jung; Wang, Chia-Ho; Chen, Albert S.

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we developed a novel approach to simulate dynamic flow interactions between storm sewers and overland surface for different land covers in urban areas. The proposed approach couples the one-dimensional (1D) sewer flow model (SFM) and the two-dimensional (2D) overland flow model (OFM) with different techniques depending on the land cover type of the study areas. For roads, pavements, plazas, and so forth where rainfall becomes surface runoff before entering the sewer system, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated directly in the 2D OFM, and the runoff is drained to the sewer network via inlets, which is regarded as the input to 1D SFM. For green areas on which rainfall falls into the permeable ground surface and the generated direct runoff traverses terrain, the deduction rate is applied to the rainfall for reflecting the soil infiltration in the 2D OFM. For flat building roofs with drainage facilities allowing rainfall to drain directly from the roof to sewer networks, the rainfall-runoff process is simulated using the hydrological module in the 1D SFM where no rainfall is applied to these areas in the 2D OFM. The 1D SFM is used for hydraulic simulations in the sewer network. Where the flow in the drainage network exceeds its capacity, a surcharge occurs and water may spill onto the ground surface if the pressure head in a manhole exceeds the ground elevation. The overflow discharge from the sewer system is calculated by the 1D SFM and considered a point source in the 2D OFM. The overland flow will return into the sewer network when it reaches an inlet that connects to an un-surcharged manhole. In this case, the inlet is considered as a point sink in the 2D OFM and an inflow to a manhole in the 1D SFM. The proposed approach was compared to other five urban flood modelling techniques with four rainfall events that had previously recorded inundation areas. The merits and drawbacks of each modelling technique were compared and discussed. Based on the

  9. [Effects of land cover change on soil organic carbon and light fraction organic carbon at river banks of Fuzhou urban area].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hong-Da; Du, Zi-Xian; Yang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Chun; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2010-03-01

    By using Vario EL III element analyzer, the vertical distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and light-fraction organic carbon (LFOC) in the lawn, patch plantation, and reed wetland at river banks of Fuzhou urban area were studied in July 2007. For all the three land cover types, the SOC and LFOC contents were the highest in surface soil layer, and declined gradually with soil depth. Compared with reed wetland, the lawn and patch plantation had higher SOC and LFOC contents in each layer of the soil profile (0-60 cm), and the lawn had significantly higher contents of SOC and LFOC in 0-20 cm soil layer, compared with the patch plantation. After the reed wetland was converted into lawn and patch plantation, the SOC stock in the soil profile was increased by 94.8% and 72.0%, and the LFOC stock was increased by 225% and 93%, respectively. Due to the changes of plant species, plant density, and management measure, the conversion from natural wetland into human-manipulated green spaces increased the SOC and LFOC stocks in the soil profile, and improved the soil quality. Compared with the SOC, soil LFOC was more sensitive to land use/cover change, especially for those in 0-20 cm soil layer.

  10. Effects of grazing on leaf area index, fractional cover and evapotranspiration by a desert phreatophyte community at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau.

    PubMed

    Bresloff, Cynthia J; Nguyen, Uyen; Glenn, Edward P; Waugh, Jody; Nagler, Pamela L

    2013-01-15

    This study employed ground and remote sensing methods to monitor the effects of grazing on leaf area index (LAI), fractional cover (f(c)) and evapotranspiration (ET) of a desert phreatophyte community over an 11 year period at a former uranium mill site on the Colorado Plateau, U.S. Nitrate, ammonium and sulfate are migrating away from the mill site in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The phreatophyte community, consisting of Atriplex canescens (ATCA) and Sarcobatus vermiculatus (SAVE) shrubs, intercepts groundwater and could potentially slow the movement of the contaminant plume through evapotranspiration (ET). However, the site has been heavily grazed by livestock, reducing plant cover and LAI. We used livestock exclosures and revegetation plots to determine the effects of grazing on LAI, f(c) and ET, then projected the findings over the whole site using multi-platform remote sensing methods. We show that ET is approximately equal to annual precipitation at the site, but when ATCA and SAVE are protected from grazing they can develop high f(c) and LAI values, and ET can exceed annual precipitation, with the excess coming from groundwater discharge. Therefore, control of grazing could be an effective method to slow migration of contaminants at this and similar sites in the western U.S. PMID:23220605

  11. Handheld and mobile hyperspectral imaging sensors for wide-area standoff detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomer, Nathaniel R.; Gardner, Charles W.; Nelson, Matthew P.

    2016-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a valuable tool for the investigation and analysis of targets in complex background with a high degree of autonomy. HSI is beneficial for the detection of threat materials on environmental surfaces, where the concentration of the target of interest is often very low and is typically found within complex scenery. Two HSI techniques that have proven to be valuable are Raman and shortwave infrared (SWIR) HSI. Unfortunately, current generation HSI systems have numerous size, weight, and power (SWaP) limitations that make their potential integration onto a handheld or field portable platform difficult. The systems that are field-portable do so by sacrificing system performance, typically by providing an inefficient area search rate, requiring close proximity to the target for screening, and/or eliminating the potential to conduct real-time measurements. To address these shortcomings, ChemImage Sensor Systems (CISS) is developing a variety of wide-field hyperspectral imaging systems. Raman HSI sensors are being developed to overcome two obstacles present in standard Raman detection systems: slow area search rate (due to small laser spot sizes) and lack of eye-safety. SWIR HSI sensors have been integrated into mobile, robot based platforms and handheld variants for the detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents (CWAs). In addition, the fusion of these two technologies into a single system has shown the feasibility of using both techniques concurrently to provide higher probability of detection and lower false alarm rates. This paper will provide background on Raman and SWIR HSI, discuss the applications for these techniques, and provide an overview of novel CISS HSI sensors focused on sensor design and detection results.

  12. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  13. Utilization of Pisar L-2 Data for Land Cover Classification in Forest Area Using Pixel-Based and Object-Based Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trisakti, B.; Sutanto, A.; Noviar, H.; Kustiyo

    2015-04-01

    Polarimetric and Interferometric Airborne SAR in L-band 2 (PiSAR-L2) program is an experimental program of PALSAR-2 sensor in ALOS-2 satellite. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN) have a research collaboration to explore the utilization of PiSAR-L2 data for forestry, agriculture, and disaster applications in Indonesia. The research explored the utilization of PiSAR-L2 data for land cover classification in forest area using the pixel-based and object-based methods. The PiSAR-L2 data in the 2.1 level with full polarization bands were selected over part of forest area in Riau Province. Field data collected by JAXA team was used for both training samples and verification data. Preprocessing data was carried out by backscatter (Sigma naught) conversion and Lee filtering. Beside full polarization images (HH, HV, VV), texture imagess (HH deviation, HV deviation, and VV deviation) were also added as the input bands for the classification processes. These processes were conducted for 2.5 meter and 10 meter spatial resolution data applying two methods of the maximum likelihood classifier for pixel-based classification and the support vector machine classifier for the object-based classification. Moreover, the average overall accuracy was calculated for each classification result. The results show that the use of texture images could improve the accuracy of land cover classification, particularly to differentiate between forest and acacia plantation. The pixelbased method showed a more detail information of the objects, but has "salt and pepper". In the other hand, the object-based method showed a good accuracy and clearer border line among objects, but has often some misinterpretations in object identification.

  14. Effect of Fabric Cover and Pore Area Distribution of Carbon/Stainless Steel/Polypropylene Hybrid Yarn-Woven Fabric on Electromagnetic Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnasamy, Jagatheesan; Ramasamy, Alagirusamy; Das, Apurba; Basu, Ananjan

    2016-06-01

    The electromagnetic shielding behavior of fabrics woven with carbon/stainless steel/polypropylene (C/SS/PP) hybrid yarns were investigated in the frequency range of 300 kHz to 1.5 GHz. This study mainly emphasizes the electromagnetic shielding behavior of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn fabric and the effect of different fabric parameters such as pick density, fabric architecture and number of fabric layers on shielding effectiveness (SE) of fabrics with C/SS/PP hybrid yarns. The SE of fabric samples were tested by a vector network analyzer using a coaxial transmission line tester. In addition, surface images of different fabric structures were examined to appreciate the effect of yarn floats on the shielding behavior of fabrics. From the SE test, it was observed that an increase in pick density increases the SE of C/SS/PP hybrid yarn fabric due to addition of carbon and SS content in the fabric. Besides, the fabric cover and pore area distribution are also changed for varying pick densities. Essentially, a fabric's architecture plays an important role in the fabric cover and pore area distribution. The one-end float (1/1 plain) fabric of 6.3 ppcm provides higher shielding of 88.44 dB than a 4-end (4/1 twill) or 7-end float (8-end satin) fabrics of 6.3 ppcm. Moreover, an increase in the number of fabric layers also improves the SE of fabrics. The developed C/SS/PP hybrid yarn fabric can be used for shielding wireless transmissions, radar transmissions and for shielding panels.

  15. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  16. Covering Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gest, Ted; Krajicek, David; Hackney, Suzette; Moore, Melissa

    2003-01-01

    Presents four brief articles on covering crime. Notes that reporting on crimes requires special skills for student reporters, editors, and photographers. Explains how to gain access to scenes, to develop journalistic ethics, and how to cover crime and its victims. Discusses the relation of race and ethnic issues to crime, and how visual…

  17. Has anthropogenic land-cover change been a significant climate forcing in the past? - An assessment for the Baltic Sea catchment area based on a literature review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, Marie-Jose; Kaplan, Jed O.; Kleinen, Thomas; Brigitte Nielsen, Anne; Poska, Anneli; Samuelsson, Patrick; Strandberg, Gustav; Trondman, Anna-Kari

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed the recent published scientific literature on land cover-climate interactions at the global and regional spatial scales with the aim to assess whether it is convincingly demonstrated that anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) has been (over the last centuries and millennia) a significant climate forcing at the global scale, and more specifically at the scale of the Baltic Sea catchment area. The conclusions from this review are as follows: i) anthropogenic land-cover change (ALCC) is one of the few climate forcings for which the net direction of the climate response in the past is still not known. The uncertainty is due to the often counteracting temperature responses to the many biogeophysical effects, and to the biogeochemical vs biogeophysical effects; ii) there is no indication that deforestation in the Baltic Sea area since AD 1850 would have been a major cause of the recent climate warming in the region through a positive biogeochemical feedback; iii) several model studies suggest that boreal reforestation might not be an effective climate warming mitigation tool as it might lead to increased warming through biogeophysical processes; iv) palaeoecological studies indicate a major transformation of the landscape by anthropogenic activities in the southern zone of the study region occurring between 6000 and 3000/2500 calendar years before present (cal. BP) (1) ; v) the only modelling study so far of the biogeophysical effects of past ALCCs on regional climate in Europe suggests that a deforestation of the magnitude of that reconstructed for the past (between 6000 and 200 cal BP) can produce changes in winter and summer temperatures of +/- 1°, the sign of the change depending on the season and the region (2). Thus, if ALCC and their biogeophysical effects did matter in the past, they should matter today and in the future. A still prevailing idea is that planting trees will mitigate climate warming through biogeochemical effects. Therefore, there is

  18. Estimation of soil redistribution rates due to snow cover related processes in a mountainous area (Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceaglio, E.; Meusburger, K.; Freppaz, M.; Zanini, E.; Alewell, C.

    2011-09-01

    Mountain areas are widely affected by soil erosion, which is commonly linked to runoff processes. Also winter processes, like snow gliding and full-depth avalanches, may be important factors that can enhance soil erosion, however the role and importance of snow movements as agents of soil redistribution are not well understood yet. The aim of this study is to provide information on the relative importance of snow related soil erosion processes in comparison to runoff processes. In the study area, which is an avalanche path characterized by intense snow movements and soil erosion, soil redistribution rates were quantified with two methods: (i) by field measurements of sediment yield in an avalanche deposition area during 2009 and 2010 winter seasons; (ii) by Caesium-137 method, which supplies the cumulative net soil loss/gain since 1986, including winter and summer soil erosion processes. The soil erosion rates estimated from the sediment yield at the avalanche deposit area (3.2 and 20.8 Mg ha-1 event-1) is comparable to the yearly erosion rates (averaged since 1986) estimated with the Cs-137 method (8.8-13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1). The soil accumulation rate estimated with data from the avalanche deposition area (28.2 and 160.7 Mg ha-1 event-1) is even more intense than the yearly deposition rates estimated with Cs-137 (8.9-12.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1). This might be due to the high relevance of the two investigated avalanche events and/or to the discrepancy between the long-term (since 1986) signal of the Cs-137 method compared to rates of 2009 and 2010. Even though the comparability is limited by the different time scale of the applied methods, both methods yielded similar magnitudes of soil redistribution rates indicating that soil erosion due to snow movements is the main driving force of soil redistribution in the area. Therefore winter processes have to be taken into account when assessing soil erosion as they significantly contribute to soil redistribution in mountainous areas.

  19. Landsat TM-based analysis of land area and vegetation cover change on six selected Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands (1984-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstanley, Hunter Clark

    Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island are located 10-20 kilometers south of the Mississippi and Alabama coastlines. These six barrier islands serve as an important shield to southern areas of Mississippi and Alabama from tropical cyclone (hurricane) impacts such as storm surge and destructive waves. The islands are also home to a delicate ecosystem of many different types of flora and fauna. Over the course of the past three decades, all six islands have been subjected to several hurricane events. This, coupled with the natural state of the erosion, has led to the islands losing total land area and vegetation. This thesis research focuses on quantifying the vegetation loss and total land area loss on Cat Island, West Ship Island, East Ship Island, Horn Island, Petit Bois Island, and Dauphin Island during the time period from 1984 to 2011. A special focus is given to impacts of Hurricanes Georges, Ivan, Katrina, Gustav, and Ike which affected the northern Gulf Coast in 1998, 2004, 2005, and 2008, respectively. This research utilizes Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper Imagery. Supervised classifications and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) analyses are performed on each scene to analyze the total land area and vegetation cover of each island. The results of this research show the total extent of land and vegetation loss on each island from 1984 to 2011, and which islands are most vulnerable to erosion and vegetation loss. The results also reveal how all five hurricanes affected each individual island.

  20. Application of high resolution land use and land cover data for atmospheric modeling in the Houston-Galveston metropolitan area, Part I: Meteorological simulation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Yi; Byun, Daewon W.

    To predict atmospheric conditions in an urban environment, the land surface processes must be accurately described through the use of detailed land use (LU) and land cover (LC) data. Use of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 25-category data, currently in the Fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5), with the Noah land surface model (LSM) and MRF (medium-range forecast) planetary boundary layer (PBL) schemes resulted in the over-prediction of daytime temperatures in the Houston downtown area due to the inaccurate representation as a completely impervious surface. This bias could be corrected with the addition of canopy water in the urban areas from the evapotranspiration effects of urban vegetation. A more fundamental approach would be to utilize an LULC dataset that represents land surface features accurately. The Texas Forest Service (TFS) LULC dataset established with the LANDSAT satellite imagery correctly represents the Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) area as mixtures of urban, residential, grass, and forest LULC types. This paper describes how the Noah LSM and PBL schemes in the MM5 were modified to accommodate the TFS-LULC data. Comparisons with various meteorological measurements show that the MM5 simulation made with the high resolution LULC data improves the boundary layer mixing conditions and local wind patterns in the Houston Ship Channel, which is a critically important anthropogenic emission area affecting the HGB air pollution problems. In particular, when the synoptic flows are weak, the improved LULC data simulates the asymmetrically elongated Houston heat island convergence zone influencing the location of the afternoon Gulf of Mexico sea-breeze front and the Galveston Bay breeze flows. This paper is part I of a two-part study and focuses on the meteorological simulation. In part II, effects of using the different meteorological inputs on air quality simulations are discussed.

  1. Estimation of soil redistribution rates due to snow cover related processes in a mountainous area (Valle d'Aosta, NW Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceaglio, E.; Meusburger, K.; Freppaz, M.; Zanini, E.; Alewell, C.

    2012-02-01

    Mountain areas are widely affected by soil erosion, which is generally linked to runoff processes occurring in the growing season and snowmelt period. Also processes like snow gliding and full-depth snow avalanches may be important factors that can enhance soil erosion, however the role and importance of snow movements as agents of soil redistribution are not well understood yet. The aim of this study was to provide information on the relative importance of snow related processes in comparison to runoff processes. In the study area, which is an avalanche path characterized by intense snow movements, soil redistribution rates were quantified with two methods: (i) by field measurements of sediment yield in an avalanche deposition area during 2009 and 2010 winter seasons; (ii) by caesium-137 method, which supplies the cumulative net soil loss/gain since 1986, including all the soil erosion processes. The snow related soil accumulation estimated with data from the deposit area (27.5 Mg ha-1 event-1 and 161.0 Mg ha-1 event-1) was not only higher than the yearly sediment amounts, reported in literature, due to runoff processes, but it was even more intense than the yearly total deposition rate assessed with 137Cs (12.6 Mg ha-1 yr-1). The snow related soil erosion rates estimated from the sediment yield at the avalanche deposit area (3.7 Mg ha-1 and 20.8 Mg ha-1) were greater than the erosion rates reported in literature and related to runoff processes; they were comparable to the yearly total erosion rates assessed with the 137Cs method (13.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 8.8 Mg ha-1 yr-1). The 137Cs method also showed that, where the ground avalanche does not release, the erosion and deposition of soil particles from the upper part of the basin was considerable and likely related to snow gliding. Even though the comparison of both the approaches is linked to high methodological uncertainties, mainly due to the different spatial and temporal scales considered, we still can deduce

  2. Soil cover patterns in the northern part of the area of aspen-fir taiga in the southeast of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiko, S. V.; Geras'ko, L. I.; Kulizhskii, S. P.; Amelin, I. I.; Istigechev, G. I.

    2015-04-01

    Soil cover patterns in the northern part of the area of aspen-fir taiga on the Tom'-Yaya interfluve at 170-270 m a.s.l. are analyzed. Landscapes of the subtaiga piedmont province are found at somewhat lower heights. The three major forms of the local mesotopography include virtually flat interfluve surfaces, slopes (that predominate in area), and the network of ravines and small river valleys. Modal soil combinations on the slopes consist of the typical soddy-podzolic soils with very deep bleached eluvial horizons and dark gray (or gray) residual-humus gleyic soils with dark humus coatings. With an increase in the degree of drainage of the territory (toward the local erosional network), the portion of gleyic soil subtypes decreases from nearly 100% on the flat interfluves to 10-15% on the slopes; the portion of soils with residual humus features decreases from 80-90 to 10-15%, respectively. These two soil subtypes can be considered intergrades between typical soils of the aspen-fir taiga (soddy-podzolic soils with very deep bleached horizons) and dark gray and gray residual-humus soils characteristic of the subtaiga zone in the south of Western Siberia.

  3. Scaling effects on area-averaged fraction of vegetation cover derived using a linear mixture model with two-band spectral vegetation index constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obata, Kenta; Huete, Alfredo R.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying the scaling effects that apply to a fraction of vegetation cover (FVC) estimates derived using two-band spectral vegetation index (VI) isoline-based linear mixture models (VI isoline-based LMM). The VIs included the normalized difference vegetation index, a soil-adjusted vegetation index, and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2). This study focused in part on the monotonicity of an area-averaged FVC estimate as a function of spatial resolution. The proof of monotonicity yielded measures of the intrinsic area-averaged FVC uncertainties due to scaling effects. The derived results demonstrate that a factor ξ, which was defined as a function of "true" and "estimated" endmember spectra of the vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces, was responsible for conveying monotonicity or nonmonotonicity. The monotonic FVC values displayed a uniform increasing or decreasing trend that was independent of the choice of the two-band VI. Conditions under which scaling effects were eliminated from the FVC were identified. Numerical simulations verifying the monotonicity and the practical utility of the scaling theory were evaluated using numerical experiments applied to Landsat7-Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. The findings contribute to developing scale-invariant FVC estimation algorithms for multisensor and data continuity.

  4. Long-term agricultural land-cover change and potential for cropland expansion in the former Virgin Lands area of Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Roland; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Radeloff, Volker C.; Dara, Andrey; Terekhov, Alexey; Frühauf, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    During the Soviet Virgin Lands Campaign, approximately 23 million hectares (Mha) of Eurasian steppe grassland were converted into cropland in Northern Kazakhstan from 1954 to 1963. As a result Kazakhstan became an important breadbasket of the former Soviet Union. However, the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 triggered widespread agricultural abandonment, and much cropland reverted to grasslands. Our goal in this study was to reconstruct and analyze agricultural land-cover change since the eve of the Virgin Lands Campaign, from 1953 to 2010 in Kostanay Province, a region that is representative of Northern Kazakhstan. Further, we assessed the potential of currently idle cropland for re-cultivation. We reconstructed the cropland extent before and after the Virgin Lands Campaign using archival maps, and we mapped the agricultural land cover in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period using multi-seasonal Landsat TM/ETM+ images from circa 1990, 2000 and 2010. Cropland extent peaked at approximately 3.1 Mha in our study area in 1990, 38% of which had been converted from grasslands from 1954 to 1961. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, 45% of the Soviet cropland was abandoned and had reverted to grassland by 2000. After 2000, cropland contraction and re-cultivation were balanced. Using spatial logistic regressions we found that cropland expansion during the Virgin Lands Campaign was significantly associated with favorable agro-environmental conditions. In contrast, cropland expansion after the Campaign until 1990, as well as cropland contraction after 1990, occurred mainly in areas that were less favorable for agriculture. Cropland re-cultivation after 2000 was occurring on lands with relatively favorable agro-environmental conditions in comparison to remaining idle croplands, albeit with much lower agro-environmental endowment compared to stable croplands from 1990 to 2010. In sum, we found that cropland production potentials of the currently uncultivated areas are

  5. Vegetation Cover and Habitat Heterogeneity derived from QuickBird data as proxies of Local Plant Species Richness in recently burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viedma, Olga; Torres, Ivan; Moreno, Jose Manuel

    2010-05-01

    In fire-prone ecosystems, it is very common that, following fire, plant species richness increases very markedly, mainly due to an explosion of annuals, following a rapid change during the first few years after the blaze. Herbs play a major role in the system, among other, by fixing nutrients that might be lost, or by changing competitive interactions with shrubs or tree seedlings. But assessing species richness, particularly, herbaceous one, in space and at large scale is very costly. Furthermore, the scale of measurement is also important. In this work we attempted to asses plant species richness during the first year after fire in an abandoned dehesa (open parkland) at three scales (1 m2, 25 m2 and 100 m2) using QuickBird images. The study area was located in Central Spain (Anchuras, Ciudad Real), and was affected by a large summer fire (ca. 2000 ha). Before the fire the system was composed of a shrubland intermixed with trees and open spaces. Two 90x180 m plots were selected and field species richness measures were made at the three scales, using a nested design. Field-based data were related to remotely sensed data using Regression Trees (RT) and Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) modelling. Explanatory spectral and textural remotely sensed data were ecologically interpreted based on vegetation cover ground-based data. We found that areas with low spectral contrast and high reflectivity were dominated by herbaceous species, and had greater species richness than those characterized by low contrast and medium-low reflectivity, which were dominated by shrubs and trees. The highest species richness was found in the areas characterized by high contrast and medium-high reflectivity, which had a mix of herbs and woody layers. Variance explained varied depending on the modelling approach and the scale, from 21% and 50% for 1 m2 using RT and BRT, respectively; to 65% and 79% for 100 m2. The contribution of different life forms in model fitting was scale-dependent. At

  6. Sky cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerth, Jordan J.

    Of all of the standard meteorological parameters collected and observed daily, sky cover is not only one of the most complex, but the one that is fairly ambiguously defined and difficult to quantify. Despite that, the implications of how cloud fraction and sky cover are understood not only impact daily weather forecasts, but also present challenges to assessing the state of the earth's climate system. Part of the reason for this is the lack of observational methods for verifying the skill of clouds represented and parameterized in numerical models. While human observers record sky cover as part of routine duties, the spatial coverage of such observations in the United States is relatively sparse. There is greater spatial coverage of automated observations, and essentially complete coverage from geostationary weather satellites that observe the Americas. A good analysis of sky cover reconciles differences between manual observations, automated observations, and satellite observations, through an algorithm that accounts for the strengths and weaknesses of each dataset. This work describes the decision structure for trusting and weighting these similar observations. Some of the issues addressed include: human and instrument error resulting from approximations and estimations, a deficiency in high cloud detectability using surface-based ceilometers, poorly resolved low cloud using infrared channels on space-based radiometers during overnight hours, and decreased confidence in satellite-detected cloud during stray light periods. Using the blended sky cover analysis as the best representation of cloudiness, it is possible to compare the analysis to numerical model fields in order to assess the performance of the model and the parameterizations therein, as well as confirm or uncover additional relationships between sky cover and pertinent fields using an optimization methodology. The optimizer minimizes an affine expression of adjusted fields to the "truth" sky cover

  7. Comparative Effectiveness of Biosimilar, Reference Product and Other Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs) Still Covered by Patent in Chronic Kidney Disease and Cancer Patients: An Italian Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Since 2007 biosimilars of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are available on the Italian market. Very limited post-marketing data exist on the comparative effectiveness of biosimilar and originator ESAs. Aim This population-based study was aimed to compare the effects of biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs still covered by patent on hemoglobinemia in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cancer patients in a Local Health Unit (LHU) from Northern Italy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted during the years 2009–2014 using data from Treviso LHU administrative database. Incident ESA users (no ESA dispensing within 6 months prior to treatment start, i.e. index date (ID)) with at least one hemoglobin measurement within one month prior to ID (baseline Hb value) and another measurement between 2nd and 3rd month after ID (follow-up Hb value) were identified. The strength of the consumption (as total number of defined daily dose (DDD) dispensed during the follow-up divided by days of follow-up) and the difference between follow-up and baseline Hb values [delta Hb (ΔHb)] were evaluated. Based on Hb changes, ESA users were classified as non-responders (ΔHb≤0 g/dl), responders (0<ΔHb≤2 g/dl), and highly responders (ΔHb>2 g/dl). A multivariate ordinal logistic regression model to identify predictors for responsiveness to treatment was performed. All analyses were stratified by indication for use and type of dispensed ESA at ID. Results Overall, 1,003 incident ESA users (reference product: 252, 25.1%; other ESAs covered by patent: 303, 30.2%; biosimilars: 448, 44.7%) with CKD or cancer were eligible for the study. No statistically significant difference in the amount of dose dispensed during the follow-up among biosimilars, reference product and other ESAs covered by patent was found in both CKD and cancer. After three months from treatment start, all ESAs increased Hb values on average by 2g/dl. No differences in ΔHb as well as in

  8. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Whitham, Charlotte E L; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV) exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC) maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr(-1) km(-2)) and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr(-1) km(-2)). However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas.

  9. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Whitham, Charlotte E. L.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV) exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC) maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr-1 km-2) and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr-1 km-2). However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas. PMID:26086191

  10. Ecosystem Service Valuation Assessments for Protected Area Management: A Case Study Comparing Methods Using Different Land Cover Classification and Valuation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Whitham, Charlotte E L; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-appropriate ecosystem service valuations are vital for decision-makers and land managers. Many approaches for estimating ecosystem service value (ESV) exist, but their appropriateness under specific conditions or logistical limitations is not uniform. The most accurate techniques are therefore not always adopted. Six different assessment approaches were used to estimate ESV for a National Nature Reserve in southwest China, across different management zones. These approaches incorporated two different land-use land cover (LULC) maps and development of three economic valuation techniques, using globally or locally-derived data. The differences in ESV across management zones for the six approaches were largely influenced by the classifications of forest and farmland and how they corresponded with valuation coefficients. With realistic limits on access to time, data, skills and resources, and using acquired estimates from globally-relevant sources, the Buffer zone was estimated as the most valuable (2.494 million ± 1.371 million CNY yr(-1) km(-2)) and the Non-protected zone as the least valuable (770,000 ± 4,600 CNY yr(-1) km(-2)). However, for both LULC maps, when using the locally-based and more time and skill-intensive valuation approaches, this pattern was generally reversed. This paper provides a detailed practical example of how ESV can differ widely depending on the availability and appropriateness of LULC maps and valuation approaches used, highlighting pitfalls for the managers of protected areas. PMID:26086191

  11. The influences of land use and land cover on climate; an analysis of the Washington-Baltimore area that couples remote sensing with numerical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pease, R.W.; Jenner, C.B.; Lewis, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The Sun drives the atmospheric heat engine by warming the terrestrial surface which in turn warms the atmosphere above. Climate, therefore, is significantly controlled by complex interaction of energy flows near and at the terrestrial surface. When man alters this delicate energy balance by his use of the land, he may alter his climatic environment as well. Land use climatology has emerged as a discipline in which these energy interactions are studied; first, by viewing the spatial distributions of their surface manifestations, and second, by analyzing the energy exchange processes involved. Two new tools for accomplishing this study are presented: one that can interpret surface energy exchange processes from space, and another that can simulate the complex of energy transfers by a numerical simulation model. Use of a satellite-borne multispectral scanner as an imaging radiometer was made feasible by devising a gray-window model that corrects measurements made in space for the effects of the atmosphere in the optical path. The simulation model is a combination of mathematical models of energy transfer processes at or near the surface. Integration of these two analytical approaches was applied to the Washington-Baltimore area to coincide with the August 5, 1973, Skylab 3 overpass which provided data for constructing maps of the energy characteristics of the Earth's surface. The use of the two techniques provides insights into the relationship of climate to land use and land cover and in predicting alterations of climate that may result from alterations of the land surface.

  12. Mapping moderate-scale land-cover over very large geographic areas within a collaborative framework: A case study of the Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, J.; Ramsey, R.D.; Thomas, K.; Schrupp, D.; Sajwaj, T.; Kirby, J.; Waller, E.; Schrader, S.; Falzarano, S.; Langs, L.; Manis, G.; Wallace, C.; Schulz, K.; Comer, P.; Pohs, K.; Rieth, W.; Velasquez, C.; Wolk, B.; Kepner, W.; Boykin, K.; O'Brien, L.; Bradford, D.; Thompson, B.; Prior-Magee, J.

    2007-01-01

    Land-cover mapping efforts within the USGS Gap Analysis Program have traditionally been state-centered; each state having the responsibility of implementing a project design for the geographic area within their state boundaries. The Southwest Regional Gap Analysis Project (SWReGAP) was the first formal GAP project designed at a regional, multi-state scale. The project area comprises the southwestern states of Arizona, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The land-cover map/dataset was generated using regionally consistent geospatial data (Landsat ETM+ imagery (1999-2001) and DEM derivatives), similar field data collection protocols, a standardized land-cover legend, and a common modeling approach (decision tree classifier). Partitioning of mapping responsibilities amongst the five collaborating states was organized around ecoregion-based "mapping zones". Over the course of 21/2 field seasons approximately 93,000 reference samples were collected directly, or obtained from other contemporary projects, for the land-cover modeling effort. The final map was made public in 2004 and contains 125 land-cover classes. An internal validation of 85 of the classes, representing 91% of the land area was performed. Agreement between withheld samples and the validated dataset was 61% (KHAT = .60, n = 17,030). This paper presents an overview of the methodologies used to create the regional land-cover dataset and highlights issues associated with large-area mapping within a coordinated, multi-institutional management framework. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wall Covering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The attractive wall covering shown below is one of 132 styles in the Mirror Magic II line offered by The General Tire & Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The material is metallized plastic fabric, a spinoff from space programs. Wall coverings are one of many consumer applications of aluminized plastic film technology developed for NASA by a firm later bought by King-Seeley Thermos Company, Winchester, Massachusetts, which now produces the material. The original NASA use was in the Echo 1 passive communications satellite, a "space baloon" made of aluminized mylar; the high reflectivity of the metallized coating enabled relay of communications signals from one Earth station to another by "bouncing" them off the satellite. The reflectivity feature also made the material an extremely efficient insulator and it was subsequently widely used in the Apollo program for such purposes as temperature control of spacecraft components and insulation of tanks for fuels that must be maintained at very low temperatures. I Used as a wall covering, the aluminized material offers extra insulation, reflects light and I resists cracking. In addition to General Tire, King-Seeley also supplies wall covering material to Columbus Coated Fabrics Division of Borden, Incorporated, Columbus, Ohio, among others.

  14. Cover Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are great tools to improve soil quality and health, and great tools to increase carbon sequestration. They are nutrient management tools that can help scavenge nitrate, cycle nitrogen to the following crop, mine NO3 from groundwater, and increase nitrogen use efficiency of cropping syste...

  15. Comparison of hemostatic agents used in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Krishna S.; Saha, Sibu P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, a wide range of agents have been developed for use in surgical procedures to achieve hemostasis. These agents can be divided into three broad categories: hemostats, sealants and adhesives. They vary widely related to their mechanism of action, composition, ease of application, adherence to wet or dry tissue, immunogenicity and cost. Areas covered This article focuses on the agents used in vascular surgery to achieve hemostasis; agents involved in clinical trials are also covered. Expert opinion When surgeons achieve rapid hemostasis, potential benefits include better visualization of the surgical area, shorter operative times, decreased requirement for transfusions, better management of an anticoagulated patient, decreased wound healing time and overall improvement in patient recovery time. The need for safe and efficacious hemostatic agents that can provide a range of benefits is clearly a significant surgical issue. PMID:24144261

  16. 25 CFR 900.183 - Do Indian tribes and tribal organizations need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage...) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims resulting from activities performed... FTCA does not cover? Yes. There are claims against self-determination contractors which are not...

  17. 25 CFR 900.183 - Do Indian tribes and tribal organizations need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage...) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims resulting from activities performed... FTCA does not cover? Yes. There are claims against self-determination contractors which are not...

  18. 25 CFR 900.183 - Do Indian tribes and tribal organizations need to be aware of areas which FTCA does not cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ASSISTANCE ACT Federal Tort Claims Act Coverage...) Claims for breach of contract rather than tort claims; or (4) Claims resulting from activities performed... FTCA does not cover? Yes. There are claims against self-determination contractors which are not...

  19. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanjoy K.; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Esnault, Jacques; Driguez, Pierre-Alexandre; Duchaussoy, Philippe; Sizun, Philippe; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Petitou, Maurice; Sinaÿ, Pierre

    2001-05-01

    The cover picture shows how thrombosis occurs in the deep veins of the lower limbs. Stasis, which results from slow and turbulent blood flow, combined with hypercoagulation, caused, for example, by a surgical procedure, may result in thrombus formation. The synthetic sulfated pentasaccharide shown in part is a potent antithrombotic compound that exerts its effect by activation of the plasma protein antithrombin III. Conformationally locked monosaccharides have now been synthesized to demonstrate that L-iduronic acid, one part of the pentasaccharide, must adopt an unusual distorted conformation to activate antithrombin III. Such conformational effects might be relevant in explaining the unique biological properties of glycosaminoglycans that contain L-iduronic acid. In the background of the picture, a flight of vampire bats is attracted by the pentasaccharide. Vampire was the name given to South American blood-sucking bats (Latin name: desmodus rotundus) in 1761 by the French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc Comte de Buffon (1707-1788). These bats are known to attack cattle and, very rarely, sleeping human beings. Although their saliva has been shown to contain an anticoagulant compound, they would also be happy to benefit from the pentasaccharide mentioned above, to suck the blood out of the vein more easily. More details about this compound which would be helpful to vampire bats are reported by Petitou, Sinaÿ et al. on p. 1670 ff.

  20. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Breuning; Ruben; Lehn; Renz; Garcia; Ksenofontov; Gütlich; Wegelius; Rissanen

    2000-07-17

    The cover picture shows how both, fine arts and science, avail themselves of a system of intertwined symbolic and iconic languages. They make use of a common set of abstracted signs to report on their results. Thus, already in 1925, Wassily Kandinsky painted a masterpiece (bottom), which now, 75 years later, might be regarded as a blueprint for a scientific project. In his painting, Kandinsky pictured a grid-shaped sign that resembles in effect an actual molecular switch. Apparently following an enigmatic protocol, the groups of Lehn and Gütlich (see p. 2504 ff. for more details) constructed a grid-type inorganic architecture that operates as a three-level magnetic switch (center) triggered by three external perturbations (p, T, hnu). The switching principle is based on the spin-crossover phenomenon of Fe(II) ions and can be monitored by Mössbauer spectroscopy (left) and magnetic measurements (rear). Maybe not by chance, the English translation of the title of the painting "signs" is a homonym of "science", since both presented works are a product of the insatiable curiosity of man and his untiring desire to recognize his existence.

  1. Evidence of competition among three species of Pseudacteon decapitating flies released in the Gainesville area as fire ant biocontrol agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three species of fire ant decapitating flies have been established in the Gainesville area. The first species, Pseudacteon tricuspis, was established in 1997. The second species, Pseudacteon curvatus, was established in 2003 and the third species, Pseudacteon obtusus, was established in 2008. The s...

  2. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-off of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  3. Low-Surface-Area Hard Carbon Anode for Na-Ion Batteries via Graphene Oxide as a Dehydration Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, W; Bommier, C; Jian, ZL; Li, X; Carter, R; Vail, S; Lu, YH; Lee, JJ; Ji, XL

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m(2)/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burnoff of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. The obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  4. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for Na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong -Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m²/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burn-offmore » of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. Thus, the obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.« less

  5. Role Of Spatial Scale In Sub-Area Prioritization To Reduce Impact Of Planned Land Use/Cover Alternations Of Watershed Responses

    EPA Science Inventory

    An index based methodology is presented that rank the sub-areas in a watershed based on their relative impacts on watershed response to anticipated land developments. We argue in this paper that the spatial locations of such critical areas are dependent on the extent of watershed...

  6. Detecting the hydrological impacts of forest cover change in tropical mountain areas: need for detrending time series of rainfall and streamflow data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Balthazar, V.

    2012-04-01

    Interactions between human activities and the physical environment have increasingly transformed the hydrological functioning of Andean ecosystems. In these human-modified landscapes, land use/-cover change may have a profound effect on riverine water and sediment fluxes. The hydrological impacts of land use/-cover change are diverse, as changes in vegetation affect the various components of the hydrological cycle including evapotranspiration, infiltration and surface runoff. Quantitative data for tropical mountain regions are scarce, as few long time series on rainfall, water discharge and land use are available. Furthermore, time series of rainfall and streamflow data in tropical mountains are often highly influenced by large inter- and intra-annual variability. In this paper, we analyse the hydrological response to complex forest cover change for a catchment of 280 km2 located in the Ecuadorian Andes. Forest cover change in the Pangor catchment was reconstructed based on airphotos (1963, 1977), LANDSAT TM (1991) and ETM+ data (2001, 2009). From 1963, natural vegetation was converted to agricultural land and pine plantations: forests decreased by a factor 2, and paramo decreased by 20 km2 between 1963 and 2009. For this catchment, there exists an exceptionally long record of rainfall and streamflow data that dates back from the '70s till now, but large variability in hydrometeorological data exists that is partly related to ENSO events. Given the nonstationary and nonlinear character of the ENSO-related changes in rainfall, we used the Hilbert-Huang transformation to detrend the time series of the river flow data from inter- and intra-annual fluctuations in rainfall. After applying adaptive data analysis based on empirical model decomposition techniques, it becomes apparent that the long-term trend in streamflow is different from the long-term trend in rainfall data. While the streamflow data show a long-term decrease in monthly flow, the rainfall data have a

  7. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  8. 43 CFR 5.1 - What does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROJECTS AND STILL PHOTOGRAPHY ON CERTAIN AREAS UNDER DEPARTMENT JURISDICTION Areas Administered by the... does this subpart cover? This subpart covers commercial filming and still photography activities...

  9. The spatial-temporal patterns and the driving forces of land-use/cover change in the Dongting Lake area of the middle Yangtze River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rendong; Liu, Jiyuan; Zhuang, Dafang; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2004-11-01

    Dongting Lake area, located on the southern bank of the middle Yangtze River in central China, is one of the regions experiencing rapid land use change and seriously suffering from flooding disaster in the country. In this paper, a series of land-use coverage was generated through visually interpreting Landsat MSS, TM and ETM images, of 1980, 1990 and 2000 respectively. Then, the spatial-temporal characteristics and the driving forces of the land use changes were analyzed in the study area. The results show that, from 1980 to 2000, the areas of farmland, woodland and non-used land decreased, while those of built-up land, water area and grassland increased. There was a significant shifting from farmland to water or built-up area, and the large-scale reclamation from the lake ever in history has not been found since 1980. The fastest changed area was in Shishou City, Yueyang City and Jinshi City, and the slowest in the eastern and southeastern area. About 49% of the changes were caused by the adjustment of agricultural economic structure, 29.75% by the urbanization and industrialization, and 21.41% by the environmental pressure. The policy, market price and tax on land products also have definitively influences on the land-use changes.

  10. Index for hazard of Glacier Lake Outburst flood of Lake Merzbacher by satellite-based monitoring of lake area and ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zunyi; ShangGuan, Donghui; Zhang, Shiqiang; Ding, Yongjian; Liu, Shiyin

    2013-08-01

    Previous studies show that the area of a moraine-dammed lake can provide a good indicator of the significance of its outburst. For a glacier-dammed lake however, because its area and depth fluctuates with the melting of its ice dam, it is difficult to predict the outburst of the glacier-dammed lake by using its area alone.A characteristic of the surface of Lake Merzbacher is a large amount of floating ice therefore, a method is proposed in this article to extract the area of floating ice on the lake and the area of ice free water in the lake by using Environment and Disaster Monitoring Small Satellite images respectively. Furthermore, based on the area of floating ice extracted through the image information of Lake Merzbacher in 2009 and 2010, we determined the relationship between the ice area and the outburst of the lake, then formulated the Index for hazard of Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (IGLOF) of Lake Merzbacher, which cannot only predict the flood outburst, but also determine the specific outburst period after the lake drainage had occurred. This can be shown in a recalculation of the lake drainages in the years 2009 and 2010. Research results indicate that when IGLOF is less than 0.5 and the lake area is larger than 3 km2, the outburst process is in early-warning period and GLOF will occur in the next 5-8 days. Also, the successful outburst prediction of Lake Merzbacher in 2011 showed that the index described in this paper provides a quick methodology for forecasting and warning against Lake Merzbacher outburst floods. However,as our research was based on a short observation period (2009-2011) and also cannot be supplemented by other images, it will still be needed to be checked and validated by continuous observation and improvement in future.

  11. In situ testing to determination field-saturated hydraulic conductivity of UMTRA Project disposal cell covers, liners, and foundation areas. Special study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This special study was conducted to prepare a guidance document for selecting in situ hydraulic conductivity (K) tests, comparing in situ testing methods, and evaluating the results of such tests. This report may be used as a practical decision-making tool by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project staff to determine which testing method will most efficiently achieve the field-saturated K results needed for long-term planning. A detailed section on near-surface test methods discusses each method which may be applicable to characterization of UMTRA disposal cell covers, liners and foundation materials. These potentially applicable test methods include the sealed double-ring infiltrometer (SDRI), the air-entry permeameter (AEP), the guelph permeameter, the two-stage borehole technique (TSB), the pressure infiltrometer, and the disk permeameter. Analytical solutions for these methods are provided, and limitations of these solutions are discussed, and a description of testing equipment design and installation are provided.

  12. Area and Elevation Changes of a Debris-Covered Glacier and a Clean-Ice Glacier Between 1952-2013 Using Aerial Images and Structure-from-Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lardeux, P.; Glasser, N. F.; Holt, T.; Irvine-Fynn, T. D.; Hubbard, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1952, the clean-ice Glacier Blanc has retreated twice as fast as the adjacent debris-covered Glacier Noir. Located in the French Alps and separated by only 1 km, both glaciers experience the same climatic conditions, making them ideal to evaluate the impact of debris cover on glacier evolution. We used aerial photographs from 16 acquisitions from 1952 to 2013 to reconstruct and analyze glacier elevation changes using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) techniques. Here, we present the process of developing sub-metric resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) from these aerial photographs. By combining 16 DEMs, we produced a dataset of elevation changes of Glacier Noir and Glacier Blanc, including time-series analysis of lateral and longitudinal profiles, glacier hypsometry and mass balance variation. Our preliminary results indicate that Glacier Noir and Glacier Blanc have both thinned to a similar magnitude, ≤ 20 m, despite a 1 km retreat for Glacier Blanc and only 500 m for Glacier Noir. However, these elevation change reconstructions are hampered by large uncertainties, principally due to the lack of independent camera calibration on the historical imagery. Initial attempts using posteriori correction grids have proven to significantly increase the accuracy of these data. We will present some of the uncertainties and solutions linked to the use of SfM on such a large scale and on such an old dataset. This study demonstrates how SfM can be used to investigate long-term trends in environmental change, allowing glacier monitoring to be up-scaled. It also highlights the need for on-going validation of methods to increase the accuracy and precision of SfM in glaciology. This work is not only advancing our understanding of the role of the debris layer, but will also aid glacial geology more generally with, for example, detailed geomorphological analysis of proglacial terrain and Quaternary sciences with quick and accurate reconstruction of a glacial paleo-environment.

  13. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoske, Richard; Kennedy, Patrick; Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Huxford, Theodore J; Bonavita, Angelo M; Engleman, Greg; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Griest, Wayne H; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  14. 43 CFR 3503.11 - Are there any other areas in which I cannot get a permit or lease for the minerals covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Areas Available..., oil shale reserves and national petroleum reserves; (e) Lands acquired by the United States for development of helium, fissionable material deposits or other minerals essential to the defense of the...

  15. 43 CFR 3503.11 - Are there any other areas in which I cannot get a permit or lease for the minerals covered by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING OF SOLID MINERALS OTHER THAN COAL AND OIL SHALE Areas Available..., oil shale reserves and national petroleum reserves; (e) Lands acquired by the United States for development of helium, fissionable material deposits or other minerals essential to the defense of the...

  16. A Study of the Role of Clouds in the Relationship Between Land Use/Land Cover and the Climate and Air Quality of the Atlanta Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan

    1997-01-01

    The goal of Project ATLANTA is to derive a better scientific understanding of how land cover changes associated with urbanization affect local and regional climate and air quality. Clouds play a significant role in this relationship. Using GOES images, we found that in a 63-day period (5 July-5 September 1996) there were zero days which were clear for the entire daylight period. Days which are cloud-free in the morning become partly cloudy with small cumulus clouds in the afternoon in response to solar heating. This result casts doubt on the applicability of California-style air quality models which run in perpetual clear skies. Days which are clear in the morning have higher ozone than those which are cloudy in the morning. Using the RAMS model, we found that urbanization increases the skin surface temperature by about 1.0-1.5 C on average under cloudy conditions, with an extreme of +3.5 C. Clouds cool the surface due to their shading effect by 1.5-2.0 C on average, with an extreme of 5.0 C. RAMS simulates well the building stage of the cumulus cloud field, but does poorly in the decaying phase. Next year's work: doing a detailed cloud climatology and developing improved RAMS cloud simulations.

  17. Fluorine concentration in snow cover within the impact area of aluminium production plant (Krasnoyarsk city) and coal and gas-fired power plant (Tomsk city)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Osipova, N. A.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Polikanova, S. A.; Samokhina, N. P.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The fluorine contents in snow melt water find in the impact areas of aluminum production plant and coal and gas-fired power plant are compared. In melt water, soluble fluoride is found in the form of fluoride ion, the content of which was determined by the potentiometric method using ion-selective electrode. According to the measurements of 2013-2014, fluoride content in melt water ranges 10.6-15.4 mg/dm3 at the distance 1-3 km from the borders of Krasnoyarsk aluminum plant with the mean value 13.1 mg/dm3. Four-year monitoring from 2012 to 2015 in the impact area of Tomsk coal and gas-fired power plant showed that fluoride content in melt water in vicinity of the thermal power plant is significantly lower than in the samples from the impact area of the aluminum plant. But higher content of fluoride ion (0.2 - 0.3 mg/dm3) in snow samples in vicinity of coal and gas-fired power plant was revealed in winter of 2015. Intake of soluble fluoride is mostly explained by dust-aerosol emissions of study plants and deposition of fluorine compounds from air.

  18. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout. PMID:27424113

  19. Influences of land cover types, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat and urban area on surface urban heat island in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Du, Hongyu; Wang, Duoduo; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Xiaolei; Qin, Fei; Jiang, Hong; Cai, Yongli

    2016-11-15

    Urban heat islands (UHIs) reflect the localized impact of human activities on thermal fields. In this study, we assessed the surface UHI and its relationship with types of land, meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and urban areas in the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration (YRDUA) with the aid of remote sensing data, statistical data and meteorological data. The results showed that the UHI intensity in YRDUA was the strongest (0.84°C) in summer, followed by 0.81°C in autumn, 0.78°C in spring and 0.53°C in winter. The daytime UHI intensity is 0.98°C, which is higher than the nighttime UHI intensity of 0.50°C. Then, the relationship between the UHI intensity and several factors such as meteorological conditions, anthropogenic heat sources and the urban area were analysed. The results indicated that there was an insignificant correlation between population density and the UHI intensity. Energy consumption, average temperature and urban area had a significant positive correlation with UHI intensity. However, the average wind speed and average precipitation were significantly negatively correlated with UHI intensity. This study provides insight into the regional climate characteristics and a scientific basis for city layout.

  20. Effects of land use and land cover on selected soil quality indicators in the headwater area of the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teferi, Ermias; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Simane, Belay

    2016-02-01

    Understanding changes in soil quality resulting from land use and land management changes is important to design sustainable land management plans or interventions. This study evaluated the influence of land use and land cover (LULC) on key soil quality indicators (SQIs) within a small watershed (Jedeb) in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine different SQIs. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples with four replications were collected from five main LULC types in the watershed (i.e., natural woody vegetation, plantation forest, grassland, cultivated land, and barren land) and at two elevation classes (upland and midland), and 13 soil properties were measured for each replicate. A factorial (2 × 5) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that LULC and altitude together significantly affected organic matter (OM) levels. However, LULC alone significantly affected bulk density and altitude alone significantly affected bulk density, soil acidity, and silt content. Afforestation of barren land with eucalypt trees can significantly increase the soil OM in the midland part but not in the upland part. Soils under grassland had a significantly higher bulk density than did soils under natural woody vegetation indicating that de-vegetation and conversion to grassland could lead to soil compaction. Thus, the historical LULC change in the Jedeb watershed has resulted in the loss of soil OM and increased soil compaction. The study shows that a land use and management system can be monitored if it degrades or maintains or improves the soil using key soil quality indicators.

  1. Effects of land use and land cover on selected soil quality indicators in the headwater area of the Blue Nile basin of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Teferi, Ermias; Bewket, Woldeamlak; Simane, Belay

    2016-02-01

    Understanding changes in soil quality resulting from land use and land management changes is important to design sustainable land management plans or interventions. This study evaluated the influence of land use and land cover (LULC) on key soil quality indicators (SQIs) within a small watershed (Jedeb) in the Blue Nile Basin of Ethiopia. Factor analysis based on principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine different SQIs. Surface (0-15 cm) soil samples with four replications were collected from five main LULC types in the watershed (i.e., natural woody vegetation, plantation forest, grassland, cultivated land, and barren land) and at two elevation classes (upland and midland), and 13 soil properties were measured for each replicate. A factorial (2 × 5) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that LULC and altitude together significantly affected organic matter (OM) levels. However, LULC alone significantly affected bulk density and altitude alone significantly affected bulk density, soil acidity, and silt content. Afforestation of barren land with eucalypt trees can significantly increase the soil OM in the midland part but not in the upland part. Soils under grassland had a significantly higher bulk density than did soils under natural woody vegetation indicating that de-vegetation and conversion to grassland could lead to soil compaction. Thus, the historical LULC change in the Jedeb watershed has resulted in the loss of soil OM and increased soil compaction. The study shows that a land use and management system can be monitored if it degrades or maintains or improves the soil using key soil quality indicators. PMID:26744135

  2. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  3. CoverCAM - a land cover composition change assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Bie, C. D.; Skidmore, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    The cover-composition on a specific piece of land can change over time due to natural and anthropogenic factors. Accurate detection of where and when changes occur requires a method that uses remotely sensed imagery that represents a continuous and consistent record on the state of the green land-cover. Such data are offered through hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery. Until recently, NDVI-images were mainly used for anomaly mapping to monitor the influence of weather on vegetation; the monitoring basically assume that, over time, the land cover composition of a studied area remains static. This study presents a novel cover change assessment method, labelled ';CoverCAM' that extracts from hyper-temporal NDVI-imagery the probabilities that the original land cover composition did change. CoverCAM, unlike all existing change-detection methods, makes adjustments based on seasonal NDVI-anomalies experienced at landscape level. We tested the method by processing SPOT-VGT NDVI-imagery (10-day Maximum Value Composites; 1km pixels) for Andalucía, Spain. CoverCAM requires specification that two time periods are specified: a reference period (we used 2000-04), and a change detection period (we used 2005-10). All images of the reference period were classified using the ISODATA algorithm and by evaluating divergence statistics. The generated map depicts strata (group of polygons), characterized by temporal NDVI and standard deviation (SD) profiles. For the change assessment period, first, mean NDVI-values were calculated by decade and polygon (NDVId,p), and then for each pixel of the polygon its pixel change values specified through the remaining difference between the pixel NDVI and [NDVId,p × the SD value of the stratum for that decade]. The above process was repeated to produce decadal land cover change probability maps, each with its own undefined scale. The decadal change maps were then aggregated to annual change probability maps. This validation was only carried out for

  4. Use of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) to Identify and Characterize Overwintering Areas of Fish in Ice-Covered Arctic RIvers: A Demonstration with Broad Whitefish and their Habitats in the Sagavanirktok River, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Richard S.; Duguay, Claude R.; Mueller, Robert P.; Moulton, Larry; Doucette, Peter J.; Tagestad, Jerry D.

    2010-12-01

    In northern climates, locating overwintering fish can be very challenging due to thick ice cover. Areas near the coast of the Beaufort Sea provide valuable overwintering habitat for both resident and anadromous fish species; identifying and understanding their use of overwintering areas is of special interest. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from two spaceborne satellites was examined as an alternative to radiotelemetry for identifying anadromous fish overwintering. The presence of water and ice were sampled at 162 sites and fish were sampled at 16 of these sites. From SAR imagery alone, we successfully identified large pools inhabited by overwintering fish in the ice-covered Sagavanirktok River. In addition, the imagery was able to identify all of the larger pools (mean minimum length of 138m (range 15-470 m; SD=131)) of water located by field sampling. The effectiveness of SAR to identify these pools varied from 31% to 100%, depending on imagery polarization, the incidence angle range, and the orbit. Horizontal transmit–vertical receive (HV) polarization appeared best. The accuracy of SAR was also assessed at a finer pixel-by-pixel (30-m x30-m) scale. The best correspondence at this finer scale was obtained with an image having HV polarization. The levels of agreement ranged from 54% to 69%. The presence of broad whitefish (the only anadromous species present) was associated with salinity and pool size (estimated with SAR imagery); fish were more likely to be found in larger pools with low salinity. This research illustrates that SAR imaging has great potential for identifying under-ice overwintering areas of riverine fish. These techniques should allow managers to identify critical overwintering areas with relatively more ease and lower cost than traditional techniques.

  5. Radiation-Neutralization of Stored Biological Warfare Agents with Low-Yield Nuclear Warheads

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, H.

    2000-08-21

    MCNP Monte Carlo radiation transport computations were performed exploring the capability of low-yield nuclear fusion and fission warheads to neutralize biological warfare agents with the radiation dose deposited in the agent by the prompt neutron output. The calculations were done for various typical storage configurations on the ground in the open air or in a warehouse building. This application of nuclear weapons is motivated by the observation that, for some military scenarios, the nuclear collateral effects area is much smaller than the area covered with unacceptable concentrations of biological agent dispersed by the use of conventional high explosive warheads. These calculations show that biological agents can be radiation-neutralized by low-yield nuclear warheads over areas that are sufficiently large to be useful for military strikes. This report provides the calculated doses within the stored agent for various ground ranges and heights-of-burst.

  6. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  7. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  8. Estimating Cloud Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moseley, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this activity was to help students understand the percentage of cloud cover and make more accurate cloud cover observations. Students estimated the percentage of cloud cover represented by simulated clouds and assigned a cloud cover classification to those simulations. (Contains 2 notes and 3 tables.)

  9. Application of a high surface area solid-phase microextraction air sampling device: collection and analysis of chemical warfare agent surrogate and degradation compounds.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael E; Tipple, Christopher A; Smith, Philip A; Cho, David S; Mustacich, Robert V; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2013-09-17

    This work examines a recently improved, dynamic air sampling technique, high surface area solid-phase microextraction (HSA-SPME), developed for time-critical, high-volume sampling and analysis scenarios. The previously reported HSA-SPME sampling device, which provides 10-fold greater surface area compared to commercially available SPME fibers, allowed for an increased analyte uptake per unit time relative to exhaustive sampling through a standard sorbent tube. This sampling device has been improved with the addition of a type-K thermocouple and a custom heater control circuit for direct heating, providing precise (relative standard deviation ∼1%) temperature control of the desorption process for trapped analytes. Power requirements for the HSA-SPME desorption process were 30-fold lower than those for conventional sorbent-bed-based desorption devices, an important quality for a device that could be used for field analysis. Comparisons of the HSA-SPME device when using fixed sampling times for the chemical warfare agent (CWA) surrogate compound, diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), demonstrated that the HSA-SPME device yielded a greater chromatographic response (up to 50%) relative to a sorbent-bed method. Another HSA-SPME air sampling approach, in which two devices are joined in tandem, was also evaluated for very rapid, low-level, and representative analysis when using discrete sampling times for the compounds of interest. The results indicated that subparts per billion by volume concentration levels of DIMP were detectable with short sampling times (∼15 s). Finally, the tandem HSA-SPME device was employed for the headspace sampling of a CWA degradation compound, 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl) ethyl sulfide, present on cloth material, which demonstrated the capability to detect trace amounts of a CWA degradation product that is estimated to be less volatile than sarin. The rapid and highly sensitive detection features of this device may be beneficial in decision

  10. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  11. ESTIMATING AND PROJECTING IMPERVIOUS COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective methods to estimate and project impervious cover can help identify areas where a watershed is at risk of changing rapidly from one with relatively pristine streams to one with streams with significant symptoms of degradation. In collaboration with the USEPA, Region 4, ...

  12. Cover Your Cough

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Cover Your Cough Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Posters only available as PDF files. Cover Your Cough, Flyer for Health Care Settings English [324 KB] ...

  13. Cover crops for Alabama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are grown to benefit the following crop as well as to improve the soil, but they are normally not intended for harvest. Selecting the right cover crops for farming operations can improve yields, soil and water conservation and quality, and economic productivity. Properly managed cover ...

  14. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Consensus of Multi-Agent Systems with Prestissimo Scale-Free Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Yong; Lu, Lan; Cao, Ke-Cai; Zhang, Si-Ying

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, the relations of the network topology and the moving consensus of multi-agent systems are studied. A consensus-prestissimo scale-free network model with the static preferential-consensus attachment is presented on the rewired link of the regular network. The effects of the static preferential-consensus BA network on the algebraic connectivity of the topology graph are compared with the regular network. The robustness gain to delay is analyzed for variable network topology with the same scale. The time to reach the consensus is studied for the dynamic network with and without communication delays. By applying the computer simulations, it is validated that the speed of the convergence of multi-agent systems can be greatly improved in the preferential-consensus BA network model with different configuration.

  15. Thermal properties for vegetation cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksyutina, D.; Motenko, R.

    2011-12-01

    Different samples of undisturbed vegetation cover were studied under laboratory conditions. Samples were collected from New Chara city, north of the Chita region. Vegetation cover in this area is represented by moss, lichen and tussock growth. Thermal properties were investigated by the I-st type regular mode method (a-calorimeter), the freezing temperature was studied by cryoscopic methods. The dry density of sampled specimens varies from 0.04 to 0.24 g/cm3, and humidity varies from 250 to 375 percent. The freezing temperature depends on moisture content and varies from -0.2 to 0 degrees centigrade. The vegetation cover had low thermal conductivities which varies from 0.05 to 0.46 W/(m*K) in unfrozen conditions, and from 0.07 to 1.14 W/(m*K) in frozen conditions, according to density and moisture content. Diffusivity of samples varies from 0.073*10-6 to 0.114*10-6 m2/s in thawed conditions, and from 0.174*10-6 to 0.584*10-6 m2/s in frozen conditions. The sod (bottom of vegetation cover) had relatively high thermal properties. Thermal properties of vegetation cover and peat (turf) were compared. The thermal conductivity of peat was much higher than thermal conductivity of vegetation cover. This data may be used for modeling of the thickness of the seasonally thawed layer and ground temperature variation. The knowledge of thermal properties of these samples allows us to view vegetation cover as a separate layer of geological section.

  16. Armored Geomembrane Cover Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Foye, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Geomembranes are an important component of modern engineered barriers to prevent the infiltration of stormwater and runoff into contaminated soil and rock as well as waste containment facilities—a function generally described as a geomembrane cover. This paper presents a case history involving a novel implementation of a geomembrane cover system. Due to this novelty, the design engineers needed to assemble from disparate sources the design criteria for the engineering of the cover. This paper discusses the design methodologies assembled by the engineering team. This information will aid engineers designing similar cover systems as well as environmental and public health professionals selecting site improvements that involve infiltration barriers. PMID:21776229

  17. Validating LiDAR Derived Estimates of Canopy Height, Structure and Fractional Cover in Riparian Areas: A Comparison of Leaf-on and Leaf-off LiDAR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasser, L. A.; Chasmer, L. E.; Taylor, A.; Day, R.

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of riparian buffers is integral to understanding the landscape scale impacts of disturbance on wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. Riparian buffers may be characterized using in situ plot sampling or via high resolution remote sensing. Field measurements are time-consuming and may not cover a broad range of ecosystem types. Further, spectral remote sensing methods introduce a compromise between spatial resolution (grain) and area extent. Airborne LiDAR can be used to continuously map and characterize riparian vegetation structure and composition due to the three-dimensional reflectance of laser pulses within and below the canopy, understory and at the ground surface. The distance between reflections (or ‘returns’) allows for detection of narrow buffer corridors at the landscape scale. There is a need to compare leaf-off and leaf-on surveyed LiDAR data with in situ measurements to assess accuracy in landscape scale analysis. These comparisons are particularly important considering increased availability of leaf-off surveyed LiDAR datasets. And given this increased availability, differences between leaf-on and leaf-off derived LiDAR metrics are largely unknown for riparian vegetation of varying composition and structure. This study compares the effectiveness of leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR in characterizing riparian buffers of varying structure and composition as compared to field measurements. Field measurements were used to validate LiDAR derived metrics. Vegetation height, canopy cover, density and overstory and understory species composition were recorded in 80 random plots of varying vegetation type, density and structure within a Pennsylvania watershed (-77.841, 40.818). Plot data were compared with LiDAR data collected during leaf on and leaf off conditions to determine 1) accuracy of LiDAR derived metrics compared to field measures and 2) differences between leaf-on and leaf-off LiDAR metrics. Results illustrate that differences exist between

  18. On the Cover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Kate F.

    2006-01-01

    This is a discussion with Judith Warren regarding her painting on the cover of the present issue of American Psychologist. To Warren, the painting on the cover of this issue, Pentimento, speaks to the interplay of spontaneity and intentionality in psychotherapy.

  19. Silostop Bunker Covers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality of the seal provided by the plastic cover is a key issue for minimizing losses in bunker and pile silos. Most bunker covers are 6 to 8 mil polyethylene sheets held in place by tires or tire sidewalls. Frequently there are problems with spoilage at the shoulders (i.e., against the walls),...

  20. Land Cover Trends Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Acevedo, William

    2006-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends Project is designed to document the types, rates, causes, and consequences of land cover change from 1973 to 2000 within each of the 84 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Level III ecoregions that span the conterminous United States. The project's objectives are to: * Develop a comprehensive methodology using probability sampling and change analysis techniques and Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM), and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) data for estimating regional land cover change. * Characterize the spatial and temporal characteristics of conterminous U.S. land cover change for five periods from 1973 to 2000 (nominally 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000). * Document the regional driving forces and consequences of change. * Prepare a national synthesis of land cover change.

  1. Landfill Gas Effects on Evapotranspirative Landfill Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plummer, M. A.; Mattson, E.; Ankeny, M.; Kelsey, J.

    2005-05-01

    The performance of an evapotranspirative landfill cover can be adversely affected by transport of landfill gases to the plant root zone. Healthy plant communities are critical to the success and effectiveness of these vegetated landfill covers. Poor vegetative cover can result in reduced transpiration, increased percolation, and increased erosion regardless of the thickness of the cover. Visual inspections of landfill covers indicate that vegetation-free areas are not uncommon at municipal waste landfills. Data from soil profiles beneath these areas suggest that anaerobic conditions in the plant-rooting zone are controlling plant distribution. On the same landfill, aerobic conditions exist at similar depths beneath well-vegetated areas. The movement of methane and carbon dioxide, generated by degradation of organic wastes, into the overlying soil cover displaces oxygen in the root zone. Monitoring data from landfills in semi-arid areas indicate that barometric pumping can result in hours of anaerobic conditions in the root zone. Microbial consumption of oxygen in the root zone reduces the amount of oxygen available for plant root respiration but consumption of oxygen and methane also produce water as a reaction byproduct. This biogenic water production can be on the order of centimeters of water per year which, while increasing water availability, also has a negative feedback on transport of landfill gases through the cover. Accounting for these processes can improve evapotranspirative landfill cover design at other sites.

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, wi...

  4. Evapotranspiration (ET) covers.

    PubMed

    Rock, Steve; Myers, Bill; Fiedler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used at municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, hazardous waste landfills, at industrial monofills, and at mine sites. Conventional cover systems use materials with low hydraulic permeability (barrier layers) to minimize the downward migration of water from the surface to the waste (percolation), ET cover systems use water balance components to minimize percolation. These cover systems rely on soil to capture and store precipitation until it is either transpired through vegetation or evaporated from the soil surface. Compared to conventional membrane or compacted clay cover systems, ET cover systems are expected to cost less to construct. They are often aesthetic because they employ naturalized vegetation, require less maintenance once the vegetative system is established, including eliminating mowing, and may require fewer repairs than a barrier system. All cover systems should consider the goals of the cover in terms of protectiveness, including the pathways of risk from contained material, the lifecycle of the containment system. The containment system needs to be protective of direct contact of people and animals with the waste, prevent surface and groundwater water pollution, and minimize release of airborne contaminants. While most containment strategies have been based on the dry tomb strategy of keeping waste dry, there are some sites where adding or allowing moisture to help decompose organic waste is the current plan. ET covers may work well in places where complete exclusion of precipitation is not needed. The U.S. EPA Alternative Cover Assessment Program (ACAP), USDOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and others have researched ET cover design and efficacy, including the history of their use, general considerations in their design, performance, monitoring, cost, current status, limitations on their use, and project specific examples. An on-line database has been developed with information

  5. Monthly fractional green vegetation cover associated with land cover classes of the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Tarpley, Dan; Mitchell, Ken; Csiszar, Ivan; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Reed, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    The land cover classes developed under the coordination of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Data and Information System (IGBP-DIS) have been analyzed for a study area that includes the Conterminous United States and portions of Mexico and Canada. The 1-km resolution data have been analyzed to produce a gridded data set that includes within each 20-km grid cell: 1) the three most dominant land cover classes, 2) the fractional area associated with each of the three dominant classes, and 3) the fractional area covered by water. Additionally, the monthly fraction of green vegetation cover (fgreen) associated with each of the three dominant land cover classes per grid cell was derived from a 5-year climatology of 1-km resolution NOAA-AVHRR data. The variables derived in this study provide a potential improvement over the use of monthly fgreen linked to a single land cover class per model grid cell.

  6. Cover times of random searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupeau, Marie; Bénichou, Olivier; Voituriez, Raphaël

    2015-10-01

    How long must one undertake a random search to visit all sites of a given domain? This time, known as the cover time, is a key observable to quantify the efficiency of exhaustive searches, which require a complete exploration of an area and not only the discovery of a single target. Examples range from immune-system cells chasing pathogens to animals harvesting resources, from robotic exploration for cleaning or demining to the task of improving search algorithms. Despite its broad relevance, the cover time has remained elusive and so far explicit results have been scarce and mostly limited to regular random walks. Here we determine the full distribution of the cover time for a broad range of random search processes, including Lévy strategies, intermittent strategies, persistent random walks and random walks on complex networks, and reveal its universal features. We show that for all these examples the mean cover time can be minimized, and that the corresponding optimal strategies also minimize the mean search time for a single target, unambiguously pointing towards their robustness.

  7. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  8. Covering the State Legislature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hook, Stephen C.

    1975-01-01

    Describes how journalism majors at Ball State University are required to cover the annual sessions of the Indiana legislature, and discusses some of the experiences and problems that were encountered. (RB)

  9. Land Cover Characterization Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    (2) identify sources, develop procedures, and organize partners to deliver data and information to meet user requirements. The LCCP builds on the heritage and success of previous USGS land use and land cover programs and projects. It will be compatible with current concepts of government operations, the changing needs of the land use and land cover data users, and the technological tools with which the data are applied.

  10. WATER COOLED RETORT COVER

    DOEpatents

    Ash, W.J.; Pozzi, J.F.

    1962-05-01

    A retort cover is designed for use in the production of magnesium metal by the condensation of vaporized metal on a collecting surface. The cover includes a condensing surface, insulating means adjacent to the condensing surface, ind a water-cooled means for the insulating means. The irrangement of insulation and the cooling means permits the magnesium to be condensed at a high temperature and in massive nonpyrophoric form. (AEC)

  11. Online Deception Detection Using BDI Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritts, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    This research has two facets within separate research areas. The research area of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) agent capability development was extended. Deception detection research has been advanced with the development of automation using BDI agents. BDI agents performed tasks automatically and autonomously. This study used these…

  12. Lightweight composite fighting cover prototype development program

    SciTech Connect

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Frame, B.J.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Akerman, M.A.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Army Field Assistance Science and Technology Program requested Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to demonstrate the use of lightweight composite materials in construction of overhead covers for reinforced infantry fighting positions. In recent years, ORNL researchers have designed and tested several concepts for lightweight ballistic protection structures, and they have developed numerous prototype composite structures for military and civilian applications. In the current program, composite panel designs and materials are tested and optimized to meet anticipated static and dynamic load conditions for the overhead cover structure. Ten prototype composite covers were built at ORNL for use in Army field tests. Each composite cover has a nominal surface area of 12 ft[sup 2] and a nominal weight of 8 lb. Four of the prototypes are made with folding sections to improve their handling characteristics. The composite covers exhibit equivalent performance in Army field tests to covers made with conventional materials that weigh four times as much.

  13. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  14. GIS and agent based spatial-temporal simulation modeling for assessing tourism social carrying capacity: a study on Mount Emei scenic area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Renjun

    2007-06-01

    Each scenic area can sustain a specific level of acceptance of tourist development and use, beyond which further development can result in socio-cultural deterioration or a decline in the quality of the experience gained by visitors. This specific level is called carrying capacity. Social carrying capacity can be defined as the maximum level of use (in terms of numbers and activities) that can be absorbed by an area without an unacceptable decline in the quality of experience of visitors and without an unacceptable adverse impact on the society of the area. It is difficult to assess the carrying capacity, because the carrying capacity is determined by not only the number of visitors, but also the time, the type of the recreation, the characters of each individual and the physical environment. The objective of this study is to build a spatial-temporal simulation model to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. This model is a tourist spatial behaviors simulator (TSBS). Based on TSBS, the changes of each visitor's travel patterns such as location, cost, and other states data are recoded in a state table. By analyzing this table, the intensity of the tourist use in any area can be calculated; the changes of the quality of tourism experience can be quantized and analyzed. So based on this micro simulation method the social carrying capacity can be assessed more accurately, can be monitored proactively and managed adaptively. In this paper, the carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area is analyzed as followed: The author selected the intensity of the crowd as the monitoring Indicators. it is regarded that longer waiting time means more crowded. TSBS was used to simulate the spatial-temporal distribution of tourists. the average of waiting time all the visitors is calculated. And then the author assessed the social carrying capacity of Mount Emei scenic area, found the key factors have impacted on social carrying capacity. The results show that the TSBS

  15. LANDSAT applications by the Adirondack Park Agency for land cover analyses and forest cover change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banta, J. S.; Curran, R. P.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Adirondack Park Agency is using LANDSAT imagery to provide current, consistent parkwide data on forest cover, forest change and other land cover characteristics for the Adirondack Park, an area of 9,375 sq. miles (24,280 sq km). Boundaries of the study area were digitized and the data were enhanced and geographically rectified. A classification scheme was devised which emphasized the basic land cover types of the Park: hardwoods, spruce-fir, pine, wet conifer, brushland, grassland, agricultural areas, exposed earth, urban areas, and water bodies. Cover type classifications for disturbed forest land were also chosen: cut hardwoods, regenerating hardwoods, and cut spruce fir. Field verification of 1978 classification revealed an accurate differentiation of forest types within types and between nonforested/forested areas. The classification accurately detects forest land disturbances; however, it is not always descriptive of the level of disturbance.

  16. Reusable pipe flange covers

    DOEpatents

    Holden, James Elliott; Perez, Julieta

    2001-01-01

    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  17. Utilizing Multiple Datasets for Snow Cover Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tait, Andrew B.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Armstrong, Richard L.

    1999-01-01

    Snow-cover maps generated from surface data are based on direct measurements, however they are prone to interpolation errors where climate stations are sparsely distributed. Snow cover is clearly discernable using satellite-attained optical data because of the high albedo of snow, yet the surface is often obscured by cloud cover. Passive microwave (PM) data is unaffected by clouds, however, the snow-cover signature is significantly affected by melting snow and the microwaves may be transparent to thin snow (less than 3cm). Both optical and microwave sensors have problems discerning snow beneath forest canopies. This paper describes a method that combines ground and satellite data to produce a Multiple-Dataset Snow-Cover Product (MDSCP). Comparisons with current snow-cover products show that the MDSCP draws together the advantages of each of its component products while minimizing their potential errors. Improved estimates of the snow-covered area are derived through the addition of two snow-cover classes ("thin or patchy" and "high elevation" snow cover) and from the analysis of the climate station data within each class. The compatibility of this method for use with Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, which will be available in 2000, is also discussed. With the assimilation of these data, the resolution of the MDSCP would be improved both spatially and temporally and the analysis would become completely automated.

  18. Covering All Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The day a school opens its doors for the first time, the flooring will be new and untarnished. When the flooring is in such pristine condition, many flooring materials--carpeting, vinyl, terrazzo, wood or some other surface--will look good. But school and university planners who decide what kind of material covers the floors of their facilities…

  19. Issue Cover (June 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    Cover legend: Yeast cells were labeled with the fluorescent viability dyes propidium iodide (Red) and DiBAC4(3) (green) and the nucleus was stained with DAPI (blue). Cells were visualized using wide-field fluorescent microscopy. See Chadwick et al. Traffic 2016; 17(6):689-703. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12391. PMID:27174376

  20. Issue Cover (September 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Cover legend: Macrophages phagocytosing RFP-labeled E.coli. GFP-APPL2 labels the phagosomal membrane. Image produced by N. Condon. See Yeo et al. Traffic 2016; 17(9):1014-1026. Read the full article on doi:10.1111/tra.12415. PMID:27510703

  1. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  2. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Land cover classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff and shows characteristic flashy streamflow and poor water quality commonly associated with urban streams. This data set represents the floodplain land cover as derived from light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographic imagery. The land cover classifications represent current conditions (2009).

  4. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  5. Issue Cover (July 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Cover legend: N-cadherin clusters colocalize with Rab5 at the macropinosomes. Confocal microscopy image of an Ncad-GFP (green) transfected COS7 cell fed with fluorescent-dextran to label macropinosomes (blue) followed by immunofluorescence staining of Rab5 (red) and the nucleus (cyan). See Wen et al. Traffic 2016; 17(7):769-785. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12402. PMID:27297702

  6. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  7. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  8. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  9. COVER Project and Earth resources research transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Results of research in the remote sensing of natural boreal forest vegetation (the COVER project) are summarized. The study objectives were to establish a baseline forest test site; develop transforms of LANDSAT MSS and TM data for forest composition, biomass, leaf area index, and net primary productivity; and perform tasks required for testing hypotheses regarding observed spectral responses to changes in leaf area index in aspen. In addition, the transfer and documentation of data collected in the COVER project (removed from the Johnson Space Center following the discontinuation of Earth resources research at that facility) is described.

  10. Issue Cover (August 2016).

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Cover legend: Absence of the novel endolysosomal trafficking regulator WDR81 (green) induces the accumulation of tetherin (red) in enlarged early endosomes. WDR81 knock-out HeLa cells were genetically complemented with an HA-tagged WDR81 construct and imaged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. The original image was processed with photo editing software and overlaid with artistic effects. See Rapiteanu et al. Traffic 2016; 17(8):940-958. Read the full article on doi: 10.1111/tra.12409. PMID:27412792

  11. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  12. Crown cover chart for oak savannas. Forest Service technical brief

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.R.; Johnson, P.S.; Houf, G.

    1994-07-01

    Although oak savannas have been defined in many ways, they are characterized by scattered trees, largely comprised of oaks, and a sparse ground layer rich in grasses and forbs. The crown cover chart can be used to estimate the crown cover of trees as a percent of total area. Potential applications of the chart include monitoring changes in savanna crown cover, determining needed reductions in crown cover, and defining the savanna state. in restoring savannas that have grown into closed canopy stands, one can use the chart to estimate initial crown cover before restoration work is begun and again after crown cover has been reduced.

  13. Hatch Cover Slides Through Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alton, Charles; Okane, James H.

    1989-01-01

    Hatch cover for pressurized vessel provides tight seal but opened quickly from either side. In opening or closing, cover sweeps out relatively little volume within vessel, so it does not hinder movement of people or objects from vessel to outside or placement of people or objects near hatch. Cover uses internal pressure to create seal when closed. Design of cover eliminates leakage paths, and cover immune to hazards of sudden decompression or jamming when bolts and latches fail.

  14. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  15. Radiation countermeasure agents: an update (2011 – 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Victoria L; Romaine, Patricia LP; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite significant scientific advances over the past 60 years towards the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. A radiation countermeasure to protect the population at large from the effects of lethal radiation exposure remains a significant unmet medical need of the US citizenry and, thus, has been recognized as a high priority area by the government. Area covered This article reviews relevant publications and patents for recent developments and progress for potential ARS treatments in the area of radiation countermeasures. Emphasis is placed on the advanced development of existing agents since 2011 and new agents identified as radiation countermeasure for ARS during this period. Expert opinion A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently under development, seven of which have received US FDA investigational new drug status for clinical investigation. Four of these agents, CBLB502, Ex-RAD, HemaMax and OrbeShield, are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. G-CSF has high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the US FDA in the future. PMID:25315070

  16. Introduction to Agent Mining Interaction and Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Longbing

    In recent years, more and more researchers have been involved in research on both agent technology and data mining. A clear disciplinary effort has been activated toward removing the boundary between them, that is the interaction and integration between agent technology and data mining. We refer this to agent mining as a new area. The marriage of agents and data mining is driven by challenges faced by both communities, and the need of developing more advanced intelligence, information processing and systems. This chapter presents an overall picture of agent mining from the perspective of positioning it as an emerging area. We summarize the main driving forces, complementary essence, disciplinary framework, applications, case studies, and trends and directions, as well as brief observation on agent-driven data mining, data mining-driven agents, and mutual issues in agent mining. Arguably, we draw the following conclusions: (1) agent mining emerges as a new area in the scientific family, (2) both agent technology and data mining can greatly benefit from agent mining, (3) it is very promising to result in additional advancement in intelligent information processing and systems. However, as a new open area, there are many issues waiting for research and development from theoretical, technological and practical perspectives.

  17. A comparative analysis of the Global Land Cover 2000 and MODIS land cover data sets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Zhu, Z.; Reed, B.

    2005-01-01

    Accurate and up-to-date global land cover data sets are necessary for various global change research studies including climate change, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem assessment, and environmental modeling. In recent years, substantial advancement has been achieved in generating such data products. Yet, we are far from producing geospatially consistent high-quality data at an operational level. We compared the recently available Global Land Cover 2000 (GLC-2000) and MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) global land cover data to evaluate the similarities and differences in methodologies and results, and to identify areas of spatial agreement and disagreement. These two global land cover data sets were prepared using different data sources, classification systems, and methodologies, but using the same spatial resolution (i.e., 1 km) satellite data. Our analysis shows a general agreement at the class aggregate level except for savannas/shrublands, and wetlands. The disagreement, however, increases when comparing detailed land cover classes. Similarly, percent agreement between the two data sets was found to be highly variable among biomes. The identified areas of spatial agreement and disagreement will be useful for both data producers and users. Data producers may use the areas of spatial agreement for training area selection and pay special attention to areas of disagreement for further improvement in future land cover characterization and mapping. Users can conveniently use the findings in the areas of agreement, whereas users might need to verify the informaiton in the areas of disagreement with the help of secondary information. Learning from past experience and building on the existing infrastructure (e.g., regional networks), further research is necessary to (1) reduce ambiguity in land cover definitions, (2) increase availability of improved spatial, spectral, radiometric, and geometric resolution satellite data, and (3) develop advanced

  18. GENERATING HIGH QUALITY IMPERVIOUS COVER DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) from urban/ suburban areas is rapidly increasing as the population increases in the United States. Research in recent years has consistently shown a strong relationship between the percentage of impervious cover in a drainage basin and the health...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Working Surfaces § 1918.31 Hatch coverings. (a) No cargo... unless the working area available for such employees extends for a distance of 10 feet (3.05 m) or...

  20. VEGETATIVE COVERS FOR WASTE CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disposal of municipal ahd hazardous waste in the United States is primarily accomplished by containment in lined and capped landfills. Evapotranspiration cover systems offer an alternative to conventional landfill cap systems. These covers work on completely different principles ...

  1. Quantification of global gross forest cover loss.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Matthew C; Stehman, Stephen V; Potapov, Peter V

    2010-05-11

    A globally consistent methodology using satellite imagery was implemented to quantify gross forest cover loss (GFCL) from 2000 to 2005 and to compare GFCL among biomes, continents, and countries. GFCL is defined as the area of forest cover removed because of any disturbance, including both natural and human-induced causes. GFCL was estimated to be 1,011,000 km(2) from 2000 to 2005, representing 3.1% (0.6% per year) of the year 2000 estimated total forest area of 32,688,000 km(2). The boreal biome experienced the largest area of GFCL, followed by the humid tropical, dry tropical, and temperate biomes. GFCL expressed as the proportion of year 2000 forest cover was highest in the boreal biome and lowest in the humid tropics. Among continents, North America had the largest total area and largest proportion of year 2000 GFCL. At national scales, Brazil experienced the largest area of GFCL over the study period, 165,000 km(2), followed by Canada at 160,000 km(2). Of the countries with >1,000,000 km(2) of forest cover, the United States exhibited the greatest proportional GFCL and the Democratic Republic of Congo the least. Our results illustrate a pervasive global GFCL dynamic. However, GFCL represents only one component of net change, and the processes driving GFCL and rates of recovery from GFCL differ regionally. For example, the majority of estimated GFCL for the boreal biome is due to a naturally induced fire dynamic. To fully characterize global forest change dynamics, remote sensing efforts must extend beyond estimating GFCL to identify proximate causes of forest cover loss and to estimate recovery rates from GFCL.

  2. Mid-range sidescan-sonar images covering parts of proposed tracts for OCS lease sale 56 and contiguous areas, Manteo, Cape Fear, and adjacent quadrangles off North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Popenoe, Peter; Cashman, K.V.; Chayes, Dale; Ryan, William B. F.

    1981-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO), collected 335 km of mid-range sidescan-sonar data in some of the tracts proposed for inclusion in Federal OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) Oil and Gas Lease Sale 56 and in some contiguous areas (R.V. GYRE, September 18-25, 1980 [GYRE 80-9, leg 1]).

  3. Monitoring global snow cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Richard; Hardman, Molly

    1991-01-01

    A snow model that supports the daily, operational analysis of global snow depth and age has been developed. It provides improved spatial interpolation of surface reports by incorporating digital elevation data, and by the application of regionalized variables (kriging) through the use of a global snow depth climatology. Where surface observations are inadequate, the model applies satellite remote sensing. Techniques for extrapolation into data-void mountain areas and a procedure to compute snow melt are also contained in the model.

  4. Land cover trends dataset, 1973-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Auch, Roger F.; Sohl, Terry L.; Drummond, Mark A.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sorenson, Daniel G.; Kambly, Steven; Wilson, Tamara S.; Taylor, Janis L.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Stier, Michael P.; Barnes, Christopher A.; Methven, Steven C.; Loveland, Thomas R.; Headley, Rachel; Brooks, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends Project is releasing a 1973–2000 time-series land-use/land-cover dataset for the conterminous United States. The dataset contains 5 dates of land-use/land-cover data for 2,688 sample blocks randomly selected within 84 ecological regions. The nominal dates of the land-use/land-cover maps are 1973, 1980, 1986, 1992, and 2000. The land-use/land-cover maps were classified manually from Landsat Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery using a modified Anderson Level I classification scheme. The resulting land-use/land-cover data has a 60-meter resolution and the projection is set to Albers Equal-Area Conic, North American Datum of 1983. The files are labeled using a standard file naming convention that contains the number of the ecoregion, sample block, and Landsat year. The downloadable files are organized by ecoregion, and are available in the ERDAS IMAGINETM (.img) raster file format.

  5. Cover crops and N credits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops often provide many short- and long-term benefits to cropping systems. Legume cover crops can significantly reduce the N fertilizer requirement of non-legume cash crops that follow. The objectives of this presentation were to: I) educate stakeholders about the potential benefits of cover ...

  6. Effect of Antibiotics and Antibiofilm Agents in the Ultrastructure and Development of Biofilms Developed by Nonpigmented Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; García-Pedrazuela, María; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Esteban, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin, alone and associated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Tween 80, at different times and concentrations in nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) biofilms. For this purpose, confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis were used to study the development and behavior of intrinsic autofluorescence, covered area, thickness, and cell viability in NPRGM biofilms after adding antibiotics alone and associated with antibiofilm agents. In this study, ciprofloxacin is the most active antibiotic against this type of biofilm and thickness is the most affected parameter. NAC and Tween 80 combined with antibiotics exert a synergistic effect in increasing the percentage of dead bacteria and also reducing the percentage of covered surface and thickness of NPRGM biofilms. Tween 80 seems to be an antibiofilm agent more effective than NAC due to its higher reduction in the percentage of cover surface and thickness. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work show that phenotypic parameters (thickness, percentage of covered surface, autofluorescence, percentage of live/dead bacteria) are affected by combining antibiotics and antibiofilm agents, ciprofloxacin and Tween 80 being the most active agents against NPRGM biofilms.

  7. Effect of Antibiotics and Antibiofilm Agents in the Ultrastructure and Development of Biofilms Developed by Nonpigmented Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; García-Pedrazuela, María; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Esteban, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin, alone and associated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Tween 80, at different times and concentrations in nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) biofilms. For this purpose, confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis were used to study the development and behavior of intrinsic autofluorescence, covered area, thickness, and cell viability in NPRGM biofilms after adding antibiotics alone and associated with antibiofilm agents. In this study, ciprofloxacin is the most active antibiotic against this type of biofilm and thickness is the most affected parameter. NAC and Tween 80 combined with antibiotics exert a synergistic effect in increasing the percentage of dead bacteria and also reducing the percentage of covered surface and thickness of NPRGM biofilms. Tween 80 seems to be an antibiofilm agent more effective than NAC due to its higher reduction in the percentage of cover surface and thickness. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work show that phenotypic parameters (thickness, percentage of covered surface, autofluorescence, percentage of live/dead bacteria) are affected by combining antibiotics and antibiofilm agents, ciprofloxacin and Tween 80 being the most active agents against NPRGM biofilms. PMID:26208145

  8. Characteristics of seasonal vegetation cover in the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallo, Kevin P.; Reed, Bradley C.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Adegoke, Jimmy O.

    2005-01-01

    A data set of the fractional green vegetation cover (FGREEN) for the Conterminous USA was evaluated for regional and seasonal variation. The value of FGREEN was derived monthly for the three most dominant land cover classes per 20 km by 20 km grid cell within the study area. At this grid cell resolution (comprised of 400 1-km pixels), 97 percent of the grid cells included three or fewer land cover classes. FGREEN was found to vary regionally due to local land cover and climate variations. FGREEN was found significantly different between one or more of the land cover classes, for one or more months, in 58 percent of the grid cells included in the study. Monthly FGREEN values for the land cover classes vary sufficiently between the land cover classes to warrant monthly FGREEN data for each of the one to three most dominant land cover classes per grid cell.

  9. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  10. Land Cover Analysis of Temperate Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, Chris

    1998-01-01

    Satellite data from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) instrument were used to produce a general land cover distribution of temperate Asia (referred to hence as Central Asia) from 1982, starting with the NOAA-7 satellite, and continuing through 1991, ending with the NOAA-11 satellite. Emphasis was placed upon delineating the and and semi-arid zones of Central Asia (largely Mongolia and adjacent areas), mapping broad categories of aggregated land cover, and upon studying photosynthetic capacity increases in Central Asia from 1982 to 1991.

  11. Edwards plateau: Analysis of land cover trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friesen, B.A.; Hester, D.J.; Casey, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    The Land Cover Trends project studies the rates, causes, and consequences of contemporary (1973-2000) change in land use and land cover in the United States on an ecoregional basis. The Edwards Plateau ecoregion is the focus of this report. Landsat imagery from five dates during a nearly 30-year period are interpreted for randomly selected sample blocks. The resulting data provide the foundation for estimating change. Along with the image analysis, site visits to 90% of the sampled areas, geographical profiles, and socioeconomic data for the ecoregion are synthesized to assess regional driving forces and consequences of change. Complete project methodology can be found in Loveland et al [1].

  12. Antifolate Agents: A Patent Review (2006–2010)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dennis L.; Anderson, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction For over 50 years, drugs targeting the folate pathway have significantly impacted disease treatment as anticancer, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory agents. The discovery of novel antifolate agents with improved properties and superior activities remains an attractive strategy, both in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. Areas covered This review surveys the patent literature from 2006–2010 for small molecule inhibitors of enzymatic targets in the folate biosynthetic pathway. Expert opinion The pursuit of antifolates as anticancer and antimicrobial agents continues to be an active area of research. New patent disclosures reveal novel antifolate scaffolds, antifolates with improved drug-like properties and new strategies to effectively target cancer cells. The continued use of high resolution structural information has guided the discovery of several compounds. Owing to the need for high levels of potency and selectivity, especially in targeting pathogenic species, the use of high resolution crystal structures remains an important tool to guide the design of novel antifolates. Interestingly, the patents disclosing novel compounds were ones where X-ray crystallography was an integral component of the design process. Finally, a variety of new structures have been reported that may play an important role in the future development of therapeutic antifolates. PMID:21619471

  13. A cloud cover model based on satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, P. N.; Bean, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    A model for worldwide cloud cover using a satellite data set containing infrared radiation measurements is proposed. The satellite data set containing day IR, night IR and incoming and absorbed solar radiation measurements on a 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grid covering a 45 month period was converted to estimates of cloud cover. The global area was then classified into homogeneous cloud cover regions for each of the four seasons. It is noted that the developed maps can be of use to the practicing climatologist who can obtain a considerable amount of cloud cover information without recourse to large volumes of data.

  14. Monitoring urban land cover change by updating the national land cover database impervious surface products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001 is widely used as a baseline for national land cover and impervious conditions. To ensure timely and relevant data, it is important to update this base to a more recent time period. A prototype method was developed to update the land cover and impervious surface by individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season from both 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, impervious surface was estimated for areas of change by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain a variety of metropolitan areas. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of impervious surface changes associated with urban developments were accurately captured and updated. The approach optimizes mapping efficiency and can provide users a flexible method to generate updated impervious surface at national and regional scales. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  15. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  16. Modeling the Seasonal Ice Zone from the Air: use of repeat aerial hydrographic surveys to constrain a regional ice-ocean model in an area of rapidly evolving ice cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, S.; Morison, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Seasonal Ice Zone of the Beaufort Sea is the area of ocean north of Alaska over which sea ice melts and reforms annually. It contains the more narrow, near-edge marginal ice zone (MIZ). Seasonal Ice Zone Reconnaissance Surveys (SIZRS) measure hydrography along two meridional sections using Air eXpendable CTDs (AXCTDs) and Air eXpendable Current Profilers (AXCPs). These surveys take place aboard U.S. Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness flights of opportunity during each melt season (June-October) starting in 2012. The Marginal Ice Zone Modeling and Assimilation System (MIZMAS) is a high-resolution regional ice-ocean model with daily, three-dimensional output encompassing the SIZRS survey area. Direct comparison of the SIZRS data with MIZMAS output as well as with several regional climatologies can constrain the ice-ocean model and help to explain recent changes in subsurface heat content and salinity. For example, observed freshening relative to climatology has been used as a reference to which MIZMAS surface salinity values can be relaxed. MIZMAS may in turn shed light on the physical mechanisms driving the observed freshening. In addition, use of MIZMAS surface fluxes to drive a one-dimensional mixed layer model gives results close to observations when the model is initialized with SIZRS profiles. Because SIZRS observations range in time from the onset of melt to the onset of Fall freeze-up, the comparison of the one-dimensional model with MIZMAS illustrates the relative roles of local and regional processes in forming near-surface temperature maxima and salinity minima. The SIZRS observations and one-dimensional model are used to constrain MIZMAS estimations of stored subsurface heat while establishing the physical drivers of these temperature and salinity changes.

  17. Classifying Land Cover Using Spectral Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alawiye, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studying land cover has become increasingly important as countries try to overcome the destruction of wetlands; its impact on local climate due to seasonal variation, radiation balance, and deteriorating environmental quality. In this investigation, we have been studying the spectral signatures of the Jamaica Bay wetland area based on remotely sensed satellite input data from LANDSAT TM and ASTER. We applied various remote sensing techniques to generate classified land cover output maps. Our classifiers relied on input from both the remote sensing and in-situ spectral field data. Based upon spectral separability and data collected in the field, a supervised and unsupervised classification was carried out. First results suggest good agreement between the land cover units mapped and those observed in the field.

  18. Continental estimates of forest cover and forest cover changes in the dry ecosystems of Africa between 1990 and 2000

    PubMed Central

    Bodart, Catherine; Brink, Andreas B; Donnay, François; Lupi, Andrea; Mayaux, Philippe; Achard, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study provides regional estimates of forest cover in dry African ecoregions and the changes in forest cover that occurred there between 1990 and 2000, using a systematic sample of medium-resolution satellite imagery which was processed consistently across the continent. Location The study area corresponds to the dry forests and woodlands of Africa between the humid forests and the semi-arid regions. This area covers the Sudanian and Zambezian ecoregions. Methods A systematic sample of 1600 Landsat satellite imagery subsets, each 20 km × 20 km in size, were analysed for two reference years: 1990 and 2000. At each sample site and for both years, dense tree cover, open tree cover, other wooded land and other vegetation cover were identified from the analysis of satellite imagery, which comprised multidate segmentation and automatic classification steps followed by visual control by national forestry experts. Results Land cover and land-cover changes were estimated at continental and ecoregion scales and compared with existing pan-continental, regional and local studies. The overall accuracy of our land-cover maps was estimated at 87%. Between 1990 and 2000, 3.3 million hectares (Mha) of dense tree cover, 5.8 Mha of open tree cover and 8.9 Mha of other wooded land were lost, with a further 3.9 Mha degraded from dense to open tree cover. These results are substantially lower than the 34 Mha of forest loss reported in the FAO's 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment for the same period and area. Main conclusions Our method generates the first consistent and robust estimates of forest cover and change in dry Africa with known statistical precision at continental and ecoregion scales. These results reduce the uncertainty regarding vegetation cover and its dynamics in these previously poorly studied ecosystems and provide crucial information for both science and environmental policies. PMID:23935237

  19. FLOOR COVERING--PART 1, RESILIENT COVERINGS. WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUTTER, RALPH; AND OTHERS

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN RELATED TECHNICAL INSTRUCTION IN APPRENTICE TRAINING FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE. THE MATERIAL WAS WRITTEN BY TRADE INSTRUCTORS AND JOURNEYMEN UNDER THE DIRECTION AND COORDINATION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE FLOOR COVERING TRADE AND OTHERS. THE UNITS ARE (1)…

  20. Multi-agent autonomous system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A multi-agent autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-agent autonomous system includes simple surface-based agents or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to provide additional image information about the operational area and provide operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.

  1. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  2. What makes virtual agents believable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  3. Updating the 2001 National Land Cover Database land cover classification to 2006 by using Landsat imagery change detection methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xian, G.; Homer, C.; Fry, J.

    2009-01-01

    The recent release of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001, which represents the nation's land cover status based on a nominal date of 2001, is widely used as a baseline for national land cover conditions. To enable the updating of this land cover information in a consistent and continuous manner, a prototype method was developed to update land cover by an individual Landsat path and row. This method updates NLCD 2001 to a nominal date of 2006 by using both Landsat imagery and data from NLCD 2001 as the baseline. Pairs of Landsat scenes in the same season in 2001 and 2006 were acquired according to satellite paths and rows and normalized to allow calculation of change vectors between the two dates. Conservative thresholds based on Anderson Level I land cover classes were used to segregate the change vectors and determine areas of change and no-change. Once change areas had been identified, land cover classifications at the full NLCD resolution for 2006 areas of change were completed by sampling from NLCD 2001 in unchanged areas. Methods were developed and tested across five Landsat path/row study sites that contain several metropolitan areas including Seattle, Washington; San Diego, California; Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Jackson, Mississippi; and Manchester, New Hampshire. Results from the five study areas show that the vast majority of land cover change was captured and updated with overall land cover classification accuracies of 78.32%, 87.5%, 88.57%, 78.36%, and 83.33% for these areas. The method optimizes mapping efficiency and has the potential to provide users a flexible method to generate updated land cover at national and regional scales by using NLCD 2001 as the baseline. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  4. "Proximal Sensing" capabilities for snow cover monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valt, Mauro; Salvatori, Rosamaria; Plini, Paolo; Salzano, Roberto; Giusti, Marco; Montagnoli, Mauro; Sigismondi, Daniele; Cagnati, Anselmo

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal snow cover represents one of the most important land cover class in relation to environmental studies in mountain areas, especially considering its variation during time. Snow cover and its extension play a relevant role for the studies on the atmospheric dynamics and the evolution of climate. It is also important for the analysis and management of water resources and for the management of touristic activities in mountain areas. Recently, webcam images collected at daily or even hourly intervals are being used as tools to observe the snow covered areas; those images, properly processed, can be considered a very important environmental data source. Images captured by digital cameras become a useful tool at local scale providing images even when the cloud coverage makes impossible the observation by satellite sensors. When suitably processed these images can be used for scientific purposes, having a good resolution (at least 800x600x16 million colours) and a very good sampling frequency (hourly images taken through the whole year). Once stored in databases, those images represent therefore an important source of information for the study of recent climatic changes, to evaluate the available water resources and to analyse the daily surface evolution of the snow cover. The Snow-noSnow software has been specifically designed to automatically detect the extension of snow cover collected from webcam images with a very limited human intervention. The software was tested on images collected on Alps (ARPAV webcam network) and on Apennine in a pilot station properly equipped for this project by CNR-IIA. The results obtained through the use of Snow-noSnow are comparable to the one achieved by photo-interpretation and could be considered as better as the ones obtained using the image segmentation routine implemented into image processing commercial softwares. Additionally, Snow-noSnow operates in a semi-automatic way and has a reduced processing time. The analysis

  5. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  6. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  7. Multidecadal Changes in Near-Global Cloud Cover and Estimated Cloud Cover Radiative Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Joel

    2005-01-01

    The first paper was Multidecadal changes in near-global cloud cover and estimated cloud cover radiative forcing, by J. R. Norris (2005, J. Geophys. Res. - Atmos., 110, D08206, doi: lO.l029/2004JD005600). This study examined variability in zonal mean surface-observed upper-level (combined midlevel and high-level) and low-level cloud cover over land during 1971-1 996 and over ocean during 1952-1997. These data were averaged from individual synoptic reports in the Extended Edited Cloud Report Archive (EECRA). Although substantial interdecadal variability is present in the time series, long-term decreases in upper-level cloud cover occur over land and ocean at low and middle latitudes in both hemispheres. Near-global upper-level cloud cover declined by 1.5%-sky-cover over land between 1971 and 1996 and by 1.3%-sky-cover over ocean between 1952 and 1997. Consistency between EECRA upper-level cloud cover anomalies and those from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) during 1984-1 997 suggests the surface-observed trends are real. The reduction in surface-observed upper-level cloud cover between the 1980s and 1990s is also consistent with the decadal increase in all-sky outgoing longwave radiation reported by the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (EMS). Discrepancies occur between time series of EECRA and ISCCP low-level cloud cover due to identified and probable artifacts in satellite and surface cloud data. Radiative effects of surface-observed cloud cover anomalies, called "cloud cover radiative forcing (CCRF) anomalies," are estimated based on a linear relationship to climatological cloud radiative forcing per unit cloud cover. Zonal mean estimated longwave CCRF has decreased over most of the globe. Estimated shortwave CCRF has become slightly stronger over northern midlatitude oceans and slightly weaker over northern midlatitude land areas. A long-term decline in the magnitude of estimated shortwave CCRF occurs over low-latitude land and ocean

  8. Midwest Cover Crops Field Guide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to prevent soil erosion, improve nutrient cycling, sustain their soils, and protect/maintain the environment have been returning to a very old practice: planting cover crops. Cover crops are effective tools for reducing soil erosion and increasing nutrient recycling on farmlands, ...

  9. Competency Based Curriculum for Real Estate Agent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloy, Robert J.

    This publication is a curriculum and teaching guide for preparing real estate agents in the state of West Virginia. The guide contains 30 units, or lessons. Each lesson is designed to cover three to five hours of instruction time. Competencies provided for each lesson are stated in terms of what the student should be able to do as a result of the…

  10. Eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, M.E. . Banbury Center); McDonald, J.F. ); Weinstein, I.B. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on eukaryotic transposable elements as mutagenic agents. Topics covered include: overview of prokaryotic transposable elements, mutational effects of transposable element insertions, inducers/regulators of transposable element expression and transposition, genomic stress and environmental effects, and inducers/regulators of retroviral element expression.

  11. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  12. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  13. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  14. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  15. 45 CFR 1211.1-5 - Matters not covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matters not covered. 1211.1-5 Section 1211.1-5... SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-5 Matters not covered. Matters not within the definition... following are specific examples of excluded areas and are not intended as a complete listing of the...

  16. Mother ship and physical agents collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Stuart H.; Budulas, Peter P.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses ongoing research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that investigates the feasibility of developing a collaboration architecture between small physical agents and a mother ship. This incudes the distribution of planning, perception, mobility, processing and communications requirements between the mother ship and the agents. Small physical agents of the future will be virtually everywhere on the battlefield of the 21st century. A mother ship that is coupled to a team of small collaborating physical agents (conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA); logistics; sentry; and communications relay) will be used to build a completely effective and mission capable intelligent system. The mother ship must have long-range mobility to deploy the small, highly maneuverable agents that will operate in urban environments and more localized areas, and act as a logistics base for the smaller agents. The mother ship also establishes a robust communications network between the agents and is the primary information disseminating and receiving point to the external world. Because of its global knowledge and processing power, the mother ship does the high-level control and planning for the collaborative physical agents. This high level control and interaction between the mother ship and its agents (including inter agent collaboration) will be software agent architecture based. The mother ship incorporates multi-resolution battlefield visualization and analysis technology, which aids in mission planning and sensor fusion.

  17. Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 930, oblique view to southeast from fill slope covering building 932, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Snack Bar, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Agent-Based Mediation and Cooperative Information Systems

    SciTech Connect

    PHILLIPS, LAURENCE R.; LINK, HAMILTON E.; GOLDSMITH, STEVEN Y.

    2002-06-02

    This report describes the results of research and development in the area of communication among disparate species of software agents. The two primary elements of the work are the formation of ontologies for use by software agents and the means by which software agents are instructed to carry out complex tasks that require interaction with other agents. This work was grounded in the areas of commercial transport and cybersecurity.

  19. Decadal land cover change dynamics in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Hammad; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Phuntso, Phuntso; Pradhan, Sudip; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta

    2015-01-15

    Land cover (LC) is one of the most important and easily detectable indicators of change in ecosystem services and livelihood support systems. This paper describes the decadal dynamics in LC changes at national and sub-national level in Bhutan derived by applying object-based image analysis (OBIA) techniques to 1990, 2000, and 2010 Landsat (30 m spatial resolution) data. Ten LC classes were defined in order to give a harmonized legend land cover classification system (LCCS). An accuracy of 83% was achieved for LC-2010 as determined from spot analysis using very high resolution satellite data from Google Earth Pro and limited field verification. At the national level, overall forest increased from 25,558 to 26,732 km(2) between 1990 and 2010, equivalent to an average annual growth rate of 59 km(2)/year (0.22%). There was an overall reduction in grassland, shrubland, and barren area, but the observations were highly dependent on time of acquisition of the satellite data and climatic conditions. The greatest change from non-forest to forest (277 km(2)) was in Bumthang district, followed by Wangdue Phodrang and Trashigang, with the least (1 km(2)) in Tsirang. Forest and scrub forest covers close to 75% of the land area of Bhutan, and just over half of the total area (51%) has some form of conservation status. This study indicates that numerous applications and analyses can be carried out to support improved land cover and land use (LCLU) management. It will be possible to replicate this study in the future as comparable new satellite data is scheduled to become available.

  20. Estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin, China, using dimidiate fractional cover model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyong; Han, Ling

    2015-12-01

    Oasis is an important component of desert ecosystem. This paper employs Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multi-spectral data to extract fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin with four methods. The mixture pixel decomposition model based on normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) is firstly used to estimate fractional vegetation cover(FVC). The results indicated that the method is mainly underestimating the FVC at the low FVC area and overestimating the FVC at high FVC area. Thereafter, a stepwise regression model between 15 Vegetation Indices (VIs) and measured FVC data and a log-linear model have been established through the relation analysis of FVC and NDVI. Trials of these two models showed that they are mainly overestimating the FVC. Finally, a dimidiate fractional cover model was proposed, which is composed of two linear functions. When the NDVI is less than 0.3, the linear function is formed by stress related vegetation index (STVI1) and normal differential water index (NDWI) (R2, 0.764) while the NDVI is greater than 0.3, the linear function is composed of NDVI and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) (R2, 0.801). The validation of the dimidiate fractional cover model has been tested with the measured data. In the optimal case, the mean error is 0.002 and the RMSE is 0.051, demonstrating that the model can be used in estimating fractional vegetation cover of oasis in Tarim Basin.

  1. How Scientists Differentiate Between Land Cover Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Before scientists can transform raw satellite image data into land cover maps, they must decide on what categories of land cover they would like to use. Categories are simply the types of landscape that the scientists are trying to map and can vary greatly from map to map. For flood maps, there may be only two categories-dry land and wet land-while a standard global land cover map may have seventeen categories including closed shrub lands, savannas, evergreen needle leaf forest, urban areas, and ice/snow. The only requirement for any land cover category is that it have a distinct spectral signature that a satellite can record. As can be seen through a prism, many different colors (wavelengths) make up the spectra of sunlight. When sunlight strikes objects, certain wavelengths are absorbed and others are reflected or emitted. The unique way in which a given type of land cover reflects and absorbs light is known as its spectral signature. Anyone who has flown over the midwestern United States has seen evidence of this phenomenon. From an airplane window, the ground appears as a patchwork of different colors formed by the fields of crops planted there. The varying pigments of the leaves, the amount of foliage per square foot, the age of the plants, and many other factors create this tapestry. Most imaging satellites are sensitive to specific wavelengths of light, including infrared wavelengths that cannot be seen with the naked eye. Passive satellite remote sensors-such as those flown on Landsat 5, Landsat 7, and Terra-have a number of light detectors (photoreceptors) on board that measure the energy reflected or emitted by the Earth. One light detector records only the blue part of the spectrum coming off the Earth. Another observes all the yellow-green light and still another picks up on all the near-infrared light. The detectors scan the Earth's surface as the satellite travels in a circular orbit very nearly from pole-to-pole. To differentiate between types of

  2. Using cash cover crops to provide pollinator provisions in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, the use of winter cover crops in MN and SD has been slow to be adopted. The short growing season and potential for late, wet springs make cover crops risky to farmers with little economic return. The use of cash cover crops in this area offers the standard advantages of other cover crops, w...

  3. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  4. Dielectric covered microstrip patch antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Lisa M.

    1988-11-01

    Microstrip antennas have many properties that make them suitable for airborne and satellite communications systems. These antennas are low in cost and lightweight. For these reasons, Rome Air Development Center is interested in verifying and augmenting existing design models for these antennas. The theory and results are presented for modeling microstrip antennas that are covered with a sheet of dielectric material. There are several reasons for designing a microstrip antenna covered with a dielectric material. This configuration would allow the modeling of antennas with an integrated radome. A cover layer could possibly be used to support a polarizer; to mount additional antenna elements on top of the cover layer to provide bandwidth enhancements; or to be used as a dual frequency antenna.

  5. Development of 2010 national land cover database for the Nepal.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Kabir; Shrestha, Him Lal; Murthy, M S R; Bajracharya, Birendra; Shrestha, Basanta; Gilani, Hammad; Pradhan, Sudip; Dangol, Bikash

    2015-01-15

    Land cover and its change analysis across the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is realized as an urgent need to support diverse issues of environmental conservation. This study presents the first and most complete national land cover database of Nepal prepared using public domain Landsat TM data of 2010 and replicable methodology. The study estimated that 39.1% of Nepal is covered by forests and 29.83% by agriculture. Patch and edge forests constituting 23.4% of national forest cover revealed proximate biotic interferences over the forests. Core forests constituted 79.3% of forests of Protected areas where as 63% of area was under core forests in the outside protected area. Physiographic regions wise forest fragmentation analysis revealed specific conservation requirements for productive hill and mid mountain regions. Comparative analysis with Landsat TM based global land cover product showed difference of the order of 30-60% among different land cover classes stressing the need for significant improvements for national level adoption. The online web based land cover validation tool is developed for continual improvement of land cover product. The potential use of the data set for national and regional level sustainable land use planning strategies and meeting several global commitments also highlighted.

  6. Factors controlling vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of myanmar.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar.

  7. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  8. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  9. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  10. Elevated silver, barium and strontium in antlers, vegetation and soils sourced from CWD cluster areas: do Ag/Ba/Sr piezoelectric crystals represent the transmissible pathogenic agent in TSEs?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High levels of Silver (Ag), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr) and low levels of copper (Cu) have been measured in the antlers, soils and pastures of the deer that are thriving in the chronic wasting disease (CWD) cluster zones in North America in relation to the areas where CWD and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported. The elevations of Ag, Ba and Sr were thought to originate from both natural geochemical and artificial pollutant sources--stemming from the common practise of aerial spraying with 'cloud seeding' Ag or Ba crystal nuclei for rain making in these drought prone areas of North America, the atmospheric spraying with Ba based aerosols for enhancing/refracting radar and radio signal communications as well as the spreading of waste Ba drilling mud from the local oil/gas well industry across pastureland. These metals have subsequently bioconcentrated up the foodchain and into the mammals who are dependent upon the local Cu deficient ecosystems. A dual eco-prerequisite theory is proposed on the aetiology of TSEs which is based upon an Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn replacement binding at the vacant Cu/Zn domains on the cellular prion protein (PrP)/sulphated proteoglycan molecules which impairs the capacities of the brain to protect itself against incoming shockbursts of sound and light energy. Ag/Ba/Sr chelation of free sulphur within the biosystem inhibits the viable synthesis of the sulphur dependent proteoglycans, which results in the overall collapse of the Cu mediated conduction of electric signals along the PrP-proteoglycan signalling pathways; ultimately disrupting GABA type inhibitory currents at the synapses/end plates of the auditory/circadian regulated circuitry, as well as disrupting proteoglycan co-regulation of the growth factor signalling systems which maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system. The resulting Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based compounds seed piezoelectric crystals which incorporate PrP and ferritin into

  11. Elevated silver, barium and strontium in antlers, vegetation and soils sourced from CWD cluster areas: do Ag/Ba/Sr piezoelectric crystals represent the transmissible pathogenic agent in TSEs?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2004-01-01

    High levels of Silver (Ag), Barium (Ba) and Strontium (Sr) and low levels of copper (Cu) have been measured in the antlers, soils and pastures of the deer that are thriving in the chronic wasting disease (CWD) cluster zones in North America in relation to the areas where CWD and other transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) have not been reported. The elevations of Ag, Ba and Sr were thought to originate from both natural geochemical and artificial pollutant sources--stemming from the common practise of aerial spraying with 'cloud seeding' Ag or Ba crystal nuclei for rain making in these drought prone areas of North America, the atmospheric spraying with Ba based aerosols for enhancing/refracting radar and radio signal communications as well as the spreading of waste Ba drilling mud from the local oil/gas well industry across pastureland. These metals have subsequently bioconcentrated up the foodchain and into the mammals who are dependent upon the local Cu deficient ecosystems. A dual eco-prerequisite theory is proposed on the aetiology of TSEs which is based upon an Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn replacement binding at the vacant Cu/Zn domains on the cellular prion protein (PrP)/sulphated proteoglycan molecules which impairs the capacities of the brain to protect itself against incoming shockbursts of sound and light energy. Ag/Ba/Sr chelation of free sulphur within the biosystem inhibits the viable synthesis of the sulphur dependent proteoglycans, which results in the overall collapse of the Cu mediated conduction of electric signals along the PrP-proteoglycan signalling pathways; ultimately disrupting GABA type inhibitory currents at the synapses/end plates of the auditory/circadian regulated circuitry, as well as disrupting proteoglycan co-regulation of the growth factor signalling systems which maintain the structural integrity of the nervous system. The resulting Ag, Ba, Sr or Mn based compounds seed piezoelectric crystals which incorporate PrP and ferritin into

  12. Land-cover change detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Giri, Chandra; Vogelmann, James

    2012-01-01

    Land cover is the biophysical material on the surface of the earth. Land-cover types include grass, shrubs, trees, barren, water, and man-made features. Land cover changes continuously.  The rate of change can be either dramatic and abrupt, such as the changes caused by logging, hurricanes and fire, or subtle and gradual, such as regeneration of forests and damage caused by insects (Verbesselt et al., 2001).  Previous studies have shown that land cover has changed dramatically during the past sevearal centuries and that these changes have severely affected our ecosystems (Foody, 2010; Lambin et al., 2001). Lambin and Strahlers (1994b) summarized five types of cause for land-cover changes: (1) long-term natural changes in climate conditions, (2) geomorphological and ecological processes, (3) human-induced alterations of vegetation cover and landscapes, (4) interannual climate variability, and (5) human-induced greenhouse effect.  Tools and techniques are needed to detect, describe, and predict these changes to facilitate sustainable management of natural resources.

  13. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  14. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  15. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  16. The Land Surface Temperature Impact to Land Cover Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Abu Samah, A.; Fauzi, R.; Noor, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Land cover type is an important signature that is usually used to understand the interaction between the ground surfaces with the local temperature. Various land cover types such as high density built up areas, vegetation, bare land and water bodies are areas where heat signature are measured using remote sensing image. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of land surface temperature on land cover types. The objectives are 1) to analyse the mean temperature for each land cover types and 2) to analyse the relationship of temperature variation within land cover types: built up area, green area, forest, water bodies and bare land. The method used in this research was supervised classification for land cover map and mono window algorithm for land surface temperature (LST) extraction. The statistical analysis of post hoc Tukey test was used on an image captured on five available images. A pixel-based change detection was applied to the temperature and land cover images. The result of post hoc Tukey test for the images showed that these land cover types: built up-green, built up-forest, built up-water bodies have caused significant difference in the temperature variation. However, built up-bare land did not show significant impact at p<0.05. These findings show that green areas appears to have a lower temperature difference, which is between 2° to 3° Celsius compared to urban areas. The findings also show that the average temperature and the built up percentage has a moderate correlation with R2 = 0.53. The environmental implications of these interactions can provide some insights for future land use planning in the region.

  17. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vinvent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicolo; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. These products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to the currently available operation products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set is generated for long-term climates studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the product. The snow product suite starts with a 500-m resolution swath snow-cover map which is gridded to the Integerized Sinusoidal Grid to produce daily and eight-day composite tile products. The sequence then proceeds to a climate-modeling grid product at 5-km spatial resolution, with both daily and eight-day composite products. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover.

  18. The National Land Cover Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Homer, Collin H.; Fry, Joyce A.; Barnes, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive Landsat-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation. NLCD provides spatial reference and descriptive data for characteristics of the land surface such as thematic class (for example, urban, agriculture, and forest), percent impervious surface, and percent tree canopy cover. NLCD supports a wide variety of Federal, State, local, and nongovernmental applications that seek to assess ecosystem status and health, understand the spatial patterns of biodiversity, predict effects of climate change, and develop land management policy. NLCD products are created by the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium, a partnership of Federal agencies led by the U.S. Geological Survey. All NLCD data products are available for download at no charge to the public from the MRLC Web site: http://www.mrlc.gov.

  19. MODIS Snow-Cover Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Riggs, George A.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; DiGirolamo, Nicole E.; Bayr, Klaus J.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    On December 18, 1999, the Terra satellite was launched with a complement of five instruments including the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Many geophysical products are derived from MODIS data including global snow-cover products. MODIS snow and ice products have been available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) since September 13, 2000. MODIS snow-cover products represent potential improvement to or enhancement of the currently-available operational products mainly because the MODIS products are global and 500-m resolution, and have the capability to separate most snow and clouds. Also the snow-mapping algorithms are automated which means that a consistent data set may be generated for long-term climate studies that require snow-cover information. Extensive quality assurance (QA) information is stored with the products. The MODIS snow product suite begins with a 500-m resolution, 2330-km swath snow-cover map which is then gridded to an integerized sinusoidal grid to produce daily and 8-day composite tile products. The sequence proceeds to a climate-modeling grid (CMG) product at about 5.6-km spatial resolution, with both daily and 8-day composite products. Each pixel of the CMG contains fraction of snow cover from 40 - 100%. Measured errors of commission in the CMG are low, for example, on the continent of Australia in the spring, they vary from 0.02 - 0.10%. Near-term enhancements include daily snow albedo and fractional snow cover. A case study from March 6, 2000, involving MODIS data and field and aircraft measurements, is presented to show some early validation work.

  20. Eolian cover sands: a sedimentologic model and paleoenvironmental implications

    SciTech Connect

    Lea, P.D.

    1985-01-01

    In periglacial areas, accumulations of eolian sand commonly form low-relief blankets without well-developed dunes. Internally, these sandsheet deposits exhibit subhorizontal lamination rather than high-angle cross-bedding. Such cover sands of late-Pleistocene age mantle extensive areas in northern Europe, but have been reported more rarely from North America. The processes by which cover sands, as opposed to dunes, accumulate have not yet been determined conclusively. Wind ripples and sand dunes do not form a continuum; flow separation and avalanching and negligible in the former and vital in the latter. Accretion of a sand patch into a mound sufficient to cause flow separation and dune growth requires a consistently available supply of loose sand. In cover-sand areas, sand may be immobilized prior to dune development by several factors: (1) a sparse vegetation cover, (2) moist ground conditions, (3) snow cover, and (4) a shallow permafrost table and/or an ice-cemented active layer. Detailed sedimentologic studies may allow discrimination among these various controls. The importance of the individual controlling factors can vary seasonally in a given deposit, as well as between deposits in different paleogeographic settings. However, all factors imply more mesic conditions than those associated with many dune deposits. The association of cover sands with paraboloid dunes is also consistent with somewhat moist conditions. The relatively mesic nature of cover sands controls their Pleistocene distribution; they become decreasingly important relative to dunes in maritime-to-continental transects across Alaska and northern Europe.

  1. Spatial relationship between landslide occurrence and land cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    Landslide represents a major type of natural hazards. It may leave great threat to human lives as well as infrastructures. In this study, we tried to understand the spatial relationship between landslide occurrences and land cover types through spatial statistics. The approach was based on the bivariate K-functions which can be used to analyze whether there is spatial clustering, repelling or randomness for landslide occurring in areas within different land covers. The Arno River basin in central Italy was chosen as the study area because the landslide inventory is complete with acquired records of more than 27,000 events. According to the inventory, we divided landslides into four classifications according to their types: slides, sofluctions, falls and flows. The land cover data was derived from the CORINE Land Cover map. The land cover types of artificial lands, natural and forest areas, and agriculture lands were focused on. The results indicate that landslides tend to occur in a clustering way within both three land covers. The difference is from the clustering level and spatial dependence distance. Therefore, no evidence can be found that the spatial pattern of landslide occurrence is dependent on changes of land covers.

  2. Enhanced snow cover products from MODIS for the hydrologic sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.; Bales, R.

    2004-12-01

    Near mountain ranges of the globe, over a billion people use melt of the seasonal snow cover as the dominant source of their water resources. These regions are increasingly experiencing the pressing, coupled implications of climate change, drought, and population/demand increase. Enhanced snow cover products have been developed using a multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis model that inverts MODIS surface reflectance products (MOD09) for fractional snow cover, plus the grain size and albedo of the fractional snow cover. Referred to as the MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size/Albedo (MODSCAG) model, this tool is specifically aimed at providing an accurate estimate of snowcover for regional studies in mountainous areas across the globe. The model uses spectral libraries generated with a radiative transfer model for varying grain size snow, adapting the spectral library according to the specific scene solar geometry. Both the albedo and snow-covered area products stimulate advances in hydrologic forecasting by providing more accurate, spatially distributed data than are currently available for assimilation and model evaluation. Data are being developed and provided through an end-to-end NASA REASoN project that includes: (i) standard and custom product development, (ii) distribution through multiple user interfaces and (iii) user support for product evaluation and applications. Currently, MODSCAG is producing snow cover products for hydrologic research clients working in the Colorado River Basin, the Sierra Nevada of California, the Columbia River Basin, and central Tibet. Within the framework of the REASoN project, MODSCAG is designed to address `client' research needs in snow-covered basins around the globe. In this work, we present the introduction of the MODSCAG fractional snow cover products into a model of basin hydrology in the Sierra Nevada. We analyze the differences between the MODSCAG fractional product and the standard MODIS binary snowcover

  3. Animated Pedagogical Agents: A Review of Agent Technology Software in Electronic Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Govindasamy, Malliga K.

    2014-01-01

    Agent technology has become one of the dynamic and most interesting areas of computer science in recent years. The dynamism of this technology has resulted in computer generated characters, known as pedagogical agent, entering the digital learning environments in increasing numbers. Commonly deployed in implementing tutoring strategies, these…

  4. Saving the Kilgore Covered Bridge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Wilma

    1988-01-01

    Describes an American literature class project to save a covered bridge from collapse. Illustrates how student initiative in contacting government agencies and news media, learning the history of the bridge, and raising public awareness about the project led to a joint county agreement to preserve the historic span. (DHP)

  5. COVERING A CORE BY EXTRUSION

    DOEpatents

    Karnie, A.J.

    1963-07-16

    A method of covering a cylindrical fuel core with a cladding metal ms described. The metal is forced between dies around the core from both ends in two opposing skirts, and as these meet the ends turn outward into an annular recess in the dics. By cutting off the raised portion formed by the recess, oxide impurities are eliminated. (AEC)

  6. Resumes, Applications, and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    Good resumes, applications, and cover letters broadcast one's abilities. They tell employers how one's qualifications match a job's responsibilities. If these critical preliminaries are constructed well, one has a better chance of landing interviews--and, eventually, a job. This article provides some guidelines for creating resumes and cover…

  7. The Great Cover-Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Leigh Ann

    2007-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the author created a short, online questionnaire to capture data about middle schoolers and book covers, and after several pilot studies she posted it to SurveyMonkey.com. The study includes the fiction books for middle school from the 2005 Quick Picks list. Over the course of a week, participants reported to the school…

  8. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course.Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations,which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  9. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  10. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  11. Evaluation of concrete cover by surface wave technique: Identification procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piwakowski, Bogdan; Kaczmarek, Mariusz; Safinowski, Paweł

    2012-05-01

    Concrete cover degradation is induced by aggressive agents in ambiance, such as moisture, chemicals or temperature variations. Due to degradation usually a thin (a few millimeters thick) surface layer has porosity slightly higher than the deeper sound material. The non destructive evaluation of concrete cover is vital to monitor the integrity of concrete structures and prevent their irreversible damage. In this paper the methodology applied by the classical technique used for ground structure recovery called Multichanel Analysis of Surface Waves is discussed as the NDT tool in civil engineering domain to characterize the concrete cover. In order to obtain the velocity as a function of sample depth the dispersion of surface waves is used as an input for solving inverse problem. The paper describes the inversion procedure and provides the practical example of use of developed system.

  12. Estimation of vegetation cover at subpixel resolution using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1986-01-01

    The present report summarizes the various approaches relevant to estimating canopy cover at subpixel resolution. The approaches are based on physical models of radiative transfer in non-homogeneous canopies and on empirical methods. The effects of vegetation shadows and topography are examined. Simple versions of the model are tested, using the Taos, New Mexico Study Area database. Emphasis has been placed on using relatively simple models requiring only one or two bands. Although most methods require some degree of ground truth, a two-band method is investigated whereby the percent cover can be estimated without ground truth by examining the limits of the data space. Future work is proposed which will incorporate additional surface parameters into the canopy cover algorithm, such as topography, leaf area, or shadows. The method involves deriving a probability density function for the percent canopy cover based on the joint probability density function of the observed radiances.

  13. Classification of impervious land cover using fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quackenbush, Lindi J.

    Runoff from urban areas is a leading source of nonpoint source pollution in estuaries, lakes, and streams. The extent and type of impervious land cover are considered to be critical factors in evaluating runoff amounts and the potential for environmental damage. Land cover information for watershed modeling is frequently derived using remote sensing techniques, and improvements in image classification are expected to enhance the reliability of runoff models. In order to understand potential pollutant loads there is a need to characterize impervious areas based on land use. However, distinguishing between impervious features such as roofs and roads using only spectral information is often challenging due to the similarity in construction materials. Since spectral information alone is often lacking, spatial complexity measured using fractal dimension was analyzed to determine its utility in performing detailed classification. Fractal dimension describes the complexity of curves and surfaces in non-integer dimensions. Statistical analysis demonstrated that fractal dimension varies between roofs, roads, and driveways. Analysis also observed the impact of scale by determining statistical differences in fractal dimension, based on the size of the window considered and the ground sampled distance of the pixels under consideration. The statistical differences in fractal dimension translated to minor improvements in classification accuracy when separating roofs, roads, and driveways.

  14. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents....

  15. Corrugated cover plate for flat plate collector

    DOEpatents

    Hollands, K. G. Terry; Sibbitt, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    A flat plate radiant energy collector is providing having a transparent cover. The cover has a V-corrugated shape which reduces the amount of energy reflected by the cover away from the flat plate absorber of the collector.

  16. ESTIMATING IMPERVIOUS COVER FROM REGIONALLY AVAILABLE DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study is to compare and evaluate the reliability of different approaches for estimating impervious cover including three empirical formulations for estimating impervious cover from population density data, estimation from categorized land cover data, and to ...

  17. Consequences of land use and land cover change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Barnes, Christopher; Karstensen, Krista; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Climate and Land Use Change Mission Area is one of seven USGS mission areas that focuses on making substantial scientific "...contributions to understanding how Earth systems interact, respond to, and cause global change". Using satellite and other remotely sensed data, USGS scientists monitor patterns of land cover change over space and time at regional, national, and global scales. These data are analyzed to understand the causes and consequences of changing land cover, such as economic impacts, effects on water quality and availability, the spread of invasive species, habitats and biodiversity, carbon fluctuations, and climate variability. USGS scientists are among the leaders in the study of land cover, which is a term that generally refers to the vegetation and artificial structures that cover the land surface. Examples of land cover include forests, grasslands, wetlands, water, crops, and buildings. Land use involves human activities that take place on the land. For example, "grass" is a land cover, whereas pasture and recreational parks are land uses that produce a cover of grass.

  18. Intercomparison of Satellite-Derived Snow-Cover Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Tait, Andrew B.; Foster, James L.; Chang, Alfred T. C.; Allen, Milan

    1999-01-01

    In anticipation of the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra, and the PM-1 spacecraft in 1999 and 2000, respectively, efforts are ongoing to determine errors of satellite-derived snow-cover maps. EOS Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-E (AMSR-E) snow-cover products will be produced. For this study we compare snow maps covering the same study area acquired from different sensors using different snow- mapping algorithms. Four locations are studied: 1) southern Saskatchewan; 2) a part of New England (New Hampshire, Vermont and Massachusetts) and eastern New York; 3) central Idaho and western Montana; and 4) parts of North and South Dakota. Snow maps were produced using a prototype MODIS snow-mapping algorithm used on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes of each study area at 30-m and when the TM data were degraded to 1 -km resolution. National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) 1 -km resolution snow maps were also used, as were snow maps derived from 1/2 deg. x 1/2 deg. resolution Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/1) data. A land-cover map derived from the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP) land-cover map of North America was also registered to the scenes. The TM, NOHRSC and SSM/I snow maps, and land-cover maps were compared digitally. In most cases, TM-derived maps show less snow cover than the NOHRSC and SSM/I maps because areas of incomplete snow cover in forests (e.g., tree canopies, branches and trunks) are seen in the TM data, but not in the coarser-resolution maps. The snow maps generally agree with respect to the spatial variability of the snow cover. The 30-m resolution TM data provide the most accurate snow maps, and are thus used as the baseline for comparison with the other maps. Comparisons show that the percent change in amount of snow cover relative to the 3 0-m resolution TM maps is lowest using the TM I -km resolution maps, ranging from 0 to 40

  19. Sky Cover from MFRSR Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Berg, Larry K.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their model clear-sky counterparts are two main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumulus clouds. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumulus clouds. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  20. Sky cover from MFRSR observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassianov, E.; Barnard, J. C.; Berg, L. K.; Flynn, C.; Long, C. N.

    2011-07-01

    The diffuse all-sky surface irradiances measured at two nearby wavelengths in the visible spectral range and their modeled clear-sky counterparts are the main components of a new method for estimating the fractional sky cover of different cloud types, including cumuli. The performance of this method is illustrated using 1-min resolution data from a ground-based Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR). The MFRSR data are collected at the US Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during the summer of 2007 and represent 13 days with cumuli. Good agreement is obtained between estimated values of the fractional sky cover and those provided by a well-established independent method based on broadband observations.

  1. Chaotic neurodynamics for autonomous agents.

    PubMed

    Harter, Derek; Kozma, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Mesoscopic level neurodynamics study the collective dynamical behavior of neural populations. Such models are becoming increasingly important in understanding large-scale brain processes. Brains exhibit aperiodic oscillations with a much more rich dynamical behavior than fixed-point and limit-cycle approximation allow. Here we present a discretized model inspired by Freeman's K-set mesoscopic level population model. We show that this version is capable of replicating the important principles of aperiodic/chaotic neurodynamics while being fast enough for use in real-time autonomous agent applications. This simplification of the K model provides many advantages not only in terms of efficiency but in simplicity and its ability to be analyzed in terms of its dynamical properties. We study the discrete version using a multilayer, highly recurrent model of the neural architecture of perceptual brain areas. We use this architecture to develop example action selection mechanisms in an autonomous agent. PMID:15940987

  2. Covers by polars of arrangements

    SciTech Connect

    Eaves, B.C. . Systems Optimization Lab.); Hoffman, A.J. )

    1990-08-01

    For a collection of hyperplanes passing through the origin in euclidean space let S be the induced subdivision. Let T be the collection of polars of the full cells of S. If only the origin lies in all hyperplanes, T forms a {kappa} {approximately} fold cover of euclidean space. If, in addition, the collection of hyperplanes is of size m and is regular, then {kappa} is m {minus} 1 choose n {minus} 1. Other similar results relate to spheres, hemispheres, and linear programming.

  3. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  4. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  5. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  6. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  7. Modeled impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Findell, K.L.; Shevliakova, E.; Milly, P.C.D.; Stouffer, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Equilibrium experiments with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's climate model are used to investigate the impact of anthropogenic land cover change on climate. Regions of altered land cover include large portions of Europe, India, eastern China, and the eastern United States. Smaller areas of change are present in various tropical regions. This study focuses on the impacts of biophysical changes associated with the land cover change (albedo, root and stomatal properties, roughness length), which is almost exclusively a conversion from forest to grassland in the model; the effects of irrigation or other water management practices and the effects of atmospheric carbon dioxide changes associated with land cover conversion are not included in these experiments. The model suggests that observed land cover changes have little or no impact on globally averaged climatic variables (e.g., 2-m air temperature is 0.008 K warmer in a simulation with 1990 land cover compared to a simulation with potential natural vegetation cover). Differences in the annual mean climatic fields analyzed did not exhibit global field significance. Within some of the regions of land cover change, however, there are relatively large changes of many surface climatic variables. These changes are highly significant locally in the annual mean and in most months of the year in eastern Europe and northern India. They can be explained mainly as direct and indirect consequences of model-prescribed increases in surface albedo, decreases in rooting depth, and changes of stomatal control that accompany deforestation. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  8. Next generation of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, C.; Pengra, B.; Long, J.; Loveland, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Land cover change is increasingly affecting the biophysics, biogeochemistry, and biogeography of the Earth's surface and the atmosphere, with far-reaching consequences to human well-being. However, our scientific understanding of the distribution and dynamics of land cover and land cover change (LCLCC) is limited. Previous global land cover assessments performed using coarse spatial resolution (300 m-1 km) satellite data did not provide enough thematic detail or change information for global change studies and for resource management. High resolution (˜30 m) land cover characterization and monitoring is needed that permits detection of land change at the scale of most human activity and offers the increased flexibility of environmental model parameterization needed for global change studies. However, there are a number of challenges to overcome before producing such data sets including unavailability of consistent global coverage of satellite data, sheer volume of data, unavailability of timely and accurate training and validation data, difficulties in preparing image mosaics, and high performance computing requirements. Integration of remote sensing and information technology is needed for process automation and high-performance computing needs. Recent developments in these areas have created an opportunity for operational high resolution land cover mapping, and monitoring of the world. Here, we report and discuss these advancements and opportunities in producing the next generations of global land cover characterization, mapping, and monitoring at 30-m spatial resolution primarily in the context of United States, Group on Earth Observations Global 30 m land cover initiative (UGLC).

  9. Ferrimagnetic susceptibility contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, T

    1993-01-01

    Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic particles have been in clinical development for more than 5 years, and the complexity of their effects is still not elucidated. The relaxivities are frequently used to give an idea of their efficacy, but these parameters can only be used if they are concentration independent. For large superparamagnetic systems, the evolution of the transverse magnetization is biexponential, after an initial loss of magnetization. Both these characteristics of large superparamagnetic systems should lead to prudence in using the relaxivities as indicators of contrast medium efficacy. Susceptibility induced artefacts have been associated with the use of superparamagnetic contrast agents since the first imaging evaluation took place. The range of concentrations where good contrast effect was achieved without inducing artefacts, as well as blurring and metal artefacts were evaluated. The influence of motion on the induction of artefacts was studied, and compared to the artefacts induced by a paramagnetic agent subject to motion. With a suitable concentration of a negative contrast agent, a signal void could be achieved in the region prone to motion, and no artefacts were induced. If the concentration was too high, a displacement of the region close to the contrast agent was observed. The artefacts occurred in a volume surrounding the contrast agent, i.e., also outside the imaging plane. In comparison a positive, paramagnetic contrast agent induced heavy artefacts in the phase encoding direction, appearing as both high intensity regions and black holes, in a mosaic pattern. Clinical trials of the oral contrast agent OMP for abdominal MR imaging showed this agent to be safe and efficacious. OMP increased the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal MR imaging in 2 of 3 cases examined, with a significant decrease in motion artefacts. Susceptibility contrast agents may also be of use in the evaluation of small lesions in the liver. Particulate material

  10. Wet deposition of the seeding agent after weather modification activities.

    PubMed

    Curić, Mladjen; Janc, Dejan

    2013-09-01

    Weather modification activities are performed mostly by cloud seeding. Some operational projects have been conducted for more than a half century and cover planetary scales. These activities have led to large amounts of seeding agents being deposited on the ground in precipitation. The main intent of this paper is to identify the spatial pattern of silver iodide deposits after hail suppression. The spatial pattern of silver iodide deposits is determined using the weather modification project measurements from seeding agent reports, two weather radars and 316 launching sites during a 5-year period. The estimated spatial distribution of the deposits is not uniform, with the maximum silver iodide amount located in the southern part of the study area (up to 140 μg m(-2)). Our results are comparable with the measurements performed by chemical analyses during other cloud seeding experiments. The maximum location coincides well with that of the maximum seeded hailstorm precipitation frequency. A new method for identifying the spatial pattern of wet-deposited material has been established. The location with the maximum amount is found. This method would be important as a means of placing samplers and monitoring at the representative sites because those are where most weather modification projects would be performed in the future.

  11. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  12. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  13. Arctic sea ice cover in connection with climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, G. V.; Aleksandrov, E. I.; Glok, N. I.; Ivanov, N. E.; Smolyanitsky, V. M.; Kharlanenkova, N. E.; Yulin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently published studies on key issues in the evolution of Arctic sea ice cover are reviewed and attempts to answer disputable questions are made in the research part of the work. It is shown that climate warming, manifested in an increase in the surface air temperature, and reduction in the ice cover develop with a high degree of agreement in summer. Based on this fact, anomalies of the September ice-cover area have been retrieved from 1900. They show a significant decrease in the 1930-1940s, which is almost twice as low as in 2007-2012. The influence of fluctuations in the flow of warm and salty Atlantic water is noted in variations in the winter maximum of the ice-cover area in the Barents Sea. An accelerated positive trend has been ascertained for the air temperature in late autumn-early winter in 1993-2012 due to an increase in the open water area in late summer. Inherent regularities of the ice-cover-area variability made it possible to develop a prediction of the monthly values of sea-ice extent with a head time from 6 months to 2 years. Their strong correlation with summer air temperature is used to estimate the onset of summer ice clearance in the Arctic.

  14. Precipitation Response to Land Cover Changes in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, E.; Lenderink, G.; Hutjes, R. W. A.; Holtslag, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Precipitation has increased by 25% over the last century in the Netherlands. In this period, conversion of peat areas into grassland, expansion of urban areas, and the creation of new land in Lake Ijssel were the largest land cover changes. Both station data analysis (Daniels et al. 2014) and high-resolution (2.5 km) simulations with the atmospheric Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model suggest that the observed increase in precipitation is not due to these land cover changes. Instead, the change from historical (1900) to present (2000) land cover decreases precipitation in WRF (Figure). However, WRF seems to be very sensitive to changes in evapotranspiration. The creation of new land and the expansion of urban areas are similar from a moisture perspective, since they locally decrease evapotranspiration, and therefore affect the soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism. In our simulations, the resulting feedback is always positive, as a reduction in evapotranspiration causes a reduction of precipitation. There is a difference between urban areas and land in WRF however. Over urban areas, the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height increases more than the lifting condensation level (LCL), and the potential to trigger precipitation hereby increases. This in turn decreases the strength, but not sign, of the soil moisture-precipitation feedback. WRF is therefore unable to reproduce the observed precipitation enhancement downwind of urban areas. In all, it seems the sensitivity of WRF to changes in surface moisture might be too high and this questions the applicability of the model to investigate land cover changes. Daniels, E. E., G. Lenderink, R. W. A. Hutjes, and A. A. M. Holtslag, 2014: Spatial precipitation patterns and trends in The Netherlands during 1951-2009. International Journal of Climatology, 34, 1773-1784. Figure: Composite summer precipitation (mm) based on 19 single day cases (a), showing the decreases resulting from changing present to

  15. Landsat continuity: Issues and opportunities for land cover monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Goward, S.N.; Masek, J.G.; Irons, J.R.; Herold, M.; Cohen, W.B.; Loveland, T.R.; Woodcock, C.E.

    2008-01-01

    Initiated in 1972, the Landsat program has provided a continuous record of earth observation for 35??years. The assemblage of Landsat spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions, over a reasonably sized image extent, results in imagery that can be processed to represent land cover over large areas with an amount of spatial detail that is absolutely unique and indispensable for monitoring, management, and scientific activities. Recent technical problems with the two existing Landsat satellites, and delays in the development and launch of a successor, increase the likelihood that a gap in Landsat continuity may occur. In this communication, we identify the key features of the Landsat program that have resulted in the extensive use of Landsat data for large area land cover mapping and monitoring. We then augment this list of key features by examining the data needs of existing large area land cover monitoring programs. Subsequently, we use this list as a basis for reviewing the current constellation of earth observation satellites to identify potential alternative data sources for large area land cover applications. Notions of a virtual constellation of satellites to meet large area land cover mapping and monitoring needs are also presented. Finally, research priorities that would facilitate the integration of these alternative data sources into existing large area land cover monitoring programs are identified. Continuity of the Landsat program and the measurements provided are critical for scientific, environmental, economic, and social purposes. It is difficult to overstate the importance of Landsat; there are no other systems in orbit, or planned for launch in the short-term, that can duplicate or approach replication, of the measurements and information conferred by Landsat. While technical and political options are being pursued, there is no satellite image data stream poised to enter the National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive should system failures

  16. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies

    PubMed Central

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O`Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1–98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  17. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting. PMID:26262681

  18. Forest Cover Estimation in Ireland Using Radar Remote Sensing: A Comparative Analysis of Forest Cover Assessment Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Devaney, John; Barrett, Brian; Barrett, Frank; Redmond, John; O Halloran, John

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of spatial and temporal changes in forest cover is an essential component of forest monitoring programs. Due to its cloud free capability, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is an ideal source of information on forest dynamics in countries with near-constant cloud-cover. However, few studies have investigated the use of SAR for forest cover estimation in landscapes with highly sparse and fragmented forest cover. In this study, the potential use of L-band SAR for forest cover estimation in two regions (Longford and Sligo) in Ireland is investigated and compared to forest cover estimates derived from three national (Forestry2010, Prime2, National Forest Inventory), one pan-European (Forest Map 2006) and one global forest cover (Global Forest Change) product. Two machine-learning approaches (Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees) are evaluated. Both Random Forests and Extremely Randomised Trees classification accuracies were high (98.1-98.5%), with differences between the two classifiers being minimal (<0.5%). Increasing levels of post classification filtering led to a decrease in estimated forest area and an increase in overall accuracy of SAR-derived forest cover maps. All forest cover products were evaluated using an independent validation dataset. For the Longford region, the highest overall accuracy was recorded with the Forestry2010 dataset (97.42%) whereas in Sligo, highest overall accuracy was obtained for the Prime2 dataset (97.43%), although accuracies of SAR-derived forest maps were comparable. Our findings indicate that spaceborne radar could aid inventories in regions with low levels of forest cover in fragmented landscapes. The reduced accuracies observed for the global and pan-continental forest cover maps in comparison to national and SAR-derived forest maps indicate that caution should be exercised when applying these datasets for national reporting.

  19. Quantifying environmental limiting factors on tree cover using geospatial data.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Jonathan A; Santos, Maria J; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Vanderbilt, Vern C; Ustin, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  20. Quantifying Environmental Limiting Factors on Tree Cover Using Geospatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Jonathan A.; Santos, Maria J.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Ustin, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental limiting factors (ELFs) are the thresholds that determine the maximum or minimum biological response for a given suite of environmental conditions. We asked the following questions: 1) Can we detect ELFs on percent tree cover across the eastern slopes of the Lake Tahoe Basin, NV? 2) How are the ELFs distributed spatially? 3) To what extent are unmeasured environmental factors limiting tree cover? ELFs are difficult to quantify as they require significant sample sizes. We addressed this by using geospatial data over a relatively large spatial extent, where the wall-to-wall sampling ensures the inclusion of rare data points which define the minimum or maximum response to environmental factors. We tested mean temperature, minimum temperature, potential evapotranspiration (PET) and PET minus precipitation (PET-P) as potential limiting factors on percent tree cover. We found that the study area showed system-wide limitations on tree cover, and each of the factors showed evidence of being limiting on tree cover. However, only 1.2% of the total area appeared to be limited by the four (4) environmental factors, suggesting other unmeasured factors are limiting much of the tree cover in the study area. Where sites were near their theoretical maximum, non-forest sites (tree cover < 25%) were primarily limited by cold mean temperatures, open-canopy forest sites (tree cover between 25% and 60%) were primarily limited by evaporative demand, and closed-canopy forests were not limited by any particular environmental factor. The detection of ELFs is necessary in order to fully understand the width of limitations that species experience within their geographic range. PMID:25692604

  1. Change Detection of Vegetation Cover, using Multi- Temporal Remote Sensing Data and GIS Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia, Oro-Ghene

    Remote sensing technology in combination with geographic information system (GIS) can render reliable information on vegetation cover. The analysis of the spatial extent and temporal change of vegetation cover using remotely sensed data is of critical importance to agricultural sciences. This paper investigates the Spatio- Temporal change of vegetation cover of Jos and its surrounding areas. For this study landsat images

  2. Estimating Accuracy of Land-Cover Composition From Two-Stage Clustering Sampling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land-cover maps are often used to compute land-cover composition (i.e., the proportion or percent of area covered by each class), for each unit in a spatial partition of the region mapped. We derive design-based estimators of mean deviation (MD), mean absolute deviation (MAD), ...

  3. Improving distributed hydrologic modeling and global land cover data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broxton, Patrick

    Distributed models of the land surface are essential for global climate models because of the importance of land-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy, momentum. They are also used for high resolution hydrologic simulation because of the need to capture non-linear responses to spatially variable inputs. Continued improvements to these models, and the data which they use, is especially important given ongoing changes in climate and land cover. In hydrologic models, important aspects are sometimes neglected due to the need to simplify the models for operational simulation. For example, operational flash flood models do not consider the role of snow and are often lumped (i.e. do not discretize a watershed into multiple units, and so do not fully consider the effect of intense, localized rainstorms). To address this deficiency, an overland flow model is coupled with a subsurface flow model to create a distributed flash flood forecasting system that can simulate flash floods that involve rain on snow. The model is intended for operational use, and there are extensive algorithms to incorporate high-resolution hydrometeorologic data, to assist in the calibration of the models, and to run the model in real time. A second study, which is designed to improve snow simulation in forested environments, demonstrates the importance of explicitly representing a near canopy environment in snow models, instead of only representing open and canopy covered areas (i.e. with % canopy fraction), as is often done. Our modeling, which uses canopy structure information from Aerial Laser Survey Mapping at 1 meter resolution, suggests that areas near trees have more net snow water input than surrounding areas because of the lack of snow interception, shading by the trees, and the effects of wind. In addition, the greatest discrepancy between our model simulations that explicitly represent forest structure and those that do not occur in areas with more canopy edges. In addition, two value

  4. Use of manual densitometry in land cover classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, D. C.; Graves, D. H.; Hammetter, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Through use of manual spot densitometry values derived from multitemporal 1:24,000 color infrared aircraft photography, areas as small as one hectare in the Cumberland Plateau in Kentucky were accurately classified into one of eight ground cover groups. If distinguishing between undisturbed and disturbed forest areas is the sole criterion of interest, classification results are highly accurate if based on imagery taken during foliated ground cover conditions. Multiseasonal imagery analysis was superior to single data analysis, and transparencies from prefoliated conditions gave better separation of conifers and hardwoods than did those from foliated conditions.

  5. Cladoceran zooplankton abundance under clear and snow-covered ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBates, T.J.; Chipps, S.R.; Ward, M.C.; Werlin, K.B.; Lorenzen, P.B.

    2003-01-01

    We described the distribution of cladoceran zooplankton under the ice in a natural, glacial lake. Local light availability apparently altered the spatial distribution of cladocerans. Light levels measured under snow-covered areas (0.178 lux) were an order of magnitude less than those measured at the same depth under clear ice (1.750 lux). Cladoceran density under snow-covered areas was significantly higher (Bosmina spp.=3.34/L; Daphnia spp.=0.61/L) than cladoceran abundance under clear ice (Bosmina spp.=0.91/L; Daphnia spp.=0.19/L).

  6. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  7. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  8. Mapping Surface Cover Parameters Using Aggregation Rules and Remotely Sensed Cover Classes. Version 1.9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arain, Altaf M.; Shuttleworth, W. James; Yang, Z-Liang; Michaud, Jene; Dolman, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    A coupled model, which combines the Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) with an advanced atmospheric boundary-layer model, was used to validate hypothetical aggregation rules for BATS-specific surface cover parameters. The model was initialized and tested with observations from the Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observational Study and used to simulate surface fluxes for rain forest and pasture mixes at a site near Manaus in Brazil. The aggregation rules are shown to estimate parameters which give area-average surface fluxes similar to those calculated with explicit representation of forest and pasture patches for a range of meteorological and surface conditions relevant to this site, but the agreement deteriorates somewhat when there are large patch-to-patch differences in soil moisture. The aggregation rules, validated as above, were then applied to remotely sensed 1 km land cover data set to obtain grid-average values of BATS vegetation parameters for 2.8 deg x 2.8 deg and 1 deg x 1 deg grids within the conterminous United States. There are significant differences in key vegetation parameters (aerodynamic roughness length, albedo, leaf area index, and stomatal resistance) when aggregate parameters are compared to parameters for the single, dominant cover within the grid. However, the surface energy fluxes calculated by stand-alone BATS with the 2-year forcing, data from the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) CDROM were reasonably similar using aggregate-vegetation parameters and dominant-cover parameters, but there were some significant differences, particularly in the western USA.

  9. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  10. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  11. Dual Durameter Blow Molded Rocker Cover Design With Unique Isolation Strategy

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-07-11

    The rocker arm cover on a diesel engine can be formed of a rigid molded plastic material to minimize the transmission of noise into the atmosphere. Sonic vibration of the cover can be reduced by reducing the cover material stiffness. The reduced stiffness of the cover material allows the roof area of the cover to be momentarily displaced away from the cylinder head in the presence of an acoustic wave, so that the roof area is not able to develop the restoring force that is necessary for vibrational motion.

  12. Regional characterization of land cover using multiple sources of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, J.E.; Sohl, T.; Howard, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organizations require accurate intermediate-scale land-cover information for many applications, including modeling nutrient and pesticide runoff, understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity, land-use planning, and policy development. While many techniques have been successfully used to classify land cover in relatively small regions, there are substantial obstacles in applying these methods to large, multiscene regions. The purpose of this study was to generate and evaluate a large region land-cover classification product using a multiple-layer land-characteristics database approach. To derive land-cover information, mosaicked Landsat thematic mapper (TM) scenes were analyzed in conjunction with digital elevation data (and derived slope, aspect, and shaded relief), population census information, Defense Meteorological Satellite Program city lights data, prior land-use and land-cover data, digital line graph data, and National Wetlands Inventory data. Both leaf-on and leaf-off TM data sets were analyzed. The study area was U.S. Federal Region III, which includes the states of Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia. The general procedure involved (1) generating mosaics of multiple scenes of leaves-on TM data using histogram equalization methods; (2) clustering mosaics into 100 spectral classes using unsupervised classification; (3) interpreting and labeling spectral classes into approximately 15 land-cover categories (analogous to Anderson Level 1 and 2 classes) using aerial photographs; (4) developing decision-making rules and models using from one to several ancillary data layers to resolve confusion in spectral classes that represented two or more targeted land-cover categories; and (5) incorporating data from other sources (for example, leaf-off TM data and National Wetlands Inventory data) to yield a final land-cover product. Although standard accuracy assessments were not done, a series of consistency checks using available

  13. Monitoring Areal Snow Cover Using NASA Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harshburger, Brian J.; Blandford, Troy; Moore, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop products and tools to assist in the hydrologic modeling process, including tools to help prepare inputs for hydrologic models and improved methods for the visualization of streamflow forecasts. In addition, this project will facilitate the use of NASA satellite imagery (primarily snow cover imagery) by other federal and state agencies with operational streamflow forecasting responsibilities. A GIS software toolkit for monitoring areal snow cover extent and producing streamflow forecasts is being developed. This toolkit will be packaged as multiple extensions for ArcGIS 9.x and an opensource GIS software package. The toolkit will provide users with a means for ingesting NASA EOS satellite imagery (snow cover analysis), preparing hydrologic model inputs, and visualizing streamflow forecasts. Primary products include a software tool for predicting the presence of snow under clouds in satellite images; a software tool for producing gridded temperature and precipitation forecasts; and a suite of tools for visualizing hydrologic model forecasting results. The toolkit will be an expert system designed for operational users that need to generate accurate streamflow forecasts in a timely manner. The Remote Sensing of Snow Cover Toolbar will ingest snow cover imagery from multiple sources, including the MODIS Operational Snowcover Data and convert them to gridded datasets that can be readily used. Statistical techniques will then be applied to the gridded snow cover data to predict the presence of snow under cloud cover. The toolbar has the ability to ingest both binary and fractional snow cover data. Binary mapping techniques use a set of thresholds to determine whether a pixel contains snow or no snow. Fractional mapping techniques provide information regarding the percentage of each pixel that is covered with snow. After the imagery has been ingested, physiographic data is attached to each cell in the snow cover image. This data

  14. Validation of current land cover maps utilizing astronaut acquired photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer; Estes, John E.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the potential use of astronaut acquired photography for the validation of current, land cover maps. More specifically, this study is directed at assessing the potential for the use of astronaut acquired photography to document and validate land cover change. Space Shuttle, astronaut acquired photography is employed to test the potential utility of data that may be acquired by astronauts employing the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) on International Space Station (ISS). The majority of astronaut acquired photography has been obtained under conditions similar to ISS operations in terms of both spectral as well as spatial resolution. Validation of land cover maps utilizing this type of imagery is being accomplished through a process of comparison among three different land cover classification legends created from the Eros Data Center (EDC) Land Characteristics Database. Our study area is a subregional scale portion of an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based global Land Characteristics Database. The goal of this research is to attempt to establish: 1. which legend derived for this area provides the highest overall accuracy for the land cover classes present: 2. which legend is best validated using astronaut acquired photography; and 3. which classes of these legends best lend themselves to validation with astronaut acquired photography. Preliminary results indicate that astronaut acquired photography can be employed to validate land cover maps and that results achieved using this imagery corresponds well to those achieved utilizing Landsat data. .

  15. Enhanced cover methods for surface coal refuse reclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, L.F.; Cargill, K.W.; McGarvie, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Controlling acid rock drainage (ARD) can be a major component of surface mining reclamation. An enhanced reclamation cover system is being constructed to control infiltration of rain water and generation of ARD from coal-refuse disposal areas at a closed mine in southern Illinois. Development of the mine reclamation plan required consideration of ARD generation in coal refuse disposal areas located adjacent to an alluvial aquifer used for public water supply. An integrated site characterization was performed at the mine to provide information to develop and support the enhanced reclamation plan. The enhanced cover system is similar to covers required for municipal solid waste landfills by the Resource Conversation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Subtitle D regulations. The system comprises a graded and compacted gob layer, overlain by a compacted clay liner, and a protective soil cover. The results of infiltration modeling and analyses showed that the standard reclamation cover is effective in reducing infiltration by about 18 percent compared to an unreclaimed coal-refuse surface. The modeling results showed that the inhanced cover system should reduce infiltration by about 84 percent. The geochemical modeling results showed that the reduction in infiltration would help minimize ARD generation and contribute to an earlier reclamation of the mine site.

  16. Lake Michigan Diversion Accounting land cover change estimation by use of the National Land Cover Dataset and raingage network partitioning analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Jennifer B.; Soong, David T.

    2015-01-01

    This study used the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) and developed an automated process for determining the area of the three land cover types, thereby allowing faster updating of future models, and for evaluating land cover changes by use of historical NLCD datasets. The study also carried out a raingage partitioning analysis so that the segmentation of land cover and rainfall in each modeled unit is directly applicable to the HSPF modeling. Historical and existing impervious, grass, and forest land acreages partitioned by percentages covered by two sets of raingages for the Lake Michigan diversion SCAs, gaged basins, and ungaged basins are presented.

  17. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  18. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  19. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  20. An algae-covered alligator rests warily

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An algae-covered alligator keeps a wary eye open as it rests in one of the ponds at Kennedy Space Center. American alligators feed and rest in the water, and lay their eggs in dens they dig into the banks. The young alligators spend their first several weeks in these dens. The Center shares a boundary with the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which encompasses 92,000 acres that are a habitat for more than 331 species of birds, 31 mammals, 117 fishes, and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds, as well as a variety of insects.

  1. Thirty years of land-cover change in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Timothy J; Calderon, Veronica; Soria, Liliana; Quezada, Belem; Steininger, Marc K; Harper, Grady; Solórzano, Luis A; Tucker, Compton J

    2007-11-01

    Land-cover change in eastern lowland Bolivia was documented using Landsat images from five epochs for all landscapes situated below the montane tree line at approximately 3000 m, including humid forest, inundated forest, seasonally dry forest, and cloud forest, as well as scrublands and grasslands. Deforestation in eastern Bolivia in 2004 covered 45,411 km2, representing approximately 9% of the original forest cover, with an additional conversion of 9042 km2 of scrub and savanna habitats representing 17% of total historical land-cover change. Annual rates of land-cover change increased from approximately 400 km2 y(-1) in the 1960s to approximately 2900 km2 y(-1) in the last epoch spanning 2001 to 2004. This study provides Bolivia with a spatially explicit information resource to monitor future land-cover change, a prerequisite for proposed mechanisms to compensate countries for reducing carbon emissions as a result of deforestation. A comparison of the most recent epoch with previous periods shows that policies enacted in the late 1990s to promote forest conservation had no observable impact on reducing deforestation and that deforestation actually increased in some protected areas. The rate of land-cover change continues to increase linearly nationwide, but is growing faster in the Santa Cruz department because of the expansion of mechanized agriculture and cattle farms.

  2. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  3. An autonomous adaptive scheduling agent for period searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, E. S.; Naylor, T.; Allan, A.

    2008-03-01

    We describe the design and implementation of an autonomous adaptive software agent that addresses the practical problem of observing undersampled, periodic, time-varying phenomena using a network of HTN-compliant robotic telescopes. The algorithm governing the behaviour of the agent uses an optimal geometric sampling technique to cover the period range of interest, but additionally implements proactive behaviour that maximises the optimality of the dataset in the face of an uncertain and changing operating environment.

  4. Methods for Cloud Cover Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glackin, D. L.; Huning, J. R.; Smith, J. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Several methods for cloud cover estimation are described relevant to assessing the performance of a ground-based network of solar observatories. The methods rely on ground and satellite data sources and provide meteorological or climatological information. One means of acquiring long-term observations of solar oscillations is the establishment of a ground-based network of solar observatories. Criteria for station site selection are: gross cloudiness, accurate transparency information, and seeing. Alternative methods for computing this duty cycle are discussed. The cycle, or alternatively a time history of solar visibility from the network, can then be input to a model to determine the effect of duty cycle on derived solar seismology parameters. Cloudiness from space is studied to examine various means by which the duty cycle might be computed. Cloudiness, and to some extent transparency, can potentially be estimated from satellite data.

  5. Land Cover Trends in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kambly, Steven; Moreland, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents an assessment of land use and land cover change in the Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion for the period from 1973 to 2000. The ecoregion is one of 84 level III ecoregions defined by the Environmental Protection Agency; ecoregions have been designed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental resource management and denote areas that contain a geographically distinct assemblage of biotic and abiotic phenomena, including geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The Southern Florida Coastal Plain ecoregion covers an area of approximately 22,407 square kilometers [8,651 square miles] across the lower portion of the Florida peninsula, from Lake Okeechobee southward through the Florida Keys. It comprises flat plains with wet soils, marshland and swamp land cover with Everglades and palmetto prairie vegetation types.

  6. Can shrub cover increase predation risk for a desert rodent?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schooley, R.L.; Sharpe, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    Previous research indicates that predation risk may influence activity patterns, habitat partitioning, and community structure of nocturnal desert rodents. Shrub microhabitat is typically considered safer than open microhabitat for these small mammals. We investigated predation risk for Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), which are diurnal desert rodents that detect predators visually and use burrows for refuge. Our results suggested that shrub cover may increase risk for these squirrels by decreasing their ability to escape from predators. Our field experiment indicated that running speeds of juvenile squirrels were lower in shrub (Ceratoides lanata) habitat than in open areas. Shrub cover was also associated with shorter predator-detection distances (mammalian and avian) and fewer refuges (burrow entrances per hectare) than in open areas in one year but not in another. Our study demonstrated that the visual and locomotive obstruction of vegetative cover may increase predation risk for diurnal desert rodents and that elements of habitat-dependent risk may be temporally dynamic.

  7. Diversity of mineral cell coverings and their formation processes: a review focused on the siliceous cell coverings.

    PubMed

    Mayama, Shigeki; Kuriyama, Asuka

    2002-08-01

    Mineral cell coverings are found in various protists. Some macroalgae accumulate calcium carbonate in the intercellular space, and some unicellular organisms use calcium carbonate or silica for the construction of loricas, scales, and frustules. Diatoms are representatives of those utilizing silica for the material of the cell covering called a frustule. The development of the frustule is initiated in a silica-deposition vesicle (SDV), which occurs just beneath the plasma membrane and, subsequently, the silicified cell covering expands its area, following the expansion of the SDV from valve face to valve mantle. Sequential valve development with whole valves is reviewed in several diatoms placed in different phylogenetic positions. Every diatom commences its valve formation from its pattern center and then develops by means of individual procedures. The results indicate that the valve development reflects the phylogeny of diatoms. In addition, recent progress in silica biomineralization is briefly reviewed, and the phylogeny of ability concerning siliceous cell covering formation is inferred.

  8. Marine-Sourced Anti-Cancer and Cancer Pain Control Agents in Clinical and Late Preclinical Development †

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2014-01-01

    The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies. PMID:24424355

  9. Construction Costs of Six Landfill Cover Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1998-12-23

    A large-scale field demonstration comparing and contrasting final landfill cover designs has been constructed and is currently being monitored. Four alternative cover designs and two conventional designs (a RCRA Subtitle `D' Soil Cover and a RCRA Subtitle `C' Compacted Clay Cover) were constructed side-by-side for direct comparison. The demonstration is intended to evaluate the various cover designs based on their respective water balance performance, ease and reliability of construction, and cost. This paper provides an overview of the construction costs of each cover design.

  10. Assessment of vegetation cover in India: Landsat images on band 5 black and white of 1980-82

    SciTech Connect

    Chaudhuri, A.B.

    1983-09-01

    An accurate estimate about the extent of vegetation cover, i.e. tree vegetation, shrubs etc. of the country is not readily available. All the existing estimates about vegetation/forest area were based on either the legal forest areas which cover blanks, river beds, snow-covered areas, shrubs, grassland, the tree-covered acras or large scale generalization of some stray observations. An attempt has been made in this paper to assess the extent of vegetative area with crown cover density on macrolevel using LANDSAT MSS imageries on band 5.

  11. Upper Kalamazoo watershed land cover inventory. [based on remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richason, B., III; Enslin, W.

    1973-01-01

    Approximately 1000 square miles of the eastern portion of the watershed were inventoried based on remote sensing imagery. The classification scheme, imagery and interpretation procedures, and a cost analysis are discussed. The distributions of land cover within the area are tabulated.

  12. 2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 15 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH REAR. TEST STAND 1-5 DECK AT LEFT; COVERED TANKS (BUILDING 8649) AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Shop Building for Test Stand 1-5, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLYCOMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. CONSTRUCTION PROGRESS EXTERIOR VIEW OF NEARLY-COMPLETED FACILITY. SHOWS COVER OVER SHIELDING TANK, FRAMEWORK ASSEMBLY WITH GUY WIRES, FENCE AROUND TANK AREA, DANGER SIGNS, AND MOUNDED BUNKER IN BACKGROUND. INEL PHOTO NUMBER 65-5442, TAKEN OCTOBER 20, 1965. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. 50 CFR 600.405 - Types of statistics covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of statistics covered. 600.405 Section 600.405 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... numbers of fish or weight thereof, areas in which fishing occurred, time of fishing, number of hauls,...

  15. 50 CFR 600.405 - Types of statistics covered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Types of statistics covered. 600.405 Section 600.405 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... numbers of fish or weight thereof, areas in which fishing occurred, time of fishing, number of hauls,...

  16. Mapping Snow Cover Loss Patterns in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, C.; Kampf, S. K.; Richer, E.; Stone, B.

    2011-12-01

    Cara Moore, Stephanie Kampf, Eric Richer, Brandon Stone Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1499 The Western United States depends on snowmelt to provide water for industrial, municipal, and agricultural needs. Some areas in this region have observed an increase in the proportion of precipitation falling as rain rather than snow in response to climate warming, a trend that can alter the timing and magnitude of runoff. Transitional snow zones, which lie between lower elevation intermittent snowpack and higher elevation persistent snowpack, may be particularly sensitive to changing climate conditions. Snow covered area is an easily obtainable measurement that can help identify the locations and elevations of these transitional snow zones. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of snowpack characteristics in the Western U.S. by mapping snow cover loss patterns using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow covered area (SCA) product. Snow cover loss patterns can be difficult to compare objectively between regions because spring snow storms lead to abrupt increases and decreases in SCA. Therefore, we develop a curve-fitting snow cover depletion model (SCoDMod) used to derive standardized snow cover loss curves. We fit the model to snow cover patterns within 100m elevation zones from January 1st until July 19th for each USGS eight digit hydrologic unit in the Western US. We use the model to identify 11 year (2000-2010) average snow cover loss patterns and compare those patterns to snow cover loss behavior in wet and dry years. Model results give maps of average SCA in the Western United States on the first of the month from January to July, as well as maps of the date of SCA loss to 75% (Q75), 50% (Q50), and 25% (Q25) SCA. Results show that the Cascade, Sierra Nevada, and Rocky mountains from Colorado northward retain >90% SCA until March, whereas most parts of lower elevation

  17. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  18. Sunscreening agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Latha, M S; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

  19. Influence of snow cover changes on surface radiation and heat balance based on the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Lingxue; Liu, Tingxiang; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping; Zhang, Shuwen

    2016-07-01

    The snow cover extent in mid-high latitude areas of the Northern Hemisphere has significantly declined corresponding to the global warming, especially since the 1970s. Snow-climate feedbacks play a critical role in regulating the global radiation balance and influencing surface heat flux exchange. However, the degree to which snow cover changes affect the radiation budget and energy balance on a regional scale and the difference between snow-climate and land use/cover change (LUCC)-climate feedbacks have been rarely studied. In this paper, we selected Heilongjiang Basin, where the snow cover has changed obviously, as our study area and used the WRF model to simulate the influences of snow cover changes on the surface radiation budget and heat balance. In the scenario simulation, the localized surface parameter data improved the accuracy by 10 % compared with the control group. The spatial and temporal analysis of the surface variables showed that the net surface radiation, sensible heat flux, Bowen ratio, temperature and percentage of snow cover were negatively correlated and that the ground heat flux and latent heat flux were positively correlated with the percentage of snow cover. The spatial analysis also showed that a significant relationship existed between the surface variables and land cover types, which was not obviously as that for snow cover changes. Finally, six typical study areas were selected to quantitatively analyse the influence of land cover types beneath the snow cover on heat absorption and transfer, which showed that when the land was snow covered, the conversion of forest to farmland can dramatically influence the net radiation and other surface variables, whereas the snow-free land showed significantly reduced influence. Furthermore, compared with typical land cover changes, e.g., the conversion of forest into farmland, the influence of snow cover changes on net radiation and sensible heat flux were 60 % higher than that of land cover changes

  20. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  1. Modal Behavior of Hemispheric Sea Ice Covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per; Huang, Norden; Shen, Zheng

    1998-01-01

    Recent papers have described 18-year trends and annual oscillations in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents, areas, and enclosed open water areas based on a newly-formulated 18.2-year ice concentration time series. This time series includes data for the entire Arctic and Antarctic ice covers, as well as for previously defined subregions consisting of 5 sectors in the Antarctic and 9 regions in the Arctic. It was obtained by fine-tuning the sea ice algorithm tie points individually for each of the four sensors used to acquire the data. In this paper, we extend these analyses to an examination of the intrinsic modes of these time series, obtained by means of Empirical Mode Decomposition, with emphasis on periodicities greater than the annual cycle. Quasibiennial and quasiquadrennial oscillations observed with a different technique and reported earlier for the first 8.8 years of this time series were also observed in the present series. However, the intrinsic modes were not monochromatic; they feature frequency as well as amplitude modulation within their respective frequency bands. Modal periods of up to 18 years are observed, with important implications for the trend analyses published earlier. These results are compared with the oscillations in the Length-of-Day and North Atlantic Oscillation parameters similarly determined for the same 18.2-year period.

  2. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  3. 29 CFR 1918.31 - Hatch coverings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 'tween-decks unless all hatch beams are in place under the hatch covers. (c) Missing, broken, or poorly... covers and hatch beams not of uniform size shall be placed only in the hatch, deck, and section in...

  4. 41 CFR 301-73.106 - What are the basic services that should be covered by a TMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services that should be covered by a TMS? 301-73.106 Section 301-73.106 Public Contracts and Property... that should be covered by a TMS? The TMS must, at a minimum— (a) Include a Travel Management Center... the basic services of a TMS. You have the option to use the contracted travel agent service(s) of...

  5. Classifying Urban Land Covers Using Local Indices of Spatial Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arumugam, Mahesh; Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    The skewed statistical distributions of land cover types in complex, heterogeneous urban areas limits the effectiveness of traditional spectrally based maximum-likelihood classifiers. This work examines the utility of fractal dimension and Moran's I index of spatial autocorrelation in segmenting high-resolution panchromatic and lower-resolution multispectral imagery. Tools available in the Image Characterization and Modeling System (ICAMS) were used to analyze multi-temporal and multi-platform imagery of Atlanta, Georgia. In this example, land cover change trajectories from forest or grassland to built up land covers lead to decreased spatial autocorrelation. In lower resolution imagery such as Landsat MSS, the complex details of forested land covers and urbanized areas are smoothed, and texture-based change detection is less effective. Although segmentation of panchromatic images is possible using fractal dimension or Moran's I, widely differing land covers often yield similar values of these indices. Better results are obtained when a surface of local fractal dimension or spatial autocorrelation is combined as an additional layer in a supervised maximum-likelihood multispectral classification.

  6. Satellite Snow-Cover Mapping: A Brief Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.

    1995-01-01

    Satellite snow mapping has been accomplished since 1966, initially using data from the reflective part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and now also employing data from the microwave part of the spectrum. Visible and near-infrared sensors can provide excellent spatial resolution from space enabling detailed snow mapping. When digital elevation models are also used, snow mapping can provide realistic measurements of snow extent even in mountainous areas. Passive-microwave satellite data permit global snow cover to be mapped on a near-daily basis and estimates of snow depth to be made, but with relatively poor spatial resolution (approximately 25 km). Dense forest cover limits both techniques and optical remote sensing is limited further by cloudcover conditions. Satellite remote sensing of snow cover with imaging radars is still in the early stages of research, but shows promise at least for mapping wet or melting snow using C-band (5.3 GHz) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Observing System (EOS) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data beginning with the launch of the first EOS platform in 1998. Digital maps will be produced that will provide daily, and maximum weekly global snow, sea ice and lake ice cover at 1-km spatial resolution. Statistics will be generated on the extent and persistence of snow or ice cover in each pixel for each weekly map, cloudcover permitting. It will also be possible to generate snow- and ice-cover maps using MODIS data at 250- and 500-m resolution, and to study and map snow and ice characteristics such as albedo. been under development. Passive-microwave data offer the potential for determining not only snow cover, but snow water equivalent, depth and wetness under all sky conditions. A number of algorithms have been developed to utilize passive-microwave brightness temperatures to provide information on snow cover and water equivalent. The variability of vegetative Algorithms are being developed to map global snow

  7. MpcAgent

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  8. MpcAgent

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.

  9. Crystallization and tile separation in the multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Jacques Henri; Fanchon, Jean

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the self-organization of simple mobile agents confined in a two-dimension rectangular area. Each agent interacts with its neighbors inside an interaction disk and moves following various types of force-driven couplings (e.g. repulsion or attraction). The agents do not know their absolute position, do not exchange messages, have no memory, and no learning capabilities. We first study the self-organization appearing in systems made-up with one sole type of agents, initially generated at random in the terrain. By changing the agent-agent repulsive interaction, we observe five different population reorganizations, namely, grouping, diffusion (that is classical), but especially interesting, crystallization (i.e., the agents group together on the vertices a regular hexagonal lattice), alignment along straight lines, and vortex dynamics. Then, we consider reorganization in systems made-up from two to five types of agents, where each pair of agent types has specific interaction parameters. The main result of this work is to show that, by only changing the agent-agent repulsion rules, one can generate hexagonal or rectangular multi-agent crystals or on the contrary, induce complete separation in regular hexagonal tiles.

  10. Tree Cover Mapping Tool—Documentation and user manual

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotillon, Suzanne; Mathis, Melissa

    2016-06-02

    The Tree Cover Mapping (TCM) tool was developed by scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science Center to allow a user to quickly map tree cover density over large areas using visual interpretation of high resolution imagery within a geographic information system interface. The TCM tool uses a systematic sample grid to produce maps of tree cover. The TCM tool allows the user to define sampling parameters to estimate tree cover within each sample unit. This mapping method generated the first on-farm tree cover maps of vast regions of Niger and Burkina Faso. The approach contributes to implementing integrated landscape management to scale up re-greening and restore degraded land in the drylands of Africa. The TCM tool is easy to operate, practical, and can be adapted to many other applications such as crop mapping, settlements mapping, or other features. This user manual provides step-by-step instructions for installing and using the tool, and creating tree cover maps. Familiarity with ArcMap tools and concepts is helpful for using the tool.

  11. A probabilistic framework for the cover effect in bedrock erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turowski, Jens; Hodge, Rebecca

    2016-04-01

    Bedrock erosion rates in mountain rivers are driven by impacting bedload particles and are modulated by two conflicting affects. Rising sediment flux leads to an increasing number of impacts and thus larger erosion rates (the tools effect). However, when sediment supply gets too large, sediment particles sit on the bed protecting it from impacts and thereby decreasing the erosion rate (the cover effect). Previous flume experiments and numerical models have predicted a wide range of formulations for the relationship between sediment flux and sediment cover. Here, we propose a simple probabilistic framework to mathematically describe the cover effect, in which the development of cover is as a function of the probability of sediment deposition on bedrock or sediment-covered areas of the bed. The framework can incorporate empirical or modelling results and provides a neat link to process interpretations. We compare model predictions with results from both a cellular automaton model of grain dynamics, and from flume experiments. The framework is able to reproduce many of the observed behaviours, and thus provides a way of unifying the range of different results that have previously been reported. Further, we present a simple first order model for the dynamic evolution of bed cover over time that could be incorporated into channel morphodynamic models.

  12. Field Water Balance of Landfill Final Covers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landfill covers are critical to waste containment, yet field performance of specific cover designs has not been well documented and seldom been compared in side-by-side testing. A study was conducted to assess the ability of landfill final covers to control percolation into unde...

  13. Managing cover crops: an economic perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common reasons given by producers as to why they do not adopt cover crops are related to economics: time, labor, and cost required for planting and managing cover crops. While many of the agronomic benefits of cover crops directly relate to economics, there are costs associated with adopting the pra...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2167 - Covered systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Covered systems. 193.2167 Section 193.2167...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2167 Covered systems. A covered impounding system is prohibited except for concrete wall designed tanks where the concrete wall is an...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  16. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6185 - Cast cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cast cover. 880.6185 Section 880.6185 Food and....6185 Cast cover. (a) Identification. A cast cover is a device intended for medical purposes that is made of waterproof material and placed over a cast to protect it from getting wet during a shower or...

  18. Selection of fungi by candidate cover crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diversified cropping systems that incorporate year-round ground cover, are known to maintain healthy soils. Information is available for producers regarding the benefits of specific cover crop species for soil fertility, weed and pest management. Even though it is widely recognized that cover crops ...

  19. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  20. 49 CFR 192.327 - Cover.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Lines and Mains § 192.327 Cover. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (c), (e), (f), and (g) of this section, each buried transmission line must be installed with a minimum cover as follows: Location Normal... of a transmission line or main with the minimum cover, the transmission line or main may be...

  1. Completion of the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 1992-2001 Land Cover Change Retrofit Product

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics Consortium has supported the development of two national digital land cover products: the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) 1992 and National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2001. Substantial differences in imagery, legends, and methods betwe...

  2. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  3. The Potential Radiative Forcing of Global Land Use and Land Cover Change Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. S.; Mahowald, N. M.; Kloster, S.

    2014-12-01

    Given the expected increase in pressure on land resources over the next century, there is a need to understand the total impacts of activities associated with land use and land cover change (LULCC). Here we quantify these impacts using the radiative forcing metric, including forcings from changes in long-lived greenhouse gases, tropospheric ozone, aerosol effects, and land surface albedo. We estimate radiative forcings from the different agents for historical LULCC and for six future projections using simulations from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Land Model and Community Atmosphere Models and additional offline analyses. When all forcing agents are considered together we show that 45% (+30%, -20%) of the present-day (2010) anthropogenic radiative forcing can be attributed to LULCC. Changes in the emission of non-CO2 greenhouse gases and aerosols from LULCC enhance the total LULCC radiative forcing by a factor of 2 to 3 with respect to the forcing from CO2 alone. In contrast, the non-CO2 forcings from fossil fuel burning are roughly neutral, due largely to the negative (cooling) impact of aerosols from these sources. We partition the global LULCC radiative forcing into three major sources: direct modification of land cover (e.g. deforestation), agricultural activities, and fire regime changes. Contributions from deforestation and agriculture are roughly equal in the present day, while changes to wildfire activity impose a small negative forcing globally. In 2100, deforestation activities comprise the majority of the LULCC radiative forcing for all projections except one (Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5). This suggests that realistic scenarios of future forest area change are essential for projecting the contribution of LULCC to climate change. However, the commonly used RCP land cover change projections all include decreases in global deforestation rates over the next 85 years. To place an upper bound on the potential

  4. Multi-agent Reinforcement Learning Model for Effective Action Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youk, Sang Jo; Lee, Bong Keun

    Reinforcement learning is a sub area of machine learning concerned with how an agent ought to take actions in an environment so as to maximize some notion of long-term reward. In the case of multi-agent, especially, which state space and action space gets very enormous in compared to single agent, so it needs to take most effective measure available select the action strategy for effective reinforcement learning. This paper proposes a multi-agent reinforcement learning model based on fuzzy inference system in order to improve learning collect speed and select an effective action in multi-agent. This paper verifies an effective action select strategy through evaluation tests based on Robocop Keep away which is one of useful test-beds for multi-agent. Our proposed model can apply to evaluate efficiency of the various intelligent multi-agents and also can apply to strategy and tactics of robot soccer system.

  5. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  6. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  7. Tracking forest cover change of Margalla Hills over a period of two decades (1992-2011): A remote sensing perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Noora; Ullah, Saleem

    2016-07-01

    Forests play a critical role in balancing the ecological soundness of a region and in the facilitation of essential forest resources. Depletion of forest cover is a serious environmental problem throughout the world including Pakistan where a striking degradation of forest reserves has been an ecological concern for quite some time. Remote sensing techniques have been used to monitor land use and forest cover changes. The present study aims at exploring the potential impacts of climate change in the decline of forest reserves on Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP), since it remains the primary culprit behind this depletion. Landsat images for 1992, 2000 and 2011 were manipulated for the spatial and temporal analysis, interpretation and computation of the change and shift that has occurred over the past two decades. The analysis revealed a great increase in the built-up area, barren soil and agricultural land. Though other classes such as water body, lower vegetation, scrub and conifer forest showed a diminishing trend. The rise in temperature and relative humidity, the depletion in annual precipitation, frequent wild fires and the boost in urbanization and agricultural practices are the climatic conditions and causative agents chiefly responsible for the decline shown by the vegetation of the area. The degrading condition of the forest is below par and requires conservation practices to be carried out in order to avoid ecological disturbances.

  8. The association between extremes in North American snow cover extent and United States temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Leathers, D.J. ); Robinson, D.A. )

    1993-07-01

    The association between satellite-derived North American snow cover extent and United States winter (December, January, February) temperature is examined. The results indicate that winter months evidencing extreme position (negative) values of North American snow cover extent are associated with below- (above) normal temperatures across the majority of the United States. The area evidencing the largest temperatures departures during both positive and negative North American snow cover extremes is located across the central United States, roughly from the Dakotas south through the southern plains, and from the Rocky Mountains east the Mississippi Valley. This area is collocated with the largest variations in snow cover frequency. No consistently strong association is indicated east of the Appalachians or west of the Rocky Mountains. During December, strong 500-mb height anomalies are collocated with the area of maximum snow cover frequency deviations and the largest temperature departures. This is not the case in January and February. During these months the snow cover frequency and temperature anomaly fields are not in close proximity to strong areas of 500-mb deviations. Evidence is presented to suggest that continental snow cover anomalies produce remote temperature perturbations away from the area of local snow cover variations, through the large-scale modification of air masses. In addition, a brief climatology of North American snow cover is presented. 38 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Intelligent agents for e-commerce applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuppala, Krishna

    1999-12-01

    This thesis focuses on development of intelligent agent solutions for e-commerce applications. E-Commerce has several complexities like: lack of information about the players, learning the nature of one's business partners/competitors, finding the right business partner to do business with, using the right strategy to get best profit out of the negotiations etc. The agent models developed can be used in any agent solution for e-commerce. Concepts and techniques from Game Theory and Artificial Intelligence are used. The developed models have several advantages over the existing ones as: the models assume the non-availability of information about other players in the market, the models of players get updated over the time as and when new information comes about the players, the negotiation model incorporates the patience levels of the players and expectations from other players in the market. Power industry has been chosen as the application area for the demonstration of the capabilities and usage of the developed agent models. Two e-commerce scenarios where sellers and buyers can go through the power exchanges to bid in auctions, or make bilateral deals outside of the exchange are addressed. In the first scenario agent helps market participants in coordinating strategies with other participants, bidding in auctions by analyzing and understanding the behavior of other participants. In the second scenario, called "Power Traders Assistant" agent helps power trader, who buys and sells power through bilateral negotiations, in negotiating deals with his customers.

  10. Measure Landscape Diversity with Logical Scout Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, G.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy reform of the EU focuses on three long-term objectives: viable food production, sustainable management of natural resources and climate action with balanced territorial development. To achieve these goals, the EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity. Current paper introduces an agent-based method to calculate the potential of landscape diversity. The method tries to catch the nature of heterogeneity using logic and modelling as opposed to the traditional statistical reasoning. The outlined Random Walk Scouting algorithm registers the land cover crossings of the scout agents to a Monte Carlo integral. The potential is proportional with the composition and the configuration (spatial character) of the landscape. Based on the measured points a potential map is derived to give an objective and quantitative basis to the stakeholders (policy makers, farmers).

  11. Wheelspace windage cover plate for turbine

    DOEpatents

    Lathrop, Norman Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Windage cover plates are secured between the wheels and spacer of a turbine rotor to prevent hot flow path gas ingestion into the wheelspace cavities. Each cover plate includes a linear, axially extending body curved circumferentially with a radially outwardly directed wall at one axial end. The wall defines a axially opening recess for receiving a dovetail lug. The cover plate includes an axially extending tongue received in a circumferential groove of the spacer. The cover plate is secured with the tongue in the groove and dovetail lug in the recess. Lap joints between circumferentially adjacent cover plates are provided.

  12. Battlefield agent collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2001-09-01

    Small air and ground physical agents (robots) will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces in urban and open terrain scenarios. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA), intelligence, chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, decoy, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensors, communications, and mobility characteristics. It is anticipated that there will be many levels of individual and team collaboration between the soldier and robot, robot to robot, and robot to mother ship. This paper presents applications and infrastructure components that illustrate each of these levels. As an example, consider the application where a team of twenty small robots must rapidly explore and define a building complex. Local interactions and decisions require peer to peer collaboration. Global direction and information fusion warrant a central team control provided by a mother ship. The mother ship must effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. Any level of collaboration requires robust communications, specifically a mobile ad hoc network. The application of fixed ground sensors and mobile robots is also included in this paper. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of multi-robot collaboration. This research includes battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, sensor and information fusion, and multi-modal human computer interaction.

  13. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  14. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  15. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  16. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  17. Trends and projections of temperature, precipitation, and snow cover during snow cover-observed period over southwestern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.; Dhorde, Anargha A.

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, tendencies in temperature, precipitation, and snow cover area over the southwestern part of Iran have been assessed. The research mainly focused on snow cover-observed period which included the months of December, January, February, March, and April in the area. This research has been divided into two parts. First part consists of an analysis of the trends in temperature, precipitation, and snow cover area during the above months. Trends in these parameters were tested by linear regression, and significance was determined by t test. Mann-Kendall rank test (MK test) was also employed to confirm the results of linear regression. Sequential Mann-Kendall test (SQ-MK test) was applied for change point detection in the series. For snow cover analysis, remote sensing images from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite with advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor for the period 1987-2007 were used. The second part of the research involved future projections based on four models under B1 and A1B emission scenarios. The models used were centre national de recherches meteorologiques (CNRM), European Center Hamburg model (ECHAM), Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate (MIROCH) and United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMOC) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR4. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during February and April. Temperature projections showed that temperature may increase between 1.12 to 7.87 °C by 2100 in the study area. The results of precipitation series indicated that majority of the stations registered insignificant trends during the twentieth century. However, precipitation may decrease according to most of the models under both scenarios, but the decrease may not be large, except according to MIROCH model. The results of trend analysis of snow cover area indicated that no significant trends were detected by any statistical tests

  18. Internal combustion engine timing chain cover

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, A.

    1991-03-12

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine end and timing chain cover for a multi-cylinder, automotive vehicle type engine having a generally horizontally arranged engine block with a forward end and upper and lower portions, and a generally horizontally extending crankshaft with a forward end portion, and a timing chain mechanism on the block forward end above crankshaft: It comprises: a unitary, a cast metal, dish-like, cover having a forward wall surrounded by an integral edge wall shaped to fit over and mount upon the forward end of the engine block with the cover forming an enclosed cavity at the front end of the engine and with the cover cavity adapted to receive and enclose the engine timing chain mechanism portions located on the engine forward end; the cover having a hole formed in its lower portion in alignment with the engine crankshaft, and with the engine crankshaft forward end portion extending through the hole and being surrounded by a seal; the seal being mounted within the hole in the cover, within an open, rabbit-like groove surrounding the hold and opening forwardly of the cover, so that the seal may be removed in a forward direction relative to the engine and replaced without removing the cover when the cover is mounted upon the block with the crankshaft extending therethrough; and bolt receiving openings formed on the cover edge wall through which mounting bolts may be positioned for fastening the cover upon the engine.

  19. Methane flux and oxidation at two types of intermediate landfill covers

    SciTech Connect

    Abichou, Tarek . E-mail: abichou@eng.fsu.edu; Chanton, Jeffery; Powelson, David; Fleiger, Jill; Escoriaza, Sharon; Lei, Yuan; Stern, Jennifer

    2006-07-01

    Methane emissions were measured on two areas at a Florida (USA) landfill using the static chamber technique. Because existing literature contains few measurements of methane emissions and oxidation in intermediate cover areas, this study focused on field measurement of emissions at 15-cm-thick non-vegetated intermediate cover overlying 1-year-old waste and a 45-cm-thick vegetated intermediate cover overlying 7-year-old waste. The 45 cm thick cover can also simulate non-engineered covers associated with older closed landfills. Oxidation of the emitted methane was evaluated using stable isotope techniques. The arithmetic means of the measured fluxes were 54 and 22 g CH{sub 4} m{sup -2} d{sup -1} from the thin cover and the thick cover, respectively. The peak flux was 596 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin cover and 330 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick cover. The mean percent oxidation was significantly greater (25%) at the thick cover relative to the thin cover (14%). This difference only partly accounted for the difference in emissions from the two sites. Inverse distance weighing was used to describe the spatial variation of flux emissions from each cover type. The geospatial mean flux was 21.6 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thick intermediate cover and 50.0 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for the thin intermediate cover. High emission zones in the thick cover were fewer and more isolated, while high emission zones in the thin cover were continuous and covered a larger area. These differences in the emission patterns suggest that different CH{sub 4} mitigation techniques should be applied to the two areas. For the thick intermediate cover, we suggest that effective mitigation of methane emissions could be achieved by placement of individualized compost cells over high emission zones. Emissions from the thin intermediate cover, on the other hand, can be mitigated by placing a compost layer over the entire area.

  20. Surface characteristics and evolution of debris covered glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mölg, Nico; Vieli, Andreas; Bolch, Tobias; Bauder, Andreas; Bhattacharya, Atanu

    2016-04-01

    Global climate change has led to increasing glacier retreat in most parts of the world. However, many heavily debris-covered glaciers have shown much smaller recession rates than their clean-ice neighbours. This can be attributed to the insulation effect of the supraglacial debris. Remote-sensing based investigations revealed that recent mass balances of debris-covered glaciers are equally negative. This fact is partly due to enhanced melting at supra-glacial lakes and ice cliffs but can also be caused by reduced mass flux. In this context, insufficient process understanding constitutes a major challenge for large scale glacier change assessment and modelling. In this project, we aim at better understanding the evolution of glaciers in connection with changes in supra-glacial debris coverage. It is performed on Zmutt Glacier in Matter valley in Switzerland and on Gangotri Glacier in Garwhal Himalaya in India. Changes in glacier length, area, debris coverage, and surface elevation were compiled based on topographic maps, oblique photos, aerial and satellite orthoimages, digital terrain models (DTMs), and glacier monitoring data for a 50 (Gangotri) and 120 (Zmutt) year period, respectively. The subsequent analysis revealed that Zmutt Glacier has been in a slow but almost continuous retreating state since the end of the 19th century and showed a clear reduction in glacier area and volume. Similarly, Gangotri Glacier has retreated and, to a smaller degree, lost volume. However, the change in glacier length and area is clearly smaller than for other nearby, less debris-covered or debris-free glaciers. This fact is attributed to the larger debris-covered area that has steadily increased. Further in the project, this data will serve as an important input and validation for the envisaged 3D flow modelling and, hence, will contribute to the understanding of the development of glaciers and debris-covered ice in a period of fast climatic changes.