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Sample records for agents bacteria viruses

  1. Radiation sensitivity of bacteria and virus in porcine xenoskin for dressing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Eu-Ri; Jung, Pil-Mun; Choi, Jong-il; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2012-08-01

    In this study, gamma irradiation sensitivities of bacteria and viruses in porcine skin were evaluated to establish the optimum sterilization condition for the dressing material and a xenoskin graft. Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis were used as model pathogens and inoculated at 106-107 log CFU/g. As model viruses, porcine parvovirus (PPV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and poliovirus were used and inoculated at 105-106 TCID50/g into porcine skin. The D10 value of E. coli was found to be 0.25±0.1 kGy. B. subtilis endospores produced under stressful environmental conditions showed lower radiation sensitivity as D10 was 3.88±0.3 kGy in porcine skin. The D10 values of PPV, BVDV, and poliovirus were found to be 1.73±0.2, 3.81±0.2, and 6.88±0.3 kGy, respectively. These results can offer the basic information required for inactivating pathogens by gamma irradiation and achieving dressing material and porcine skin grafts.

  2. Irradiation of microorganism such as bacteria and viruses in the presence of chemical enhancing agent

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-18

    This invention relates to a method for disinfecting waste material, such as sewage, containing harmful microorganisms by means of high energy ionizing radiation. This method includes the addition of a chemical enhancing agent such as aluminum chlorde or ferric chloride which would increase the sensitivity of the microorganisms to irradiation. Consequently lower radiation doses would be needed for disinfection.

  3. Development of Anti-Infectives Using Phage Display: Biological Agents against Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Johnny X.; Bishop-Hurley, Sharon L.

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of anti-infective therapeutics on the market or in development are small molecules; however, there is now a nascent pipeline of biological agents in development. Until recently, phage display technologies were used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Patent disputes impeded broad use of these methods and contributed to the dearth of candidates in the clinic during the 1990s. Today, however, phage display is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits phage display technology as a means of discovering novel therapeutics against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies in clinical or preclinical development. We discuss the different strategies and methods used to derive, select, and develop anti-infectives from phage display libraries and then highlight case studies of drug candidates in the process of development and commercialization. Advances in screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies now mean that phage display can make a significant contribution in the fight against clinically important pathogens. PMID:22664969

  4. Other Viruses and Viruslike Agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diseases reported under 'Virus and Virus-like Agents' in the first volume of this compendium, with the exception of Cherry rasp leaf virus and Rubus chinese seed-borne virus, should be considered oddities since there are no known type isolates available for these reported viruses. Without a po...

  5. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  6. [Anti-influenza virus agent].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeki; Kohno, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    The necessity of newly anti-influenza agents is increasing rapidly after the prevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. In addition to the existing anti-influenza drugs, novel neuraminidase inhibitors such as peramivir (a first intravenous anti-influenza agent) and laninamivir (long acting inhaled anti-influenza agent) can be available. Moreover favipiravir, which shows a novel anti-influenza mechanism acting as RNA polymerase inhibitor, has been developing. These drugs are expected to improve the prognosis of severe cases caused by not only seasonal influenza but pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus and H5N1 avian influenza, and also treat oseltamivir-resistant influenza effectively.

  7. Bacteria/virus filter membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lysaght, M. S.; Goodwin, F.; Roebelen, G.

    1977-01-01

    Hollow acrylate fiber membrane that filters bacterial and viral organisms can be used with closed-cycle life-support systems for underwater habitations or laboratories. Membrane also has applications in fields of medicine, gnotobiotics, pharmaceutical production, and industries and research facilities that require sterile water. Device eliminates need for strong chemicals or sterilizing agents, thereby reducing costs.

  8. Physical mode of bacteria and virus coevolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Pu; Niestemski, Liang; Deem, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Single-cell hosts such as bacteria or archaea possess an adaptive, heritable immune system that protects them from viral invasion. This system, known as the CRISPR-Cas system, allows the host to recognize and incorporate short foreign DNA or RNA sequences from viruses or plasmids. The sequences form what are called ``spacers'' in the CRISPR. Spacers in the CRISPR loci provide a record of the host and predator coevolution history. We develop a physical model to study the dynamics of this coevolution due to immune pressure. Hosts and viruses reproduce, die, and evolve due to viral infection pressure, host immune pressure, and mutation. We will discuss the differing effects of point mutation and recombination on CRISPR evolution. We will also discuss the effect of different spacer deletion mechanisms. We will describe population structure of hosts and viruses, how spacer diversity depends on position within CRISPR, and match of the CRISPR spacers to the virus population.

  9. Co-electrospinning of bacteria and viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salalha, Wael; Kuhn, Jonathan; Chervinsky, Shmuel; Zussman, Eyal

    2006-03-01

    Co-electrospinning provides a novel and highly versatile approach towards composite fibers with diameters ranging from a few hundred nm down to 30 nm with embedded elements. In the present work, co-electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and viruses (T7, T4, λ) or bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) was carried out. These preparations should have applications for tissue engineering, gene therapy, phage therapy and biosensing. The average diameter of the co-spun nanofibers was about 300 nm. We found that the encapsulated viruses and bacteria manage to survive the electrospinning process, its pressure buildup in the core of the fiber and the electrostatic field in the co-electrospinning process. Approximately 10% of the Escherichia coli and 20% of Staphylococcus albus cells are viable after spinning. Approximately 5% of the bacterial viruses were also viable after the electrospinning. It should be noted that the encapsulated cells and viruses remain stable for two months without a further decrease in number. These results demonstrate the potential of the co-electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of bio-objects and the possibility of adapting them to technical applications (e.g., bio-chips).

  10. Ectromelia virus: the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Esteban, David J; Buller, R Mark L

    2005-10-01

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus whose natural host is the mouse; it is related closely to Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, and Monkeypox virus, the cause of an emerging zoonosis. The recent sequencing of its genome, along with an effective animal model, makes ECTV an attractive model for the study of poxvirus pathogenesis, antiviral and vaccine testing and viral immune and inflammatory responses. This review discusses the pathogenesis of mousepox, modulation of the immune response by the virus and the cytokine and cellular components of the skin and systemic immune system that are critical to recovery from infection.

  11. Freeing Water from Viruses and Bacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Four years ago, Argonide Corporation, a company focused on the research, production, and marketing of specialty nano materials, was seeking to develop applications for its NanoCeram[R] fibers. Only 2 nanometers in diameter, these nano aluminum oxide fibers possessed unusual bio-adhesive properties. When formulated into a filter material, the electropositive fibers attracted and retained electro-negative particles such as bacteria and viruses in water-based solutions. This technology caught the interest of NASA as a possible solution for improved water filtration in space cabins. NASA's Johnson Space Center awarded Sanford, Florida-based Argonide a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to determine the feasibility of using the company's filter for purifying recycled space cabin water. Since viruses and bacteria can be carried aboard space cabins by space crews, the ability to detect and remove these harmful substances is a concern for NASA. The Space Agency also desired an improved filter to polish the effluent from condensed and waste water, producing potable drinking water. During its Phase I partnership with NASA, Argonide developed a laboratory-size filter capable of removing greater than 99.9999 percent of bacteria and viruses from water at flow rates more than 200 times faster than virus-rated membranes that remove particles by sieving. Since the new filter s pore size is rather large compared to other membranes, it is also less susceptible to clogging by small particles. In September 2002, Argonide began a Phase II SBIR project with Johnson to develop a full-size cartridge capable of serving a full space crew. This effort, which is still ongoing, enabled the company to demonstrate that its filter media is an efficient absorbent for DNA and RNA.

  12. Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabacco, Mary Beth; Qian, Xiaohua; Russo, Jaimie A.

    2009-01-01

    A method of detecting water-borne pathogenic bacteria is based partly on established molecular-recognition and fluorescent-labeling concepts, according to which bacteria of a species of interest are labeled with fluorescent reporter molecules and the bacteria can then be detected by fluorescence spectroscopy. The novelty of the present method lies in the use of bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to deliver the fluorescent reporter molecules to the bacteria of the species of interest.

  13. Presence of Pathogenic Bacteria and Viruses in the Daycare Environment.

    PubMed

    Ibfelt, Tobias; Engelund, Eva Hoy; Permin, Anders; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke; Schultz, Anna Charlotte; Andersen, Leif Percival

    2015-10-01

    The number of children in daycare centers (DCCs) is rising. This increases exposure to microorganisms and infectious diseases. Little is known about which bacteria and viruses are present in the DCC environment and where they are located. In the study described in this article, the authors set out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses and to find the most contaminated fomites in DCCs. Fifteen locations in each DCC were sampled for bacteria, respiratory viruses, and gastrointestinal viruses. The locations were in the toilet, kitchen, and playroom areas and included nursery pillows, toys, and tables, among other things. Coliform bacteria were primarily found in the toilet and kitchen areas whereas nasopharyngeal bacteria were found mostly on toys and fabric surfaces in the playroom. Respiratory viruses were omnipresent in the DCC environment, especially on the toys.

  14. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection

    PubMed Central

    Almand, Erin A.; Moore, Matthew D.; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-01-01

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease. PMID:28335562

  15. Virus-Bacteria Interactions: An Emerging Topic in Human Infection.

    PubMed

    Almand, Erin A; Moore, Matthew D; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-03-21

    Bacteria and viruses often occupy the same niches, however, interest in their potential collaboration in promoting wellness or disease states has only recently gained traction. While the interaction of some bacteria and viruses is well characterized (e.g., influenza virus), researchers are typically more interested in the location of the infection than the manner of cooperation. There are two overarching types of bacterial-virus disease causing interactions: direct interactions that in some way aid the viruses, and indirect interactions aiding bacteria. The virus-promoting direct interactions occur when the virus exploits a bacterial component to facilitate penetration into the host cell. Conversely, indirect interactions result in increased bacterial pathogenesis as a consequence of viral infection. Enteric viruses mainly utilize the direct pathway, while respiratory viruses largely affect bacteria in an indirect fashion. This review focuses on some key examples of how virus-bacteria interactions impact the infection process across the two organ systems, and provides evidence supporting this as an emerging theme in infectious disease.

  16. [Viruses as agents inducing cutaneous neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Bravo Puccio, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The oncogenic role of viruses in cutaneous neoplasms has been known by humankind for more than a century, when the origin of the common wart, or verruca vulgaris, was attributed to the human papilloma virus (HPV). Currently, virus-induced cutaneous neoplasms may be grouped into solid tumors and lymphoproliferative disorders. HPV, from which various serotypes are now known, each being linked to a specific neoplasm, the human herpes virus type 8 producing Kaposi sarcoma, and the Merkel cell polyomavirus, highlight among the first group. Regarding the lymphoproliferative disorders, we should mention the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1), which is responsible for the T-cell lymphomas, in which the cutaneous manifestations are non-specific and have a wide spectrum, thus posing a challenge for differential diagnosis. The Epstein Barr virus, linked to nasal lymphomas of NK/T-cells and Hydroa-like cutaneous lymphomas, is also part of this group. In an era in which the genetic and molecular aspects of cancer research prevail, we may not leave behind the concept of neoplasms as a result an infection with a viral agent, which opens a wide array of new possibilities for cancer treatment based on antiviral drugs.

  17. Animal Viruses, Bacteria, and Cancer: A Brief Commentary

    PubMed Central

    Efird, Jimmy T.; Davies, Stephen W.; O’Neal, Wesley T.; Anderson, Ethan J.

    2014-01-01

    Animal viruses and bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment. However, little is known about their mode of transmission and etiologic role in human cancers, especially among high-risk groups (e.g., farmers, veterinarians, poultry plant workers, pet owners, and infants). Many factors may affect the survival, transmissibility, and carcinogenicity of these agents, depending on the animal-host environment, hygiene practices, climate, travel, herd immunity, and cultural differences in food consumption and preparation. Seasonal variations in immune function also may increase host susceptibility at certain times of the year. The lack of objective measures, inconsistent study designs, and sources of epidemiologic bias (e.g., residual confounding, recall bias, and non-randomized patient selection) are some of the factors that complicate a clear understanding of this subject. PMID:24592380

  18. Role of viruses and bacteria-virus interactions in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Steed, Ashley L; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2014-12-01

    A potential role for viral and bacterial-viral interactions in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease has been long recognized. Recently, intensive investigation has begun to decipher interactions between specific microbes with the host that contribute toward autoimmunity. This work has primarily focused on known viral and bacterial pathogens. A major challenge is to determine the role of bacteria that are typically considered as commensals as well as chronic viruses. Furthermore, equally challenging is to prove causality given the potential complexity of microbe-microbe interactions. Important initial contributions to this field have shown that specific interactions of microbes with hosts that contain a background of genetic susceptibility can play a role in autoimmune pathogenesis. In this review, we describe principles of immune tolerance with a focus on its breakdown during pathogenic as well as commensal relationships between the host and the microbial world.

  19. Susceptibility of Select Agents to Predation by Predatory Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Riccardo; Chae, Richard; Mukherjee, Somdatta; Singleton, Eric J.; Occi, James L.; Kadouri, Daniel E.; Connell, Nancy D.

    2015-01-01

    Select Agents are microorganisms and toxins considered to be exploitable as biological weapons. Although infections by many Select Agents can be treated by conventional antibiotics, the risk of an emerging or engineered drug resistant strain is of great concern. One group of microorganisms that is showing potential to control drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria are the predatory bacteria from the genera Bdellovibrio spp. and Micavibrio spp. In this study, we have examined the ability of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus (B. bacteriovorus) strain 109J, HD100 and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus (M. aeruginosavorus) ARL-13 to prey on a variety of Select Agents. Our findings demonstrate that B. bacteriovorus and M. aeruginosavorus are able to prey efficiently on Yersinia pestis and Burkholderia mallei. Modest predation was also measured in co-cultures of B. bacteriovorus and Francisella tularensis. However, neither of the predators showed predation when Burkholderia pseudomallei and Brucella melitensis were used as prey. PMID:27682124

  20. Viruses, bacteria, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates in Laptev Sea plankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, A. I.; Sazhin, A. F.; Zabotkina, E. A.; Romanenko, A. V.; Romanova, N. D.; Makarevich, P. R.; Wenger, M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The paper considers the concentrations and functional characteristics of viruses, bacteria, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates determined for the first time in the Laptev Sea in August-September, 2014. The abundance of bacteria, viruses, and heterotrophic nanoflagellates varied from 110.1 × 103 to 828.4 × 103 cells/mL, from 384.2 × 103 to 2932.8 × 103 particles/mL, and from 108 to 651 cells/mL, respectively. The daily bacterioplankton production varied from 4.2 × 103 to 381.7 × 103 cells/mL, with an average of 117.6 × 103 cells/mL. Electron transmission microscopy has for the first time shown that the frequency of visibly infected bacterial cells varied from 0.2 to 2.0% (0.8% on average) of NB. The average virus-induced mortality of bacteria was 6.3% of bacterioplankton production, with variations ranging from 1.4 to 16.9%. Grazing on bacteria by heterotrophic nanoflagellates contributed more to bacteria mortality than virus-induced bacterial lysis. By grazing on bacteria, heterotrophic nanoflagellates consumed large quantities of viruses located on the surface and inside bacterial cells.

  1. Immune defence mechanisms of triatomines against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

    PubMed

    Flores-Villegas, A L; Salazar-Schettino, P M; Córdoba-Aguilar, A; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, A E; Rojas-Wastavino, G E; Bucio-Torres, M I; Cabrera-Bravo, M

    2015-10-01

    Triatomines are vectors that transmit the protozoan haemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. The aim of the current review is to provide a synthesis of the immune mechanisms of triatomines against bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites to provide clues for areas of further research including biological control. Regarding bacteria, the triatomine immune response includes antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as defensins, lysozymes, attacins and cecropins, whose sites of synthesis are principally the fat body and haemocytes. These peptides are used against pathogenic bacteria (especially during ecdysis and feeding), and also attack symbiotic bacteria. In relation to viruses, Triatoma virus is the only one known to attack and kill triatomines. Although the immune response to this virus is unknown, we hypothesize that haemocytes, phenoloxidase (PO) and nitric oxide (NO) could be activated. Different fungal species have been described in a few triatomines and some immune components against these pathogens are PO and proPO. In relation to parasites, triatomines respond with AMPs, including PO, NO and lectin. In the case of T. cruzi this may be effective, but Trypanosoma rangeli seems to evade and suppress PO response. Although it is clear that three parasite-killing processes are used by triatomines - phagocytosis, nodule formation and encapsulation - the precise immune mechanisms of triatomines against invading agents, including trypanosomes, are as yet unknown. The signalling processes used in triatomine immune response are IMD, Toll and Jak-STAT. Based on the information compiled, we propose some lines of research that include strategic approaches of biological control.

  2. Ecology of Anti-Biofilm Agents II: Bacteriophage Exploitation and Biocontrol of Biofilm Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages are the viruses of bacteria. In the guise of phage therapy they have been used for decades to successfully treat what are probable biofilm-containing chronic bacterial infections. More recently, phage treatment or biocontrol of biofilm bacteria has been brought back to the laboratory for more rigorous assessment as well as towards the use of phages to combat environmental biofilms, ones other than those directly associated with bacterial infections. Considered in a companion article is the inherent ecological utility of bacteriophages versus antibiotics as anti-biofilm agents. Discussed here is a model for phage ecological interaction with bacteria as they may occur across biofilm-containing ecosystems. Specifically, to the extent that individual bacterial types are not highly abundant within biofilm-containing environments, then phage exploitation of those bacteria may represent a “Feast-or-famine” existence in which infection of highly localized concentrations of phage-sensitive bacteria alternate with treacherous searches by the resulting phage progeny virions for new concentrations of phage-sensitive bacteria to infect. An updated synopsis of the literature concerning laboratory testing of phage use to combat bacterial biofilms is then provided along with tips on how “Ecologically” such phage-mediated biofilm control can be modified to more reliably achieve anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:26371011

  3. Novel optical sensors for detection of toxins, viruses and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerson, Gregory D.; Sparrow, Ian J. G.; Bhatta, Devaki; SohnaSohna, Jean E.

    2008-10-01

    A novel optical sensor system for rapid, sensitive and robust biological detection is presented. Sensor elements based on integrated optical circuits confine all optical signals into a planar format, resulting in a small, low-cost and mechanically stable refractive index sensor, without any external bulk optics. Consequently, the sensor elements are able to operate in real-world environments, resilient to vibration and temperature changes, whilst maintaining refractive index resolution of 10-6. Oxide surfaces on the sensor are ideal for protein attachment and have a long lifetime in buffer solutions (>100hrs). Real-time, label-free detection of biological agents has been demonstrated using antibodies attached to the sensor surface. The sensor design results in a large penetration depth of the sensing light, up to 1μm into the sample liquid, conferring the ability to detect various classes of biological targets, spanning toxins, viruses and bacteria. Each sensing element utilizes parallel multiple wavelength data to provide additional information at the point of measurement, resulting in on-chip temperature and strain referencing, focused towards increased accuracy and reduction of false alarms. The large size range of biological detection, coupled with the long lifetime of the sensors makes the system ideally suited to applications ranging from medical diagnostics to confirmatory detectors for homeland security

  4. Fish Viruses and Bacteria: Pathobiology and Protection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weissella ceti, the causative agent of weissellosis, is a significant disease of farmed rainbow trout. Weissellosis was first described in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in China in 2007 and has since been identified as the causative agent of disease in outbreaks at commercial trout farms in bo...

  5. [The sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria to chemotherapeutic agents (Zurich, 1991)].

    PubMed

    Wüst, J; Hardegger, U

    1991-12-27

    There have been numerous reports on resistance of anaerobic bacteria against antimicrobial agents. Therefore, to assess the situation in Zurich, 187 anaerobic strains of various bacterial genera, isolated from clinical specimens during winter 1990/91, were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents active against anaerobic bacteria. Besides the Bacteroides fragilis group, which is naturally resistant against penicillin, 30% of isolates of other Bacteroides species were also resistant against penicillin. In general, anaerobes have remained susceptible to cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, imipenem, the 5-nitroimidazoles (metronidazole, ornidazole) as well as combinations of beta-lactam antibiotics with beta-lactamase inhibitors (clavulanic acid, sulbactam and tazobactam). Because rare strains resistant against cefoxitin, clindamycin and beta-lactams plus beta-lactamase inhibitors can be found, at least isolates from specific clinical situations should be tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. These are strains isolated from patients with brain abscess, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, arthritis, infected implants and prosthesis as well as those from persisting or recurrent bacteremia. Because the agar diffusion test yields unreliable results, minimal inhibitory concentration should be determined. Maybe the new 'E test' or the spiral gradient procedure can be used after evaluation.

  6. Simultaneous recovery of bacteria and viruses from contaminated water and spinach by a filtration method.

    PubMed

    Brassard, Julie; Guévremont, Évelyne; Gagné, Marie-Josée; Lamoureux, Lisyanne

    2011-01-05

    Water and leafy vegetables eaten fresh are increasingly reported as being involved in food-borne illness cases. The pathogenic agents responsible for these infections are mainly bacteria and viruses and are present in very small quantities on the contaminated food matrices. Laboratory techniques used to isolate or detect the contaminating agent differ enormously according to the type of microorganisms, generating time and economical losses. The purpose of this study was to optimize a single method which allows at the same time the recovery and concentration of these two main types of pathogenic organisms. Water and spinach samples were artificially contaminated with the feline calicivirus (FCV), rotavirus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella Typhimurium. The principle behind the recovery technique is based on the use of a positively charged membrane which adsorbs both viruses and bacteria present in the water or in the rinse from the vegetables. Using conventional microbiology, PCR and RT-PCR, this filtration technique allowed a detection level superior to 10² CFU/g for S. Typhimurium, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni and to 10¹ PFU/g for FCV, HAV and rotavirus. This combined method can also be applied to other bacterial and viral species for the identification of the responsible agent for food-borne illnesses.

  7. Zika Virus: An Emergent Neuropathological Agent

    PubMed Central

    White, Martyn K.; Wollebo, Hassen S.; Beckham, J. David; Tyler, Kenneth L.; Khalili, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has followed a pattern that is familiar from earlier epidemics of other viruses, where a new disease is introduced into a human population and then spreads rapidly with important public health consequences. In the case of Zika virus, an accumulating body of recent evidence implicates the virus in the etiology of serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that is, the occurrence of microcephaly in neonates and Guillain–Barré syndrome in adults. Zika virus is an arbovirus (arthropod-borne virus) and a member of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Zika virions are enveloped and icosahedral, and contain a nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome, which encodes 3 structural and 7 nonstructural proteins that are expressed as a single polyprotein that undergoes cleavage. Zika genomic RNA replicates in the cytoplasm of infected host cells. Zika virus was first detected in 1947 in the blood of a febrile monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest and in crushed suspensions of the Aedes mosquito, which is one of the vectors for Zika virus. The virus remained obscure, with a few human cases confined to Africa and Asia. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asian, with the Asian strain causing outbreaks in Micronesia in 2007 and French Polynesia in 2013–2014. From here, the virus spread to Brazil with the first report of autochthonous Zika transmission in the Americas in March 2015. The rapid advance of the virus in the Americas and its likely association with microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome make Zika an urgent public health concern. PMID:27464346

  8. Bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Giassi, Valdionei; Kiritani, Camila; Kupper, Katia Cristina

    2016-09-01

    The microbial community plays an essential role in maintaining the ecological balance of soils. Interactions between microorganisms and plants have a major influence on the nutrition and health of the latter, and growth-promoting rhizobacteria can be used to improve plant development through a wide range of mechanisms. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate bacteria as growth-promoting agents for citrus rootstocks. A total of 30 bacterial isolates (11 of Bacillus spp., 11 actinobacteria, and 8 lactic acid bacteria) were evaluated in vitro for indoleacetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, and nitrogen (N) fixation. In vivo testing consisted of growth promotion trials of the bacterial isolates that yielded the best results on in vitro tests with three rootstocks: Swingle citrumelo [Citrus×paradisi Macfad cv. Duncan×Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Sunki mandarin (Citrus sunki Hort. ex Tan), and rangpur (Citrus×limonia Osbeck). The parameters of interest were height, number of leaves, stem diameter, shoot and root dry mass, and total dry mass at 150days after germination. The results showed that most bacterial isolates were capable of IAA production. Only one lactic acid bacterium isolate (BL06) solubilized phosphate, with a high solubilization index (PSI>3). In the actinobacteria group, isolates ACT01 (PSI=2.09) and ACT07 (PSI=2.01) exhibited moderate phosphate-solubilizing properties. Of the Bacillus spp. isolates, only CPMO6 and BM17 solubilized phosphate. The bacterial isolates that most fixated nitrogen were BM17, ACT11, and BL24. In the present study, some bacteria were able to promote growth of citrus rootstocks; however, this response was dependent on plant genotype and isolate. Bacillus spp. BM16 and CPMO4 were able to promote growth of Swingle citrumelo. In Sunki mandarin plants, the best treatment results were obtained with BM17 (Bacillus sp.) and ACT11 (actinobacteria). For Rangpur lime rootstock, only BM05 (Bacillus sp

  9. Recombinant mumps virus as a cancer therapeutic agent

    PubMed Central

    Ammayappan, Arun; Russell, Stephen J; Federspiel, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Mumps virus belongs to the family of Paramyxoviridae and has the potential to be an oncolytic agent. Mumps virus Urabe strain had been tested in the clinical setting as a treatment for human cancer four decades ago in Japan. These clinical studies demonstrated that mumps virus could be a promising cancer therapeutic agent that showed significant antitumor activity against various types of cancers. Since oncolytic virotherapy was not in the limelight until the beginning of the 21st century, the interest to pursue mumps virus for cancer treatment slowly faded away. Recent success stories of oncolytic clinical trials prompted us to resurrect the mumps virus and to explore its potential for cancer treatment. We have obtained the Urabe strain of mumps virus from Osaka University, Japan, which was used in the earlier human clinical trials. In this report we describe the development of a reverse genetics system from a major isolate of this Urabe strain mumps virus stock, and the construction and characterization of several recombinant mumps viruses with additional transgenes. We present initial data demonstrating these recombinant mumps viruses have oncolytic activity against tumor cell lines in vitro and some efficacy in preliminary pilot animal tumor models. PMID:27556105

  10. Respiratory Viruses and Bacteria among Pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj

    PubMed Central

    Benkouiten, Samir; Charrel, Rémi; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Drali, Tassadit; Nougairede, Antoine; Salez, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A.; al Masri, Malak; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe; Parola, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Pilgrims returning from the Hajj might contribute to international spreading of respiratory pathogens. Nasal and throat swab specimens were obtained from 129 pilgrims in 2013 before they departed from France and before they left Saudi Arabia, and tested by PCR for respiratory viruses and bacteria. Overall, 21.5% and 38.8% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for ≥1 virus (p = 0.003). One third (29.8%) of the participants acquired ≥1 virus, particularly rhinovirus (14.0%), coronavirus E229 (12.4%), and influenza A(H3N2) virus (6.2%) while in Saudi Arabia. None of the participants were positive for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In addition, 50.0% and 62.0% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.053). One third (36.3%) of the participants had acquired S. pneumoniae during their stay. Our results confirm high acquisition rates of rhinovirus and S. pneumoniae in pilgrims and highlight the acquisition of coronavirus E229. PMID:25341199

  11. Respiratory viruses and bacteria among pilgrims during the 2013 Hajj.

    PubMed

    Benkouiten, Samir; Charrel, Rémi; Belhouchat, Khadidja; Drali, Tassadit; Nougairede, Antoine; Salez, Nicolas; Memish, Ziad A; Al Masri, Malak; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Brouqui, Philippe; Parola, Philippe; Gautret, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Pilgrims returning from the Hajj might contribute to international spreading of respiratory pathogens. Nasal and throat swab specimens were obtained from 129 pilgrims in 2013 before they departed from France and before they left Saudi Arabia, and tested by PCR for respiratory viruses and bacteria. Overall, 21.5% and 38.8% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for ≥1 virus (p = 0.003). One third (29.8%) of the participants acquired ≥1 virus, particularly rhinovirus (14.0%), coronavirus E229 (12.4%), and influenza A(H3N2) virus (6.2%) while in Saudi Arabia. None of the participants were positive for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. In addition, 50.0% and 62.0% of pre-Hajj and post-Hajj specimens, respectively, were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae (p = 0.053). One third (36.3%) of the participants had acquired S. pneumoniae during their stay. Our results confirm high acquisition rates of rhinovirus and S. pneumoniae in pilgrims and highlight the acquisition of coronavirus E229.

  12. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies.

  13. Halobacteriovorax, an underestimated predator on bacteria: potential impact relative to viruses on bacterial mortality.

    PubMed

    Williams, Henry N; Lymperopoulou, Despoina S; Athar, Rana; Chauhan, Ashvini; Dickerson, Tamar L; Chen, Huan; Laws, Edward; Berhane, Timkhite-Kulu; Flowers, Adrienne R; Bradley, Nadine; Young, Shanterial; Blackwood, Denene; Murray, Jacqueline; Mustapha, Oladipupo; Blackwell, Cory; Tung, Yahsuan; Noble, Rachel T

    2016-02-01

    Predation on bacteria and accompanying mortality are important mechanisms in controlling bacterial populations and recycling of nutrients through the microbial loop. The agents most investigated and seen as responsible for bacterial mortality are viruses and protists. However, a body of evidence suggests that predatory bacteria such as the Halobacteriovorax (formerly Bacteriovorax), a Bdellovibrio-like organism, contribute substantially to bacterial death. Until now, conclusive evidence has been lacking. The goal of this study was to better understand the contributors to bacterial mortality by addressing the poorly understood role of Halobacteriovorax and how their role compares with that of viruses. The results revealed that when a concentrated suspension of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was added into microcosms of estuarine waters, the native Halobacteriovorax were the predators that responded first and most rapidly. Their numbers increased by four orders of magnitude, whereas V. parahaemolyticus prey numbers decreased by three orders of magnitude. In contrast, the extant virus population showed little increase and produced little change in the prey density. An independent experiment with stable isotope probing confirmed that Halobacteriovorax were the predators primarily responsible for the mortality of the V. parahaemolyticus. The results show that Halobacteriovorax have the potential to be significant contributors to bacterial mortality, and in such cases, predation by Halobacteriovorax may be an important mechanism of nutrient recycling. These conclusions add another dimension to bacterial mortality and the recycling of nutrients.

  14. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review.

    PubMed

    Harding, Dylan P; Raizada, Manish N

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested.

  15. Controlling weeds with fungi, bacteria and viruses: a review

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Dylan P.; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Weeds are a nuisance in a variety of land uses. The increasing prevalence of both herbicide resistant weeds and bans on cosmetic pesticide use has created a strong impetus to develop novel strategies for controlling weeds. The application of bacteria, fungi and viruses to achieving this goal has received increasingly great attention over the last three decades. Proposed benefits to this strategy include reduced environmental impact, increased target specificity, reduced development costs compared to conventional herbicides and the identification of novel herbicidal mechanisms. This review focuses on examples from North America. Among fungi, the prominent genera to receive attention as bioherbicide candidates include Colletotrichum, Phoma, and Sclerotinia. Among bacteria, Xanthomonas and Pseudomonas share this distinction. The available reports on the application of viruses to controlling weeds are also reviewed. Focus is given to the phytotoxic mechanisms associated with bioherbicide candidates. Achieving consistent suppression of weeds in field conditions is a common challenge to this control strategy, as the efficacy of a bioherbicide candidate is generally more sensitive to environmental variation than a conventional herbicide. Common themes and lessons emerging from the available literature in regard to this challenge are presented. Additionally, future directions for this crop protection strategy are suggested. PMID:26379687

  16. Vaccinia virus, a promising new therapeutic agent for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yaghchi, Chadwan Al; Zhang, Zhongxian; Alusi, Ghassan; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Wang, Yaohe

    2015-01-01

    The poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer patients signifies a need for radically new therapeutic strategies. Tumor-targeted oncolytic viruses have emerged as attractive therapeutic candidates for cancer treatment due to their inherent ability to specifically target and lyse tumor cells as well as induce antitumor effects by multiple action mechanisms. Vaccinia virus has several inherent features that make it particularly suitable for use as an oncolytic agent. In this review, we will discuss the potential of vaccinia virus in the management of pancreatic cancer in light of our increased understanding of cellular and immunological mechanisms involved in the disease process as well as our extending knowledge in the biology of vaccinia virus. PMID:26595180

  17. TT virus (TTV)--etiologic agent of acute hepatitis?

    PubMed

    Tomasiewicz, Krzysztof; Modrzewska, Roma; Lyczak, Anna; Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata; Rajtar, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    TT virus (TTV) was first isolated in 1997 from the patient with acute posttransfusion hepatitis. This fact led to the conclusion the virus was hepatotropic and could be considered as one of causative agents of acute hepatitis. However, later it was found in other human tissues and serological studies have revealed it is widespread. Multiple tropisms of TTV and the fact the virus is found in high rate of general population, are considered arguments for lack of medical significance of TTV in human pathology. Here we present a report of two cases of acute viral hepatitis in patients hospitalized at the Department of Infectious Diseases, Medical University of Lublin, in whom TTV-DNA was found in serum and serological and virological markers of common primary and secondary hepatotropic viruses were negative. The cases of acute hepatitis we present here should be treated as a preliminary report and the comment in the discussion about the real role of TTV in human pathology.

  18. Counting viruses and bacteria in photosynthetic microbial mats.

    PubMed

    Carreira, Cátia; Staal, Marc; Middelboe, Mathias; Brussaard, Corina P D

    2015-03-01

    Viral abundances in benthic environments are the highest found in aquatic systems. Photosynthetic microbial mats represent benthic environments with high microbial activity and possibly high viral densities, yet viral abundances have not been examined in such systems. Existing extraction procedures typically used in benthic viral ecology were applied to the complex matrix of microbial mats but were found to inefficiently extract viruses. Here, we present a method for extraction and quantification of viruses from photosynthetic microbial mats using epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) and flow cytometry (FCM). A combination of EDTA addition, probe sonication, and enzyme treatment applied to a glutaraldehyde-fixed sample resulted in a substantially higher viral (5- to 33-fold) extraction efficiency and reduced background noise compared to previously published methods. Using this method, it was found that in general, intertidal photosynthetic microbial mats harbor very high viral abundances (2.8 × 10(10) ± 0.3 × 10(10) g(-1)) compared with benthic habitats (10(7) to 10(9) g(-1)). This procedure also showed 4.5- and 4-fold-increased efficacies of extraction of viruses and bacteria, respectively, from intertidal sediments, allowing a single method to be used for the microbial mat and underlying sediment.

  19. The influence of commensal bacteria on infection with enteric viruses

    PubMed Central

    Karst, Stephanie M.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota exerts a marked influence in the mammalian host, both during homeostasis and disease. However, until very recently, there has been relatively little focus on the potential effect of commensal microorganisms on viral infection of the intestinal tract. In this Progress article, I review the recent advances that elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric viruses use commensal bacteria to enhance viral infectivity. These mechanisms segregate into two general categories: the direct facilitation of viral infection, including bacterial stabilization of viral particles and the facilitation of viral attachment to host target cells; and the indirect skewing of the antiviral immune response in a manner that promotes viral infection. Finally, I discuss the implications of these interactions for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26853118

  20. The influence of commensal bacteria on infection with enteric viruses.

    PubMed

    Karst, Stephanie M

    2016-04-01

    The intestinal microbiota exerts a marked influence in the mammalian host, both during homeostasis and disease. However, until very recently, there has been relatively little focus on the potential effect of commensal microorganisms on viral infection of the intestinal tract. In this Progress article, I review the recent advances that elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric viruses use commensal bacteria to enhance viral infectivity. These mechanisms segregate into two general categories: the direct facilitation of viral infection, including bacterial stabilization of viral particles and the facilitation of viral attachment to host target cells; and the indirect skewing of the antiviral immune response in a manner that promotes viral infection. Finally, I discuss the implications of these interactions for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutic approaches.

  1. Application of protein arraytubes to bacteria, toxin, and biological warfare agent detection.

    PubMed

    Ehricht, Ralf; Adelhelm, Karin; Monecke, Stefan; Huelseweh, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Microarray technology enables the fast and parallel analysis of a multitude of biologically relevant parameters. Not only nucleic acid-based tests, but also peptide, antigen, and antibody assays using different formats of microarrays evolved within the last decade. They offer the possibility to measure interactions in a miniaturised, economic, automated, and qualitative or quantitative way providing insights into the cellular machinery of diverse organisms. Examples of applications in research and diagnostics are, e.g., O-typing of pathogenic Escherichia coli, detection of bacterial toxins and other biological warfare agents (BW agents) from a variety of different samples, screening of complex antibody libraries, and epitope mapping. Conventional O- and H-serotyping methods can now be substituted by procedures applying DNA oligonucleotide and antibody-based microarrays. For simultaneous and sensitive detection of BW agents microarray-based tests are available, which include not only relevant viruses and bacteria, but also toxins. This application is not only restricted to the security and military sector but it can also be used in the fields of medical diagnostics or public health to detect, e.g., staphylococcal enterotoxins in food or clinical samples. Furthermore, the same technology could be used to detect antibodies against enterotoxins in human sera using a competitive assay. Protein and peptide microarrays can also be used for characterisation of antibodies. On one hand, peptide microarrays allow detailed epitope mapping. On the other hand, a set of different antibodies recognising the same antigen can be spotted as a microarray and labelled as detection antibodies. This approach makes it possible to test every combination, allowing to find the optimal pair of detection/capture antibody.

  2. Fractal Self-Organization of Bacteria-Inspired Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yufeng; Krumanocker, Ian; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2012-06-01

    We develop an agent-based model as a preliminary theoretical basis to guide the synthesis of a new class of materials with dynamic properties similar to bacterial colonies. Each agent in the model is representative of an individual bacterium capable of: the uptake of chemicals (nutrients), which are metabolized; active movement (part viscous, part diffusive), consuming metabolic energy; and cellular division, when agents have doubled in size. The agents grow in number and self-organize into fractal structures, depending on the rules that define the actions of the agents and the parameter values. The environment of the agents includes chemicals responsible for their growth and is described by a diffusion-reaction equation with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. These rules are modeled mathematically by a set of equations with five dimensionless groups that are functions of physical parameters. Simulations are performed for different parameter values. The resulting structures are characterized by their fractal scaling regime, box-counting and mass-radius dimensions, and lacunarity. Each parameter influences the overall structure in a unique way, generating a wide spectrum of structures. For certain combinations of parameter values, the model converges to a steady state, with a finite population of agents that no longer divide.

  3. RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing of northern California (USA) mosquitoes uncovers viruses, bacteria, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Chandler, James Angus; Liu, Rachel M; Bennett, Shannon N

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes, most often recognized for the microbial agents of disease they may carry, harbor diverse microbial communities that include viruses, bacteria, and fungi, collectively called the microbiota. The composition of the microbiota can directly and indirectly affect disease transmission through microbial interactions that could be revealed by its characterization in natural populations of mosquitoes. Furthermore, the use of shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS) approaches could allow the discovery of unknown members of the microbiota. In this study, we use RNA SMS to characterize the microbiota of seven individual mosquitoes (species include Culex pipiens, Culiseta incidens, and Ochlerotatus sierrensis) collected from a variety of habitats in California, USA. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform and the resulting sequences were quality-checked and assembled into contigs using the A5 pipeline. Sequences related to single stranded RNA viruses of the Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae were uncovered, along with an unclassified genus of double-stranded RNA viruses. Phylogenetic analysis finds that in all three cases, the closest relatives of the identified viral sequences are other mosquito-associated viruses, suggesting widespread host-group specificity among disparate viral taxa. Interestingly, we identified a Narnavirus of fungi, also reported elsewhere in mosquitoes, that potentially demonstrates a nested host-parasite association between virus, fungi, and mosquito. Sequences related to 8 bacterial families and 13 fungal families were found across the seven samples. Bacillus and Escherichia/Shigella were identified in all samples and Wolbachia was identified in all Cx. pipiens samples, while no single fungal genus was found in more than two samples. This study exemplifies the utility of RNA SMS in the characterization of the natural microbiota of mosquitoes and, in particular, the value of identifying all microbes associated with a specific host.

  4. RNA shotgun metagenomic sequencing of northern California (USA) mosquitoes uncovers viruses, bacteria, and fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, James Angus; Liu, Rachel M.; Bennett, Shannon N.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquitoes, most often recognized for the microbial agents of disease they may carry, harbor diverse microbial communities that include viruses, bacteria, and fungi, collectively called the microbiota. The composition of the microbiota can directly and indirectly affect disease transmission through microbial interactions that could be revealed by its characterization in natural populations of mosquitoes. Furthermore, the use of shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS) approaches could allow the discovery of unknown members of the microbiota. In this study, we use RNA SMS to characterize the microbiota of seven individual mosquitoes (species include Culex pipiens, Culiseta incidens, and Ochlerotatus sierrensis) collected from a variety of habitats in California, USA. Sequencing was performed on the Illumina HiSeq platform and the resulting sequences were quality-checked and assembled into contigs using the A5 pipeline. Sequences related to single stranded RNA viruses of the Bunyaviridae and Rhabdoviridae were uncovered, along with an unclassified genus of double-stranded RNA viruses. Phylogenetic analysis finds that in all three cases, the closest relatives of the identified viral sequences are other mosquito-associated viruses, suggesting widespread host-group specificity among disparate viral taxa. Interestingly, we identified a Narnavirus of fungi, also reported elsewhere in mosquitoes, that potentially demonstrates a nested host-parasite association between virus, fungi, and mosquito. Sequences related to 8 bacterial families and 13 fungal families were found across the seven samples. Bacillus and Escherichia/Shigella were identified in all samples and Wolbachia was identified in all Cx. pipiens samples, while no single fungal genus was found in more than two samples. This study exemplifies the utility of RNA SMS in the characterization of the natural microbiota of mosquitoes and, in particular, the value of identifying all microbes associated with a specific host

  5. Smart Swarms of Bacteria-Inspired Agents with Performance Adaptable Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shklarsh, Adi; Ariel, Gil; Schneidman, Elad; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2011-01-01

    Collective navigation and swarming have been studied in animal groups, such as fish schools, bird flocks, bacteria, and slime molds. Computer modeling has shown that collective behavior of simple agents can result from simple interactions between the agents, which include short range repulsion, intermediate range alignment, and long range attraction. Here we study collective navigation of bacteria-inspired smart agents in complex terrains, with adaptive interactions that depend on performance. More specifically, each agent adjusts its interactions with the other agents according to its local environment – by decreasing the peers' influence while navigating in a beneficial direction, and increasing it otherwise. We show that inclusion of such performance dependent adaptable interactions significantly improves the collective swarming performance, leading to highly efficient navigation, especially in complex terrains. Notably, to afford such adaptable interactions, each modeled agent requires only simple computational capabilities with short-term memory, which can easily be implemented in simple swarming robots. PMID:21980274

  6. Copper as an antimicrobial agent against opportunistic pathogenic and multidrug resistant Enterobacter bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wen-Xiao; Yu, Shi; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Almonaofy, Abdul Wareth; He, Liu; Hui, Qiu; Bo, Zhu; Li, Bin; Xie, Guan-Lin

    2012-08-01

    Infections by Enterobacter species are common and are multidrug resistant. The use of bactericidal surface materials such as copper has lately gained attention as an effective antimicrobial agent due to its deadly effects on bacteria, yeast, and viruses. The aim of the current study was to assess the antibacterial activity of copper surfaces against Enterobacter species. The antibacterial activity of copper surfaces was tested by overlying 5×10(6) CFU/ml suspensions of representative Enterobacter strains and comparing bacterial survival counts on copper surfaces at room temperature. Iron, stainless steel, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were used as controls. The mechanisms responsible for bacterial killing on copper surfaces were investigated by a mutagenicity assay of the D-cycloserin (cyclA gene), single cell gel electrophoresis, a staining technique, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Copper yielded a significant decrease in the viable bacterial counts at 2 h exposure and a highly significant decrease at 4 h. Loss of cell integrity and a significantly higher influx of copper into bacterial cells exposed to copper surfaces, as compared to those exposed to the controls, were documented. There was no increase in mutation rate and DNA damage indicating that copper contributes to bacterial killing by adversely affecting cellular structure without directly targeting the genomic DNA. These findings suggest that copper's antibacterial activity against Enterobacter species could be utilized in health care facilities and in food processing plants to reduce the bioburden, which would increase protection for susceptible members of the community.

  7. Insights into Newer Antimicrobial Agents Against Gram-negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Kaur, Harsimran

    2016-01-01

    Currently, drug resistance, especially against cephalosporins and carbapenems, among gram-negative bacteria is an important challenge, which is further enhanced by the limited availability of drugs against these bugs. There are certain antibiotics (colistin, fosfomycin, temocillin, and rifampicin) that have been revived from the past to tackle the menace of superbugs, including members of Enterobacteriaceae, Acinetobacter species, and Pseudomonas species. Very few newer antibiotics have been added to the pool of existing drugs. There are still many antibiotics that are passing through various phases of clinical trials. The initiative of Infectious Disease Society of America to develop 10 novel antibiotics against gram-negative bacilli by 2020 is a step to fill the gap of limited availability of drugs. This review aims to provide insights into the current and newer drugs in pipeline for the treatment of gram-negative bacteria and also discusses the major challenging issues for their management. PMID:27013887

  8. Physical collection efficiency of filter materials for bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Burton, Nancy Clark; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical collection efficiency of commercially available filters for collecting airborne bacteria, viruses, and other particles in the 10-900 nm (nanometer) size range. Laboratory experiments with various polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polycarbonate (PC) and gelatin filters in conjunction with Button Inhalable samplers and three-piece cassettes were undertaken. Both biological and non-biological test aerosols were used: Bacillus atrophaeus, MS2, polystyrene latex (PSL), and sodium chloride (NaCl). The B.atrophaeus endospores had an aerodynamic diameter of 900 nm, whereas MS2 virion particles ranged from 10 to 80 nm. Monodisperse 350 nm PSL particles were used as this size was believed to have the lowest filtration efficiency. NaCl solution (1% weight by volume) was used to create a polydisperse aerosol in the 10-600 nm range. The physical collection efficiency was determined by measuring particle concentrations size-selectively upstream and downstream of the filters. The PTFE and gelatin filters showed excellent collection efficiency (>93%) for all of the test particles. The PC filters showed lower collection efficiency for small particles especially <100 nm. Among the tested filters, the lowest collection efficiencies, 49 and 22%, were observed for 1 and 3-microm pore size PC filters at the particle sizes of 47 and 63 nm, respectively. The results indicate that the effect of filter material is more significant for the size range of single virions than for bacteria. The effect of filter loading was examined by exposing filters to mixtures of PSL particles, which aimed at mimicking typical indoor dust levels and size distributions. A 4-h loading did not cause significant change in the physical collection efficiency of the tested filters.

  9. Biological Warfare Agents, Toxins, Vectors and Pests as Biological Terrorism Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    virus Omsk fever virus Human pathogens ( bacteria , rickettsiae , protozoa and fungi) as biological terrorism agents: Bacteria / Rickettsia 1...Bacillus anthracis 2. Yersinia pestis 3. Francisella tularensis 4. Rickettsia prowazekii 5. Rickettsia rickettsii 6. Bulkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei...assessment according to criteria for selecting pathogens as biological terrorism agents. Table 1b. Human pathogens ( bacteria , rickettsiae , protozoa

  10. Distribution of drug-resistant bacteria and rational use of clinical antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenliang; Chen, Xiaobing; Wu, Liwen; Qu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    Open wound may lead to infection in patients. Due to overuse of medication, certain bacteria have become resistant to drugs currently available. The aim of the present study was to provide a guide to ameliorate the appropriate and rational use of clinical antimicrobial agents by analyzing the distribution of drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria in patients. Between October 2013 and January 2015, 126 patients were selected at the Department of Orthopedics. Wound secretion samples were collected, and the pathogen bacteria isolated and identified. Identification was performed using an automated identification instrument and the Kirby-Bauer antibiotic method was used to evaluate the bacterial resistance. Of the 126 patients, 118 patients were infected (infection rate, 93.65%). Additionally, 47 strains of gram-positive pathogenic bacteria (39.83%) and 71 strains of pathogenic-gram negative bacteria (60.17%) were identified. The bacteria were most likely to be resistant to penicillin while sensitive to vancomycin and imipenem. Some bacteria were resistant to several antibacterial agents. The results showed that existing risk factors at the Department of Orthopedics were complex and any non-standard procedures were able to cause bacterial infection. There were obvious dissimilarities among infectious bacteria with regard to their sensitivity to various antibacterial agents. Manipulation techniques during the treatment process were performed in a sterile manner and the use of antibacterial agents was required to be strictly in accordance with the results of drug sensitivity tests to provide effective etiologic information and a treatment plan for clinical trials and to reduce the risk of infection by multi-resistant bacteria.

  11. Effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blatchley, E. R.; Gong, W.-L.; Alleman, J.E.; Rose, J.B.; Huffman, D.E.; Otaki, M.; Lisle, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater disinfection is practiced with the goal of reducing risks of human exposure to pathogenic microorganisms. In most circumstances, the efficacy of a wastewater disinfection process is regulated and monitored based on measurements of the responses of indicator bacteria. However, inactivation of indicator bacteria does not guarantee an acceptable degree of inactivation among other waterborne microorganisms (e.g., microbial pathogens). Undisinfected effluent samples from several municipal wastewater treatment facilities were collected for analysis. Facilities were selected to provide a broad spectrum of effluent quality, particularly as related to nitrogenous compounds. Samples were subjected to bench-scale chlorination and dechlorination and UV irradiation under conditions that allowed compliance with relevant discharge regulations and such that disinfectant exposures could be accurately quantified. Disinfected samples were subjected to a battery of assays to assess the immediate and long-term effects of wastewater disinfection on waterborne bacteria and viruses. In general, (viable) bacterial populations showed an immediate decline as a result of disinfectant exposure; however, incubation of disinfected samples under conditions that were designed to mimic the conditions in a receiving stream resulted in substantial recovery of the total bacterial community. The bacterial groups that are commonly used as indicators do not provide an accurate representation of the response of the bacterial community to disinfectant exposure and subsequent recovery in the environment. UV irradiation and chlorination/dechlorination both accomplished measurable inactivation of indigenous phage; however, the extent of inactivation was fairly modest under the conditions of disinfection used in this study. UV irradiation was consistently more effective as a virucide than chlorination/dechlorination under the conditions of application, based on measurements of virus (phage

  12. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    PubMed

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome.

  13. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy from bacteria subjected to bactericidal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Siddique, Masood; Savage, Howard E.; Shah, Mahendra; Rosen, Richard; Alfano, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The time-resolved and steady-state changes in fluorescence were investigated from one spore-forming (Bacillus subtilis) and four non-spore forming (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria subjected to different bactericidal agents. The bactericidal agents were sodium hypochlorite (bleach) hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and UV light exposure. Application of sodium hypochlorite resulted in an almost total lose of fluorescence signal and large decrease in the optical density of the bacterial suspension. Addition of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a 35% decrease in emission intensity fom the Sa and an 85-95% decrease for the other bacteria. Ultraviolet light exposure resulted in a 5-35% decrease in the emission intensity of the tryptophan band. The addition of formaldehyde to the bacteria did not result in significant changes in the steady-state emission intensity, but did shift the tryptophan emission peak position to shorter wavelengths by 3 to 5 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that the fluorescence lifetime of tryptophan in the bacteria could not be described by a single exponential decay, and was similar to that of tryptophan in neutral aqueous solution. Upon addition of formaldehyde to the Gram positive bacteria (Bs and Sa) the strength of the short lifetime component increased dramatically, while for the Gram negative bacteria, a smaller increase was observed. These fluorescence changes reflect the different mechanisms of the bactericidal agents and may provide a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of disinfectants.

  14. Viruses and bacteria in sputum samples of children with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Honkinen, M; Lahti, E; Österback, R; Ruuskanen, O; Waris, M

    2012-03-01

    Few comprehensive studies have searched for viruses and bacteria in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We identified 76 children hospitalized for pneumonia. Induced sputum samples were analysed for 18 viruses by antigen detection and PCR, and for six bacteria by culture and PCR. Viruses were found in 72% of samples, bacteria in 91%, and both in 66%. Rhinovirus (30%), human bocavirus (18%) and human metapneumovirus (14%) were the most commonly detected viruses. Two viruses were found in 22% of samples and three in 8%. The most common bacteria found were Streptococcus pneumoniae (50%), Haemophilus influenzae (38%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (28%). Rhinovirus-S. pneumoniae was the most commonly found combination of virus and bacterium (16%). All six children with treatment failure had both viruses and bacteria detected in the sputum. Otherwise, we found no special clinical characteristics in those with mixed viral-bacterial detections. With modern molecular diagnostic techniques, there are high rates of both viral and bacterial identification in childhood CAP. The clinical significance of mixed viral-bacterial infections remains unclear, although we found a potential association between them and treatment failure.

  15. Surfactant-modified zeolite can protect drinking water wells from viruses and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Pillai, Suresh D.; Guan, Huade; Bowman, Robert; Couroux, Emile; Hielscher, Frank; Totten, James; Espinosa, Isabell Y.; Kretzschmar, Thomas

    Septic tanks, sewage effluents, and landfills can release microbial pathogens into groundwater. This problem is amplified in the so-called colonias along the U.S.-Mexico border and other low-income areas around the world that have no public sewage systems. The result is often outbreaks of groundwater-associated disease for which enteric viruses and bacteria, spread via a fecal-oral route, are responsible. However, due to difficulties and limitations in detection and surveillance of disease outbreaks, the causative agents for more than 50% of the outbreaks are unknown, though the clinical features suggest a viral etiology for most of those cases [U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993]. Enteric pathogens such as E coli 0157:H7, Campylobacter, Enteroviruses, Hepatitis A virus, and caliciviruses have been responsible for groundwater-related microbial infections in humans. Inexpensive solutions to this problem are urgently needed. The recent threat of bio-terrorism and concerns about the safety of drinking water supplies further add to that urgency.

  16. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater - results, quality control, and interpretation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes large enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bac...

  17. Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons. [on cells of mammals, bacteria and viruses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, N. I.; Vorozhtsova, S. V.; Krasavin, Y. A.; Mashinskaya, T. Y.; Savchenko, N. Y.; Fedorov, B. S.; Khlaponina, V. F.; Shelegedin, V. N.; Gut, L.; Sabo, L.

    1974-01-01

    Radiobiological effects of heavy ions and protons are studied on cells of mammals, bacteria, viruses and DNA of bacteria. Results show that the dose effect dependence bears an exponential character; the reduction of RBE as LET of particle increases reflects the different character of microdistribution of absorbed energy in biological objects with different levels of biological organization.

  18. Structural overview of toxin-antitoxin systems in infectious bacteria: a target for developing antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jean; Son, Woo Sung; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2013-06-01

    The bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) system is a module that may play a role in cell survival under stress conditions. Generally, toxin molecules act as negative regulators in cell survival and antitoxin molecules as positive regulators. Thus, the expression levels and interactions between toxins and antitoxins should be systematically harmonized so that bacteria can escape such harmful conditions. Since TA systems are able to control the fate of bacteria, they are considered potent targets for the development of new antimicrobial agents. TA systems are widely prevalent with a variety of systems existing in bacteria: there are three types of bacterial TA systems depending on the property of the antitoxin which binds either the protein toxin or mRNA coding the toxin protein. Moreover, the multiplicity of TA genes has been observed even in species of bacteria. Therefore, knowledge on TA systems such as the individual characteristics of TA systems, integrative working mechanisms of various TA systems in bacteria, interactions between toxin molecules and cellular targets, and so on is currently limited due to their complexity. In this regard, it would be helpful to know the structural characteristics of TA modules for understanding TA systems in bacteria. Until now, 85 out of the total structures deposited in PDB have been bacterial TA system proteins including TA complexes or isolated toxins/antitoxins. Here, we summarized the structural information of TA systems and analyzed the structural characteristics of known TA modules from several bacteria, especially focusing on the TA modules of several infectious bacteria.

  19. Presence of bacteria in aqueous solution influences virus adsorption on nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bingzi; Zhang, Jiabao; Jiang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Virus contamination in wastewater is usually accompanied by the existence of various bacteria. Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to efficiently remove virus. In this study, bacterial cells, supernatants, and cultures were harvested separately from three strains at the culture ages of 6 and 24 h, corresponding to the log and stationary phases, respectively. The aim is to investigate how their presence affects virus adsorption on the three Fe and Al oxide NPs (α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3-B, and Al2O3) and how these effects change with bacterial growth phase. Bacteriophage phiX174 was used as a virus model. Results showed that bacterial cells, supernatants, and cultures harvested at 6 h generally reduced virus adsorption by an average of 0.75±0.84, 7.7±9.0, and 10.3±8.6%, respectively, while those harvested at 24 h reduced virus adsorption by an average of 2.1±0.93, 21.5±6.6, and 24.6±6.9%, respectively. Among the NPs, α-Fe2O3 showed more sensitivity to bacteria than the other two, probably because of its relatively higher value of point of zero charge. It was found that cell-induced and supernatant-induced reductions were combined to achieve added results, in which the supernatants contributed much more than the cells, implying that the bacterial exudates might be more crucial in the reduced virus adsorption than the bacterial cells. These results strongly demonstrated that the bacteria-induced reduction in virus adsorption became more significant with culture age. It is suggested that studies conducted in the absence of bacteria may not accurately evaluate the potential of virus removal efficiency of the NPs in bacteria-containing environments.

  20. Potential Military Chemical/Biological Agents and Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    toxins, bioregulators, or prions. (1) Pathogens. Pathogens are disease-producing microorganisms,6 such as bacteria , rickettsiae , or viruses...disability. Potential biological antipersonnel agents include toxins, bacteria , rickettsiae , viruses, and toxins. (2) Antianimal. Biological...microorganisms such as pathogens (which include disease-causing bacteria , rickettsiae , and viruses) and toxins. NOTES: 1. See Table IV-1 (page IV-2) for the

  1. Sequential concentration of bacteria and viruses from marine waters using a dual membrane system.

    PubMed

    Abdelzaher, A M; Solo-Gabriele, H M; Wright, M E; Palmer, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ability to rapidly and effectively concentrate diverse microbes is an essential component for monitoring water quality at recreational beaches. The purpose of this study was to develop a 0.45 microm pore size dual membrane system, which can sequentially concentrate both viruses and bacteria. The top PVDF membrane was used to filter bacteria by physical straining while the bottom HA membrane retained viruses through adsorption. The recovery of this system was assessed using test organisms: enterococci and somatic coliphage. Volumes of 100 to 400 mL of unspiked and sewage-spiked beach water were filtered through both types of membranes. The PVDF membrane recovered statistically equivalent amounts of enterococci when compared to traditional membranes. All of the coliphage passed through the PVDF membrane, while 22% passed through the HA membrane. Increasing the volume from 100 to 400 mL did not significantly influence recoveries. Up to 35% of coliphage was eluted from the bottom membrane using beef extract solution. Rinsing bottom membranes with 0.5 mmol L(-1) H(2)S0(4) was found to deactivate somatic coliphage. This research demonstrates the potential of using a dual membrane adsorption system for the concentration of both bacteria and viruses from recreational beaches. A proposed bi-layer filtration system can be designed for simultaneous bacteria and virus filtration. Future experiments should focus on measurements utilizing additional bacteria and viruses.

  2. Virioplankton in the Kara Sea: The impact of viruses on mortality of heterotrophic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, A. I.; Sazhin, A. F.; Zabotkina, E. A.; Romanova, N. D.

    2015-07-01

    Studies were conducted in shallow and deepwater areas of the Kara Sea. The abundance of bacteria ( N B ) and the abundance of viruses ( N V ) ranged within (19.4-2215.1) × 103 cells/ml and (97.6-5796.8) × 103 particles/ml, respectively. The virus to bacteria ratio varied from 1.4 to 29.1. A positive correlation was found between N B and N V ( R = 0.87, n = 45, p = 0.05. Using electron transmission microscopy it was detected that the frequency of visibly infected cells of bacteria (FVIC) varied from 0.2 to 1.9% of N B . The maximum values of FVIC were recorded in the estuary of the Yenisei River. The infected cells of bacteria contained from 4 to 127 (an average of 12) phages/cell of mature viruses. Virus-mediated mortality of bacteria was 0.5% and varied from 1.4 to 16.1% of the total mortality of bacterioplankton. This indicates a minor role of viruses in the control of overabundance and production of bacterioplankton in the Kara Sea during the surveyed period.

  3. Transport and retention of bacteria and viruses in biochar-amended sand.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Salini; Torkzaban, Saeed; Bradford, Scott A; Kookana, Rai; Page, Declan; Cook, Peter G

    2016-04-01

    The transport and retention of Escherichia coli and bacteriophages (PRD1, MS2 and ФX174), as surrogates for human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, were studied in the sand that was amended with several types of biochar produced from various feedstocks. Batch and column studies were conducted to distinguish between the role of attachment and straining in microbe retention during transport. Batch experiments conducted at various solution chemistries showed negligible attachment of viruses and bacteria to biochar before or after chemical activation. At any given solution ionic strength, the attachment of viruses to sand was significantly higher than that of biochar, whereas bacteria showed no attachment to either sand or biochar. Consistent with batch results, biochar addition (10% w/w) to sand reduced virus retention in the column experiments, suggesting a potential negative impact of biochar application to soil on virus removal. In contrast, the retention of bacteria was enhanced in biochar-amended sand columns. However, elimination of the fine fraction (<60μm) of biochar particles in biochar-amended sand columns significantly reduced bacteria retention. Results from batch and column experiments suggest that land application of biochar may only play a role in microbe retention via straining, by alteration of pore size distribution, and not via attachment. Consequently, the particle size distribution of biochar and sediments is a more important factor than type of biochar in determining whether land application of biochar enhances or diminishes microbial retention.

  4. The effect of inorganic particle concentration on bacteria-virus-nanoflagellate dynamics.

    PubMed

    Salter, Ian; Böttjer, Daniela; Christaki, Urania

    2011-10-01

    The effect of inorganic particle concentrations on bacteria-virus-nanoflagellate dynamics in an oligotrophic coastal system was investigated using a model aluminosilicate, kaolinite, with a modal size of 2.1 µm. Virus-only, bacteria-only and bacteria-virus-nanoflagellate incubations were carried out at increasing kaolinite concentrations to elucidate the microbial response. The sorption of bacteria and viruses to kaolinite particles was negligible over a concentration range of 1-50 mg l(-1). In contrast, the abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates was negatively correlated with kaolinite concentrations following both 48 and 96 h incubations. Calculated nanoflagellate bacterial ingestion rates were reduced by 5-35% depending on kaolinite particle concentration. In the bacteria-virus-nanoflagellate incubations viral production increased by 56 × 10(3) to 104 × 10(3) VLPs ml(-1) h(-1) as a function of kaolinite particle concentration. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the interaction of microbial populations with inorganic particles can shift the balance between protist and virally mediated mortality of marine heterotrophic prokaryotes.

  5. Biosecurity of Select Agents and Toxins

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    ribosome inactivating proteins "* Tetrodotoxin Bacteria "* Rickettsia prowazekii "* Rickettsia rickettsii "* Yersinia pestis Fungi "* Coccidioides...CFR) 73, defines a select agent as: ... any microorganism (including, but not limited to, bacteria , viruses, fungi, rickettsiae , or protozoa), or...a substantially greater danger to the public health people of the United States and the world. Those substances (viruses, bacteria and toxins) were

  6. Airborne enteric bacteria and viruses from spray irrigation with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Teltsch, B; Katzenelson, E

    1978-02-01

    The relationship between bacterial concentrations in wastewater used for spray irrigation and in the air was examined. Aerosolized coliforms were detected when their concentration was 10(3)/ml or more in the wastewater. Relative humidity and solar irradiation appeared to affect viable bacteria in the air; a positive correlation was found between relative humidity and the number of aerosolized bacteria. The correlation between solar irradiation and bacterial level, on the other hand, was negative. During night irrigation, up to 10 times more aerosolized bacteria were detected than with day irrigation. Wind velocity did not play an important role in the survival of aerosolized bacteria. Echovirus 7 was isolated in 4 out of 12 air samples collected 40 m downwind from the sprinkler.

  7. Biomimetic strategies based on viruses and bacteria for the development of immune evasive biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Matthew T.; Bryers, James D.; Reichert, William M.

    2009-01-01

    The field of biomaterial design has begun to focus upon methods by which materials can modulate immune response. While certain approaches appear promising, they are limited to isolated facets of inflammation. It is well documented that both bacteria and viruses have highly developed methods for evading the immune system, providing impetus for a more biomimetic approach to material design. This review presents the immune evasive tactics employed by viruses and bacteria and offers suggestions for future directions in applying these principles to biomaterial design. PMID:19185345

  8. Efficient removal of pathogenic bacteria and viruses by multifunctional amine-modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Sihui; Yang, Yang; Shen, Zhiqiang; Shan, Junjun; Li, Yi; Yang, Shanshan; Zhu, Dandan

    2014-06-15

    A novel amine-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle was prepared by layer-by-layer method and used for rapid removal of both pathogenic bacteria and viruses from water. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, FT-IR, BET surface analysis, magnetic property tests and zeta-potential measurements, respectively, which demonstrated its well-defined core-shell structures and strong magnetic responsivity. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are often needed to be removed conveniently because of a lot of co-existing conditions. The amine-modified nanoparticles we prepared were attractive for capturing a wide range of pathogens including not only bacteriophage f2 and virus (Poliovirus-1), but also various bacteria such as S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella, and B. subtilis. Using as-prepared amine-functionalized MNPs as absorbent, the nonspecific removal efficiency of E. coli O157:H7 or virus was more than 97.39%, while it is only 29.8% with Fe3O4-SiO2 particles. From joint removal test of bacteria and virus, there are over 95.03% harmful E. coli O157:H7 that can be removed from mixed solution with polyclonal anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody modified nanoparticles. Moreover, the synergy effective mechanism has also been suggested.

  9. Animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spray irrigation site.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, K P; Scarpino, P V; Clark, C S

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol samples collected at the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System Number 1 spray irrigation site in Michigan by using the Army prototype XM2 Biological Sampler/Collector were examined for the presence of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria. Air samples, collected in Earle lactalbumen hydrolysate, and wastewater samples were filtered through a 0.45- and 1.2-micron membrane filter sandwich, pretreated with 10% beef extract (pH 7.0), and assayed for animal viruses by the plaque method on Buffalo green monkey kidney cells. Untreated air and wastewater samples were assayed for coliphages by the soft agar overlay method with three Escherichia coli hosts (ATCC 13706, 15597, and 11303) and for bacteria by the heterotrophic plate count method. Filtered air samples were assayed for coliphages by the most-probable-number method with the same three hosts. Although no animal viruses were detected in the aerosol samples, coliphages and bacteria were recovered. E. coli ATCC 13706 coliphage were recovered more often and in greater numbers than either of the other two types of coliphages. Concentrations of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria detected in the raw influent decreased as the wastewater was aerated and stored in the lagoons. No animal viruses were detected in the wastewater at the pump station just before distribution to the spray irrigation rigs. The most-probable-number method was more sensitive and consistent than the overlay procedure in detecting low levels of coliphages in air samples. PMID:3128164

  10. Animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spray irrigation site.

    PubMed

    Brenner, K P; Scarpino, P V; Clark, C S

    1988-02-01

    Aerosol samples collected at the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System Number 1 spray irrigation site in Michigan by using the Army prototype XM2 Biological Sampler/Collector were examined for the presence of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria. Air samples, collected in Earle lactalbumen hydrolysate, and wastewater samples were filtered through a 0.45- and 1.2-micron membrane filter sandwich, pretreated with 10% beef extract (pH 7.0), and assayed for animal viruses by the plaque method on Buffalo green monkey kidney cells. Untreated air and wastewater samples were assayed for coliphages by the soft agar overlay method with three Escherichia coli hosts (ATCC 13706, 15597, and 11303) and for bacteria by the heterotrophic plate count method. Filtered air samples were assayed for coliphages by the most-probable-number method with the same three hosts. Although no animal viruses were detected in the aerosol samples, coliphages and bacteria were recovered. E. coli ATCC 13706 coliphage were recovered more often and in greater numbers than either of the other two types of coliphages. Concentrations of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria detected in the raw influent decreased as the wastewater was aerated and stored in the lagoons. No animal viruses were detected in the wastewater at the pump station just before distribution to the spray irrigation rigs. The most-probable-number method was more sensitive and consistent than the overlay procedure in detecting low levels of coliphages in air samples.

  11. Susceptibility of various purple and green sulfur bacteria to different antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Nogales, B; Guerrero, R; Esteve, I

    1994-10-15

    Several purple and green sulfur bacteria (genera Chromatium, Thiocapsa and Chlorobium) were tested for their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents by a disc diffusion assay, using thioacetamide as a source of hydrogen sulfide for plate growth. Chlorobium limicola strains were more sensitive to amoxicillin, erythromycin and nalidixic acid, whereas gentamicin and netilmicin were more active against the purple bacteria tested. None of the organisms were sensitive to oxacillin and trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole. The critical concentrations at the edge of the inhibition zone were also calculated for three organisms and the antimicrobials colistin, mitomycin C, penicillin G, rifampicin, and streptomycin. The results obtained suggest that colistin, mitomycin C, penicillin G would provide selective conditions against the growth of Chlorobium limicola strains, while streptomycin and other aminoglycoside antibiotics would select against purple bacteria.

  12. Thiazolides as Novel Antiviral Agents: I. Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Stachulski, Andrew V.; Pidathala, Chandrakala; Row, Eleanor C.; Sharma, Raman; Berry, Neil G.; Iqbal, Mazhar; Bentley, Joanne; Allman, Sarah A.; Edwards, Geoffrey; Helm, Alison; Hellier, Jennifer; Korba, Brent E.; Semple, J. Edward; Rossignol, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    We report the syntheses and activities of a wide range of thiazolides [viz. 2-hydroxyaroyl-N-(thiazol-2-yl)amides] against hepatitis B virus replication, with QSAR analysis of our results. The prototypical thiazolide, nitazoxanide [2-hydroxybenzoyl-N-(5-nitrothiazol-2-yl)amide; NTZ] 1 is a broad spectrum antiinfective agent, effective against anaerobic bacteria, viruses and parasites. By contrast, 2-hydroxybenzoyl-N-(5-chlorothiazol-2-yl)amide 3 is a novel, potent and selective inhibitor of hepatitis B replication (EC50 = 0.33 μm) but is inactive against anaerobes. Several 4′- and 5′-substituted thiazolides show good activity against HBV; by contrast, some related salicyloylanilides show a narrower spectrum of activity. The ADME properties of 3 are similar to 1, viz. the O-acetate is an effective prodrug and the O-aryl glucuronide is a major metabolite. The QSAR study shows a good correlation of observed EC90 s for intracellular virions with thiazolide structural parameters. Finally we discuss the mechanism of action of thiazolides in relation to the present results. PMID:21553812

  13. Viruses and Bacteria in the Etiology of the Common Cold

    PubMed Central

    Mäkelä, Mika J.; Puhakka, Tuomo; Ruuskanen, Olli; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka; Kimpimäki, Marko; Blomqvist, Soile; Hyypiä, Timo; Arstila, Pertti

    1998-01-01

    Two hundred young adults with common colds were studied during a 10-month period. Virus culture, antigen detection, PCR, and serology with paired samples were used to identify the infection. Viral etiology was established for 138 of the 200 patients (69%). Rhinoviruses were detected in 105 patients, coronavirus OC43 or 229E infection was detected in 17, influenza A or B virus was detected in 12, and single infections with parainfluenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, and enterovirus were found in 14 patients. Evidence for bacterial infection was found in seven patients. Four patients had a rise in antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae, one had a rise in antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae, one had a rise in antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and one had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The results show that although approximately 50% of episodes of the common cold were caused by rhinoviruses, the etiology can vary depending on the epidemiological situation with regard to circulating viruses. Bacterial infections were rare, supporting the concept that the common cold is almost exclusively a viral disease. PMID:9466772

  14. Hrp mutant bacteria as biocontrol agents: toward a sustainable approach in the fight against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hanemian, Mathieu; Zhou, Binbin; Deslandes, Laurent; Marco, Yves; Trémousaygue, Dominique

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable agriculture necessitates development of environmentally safe methods to protect plants against pathogens. Among these methods, application of biocontrol agents has been efficiently used to minimize disease development. Here we review current understanding of mechanisms involved in biocontrol of the main Gram-phytopathogenic bacteria-induced diseases by plant inoculation with strains mutated in hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes. These mutants are able to penetrate plant tissues and to stimulate basal resistance of plants. Novel protection mechanisms involving the phytohormone abscisic acid appear to play key roles in the biocontrol of wilt disease induced by Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis thaliana. Fully understanding these mechanisms and extending the studies to other pathosystems are still required to evaluate their importance in disease protection.

  15. Spreading of infectious materials from the laser interaction zone: viruses and bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Lothar W.

    1996-12-01

    Actual occupational infections of medical staff is dominated by HBV, HIV and HCV-infections by dermal blood inoculation like needle injuries. What amount of these blood borne infections was possibly done via the aerosol pathway is unknown today. Looking at the laser generated aerodynamic particle sizes and the particle size of human pathogen viruses as circulating or cell fixed units shows common transmission abilities to the human respiratory system. In cell tissue monolayer model systems and contaminated serum systems with virus infections this mechanics were demonstrated as viable. For safety evaluation, the lifetime, spreading behavior and infection potential by viruses and bacterias of contaminated human laser aerosol must be further characterized.

  16. Engineering of bacteria for the visualization of targeted delivery of a cytolytic anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sheng-Nan; Park, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Hee Jung; Zheng, Jin Hai; Kim, Hyung-Seok; Bom, Hee-Seung; Hong, Yeongjin; Szardenings, Michael; Shin, Myung Geun; Kim, Sun-Chang; Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Choy, Hyon E; Min, Jung-Joon

    2013-11-01

    A number of recent reports have demonstrated that attenuated Salmonella typhimurium are capable of targeting both primary and metastatic tumors. The use of bacteria as a vehicle for the delivery of anticancer drugs requires a mechanism that precisely regulates and visualizes gene expression to ensure the appropriate timing and location of drug production. To integrate these functions into bacteria, we used a repressor-regulated tetracycline efflux system, in which the expression of a therapeutic gene and an imaging reporter gene were controlled by divergent promoters (tetAP and tetRP) in response to extracellular tetracycline. Attenuated S. typhimurium was transformed with the expression plasmids encoding cytolysin A, a therapeutic gene, and renilla luciferase variant 8, an imaging reporter gene, and administered intravenously to tumor-bearing mice. The engineered Salmonella successfully localized to tumor tissue and gene expression was dependent on the concentration of inducer, indicating the feasibility of peripheral control of bacterial gene expression. The bioluminescence signal permitted the localization of gene expression from the bacteria. The engineered bacteria significantly suppressed both primary and metastatic tumors and prolonged survival in mice. Therefore, engineered bacteria that carry a therapeutic and an imaging reporter gene for targeted anticancer therapy can be designed as a theranostic agent.

  17. Contrasting life strategies of viruses that infect photo- and heterotrophic bacteria, as revealed by viral tagging.

    PubMed

    Deng, Li; Gregory, Ann; Yilmaz, Suzan; Poulos, Bonnie T; Hugenholtz, Philip; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2012-10-30

    Ocean viruses are ubiquitous and abundant and play important roles in global biogeochemical cycles by means of their mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and manipulation of host metabolism. However, the obstacles involved in linking viruses to their hosts in a high-throughput manner bottlenecks our ability to understand virus-host interactions in complex communities. We have developed a method called viral tagging (VT), which combines mixtures of host cells and fluorescent viruses with flow cytometry. We investigated multiple viruses which infect each of two model marine bacteria that represent the slow-growing, photoautotrophic genus Synechococcus (Cyanobacteria) and the fast-growing, heterotrophic genus Pseudoalteromonas (Gammaproteobacteria). Overall, viral tagging results for viral infection were consistent with plaque and liquid infection assays for cyanobacterial myo-, podo- and siphoviruses and some (myo- and podoviruses) but not all (four siphoviruses) heterotrophic bacterial viruses. Virus-tagged Pseudoalteromonas organisms were proportional to the added viruses under varied infection conditions (virus-bacterium ratios), while no more than 50% of the Synechococcus organisms were virus tagged even at viral abundances that exceeded (5 to 10×) that of their hosts. Further, we found that host growth phase minimally impacts the fraction of virus-tagged Synechococcus organisms while greatly affecting phage adsorption to Pseudoalteromonas. Together these findings suggest that at least two contrasting viral life strategies exist in the oceans and that they likely reflect adaptation to their host microbes. Looking forward to the point at which the virus-tagging signature is well understood (e.g., for Synechococcus), application to natural communities should begin to provide population genomic data at the proper scale for predictively modeling two of the most abundant biological entities on Earth. Viral study suffers from an inability to link viruses to hosts en

  18. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  19. Transport and retention of bacteria and viruses in biochar-amended sand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport and retention of Escherichia coli and phages (PRD1, MS2 and 'X174), as surrogates for human pathogenic bacteria and viruses, respectively, were studied in sand that was amended with biochars produced from various feedstocks. Batch and column studies were conducted to differentiate the...

  20. Viruses and Bacteria in Karst and Fractured Rock Aquifers in East Tennessee, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A survey of enteric viruses and indicator bacteria was carried out in eight community water supply sources (four wells and four springs) in east Tennessee. Seven of the sites were in carbonate aquifers and the other was in fractured sandstone. Four sites (three wells and one sp...

  1. Virus and Bacteria Removal from Wastewater by Rapid Infiltration Through Soil

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Stephen A.; Sorber, Charles A.

    1977-01-01

    A rapid infiltration land wastewater application site, composed of unconsolidated silty sand and gravel, which has been in continuous operation for over 30 years was examined for the accumulation and/or migration of a tracer virus (coliphage f2), indigenous enteroviruses, and enteric indicator bacteria in the soils and underlying groundwater. Tracer f2 penetrated into groundwater together with the front of percolating primary effluent and was not observed to concentrate on the upper soil layers. The tracer virus concentration in a 60-foot (about 18.3-m)-deep observation well directly beneath the wastewater application area began to increase within 48 h after application to the soil. The tracer level in this well stabilized after 72 h at a level of approximately 47% of the average applied concentration. Indigenous enteroviruses and tracer f2 were sporadically detected in the groundwater at horizontal distances of 600 feet (about 183 m) from the application zone. Laboratory soil adsorption studies confirmed the poor virus adsorption observed at the site. This was especially true on surface soils when contained in wastewater. Enteric indicator bacteria were readily concentrated on the soil surface by filtration on the soil surface mat. However, during tracer f2 virus tests, comparison studies with fecal Streptococcus revealed that bacteria capable of penetrating the surface were able to migrate into the groundwater. They were detected at the same locations as tracer and enteric viruses. PMID:16345215

  2. Viruses as new agents of organomineralization in the geological record.

    PubMed

    Pacton, Muriel; Wacey, David; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Tangherlini, Michael; Kilburn, Matt R; Gorin, Georges E; Danovaro, Roberto; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2014-07-03

    Viruses are the most abundant biological entities throughout marine and terrestrial ecosystems, but little is known about virus-mineral interactions or the potential for virus preservation in the geological record. Here we use contextual metagenomic data and microscopic analyses to show that viruses occur in high diversity within a modern lacustrine microbial mat, and vastly outnumber prokaryotes and other components of the microbial mat. Experimental data reveal that mineral precipitation takes place directly on free viruses and, as a result of viral infections, on cell debris resulting from cell lysis. Viruses are initially permineralized by amorphous magnesium silicates, which then alter to magnesium carbonate nanospheres of ~80-200 nm in diameter during diagenesis. Our findings open up the possibility to investigate the evolution and geological history of viruses and their role in organomineralization, as well as providing an alternative explanation for enigmatic carbonate nanospheres previously observed in the geological record.

  3. Preparation and properties of hollow fiber membranes for removing virus and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seung Moon; Chung, Youn Suk; Lee, Sun Yong; Nam, Sang Yong

    2014-12-01

    In this study, polysulfone hollow fiber membrane was successfully prepared by phase inversion method for separation of virus and bacteria. When we prepare the hollow fiber membrane, we controlled various factors such as the polymer concentration, air gap and internal coagulation to investigate effect to membrane property. Morphology of surface and cross section of membrane were measured by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). Water flux of membrane was measured using test modules. Mean pore diameter of membrane was calculated using rejection of polystyrene (PS) latex beads for separation of virus and bacteria. Flux and mean flow pore diameter of prepared membrane show 800 L/mh, 0.03 μm at 1.0 kgf/cm2. The bacteria removal performance of prepared UF membranes was over 6 logs

  4. New approach to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halogens in a recyclable system.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Abd el-Shafey I; Cavalli, Gabriel; Bushell, Michael E; Wardell, John N; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katarina; Hay, John N

    2011-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new cross-linked N-halamine polymer against bacteria and viruses was evaluated. The polymer achieved a 9-log(10) reduction of bacteria (both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in 1.5 h and a 5-log(10) reduction of bacteriophage PRD1 in 3 h. At the same time, the ability of the nonhalogenated polymer to trap halide ions was examined. The polymer was incorporated into a multifiltration system to study the ability to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halide ions. The antimicrobial activity, useful lifetime, halide ion level, and recycling possibilities of the system were quantified on a laboratory scale. A design for a large-scale multifiltration system based on this polymer is proposed.

  5. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Ingredient Requirements § 113.55 Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed...

  6. Viruses and bacteria in karst and fractured rock aquifers in East Tennessee, USA.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Trisha B; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice C; Jones, Sidney W; Johnson, Greg C; Cashdollar, Jennifer L; Dahling, Daniel R; Villegas, Leah F; Fout, G Shay; Williams, Daniel E; Sayler, Gary

    2011-01-01

    A survey of enteric viruses and indicator bacteria was carried out in eight community water supply sources (four wells and four springs) in East Tennessee. Seven sites derived their water from carbonate aquifers and one from fractured sandstone. Four of the sites were deemed "low-risk" based on prior monitoring of fecal indicators and factors such as presence of thick layers of overlying sediments. The remaining sites were deemed "high-risk." Enteric viruses (enterovirus and reovirus) were detected by cell culture at least once in seven of the eight wells or springs including all but one of the four low-risk sites. Viral RNA, however, was not detected in any of the samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Conventional indicators of microbial contamination (Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria) were detected together with culturable viruses in seven of nine virus positive samples. Bacteroides, an alternative fecal indicator which has not previously been used in groundwater investigations, was also detected in all but one of the samples containing E. coli or total coliform bacteria, as well as in one sample where viruses were present in the absence of other bacterial indicators. The study highlights some of the challenges involved in surveys of virus occurrence and indicates that culturable enteric viruses in East Tennessee karst aquifers may be more widespread than previously observed in studies of karst aquifers in Pennsylvania (8%), the Ozark region of Missouri (< 1%), or several other states covered in a national microbial water quality survey conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (43%).

  7. Viruses and bacteria in karst and fractured rock aquifers in east Tennessee, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, T.B.; McKay, L.D.; Layton, A.C.; Jones, S.W.; Johnson, G.C.; Cashdollar, J.L.; Dahling, D.R.; Villegas, L.F.; Fout, G.S.; Williams, D.E.; Sayler, G.

    2011-01-01

    A survey of enteric viruses and indicator bacteria was carried out in eight community water supply sources (four wells and four springs) in East Tennessee. Seven sites derived their water from carbonate aquifers and one from fractured sandstone. Four of the sites were deemed "low-risk" based on prior monitoring of fecal indicators and factors such as presence of thick layers of overlying sediments. The remaining sites were deemed "high-risk." Enteric viruses (enterovirus and reovirus) were detected by cell culture at least once in seven of the eight wells or springs including all but one of the four low-risk sites. Viral RNA, however, was not detected in any of the samples by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Conventional indicators of microbial contamination (Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria) were detected together with culturable viruses in seven of nine virus positive samples. Bacteroides, an alternative fecal indicator which has not previously been used in groundwater investigations, was also detected in all but one of the samples containing E. coli or total coliform bacteria, as well as in one sample where viruses were present in the absence of other bacterial indicators. The study highlights some of the challenges involved in surveys of virus occurrence and indicates that culturable enteric viruses in East Tennessee karst aquifers may be more widespread than previously observed in studies of karst aquifers in Pennsylvania (8%), the Ozark region of Missouri (< 1%), or several other states covered in a national microbial water quality survey conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (43%). Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  8. An enteric virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Ding, Yi; Cadwell, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology1. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined2,3. Here, we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germfree or antibiotics-treated mice restored intestinal morphology and lymphocyte function without inducing overt inflammation and disease. The presence of MNV also suppressed an expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) observed in the absence of bacteria, and induced transcriptional changes in the intestine associated with immune development and type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Consistent with this observation, the IFNα receptor was essential for the ability of MNV to compensate for bacterial depletion. Importantly, MNV infection offset the deleterious effect of antibiotics-treatment in models of intestinal injury and pathogenic bacterial infection. These data indicate that eukaryotic viruses have the capacity to support intestinal homeostasis and shape mucosal immunity akin to commensal bacteria. PMID:25409145

  9. Susceptibilities of anaerobic bacteria isolated from animals with ovine foot rot to 28 antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Piriz, S; Cuenca, R; Valle, J; Vadillo, S

    1992-01-01

    The agar dilution method was used to determine the inhibitory activities of 28 antimicrobial agents against 35 strains of the genus Peptostreptococcus, 4 strains of the species Peptococcus niger, 20 strains of the species Megasphaera elsdenii, 7 strains from the species Acidaminococcus fermentans, 8 strains of the genus Clostridium, 11 strains of the genus Eubacterium, and 1 strain of the species Propionibacterium acidipropionici, all of which were isolated from 125 clinical cases of ovine foot rot between January 1987 and December 1988. The three unreidopenicillins studied proved to be the most active antimicrobial agents, with a high percentage of strains being susceptible at a concentration of 64 micrograms/ml. Penicillin G, ampicillin, and the three cephalosporins studied also had good activity. Fosfomycin showed a high degree of activity among the 116 anaerobic bacteria tested. PMID:1590689

  10. Human pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and viruses in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Panayidou, Stavria; Ioannidou, Eleni; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila has been the invertebrate model organism of choice for the study of innate immune responses during the past few decades. Many Drosophila–microbe interaction studies have helped to define innate immunity pathways, and significant effort has been made lately to decipher mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. Here we catalog 68 bacterial, fungal, and viral species studied in flies, 43 of which are relevant to human health. We discuss studies of human pathogens in flies revealing not only the elicitation and avoidance of immune response but also mechanisms of tolerance, host tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and predisposition to cancer. Prominent among those is the emerging pattern of intestinal regeneration as a defense response induced by pathogenic and innocuous bacteria. Immunopathology mechanisms and many microbial virulence factors have been elucidated, but their relevance to human health conventionally necessitates validation in mammalian models of infection. PMID:24398387

  11. Abundance and Distribution of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Coastal and Estuarine Sediments—a Review

    PubMed Central

    Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L.; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L.; McDonald, James E.; Malham, Shelagh K.

    2016-01-01

    The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%), our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective) viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and

  12. Abundance and Distribution of Enteric Bacteria and Viruses in Coastal and Estuarine Sediments-a Review.

    PubMed

    Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E; Malham, Shelagh K

    2016-01-01

    The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%), our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective) viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and

  13. Viruses in subarctic lakes and their impact on benthic and pelagic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Säwström, Christin; Ask, Jenny; Karlsson, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Virus-bacterium interactions were investigated in the pelagic and benthic habitats in a set of lakes along an altitudinal gradient in the subarctic northern Sweden. Viral and bacterial abundances showed a significant variation between the lakes, with the highest benthic microbial abundances recorded in a high-altitude lake [993 m above sea level (a.s.l.)], whereas the highest pelagic microbial abundances were found in a low-altitude lake (270 m a.s.l.). In the pelagic habitat, there was also a distinct difference in microbial abundances between the summer-autumn and the winter sampling occasion. A positive relationship was noted between viruses and bacteria in both the pelagic and the benthic habitats. Visibly virus-infected bacterial cells were uncommon in the pelagic habitat and undetectable in the benthos. Both lytic and lysogenic pelagic viral production rates were undetectable or low; thus, a possible explanation for the relative high viral abundances found in the water column could be an allochthonous input of viruses or release of sediment-derived viruses. Overall, our results provide novel information about the relevance of viruses in the subarctic region and indicate that viruses play only a minor role in the nutrient and carbon cycling in the microbial communities of subarctic lakes.

  14. Nitroxoline: a broad-spectrum biofilm-eradicating agent against pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Abouelhassan, Yasmeen; Yang, Qingping; Yousaf, Hussain; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Rolfe, Melanie; Schultz, Gregory S; Huigens, Robert W

    2017-02-01

    Bacterial biofilms are surface-attached communities of slow-growing or non-replicating bacteria tolerant to conventional antibiotic therapies. Although biofilms are known to occur in ca. 80% of all bacterial infections, no therapeutic agent has been developed to eradicate bacteria housed within biofilms. We have discovered that nitroxoline, an antibacterial agent used to treat urinary tract infections, displays broad-spectrum biofilm-eradicating activities against major human pathogens, including drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii strains. In this study, the effectiveness of nitroxoline to eradicate biofilms was determined using an in vitro [minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) = 46.9 µM against A. baumannii] and ex vivo porcine skin model (2-3 log reduction in viable biofilm cells). Nitroxoline was also found to eradicate methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) persister cells in non-biofilm (stationary) cultures, whereas vancomycin and daptomycin were found to be inactive. These findings could lead to effective, nitroxoline-based therapies for biofilm-associated infections.

  15. Culturable leaf-associated bacteria on tomato plants and their potential as biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Enya, Junichiro; Shinohara, Hirosuke; Yoshida, Shigenobu; Tsukiboshi, Takao; Negishi, Hiromitsu; Suyama, Kazuo; Tsushima, Seiya

    2007-05-01

    Culturable leaf-associated bacteria inhabiting a plant have been considered as promising biological control agent (BCA) candidates because they can survive on the plant. We investigated the relationship between bacterial groups of culturable leaf-associated bacteria on greenhouse- and field-grown tomato leaves and their antifungal activities against tomato diseases in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the isolated bacteria were analyzed for N-acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production, which have been reported to associate with bacterial colonization, and resistance to a tomato alkaloid (alpha-tomatine). Leaf washings and subsequent leaf macerates were used to estimate the population size of epiphytic and more internal bacteria. Bacterial population sizes on leaves at the same position increased as the leaves aged under both greenhouse and field conditions. Field-grown tomatoes had significantly larger population sizes than greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) sequencing using 887 culturable leaf-associated bacteria revealed a predominance of the Bacillus and Pseudomonas culturable leaf-associated bacterial groups on greenhouse- and field-grown tomatoes, respectively. Curtobacterium and Sphingomonas were frequently recovered from both locations. From the 2138 bacterial strains tested, we selected several strains having in vitro antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens of tomato: Botrytis cinerea, Fulvia fulva, and Alternaria solani. Among bacterial strains with strong in vitro antifungal activities, Bacillus and Pantoea tended to show strong antifungal activities, whereas Curtobacterium and Sphingomonas were not effective. The results indicated the differences in antifungal activity among predominant bacterial groups. Analysis of alpha-tomatine resistance revealed that most bacterial strains in the dominant groups exhibited moderate or high resistance to alpha-tomatine in growth medium. Furthermore, some

  16. Significance of bacteria and viruses in the carbon flow of tropical freshwater impoundments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peduzzi, P.; Schiemer, F.

    2003-04-01

    In two types of tropical freshwater impoundments, free and particle-attached bacterial abundance and production as well as virus abundance, frequency of viral infection and virus production were investigated together with a set of environmental factors during two characteristic seasons. Organic nitrogen, phosphorus species, dissolved organic carbon and suspended solids were elevated in the wind-mixed water body of a shallow reservoir during the dry season, whereas a deeper reservoir type exhibited no obvious seasonality in these parameters. In SYBR GREEN-stained samples, bacterial abundance showed no seasonal pattern in either reservoir type. A large proportion of the overall bacterial production was associated with particulate material. Highest densities of virus particles and elevated frequency of bacteria containing mature phages were observed in the shallow reservoir during the dry season. The specific bacterial production was related to the abundance of particulate organic matter, phosphorus species and organic nitrogen. Most virus parameters were positively linked to bacterial density, production and to organic nitrogen. We calculated that between 13.2 and 46.1% of the bacterial standing stocks would be subjected to virus-mediated mortality. Carbon budgets for the microbial and organic matter compartments of these tropical freshwater reservoirs indicate prevailing autotrophy and a substantial pathway through the viral shunt. During the dry season the shallow, wind-mixed reservoir provided favorable conditions for bacterial growth and virus propagation.

  17. Flagellin treatment protects against chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and radiation.

    PubMed

    Vijay-Kumar, Matam; Aitken, Jesse D; Sanders, Catherine J; Frias, Amena; Sloane, Valerie M; Xu, Jianguo; Neish, Andrew S; Rojas, Mauricio; Gewirtz, Andrew T

    2008-06-15

    Sudden exposure of human populations to chemicals, pathogens, or radiation has the potential to result in substantial morbidity. A potential means of rapidly protecting such populations might be to activate innate host defense pathways, which can provide broad protection against a variety of insults. However, innate immune activators can, by themselves, result in severe inflammatory pathology, which in large part is driven by hemopoietic-derived cytokines such as TNF-alpha. We reasoned that, because it preferentially activates epithelial cells, the TLR5 agonist flagellin might not induce severe inflammatory pathology and yet be an ideal agent to provide such non-specific protection, particularly at the mucosal surfaces that serve as a front line of host defense. In accordance, we observed that systemic treatment of mice with purified flagellin did not induce the serologic, histopathologic, and clinical hallmarks of inflammation that are induced by LPS but yet protected mice against chemicals, pathogens, and ionizing radiation. Flagellin-elicited radioprotection required TLR5, the TLR signaling adaptor MyD88, and was effective if given between 2 h before to 4 h after exposure to irradiation. Flagellin-elicited radioprotection was, in part, mediated via effects on cells in bone marrow but yet rescued mortality without a pronounced rescue of radiation-induced anemia or leukopenia. Thus, systemic administration of flagellin may be a relatively safe means of providing temporary non-specific protection against a variety of challenges.

  18. Modeling the Population Dynamics of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria:. AN Agent-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James T.; Walshe, Ray; Devocelle, Marc

    The response of bacterial populations to antibiotic treatment is often a function of a diverse range of interacting factors. In order to develop strategies to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, a sound theoretical understanding of the systems of interactions taking place within a colony must be developed. The agent-based approach to modeling bacterial populations is a useful tool for relating data obtained at the molecular and cellular level with the overall population dynamics. Here we demonstrate an agent-based model, called Micro-Gen, which has been developed to simulate the growth and development of bacterial colonies in culture. The model also incorporates biochemical rules and parameters describing the kinetic interactions of bacterial cells with antibiotic molecules. Simulations were carried out to replicate the development of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonies growing in the presence of antibiotics. The model was explored to see how the properties of the system emerge from the interactions of the individual bacterial agents in order to achieve a better mechanistic understanding of the population dynamics taking place. Micro-Gen provides a good theoretical framework for investigating the effects of local environmental conditions and cellular properties on the response of bacterial populations to antibiotic exposure in the context of a simulated environment.

  19. Why is co-infection with influenza virus and bacteria so difficult to control?

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Linda S.; Vella, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses are genetically labile pathogens which avoid immune detection by constantly changing their coat proteins. Most human infections are caused by mildly pathogenic viruses which rarely cause life-threatening disease in healthy people, but some individuals with a weakened immune system can experience severe complications. Widespread infections with highly pathogenic strains of influenza virus are less common, but have the potential to cause enormous death tolls among healthy adults if infection rates reach pandemic proportions. Increased virulence has been attributed to a variety of factors, including enhanced susceptibility to co-infection with common strains of bacteria. The mechanisms that facilitate dual infection are a major focus of current research, as preventative measures are needed to avert future pandemics PMID:25636959

  20. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; Śrutek, Mścisław

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

  1. Volatile organic compounds generated by cultures of bacteria and viruses associated with respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Abd El Qader, Amir; Lieberman, David; Shemer Avni, Yonat; Svobodin, Natali; Lazarovitch, Tsilia; Sagi, Orli; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2015-12-01

    Respiratory infections (RI) can be viral or bacterial in origin. In either case, the invasion of the pathogen results in production and release of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The present study examines the VOCs released from cultures of five viruses (influenza A, influenza B, adenovirus, respiratory syncitial virus and parainfluenza 1 virus), three bacteria (Moraxella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and Legionella pneumophila) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolated colonies. Our results demonstrate the involvement of inflammation-induced VOCs. Two significant VOCs were identified as associated with infectious bacterial activity, heptane and methylcyclohexane. These two VOCs have been linked in previous studies to oxidative stress effects. In order to distinguish between bacterial and viral positive cultures, we performed principal component analysis including peak identity (retention time) and VOC concentration (i.e. area under the peak) revealing 1-hexanol and 1-heptadecene to be good predictors.

  2. Simultaneous Concentration of Bovine Viruses and Agricultural Zoonotic Bacteria from Water Using Sodocalcic Glass Wool Filters.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Spencer, Susan K; Gerba, Charles P; Tamimi, Akrum H; Jokela, William E; Borchardt, Mark A

    2014-12-01

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficiencies were determined for bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, bovine rotavirus group A, bovine coronavirus, poliovirus Sabin III, toxigenic Escherichia coli ,and Campylobacter jejuni seeded into water with three different turbidity levels (0.5, 215, and 447 NTU). Twenty liters of dechlorinated tap water (pH 7) were seeded with the test organisms, and then passed through a glass wool filter using a peristaltic pump (flow rate = 1 liter min(-1)). Retained organisms were eluted from the filters by passing beef extract-glycine buffer (pH 9.5) in the direction opposite of sample flow. Recovered organisms were enumerated by qPCR except for C. jejuni, which was quantified by culture. Mean recovery efficiencies ranged from 55 to 33% for the bacteria and 58 to 16% for the viruses. Using bootstrapping techniques combined with Analysis of Variance, recovery efficiencies were found to differ among the pathogen types tested at the two lowest turbidity levels; however, for a given pathogen type turbidity did not affect recovery except for C. jejuni. Glass wool filtration is a cost-effective method for concentrating several waterborne pathogens of bovine origin simultaneously, although recovery may be low for some specific taxa such as bovine viral diarrhea virus 1.

  3. Activation of influenza viruses by proteases from host cells and bacteria in the human airway epithelium.

    PubMed

    Böttcher-Friebertshäuser, Eva; Klenk, Hans-Dieter; Garten, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    Influenza is an acute infection of the respiratory tract, which affects each year millions of people. Influenza virus infection is initiated by the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA) through receptor binding and fusion of viral and endosomal membranes. HA is synthesized as a precursor protein and requires cleavage by host cell proteases to gain its fusion capacity. Although cleavage of HA is crucial for virus infectivity, little was known about relevant proteases in the human airways for a long time. Recent progress in the identification and characterization of HA-activating host cell proteases has been considerable however and supports the idea of targeting HA cleavage as a novel approach for influenza treatment. Interestingly, certain bacteria have been demonstrated to support HA activation either by secreting proteases that cleave HA or due to activation of cellular proteases and thereby may contribute to virus spread and enhanced pathogenicity. In this review, we give an overview on activation of influenza viruses by proteases from host cells and bacteria with the main focus on recent progress on HA cleavage by proteases HAT and TMPRSS2 in the human airway epithelium. In addition, we outline investigations of HA-activating proteases as potential drug targets for influenza treatment.

  4. Development of a method for bacteria and virus recovery from heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) filters.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, James E; Goyal, Sagar M; Kim, Seung Won; Kuehn, Thomas H; Raynor, Peter C; Ramakrishnan, M A; Anantharaman, Senthilvelan; Tang, Weihua

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the work presented here is to study the effectiveness of building air handling units (AHUs) in serving as high volume sampling devices for airborne bacteria and viruses. An HVAC test facility constructed according to ASHRAE Standard 52.2-1999 was used for the controlled loading of HVAC filter media with aerosolized bacteria and virus. Nonpathogenic Bacillus subtilis var. niger was chosen as a surrogate for Bacillus anthracis. Three animal viruses; transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), avian pneumovirus (APV), and fowlpox virus were chosen as surrogates for three human viruses; SARS coronavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, and smallpox virus; respectively. These bacteria and viruses were nebulized in separate tests and injected into the test duct of the test facility upstream of a MERV 14 filter. SKC Biosamplers upstream and downstream of the test filter served as reference samplers. The collection efficiency of the filter media was calculated to be 96.5 +/- 1.5% for B. subtilis, however no collection efficiency was measured for the viruses as no live virus was ever recovered from the downstream samplers. Filter samples were cut from the test filter and eluted by hand-shaking. An extraction efficiency of 105 +/- 19% was calculated for B. subtilis. The viruses were extracted at much lower efficiencies (0.7-20%). Our results indicate that the airborne concentration of spore-forming bacteria in building AHUs may be determined by analyzing the material collected on HVAC filter media, however culture-based analytical techniques are impractical for virus recovery. Molecular-based identification techniques such as PCR could be used.

  5. Effect of weak acid hypochlorous solution on selected viruses and bacteria of laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Taharaguchi, Motoko; Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Zamoto-Niikura, Aya; Yamada, Yasuko K

    2014-01-01

    Weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) is known to have efficacy for inactivating pathogens and to be relatively safe with respect to the live body. Based on these advantages, many animal facilities have recently been introducing WAHS for daily cleaning of animal houses. In this study, we determined the effect of WAHS in inactivating specific pathogens of laboratory rodents and pathogens of opportunistic infection. WAHS with an actual chloride concentration of 60 ppm and a pH value of 6.0 was generated using purpose-built equipment. One volume of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV), Sendai virus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Pasteurella pneumotropica, Corynebacterium kutscheri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was mixed with 9 or 99 volumes of WAHS (×10 and ×100 reaction) for various periods (0.5, 1, and 5 min) at 25°C. After incubation, the remaining infectious viruses and live bacteria were determined by plaque assay or culture. In the ×100 reaction mixture, infectious viruses and live bacteria could not be detected for any of the pathogens examined even with the 0.5-min incubation. However, the effects for MHV, B. bronchiseptica, and P. aeruginosa were variable in the ×10 reaction mixture with the 0.5- and 1-min incubations. Sufficient effects were obtained by elongation of the reaction time to 5 min. In the case of MHV, reducing organic substances in the virus stock resulted in the WAHS being completely effective. WAHS is recommended for daily cleaning in animal facilities but should be used properly in order to obtain a sufficient effect, which includes such things as using a large enough volume to reduce effects of organic substances.

  6. Rabies virus infection of IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells and effect of neurochemical and other agents.

    PubMed

    Lentz, T L; Fu, Y; Lewis, P

    1997-06-01

    IMR-32 human neuroblastoma cells are a continuous nerve cell line expressing neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These cells were found to be susceptible to infection by rabies virus (CVS strain). After infection, viral antigen accumulated in the cell body in puncta and larger masses and spread out into the processes until at 3-4 days the entire cell was filled with antigen and lysed. A variety of chemical agents including cholinergic agonists and antagonists were tested for ability to inhibit infection of IMR-32 cells in a fluorescent focus assay. Agents found to inhibit infection were antibodies against the viral glycoprotein, gangliosides, a synthetic peptide of the neurotoxin-binding site of Torpedo acetylcholine receptor alpha1 subunit, alpha-bungarotoxin, and lysosomotropic agents. All other agents tested including other cholinergic ligands and synthetic peptides were not effective. Except for lysosomotropic agents, the agents which inhibited infection also inhibited attachment of virus to the cell surface. These results indicate that IMR-32 cells are a useful model in studying the interaction of a neurotropic virus with human neurons. The ability of alpha-bungarotoxin to inhibit infection suggests that neuronal alpha-bungarotoxin-binding receptors might serve as central nervous system receptors for rabies virus.

  7. Comparative analysis of the mosaic genomes of tailed archaeal viruses and proviruses suggests common themes for virion architecture and assembly with tailed viruses of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Krupovic, Mart; Forterre, Patrick; Bamford, Dennis H

    2010-03-19

    Tailed double-stranded DNA viruses (order Caudovirales) represent the dominant morphotype among viruses infecting bacteria. Analysis and comparison of complete genome sequences of tailed bacterial viruses provided insights into their origin and evolution. Structural and genomic studies have unexpectedly revealed that tailed bacterial viruses are evolutionarily related to eukaryotic herpesviruses. Organisms from the third domain of life, Archaea, are also infected by viruses that, in their overall morphology, resemble tailed viruses of bacteria. However, high-resolution structural information is currently unavailable for any of these viruses, and only a few complete genomes have been sequenced so far. Here we identified nine proviruses that are clearly related to tailed bacterial viruses and integrated into chromosomes of species belonging to four different taxonomic orders of the Archaea. This more than doubled the number of genome sequences available for comparative studies. Our analyses indicate that highly mosaic tailed archaeal virus genomes evolve by homologous and illegitimate recombination with genomes of other viruses, by diversification, and by acquisition of cellular genes. Comparative genomics of these viruses and related proviruses revealed a set of conserved genes encoding putative proteins similar to virion assembly and maturation, as well as genome packaging proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses. Furthermore, fold prediction and structural modeling experiments suggest that the major capsid proteins of tailed archaeal viruses adopt the same topology as the corresponding proteins of tailed bacterial viruses and eukaryotic herpesviruses. Data presented in this study strongly support the hypothesis that tailed viruses infecting archaea share a common ancestry with tailed bacterial viruses and herpesviruses.

  8. Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  9. Aminosugar derivatives as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents.

    PubMed Central

    Karpas, A; Fleet, G W; Dwek, R A; Petursson, S; Namgoong, S K; Ramsden, N G; Jacob, G S; Rademacher, T W

    1988-01-01

    Recent data suggest that aminosugar derivatives which inhibit glycoprotein processing have potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. These inhibitory effects may be due to disruption of cell fusion and subsequent cell-cell transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus. Free virus particles able to bind CD4-positive cells are still produced in the presence of these compounds with only partial reduction of infectivity. We now report a method to score in parallel both the degree of antiviral activity and the effect on cell division of aminosugar derivatives. We find that (i) the compounds 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol and N-(5-carboxymethyl-1-pentyl)-1,5-imino-L-fucitol partially inhibit the cytopathic effect (giant cell formation, etc.) of HIV and yield of infectious virus; (ii) the compounds N-methyldeoxynojirimycin and N-ethyldeoxynojirimycin reduce the yield of infectious HIV by an order of four and three logarithms, respectively; and (iii) one compound, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, of the 47 compounds previously screened reduces infectious viral particles by a logarithmic order greater than five at noncytotoxic concentrations. In addition, long-term growth of infected cells in the presence of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin gradually decreases the proportion of infected cells, leading to eventual elimination of HIV from culture. This result suggests that replication is associated with cytolysis. The ability to break the cycle of replication and reinfection has important implications in the chemotherapy of AIDS. PMID:3264071

  10. Mouse thymic necrosis virus: a novel murine lymphotropic agent.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1987-12-01

    Mouse thymic necrosis virus (TA), one of two naturally occurring herpesviruses in laboratory mice, was first described in 1961. TA has received relatively little attention even though the virus has been isolated independently from various mouse colonies. This neglect is probably due, at least in part, to the lack of suitable cell culture systems. This review summarizes current knowledge concerning thymic necrosis virus, including new results from the author's laboratory. In vivo, TA causes massive thymic necrosis in newborn mice, with temporary ablation of thymocyte precursors for most T lymphocyte classes except T suppressor cells. All strains of laboratory mice appear susceptible. Severe immunosuppression has been demonstrated in acutely infected mice. Most infected animals survive and shed TA chronically from salivary glands and possibly other glandular tissues. In adult mice, primary infection results in persistent salivary gland infection without overt thymic lesions. Infection appears lifelong, with few clinical signs, but possible effects of chronic TA infection on immune function have been studied little. Recent evidence from the author's laboratory suggests that chronic infection may involve T lymphocytes. The name mouse T lymphotropic virus (abbreviation MTLV) is proposed.

  11. Effective reduction of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of biomass and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fannin, K.F.; Hsu, P.H.; Mensinger, J.; Cahill, C.

    1984-01-01

    Natural resource depletion increases the amount of waste requiring efficient and affordable disposal alternatives. Through effective management, many of these so-called wastes can be utilized as important energy and agricultural resources. One such management approach involves the utilization of emergent aquatic plant species, such as water hyacinth, to remove nutrients from the wastewater during growth. This process produces an energy-containing biomass that can then be anaerobically digested either separately or with other waste components to produce energy-containing methane and an effluent residue containing significant quantities of protein and nutrients. This residue can be utilized as an effective fertilizer, soil conditioner, or animal feed supplement provided it is rendered reasonably safe from such contaminants as enteric microorganisms. This study was conducted to identify the digester operating parameters that affect the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of blends of water hyacinth and primary sewage sludge. Solids retetion time and temperature were demonstrated to be important parameters affecting the survival of poliovirus, f-2 coliphage, Streptoccus fecalis, and Escherichia coli during anaerobic digestion. The die-off rates of the coliphages were similar to those of the poliovirus at 35/sup 0/C. S. fecalis appeared to be the most stable of any of the bacteria and viruses studied. All organisms were more stable at 25 than at 35/sup 0/C. The data demonstrate that the concentration of enteric bacteria and viruses can be effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion using techniques, such as increased solids retention times and mesophilic temperatures, that are consistent with achieving high methane yields. The survival of enteric viruses during anaerobic digestion may be affected by the characteristics of the feedstock as well as by the process operating conditions.

  12. Highly effective bacterial agents against Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae): isolation of bacteria and their insecticidal activities.

    PubMed

    Cakici, Filiz Ozkan; Ozgen, İnanc; Bolu, Halil; Erbas, Zeynep; Demirbağ, Zihni; Demir, İsmail

    2015-01-01

    Cimbex quadrimaculatus (Hymenoptera: Cimbicidae) is one of the serious pests of almonds in Turkey and worldwide. Since there is no effective control application against this pest, it has been a serious problem up to now. Therefore, we aimed to find an effective bacterium that can be utilized as a biocontrol agent against C. quadrimaculatus in pest management. We isolated seven bacteria from dead and live C. quadrimaculatus larvae, and evaluated the larvicidal potency of all isolates on the respective pest. Based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular properties (partial sequence of 16S rRNA gene), the isolates were identified to be Bacillus safensis (CQ1), Bacillus subtilis (CQ2), Bacillus tequilensis (CQ3), Enterobacter sp. (CQ4), Kurthia gibsonii (CQ5), Staphylococcus sp. (CQ6) and Staphylococcus sciuri (CQ7). The results of the larvicidal activities of these isolates indicated that the mortality value obtained from all treatments changed from 58 to 100 %, and reached 100 % with B. safensis (CQ1) and B. subtilis (CQ2) on the 3rd instar larvae within 10 days of application of 1.89 × 10(9) cfu/mL bacterial concentration at 25 °C under laboratory conditions. Findings from this study indicate that these isolates appear to be a promising biocontrol agent for C. quadrimaculatus.

  13. Chikungunya virus impacts the diversity of symbiotic bacteria in mosquito vector.

    PubMed

    Zouache, Karima; Michelland, Rory J; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Grundmann, Genevieve L; Mavingui, Patrick

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes transmit numerous arboviruses including dengue and chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In recent years, mosquito species Aedes albopictus has expanded in the Indian Ocean region and was the principal vector of chikungunya outbreaks in La Reunion and neighbouring islands in 2005 and 2006. Vector-associated bacteria have recently been found to interact with transmitted pathogens. For instance, Wolbachia modulates the replication of viruses or parasites. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the diversity of the entire bacterial populations within mosquito individuals particularly in relation to virus invasion. Here, we investigated the effect of CHIKV infection on the whole bacterial community of Ae. albopictus. Taxonomic microarrays and quantitative PCR showed that members of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria phyla, as well as Bacteroidetes, responded to CHIKV infection. The abundance of bacteria from the Enterobacteriaceae family increased with CHIKV infection, whereas the abundance of known insect endosymbionts like Wolbachia and Blattabacterium decreased. Our results clearly link the pathogen propagation with changes in the dynamics of the bacterial community, suggesting that cooperation or competition occurs within the host, which may in turn affect the mosquito traits like vector competence.

  14. Virus-based nanomaterials as PET and MR contrast agents: from technology development to translational medicine

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses have recently emerged as ideal protein scaffolds for a new class of contrast agents that can be used in medical imaging procedures such as positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Whereas synthetic nanoparticles are difficult to produce as homogeneous formulations due to the inherently stochastic nature of the synthesis process, virus-based nanoparticles are genetically encoded and are therefore produced as homogeneous and monodisperse preparations with a high degree of quality control. Because the virus capsids have a defined chemical structure that has evolved to carry cargoes of nucleic acids, they can be modified to carry precisely defined cargoes of contrast agents and can be decorated with spatially defined contrast reagents on the internal or external surfaces. Viral nanoparticles can also be genetically programed or conjugated with targeting ligands to deliver contrast agents to specific cells, and the natural biocompatibility of viruses means they are cleared rapidly from the body. Nanoparticles based on bacteriophages and plant viruses are safe for use in humans and can be produced inexpensively in large quantities as self-assembling recombinant proteins. Based on these considerations, a new generation of contrast agents has been developed using bacteriophages and plant viruses as scaffolds to carry positron-emitting radioisotopes such as [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose for PET imaging and iron oxide or Gd3+ for MRI. Although challenges such as immunogenicity, loading efficiency and regulatory compliance remain to be address, virus-based nanoparticles represent a promising new enabling technology for a new generation of highly biocompatible and biodegradable targeted imaging reagents. PMID:25683790

  15. Quantifying viruses and bacteria in wastewater—Results, interpretation methods, and quality control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Mailot, Brian E.; Spencer, Susan K.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Elber, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2011-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBR), used for wastewater treatment in Ohio and elsewhere in the United States, have pore sizes small enough to theoretically reduce concentrations of protozoa and bacteria, but not viruses. Sampling for viruses in wastewater is seldom done and not required. Instead, the bacterial indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) and fecal coliforms are the required microbial measures of effluents for wastewater-discharge permits. Information is needed on the effectiveness of MBRs in removing human enteric viruses from wastewaters, particularly as compared to conventional wastewater treatment before and after disinfection. A total of 73 regular and 28 quality-control (QC) samples were collected at three MBR and two conventional wastewater plants in Ohio during 23 regular and 3 QC sampling trips in 2008-10. Samples were collected at various stages in the treatment processes and analyzed for bacterial indicators E. coli, fecal coliforms, and enterococci by membrane filtration; somatic and F-specific coliphage by the single agar layer (SAL) method; adenovirus, enterovirus, norovirus GI and GII, rotavirus, and hepatitis A virus by molecular methods; and viruses by cell culture. While addressing the main objective of the study-comparing removal of viruses and bacterial indicators in MBR and conventional plants-it was realized that work was needed to identify data analysis and quantification methods for interpreting enteric virus and QC data. Therefore, methods for quantifying viruses, qualifying results, and applying QC data to interpretations are described in this report. During each regular sampling trip, samples were collected (1) before conventional or MBR treatment (post-preliminary), (2) after secondary or MBR treatment (post-secondary or post-MBR), (3) after tertiary treatment (one conventional plant only), and (4) after disinfection (post-disinfection). Glass-wool fiber filtration was used to concentrate enteric viruses from large volumes, and small

  16. Comparison of Herpes simplex virus plaque development after viral treatment with anti-DNA or antilipid agents

    SciTech Connect

    Coohill, T.P.; Babich, M.; Taylor, W.D.; Snipes, W.

    1980-06-01

    The plaque development of Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV) is slower for viruses treated with two anti-DNA agents: ultraviolet radiation (uv) or n-acetoxy-2-acetyl-aminofluorene. For HSV treated with three antimembrane agents - butylated hydroxytoluene, acridine plus near uv radiation, or ether - the plaque development time is the same as for untreated viruses. These differences hold even for viruses that survived treatment that lowered viability below the 1% level. Gamma ray inactivation of HSV produces no change in plaque development even though this agent is believed to preferentially affect viral DNA.

  17. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  18. [Biodiversity and evolution of circulating bacteria and virus populations. Novel problems of medical microbiology].

    PubMed

    Zhebrun, A V; Mukomolov, S L; Narvskaia, O V; Tseneva, G Ia; Kaftyreva, L A; Mokrousov, I V

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity and evolution of circulating bacteria and virus populations is a serious scientific problem, solving this problem is necessary for effective prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Principal trends of development in this field of science are described. Results of studies that were carried out and investigated biodiversity of principal pathogens in Russia and St. Petersburg in particular are presented. Risk of infectious security of society caused by increasing diversity of pathogenic microorganisms is described, and priority trends of research development in this field are specified.

  19. DNA Repair Is Associated with Information Content in Bacteria, Archaea, and DNA Viruses.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Sharlene; Carela, Miguelina; Garcia-Gonzalez, Aurian; Gines, Mariela; Vicens, Luis; Cruet, Ricardo; Massey, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a "proteomic constraint" proposes that DNA repair capacity is positively correlated with the information content of a genome, which can be approximated to the size of the proteome (P). This in turn implies that DNA repair genes are more likely to be present in genomes with larger values of P. This stands in contrast to the common assumption that informational genes have a core function and so are evenly distributed across organisms. We examined the presence/absence of 18 DNA repair genes in bacterial genomes. A positive relationship between gene presence and P was observed for 17 genes in the total dataset, and 16 genes when only nonintracellular bacteria were examined. A marked reduction of DNA repair genes was observed in intracellular bacteria, consistent with their reduced value of P. We also examined archaeal and DNA virus genomes, and show that the presence of DNA repair genes is likewise related to a larger value of P. In addition, the products of the bacterial genes mutY, vsr, and ndk, involved in the correction of GC/AT mutations, are strongly associated with reduced genome GC content. We therefore propose that a reduction in information content leads to a loss of DNA repair genes and indirectly to a reduction in genome GC content in bacteria by exposure to the underlying AT mutation bias. The reduction in P may also indirectly lead to the increase in substitution rates observed in intracellular bacteria via loss of DNA repair genes.

  20. Chloroquine, an Endocytosis Blocking Agent, Inhibits Zika Virus Infection in Different Cell Models

    PubMed Central

    Delvecchio, Rodrigo; Higa, Luiza M.; Pezzuto, Paula; Valadão, Ana Luiza; Garcez, Patrícia P.; Monteiro, Fábio L.; Loiola, Erick C.; Dias, André A.; Silva, Fábio J. M.; Aliota, Matthew T.; Caine, Elizabeth A.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Bellio, Maria; O’Connor, David H.; Rehen, Stevens; de Aguiar, Renato Santana; Savarino, Andrea; Campanati, Loraine; Tanuri, Amilcar

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in utero might lead to microcephaly and other congenital defects. Since no specific therapy is available thus far, there is an urgent need for the discovery of agents capable of inhibiting its viral replication and deleterious effects. Chloroquine is widely used as an antimalarial drug, anti-inflammatory agent, and it also shows antiviral activity against several viruses. Here we show that chloroquine exhibits antiviral activity against ZIKV in Vero cells, human brain microvascular endothelial cells, human neural stem cells, and mouse neurospheres. We demonstrate that chloroquine reduces the number of ZIKV-infected cells in vitro, and inhibits virus production and cell death promoted by ZIKV infection without cytotoxic effects. In addition, chloroquine treatment partially reveres morphological changes induced by ZIKV infection in mouse neurospheres. PMID:27916837

  1. Ongoing Clinical Trials of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Latency-Reversing and Immunomodulatory Agents

    PubMed Central

    Delagrèverie, Héloïse M.; Delaugerre, Constance; Lewin, Sharon R.; Deeks, Steven G.; Li, Jonathan Z.

    2016-01-01

    In chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection, long-lived latently infected cells are the major barrier to virus eradication and functional cure. Several therapeutic strategies to perturb, eliminate, and/or control this reservoir are now being pursued in the clinic. These strategies include latency reversal agents (LRAs) designed to reactivate HIV-1 ribonucleic acid transcription and virus production and a variety of immune-modifying drugs designed to reverse latency, block homeostatic proliferation, and replenish the viral reservoir, eliminate virus-producing cells, and/or control HIV replication after cessation of antiretroviral therapy. This review provides a summary of ongoing clinical trials of HIV LRAs and immunomodulatory molecules, and it highlights challenges in the comparison and interpretation of the expected trial results. PMID:27757411

  2. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-01-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters. PMID:26404394

  3. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J.; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-01

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  4. Effects of viruses on bacterial functions under contrasting nutritional conditions for four species of bacteria isolated from Hong Kong waters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Yuan, Xiangcheng; Xu, Jie; Harrison, Paul J; He, Lei; Yin, Kedong

    2015-09-25

    Free living viruses are ubiquitous in marine waters and concentrations are usually several times higher than the bacterial abundance. These viruses are capable of lysing host bacteria and therefore, play an important role in the microbial loop in oligotrophic waters. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the role of viruses in regulating bacterial abundance and heterotrophic activities between natural oligotrophic waters and anthropogenic influenced eutrophic waters. In this study, we examined viral effects on bacterial functions of four single bacterial species incubated with natural viral assemblages in seawater samples from eutrophic and oligotrophic waters. The viral-lysis of bacteria was significantly higher in eutrophic than oligotrophic waters. This suggests that viruses were capable of controlling bacterial abundance, respiration and production in the eutrophic waters. Cellular bacterial respiration and production was higher with viruses than without viruses, which was more evident in the oligotrophic waters. These results indicate that viruses can slow down bacterial consumption of oxygen and reduce bacteria-induced eutrophication effects in anthropogenic eutrophic waters, but switch to the role of sustaining the bacterial population when nutrients are limiting. There were bacterial species differences in resisting viral attack, which can influence the dominance and biodiversity of bacterial species in coastal waters.

  5. Surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from food animals to antimicrobial growth promoters and related therapeutic agents in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Aarestrup, F M; Bager, F; Jensen, N E; Madsen, M; Meyling, A; Wegener, H C

    1998-06-01

    This study was conducted to describe the occurrence of acquired resistance to antimicrobials used for growth promotion among bacteria isolated from swine, cattle and poultry in Denmark. Resistance to structurally related therapeutic agents was also examined. Three categories of bacteria were tested: 1) indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium), 2) zoonotic bacteria (Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica), and 3) animal pathogens (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), Staphylococcus hyicus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae). All antimicrobials used as growth promoters in Denmark and some structurally related therapeutic agents (in brackets) were included: Avilamycin, avoparcin (vancomycin), bacitracin, carbadox, flavomycin, monensin, olaquindox, salinomycin, spiramycin (erythromycin, lincomycin), tylosin (erythromycin, lincomycin), and virginiamycin (pristinamycin). Bacterial species intrinsically resistant to an antimicrobial were not tested towards that antimicrobial. Breakpoints for growth promoters were established by population distribution of the bacteria tested. A total of 2,372 bacterial isolates collected during October 1995 to September 1996 were included in the study. Acquired resistance to all currently used growth promoting antimicrobials was found. A frequent occurrence of resistance were observed to avilamycin, avoparcin, bacitracin, flavomycin, spiramycin, tylosin and virginiamycin, whereas resistance to carbadox, monensin, olaquindox and salinomycin was less frequent. The occurrence of resistance varied by animal origin and bacterial species. The highest levels of resistance was observed among enterococci, whereas less resistance was observed among zoonotic bacteria and bacteria pathogenic to animals. The association between the occurrence of resistance and the consumption of the antimicrobial is discussed. The results show the present level of resistance to

  6. Balamuthia mandrillaris, free-living ameba and opportunistic agent of encephalitis, is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shadrach, Winlet Sheba; Rydzewski, Kerstin; Laube, Ulrike; Holland, Gudrun; Ozel, Muhsin; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Flieger, Antje

    2005-05-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba and an opportunistic agent of granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other mammalian species. Other free-living amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella, can provide a niche for intracellular survival of bacteria, including the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila. Infection of amebas by L. pneumophila enhances the bacterial infectivity for mammalian cells and lung tissues. Likewise, the pathogenicity of amebas may be enhanced when they host bacteria. So far, the colonization of B. mandrillaris by bacteria has not been convincingly shown. In this study, we investigated whether this ameba could host L. pneumophila bacteria. Our experiments showed that L. pneumophila could initiate uptake by B. mandrillaris and could replicate within the ameba about 4 to 5 log cycles from 24 to 72 h after infection. On the other hand, a dotA mutant, known to be unable to propagate in Acanthamoeba castellanii, also did not replicate within B. mandrillaris. Approaching completion of the intracellular cycle, L. pneumophila wild-type bacteria were able to destroy their ameboid hosts. Observations by light microscopy paralleled our quantitative data and revealed the rounding, collapse, clumping, and complete destruction of the infected amebas. Electron microscopic studies unveiled the replication of the bacteria in a compartment surrounded by a structure resembling rough endoplasmic reticulum. The course of intracellular infection, the degree of bacterial multiplication, and the ultrastructural features of a L. pneumophila-infected B. mandrillaris ameba resembled those described for other amebas hosting Legionella bacteria. We hence speculate that B. mandrillaris might serve as a host for bacteria in its natural environment.

  7. Removal of bacteria, protozoa and viruses through a multiple-barrier household water disinfection system.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-García, A C; Díaz-Ávalos, C; Solano-Ortiz, R; Tapia-Palacios, M A; Vázquez-Salvador, N; Espinosa-García, S; Sarmiento-Silva, R E; Mazari-Hiriart, M

    2014-03-01

    Municipal water disinfection systems in some areas are not always able to meet water consumer needs, such as ensuring distributed water quality, because household water management can be a contributing factor in water re-contamination. This fact is related to the storage options that are common in places where water is scarce or is distributed over limited time periods. The aim of this study is to assess the removal capacity of a multiple-barrier water disinfection device for protozoa, bacteria, and viruses. Water samples were taken from households in Mexico City and spiked with a known amount of protozoa (Giardia cyst, Cryptosporidium oocyst), bacteria (Escherichia coli), and viruses (rotavirus, adenovirus, F-specific ribonucleic acid (FRNA) coliphage). Each inoculated sample was processed through a multiple-barrier device. The efficiency of the multiple-barrier device to remove E. coli was close to 100%, and more than 87% of Cryptosporidium oocysts and more than 98% of Giardia cysts were removed. Close to 100% of coliphages were removed, 99.6% of the adenovirus was removed, and the rotavirus was almost totally removed. An effect of site by zone was detected; this observation is important because the water characteristics could indicate the efficiency of the multiple-barrier disinfection device.

  8. Herpes simplex virus type 2 modulates the susceptibility of human bladder cells to uropathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Superti, F; Longhi, C; Di Biase, A M; Tinari, A; Marchetti, M; Pisani, S; Gallinelli, C; Chiarini, F; Seganti, L

    2001-09-01

    The present study analyses the susceptibility of human bladder-derived cells (HT-1376) to the infection by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Chlamydia trachomatis, as well as to the adhesiveness of uropathogenic bacteria. HT-1376 cells were efficiently infected by HSV-2 strain 333, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence staining of viral antigens, titration of cytopathic effect, and visualisation by transmission electron microscopy. This cell model was also prone to C. trachomatis (serovar E, Bour strain) replication and to the adherence of clinical uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris and Enterococcus faecalis. The pre-infection of HT-1376 cells with HSV-2 caused a tenfold increased adherence of an E. coli strain (U1), isolated from a patient affected by severe haemorrhagic cystitis, whereas in HSV-2 pre-infected cells the number of C. trachomatis inclusion bodies was significantly reduced. Our findings indicate that these cells are a suitable in vitro model for studying infection and super-infection of the lower urinary tract by viruses and bacteria.

  9. Nucleic acid extraction from polluted estuarine water for detection of viruses and bacteria by PCR and RT-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Craquelin, S; Guespin-Michel, J; Buffet-Janvresse, C

    1999-03-01

    We describe an extraction protocol for genomic DNA and RNA of both viruses and bacteria from polluted estuary water. This procedure was adapted to the molecular study of microflora of estuarine water where bacteria and viruses are found free, forming low-density biofilms, or intimately associated with organo-mineral particles. The sensitivity of the method was determined with seeded samples for RT-PCR and PCR analysis of viruses (10 virions/mL), and bacteria (1 colony-forming unit mL). We report an example of molecular detection of both poliovirus and Salmonella in the Seine estuary (France) and an approach to studying their association with organo-mineral particles.

  10. Novel agents and strategies to treat herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2003-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection, such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with everyday activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immunocompromised patient population. After primary or initial infection the virus persists for life in a latent form in neurons of the host, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently, no cure is available. In the mid-1950s the first antiviral, idoxuridine, was developed for topical treatment of herpes disease and, in 1978, vidarabine was licensed for systemic use to treat HSV encephalitis. Acyclovir (Zovirax), a potent, specific and tolerable nucleosidic inhibitor of the herpes DNA polymerase, was a milestone in the development of antiviral drugs in the late 1970s. In the mid-1990s, when acyclovir became a generic drug, valacyclovir (Valtrex) and famciclovir (Famvir), prodrugs of the gold standard and penciclovir (Denavir), Vectavir), a close analogue, were launched. Though numerous approaches and strategies were tested and considerable effort was expended in the search of the next generation of an antiherpetic therapy, it proved difficult to outperform acyclovir. Notable in this regard was the award of a Nobel Prize in 1988 for the elucidation of mechanistic principles which resulted in the development of new drugs such as acyclovir. Vaccines, interleukins, interferons, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or nonspecific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. Recently though, new inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase with potent in vitro

  11. Oncolytic Measles Virus Strains as Novel Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Msaouel, Pavlos; Opyrchal, Mateusz; Domingo Musibay, Evidio; Galanis, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Replication-competent oncolytic measles virus (MV) strains preferentially infect and destroy a wide variety of cancer tissues. Clinical translation of engineered attenuated MV vaccine derivatives is demonstrating the therapeutic potential and negligible pathogenicity of these strains in humans. Areas covered The present review summarizes the mechanisms of MV tumor selectivity and cytopathic activity as well as the current data on the oncolytic efficacy and preclinical testing of MV strains. Investigational strategies to reprogram MV selectivity, escape antiviral immunity and modulate the immune system to enhance viral delivery and tumor oncolysis are also discussed. Expert Opinion Clinical viral kinetic data derived from non-invasive monitoring of reporter transgene expression will guide future protocols to enhance oncolytic MV efficacy. Anti-measles immunity is a major challenge of measles-based therapeutics and various strategies are being investigated to modulate immunity. These include the combination of MV therapy with immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclophosphamide, the use of cell carriers and the introduction of immunomodulatory transgenes and wild-type virulence genes. Available MV retargeting technologies can address safety considerations that may arise as more potent oncolytic MV vectors are being developed. PMID:23289598

  12. Trophic interactions between viruses, bacteria and nanoflagellates under various nutrient conditions and simulated climate change.

    PubMed

    Bouvy, M; Bettarel, Y; Bouvier, C; Domaizon, I; Jacquet, S; Le Floc'h, E; Montanié, H; Mostajir, B; Sime-Ngando, T; Torréton, J P; Vidussi, F; Bouvier, T

    2011-07-01

    Population dynamics in the microbial food web are influenced by resource availability and predator/parasitism activities. Climatic changes, such as an increase in temperature and/or UV radiation, can also modify ecological systems in many ways. A series of enclosure experiments was conducted using natural microbial communities from a Mediterranean lagoon to assess the response of microbial communities to top-down control [grazing by heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF), viral lysis] and bottom-up control (nutrients) under various simulated climatic conditions (temperature and UV-B radiations). Different biological assemblages were obtained by separating bacteria and viruses from HNF by size fractionation which were then incubated in whirl-Pak bags exposed to an increase of 3°C and 20% UV-B above the control conditions for 96 h. The assemblages were also provided with an inorganic and organic nutrient supply. The data show (i) a clear nutrient limitation of bacterial growth under all simulated climatic conditions in the absence of HNF, (ii) a great impact of HNF grazing on bacteria irrespective of the nutrient conditions and the simulated climatic conditions, (iii) a significant decrease in burst size (BS) (number of intracellular lytic viruses per bacterium) and a significant increase of VBR (virus to bacterium ratio) in the presence of HNF, and (iv) a much larger temperature effect than UV-B radiation effect on the bacterial dynamics. These results show that top-down factors, essentially HNF grazing, control the dynamics of the lagoon bacterioplankton assemblage and that short-term simulated climate changes are only a secondary effect controlling microbial processes.

  13. [Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents - Special references to bacteria isolated between April 2011 and March 2012].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Nagao; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Mizuguchi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Kihara, Chikasi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Oono, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Watabe, Kosho; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Hideki; Aikawa, Naoki; Sasaki, Junichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Mashita, Keiji; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Mizuno, Akira; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Muramoto, Masayuki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Yamaue, Hiroki; Hirono, Seiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Shinoura, Susumu; Kimura, Hideyuki; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Naoyuki; Sueda, Taijiro; Hiyama, Eiso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Kouji; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-12-01

    Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2011 to March 2012 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 785 strains including 31 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 204 (78.8%) of 259 patients with surgical infections. Five hundred and twenty three strains were isolated from primary infections, and 231 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp., in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli was most predominantly isolated, followed by P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, and E. cloacae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Eggerthella lenta was the highest from primary infections, followed by Parvimonas micra, Collinsella aerofaciens, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Finegoldia magna, and from surgical site infection, E. lenta was most predominantly isolated, followed by P micra and L. acidophilus, in this order. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bacteroidesfragilis was the highest from primary infections, followed by Bilophila wadsworthia, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides vulgatus, and from surgical site infection, B. fragilis was most

  14. Evolutionary strategies of viruses, bacteria and archaea in hydrothermal vent ecosystems revealed through metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rika E; Sogin, Mitchell L; Baross, John A

    2014-01-01

    The deep-sea hydrothermal vent habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these systems, a high proportion of which are lysogenic, must also withstand these environmental extremes. Here, we explore the evolutionary strategies of both microorganisms and viruses in hydrothermal systems through comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome, collected by size fractionation of high temperature fluids from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent. We detected a high enrichment of mobile elements and proviruses in the cellular fraction relative to microorganisms in other environments. We observed a relatively high abundance of genes related to energy metabolism as well as cofactors and vitamins in the viral fraction compared to the cellular fraction, which suggest encoding of auxiliary metabolic genes on viral genomes. Moreover, the observation of stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool suggests viral strategies that promote prolonged host integration. Our results demonstrate that there is great potential for hydrothermal vent viruses to integrate into hosts, facilitate horizontal gene transfer, and express or transfer genes that manipulate the hosts' functional capabilities.

  15. Comparison of point-of-care-compatible lysis methods for bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Erin K; Buser, Joshua R; Mireles, Lillian; Zhang, Xiaohong; Ladd, Paula D; Lutz, Barry R; Yager, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Nucleic acid sample preparation has been an especially challenging barrier to point-of-care nucleic acid amplification tests in low-resource settings. Here we provide a head-to-head comparison of methods for lysis of, and nucleic acid release from, several pathogenic bacteria and viruses-methods that are adaptable to point-of-care usage in low-resource settings. Digestion with achromopeptidase, a mixture of proteases and peptidoglycan-specific hydrolases, followed by thermal deactivation in a boiling water bath, effectively released amplifiable nucleic acid from Staphylococcus aureus, Bordetella pertussis, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza virus. Achromopeptidase was functional after dehydration and reconstitution, even after eleven months of dry storage without refrigeration. Mechanical lysis methods proved to be effective against a hard-to-lyse Mycobacterium species, and a miniature bead-mill, the AudioLyse, is shown to be capable of releasing amplifiable DNA and RNA from this species. We conclude that point-of-care-compatible sample preparation methods for nucleic acid tests need not introduce amplification inhibitors, and can provide amplification-ready lysates from a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens.

  16. Ecology and evolution of viruses infecting uncultivated SUP05 bacteria as revealed by single-cell- and meta-genomics.

    PubMed

    Roux, Simon; Hawley, Alyse K; Torres Beltran, Monica; Scofield, Melanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2014-08-29

    Viruses modulate microbial communities and alter ecosystem functions. However, due to cultivation bottlenecks, specific virus-host interaction dynamics remain cryptic. In this study, we examined 127 single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from uncultivated SUP05 bacteria isolated from a model marine oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to identify 69 viral contigs representing five new genera within dsDNA Caudovirales and ssDNA Microviridae. Infection frequencies suggest that ∼1/3 of SUP05 bacteria is viral-infected, with higher infection frequency where oxygen-deficiency was most severe. Observed Microviridae clonality suggests recovery of bloom-terminating viruses, while systematic co-infection between dsDNA and ssDNA viruses posits previously unrecognized cooperation modes. Analyses of 186 microbial and viral metagenomes revealed that SUP05 viruses persisted for years, but remained endemic to the OMZ. Finally, identification of virus-encoded dissimilatory sulfite reductase suggests SUP05 viruses reprogram their host's energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate closely coupled SUP05 virus-host co-evolutionary dynamics with the potential to modulate biogeochemical cycling in climate-critical and expanding OMZs.

  17. Comparative study of enteric viruses, coliphages and indicator bacteria for evaluating water quality in a tropical high-altitude system

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones. PMID:19860917

  18. Population dynamics and diversity of viruses, bacteria and phytoplankton in a shallow eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Tijdens, Marjolijn; Hoogveld, Hans L; Kamst-van Agterveld, Miranda P; Simis, Stefan G H; Baudoux, Anne-Claire; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J; Gons, Herman J

    2008-07-01

    We have studied the temporal variation in viral abundances and community assemblage in the eutrophic Lake Loosdrecht through epifluorescence microscopy and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The virioplankton community was a dynamic component of the aquatic community, with abundances ranging between 5.5 x 10(7) and 1.3 x 10(8) virus-like particles ml(-1) and viral genome sizes ranging between 30 and 200 kb. Both viral abundances and community composition followed a distinct seasonal cycle, with high viral abundances observed during spring and summer. Due to the selective and parasitic nature of viral infection, it was expected that viral and host community dynamics would covary both in abundances and community composition. The temporal dynamics of the bacterial and cyanobacterial communities, as potential viral hosts, were studied in addition to a range of environmental parameters to relate these to viral community dynamics. Cyanobacterial and bacterial communities were studied applying epifluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Both bacterial and cyanobacterial communities followed a clear seasonal cycle. Contrary to expectations, viral abundances were neither correlated to abundances of the most dominant plankton groups in Lake Loosdrecht, the bacteria and the filamentous cyanobacteria, nor could we detect a correlation between the assemblage of viral and bacterial or cyanobacterial communities during the overall period. Only during short periods of strong fluctuations in microbial communities could we detect viral community assemblages to covary with cyanobacterial and bacterial communities. Methods with a higher specificity and resolution are probably needed to detect the more subtle virus-host interactions. Viral abundances did however relate to cyanobacterial community assemblage and showed a significant positive correlation to Chl-a as well as prochlorophytes, suggesting that a significant proportion

  19. Activity of human beta-defensin 3 alone or combined with other antimicrobial agents against oral bacteria.

    PubMed

    Maisetta, Giuseppantonio; Batoni, Giovanna; Esin, Semih; Luperini, Filippo; Pardini, Manuela; Bottai, Daria; Florio, Walter; Giuca, Maria Rita; Gabriele, Mario; Campa, Mario

    2003-10-01

    The in vitro activities of human beta-defensin 3 (hBD-3) alone or combined with lysozyme, metronidazole, amoxicillin, and chlorhexidine were investigated with the oral bacteria Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. hBD-3 showed bactericidal activity against all of the bacterial species tested. The bactericidal effect was enhanced when the peptide was used in combination with the antimicrobial agents mentioned above.

  20. Top-down controls on bacterial community structure: microbial network analysis of bacteria, T4-like viruses and protists.

    PubMed

    Chow, Cheryl-Emiliane T; Kim, Diane Y; Sachdeva, Rohan; Caron, David A; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2014-04-01

    Characterizing ecological relationships between viruses, bacteria and protists in the ocean are critical to understanding ecosystem function, yet these relationships are infrequently investigated together. We evaluated these relationships through microbial association network analysis of samples collected approximately monthly from March 2008 to January 2011 in the surface ocean (0-5 m) at the San Pedro Ocean Time series station. Bacterial, T4-like myoviral and protistan communities were described by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of the gene encoding the major capsid protein (g23) and 18S ribosomal DNA, respectively. Concurrent shifts in community structure suggested similar timing of responses to environmental and biological parameters. We linked T4-like myoviral, bacterial and protistan operational taxonomic units by local similarity correlations, which were then visualized as association networks. Network links (correlations) potentially represent synergistic and antagonistic relationships such as viral lysis, grazing, competition or other interactions. We found that virus-bacteria relationships were more cross-linked than protist-bacteria relationships, suggestive of increased taxonomic specificity in virus-bacteria relationships. We also found that 80% of bacterial-protist and 74% of bacterial-viral correlations were positive, with the latter suggesting that at monthly and seasonal timescales, viruses may be following their hosts more often than controlling host abundance.

  1. Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Yunlan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater. PMID:26305356

  2. Human and Bovine Viruses and Bacteria at Three Great Lakes Beaches: Environmental Variable Associations and Health Risk.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; Borchardt, Mark A; Carvin, Rebecca B; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K; Lutz, Michelle A; McDermott, Colleen M; Busse, Kimberly M; Kleinheinz, Gregory T; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-19

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65-87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13-35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 2 × 10(-5), 8 × 10(-6), and 3 × 10(-7) [corrected] for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  3. Human and bovine viruses and bacteria at three Great Lakes beaches: Environmental variable associations and health risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Carvin, Rebecca B.; Burch, Tucker R; Spencer, Susan K.; Lutz, Michelle A.; McDermott, Colleen M.; Busse, Kimberly M.; Kleinheinz, Gregory; Feng, Xiaoping; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Waterborne pathogens were measured at three beaches in Lake Michigan, environmental factors for predicting pathogen concentrations were identified, and the risk of swimmer infection and illness was estimated. Waterborne pathogens were detected in 96% of samples collected at three Lake Michigan beaches in summer, 2010. Samples were quantified for 22 pathogens in four microbial categories (human viruses, bovine viruses, protozoa, and pathogenic bacteria). All beaches had detections of human and bovine viruses and pathogenic bacteria indicating influence of multiple contamination sources at these beaches. Occurrence ranged from 40 to 87% for human viruses, 65–87% for pathogenic bacteria, and 13–35% for bovine viruses. Enterovirus, adenovirus A, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni, bovine polyomavirus, and bovine rotavirus A were present most frequently. Variables selected in multiple regression models used to explore environmental factors that influence pathogens included wave direction, cloud cover, currents, and water temperature. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment was done for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses to estimate risk of infection and illness. Median infection risks for one-time swimming events were approximately 3 × 10–5, 7 × 10–9, and 3 × 10–7 for C. jejuni, Salmonella spp., and enteroviruses, respectively. Results highlight the importance of investigating multiple pathogens within multiple categories to avoid underestimating the prevalence and risk of waterborne pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of Tangential Flow Filtration for the Concentration and Separation of Bacteria and Viruses in Contrasting Marine Environments.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lanlan; Yang, Yunlan; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Tangential flow filtration (TFF), which has been widely adopted to concentrate a diverse array of microbes from water, is a promising method of microbial separation or removal. However, it is essential to select an optimal membrane suitable for the specific filtration application. This study evaluated two different scales of TFF systems for concentrating and separating microbes (including bacteria and viruses) from contrasting marine waters. Among bacteria-size membranes, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes showed higher bacterial recovery, but lower viral permeation efficiencies than polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, regardless of environments and scales of TFF. Estuary samples showed significantly higher percentages of bacterial retention than nearshore and ocean samples. For virus-size membranes, a higher viral recovery and lower sorption was observed for regenerated cellulose membrane than PES membranes in the small-scale TFF. Similar viral recoveries were observed between PES membranes in the large-scale TFF, with higher viral concentrations being observed in estuary samples than in nearshore samples. Deep ocean samples showed the lowest recovery of viruses, which was consistent with observations of bacterial recovery. Synthetically, PVDF may be more suitable for the concentration of bacterial cells, while PES would be a better choice for the collection of viruses. When compared with the PES membrane, regenerated cellulose is better for viral concentration, while PES is recommended to obtain bacteria- and virus-free seawater.

  5. The Pomegranate: Effects on Bacteria and Viruses That Influence Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Amy B.; D'Souza, Doris H.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates have been known for hundreds of years for their multiple health benefits, including antimicrobial activity. The recent surge in multidrug-resistant bacteria and the possibility of widespread global virus pandemics necessitate the need for additional preventative and therapeutic options to conventional drugs. Research indicates that pomegranates and their extracts may serve as natural alternatives due to their potency against a wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Nearly every part of the pomegranate plant has been tested for antimicrobial activities, including the fruit juice, peel, arils, flowers, and bark. Many studies have utilized pomegranate peel with success. There are various phytochemical compounds in pomegranate that have demonstrated antimicrobial activity, but most of the studies have found that ellagic acid and larger hydrolyzable tannins, such as punicalagin, have the highest activities. In some cases the combination of the pomegranate constituents offers the most benefit. The positive clinical results on pomegranate and suppression of oral bacteria are intriguing and worthy of further study. Much of the evidence for pomegranates' antibacterial and antiviral activities against foodborne pathogens and other infectious disease organisms comes from in vitro cell-based assays, necessitating further confirmation of in vivo efficacy through human clinical trials. PMID:23762148

  6. Shrimp MyD88 responsive to bacteria and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Sun, Zheng; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-02-01

    The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an important adapter protein which links members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) to the downstream components to activate related signaling pathways. In the present study, a MyD88 homolog (FcMyD88) was cloned from penaeid shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The ORF of FcMyD88 consisted of 1434 bp encoding a polypeptide of 477 amino acids which contains a death domain (DD) and a typical TLR and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R)-related (TIR) domain. Homology analysis revealed that the predicted amino acid (aa) sequence of FcMyD88 shared high similarities with a variety of previously reported MyD88s. The time-dependent expression patterns of FcMyD88 in cephalothoraxes of shrimp injected with Vibrio anguillarum (Gram-negative bacteria, G(-)), Micrococcus lysodeikticu (Gram-positive bacteria, G(+)) and white syndrome spot virus (WSSV) were analyzed at transcription and protein level by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The expression level of FcMyD88 mRNA was significantly up-regulated at one hour (h), 12 h and 24 h after stimulation with both V. anguillarum and M. lysodeikticu. The expression level of FcMyD88 protein was 2-fold up-regulated at 12 h post injection (hpi) of inactivated V. anguillarum while it didn't change after M. lysodeikticu injection during this period. After WSSV injection, the expression level of FcMyD88 mRNA remained relatively constant, while the FcMyD88 protein was significantly up-regulated at 12 and 24 hpi. These results suggested that the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway could be involved in the defense of both bacteria and WSSV infection.

  7. Virus and bacteria transport in a sandy aquifer, Cape Cod, MA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Roger C.; Li, Shimin; Maguire, Kimberly M.; Yahya, Moyasar T.; Gerba, Charles P.; Harvey, Ronald W.

    1995-01-01

    Transport of the bacteriophage PRD-1, bacteria, and latex microspheres was studied in a sandy aquifer under natural-gradient conditions. The field injection was carried out at the U.S. Geological Survey's Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod. The three colloids and a salt tracer (Br−) moved along the same path. There was significant attenuation of the phage, with PRD-1 peak concentrations less than 0.001 percent of Br− peaks 6 m from the source; but the low detection limit (one per ml) enabled tracking movement of the PRD-1 plume for 12 m downgradient over the 25-day experiment. Attenuation of phage was apparently due to retention on soil particles (adsorption). Attenuation of bacteria and microspheres was less, with peak concentrations 6 m from the source on the order of 10 and 0.4 percent of Br−, respectively. Injection of a high-pH pulse of water 20 days into the experiment resulted in significant remobilization of retained phage, demonstrating that attached phage remained viable, and that PRD-1 attachment to and detachment from the sandy soil particles was highly pH dependent. Phage behavior in this experiment, i.e. attenuation at pH 5.7 and rapid resuspension at pH 6–8, was consistent with that observed previously in laboratory column studies. Results illustrate that biocolloids travel in a fairly narrow plume in sandy (relatively homogeneous) media, with virus concentrations dropping below detection limit several meters away from the source; bacteria concentrations above detection limits can persist over longer distances.

  8. Ecology and evolution of viruses infecting uncultivated SUP05 bacteria as revealed by single-cell- and meta-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Simon; Hawley, Alyse K; Torres Beltran, Monica; Scofield, Melanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Woyke, Tanja; Hallam, Steven J; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Viruses modulate microbial communities and alter ecosystem functions. However, due to cultivation bottlenecks, specific virus–host interaction dynamics remain cryptic. In this study, we examined 127 single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs) from uncultivated SUP05 bacteria isolated from a model marine oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) to identify 69 viral contigs representing five new genera within dsDNA Caudovirales and ssDNA Microviridae. Infection frequencies suggest that ∼1/3 of SUP05 bacteria is viral-infected, with higher infection frequency where oxygen-deficiency was most severe. Observed Microviridae clonality suggests recovery of bloom-terminating viruses, while systematic co-infection between dsDNA and ssDNA viruses posits previously unrecognized cooperation modes. Analyses of 186 microbial and viral metagenomes revealed that SUP05 viruses persisted for years, but remained endemic to the OMZ. Finally, identification of virus-encoded dissimilatory sulfite reductase suggests SUP05 viruses reprogram their host's energy metabolism. Together, these results demonstrate closely coupled SUP05 virus–host co-evolutionary dynamics with the potential to modulate biogeochemical cycling in climate-critical and expanding OMZs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03125.001 PMID:25171894

  9. Giant viruses coexisted with the cellular ancestors and represent a distinct supergroup along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The discovery of giant viruses with genome and physical size comparable to cellular organisms, remnants of protein translation machinery and virus-specific parasites (virophages) have raised intriguing questions about their origin. Evidence advocates for their inclusion into global phylogenomic studies and their consideration as a distinct and ancient form of life. Results Here we reconstruct phylogenies describing the evolution of proteomes and protein domain structures of cellular organisms and double-stranded DNA viruses with medium-to-very-large proteomes (giant viruses). Trees of proteomes define viruses as a ‘fourth supergroup’ along with superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Trees of domains indicate they have evolved via massive and primordial reductive evolutionary processes. The distribution of domain structures suggests giant viruses harbor a significant number of protein domains including those with no cellular representation. The genomic and structural diversity embedded in the viral proteomes is comparable to the cellular proteomes of organisms with parasitic lifestyles. Since viral domains are widespread among cellular species, we propose that viruses mediate gene transfer between cells and crucially enhance biodiversity. Conclusions Results call for a change in the way viruses are perceived. They likely represent a distinct form of life that either predated or coexisted with the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) and constitute a very crucial part of our planet’s biosphere. PMID:22920653

  10. Progress of small molecular inhibitors in the development of anti-influenza virus agents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaoai; Wu, Xiuli; Sun, Qizheng; Zhang, Chunhui; Yang, Shengyong; Li, Lin; Jia, Zhiyun

    2017-01-01

    The influenza pandemic is a major threat to human health, and highly aggressive strains such as H1N1, H5N1 and H7N9 have emphasized the need for therapeutic strategies to combat these pathogens. Influenza anti-viral agents, especially active small molecular inhibitors play important roles in controlling pandemics while vaccines are developed. Currently, only a few drugs, which function as influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors, are approved in clinical. However, the acquired resistance against current anti-influenza drugs and the emerging mutations of influenza virus itself remain the major challenging unmet medical needs for influenza treatment. It is highly desirable to identify novel anti-influenza agents. This paper reviews the progress of small molecular inhibitors act as antiviral agents, which include hemagglutinin (HA) inhibitors, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitors, NA inhibitors and M2 ion channel protein inhibitors etc. Moreover, we also summarize new, recently reported potential targets and discuss strategies for the development of new anti-influenza virus drugs. PMID:28382157

  11. Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenjiao; Li, Richan; Li, Xianglian; He, Jian; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen; Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal pandemics and epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a crucial role in the initial stage of virus infection, making it a potential target for anti-influenza therapeutics development. Here we found that quercetin inhibited influenza infection with a wide spectrum of strains, including A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1), A/FM-1/47/1 (H1N1), and A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 7.756 ± 1.097, 6.225 ± 0.467, and 2.738 ± 1.931 μg/mL, respectively. Mechanism studies identified that quercetin showed interaction with the HA2 subunit. Moreover, quercetin could inhibit the entry of the H5N1 virus using the pseudovirus-based drug screening system. This study indicates that quercetin showing inhibitory activity in the early stage of influenza infection provides a future therapeutic option to develop effective, safe and affordable natural products for the treatment and prophylaxis of IAV infections. PMID:26712783

  12. Simian agent 12 is a BK virus-like papovavirus which replicates in monkey cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, T P; Pipas, J M

    1985-01-01

    We have begun to characterize the genomic structure and replication of the baboon papovavirus simian agent 12 (SA12). We have defined a wild-type clone of SA12 (SA12 wt100) by plaque purification from a heterogeneous stock. The functional map of SA12 wt100 can be aligned with those of the other primate papovaviruses by assigning one of the two EcoRI sites as 0/1.0 map units. The origin of bidirectional viral DNA replication maps near 0.67 map units, consistent with the limits of sequences homologous to origin sequences in the other papovaviruses. DNA sequence analysis shows that the organization of the SA12 genome is similar to that of the other primate papovaviruses studied. The arrangement and sequence of functional elements in the origin of replication region, as well as the sequences of the N-terminal regions of early protein products, indicate that SA12 is most closely related to the human virus BK, next most closely related to JC virus, and less closely related to simian virus 40. Unlike BK virus, SA12 is capable of productive infection of African green monkey kidney cells. Images PMID:2985810

  13. The genomic sequence of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nanhai; Danila, Maria I; Feng, Zehua; Buller, R Mark L; Wang, Chunlin; Han, Xiaosi; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Upton, Chris

    2003-12-05

    Ectromelia virus is the causative agent of mousepox, an acute exanthematous disease of mouse colonies in Europe, Japan, China, and the U.S. The Moscow, Hampstead, and NIH79 strains are the most thoroughly studied with the Moscow strain being the most infectious and virulent for the mouse. In the late 1940s mousepox was proposed as a model for the study of the pathogenesis of smallpox and generalized vaccinia in humans. Studies in the last five decades from a succession of investigators have resulted in a detailed description of the virologic and pathologic disease course in genetically susceptible and resistant inbred and out-bred mice. We report the DNA sequence of the left-hand end, the predicted right-hand terminal repeat, and central regions of the genome of the Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (approximately 177,500 bp), which together with the previously sequenced right-hand end, yields a genome of 209,771 bp. We identified 175 potential genes specifying proteins of between 53 and 1924 amino acids, and 29 regions containing sequences related to genes predicted in other poxviruses, but unlikely to encode for functional proteins in ectromelia virus. The translated protein sequences were compared with the protein database for structure/function relationships, and these analyses were used to investigate poxvirus evolution and to attempt to explain at the cellular and molecular level the well-characterized features of the ectromelia virus natural life cycle.

  14. Viruses are essential agents within the roots and stem of the tree of life.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Luis P; Witzany, Guenther

    2010-02-21

    In contrast with former definitions of life limited to membrane-bound cellular life forms which feed, grow, metabolise and replicate (i) a role of viruses as genetic symbionts, (ii) along with peripheral phenomena such as cryptobiosis and (iii) the horizontal nature of genetic information acquisition and processing broaden our view of the tree of life. Some researchers insist on the traditional textbook conviction of what is part of the community of life. In a recent review [Moreira, D., Lopez-Garcia, P., 2009. Ten reasons to exclude viruses from the tree of life. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7, 306-311.] they assemble four main arguments which should exclude viruses from the tree of life because of their inability to self-sustain and self-replicate, their polyphyly, the cellular origin of their cell-like genes and the volatility of their genomes. In this article we will show that these features are not coherent with current knowledge about viruses but that viral agents play key roles within the roots and stem of the tree of life.

  15. The clearance of viruses and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agents from biologicals.

    PubMed

    Farshid, Mahmood; Taffs, Rolf E; Scott, Dorothy; Asher, David M; Brorson, Kurt

    2005-10-01

    The viral and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) safety of therapeutics of biological origin (biologicals) is greatly influenced by the nature and degree of variability of the source material and by the mode of purification. Plasma-derived and recombinant DNA products currently have good viral safety records, but challenges remain. In general, large enveloped viruses are easier to remove from biologicals than small 'naked' viruses. Monoclonal antibodies and recombinant DNA biopharmaceuticals are derived from relatively homogeneous source materials and purified by multistep schemes that are robust and amenable to scientific analysis and engineering improvement. Viral clearance is more challenging for blood and cell products, as they are complex and labile. Source selection (e.g. country of origin, deferral for CJD risk factors) currently occupies the front line for ensuring that biologicals are free of TSE agents, but robust methods for their clearance from products are under development.

  16. Use of medium without reducing agent for in vitro fermentation studies by bacteria isolated from pig intestine.

    PubMed

    Poelaert, C; Boudry, C; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Bindelle, J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, several in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on health. In these methods, samples are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na(2)S or cysteine HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by release of H(2)S inducing an imbalance among bacterial species by the production of toxic metabolites. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the impact of reducing agent on fermentation patterns. Protein (soybean protein and/or casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch and/or cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by pig intestinal bacteria from fresh feces obtained from 3 sows fed an antibiotic-free commercial diet in 3 incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na(2)S, (ii) cysteine HCl, or (iii) without reducing agent. Gas fermentation kinetics were monitored over 72 h (pressure was measured every 2 min). Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h were compared among ingredient and reducing agents (n = 2). Gas production was higher (P < 0.05) when fermenting carbohydrate than protein ingredients. Except for soybean protein, total SCFA production after 24 and 72 h was similar (P > 0.05) for each ingredient regardless the incubation medium. The SCFA molar ratios did not differ (P > 0.05) between Na(2)S and without reducing agent. In conclusion, saturation of incubation media with CO(2) seems sufficient to generate an anaerobic environment. So incubation media could be simplified by omitting the reducing agent without influencing the fermentation kinetics and SCFA production.

  17. Inactivation of Airborne Bacteria and Viruses Using Extremely Low Concentrations of Chlorine Dioxide Gas.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norio; Sakasegawa, Miyusse; Miura, Takanori; Shibata, Takashi; Takigawa, Yasuhiro; Taura, Kouichi; Taguchi, Kazuhiko; Matsubara, Kazuki; Nakahara, Kouichi; Kato, Daisuke; Sogawa, Koushirou; Oka, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Infectious airborne microbes, including many pathological microbes that cause respiratory infections, are commonly found in medical facilities and constitute a serious threat to human health. Thus, an effective method for reducing the number of microbes floating in the air will aid in the minimization of the incidence of respiratory infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate that chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas at extremely low concentrations, which has no detrimental effects on human health, elicits a strong effect to inactivate bacteria and viruses and significantly reduces the number of viable airborne microbes in a hospital operating room. In one set of experiments, a suspension of Staphylococcus aureus, bacteriophage MS2, and bacteriophage ΦX174 were released into an exposure chamber. When ClO2 gas at 0.01 or 0.02 parts per million (ppm, volume/volume) was present in the chamber, the numbers of surviving microbes in the air were markedly reduced after 120 min. The reductions were markedly greater than the natural reductions of the microbes in the chamber. In another experiment, the numbers of viable airborne bacteria in the operating room of a hospital collected over a 24-hour period in the presence or absence of 0.03 ppm ClO2 gas were found to be 10.9 ± 6.7 and 66.8 ± 31.2 colony-forming units/m3 (n = 9, p < 0.001), respectively. Taken together, we conclude that ClO2 gas at extremely low concentrations (≤0.03 ppm) can reduce the number of viable microbes floating in the air in a room. These results strongly support the potential use of ClO2 gas at a non-toxic level to reduce infections caused by the inhalation of pathogenic microbes in nursing homes and medical facilities.

  18. Cefotetan: a second-generation cephalosporin active against anaerobic bacteria. Committee on Antimicrobial Agents, Canadian Infectious Disease Society.

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, M J

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To offer guidelines for the use of cefotetan, a cephamycin antibiotic, in order to minimize its overprescription. OPTIONS: Clinical practice options considered were treatment of infections with the use of second- and third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems such as imipenem as well as combination regimens of agents active against anaerobic bacteria, such as metronidazole or clindamycin with an aminoglycoside. OUTCOMES: In order of importance: efficacy, side effects and cost. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search of articles published between January 1982 and December 1993. In-vitro and pharmacokinetic studies published in recognized peer-reviewed journals that used recognized standard methods with appropriate controls were reviewed. For results of clinical trials, the reviewers emphasized randomized double-blind trials with appropriate controls. VALUES: The Antimicrobial Agents Committee of the Canadian Infectious Disease Society (CIDS) and a recognized expert (M.J.G.) recommended use of cefotetan to prevent and treat infections against which it has proved effective in randomized controlled trials. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: These guidelines should lead to less inappropriate prescribing of cefotetan, with its attendant costs and risk of development of resistant bacteria. RECOMMENDATIONS: Cefotetan could be considered an alternative single agent for prophylaxis of infection in patients undergoing elective bowel surgery. It may be used to treat patients with acute pelvic inflammatory disease and endometritis. VALIDATION: This article was prepared, reviewed and revised by the Committee on Antimicrobial Agents of the CIDS. It was then reviewed by the Council of the CIDS, and any further necessary revisions were made by the chairman of the committee. PMID:8069799

  19. First Discovery of Acetone Extract from Cottonseed Oil Sludge as a Novel Antiviral Agent against Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future. PMID:25705894

  20. Conducting nanosponge electroporation for affordable and high-efficiency disinfection of bacteria and viruses in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong; Xie, Xing; Zhao, Wenting; Liu, Nian; Maraccini, Peter A; Sassoubre, Lauren M; Boehm, Alexandria B; Cui, Yi

    2013-09-11

    High-efficiency, affordable, and low energy water disinfection methods are in great need to prevent diarrheal illness, which is one of the top five leading causes of death over the world. Traditional water disinfection methods have drawbacks including carcinogenic disinfection byproducts formation, energy and time intensiveness, and pathogen recovery. Here, we report an innovative method that achieves high-efficiency water disinfection by introducing nanomaterial-assisted electroporation implemented by a conducting nanosponge filtration device. The use of one-dimensional (1D) nanomaterials allows electroporation to occur at only several volts, which is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than that in traditional electroporation applications. The disinfection mechanism of electroporation prevents harmful byproduct formation and ensures a fast treatment speed of 15,000 L/(h·m(2)), which is equal to a contact time of 1 s. The conducting nanosponge made from low-cost polyurethane sponge coated with carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires ensures the device's affordability. This method achieves more than 6 log (99.9999%) removal of four model bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Typhimirium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis, and more than 2 log (99%) removal of one model virus, bacteriophage MS2, with a low energy consumption of only 100 J/L.

  1. [Bacteria and viruses modulate FcεRI-dependent mast cell activity].

    PubMed

    Słodka, Aleksandra; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2013-03-08

    Undoubtedly, mast cells play a central role in allergic processes. Specific allergen cross-linking of IgE bound to the high affinity receptors (FcεRI) on the mast cell surface leads to the release of preformed mediators and newly synthesized mediators, i.e. metabolites of arachidonic acid and cytokines. More and more data indicate that bacteria and viruses can influence FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. Some bacterial and viral components can reduce the surface expression of FcεRI. There are also findings that ligation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by bacterial or viral antigens can affect IgE-dependent mast cell degranulation and preformed mediator release as well as eicosanoid production. The synergistic interaction of TLR ligands and allergen can also modify cytokine synthesis by mast cells stimulated via FcεRI. Moreover, data suggest that specific IgE for bacterial or viral antigens can influence mast cell activity. What is more, some bacterial and viral components or some endogenous proteins produced during viral infection can act as superantigens by interacting with the VH3 domain of IgE. All these observations indicate that bacterial and viral infections modify the course of allergic diseases by affecting FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation. 

  2. Variability in bacteria and virus-like particle abundances during purging of unconfined aquifers.

    PubMed

    Roudnew, Ben; Lavery, Trish J; Seymour, Justin R; Jeffries, Thomas C; Mitchell, James G

    2014-01-01

    Standard methodologies for sampling the physicochemical conditions of groundwater recommend purging a bore for three bore volumes to avoid sampling the stagnant water within a bore and instead gain samples representative of the aquifer. However, there are currently no methodological standards addressing the amount of purging required to gain representative biological samples to assess groundwater bacterial and viral abundances. The objective of this study was to examine how bacterial and viral abundances change during the purging of bore volumes. Six bores infiltrating into unconfined aquifers were pumped for five or six bore volumes each and bacteria and virus-like particles (VLPs) were enumerated from each bore volume using flow cytometry. In examination of the individual bores trends in bacterial abundances were observed to increase, decrease, or remain constant with each purged bore volume. Furthermore, triplicates taken at each bore volume indicated substantial variations in VLP and bacterial abundances that are often larger than the differences between bore volumes. This indicates a high level of small scale heterogeneity in microbial community abundance in groundwater samples, and we suggest that this may be an intrinsic feature of bore biology. The heterogeneity observed may be driven by bottom up processes (variability in the distribution of organic and inorganic nutrients), top-down processes (grazing and viral lysis), physical heterogeneities in the bore, or technical artifacts associated with the purging process. We suggest that a more detailed understanding of the ecology underpinning this variability is required to adequately describe the microbiological characteristics of groundwater ecosystems.

  3. Virus-mimicking nano-constructs as a contrast agent for near infrared photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sharad; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Wang, Lihong V.; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-02-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of photoacoustic imaging using a contrast agent composed of a plant virus protein shell, which encapsulates indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near infrared chromophore. These nano-constructs can provide higher photoacoustic signals than blood in tissue phantoms, and display superior photostability compared to non-encapsulated ICG. Our preliminary results suggest that the constructs do not elicit an acute immunogenic response in healthy mice.We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of photoacoustic imaging using a contrast agent composed of a plant virus protein shell, which encapsulates indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near infrared chromophore. These nano-constructs can provide higher photoacoustic signals than blood in tissue phantoms, and display superior photostability compared to non-encapsulated ICG. Our preliminary results suggest that the constructs do not elicit an acute immunogenic response in healthy mice. Electronic supplemental information (ESI) available: Information on experimental procedure for fabrication of the nano-constructs, photoacoustic imaging, and immunogenic studies. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr34124k

  4. An Alternative Gelling Agent for Culture and Studies of Nematodes, Bacteria, Fungi, and Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Pluronic F127 polyol, a block copolymer of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, was studied as an alternative to agar in culture media for nematodes, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and plant tissues or seedlings, At a polyol concentration of 20% w/v, the culture media, semi-solid at room temperature (22 C) but liquid at lower temperatures, had minimal effects on the test organisms. Most of the fungi and bacteria grew as well in 20% polyol as in 1.5% agar media; however, various species of nematodes and plant seedlings or tissues exhibited differential sensitivities to different concentrations of the polyol. In cases where the organisms were unaffected, the polyol media had certain advantages over agar, including greater transparency and less contamination under nonaseptic conditions. Polyol media have potentially greater ease for recovery of embedded organisms or tissues inside the media by merely shifting to lower temperatures. PMID:19290241

  5. Use of Aptamers as Diagnostics Tools and Antiviral Agents for Human Viruses

    PubMed Central

    González, Víctor M.; Martín, M. Elena; Fernández, Gerónimo; García-Sacristán, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate diagnosis is the key factor for treatment of viral diseases. Time is the most important factor in rapidly developing and epidemiologically dangerous diseases, such as influenza, Ebola and SARS. Chronic viral diseases such as HIV-1 or HCV are asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and the therapeutic success mainly depends on early detection of the infective agent. Over the last years, aptamer technology has been used in a wide range of diagnostic and therapeutic applications and, concretely, several strategies are currently being explored using aptamers against virus proteins. From a diagnostics point of view, aptamers are being designed as a bio-recognition element in diagnostic systems to detect viral proteins either in the blood (serum or plasma) or into infected cells. Another potential use of aptamers is for therapeutics of viral infections, interfering in the interaction between the virus and the host using aptamers targeting host-cell matrix receptors, or attacking the virus intracellularly, targeting proteins implicated in the viral replication cycle. In this paper, we review how aptamers working against viral proteins are discovered, with a focus on recent advances that improve the aptamers’ properties as a real tool for viral infection detection and treatment. PMID:27999271

  6. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of monobactams as antibacterial agents against gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai-Gen; Hu, Xin-Xin; Li, Cong-Ran; Li, Ying-Hong; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Bi, Chong-Wen; Tang, Sheng; You, Xue-Fu; Song, Dan-Qing

    2016-03-03

    A series of monobactam derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their antibacterial activities against susceptible and resistant Gram-negative strains, taking Aztreonam and BAL30072 as the leads. Six conjugates (12a-f) bearing PIH-like siderophore moieties were created to enhance the bactericidal activities against Gram-negative bacteria based on Trojan Horse strategy, and all of them displayed potencies against susceptible Gram-negative strains with MIC ≤ 8 μg/mL. SAR revealed that the polar substituents on the oxime side chain were beneficial for activities against resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Compounds 19c and 33a-b exhibited the promising potencies against ESBLs-producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae with MICs ranging from 2 μg/mL to 8 μg/mL. These results offered powerful information for further strategic optimization in search of the antibacterial candidates against MDR Gram-negative bacteria.

  7. Inhibitory activity of chelating agent against bacteria associated with poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediamine-N, N’-disuccinic acid (EDDS) are chelating agents that can bind minerals that produce water hardness. By sequestering minerals in hard water, chelators reduce water hardness and increase the ability of cleansers to remove dirt and debris dur...

  8. Resistance index of penicillin-resistant bacteria to various physicochemical agents.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, M; Kasra Kermanshahi, R; Heshmat Dehkordi, E; Payami, F; Behjati, M

    2012-01-01

    Widespread use of various antimicrobial agents resulted in the emergence of bacterial resistance. Mechanisms like direct efflux, formation, and sequestration of metals and drugs in complexes and antiporter pumps are some examples. This investigation aims to investigate the resistance pattern of penicillin-resistant bacterial strains to some physicochemical agents. Sensitivity/resistance pattern of common bacterial strains to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion assay. Broth and agar dilution method were used for determination of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. The impact of UV ray on the bacterial growth under laminar flow hood was measured using photonmeter. Our data demonstrates that the most prevalent metal resistance was against arsenate (95.92%), followed by cadmium (52.04%) and mercury (36.73%). There was significant difference between cetrimide resistances among studied microbial strains especially for P. aeruginosa (P < 0.05). High rate of pathogen resistance to various antibacterial agents in our study supports previously published data. This great rate of bacterial resistance is attributed to the emergence of defense mechanisms developed in pathogens. The higher general bacterial resistance rate among Staphylococcus strains rather than E. coli and P. aeruginosa strains draws attention towards focusing on designing newer therapeutic compounds for Staphylococcus strains.

  9. Motuporamine Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents and Antibiotic Enhancers against Resistant Gram‐Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Borselli, Diane; Blanchet, Marine; Bolla, Jean‐Michel; Muth, Aaron; Skruber, Kristen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram‐negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU‐N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer‐membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de‐energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump. This suggests that depowering the efflux pump provides another strategy to address antibiotic resistance. PMID:28098416

  10. Gold nanoparticles synthesized by Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) acting as antimicrobial agents against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piruthiviraj, Prakash; Margret, Anita; Krishnamurthy, Poornima Priyadharsani

    2016-04-01

    Production of antimicrobial agents through the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using green technology has been extensively made consistent by various researchers; yet, this study uses the flower bud's aqueous extracts of Brassica oleracea (Broccoli) as a reducing agent for chloroauric acid (1 mM). After 30 min of incubation, synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNps) was observed by a change in extract color from pale yellow to purple color. Synthesis of AuNps was confirmed in UV-visible spectroscopy at the range of approximately 560 nm. The SEM analysis showed the average nanoparticles size of 12-22 nm. The antimicrobial activity of AuNps was analyzed by subjecting it to human pathogenic bacteria (Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumonia) and fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans) using disc diffusion method. The broccoli-synthesized AuNps showed the efficient antibacterial and antifungal activity of above-mentioned microbes. It was confirmed that AuNps have the best antimicrobial agent compared to the standard antibiotics (Gentamicin and Fluconazole). When the concentrations of AuNps were increased (10, 25, and 50 µg/ml), the sensitivity zone also increased for all the tested microbes. The synthesized AuNps are capable of rendering high antimicrobial efficacy and, hence, have a great potential in the preparation of drugs used against major bacterial and fungal diseases in humans.

  11. Activity of Topical Antimicrobial Agents Against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    both the prophylaxis and treatment of burn wound infections [18]. Agents such as silver sulfadiazine , silver nitrate, mupirocin, honey, mafenide...include emerging resistance of staphylococci to mupirocin and of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to silver sulfadiazine (Table 1) [9,18–21]. Prior studies...administered routinely peri-operatively and various topical antimicrobials are used to include silver sulfadiazine , mafe- nide acetate, silver nitrate

  12. Move over, bacteria! Viruses make their mark as mutualistic microbial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2015-07-01

    Viruses are being redefined as more than just pathogens. They are also critical symbiotic partners in the health of their hosts. In some cases, viruses have fused with their hosts in symbiogenetic relationships. Mutualistic interactions are found in plant, insect, and mammalian viruses, as well as with eukaryotic and prokaryotic microbes, and some interactions involve multiple players of the holobiont. With increased virus discovery, more mutualistic interactions are being described and more will undoubtedly be discovered.

  13. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  14. ENTEROPATHOGENS DETECTED IN A DAYCARE CENTER, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL: BACTERIA, VIRUS, AND PARASITE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Edna Donizetti Rossi; Germini, Marcela Cristina Braga Yassaka; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Lobo, Patrícia dos Santos; Fraga, Valéria Daltibari; Conceição, Luciana Moran; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Rossit, Andréa Regina Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and etiological profile of enteropathogens in children from a daycare center. Methods: From October 2010 to February 2011 stool samples from 100 children enrolled in a government daycare center in the municipality of São José do Rio Preto, in the state of São Paulo, were collected and analyzed. Results: A total of 246 bacteria were isolated in 99% of the fecal samples; 129 were in the diarrheal group and 117 in the non-diarrheal group. Seventy-three strains of Escherichia coli were isolated, 19 of Enterobacter, one of Alcaligenes and one of Proteus. There were 14 cases of mixed colonization with Enterobacter and E. coli. Norovirus and Astrovirus were detected in children with clinical signs suggestive of diarrhea. These viruses were detected exclusively among children residing in urban areas. All fecal samples were negative for the presence of the rotavirus species A and C. The presence of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana and hookworm was observed. A significant association was found between food consumption outside home and daycare center and the presence of intestinal parasites. Conclusions: For children of this daycare center, intestinal infection due to pathogens does not seem to have contributed to the occurrence of diarrhea or other intestinal symptoms. The observed differences may be due to the wide diversity of geographical, social and economic characteristics and the climate of Brazil, all of which have been reported as critical factors in the modulation of the frequency of different enteropathogens. PMID:25651323

  15. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael M; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J; Farjalla, Vinícius F; Bozelli, Reinaldo L; Barros, Nathan O

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River's north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes.

  16. Molecular and Microscopic Analysis of Bacteria and Viruses in Exhaled Breath Collected Using a Simple Impaction and Condensing Method

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Shen, Fangxia; Li, Xiaoguang; Wu, Yan; Chen, Qi; Jie, Xu; Yao, Maosheng

    2012-01-01

    Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is increasingly being used as a non-invasive method for disease diagnosis and environmental exposure assessment. By using hydrophobic surface, ice, and droplet scavenging, a simple impaction and condensing based collection method is reported here. Human subjects were recruited to exhale toward the device for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min. The exhaled breath quickly formed into tiny droplets on the hydrophobic surface, which were subsequently scavenged into a 10 µL rolling deionized water droplet. The collected EBC was further analyzed using culturing, DNA stain, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and colorimetry (VITEK 2) for bacteria and viruses. Experimental data revealed that bacteria and viruses in EBC can be rapidly collected using the method developed here, with an observed efficiency of 100 µL EBC within 1 min. Culturing, DNA stain, SEM, and qPCR methods all detected high bacterial concentrations up to 7000 CFU/m3 in exhaled breath, including both viable and dead cells of various types. Sphingomonas paucimobilis and Kocuria variants were found dominant in EBC samples using VITEK 2 system. SEM images revealed that most bacteria in exhaled breath are detected in the size range of 0.5–1.0 µm, which is able to enable them to remain airborne for a longer time, thus presenting a risk for airborne transmission of potential diseases. Using qPCR, influenza A H3N2 viruses were also detected in one EBC sample. Different from other devices restricted solely to condensation, the developed method can be easily achieved both by impaction and condensation in a laboratory and could impact current practice of EBC collection. Nonetheless, the reported work is a proof-of-concept demonstration, and its performance in non-invasive disease diagnosis such as bacterimia and virus infections needs to be further validated including effects of its influencing matrix. PMID:22848436

  17. Viruses and bacteria in floodplain lakes along a major Amazon tributary respond to distance to the Amazon River

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Rafael M.; Roland, Fábio; Cardoso, Simone J.; Farjalla, Vinícius F.; Bozelli, Reinaldo L.; Barros, Nathan O.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the massive volume of water along the Amazon River, the Amazon tributaries have their water backed up by 100s of kilometers upstream their mouth. This backwater effect is part of the complex hydrodynamics of Amazonian surface waters, which in turn drives the variation in concentrations of organic matter and nutrients, and also regulates planktonic communities such as viruses and bacteria. Viruses and bacteria are commonly tightly coupled to each other, and their ecological role in aquatic food webs has been increasingly recognized. Here, we surveyed viral and bacterial abundances (BAs) in 26 floodplain lakes along the Trombetas River, the largest clear-water tributary of the Amazon River’s north margin. We correlated viral and BAs with temperature, pH, dissolved inorganic carbon, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), phosphorus, nitrogen, turbidity, water transparency, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), phytoplankton abundance, and distance from the lake mouth until the confluence of the Trombetas with the Amazon River. We hypothesized that both bacterial and viral abundances (VAs) would change along a latitudinal gradient, as the backwater effect becomes more intense with increased proximity to the Amazon River; different flood duration and intensity among lakes and waters with contrasting sources would cause spatial variation. Our measurements were performed during the low water period, when floodplain lakes are in their most lake-like conditions. Viral and BAs, DOC, pCO2, and water transparency increased as distance to the Amazon River increased. Most viruses were bacteriophages, as viruses were strongly linked to bacteria, but not to phytoplankton. We suggest that BAs increase in response to DOC quantity and possibly quality, consequently leading to increased VAs. Our results highlight that hydrodynamics plays a key role in the regulation of planktonic viral and bacterial communities in Amazonian floodplain lakes. PMID:25788895

  18. Is there a role for symbiotic bacteria in plant virus transmission?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the process of circulative plant virus transmission by insect vectors, viruses interact with different insect vector tissues prior to transmission to a new host plant. An area of intense debate in the field is whether bacterial symbionts of insect vectors are involved in the virus transmissi...

  19. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S.; Mirza, Aashiq H.; Pingle, Maneesh R.; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R.; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K.; Olson, Victoria A.; Larone, Davise H.; Spitzer, Eric D.; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M.

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus). PMID:26381398

  20. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    PubMed

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S; Mirza, Aashiq H; Pingle, Maneesh R; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K; Olson, Victoria A; Larone, Davise H; Spitzer, Eric D; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus).

  1. Detection of single bacteria - causative agents of meningitis using raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baikova, T. V.; Minaeva, S. A.; Sundukov, A. V.; Svistunova, T. S.; Bagratashvili, V. N.; Alushin, M. V.; Gonchukov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    Early diagnostics of meningitis is a very topical problem as it is a fulminant disease with a high level of mortality. The progress of this disease is, as a rule, accompanied by the appearance of bacteria in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) composition. The examination of the CSF is well known to be the only reliable approach to the identification of meningitis. However, the traditional biochemical analyses are time consuming and not always reliable, simple, and inexpensive, whereas the optical methods are poorly developed. This work is devoted to the study of Raman spectra of several bacterial cultures which are mainly present during meningitis. Raman microscopy is a prompt and noninvasive technique capable of providing reliable information about molecular-level alterations of biological objects at their minimal quantity and size. It was shown that there are characteristic lines in Raman spectra which can be the reliable markers for determination of bacterial form of meningitis at a level of a single bacterium.

  2. DNA/Ag Nanoparticles as Antibacterial Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Takeshima, Tomomi; Tada, Yuya; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Watari, Fumio; Fugetsu, Bunshi

    2015-01-01

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles were produced using DNA extracted from salmon milt as templates. Particles spherical in shape with an average diameter smaller than 10 nm were obtained. The nanoparticles consisted of Ag as the core with an outermost thin layer of DNA. The DNA/Ag hybrid nanoparticles were immobilized over the surface of cotton based fabrics and their antibacterial efficiency was evaluated using E. coli as the typical Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial experiments were performed according to the Antibacterial Standard of Japanese Association for the Functional Evaluation of Textiles. The fabrics modified with DNA/Ag nanoparticles showed a high enough inhibitory and killing efficiency against E. coli at a concentration of Ag ≥ 10 ppm. PMID:28347012

  3. Starter bacteria are the prime agents of lipolysis in cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Dara K; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Beresford, Tom P; Wilkinson, Martin G

    2006-10-18

    To assess the contribution of starter lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to lipolysis in Cheddar cheese, the evolution of free fatty acids (FFAs) was monitored in Cheddar cheeses manufactured from pasteurized milks with or without starter. Starter-free cheeses were acidified by a combination of lactic acid and glucono-delta-lactone. Starter cultures were found to actively produce FFAs in the cheese vat, and mean levels of FFAs were significantly higher in starter cheeses over ripening. The contribution of nonstarter LAB toward lipolysis appears minimal, especially in starter-acidified cheeses. It is postulated that the moderate increases in FFAs in Cheddar cheese are primarily due to lack of access of esterase of LAB to suitable lipid substrate. The results of this study indicate that starter esterases are the primary contributors to lipolysis in Cheddar cheese made from good quality pasteurized milk.

  4. Bacteriophage: Time to Re-Evaluate the Potential of Phage Therapy as a Promising Agent to Control Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sabouri Ghannad, Masoud; Mohammadi, Avid

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays the most difficult problem in treatment of bacterial infections is the appearance of resistant bacteria to the antimicrobial agents so that the attention is being drawn to other potential targets. In view of the positive findings of phage therapy, many advantages have been mentioned which utilizes phage therapy over chemotherapy and it seems to be a promising agent to replace the antibiotics. This review focuses on an understanding of phages for the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases as a new alternative treatment of infections caused by multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, utilizing bacteriophage may be accounted as an alternative therapy. It is appropriate time to re-evaluate the potential of phage therapy as an effective bactericidal and a promising agent to control multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:23494063

  5. Ecofriendly control of potato late blight causative agent and the potential role of lactic acid bacteria: a review.

    PubMed

    Axel, Claudia; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Guo, Jiahui; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-10-01

    In times of increasing societal pressure to reduce the application of pesticides on crops, demands for environmentally friendly replacements have intensified. In the case of late blight, a devastating potato plant disease, the historically most widely known plant destroyer has been the oomycete Phytophthora infestans. To date, the most important strategy for control of this pathogen has been the frequent application of fungicides. Due to the aforementioned necessity to move away from traditional chemical treatments, many studies have focused on finding alternative ecofriendly biocontrol systems. In general, due to the different modes of actions (i.e. antagonistic effects or induction of plant defence mechanisms), the use of microorganisms as biological control agents has a definite potential. Amongst them, several species of lactic acid bacteria have been recognised as producers of bioactive metabolites which are functional against a broad spectrum of undesirable microorganisms, such as fungi, oomycetes and other bacteria. Thus, they may represent an interesting tool for the development of novel concepts in pest management. This review describes the present situation of late blight disease and summarises current literature regarding the biocontrol of the phytopathogen P. infestans using antagonistic microorganisms.

  6. Cyclooxygenase‐2 facilitates dengue virus replication and serves as a potential target for developing antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Kuang; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the important mediators of inflammation in response to viral infection, and it contributes to viral replication, for example, cytomegalovirus or hepatitis C virus replication. The role of COX-2 in dengue virus (DENV) replication remains unclear. In the present study, we observed an increased level of COX-2 in patients with dengue fever compared with healthy donors. Consistent with the clinical data, an elevated level of COX-2 expression was also observed in DENV-infected ICR suckling mice. Using cell-based experiments, we revealed that DENV-2 infection significantly induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells. The exogenous expression of COX-2 or PGE2 treatment dose-dependently enhanced DENV-2 replication. In contrast, COX-2 gene silencing and catalytic inhibition sufficiently suppressed DENV-2 replication. In an ICR suckling mouse model, we identified that the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 protected mice from succumbing to life-threatening DENV-2 infection. By using COX-2 promoter-based analysis and specific inhibitors against signaling molecules, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK/JNK are critical factors for DENV-2-induced COX-2 expression and viral replication. Altogether, our results reveal that COX-2 is an important factor for DENV replication and can serve as a potential target for developing therapeutic agents against DENV infection. PMID:28317866

  7. Role of Bacterial Exopolysaccharides as Agents in Counteracting Immune Disorders Induced by Herpes Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gugliandolo, Concetta; Spanò, Antonio; Maugeri, Teresa L.; Poli, Annarita; Arena, Adriana; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Extreme marine environments, such as the submarine shallow vents of the Eolian Islands (Italy), offer an almost unexplored source of microorganisms producing unexploited and promising biomolecules for pharmaceutical applications. Thermophilic and thermotolerant bacilli isolated from Eolian vents are able to produce exopolysaccharides (EPSs) with antiviral and immunomodulatory effects against Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). HSV-2 is responsible for the most common and continuously increasing viral infections in humans. Due to the appearance of resistance to the available treatments, new biomolecules exhibiting different mechanisms of action could provide novel agents for treating viral infections. The EPSs hinder the HSV-2 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but not in WISH (Wistar Institute Susan Hayflic) cells line, indicating that cell-mediated immunity was involved in the antiviral activity. High levels of Th1-type cytokines were detected in PBMC treated with all EPSs, while Th2-type cytokines were not induced. These EPSs are water soluble exopolymers able to stimulate the immune response and thus contribute to the antiviral immune defense, acting as immunomodulators. As stimulants of Th1 cell-mediated immunity, they could lead to the development of novel drugs as alternative in the treatment of herpes virus infections, as well as in immunocompromised host. PMID:27682100

  8. Agents and strategies in development for improved management of herpes simplex virus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Kleymann, Gerald

    2005-02-01

    The quiet pandemic of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections has plagued humanity since ancient times, causing mucocutaneous infection such as herpes labialis and herpes genitalis. Disease symptoms often interfere with every-day activities and occasionally HSV infections are the cause of life-threatening or sight-impairing disease, especially in neonates and the immuno-compromised patient population. After infection the virus persists for life in neurons of the host in a latent form, periodically reactivating and often resulting in significant psychosocial distress for the patient. Currently no cure is available. So far, vaccines, ILs, IFNs, therapeutic proteins, antibodies, immunomodulators and small-molecule drugs with specific or non-specific modes of action lacked either efficacy or the required safety profile to replace the nucleosidic drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir as the first choice of treatment. The recently discovered inhibitors of the HSV helicase-primase are the most potent development candidates today. These antiviral agents act by a novel mechanism of action and display low resistance rates in vitro and superior efficacy in animal models. This review summarises the current therapeutic options, discusses the potential of preclinical or investigational drugs and provides an up-to-date interpretation of the challenge to establish novel treatments for herpes simplex disease.

  9. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin).

    PubMed Central

    Mbithi, J N; Springthorpe, V S; Sattar, S A

    1993-01-01

    The abilities of 10 hygienic hand-washing agents and tap water (containing approximately 0.5 ppm of free chlorine) to eliminate strain HM-175 of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and poliovirus (PV) type 1 (Sabin) were compared by using finger pad and whole-hand protocols with three adult volunteers. A mixture of the two viruses was prepared in a 10% suspension of feces, and 10 microliters of the mixture was placed on each finger pad. The inoculum was allowed to dry for 20 min, and the contaminated area was exposed to a hand-washing agent for 10 s, rinsed in tap water, and dried with a paper towel. In the whole-hand protocol, the hands were contaminated with 0.5 ml of the virus mixture, exposed for 10 s to a hand-washing agent, washed, and dried as described above. Tryptose phosphate broth was used to elute any virus remaining on the finger pads or hands. One part of the eluate was assayed directly for PV with FRhK-4 cells, while the other part was first treated with a PV-neutralizing serum and then assayed for HAV with the same cell line. The results are reported as mean percentages of reduction in PFU compared with the amount of infectious virus detectable after initial drying.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8250567

  10. Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease, is present in Ohio wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV), the causal agent of High Plains disease in wheat, was found in wheat fields in three western counties in Ohio: Auglaize, Miami, and Paulding. WMoV nucleoprotein sequence was identified from Illumina deep sequencing of RNA collected from symptomatic and asymptomatic wheat s...

  11. Autotrophic, hydrogen-oxidizing, denitrifying bacteria in groundwater, potential agents for bioremediation of nitrate contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Ceazan, M.L.; Brooks, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Addition of hydrogen or formate significantly enhanced the rate of consumption of nitrate in slurried core samples obtained from an active zone of denitrification in a nitrate-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.). Hydrogen uptake by the core material was immediate and rapid, with an apparent K(m) of 0.45 to 0.60 ??M and a V(max) of 18.7 nmol cm-3 h-1 at 30??C. Nine strains of hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria were subsequently isolated from the aquifer. Eight of the strains grew autotrophically on hydrogen with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor. One strain grew mixotrophically. All of the isolates were capable of heterotrophic growth, but none were similar to Paracoccus denitrificans, a well-characterized hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifier. The kinetics for hydrogen uptake during denitrification were determined for each isolate with substrate depletion progress curves; the K(m)s ranged from 0.30 to 3.32 ??M, with V(max)s of 1.85 to 13.29 fmol cell-1 h-1. Because these organisms appear to be common constituents of the in situ population of the aquifer, produce innocuous end products, and could be manipulated to sequentially consume oxygen and then nitrate when both were present, these results suggest that these organisms may have significant potential for in situ bioremediation of nitrate contamination in groundwater.

  12. Reducing bacteria and macrophage density on nanophase hydroxyapatite coated onto titanium surfaces without releasing pharmaceutical agents.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Yazici, Hilal; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-05-14

    Reducing bacterial density on titanium implant surfaces has been a major concern because of the increasing number of nosocomial infections. Controlling the inflammatory response post implantation has also been an important issue for medical devices due to the detrimental effects of chronic inflammation on device performance. It has recently been demonstrated that manipulating medical device surface properties including chemistry, roughness and wettability can control both infection and inflammation. Here, we synthesized nanophase (that is, materials with one dimension in the nanoscale) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium to reduce bacterial adhesion and inflammatory responses (as measured by macrophage functions) and compared such results to bare titanium and plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite titanium coated surfaces used clinically today. This approach is a pharmaceutical-free approach to inhibit infection and inflammation due to the detrimental side effects of any drug released in the body. Here, nanophase hydroxyapatite was synthesized in sizes ranging from 110-170 nm and was subsequently coated onto titanium samples using electrophoretic deposition. Results indicated that smaller nanoscale hydroxyapatite features on titanium surfaces alone decreased bacterial attachment in the presence of gram negative (P. aeruginosa), gram positive (S. aureus) and ampicillin resistant gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria as well as were able to control inflammatory responses; properties which should lead to their further investigation for improved medical applications.

  13. Reducing bacteria and macrophage density on nanophase hydroxyapatite coated onto titanium surfaces without releasing pharmaceutical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Garima; Yazici, Hilal; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-04-01

    Reducing bacterial density on titanium implant surfaces has been a major concern because of the increasing number of nosocomial infections. Controlling the inflammatory response post implantation has also been an important issue for medical devices due to the detrimental effects of chronic inflammation on device performance. It has recently been demonstrated that manipulating medical device surface properties including chemistry, roughness and wettability can control both infection and inflammation. Here, we synthesized nanophase (that is, materials with one dimension in the nanoscale) hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium to reduce bacterial adhesion and inflammatory responses (as measured by macrophage functions) and compared such results to bare titanium and plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite titanium coated surfaces used clinically today. This approach is a pharmaceutical-free approach to inhibit infection and inflammation due to the detrimental side effects of any drug released in the body. Here, nanophase hydroxyapatite was synthesized in sizes ranging from 110-170 nm and was subsequently coated onto titanium samples using electrophoretic deposition. Results indicated that smaller nanoscale hydroxyapatite features on titanium surfaces alone decreased bacterial attachment in the presence of gram negative (P. aeruginosa), gram positive (S. aureus) and ampicillin resistant gram-negative (E. coli) bacteria as well as were able to control inflammatory responses; properties which should lead to their further investigation for improved medical applications.

  14. Autotrophic, Hydrogen-Oxidizing, Denitrifying Bacteria in Groundwater, Potential Agents for Bioremediation of Nitrate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Richard L.; Ceazan, Marnie L.; Brooks, Myron H.

    1994-01-01

    Addition of hydrogen or formate significantly enhanced the rate of consumption of nitrate in slurried core samples obtained from an active zone of denitrification in a nitrate-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer (Cape Cod, Mass.). Hydrogen uptake by the core material was immediate and rapid, with an apparent Km of 0.45 to 0.60 μM and a Vmax of 18.7 nmol cm-3 h-1 at 30°C. Nine strains of hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifying bacteria were subsequently isolated from the aquifer. Eight of the strains grew autotrophically on hydrogen with either oxygen or nitrate as the electron acceptor. One strain grew mixotrophically. All of the isolates were capable of heterotrophic growth, but none were similar to Paracoccus denitrificans, a well-characterized hydrogen-oxidizing denitrifier. The kinetics for hydrogen uptake during denitrification were determined for each isolate with substrate depletion progress curves; the Kms ranged from 0.30 to 3.32 μM, with Vmaxs of 1.85 to 13.29 fmol cell-1 h-1. Because these organisms appear to be common constituents of the in situ population of the aquifer, produce innocuous end products, and could be manipulated to sequentially consume oxygen and then nitrate when both were present, these results suggest that these organisms may have significant potential for in situ bioremediation of nitrate contamination in groundwater. PMID:16349284

  15. Novel MRI Contrast Agent from Magnetotactic Bacteria Enables In Vivo Tracking of iPSC-derived Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Tachibana, Atsushi; Goldstone, Andrew B.; Woo, Y. Joseph; Chakraborty, Papia; Lee, Kayla R.; Foote, Chandler S.; Piecewicz, Stephanie; Barrozo, Joyce C.; Wakeel, Abdul; Rice, Bradley W.; Bell III, Caleb B.; Yang, Phillip C.

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic delivery of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (iCMs) represents a novel clinical approach to regenerate the injured myocardium. However, methods for robust and accurate in vivo monitoring of the iCMs are still lacking. Although superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) are recognized as a promising tool for in vivo tracking of stem cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), their signal persists in the heart even weeks after the disappearance of the injected cells. This limitation highlights the inability of SPIOs to distinguish stem cell viability. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we demonstrate the use of a living contrast agent, magneto-endosymbionts (MEs) derived from magnetotactic bacteria for the labeling of iCMs. The ME-labeled iCMs were injected into the infarcted area of murine heart and probed by MRI and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Our findings demonstrate that the MEs are robust and effective biological contrast agents to track iCMs in an in vivo murine model. We show that the MEs clear within one week of cell death whereas the SPIOs remain over 2 weeks after cell death. These findings will accelerate the clinical translation of in vivo MRI monitoring of transplanted stem cell at high spatial resolution and sensitivity. PMID:27264636

  16. Direct-acting Antivirals and Host-targeting Agents against the Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Wu, Shuang; Nakamura, Masato; Jiang, Xia; Haga, Yuki; Sasaki, Reina; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis and occasionally leads to acute liver failure in both developing and developed countries. Although effective vaccines for HAV are available, the development of new antivirals against HAV may be important for the control of HAV infection in developed countries where no universal vaccination program against HAV exists, such as Japan. There are two forms of antiviral agents against HAV: direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) and host-targeting agents (HTAs). Studies using small interfering ribonucleic acid (siRNA) have suggested that the HAV internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) is an attractive target for the control of HAV replication and infection. Among the HTAs, amantadine and interferon-lambda 1 (IL-29) inhibit HAV IRES-mediated translation and HAV replication. Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors inhibit La protein expression, HAV IRES activity, and HAV replication. Based on this review, both DAAs and HTAs may be needed to control effectively HAV infection, and their use should continue to be explored. PMID:26623267

  17. Antagonistic effects of several bacteria on Verticillium dahliae the causal agent of cotton wilt.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, A S; Disfani, F A; Hedjaroud, G A; Mohammadi, M

    2001-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with 89 bacterial isolates that were collected from cotton rhizosphere in Gorgan province. The antagonistic effects of bacterial isolates on Verticillium dahliae Klebahn were studied using dual culture test. Five highly effective isolates were selected from these antagonists for subsequent studies. According to the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates 2020 and 3 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens and isolate 204, 202 and 309 as Bacillus spp. These isolates were used to investigate their antagonistic mechanisms in vitro and their effects on cotton growth in vivo. Inhibition of V. dahliae by volatile metabolites and antibiotics was studied as described by Fiddamen (1994) and Kraus (1990). Production of hydrogen cyanide was studied qualitatively, using HCN-indicator paper of Castric and Castric (1983). Isolates 204, 202 and 309 inhibited the mycelial growth of the fungus through production of volatile metabolites. Isolates 2020 and 3 produced antibiotic as well as volatile metabolities that inhibited mycelial growth of V. dahliae. They both produced hydrogen cyanide. After four months of greenhouse study, the application of antagonistic bacteria had different effects on growth of cotton plants. Bacterial treatment in soil had better effects on plant growth than that of bacterial seed treatment. In soil treatments containing infested and non-infested soil with V. dahliae, isolates 2020 and 3 caused an increase in plant height in comparison with those in infested and non-infested controls. In non-infested soil, application of isolates 2020, 3 and 202 increased root length and dry weight of cotton plant, but in soil infested with the fungus, only isolate 202 increased root length. Isolate 2020 increased plant dry weight. In conclusion, isolates 2020 and 3 belonging to P. fluorescens and isolate 202 pertaining to genus Bacillus had the greatest effect on increasing the cotton growth.

  18. High sensitive virus and bacteria detection using plasma-surface-functionalized and antibody-integrated carbon nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    In this study we will present our recent results on the virus and bacteria detection system using the surface-functionalized carbon-encapsulated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated by dc arc discharge, and carbon nanotube(CNT) dot-array prepared with a combined thermal and plasma CVD system. Surface functionalization of their surfaces has been carried out by plasma chemical modification using a low-pressure RF plasma for carbon-encapsulated magnetic NPs, and an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet(APPJ) for CNT dot-array substrate. After immobilization of the relevant biomolecules onto the surface of nano-structured materials, we have carried out the experiments on virus or bacteria detection using these surface-functionalized nano-structured materials. From the preliminary experiments with carbon-encapsulated magnetic NPs, we confirmed that influenza A (H1N1) virus concentration of 17.3-fold was achieved by using anti-influenza A virus hemagglutinin (HA) antibody. We have also confirmed a rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella using the proposed method. The feasibility of CNT dot-array as a microarray biosensor has been studied by maskless functionalization of amino (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups onto CNTs by using a ultrafine APPJ with a micro-capillary. The experimental results of chemical derivatization with the fluorescent dye showed that the CNT dot-array was not only functionalized with amino group and carboxyl group, but was also functionalized without any interference between functional groups. The success of maskless functionalization in the line pattern provides a feasibility of a multi-functionalization CNT dot-array device for future application of a microarray biosensor. This work has been supported in part by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 21110010 and 25246029) from the JSPS and the International Research Collaboration and Scientific Publication Grant (DIPA-23.04.1.673453/2015) from DGHE Indonesia.

  19. Virus receptors: implications for pathogenesis and the design of antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Norkin, L C

    1995-04-01

    A virus initiates infection by attaching to its specific receptor on the surface of a susceptible host cell. This prepares the way for the virus to enter the cell. Consequently, the expression of the receptor on specific cells and tissues of the host is a major determinant of the route of entry of the virus into the host and of the patterns of virus spread and pathogenesis in the host. This review emphasizes the virus-receptor interactions of human immunodeficiency virus, the rhinoviruses, the herpesviruses, and the coronaviruses. These interactions are often found to be complex and dynamic, involving multiple sites or factors on both the virus and the host cell. Also, the receptor may play an important role in virus entry per se in addition to its role in virus binding. In the cases of human immunodeficiency virus and the rhinoviruses, ingenious approaches to therapeutic strategies based on inhibiting virus attachment and entry are under development and in clinical trials.

  20. Intestinal Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Bacteria Mitigate Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Experimentally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Ferens, Witold A.; Cobbold, Rowland; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    2006-01-01

    Ruminants often carry gastrointestinal Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Stxs belong to a large family of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), found in many plants and some bacteria. Plant RIPs, secreted into extracellular spaces, limit the spread of viruses through plant tissues by penetrating and killing virally infected cells. Previously, we showed Stx activity against bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells in vitro and hypothesized that STEC bacteria have antiviral activity in ruminant hosts. Here, we investigated the impact of STEC on the initial phases of BLV infection in sheep. Sheep were treated with biweekly oral doses of E. coli O157:H7 (an STEC) or an isogenic stx mutant strain. A different group of sheep were similarly treated with five naturally occurring ovine STEC isolates or stx-negative E. coli. Intestinal STEC bacteria were enumerated and identified by standard fecal culture and DNA hybridization. Oral STEC treatment did not always result in carriage of STEC, although many animals consistently presented with >104 CFU/g feces. BLV viremia was assessed by spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SLP) in cultures of blood mononuclear cells and by syncytium formation in cocultures of the same with F-81 indicator cells. SLP was lower (P < 0.05) and syncytia were fewer (P < 0.05) in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep. Both lower SLP and fewer syncytia positively correlated with fecal STEC numbers. Average weight gain post-BLV challenge was higher in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that in ruminants, intestinal STEC bacteria have antiviral activity and mitigate BLV-induced disease. PMID:16622229

  1. Intestinal Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria mitigate bovine leukemia virus infection in experimentally infected sheep.

    PubMed

    Ferens, Witold A; Cobbold, Rowland; Hovde, Carolyn J

    2006-05-01

    Ruminants often carry gastrointestinal Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Stxs belong to a large family of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), found in many plants and some bacteria. Plant RIPs, secreted into extracellular spaces, limit the spread of viruses through plant tissues by penetrating and killing virally infected cells. Previously, we showed Stx activity against bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cells in vitro and hypothesized that STEC bacteria have antiviral activity in ruminant hosts. Here, we investigated the impact of STEC on the initial phases of BLV infection in sheep. Sheep were treated with biweekly oral doses of E. coli O157:H7 (an STEC) or an isogenic stx mutant strain. A different group of sheep were similarly treated with five naturally occurring ovine STEC isolates or stx-negative E. coli. Intestinal STEC bacteria were enumerated and identified by standard fecal culture and DNA hybridization. Oral STEC treatment did not always result in carriage of STEC, although many animals consistently presented with >10(4) CFU/g feces. BLV viremia was assessed by spontaneous lymphocyte proliferation (SLP) in cultures of blood mononuclear cells and by syncytium formation in cocultures of the same with F-81 indicator cells. SLP was lower (P < 0.05) and syncytia were fewer (P < 0.05) in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep. Both lower SLP and fewer syncytia positively correlated with fecal STEC numbers. Average weight gain post-BLV challenge was higher in STEC-treated sheep than in untreated sheep (P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that in ruminants, intestinal STEC bacteria have antiviral activity and mitigate BLV-induced disease.

  2. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens EK007-RG4, a Promising Biocontrol Agent against a Broad Range of Bacteria, Including the Fire Blight Bacterium Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Roghayeh; Tarighi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad; Taheri, Parissa; Kjøller, Annelise Helene; Brejnrod, Asker; Madsen, Jonas Stenløkke

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report the first draft whole-genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain EK007-RG4, which was isolated from the phylloplane of a pear tree. P. fluorescens EK007-RG4 displays strong antagonism against Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent for fire blight disease, in addition to several other pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28360179

  3. Antiviral agents targeted to interact with viral capsid proteins and a possible application to human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmann, M G

    1988-01-01

    The tertiary structure of most icosahedral viral capsid proteins consists of an eight-stranded antiparallel beta-barrel with a hydrophobic interior. In a group of picornaviruses, this hydrophobic pocket can be filled by suitable organic molecules, which thereby stop viral uncoating after attachment and penetration into the host cell. The antiviral activity of these agents is probably due to increased rigidity of the capsid protein, which inhibits disassembly. The hydrophobic pocket may be an essential functional component of the protein and, therefore, may have been conserved in the evolution of many viruses from a common precursor. Since eight-stranded anti-parallel beta-barrels, with a topology as in viral capsid proteins, are not generally found for other proteins involved in cell metabolism, this class of antiviral agents is likely to be more virus-specific and less cytotoxic. Furthermore, the greatest conservation of viral capsid proteins occurs within this pocket, whereas the least conserved part is the antigenic exterior. Thus, compounds that bind to such a pocket are likely to be effective against a broader group of serologically distinct viruses. Discovery of antiviral agents of this type will, therefore, depend on designing compounds that can enter and fit snugly into the hydrophobic pocket of a particular viral capsid protein. The major capsid protein, p24, of human immunodeficiency virus would be a likely suitable target. PMID:3133655

  4. Jamestown Canyon virus (California serogroup) is the etiologic agent of widespread infection in Michigan humans.

    PubMed

    Grimstad, P R; Calisher, C H; Harroff, R N; Wentworth, B B

    1986-03-01

    In a sample population of 780 Michigan residents tested for neutralizing antibodies to California serogroup viruses, 216 (27.7%) had specific neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. An additional eight (1.0%) had specific neutralizing to trivittatus virus; none had specific neutralizing antibody to La Crosse virus. Significantly more male residents than female residents of the Lower Peninsula had antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. The frequency of neutralizing antibody titers fits the Poisson distribution, suggesting that Jamestown Canyon virus infections occur endemically in residents of Michigan. Among 128 sera with specific neutralizing antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus, only two (1.6%) were found to have significant hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers with La Crosse virus, while 23 of 44 (52%) had significant titers with Jamestown Canyon virus; a single serum had significant antibody by complement fixation tests with both La Crosse and Jamestown Canyon viruses. This study confirms earlier speculation that complement fixation and hemagglutination-inhibition tests with La Crosse virus (the only tests for California serogroup virus infections performed by most state diagnostic laboratories) fail to detect antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus. ASPEX computer-drawn maps demonstrated that the distribution of persons with antibody to Jamestown Canyon virus and residing in Michigan's Lower Peninsula is closely correlated with the estimated distribution of white-tailed deer in that part of the state, further supporting the hypothesis that white-tailed deer are the primary vertebrate host for Jamestown Canyon virus.

  5. Standardization of Nucleic Acid Tests for Clinical Measurements of Bacteria and Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Pavšič, Jernej; Parkes, Helen; Schimmel, Heinz; Foy, Carole A.; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Honeyborne, Isobella; Huggett, Jim F.; McHugh, Timothy D.; Milavec, Mojca; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Žel, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based tests for infectious diseases currently used in the clinical laboratory and in point-of-care devices are diverse. Measurement challenges associated with standardization of quantitative viral load testing are discussed in relation to human cytomegalovirus, BK virus, and Epstein-Barr virus, while the importance of defining the performance of qualitative methods is illustrated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and influenza virus. The development of certified reference materials whose values are traceable to higher-order standards and reference measurement procedures, using, for instance, digital PCR, will further contribute to the understanding of analytical performance characteristics and promote clinical data comparability. PMID:25392365

  6. Standardization of Nucleic Acid Tests for Clinical Measurements of Bacteria and Viruses.

    PubMed

    Pavšič, Jernej; Devonshire, Alison S; Parkes, Helen; Schimmel, Heinz; Foy, Carole A; Karczmarczyk, Maria; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Honeyborne, Isobella; Huggett, Jim F; McHugh, Timothy D; Milavec, Mojca; Zeichhardt, Heinz; Žel, Jana

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid-based tests for infectious diseases currently used in the clinical laboratory and in point-of-care devices are diverse. Measurement challenges associated with standardization of quantitative viral load testing are discussed in relation to human cytomegalovirus, BK virus, and Epstein-Barr virus, while the importance of defining the performance of qualitative methods is illustrated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and influenza virus. The development of certified reference materials whose values are traceable to higher-order standards and reference measurement procedures, using, for instance, digital PCR, will further contribute to the understanding of analytical performance characteristics and promote clinical data comparability.

  7. First detection of endosymbiotic bacteria in biting midges Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, important Palaearctic vectors of bluetongue virus.

    PubMed

    Lewis, S E; Rice, A; Hurst, G D D; Baylis, M

    2014-12-01

    Heritable bacteria have been highlighted as important components of vector biology, acting as required symbionts with an anabolic role, altering competence for disease transmission, and affecting patterns of gene flow by altering cross compatibility. In this paper, we tested eight U.K. species of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midge for the presence of five genera of endosymbiotic bacteria: Cardinium (Bacteroidales: Bacteroidaceae); Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae); Spiroplasma (Entomoplasmatales: Spiroplasmataceae); Arsenophonus (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), and Rickettsia (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae). Cardinium spp. were detected in both sexes of Culicoides pulicaris and Culicoides punctatus, two known vectors of bluetongue virus. Cardinium spp. were not detected in any other species, including the Culicoides obsoletus group, the main vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses in northern Europe. The other endosymbionts were not detected in any Culicoides species. The Cardinium strain detected in U.K. Culicoides species is very closely related to the Candidatus Cardinium hertigii group C, previously identified in Culicoides species in Asia. Further, we infer that the symbiont is not a sex ratio distorter and shows geographic variation in prevalence within a species. Despite its detection in several species of Culicoides that vector arboviruses worldwide, the absence of Cardinium in the C. obsoletus group suggests that infections of these symbionts may not be necessary to the arboviral vector competence of biting midges.

  8. Infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jin-Hee; Lim, Yi-Young; Jeon, Ji-Hye; Yu, Jae-Ran; Kim, Tong-Soo; Lee, Won-Ja; Cho, Seung-Hak; Lee, Deog-Yong; Park, Mi-Seon; Jeong, Hye-Sook; Chen, Doo-Sung; Ji, Yeong-Mi; Kwon, Mi-Hwa

    2010-06-01

    To understand protozoan, viral, and bacterial infections in diarrheal patients, we analyzed positivity and mixed-infection status with 3 protozoans, 4 viruses, and 10 bacteria in hospitalized diarrheal patients during 2004-2006 in the Republic of Korea. A total of 76,652 stool samples were collected from 96 hospitals across the nation. The positivity for protozoa, viruses, and bacteria was 129, 1,759, and 1,797 per 10,000 persons, respectively. Especially, Cryptosporidium parvum was highly mixed-infected with rotavirus among pediatric diarrheal patients (29.5 per 100 C. parvum positive cases), and Entamoeba histolytica was mixed-infected with Clostridium perfringens (10.3 per 100 E. histolytica positive cases) in protozoan-diarrheal patients. Those infected with rotavirus and C. perfringens constituted relatively high proportions among mixed infection cases from January to April. The positivity for rotavirus among viral infection for those aged < or = 5 years was significantly higher, while C. perfringens among bacterial infection was higher for > or = 50 years. The information for association of viral and bacterial infections with enteropathogenic protozoa in diarrheal patients may contribute to improvement of care for diarrhea as well as development of control strategies for diarrheal diseases in Korea.

  9. A mathematical model for removal of human pathogenic viruses and bacteria by slow sand filtration under variable operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Schijven, Jack F; van den Berg, Harold H J L; Colin, Michel; Dullemont, Yolanda; Hijnen, Wim A M; Magic-Knezev, Alexandra; Oorthuizen, Wim A; Wubbels, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    Slow sand filtration (SSF) in drinking water production removes pathogenic microorganisms, but detection limits and variable operational conditions complicate assessment of removal efficiency. Therefore, a model was developed to predict removal of human pathogenic viruses and bacteria as a function of the operational conditions. Pilot plant experiments were conducted, in which bacteriophage MS2 and Escherichia coli WR1 were seeded as model microorganisms for pathogenic viruses and bacteria onto the filters under various temperatures, flow rates, grain sizes and ages of the Schmutzdecke. Removal of MS2 was 0.082-3.3 log10 and that of E. coli WR1 0.94-4.5 log10 by attachment to the sand grains and additionally by processes in the Schmutzdecke. The contribution of the Schmutzdecke to the removal of MS2 and E. coli WR1 increased with its ageing, with sticking efficiency and temperature, decreased with grain size, and was modelled as a logistic growth function with scale factor f0 and rate coefficient f1. Sticking efficiencies were found to be microorganism and filter specific, but the values of f0 and f1 were independent of microorganism and filter. Cross-validation showed that the model can be used to predict log removal of MS2 and ECWR1 within ±0.6 log. Within the range of operational conditions, the model shows that removal of microorganisms is most sensitive to changes in temperature and age of the Schmutzdecke.

  10. Serological evidence for a hepatitis e virus-related agent in goats in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sanford, B J; Emerson, S U; Purcell, R H; Engle, R E; Dryman, B A; Cecere, T E; Buechner-Maxwell, V; Sponenberg, D P; Meng, X J

    2013-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an important public health disease in many developing countries and is also endemic in some industrialized countries. In addition to humans, strains of HEV have been genetically identified from pig, chicken, rat, mongoose, deer, rabbit and fish. While the genotypes 1 and 2 HEV are restricted to humans, the genotypes 3 and 4 HEV are zoonotic and infect humans and other animal species. As a part of our ongoing efforts to search for potential animal reservoirs for HEV, we tested goats from Virginia for evidence of HEV infection and showed that 16% (13/80) of goat sera from Virginia herds were positive for IgG anti-HEV. Importantly, we demonstrated that neutralizing antibodies to HEV were present in selected IgG anti-HEV positive goat sera. Subsequently, in an attempt to genetically identify the HEV-related agent from goats, we conducted a prospective study in a closed goat herd with known anti-HEV seropositivity and monitored a total of 11 kids from the time of birth until 14 weeks of age for evidence of HEV infection. Seroconversion to IgG anti-HEV was detected in seven of the 11 kids, although repeated attempts to detect HEV RNA by a broad-spectrum nested RT-PCR from the faecal and serum samples of the goats that had seroconverted were unsuccessful. In addition, we also attempted to experimentally infect laboratory goats with three well-characterized mammalian strains of HEV but with no success. The results indicate that a HEV-related agent is circulating and maintained in the goat population in Virginia and that the goat HEV is likely genetically very divergent from the known HEV strains.

  11. Seasonal variations of virus- and nanoflagellate-mediated mortality of heterotrophic bacteria in the coastal ecosystem of subtropical western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, A. Y.; Gong, G.-C.; Hung, J.

    2013-05-01

    Since viral lysis and nanoflagellate grazing differ in their impact on the aquatic food web, it is important to assess the relative importance of both bacterial mortality factors. In this study, an adapted version of the modified dilution method was applied to simultaneously estimate the impact of both virus and nanoflagellate grazing on the mortality of heterotrophic bacteria. A series of experiments was conducted monthly from April to December 2011 and April to October 2012. The growth rates of bacteria we measured ranged from 0.078 h-1 (April 2011) to 0.42 h-1 (September 2011), indicating that temperature can be important in controlling the seasonal variations of bacterial growth. Furthermore, it appeared that seasonal changes in nanoflagellate grazing and viral lysis could account for 34% to 68% and 13% to 138% of the daily removal of bacterial production, respectively. We suggest that nanoflagellate grazing might play a key role in controlling bacterial biomass and might exceed the impact of viral lysis during the summer period (July to August) because of the higher abundance of nanoflagellates at that time. Viral lysis, on the other hand, was identified as the main cause of bacterial mortality between September and December. Based on these findings in this study, the seasonal variations in bacterial abundance we observed can be explained by a scenario in which both growth rates and loss rates (grazing + viral lysis) influence the dynamics of the bacteria community.

  12. [Bacteria isolated from surgical infections and its susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents--special references to bacteria isolated between April 2010 and March 2011].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Nagao; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Hirata, Koichi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Mizugucwi, Tohru; Osanai, Hiroyuki; Yanai, Yoshiyuki; Hata, Fumitake; Kihara, Chikasi; Sasaki, Kazuaki; Oono, Keisuke; Nakamura, Masashi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Itaru; Kimura, Masami; Watabe, Kosho; Kobayashi, Yasuhito; Yamaue, Hiroki; Hirono, Seiko; Takesue, Yoshio; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Shinoura, Susumu; Kimura, Hideyuki; Hoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Hideki; Aikawa, Naoki; Sasaki, Junichi; Suzuki, Masaru; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Abe, Shinya; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Mashita, Keiji; Tanaka, Moritsugu; Mizuno, Akira; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Iwai, Akihiko; Saito, Takaaki; Muramoto, Masayuki; Kubo, Shoji; Lee, Shigeru; Fukuhara, Kenichiro; Iwagaki, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Naoyuki; Sueda, Taijliro; Hiyama, Elso; Murakami, Yoshiaki; Ohge, Hiroki; Uemura, Kenichiro; Tsumura, Hiroaki; Kanehiro, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hitoshi; Tanakaya, Koujn; Iwasaki, Mitsuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Bacteria isolated from surgical infections during the period from April 2010 to March 2011 were investigated in a multicenter study in Japan, and the following results were obtained. In this series, 631 strains including 25 strains of Candida spp. were isolated from 170 (81.7%) of 208 patients with surgical infections. Four hundred and twenty two strains were isolated from primary infections, and 184 strains were isolated from surgical site infection. From primary infections, anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria were predominant, followed by aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, while from surgical site infection aerobic Gram-positive bacteria were predominant, followed by anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Among aerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rate of Enterococcus spp. such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus avium was highest, followed by Streptococcus spp. such as Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus spp. such as Staphylococcus aureus, in this order, from primary infections, while Enterococcus spp. such as E. faecalis and E. faecium was highest, followed by Staphylococcus spp. such as S. aureus from surgical site infection. Among aerobic Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli was the most predominantly isolated from primary infections, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this order, and from surgical site infection, E. coli and R aeruginosa were most predominantly isolated, followed by E. cloacae and K. pneumoniae. Among anaerobic Gram-positive bacteria, the isolation rates of Parvimonas micra, Eggerthella lenta, Streptococcus constellatus, Gemella morbillorum, and Collinsella aerofaciens were the highest from primary infections, and the isolation rate from surgical site infection was generally low. Among anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, the isolation rate of Bilophila wadsworthia was the highest from primary infections, followed by, Bacteroides

  13. Construction of Zinc Oxide into Different Morphological Structures to Be Utilized as Antimicrobial Agent against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, M. F.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.; Fouad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Nano-ZnO has been successfully implemented in particles, rods, and tubes nanostructures via sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques. The variation of the different preparation parameters such as reaction temperature, time, and stabilizer agents was optimized to attain different morphological structures. The influence of the microwave annealing process on ZnO crystallinity, surface area, and morphological structure was monitored using XRD, BET, and SEM techniques, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide produced in nanotubes structure was examined against four different multidrug resistant bacteria: Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The activity of produced nano-ZnO was determined by disc diffusion technique and the results revealed that ZnO nanotubes recorded high activity against the studied strains due to their high surface area equivalent to 17.8 m2/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO nanotubes showed that the low concentrations of ZnO nanotubes could be a substitution for the commercial antibiotics when approached in suitable formula. Although the annealing process of ZnO improves the degree of material crystallinity, however, it declines its surface area and consequently its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26451136

  14. Host-Targeting Agents to Prevent and Cure Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Crouchet, Emilie; Baumert, Thomas F.; Schuster, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) which are leading indications of liver transplantation (LT). To date, there is no vaccine to prevent HCV infection and LT is invariably followed by infection of the liver graft. Within the past years, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on the management of chronic hepatitis C, which has become a curable disease in the majority of DAA-treated patients. In contrast to DAAs that target viral proteins, host-targeting agents (HTAs) interfere with cellular factors involved in the viral life cycle. By acting through a complementary mechanism of action and by exhibiting a generally higher barrier to resistance, HTAs offer a prospective option to prevent and treat viral resistance. Indeed, given their complementary mechanism of action, HTAs and DAAs can act in a synergistic manner to reduce viral loads. This review summarizes the different classes of HTAs against HCV infection that are in preclinical or clinical development and highlights their potential to prevent HCV infection, e.g., following LT, and to tailor combination treatments to cure chronic HCV infection. PMID:26540069

  15. Incidence and clinical background of hepatitis B virus reactivation in multiple myeloma in novel agents' era.

    PubMed

    Tsukune, Yutaka; Sasaki, Makoto; Odajima, Takeshi; Isoda, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Morio; Koike, Michiaki; Tamura, Hideto; Moriya, Keiichi; Ito, Shigeki; Asahi, Maki; Imai, Yoichi; Tanaka, Junji; Handa, Hiroshi; Koiso, Hiromi; Tanosaki, Sakae; Hua, Jian; Hagihara, Masao; Yahata, Yuriko; Suzuki, Satoko; Watanabe, Sumio; Sugimori, Hiroki; Komatsu, Norio

    2016-09-01

    There are some reports regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation in patients with myeloma who are HBV carriers or who have had a resolved HBV infection, and there is no standard prophylaxis strategy for these patients. We performed a retrospective multicenter study to determine the incidence and characteristics of HBV reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma. We identified 641 patients with multiple myeloma who had been treated using novel agents and/or autologous stem cell transplantation with high-dose chemotherapy between January 2006 and June 2014 at nine Japanese hospitals. The patients' characteristics, laboratory data, and clinical courses were retrieved and statistically analyzed. During a median follow-up of 101 weeks, one of eight (12.5 %) HBV carriers developed hepatitis and 9 of 99 (9.1 %) patients with resolved HBV infection experienced HBV reactivation; the cumulative incidences of HBV reactivation at 2 years (104 weeks) and 5 years (260 weeks) were 8 and 14 %, respectively. The nine cases of reactivation after resolved HBV infection had received entecavir as preemptive therapy or were carefully observed by monitoring their HBV DNA levels, and none of these cases developed hepatitis. Among patients with multiple myeloma, HBV reactivation was not rare. Therefore, long-term monitoring of HBV DNA levels is needed to prevent hepatitis that is related to HBV reactivation in these patients.

  16. Naturally derived anti-hepatitis B virus agents and their mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Hang

    2016-01-07

    Despite that some approved drugs and genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) are available for HBV patients, HBV infection is still a severe public health problem in the world. All the approved therapeutic drugs (including interferon-alpha and nucleoside analogues) have their limitations. No drugs or therapeutic methods can cure hepatitis B so far. Therefore, it is urgently needed to discover and develop new anti-HBV drugs, especially non-nucleoside agents. Naturally originated compounds with enormous molecular complexity and diversity offer a great opportunity to find novel anti-HBV lead compounds with specific antiviral mechanisms. In this review, the natural products against HBV are discussed according to their chemical classes such as terpenes, lignans, phenolic acids, polyphenols, lactones, alkaloids and flavonoids. Furthermore, novel mode of action or new targets of some representative anti-HBV natural products are also discussed. The aim of this review is to report new discoveries and updates pertaining to anti-HBV natural products in the last 20 years, especially novel skeletons and mode of action. Although many natural products with various skeletons have been reported to exhibit potent anti-HBV effects to date, scarcely any of them are found in the list of conventional anti-HBV drugs worldwide. Additionly, in anti-HBV mechanism of action, only a few references reported new targets or novel mode of action of anti-HBV natural products.

  17. Biosynthesis of the IFN-gamma binding protein of ectromelia virus, the causative agent of mousepox.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hongdong; Buller, R Mark L; Chen, Nanhai; Green, Michael; Nuara, Anthony A

    2005-03-30

    Ectromelia virus (ECTV), the causative agent of mousepox, expresses an extracellular interferon-gamma binding protein (IFN-gammaBP) with homology to the ligand binding domains of the IFN-gamma high affinity receptor (IFN-gammaR1). Unlike the cellular receptor, the IFN-gammaBP binds IFN-gamma from several species. The IFN-gammaBP is synthesized early after infection, accumulating in the extracellular milieu as dimers composed of two protein species with Mr of 34.6 or 33.0 kDa. Homodimers are covalently linked by an interchain disulphide bond at position 216. The IFN-gammaBP has complex N-linked oligosaccharides at positions 41 and 149 as determined by site-directed mutagenesis and glycosidase treatment. Glycosylation at position 41 is required for secretion from mammalian cells and may play a role in the activity of the IFN-gammaBP. Glycosylation at position 149 is not required for secretion, and the lack of glycosylation at this site does not diminish ligand binding as measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA.

  18. Naturally derived anti-hepatitis B virus agents and their mechanism of action

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Hang

    2016-01-01

    Despite that some approved drugs and genetically engineered vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) are available for HBV patients, HBV infection is still a severe public health problem in the world. All the approved therapeutic drugs (including interferon-alpha and nucleoside analogues) have their limitations. No drugs or therapeutic methods can cure hepatitis B so far. Therefore, it is urgently needed to discover and develop new anti-HBV drugs, especially non-nucleoside agents. Naturally originated compounds with enormous molecular complexity and diversity offer a great opportunity to find novel anti-HBV lead compounds with specific antiviral mechanisms. In this review, the natural products against HBV are discussed according to their chemical classes such as terpenes, lignans, phenolic acids, polyphenols, lactones, alkaloids and flavonoids. Furthermore, novel mode of action or new targets of some representative anti-HBV natural products are also discussed. The aim of this review is to report new discoveries and updates pertaining to anti-HBV natural products in the last 20 years, especially novel skeletons and mode of action. Although many natural products with various skeletons have been reported to exhibit potent anti-HBV effects to date, scarcely any of them are found in the list of conventional anti-HBV drugs worldwide. Additionly, in anti-HBV mechanism of action, only a few references reported new targets or novel mode of action of anti-HBV natural products. PMID:26755870

  19. Mouse lung slices: An ex vivo model for the evaluation of antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; An, Liwei; Liu, Ge; Li, Xiaoyu; Tang, Wei; Chen, Xulin

    2015-08-01

    The influenza A virus is notoriously known for its ability to cause recurrent epidemics and global pandemics. Antiviral therapy is effective when treatment is initiated within 48h of symptom onset, and delaying treatment beyond this time frame is associated with decreased efficacy. Research on anti-inflammatory therapy to ameliorate influenza-induced inflammation is currently underway and seems important to the impact on the clinical outcome. Both antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs with novel mechanisms of action are urgently needed. Current methods for evaluating the efficacy of anti-influenza drugs rely mostly on transformed cells and animals. Transformed cell models are distantly related to physiological and pathological conditions. Although animals are the best choices for preclinical drug testing, they are not time- or cost-efficient. In this study, we established an ex vivo model using mouse lung slices to evaluate both antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza virus infection. Both influenza virus PR8 (H1N1) and A/Human/Hubei/3/2005 (H3N2) can replicate efficiently in mouse lung slices and trigger significant cytokine and chemokine responses. The induction of selected cytokines and chemokines were found to have a positive correlation between ex vivo and in vivo experiments, suggesting that the ex vivo cultured lung slices may closely resemble the lung functionally in an in vivo configuration when challenged by influenza virus. Furthermore, a set of agents with known antiviral and/or anti-inflammatory activities were tested to validate the ex vivo model. Our results suggested that mouse lung slices provide a robust, convenient and cost-efficient model for the assessment of both antiviral and anti-inflammatory agents against influenza virus infection in one assay. This ex vivo model may predict the efficacy of drug candidates' antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities in vivo.

  20. Virus-mimicking nano-constructs as a contrast agent for near infrared photoacoustic imaging†‡

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sharad; Chatni, Muhammad R.; Rao, Ayala L. N.; Vullev, Valentine I.; Anvari, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    We report the first proof-of-principle demonstration of photoacoustic imaging using a contrast agent composed of a plant virus protein shell, which encapsulates indocyanine green (ICG), the only FDA-approved near infrared chromophore. These nano-constructs can provide higher photoacoustic signals than blood in tissue phantoms, and display superior photostability compared to non-encapsulated ICG. Our preliminary results suggest that the constructs do not elicit an acute immunogenic response in healthy mice. PMID:23334567

  1. Virus receptors: implications for pathogenesis and the design of antiviral agents.

    PubMed Central

    Norkin, L C

    1995-01-01

    A virus initiates infection by attaching to its specific receptor on the surface of a susceptible host cell. This prepares the way for the virus to enter the cell. Consequently, the expression of the receptor on specific cells and tissues of the host is a major determinant of the route of entry of the virus into the host and of the patterns of virus spread and pathogenesis in the host. This review emphasizes the virus-receptor interactions of human immunodeficiency virus, the rhinoviruses, the herpesviruses, and the coronaviruses. These interactions are often found to be complex and dynamic, involving multiple sites or factors on both the virus and the host cell. Also, the receptor may play an important role in virus entry per se in addition to its role in virus binding. In the cases of human immunodeficiency virus and the rhinoviruses, ingenious approaches to therapeutic strategies based on inhibiting virus attachment and entry are under development and in clinical trials. PMID:7621403

  2. Naked Viruses That Aren't Always Naked: Quasi-Enveloped Agents of Acute Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Zongdi; Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; McKnight, Kevin L; Lemon, Stanley M

    2014-11-01

    Historically, viruses were considered to be either enveloped or nonenveloped. However, recent work on hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus challenges this long-held tenet. Whereas these human pathogens are shed in feces as naked nonenveloped virions, recent studies indicate that both circulate in the blood completely masked in membranes during acute infection. These membrane-wrapped virions are as infectious as their naked counterparts, although they do not express a virally encoded protein on their surface, thus distinguishing them from conventional enveloped viruses. The absence of a viral fusion protein implies that these quasi-enveloped virions have unique mechanisms for entry into cells. Like true enveloped viruses, however, these phylogenetically distinct viruses usurp components of the host ESCRT system to hijack host cell membranes and noncytolytically exit infected cells. The membrane protects these viruses from neutralizing antibodies, facilitating dissemination within the host, whereas nonenveloped virions shed in feces are stable in the environment, allowing for epidemic transmission.

  3. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  4. A novel approach to propagate flavivirus infectious cDNA clones in bacteria by introducing tandem repeat sequences upstream of virus genome.

    PubMed

    Pu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yang, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chung-Ming; Yueh, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Despite tremendous efforts to improve the methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, the manipulation of flavivirus cDNAs remains a difficult task in bacteria. Here, we successfully propagated DNA-launched type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infectious cDNAs by introducing seven repeats of the tetracycline-response element (7×TRE) and a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter upstream of the viral genome. Insertion of the 7×TRE-CMVmin sequence upstream of the DENV2 or JEV genome decreased the cryptic E. coli promoter (ECP) activity of the viral genome in bacteria, as measured using fusion constructs containing DENV2 or JEV segments and the reporter gene Renilla luciferase in an empty vector. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from DNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs were similar to those of parental viruses. Similarly, RNA-launched DENV2 infectious cDNAs were generated by inserting 7×TRE-CMVmin, five repeats of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence, or five repeats of BamHI linkers upstream of the DENV2 genome. All three tandem repeat sequences decreased the ECP activity of the DENV2 genome in bacteria. Notably, 7×TRE-CMVmin stabilized RNA-launched JEV infectious cDNAs and reduced the ECP activity of the JEV genome in bacteria. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from RNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs displayed patterns similar to those of the parental viruses. These results support a novel methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, which will facilitate research in virology, viral pathogenesis and vaccine development of flaviviruses and other RNA viruses.

  5. Application of a pathogen microarray for the analysis of viruses and bacteria in clinical diagnostic samples from pigs.

    PubMed

    Jaing, Crystal J; Thissen, James B; Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin S; Hullinger, Pam J; Monday, Nicholas A; Niederwerder, Megan C; Rowland, Raymond R R

    2015-05-01

    Many of the disease syndromes challenging the commercial swine industry involve the analysis of complex problems caused by polymicrobial, emerging or reemerging, and transboundary pathogens. This study investigated the utility of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial Detection Array (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California), designed to detect 8,101 species of microbes, in the evaluation of known and unknown microbes in serum, oral fluid, and tonsil from pigs experimentally coinfected with Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Porcine circovirus-2 (PCV-2). The array easily identified PRRSV and PCV-2, but at decreased sensitivities compared to standard polymerase chain reaction detection methods. The oral fluid sample was the most informative, possessing additional signatures for several swine-associated bacteria, including Streptococcus sp., Clostridium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.

  6. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-20

    Warfare Agents, op. cit.; and the Health Canada Material Safety Data Sheet - Infectious Substances for Rickettsia rickettsii , found online at [http...cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/possess.htm]. Biological Agent Comparison Potential biological agents include the many bacteria and viruses that induce...barriers to their acquisition, regardless of the legality of such a transfer. In contrast, salmonella bacteria would be easy to obtain from natural

  7. Cricket Paralysis Virus, a Potential Control Agent for the Olive Fruit Fly, Dacus oleae Gmel

    PubMed Central

    Manousis, Thanasis; Moore, Norman F.

    1987-01-01

    Representatives of several families of insect viruses were tested for growth and pathogenicity in the olive fruit fly, Dacus oleae Gmel. The viruses included nuclear polyhedrosis viruses, an iridovirus, two picornaviruses, and Trichoplusia ni small RNA virus (a member of the Nudaurelia β family), in addition to two naturally occurring viruses of the olive fruit fly. Two viruses, one of the two picornaviruses (cricket paralysis virus [CrPV] and the iridovirus (type 21 from Heliothis armigera), were found to replicate in adult flies. Flies which were fed on a solution containing CrPV for 1 day demonstrated a high mortality with 50% dying within 5 days and nearly 80% dying within 12 days of being fed. The virus was transmissible from infected to noninfected flies by fecal contamination. The CrPV which replicated in the infected flies was demonstrated to be the same as input virus by infection of Drosophila melanogaster cells and examination of the expressed viral proteins, immunoprecipitation of the virus purified from flies, and electrophoretic analysis of the structural proteins. Images PMID:16347255

  8. Viruses of the Bunya- and Togaviridae families: potential as bioterrorism agents and means of control.

    PubMed

    Sidwell, Robert W; Smee, Donald F

    2003-01-01

    When considering viruses of potential importance as tools for bioterrorism, several viruses in the Bunya- and Togaviridae families have been cited. Among those in the Bunyaviridae family are Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, hanta, and sandfly fever viruses, listed in order of priority. Those particularly considered in the Togaviridae family are Venezuelan, eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. Factors affecting the selection of these viruses are the ability for them to induce a fatal or seriously incapacitating illness, their ease of cultivation in order to prepare large volumes, their relative infectivity in human patients, their ability to be transmitted by aerosol, and the lack of measures available for their control. Each factor is fully considered in this review. Vaccines for the control of infections induced by these viruses are in varying stages of development, with none universally accepted to date. Viruses in the Bunyaviridae family are generally sensitive to ribavirin, which has been recommended as an emergency therapy for infections by viruses in this family although has not yet been FDA-approved. Interferon and interferon inducers also significantly inhibit these virus infections in animal models. Against infections induced by viruses in the Togaviridae family, interferon-alpha would appear to currently be the most useful for therapy.

  9. Rapid quantification of bacteria and viruses in influent, settled water, activated sludge and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Mao, Guannan; Liu, Jie; Yu, Hui; Gao, Guanghai; Wang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    As microbiological parameters are important in monitoring the correct operation of wastewater treatment plants and controlling the microbiological quality of wastewater, the abundances of total bacteria (including intact and damaged bacterial cells) and total viruses in wastewater were investigated using a combination of ultrasonication and flow cytometry. The comparisons between flow cytometry (FCM) and other cultivation-independent methods (adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis for bacteria enumeration and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) for virus enumeration) gave very similar patterns of microbial abundance changes, suggesting that FCM is suitable for targeting and obtaining reliable counts for bacteria and viruses in wastewater samples. The main experimental results obtained were: (1) effective removal of total bacteria in wastewater, with a decrease from an average concentration of 1.74 × 10(8)counts ml(-1) in raw wastewater to 3.91 × 10(6)counts ml(-1) in the effluent, (2) compared to influent raw wastewater, the average concentration of total viruses in the treated effluent (3.94 × 10(8)counts ml(-1)) exhibited no obvious changes, (3) the applied FCM approach is a rapid, easy, and convenient tool for understanding the microbial dynamics and monitoring microbiological quality in wastewater treatment processes.

  10. The Potential Application and Risks Associated With the Use of Predatory Bacteria as a Bio-control Agent Against Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    inhibition reduces innate immunity and improves isoniazid clearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs of infected mice. PLoS One 6, e17091, doi...Against Wound Infections PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daniel E Kadouri, Ph.D CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey...SUBTITLE The Potential Application and Risks Associated With the Use of Predatory Bacteria as a Bio-control Agent Against Wound Infections 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Is Predominant Clonal Evolution a Common Evolutionary Adaptation to Parasitism in Pathogenic Parasitic Protozoa, Fungi, Bacteria, and Viruses?

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, M; Ayala, F J

    2017-01-01

    We propose that predominant clonal evolution (PCE) in microbial pathogens be defined as restrained recombination on an evolutionary scale, with genetic exchange scarce enough to not break the prevalent pattern of clonal population structure. The main features of PCE are (1) strong linkage disequilibrium, (2) the widespread occurrence of stable genetic clusters blurred by occasional bouts of genetic exchange ('near-clades'), (3) the existence of a "clonality threshold", beyond which recombination is efficiently countered by PCE, and near-clades irreversibly diverge. We hypothesize that the PCE features are not mainly due to natural selection but also chiefly originate from in-built genetic properties of pathogens. We show that the PCE model obtains even in microbes that have been considered as 'highly recombining', such as Neisseria meningitidis, and that some clonality features are observed even in Plasmodium, which has been long described as panmictic. Lastly, we provide evidence that PCE features are also observed in viruses, taking into account their extremely fast genetic turnover. The PCE model provides a convenient population genetic framework for any kind of micropathogen. It makes it possible to describe convenient units of analysis (clones and near-clades) for all applied studies. Due to PCE features, these units of analysis are stable in space and time, and clearly delimited. The PCE model opens up the possibility of revisiting the problem of species definition in these organisms. We hypothesize that PCE constitutes a major evolutionary strategy for protozoa, fungi, bacteria, and viruses to adapt to parasitism.

  12. A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits Robust and Durable Virus Specific Immune Responses in Mice and Rabbits and Completely Protects Mice against Lethal Venezuelan, Western, and Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus Aerosol Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-26

    A Multi-Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Delivered by Intramuscular Electroporation Elicits 1 Robust and Durable Virus-Specific Immune Responses in Mice...Agent Alphavirus DNA Vaccine Protects Mice 12 13 #Address correspondence to Lesley C. Dupuy, lesley.c.dupuy.ctr@mail.mil. 14 *Present address...virus (VEEV) DNA vaccine 21 that was optimized for increased antigen expression and delivered by intramuscular (IM) 22 electroporation (EP) elicits

  13. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  14. Genome-wide comparison of ferritin family from Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, and Viruses: its distribution, characteristic motif, and phylogenetic relationship.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Xie, Ting; Hu, Qingqing; Deng, Changyan; Zheng, Rong; Chen, Wanping

    2015-10-01

    Ferritins are highly conserved proteins that are widely distributed in various species from archaea to humans. The ubiquitous characteristic of these proteins reflects the pivotal contribution of ferritins to the safe storage and timely delivery of iron to achieve iron homeostasis. This study investigated the ferritin genes in 248 genomes from various species, including viruses, archaea, bacteria, and eukarya. The distribution comparison suggests that mammals and eudicots possess abundant ferritin genes, whereas fungi contain very few ferritin genes. Archaea and bacteria show considerable numbers of ferritin genes. Generally, prokaryotes possess three types of ferritin (the typical ferritin, bacterioferritin, and DNA-binding protein from starved cell), whereas eukaryotes have various subunit types of ferritin, thereby indicating the individuation of the ferritin family during evolution. The characteristic motif analysis of ferritins suggested that all key residues specifying the unique structural motifs of ferritin are highly conserved across three domains of life. Meanwhile, the characteristic motifs were also distinguishable between ferritin groups, especially phytoferritins, which show a plant-specific motif. The phylogenetic analyses show that ferritins within the same subfamily or subunits are generally clustered together. The phylogenetic relationships among ferritin members suggest that both gene duplication and horizontal transfer contribute to the wide variety of ferritins, and their possible evolutionary scenario was also proposed. The results contribute to a better understanding of the distribution, characteristic motif, and evolutionary relationship of the ferritin family.

  15. The Role of the Cytoskeleton in the Life Cycle of Viruses and Intracellular Bacteria: Tracks, Motors, and Polymerization Machines

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, E.L.; Satpute-Krishnan, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in microbiology implicate the cytoskeleton in the life cycle of some pathogens, such as intracellular bacteria, Rickettsia and viruses. The cellular cytoskeleton provides the basis for intracellular movements such as those that transport the pathogen to and from the cell surface to the nuclear region, or those that produce cortical protrusions that project the pathogen outwards from the cell surface towards an adjacent cell. Transport in both directions within the neuron is required for pathogens such as the herpesviruses to travel to and from the nucleus and perinuclear region where replication takes place. This trafficking is likely to depend on cellular motors moving on a combination of microtubule and actin filament tracks. Recently, Bearer et al. reconstituted retrograde transport of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the giant axon of the squid. These studies identified the tegument proteins as the viral proteins most likely to recruit retrograde motors for the transport of HSV to the neuronal nucleus. Similar microtubule-based intracellular movements are part of the biological behavior of vaccinia, a poxvirus, and of adenovirus. Pathogen-induced surface projections and motility within the cortical cytoplasm also play a role in the life cycle of intracellular pathogens. Such motility is driven by pathogen-mediated actin polymerization. Virulence depends on this actin-based motility, since virulence is reduced in Listeria ActA mutants that lack the ability to recruit Arp2/3 and polymerize actin and in vaccinia virus mutants that cannot stimulate actin polymerization. Inhibition of intracellular movements provides a potential strategy to limit pathogenicity. The host cell motors and tracks, as well as the pathogen factors that interact with them, are potential targets for novel antimicrobial therapy. PMID:12462128

  16. Communities of bacteria and viruses in waters of the Gulf of Ob and Taz Estuary.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, M A; Makarevich, P R; Shirokolobova, T I

    2016-11-01

    The study of the most abundant components in freshwater plankton in the Gulf of Ob and Taz Estuary in the summer-autumn season has demonstrated that the abundance and biomass of bacteria are stable and typical for mesotrophic waters during active microalgae vegetation. The abundance of viral particles varies in the range which is reported for unproductive or medium-productive water bodies. The environmental factors affecting affect the development and patterns of bacterio- and virioplankton distribution are considered.

  17. Elimination of viruses and indicator bacteria at each step of treatment during preparation of drinking water at seven water treatment plants.

    PubMed Central

    Payment, P; Trudel, M; Plante, R

    1985-01-01

    Seven drinking water treatment plants were sampled twice a month for 12 months to evaluate the removal of indicator bacteria and cytopathogenic enteric viruses. Samples were obtained at each level of treatment: raw water, postchlorination, postsedimentation, postfiltration, postozonation, and finished (tap) water. Raw water quality was usually poor, with total coliform counts exceeding 105 to 106 CFU/liter and the average virus count in raw water of 3.3 most probable number of cytopathogenic units (MPNCU)/liter; several samples contained more than 100 MPNCU/liter. All plants distributed finished water that was essentially free of indicator bacteria as judged by analysis of 1 liter for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The total plate counts at 20 and 35 degrees C were also evaluated as a measure of the total microbial population and were usually very low. Viruses were detected in 7% (11 of 155) of the finished water samples (1,000 liters) at an average density of 0.0006 MPNCU/liter the highest virus density measured being 0.2 MPNCU/liter. The average cumulative virus reduction was 95.15% after sedimentation and 99.97% after filtration and did not significantly decrease after ozonation or final chlorination. The viruses isolated from treated waters were all enteroviruses: poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3, coxsackievirus types B3, B4, and B5, echovirus type 7, and untyped picornaviruses. PMID:2990337

  18. Identification of 5-Methoxy-2-(Diformylmethylidene)-3,3-Dimethylindole as an Anti-Influenza A Virus Agent.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ming Cheang; Wong, Wan Ying; Ng, Wei Lun; Yeo, Kok Siong; Mohidin, Taznim Begam Mohd; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Lafta, Fadhil; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Ea, Chee-Kwee

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus is estimated to cause 3-5 million severe complications and about 250-500 thousand deaths per year. Different kinds of anti-influenza virus drugs have been developed. However, the emergence of drug resistant strains has presented a big challenge for efficient antiviral therapy. Indole derivatives have been shown to exhibit both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we adopted a cell-based system to screen for potential anti-IAV agents. Four indole derivatives (named 525A, 526A, 527A and 528A) were subjected to the antiviral screening, of which 526A was selected for further investigation. We reported that pre-treating cells with 526A protects cells from IAV infection. Furthermore, 526A inhibits IAV replication by inhibiting the expression of IAV genes. Interestingly, 526A suppresses the activation of IRF3 and STAT1 in host cells and thus represses the production of type I interferon response and cytokines in IAV-infected cells. Importantly, 526A also partially blocks the activation of RIG-I pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that 526A may be a potential anti-influenza A virus agent.

  19. Identification of 5-Methoxy-2-(Diformylmethylidene)-3,3-Dimethylindole as an Anti-Influenza A Virus Agent

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ming Cheang; Wong, Wan Ying; Ng, Wei Lun; Yeo, Kok Siong; Mohidin, Taznim Begam Mohd; Lim, Yat-Yuen; Lafta, Fadhil; Mohd Ali, Hapipah; Ea, Chee-Kwee

    2017-01-01

    Influenza virus is estimated to cause 3–5 million severe complications and about 250–500 thousand deaths per year. Different kinds of anti-influenza virus drugs have been developed. However, the emergence of drug resistant strains has presented a big challenge for efficient antiviral therapy. Indole derivatives have been shown to exhibit both antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we adopted a cell-based system to screen for potential anti-IAV agents. Four indole derivatives (named 525A, 526A, 527A and 528A) were subjected to the antiviral screening, of which 526A was selected for further investigation. We reported that pre-treating cells with 526A protects cells from IAV infection. Furthermore, 526A inhibits IAV replication by inhibiting the expression of IAV genes. Interestingly, 526A suppresses the activation of IRF3 and STAT1 in host cells and thus represses the production of type I interferon response and cytokines in IAV-infected cells. Importantly, 526A also partially blocks the activation of RIG-I pathway. Taken together, these results suggest that 526A may be a potential anti-influenza A virus agent. PMID:28114392

  20. Organic and conventional fruits and vegetables contain equivalent counts of Gram-negative bacteria expressing resistance to antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Ruimy, Raymond; Brisabois, Anne; Bernede, Claire; Skurnik, David; Barnat, Saïda; Arlet, Guillaume; Momcilovic, Sonia; Elbaz, Sandrine; Moury, Frédérique; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Courvalin, Patrice; Guillemot, Didier; Andremont, Antoine

    2010-03-01

    Resistance to antibiotics is a major public health problem which might culminate in outbreaks caused by pathogenic bacteria untreatable by known antibiotics. Most of the genes conferring resistance are acquired horizontally from already resistant commensal or environmental bacteria. Food contamination by resistant bacteria might be a significant source of resistance genes for human bacteria but has never been precisely assessed, nor is it known whether organic products differ in this respect from conventionally produced products. We showed here, on a large year-long constructed sample set containing 399 products that, irrespective of their mode of production, raw fruits and vegetables are heavily contaminated by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) resistant to multiple antibiotics. Most of these bacteria originate in the soil and environment. We focused on non-oxidative GNB resistant to third-generation cephalosporins, because of their potential impact on human health. Among them, species potentially pathogenic for immunocompetent hosts were rare. Of the products tested, 13% carried bacteria producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, all identified as Rahnella sp. which grouped into two phylotypes and all carrying the bla(RAHN) gene. Thus, both organic and conventional fruits and vegetables may constitute significant sources of resistant bacteria and of resistance genes.

  1. Prevalence, codetection and seasonal distribution of upper airway viruses and bacteria in children with acute respiratory illnesses with cough as a symptom.

    PubMed

    O'Grady, K F; Grimwood, K; Sloots, T P; Whiley, D M; Acworth, J P; Phillips, N; Goyal, V; Chang, A B

    2016-06-01

    Most studies exploring the role of upper airway viruses and bacteria in paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARI) focus on specific clinical diagnoses and/or do not account for virus-bacteria interactions. We aimed to describe the frequency and predictors of virus and bacteria codetection in children with ARI and cough, irrespective of clinical diagnosis. Bilateral nasal swabs, demographic, clinical and risk factor data were collected at enrollment in children aged <15 years presenting to an emergency department with an ARI and where cough was a symptom. Swabs were tested by polymerase chain reaction for 17 respiratory viruses and seven respiratory bacteria. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between child characteristics and codetection of the organisms of interest. Between December 2011 and August 2014, swabs were collected from 817 (93.3%) of 876 enrolled children, median age 27.7 months (interquartile range 13.9-60.3 months). Overall, 740 (90.6%) of 817 specimens were positive for any organism. Both viruses and bacteria were detected in 423 specimens (51.8%). Factors associated with codetection were age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for age <12 months = 4.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0, 7.9; age 12 to <24 months = 6.0, 95% CI 3.7, 9.8; age 24 to <60 months = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9), male gender (aOR 1.46; 95% CI 1.1, 2.0), child care attendance (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4, 2.8) and winter enrollment (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.3, 3.0). Haemophilus influenzae dominated the virus-bacteria pairs. Virus-H. influenzae interactions in ARI should be investigated further, especially as the contribution of nontypeable H. influenzae to acute and chronic respiratory diseases is being increasingly recognized.

  2. A virus capsid-like nanocompartment that stores iron and protects bacteria from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Colleen A; Fontana, Juan; Nemecek, Daniel; Cheng, Naiqian; Aksyuk, Anastasia A; Heymann, J Bernard; Winkler, Dennis C; Lam, Alan S; Wall, Joseph S; Steven, Alasdair C; Hoiczyk, Egbert

    2014-01-01

    Living cells compartmentalize materials and enzymatic reactions to increase metabolic efficiency. While eukaryotes use membrane-bound organelles, bacteria and archaea rely primarily on protein-bound nanocompartments. Encapsulins constitute a class of nanocompartments widespread in bacteria and archaea whose functions have hitherto been unclear. Here, we characterize the encapsulin nanocompartment from Myxococcus xanthus, which consists of a shell protein (EncA, 32.5 kDa) and three internal proteins (EncB, 17 kDa; EncC, 13 kDa; EncD, 11 kDa). Using cryo-electron microscopy, we determined that EncA self-assembles into an icosahedral shell 32 nm in diameter (26 nm internal diameter), built from 180 subunits with the fold first observed in bacteriophage HK97 capsid. The internal proteins, of which EncB and EncC have ferritin-like domains, attach to its inner surface. Native nanocompartments have dense iron-rich cores. Functionally, they resemble ferritins, cage-like iron storage proteins, but with a massively greater capacity (˜30,000 iron atoms versus ˜3,000 in ferritin). Physiological data reveal that few nanocompartments are assembled during vegetative growth, but they increase fivefold upon starvation, protecting cells from oxidative stress through iron sequestration. PMID:25024436

  3. Association of gingivitis with dental calculus thickness or dental calculus coverage and subgingival bacteria in feline leukemia virus- and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative cats.

    PubMed

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between gingivitis and dental calculus thickness (DCT), or dental calculus coverage (DCC); determine the association of gingivitis scores and types of oral bacteria; and to evaluate bacterial co-infection in cats with periodontal disease. Twelve cats that were not infected with feline leukemia or feline immunodeficiency viruses were enrolled in the study. Gingivitis, DCT, and DCC were scored and recorded. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare scores among canine, 2nd premolar, 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth. The relationship between gingivitis and DCT or DCC scores was determined using the Spearman rank sum test (ρ). Subgingival bacteria were cultured and the association between bacterial species and gingivitis score was evaluated using a Fisher's exact test. The average gingivitis, DCT, and DCC scores for the caudal maxillary teeth were higher for the caudal mandibular teeth and more severe for the 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth than for the canine teeth. A strong relationship between average DCT or DCC score and average gingivitis score was found (ρ = 0.96 and 1, respectively). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections were identified in a large number of cats with periodontal disease (71.1% and 28.9%, respectively). In conclusion, severe gingivitis scores were associated with anaerobic bacterial infection. The caudal teeth are affected with more severe gingivitis, DCT, and DCC than the other teeth. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed in cats with periodontal disease.

  4. Viruses versus bacteria-novel approaches to phage therapy as a tool against multidrug-resistant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Viertel, Tania Mareike; Ritter, Klaus; Horz, Hans-Peter

    2014-09-01

    Bacteriophage therapy (the application of phages to treat bacterial infections) has a tradition dating back almost a century, but interest in phage therapy slowed down in the West when antibiotics were discovered. With the emerging threat of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria and scarce prospects of newly introduced antibiotics in the future, phages are currently being reconsidered as alternative therapeutics. Conventional phage therapy uses lytic bacteriophages for treatment and recent human clinical trials have revealed encouraging results. In addition, several other modern approaches to phages as therapeutics have been made in vitro and in animal models. Dual therapy with phages and antibiotics has resulted in significant reductions in the number of bacterial pathogens. Bioengineered phages have overcome many of the problems of conventional phage therapy, enabled targeted drug delivery or reversed the resistance of drug-resistant bacteria. The use of enzymes derived from phages, such as endolysin, as therapeutic agents has been efficient in the elimination of Gram-positive pathogens. This review presents novel strategies for phage-related therapies and describes our current knowledge of natural bacteriophages within the human microbiome. Our aim is to provide an overview of the high number of different methodological concepts, thereby encouraging further research on this topic, with the ultimate goal of using phages as therapeutic or preventative medicines in daily clinical practice.

  5. Trypsinized Human Group O Erythrocytes as an Alternative Hemagglutinating Agent for Japanese Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Shortridge, K. F.; Hu, L. Y.

    1974-01-01

    Trypsinized human group O erythrocytes were found to be a suitable alternative to gander cells in hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) tests for Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus. In the HAI test, no cross-reactions against JE virus were observed with immune sera containing antibody to taxonomically related or unrelated viruses, with mouse brain antigen, or with nonantibody serum inhibitors; specific antibody rise could be detected in an immunized rabbit. Gander and trypsinized human group O cells gave comparable titers in the HAI test, but the latter were preferable since (i) they required less challenging HA antigen, being more sensitive to agglutination by JE virus, and (ii) all human and some animal sera investigated were devoid of natural agglutinins for these cells, thereby eliminating or reducing the need for prior adsorption with packed cells. PMID:4856948

  6. Polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids derived from 5α-cholestanes as antiviral agents against herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Carlos A; Sepúlveda, Claudia S; Richmond, Victoria; Maier, Marta S; Damonte, Elsa B

    2016-07-01

    Twelve polyhydroxylated sulfated steroids synthesized from a 5α-cholestane skeleton with different substitutions in C-2, C-3 and C-6 were evaluated for cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV) by a virus plaque reduction assay. Four compounds elicited a selective inhibitory effect against HSV. The disodium salt of 2β,3α-dihydroxy-6E-hydroximine-5α-cholestane-2,3-disulfate, named compound 7, was the most effective inhibitor of HSV-1, HSV-2 and pseudorabies virus (PrV) strains, including acyclovir-resistant variants, in human and monkey cell lines. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that compound 7 did not affect the initial steps of virus entry but inhibited a subsequent event in the infection process of HSV.

  7. Human pathogenic bacteria, fungi, and viruses in Drosophila: disease modeling, lessons, and shortcomings.

    PubMed

    Panayidou, Stavria; Ioannidou, Eleni; Apidianakis, Yiorgos

    2014-02-15

    Drosophila has been the invertebrate model organism of choice for the study of innate immune responses during the past few decades. Many Drosophila-microbe interaction studies have helped to define innate immunity pathways, and significant effort has been made lately to decipher mechanisms of microbial pathogenesis. Here we catalog 68 bacterial, fungal, and viral species studied in flies, 43 of which are relevant to human health. We discuss studies of human pathogens in flies revealing not only the elicitation and avoidance of immune response but also mechanisms of tolerance, host tissue homeostasis, regeneration, and predisposition to cancer. Prominent among those is the emerging pattern of intestinal regeneration as a defense response induced by pathogenic and innocuous bacteria. Immunopathology mechanisms and many microbial virulence factors have been elucidated, but their relevance to human health conventionally necessitates validation in mammalian models of infection.

  8. Bacteria Isolated from Bats Inhibit the Growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the Causative Agent of White-Nose Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hoyt, Joseph R.; Cheng, Tina L.; Langwig, Kate E.; Hee, Mallory M.; Frick, Winifred F.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species. PMID:25853558

  9. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hee, Mallory M; Frick, Winifred F; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two isolates performed significantly better than others in suppressing P. destructans growth for at least 35 days. In both challenge experiments, the extent of suppression of P. destructans growth was dependent on the initial concentration of P. destructans and the initial concentration of the bacterial isolate. These results show that bacteria found naturally occurring on bats can inhibit the growth of P. destructans in vitro and should be studied further as a possible probiotic to protect bats from white-nose syndrome. In addition, the presence of these bacteria may influence disease outcomes among individuals, populations, and species.

  10. Inactivation credit of UV radiation for viruses, bacteria and protozoan (oo)cysts in water: a review.

    PubMed

    Hijnen, W A M; Beerendonk, E F; Medema, G J

    2006-01-01

    UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment, the new concept for microbial safety of drinking water and wastewater, requires quantitative data of the inactivation or removal of pathogenic micro-organisms by water treatment processes. The objective of this study was to review the literature on UV disinfection and extract quantitative information about the relation between the inactivation of micro-organisms and the applied UV fluence. The quality of the available studies was evaluated and only high-quality studies were incorporated in the analysis of the inactivation kinetics. The results show that UV is effective against all waterborne pathogens. The inactivation of micro-organisms by UV could be described with first-order kinetics using fluence-inactivation data from laboratory studies in collimated beam tests. No inactivation at low fluences (offset) and/or no further increase of inactivation at higher fluences (tailing) was observed for some micro-organisms. Where observed, these were included in the description of the inactivation kinetics, even though the cause of tailing is still a matter of debate. The parameters that were used to describe inactivation are the inactivation rate constant k (cm(2)/mJ), the maximum inactivation demonstrated and (only for bacterial spores and Acanthamoeba) the offset value. These parameters were the basis for the calculation of the microbial inactivation credit (MIC="log-credits") that can be assigned to a certain UV fluence. The most UV-resistant organisms are viruses, specifically Adenoviruses, and bacterial spores. The protozoon Acanthamoeba is also highly UV resistant. Bacteria and (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia are more susceptible with a fluence

  11. The maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code X in genes of bacteria, eukaryotes, plasmids and viruses.

    PubMed

    Michel, Christian J

    2015-09-07

    In 1996, a set X of 20 trinucleotides is identified in genes of both prokaryotes and eukaryotes which has in average the highest occurrence in reading frame compared to the two shifted frames (Arquès and Michel, 1996). Furthermore, this set X has an interesting mathematical property as X is a maximal C(3) self-complementary trinucleotide circular code (Arquès and Michel, 1996). In 2014, the number of trinucleotides in prokaryotic genes has been multiplied by a factor of 527. Furthermore, two new gene kingdoms of plasmids and viruses contain enough trinucleotide data to be analysed. The approach used in 1996 for identifying a preferential frame for a trinucleotide is quantified here with a new definition analysing the occurrence probability of a complementary/permutation (CP) trinucleotide set in a gene kingdom. Furthermore, in order to increase the statistical significance of results compared to those of 1996, the circular code X is studied on several gene taxonomic groups in a kingdom. Based on this new statistical approach, the circular code X is strengthened in genes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and now also identified in genes of plasmids. A subset of X with 18 or 16 trinucleotides is identified in genes of viruses. Furthermore, a simple probabilistic model based on the independent occurrence of trinucleotides in reading frame of genes explains the circular code frequencies and asymmetries observed in the shifted frames in all studied gene kingdoms. Finally, the developed approach allows to identify variant X codes in genes, i.e. trinucleotide codes which differ from X. In genes of bacteria, eukaryotes and plasmids, 14 among the 47 studied gene taxonomic groups (about 30%) have variant X codes. Seven variant X codes are identified with at least 16 trinucleotides of X. Two variant X codes XA in cyanobacteria and plasmids of cyanobacteria, and XD in birds are self-complementary, without permuted trinucleotides but non-circular. Five variant X codes XB in

  12. Lactic acid bacteria efficiently protect human and animal intestinal epithelial and immune cells from enteric virus infection.

    PubMed

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Chingwaru, Walter; Gradisnik, Lidija; Tsakalidou, Effie; Cencic, Avrelija

    2010-07-31

    This study aimed to examine the potential antiviral activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using animal and human intestinal and macrophage cell line models of non tumor origin. To this end, LAB strains selected on the basis of previous in vitro trials were co-incubated with cell line monolayers, which were subsequently challenged with rotavirus (RV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). In order to elucidate the possible mechanism responsible for the antiviral activity, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as well as the attachment ability of LAB on the cell lines was investigated. Various strains were found to exhibit moderate to complete monolayer protection against viral RV or TGEV disruption. Highest protection effects were recorded with the known probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei Shirota against both RV and TGEV, while notable antiviral activity was also attributed to Enterococcus faecium PCK38, Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC179, Lactobacillus pentosus PCA227 and Lactobacillus plantarum PCA236 and PCS22, depending on the cell line and virus combination used. A variable increase (of up to 50%) on the release of NO(-) and H(2)O(2) (ROS) was obtained when LAB strains were co-incubated with the cell lines, but the results were found to be LAB strain and cell line specific, apart from a small number of strains which were able to induce strong ROS release in more than one cell line. In contrast, the ability of the examined LAB strains to attach to the cell line monolayers was LAB strain but not cell line specific. Highest attachment ability was observed with L. plantarum ACA-DC 146, L. paracasei subsp. tolerans ACA-DC 4037 and E. faecium PCD71. Clear indications on the nature of the antiviral effect were evident only in the case of the L. casei Shirota against TGEV and with L. plantarum PCA236 against both RV and TGEV. In the rest of the cases, each interaction was LAB-cell line-virus specific, barring general

  13. Functional interactions of archaea, bacteria and viruses in a hypersaline endolithic community.

    PubMed

    Crits-Christoph, Alexander; Gelsinger, Diego R; Ma, Bing; Wierzchos, Jacek; Ravel, Jacques; Davila, Alfonso; Casero, M Cristina; DiRuggiero, Jocelyne

    2016-06-01

    Halite endoliths in the Atacama Desert represent one of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth. Cultivation-independent methods were used to examine the functional adaptations of the microbial consortia inhabiting halite nodules. The community was dominated by haloarchaea and functional analysis attributed most of the autotrophic CO2 fixation to one unique cyanobacterium. The assembled 1.1 Mbp genome of a novel nanohaloarchaeon, Candidatus Nanopetramus SG9, revealed a photoheterotrophic life style and a low median isoelectric point (pI) for all predicted proteins, suggesting a 'salt-in' strategy for osmotic balance. Predicted proteins of the algae identified in the community also had pI distributions similar to 'salt-in' strategists. The Nanopetramus genome contained a unique CRISPR/Cas system with a spacer that matched a partial viral genome from the metagenome. A combination of reference-independent methods identified over 30 complete or near complete viral or proviral genomes with diverse genome structure, genome size, gene content and hosts. Putative hosts included Halobacteriaceae, Nanohaloarchaea and Cyanobacteria. Despite the dependence of the halite community on deliquescence for liquid water availability, this study exposed an ecosystem spanning three phylogenetic domains, containing a large diversity of viruses and predominance of a 'salt-in' strategy to balance the high osmotic pressure of the environment.

  14. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphorylated Abacavir Derivatives as Antiviral Agents Against Newcastle Disease Virus Infection in Chicken.

    PubMed

    K A, Suresh; Venkata Subbaiah, Kadiam C; Lavanya, Rayapu; Chandrasekhar, Kuruva; Chamarti, Naga Raju; Kumar, M Suresh; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Valluru, Lokanatha

    2016-09-01

    Newcastle disease virus is the most devastating virus in poultry industry. It can eradicate the entire poultry flocks once infected. This study is aimed to investigate the antiviral efficacy of novel phosphorylated analogues of the drug abacavir (ABC) against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). About 16 analogues of ABC were designed and docking was performed against fusion protein of NDV. Three compounds were identified and selected for synthesis and biological evaluation based on binding affinity and docking scores. The compounds were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, (13)C, (31)P and CHN analysis and mass spectra. These compounds were tested for antiviral efficacy against NDV-infected DF-1 cells. Compound ABC-1 had shown potent antiviral activity as evidenced by significant reduction in plaque units and cytopathic effect. Therefore, ABC-1 was selected to test for NDV-infected chicken survival rate. Effective dose50 concentrations were determined for ABC-1. Antioxidant enzyme levels in brain, liver and lung tissues were estimated. Superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly raised and lipid peroxidation and HA titer levels were decreased upon treatment with 2 mg/kg body weight ABC-1. Histopathological modifications were also restored in the ABC-1-treated group. These findings demonstrated ABC-1 as a potential antiviral agent against NDV in chicken.

  15. Rapidly evolving genes in pathogens: methods for detecting positive selection and examples among fungi, bacteria, viruses and protists.

    PubMed

    Aguileta, Gabriela; Refrégier, Guislaine; Yockteng, Roxana; Fournier, Elisabeth; Giraud, Tatiana

    2009-07-01

    The ongoing coevolutionary struggle between hosts and pathogens, with hosts evolving to escape pathogen infection and pathogens evolving to escape host defences, can generate an 'arms race', i.e., the occurrence of recurrent selective sweeps that each favours a novel resistance or virulence allele that goes to fixation. Host-pathogen coevolution can alternatively lead to a 'trench warfare', i.e., balancing selection, maintaining certain alleles at loci involved in host-pathogen recognition over long time scales. Recently, technological and methodological progress has enabled detection of footprints of selection directly on genes, which can provide useful insights into the processes of coevolution. This knowledge can also have practical applications, for instance development of vaccines or drugs. Here we review the methods for detecting genes under positive selection using divergence data (i.e., the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates, d(N)/d(S)). We also review methods for detecting selection using polymorphisms, such as methods based on F(ST) measures, frequency spectrum, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype structure. In the second part, we review examples where targets of selection have been identified in pathogens using these tests. Genes under positive selection in pathogens have mostly been sought among viruses, bacteria and protists, because of their paramount importance for human health. Another focus is on fungal pathogens owing to their agronomic importance. We finally discuss promising directions in pathogen studies, such as detecting selection in non-coding regions.

  16. Cultivable microbiota of Lithobates catesbeianus and advances in the selection of lactic acid bacteria as biological control agents in raniculture.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Gabriela Montel; Pasteris, Sergio E; Ale, Cesar E; Otero, María C; Bühler, Marta I; Nader-Macías, María E Fátima

    2012-12-01

    The cultivable microbiota of skin and cloaca of captive Lithobates catesbeianus includes microorganisms generally accepted as beneficial and potentially pathogenic bacteria. In order to select a group of potentially probiotic bacteria, 136 isolates were evaluated for their surface properties and production of antagonistic metabolites. Then, 11 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lb. brevis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, L. garvieae and Enterococcus gallinarum. Studies of compatibility indicate that all the strains could be included in a multi-strain probiotic, with the exception of Ent. gallinarum CRL 1826 which inhibited LAB species through a bacteriocin-like metabolite. These results contribute to the design of a probiotic product to improve the sanitary status of bullfrogs in intensive culture systems, to avoid the use of antibiotics and thus to reduce production costs. It could also be an alternative to prevent infectious diseases during the ex situ breeding of amphibian species under threat of extinction.

  17. [Cardiotropic DNA viruses and bacteria in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy with or without inflammation].

    PubMed

    Pankuweit, S; Hufnagel, G; Eckhardt, H; Herrmann, H; Uttecht, S; Maisch, B

    1998-04-15

    In the report of the 1995 WHO/ISFC task force on the definition and classification of cardiomyopathies a new entity within the dilated cardiomyopathies was introduced as "inflammatory cardiomyopathy". It is defined as myocarditis associated with cardiac dysfunction. Idiopathic, autoimmune and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy are now recognized through this definition. Dilated cardiomyopathy with inflammation (DCMi, chronic myocarditis) was also defined by a recent ISFC task force as > 14 lymphocytes/macrophages/mm3. Enteroviruses, adenoviruses and cytomegaloviruses are considered as main etiopathogenetic factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory heart disease and have been demonstrated as important trigger for inflammatory cardiac disease. They may also cause dilated cardiomyopathy by viral persistence or secondary immunopathogenesis due to antigenic or molecular mimicry. For the detection of viral persistence the investigation of endomyocardial biopsies in patients with cardiomyopathy by the use of polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis is an important step for the standardization of diagnostic criteria on virally induced inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Present studies indicate an incidence of cytomegalovirus-DNA in patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy in 10%, adenoviral-DNA in 17% and borreliosis only in rare cases (< 1%). In dilated cardiomyopathy without inflammation the respective incidences were for cytomegalovirus 12%, 15% for adenovirus and only 0.5% of cases for borreliosis. In addition the results of immunohistochemical analysis and molecular biological investigations of endomyocardial biopsies may have implications for future therapeutic studies. Depending on the etiology of the disease, immunosuppression may have benefit for patients with virus-negative cardiomyopathy with inflammation in contrast to patients with cytomegalo-, adenovirus-DNA or enteroviral persistence, in whom immunomodulation with hyperimmunoglobulins

  18. A viral agent isolated from a case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" and pathogenic for suckling mice: its possible relation to the coxsackie group of viruses.

    PubMed

    CHEEVER, F S; DANIELS, J B; HERSEY, E F

    1950-08-01

    1. A viral agent, Powers, causing myocarditis, adipositis, pancreatitis, hepatitis, and encephalomyelitis but not myositis in suckling mice 1 to 2 days old has been isolated from the stool of a patient in whom the clinical diagnosis was "non-paralytic poliomyelitis." 2. Serological evidence linking the virus to the clinical disease observed was clear only in the case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" from which it was isolated. 3. The possible relation of this agent to the Coxsackie group of viruses is discussed. No serological relationship with the Connecticut 5, Ohio R, and High Point strains was demonstrated. 4. A second virus, Matulaitis, has been isolated from a concurrent case of "non-paralytic poliomyelitis" in the same area. Lesions produced in infant mice by the two agents show certain differences.

  19. The Potential Application and Risks Associated With the Use of Predatory Bacteria as a Biocontrol Agent Against Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    resistance. Using enrichment culturing techniques we have verified that no genetically stable predation resistant phenotype developed in K. pneumoniae and...bacteria used in this experiment was K. pneumoniae ATCC 33495. Initial predation was determined. Thereafter, host cells were sequentially cultured 20...change. All experiments were conducted in triplicates. Data represent the average log change. Initial predation Initial reduction of K. pneumoniae

  20. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... MSV that is found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test. (a) At least a 1.0 ml aliquot per cell... monkey kidney) cell line; (2) Embryonic cells, neonatal cells, or a cell line of the species for...

  1. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... MSV that is found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test. (a) At least a 1.0 ml aliquot per cell... monkey kidney) cell line; (2) Embryonic cells, neonatal cells, or a cell line of the species for...

  2. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... MSV that is found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test. (a) At least a 1.0 ml aliquot per cell... monkey kidney) cell line; (2) Embryonic cells, neonatal cells, or a cell line of the species for...

  3. 9 CFR 113.55 - Detection of extraneous agents in Master Seed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Master Seed Virus. 113.55 Section 113.55 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... MSV that is found unsatisfactory by any prescribed test. (a) At least a 1.0 ml aliquot per cell... monkey kidney) cell line; (2) Embryonic cells, neonatal cells, or a cell line of the species for...

  4. The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active Against RNA Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-15

    5012 62770A 62770A8,1. AH 355 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active...broad-spectrum antiviral agent has stimulated a great deal of effort toward the chemical synthesis of nucleosides of other azole heterocycles. During the...4 II. Chemistry and Discussion . . .. .. . 6 1. Synthesis of Certain 5’-Substituted Derivatives of Ribavirin and Tiazofurin . . .. . 6 2

  5. Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from Fusion Peptides of Influenza A Viruses, a Promising Approach to Designing Potent Antimicrobial Agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingyu; Zhong, Wenjing; Lin, Dongguo; Xia, Fan; Wu, Wenjiao; Zhang, Heyuan; Lv, Lin; Liu, Shuwen; He, Jian

    2015-10-01

    The emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens have spurred the urgent need to develop novel antimicrobial agents with different mode of action. In this respect, we turned several fusogenic peptides (FPs) derived from the hemagglutinin glycoproteins (HAs) of IAV into potent antibacterials by replacing the negatively or neutrally charged residues of FPs with positively charged lysines. Their antibacterial activities were evaluated by testing the MICs against a panel of bacterial strains including S. aureus, S. mutans, P. aeruginosa, and E. coli. The results showed that peptides HA-FP-1, HA-FP-2-1, and HA-FP-3-1 were effective against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with MICs ranging from 1.9 to 16.0 μm, while the toxicities toward mammalian cells were low. In addition, the mode of action and the secondary structure of these peptides were also discussed. These data not only provide several potent peptides displaying promising potential in development as broad antimicrobial agents, but also present a useful strategy in designing new antimicrobial agents.

  6. Carnation mottle virus, an important viral agent infecting carnation cut-flower crops in Mahallat of Iran.

    PubMed

    Safari, M; Koohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G; Dizadji, A

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important cut-flower crops grown worldwide on commercial scale is Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). It's the main production of Mahallat where is one of the most important ornamental plants production centers of Iran. Infection of carnation with pathogens Like viral agents causes economic losses in carnation cut-flower crop. One of the viral agents of this flower is Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) which is the type member of genus Carmovirus and belongs to the Tombusviridae family. It is naturally transmitted by grafting and contacting between plants. Although its infection lead to mild symptims, it weakens the plant to infection by other pathogens. The carnation greenhouses of Mahallat were visited during 2008 January to April and 100 samples with mild mosaic symptom were collected and tested by DAS-ELISA using CarMV specific polyclonal antibody. The results showed that 75% of samples wrere infected with this virus. Mechanical inocubation of Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor and Spinacea oleracea with extracted crude sap of CarMV infected carnation Leaves in phosphate buffer (pH, 7) resulted in appearance of chlorotic and necrotic local lesions on inoculated leaves 4-7 days after incubation. The virus was partially purified using C. amaranticolor locally symptomatic leaves. Total soluble proteins were extracted from healthy and CarMV infected C. amaranticolor plants and beside partially purified preparation electrophoresed through 15% poly acrylamide get according to SDS-PAGE standard procedure. Protein bands were electroblotted onto nitrocelluse membrane and incubated with CarMV polyclonal during western immunoblot analysis according to standard method. The result revealed a distinc protein band with Mr of 35.5 kDa in total protein preparation of infected plant and viral partial pure preparation, without any reaction in those of healthy plant. RT-PCR carried out using total RNA extracted from infected plant by Rneasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen

  7. Small-Scale Terrorist Attacks Using Chemical and Biological Agents: An Assessment Framework and Preliminary Comparisons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-23

    Rickettsia rickettsii , found online at [http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/msds-ftss/msds129e.html]. w Information on Escherichia coli O157:H7 is...research/cbw/possess.htm]. Biological Agent Comparison Potential biological agents include the many bacteria and viruses that induce disease in human...their acquisition, regardless of the legality of such a transfer. In contrast, salmonella bacteria would be easy to obtain from natural sources and

  8. Comparative study of the membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents in bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Satoshi; Komagoe, Keiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Katsu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The membrane-permeabilizing activities of mastoparans and related histamine-releasing agents were compared through measurements of K(+) efflux from bacteria, erythrocytes, and mast cells. Changes in bacterial cell viability, hemolysis, and histamine release, as well as in the shape of erythrocytes were also investigated. The compounds tested were mastoparans (HR1, a mastoparan from Polistes jadwagae, and a mastoparan from Vespula lewisii), granuliberin R, mast cell-degranulating peptide, and compound 48/80, as well as antimicrobial peptides, such as magainin I, magainin II, gramicidin S, and melittin. We used a K(+)-selective electrode to determine changes in the permeability to K(+) of the cytoplasmic membranes of cells. Consistent with the surface of mast cells becoming negatively charged during histamine release, due to the translocation of phosphatidylserine to the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane, histamine-releasing agents induced K(+) efflux from mast cells, dependent on their ability to increase the permeability of bacterial cytoplasmic membranes rich in negatively charged phospholipids. The present results demonstrated that amphiphilic peptides, possessing both histamine-releasing and antimicrobial capabilities, induced the permeabilization of the cytoplasmic membranes of not only bacteria but mast cells. Mastoparans increased the permeability of membranes in human erythrocytes at higher concentrations, and changed the normal discoid shape to a crenated form. The structural requirement for making the crenated form was determined using compound 48/80 and its constituents (monomer, dimer, and trimer), changing systematically the number of cationic charges of the molecules.

  9. Optimization of a Reusable Hollow-Fiber Ultrafilter for Simultaneous Concentration of Enteric Bacteria, Protozoa, and Viruses from Water

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Morales, Hugo A.; Vidal, Guadalupe; Olszewski, John; Rock, Channah M.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Oshima, Kevin H.; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2003-01-01

    The detection and identification of pathogens from water samples remain challenging due to variations in recovery rates and the cost of procedures. Ultrafiltration offers the possibility to concentrate viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms in a single process by using size-exclusion-based filtration. In this study, two hollow-fiber ultrafilters with 50,000-molecular-weight cutoffs were evaluated to concentrate microorganisms from 2- and 10-liter water samples. When known quantities (105 to 106 CFU/liter) of two species of enteric bacteria were introduced and concentrated from 2 liters of sterile water, the addition of 0.1% Tween 80 increased Escherichia coli strain K-12 recoveries from 70 to 84% and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis recoveries from 36 to 72%. An E. coli antibiotic-resistant strain, XL1-Blue, was recovered at a level (87%) similar to that for strain K-12 (96%) from 10 liters of sterile water. When E. coli XL1-Blue was introduced into 10 liters of nonsterile Rio Grande water with higher turbidity levels (23 to 29 nephelometric turbidity units) at two inoculum levels (9 × 105 and 2.4 × 103 per liter), the recovery efficiencies were 89 and 92%, respectively. The simultaneous addition of E. coli XL1-Blue (9 × 105 CFU/liter), Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (10 oocysts/liter), phage T1 (105 PFU/liter), and phage PP7 (105 PFU/liter) to 10 liters of Rio Grande surface water resulted in mean recoveries of 96, 54, 59, and 46%, respectively. Using a variety of surface waters from around the United States, we obtained recovery efficiencies for bacteria and viruses that were similar to those observed with the Rio Grande samples, but recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts was decreased, averaging 32% (the site of collection of these samples had previously been identified as problematic for oocyst recovery). Results indicate that the use of ultrafiltration for simultaneous recovery of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens from variable surface waters

  10. The Potential Application and Risks Associated With the Use of Predatory Bacteria as a Biocontrol Agent Against Wound Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    predators, B. bacteriovorus 109J and B. bacteriovorus HD100. The host bacteria used in this experiment was K. pneumoniae ATCC 33495. Initial predation was...log change. 5 Initial predation Initial reduction of K. pneumoniae (log10) after co-culturing with B. bacteriovorus HD100, B...predation Final average population reduction (log10) of K. pneumoniae that was sequentially cultured 20 times on B. bacteriovorus HD100. Control B

  11. Evaluation of Nipah Virus as a Human and Animal Biological Terrorism and Warfare Agent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    Reminder. SMJ Vol 40: 329-330. 10. Ling A.E. 1999. Lessons to be learnt from the Nipah Virus Outbreak in Singapore. SMJVoI4O: 331 -332. 11. Lim C.T...Sitoh Y.Y., Lee K.E., Kurup A., Hui F. 1999. Meningoencephalitis Caused by a Novel Paramyxovirus: An Advanced MRI Case Report in an Emerging Disease SMJ

  12. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  13. Innate and adaptive immunity in bacteria: mechanisms of programmed genetic variation to fight bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bikard, David; Marraffini, Luciano A

    2012-02-01

    Bacteria are constantly challenged by bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria), the most abundant microorganism on earth. Bacteria have evolved a variety of immunity mechanisms to resist bacteriophage infection. In response, bacteriophages can evolve counter-resistance mechanisms and launch a 'virus versus host' evolutionary arms race. In this context, rapid evolution is fundamental for the survival of the bacterial cell. Programmed genetic variation mechanisms at loci involved in immunity against bacteriophages generate diversity at a much faster rate than random point mutation and enable bacteria to quickly adapt and repel infection. Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) and phase variation mechanisms enhance the generic (innate) immune response against bacteriophages. On the other hand, the integration of small bacteriophage sequences in CRISPR loci provide bacteria with a virus-specific and sequence-specific adaptive immune response. Therefore, although using different molecular mechanisms, both prokaryotes and higher organisms rely on programmed genetic variation to increase genetic diversity and fight rapidly evolving infectious agents.

  14. A mobile biosafety microanalysis system for infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Beniac, Daniel R; Hiebert, Shannon L; Siemens, Christine G; Corbett, Cindi R; Booth, Tim F

    2015-03-30

    Biological threats posed by pathogens such as Ebola virus must be quickly diagnosed, while protecting the safety of personnel. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis requires minimal specimen preparation and can help to identify hazardous agents or substances. Here we report a compact biosafety system for rapid imaging and elemental analysis of specimens, including powders, viruses and bacteria, which is easily transportable to the site of an incident.

  15. A mobile biosafety microanalysis system for infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Beniac, Daniel R.; Hiebert, Shannon L.; Siemens, Christine G.; Corbett, Cindi R.; Booth, Tim F.

    2015-01-01

    Biological threats posed by pathogens such as Ebola virus must be quickly diagnosed, while protecting the safety of personnel. Scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis requires minimal specimen preparation and can help to identify hazardous agents or substances. Here we report a compact biosafety system for rapid imaging and elemental analysis of specimens, including powders, viruses and bacteria, which is easily transportable to the site of an incident. PMID:25820944

  16. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists’ arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting. PMID:26056460

  17. Marketed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, antihypertensives, and human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors: as-yet-unused weapons of the oncologists' arsenal.

    PubMed

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Baltopoulos, Panagiotis; Tsironi, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that several pharmacological agents that have long been used for the management of various diseases unrelated to cancer exhibit profound in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity. This is of major clinical importance, since it would possibly aid in reassessing the therapeutic use of currently used agents for which clinicians already have experience. Further, this would obviate the time-consuming process required for the development and the approval of novel antineoplastic drugs. Herein, both pre-clinical and clinical data concerning the antineoplastic function of distinct commercially available pharmacological agents that are not currently used in the field of oncology, ie, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihypertensive agents, and anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents inhibiting viral protease, are reviewed. The aim is to provide integrated information regarding not only the molecular basis of the antitumor function of these agents but also the applicability of the reevaluation of their therapeutic range in the clinical setting.

  18. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: back to the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past 15 years a number of successes and setbacks have taken place regarding development and use of microbial control agents. In this Forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of entomopathogenic virus, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of i...

  19. Treatment of Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infections in Mice With Antiviral Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smee, Donald F.; Julander, Justin G.; Tarbet, E. Bart; Gross, Matthew; Nguyen, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Influenza A/Mississippi/03/2001 (H1N1) and A/Hong Kong/2369/2009 (H1N1) viruses containing the neuraminidase gene mutation H275Y (conferring resistance to oseltamivir) were adapted to mice and evaluated for suitability as models for lethal infection and antiviral treatment. The viral neuraminidases were resistant to peramivir and oseltamivir carboxylate but sensitive to zanamivir. Similar pattern of antiviral activity were seen in MDCK cell assays. Lethal infections were achieved in mice with the two viruses. Oral oseltamivir at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day bid for 5 d starting at −2 h gave 30 and 60% protection from death, respectively, due to the A/Mississippi/03/2001 infection. Intraperitoneal treatments with zanamivir at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day starting at −2 h gave 60 and 90% protection, respectively. Neither compound at ≤300 mg/kg/day protected mice when treatments began at +24 h. Amantadine was effective at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg/day, rimantadine was protective at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day (highest dose tested), and ribavirin was active at 30 and 75 mg/kg/day, with survival ranging from 60–100% for oral treatments initiated at −2 h. For treatments begun at +24 h, amantadine was protective at 30 and 100 mg/kg/day, rimantadine showed efficacy at 10 and 30 mg/kg/day, and ribavirin was active at 75 mg/kg/day, with 60–100% survival per group. In the A/Hong Kong/2369/2009 infection, oral oseltamivir at 100 and 300 mg/kg/day starting at −2 h gave 50 and 70% protection from death, respectively. These infection models will be useful to study newly discovered anti-influenza virus agents and to evaluate compounds in combination. PMID:22809862

  20. West Nile virus: an infectious viral agent to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Farrar, Francisca

    2013-06-01

    This article reviews the growing epidemic of West Nile virus (WNV), clinical manifestations of the 2 primary groups of WNV, diagnostic tests, critical nursing management, risk factors, and prevention of WNV. Critical care nursing management is based on symptom management and supportive therapy for neuroinvasive disease complications. Nursing management for complications such as altered level of consciousness, mechanical ventilator respiratory support, high fever, cerebral edema, increased intracranial pressure, seizures, and neuropsychiatric issues is outlined. Preventive measures for WNV, such as surveillance programs, personal protective measures, source reduction, mosquito programs, and vaccine development, are discussed.

  1. Characteristics of human infection with avian influenza viruses and development of new antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Liu, Dong-ying; Yang, Zhan-qiu

    2013-01-01

    Since 1997, several epizootic avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been transmitted to humans, causing diseases and even deaths. The recent emergence of severe human infections with AIV (H7N9) in China has raised concerns about efficient interpersonal viral transmission, polygenic traits in viral pathogenicity and the management of newly emerging strains. The symptoms associated with viral infection are different in various AI strains: H5N1 and newly emerged H7N9 induce severe pneumonia and related complications in patients, while some H7 and H9 subtypes cause only conjunctivitis or mild respiratory symptoms. The virulence and tissue tropism of viruses as well as the host responses contribute to the pathogenesis of human AIV infection. Several preventive and therapeutic approaches have been proposed to combat AIV infection, including antiviral drugs such as M2 inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA polymerase inhibitors, attachment inhibitors and signal-transduction inhibitors etc. In this article, we summarize the recent progress in researches on the epidemiology, clinical features, pathogenicity determinants, and available or potential antivirals of AIV. PMID:24096642

  2. Patterns of transcription of a virus-like agent in tumor and non-tumor tissues in bicolor damselfish.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Jennifer J; Gibbs, Patrick D L; Schmale, Michael C

    2004-07-01

    Damselfish neurofibromatosis (DNF) is a transmissible disease characterized by peripheral nerve sheath and pigment cell tumors which occurs in bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) on Florida reefs. The damselfish virus-like agent (DVLA) is associated with the development of DNF and contains a 2.4-kb DNA genome which was found at high levels in tumors and tumor-derived cell lines and at lower levels in non-tumor tissues of both spontaneously diseased fish (TF) and fish with experimentally induced tumors (EF). An analysis of transcription patterns revealed up to five DVLA derived RNAs ranging in size from 300 to 1400 bp in these cell types. DNA was the most commonly distributed DVLA component in TF and EF followed by RNA. Prevalence of transcripts varied by tissue type. The smallest transcripts were the most common in all cell types and the most complete patterns, which included the larger transcripts, were observed primarily in tumors. The presence of viral RNAs in addition to DNA in non-tumor tissues suggested these tissues were infected by DVLA and indicated a wide tissue tropism for this agent. The high levels of DVLA nucleic acids found in tumors suggest that replication is occurring there. However, the potential for DVLA replication in other tissues where only a limited range of transcripts were present is not known. The mechanism of tumorigenesis by this agent is unknown. However, the association of the larger transcripts with most tumor tissues and their absence in most non-tumor tissues suggests that these RNAs may be involved in tumor formation.

  3. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Beertsen, Wouter; van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at 1 month before the experiment (Pre-exp), at the start of the experiment (Baseline) and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp). During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193), nor did the microbial composition of plaque. During a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31) at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39) Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after 1 week of rinsing deserves further research

  4. Detection and transmission in chimpanzees of hepatitis B virus-related agents formerly designated "non-A, non-B" hepatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Wands, J R; Lieberman, H M; Muchmore, E; Isselbacher, K; Shafritz, D A

    1982-01-01

    Four chimpanzees have been infected with three different inocula containing "non-A, non-B" hepatitis virus(es). After inoculation, serial studies established the presence of antigenemia or viremia (or both) by radioimmunoassay with high-affinity monoclonal antibodies directed toward separate and distinct determinants on hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and by molecular hybridization analysis using a cloned hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA probe. In contrast to results observed during HBV infection, elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase values indicate that liver injury preceded antigenemia by several weeks. Thus, the time between inoculation and development of antigenemia (incubation period) varied from 64 to 190 days and, in some cases, single or multiple episodes of antigenemia or viremia occurred in the absence of elevated aminotransferase levels. In this study, two chimpanzees were high-titer positive for antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) from previous infection with HBV, suggesting that the antigenic composition of HBV-related virus(es) is substantially different from that of HBV, since naturally occurring anti-HBs antibodies were not protective. Demonstration of HBV-related virus(es) by the methods used in this study of experimental hepatitis infection in chimpanzees should now permit detection, isolation, and characterization of these previously elusive agents. Images PMID:6818547

  5. The phthalocyanine prototype derivative Alcian Blue is the first synthetic agent with selective anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity due to its gp120 glycan-binding potential.

    PubMed

    François, Katrien O; Pannecouque, Christophe; Auwerx, Joeri; Lozano, Virginia; Pérez-Pérez, Maria-Jésus; Schols, Dominique; Balzarini, Jan

    2009-11-01

    Alcian Blue (AB), a phthalocyanine derivative, is able to prevent infection by a wide spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus strains in various cell types [T cells, (co)receptor-transfected cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells]. With the exception of herpes simplex virus, AB is inactive against a broad variety of other (DNA and RNA) viruses. Time-of-addition studies show that AB prevents HIV-1 infection at the virus entry stage, exactly at the same time as carbohydrate-binding agents do. AB also efficiently prevents fusion between persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78 cells and uninfected (CD4(+)) lymphocytes, DC-SIGN-directed HIV-1 capture, and subsequent transmission to uninfected (CD4(+)) T lymphocytes. Prolonged passaging of HIV-1 at dose-escalating concentrations of AB resulted in the selection of mutant virus strains in which several N-glycans of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope were deleted and in which positively charged amino acid mutations in both gp120 and gp41 appeared. A mutant virus strain in which four N-glycans were deleted showed a 10-fold decrease in sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of AB. These data suggest that AB is likely endowed with carbohydrate-binding properties and can be considered an important lead compound in the development of novel synthetic nonpeptidic antiviral drugs targeting the glycans of the envelope of HIV.

  6. SAMPLING VIRUSES FROM SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes in detail methods for detecting viruses of bacteria and humans in soil. Methods also are presented for the assay of these viruses. Reference sources are provided for information on viruses of plants.

  7. [Daptomycin: revitalizing a former drug due to the need of new active agents against grampositive multiresistant bacterias].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martí, V; Romá Sánchez, E; Salavert Lletí, M; Bosó Ribelles, V; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2007-09-01

    The development of mechanisms of resistance of many Gram-positive bacterial strains that cause complicated skin and soft tissue infections, as well as sepsis and bacteremia, has necessitated the search for new drugs that will improve treatment strategies. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibacterial that was launched for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The drug's mechanism of action is different from that of any other antibiotic. It binds to bacterial membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death. The in vitro spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant aerobic Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Compared to other antibiotics with a similar antibacterial spectrum, daptomycin does not cause nephrotoxicity. Taking these and other characteristics into consideration, daptomycin appears to be a good alternative to other drugs used in the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and in Gram-positive bacteremial infections.

  8. RepA-WH1, the agent of an amyloid proteinopathy in bacteria, builds oligomeric pores through lipid vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, Cristina; Núñez-Ramírez, Rafael; Jiménez, Mercedes; Rivas, Germán; Giraldo, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    RepA-WH1 is a disease-unrelated protein that recapitulates in bacteria key aspects of human amyloid proteinopathies: i) It undergoes ligand-promoted amyloidogenesis in vitro; ii) its aggregates are able to seed/template amyloidosis on soluble protein molecules; iii) its conformation is modulated by Hsp70 chaperones in vivo, generating transmissible amyloid strains; and iv) causes proliferative senescence. Membrane disruption by amyloidogenic oligomers has been found for most proteins causing human neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that, as for PrP prion and α-synuclein, acidic phospholipids also promote RepA-WH1 amyloidogenesis in vitro. RepA-WH1 molecules bind to liposomes, where the protein assembles oligomeric membrane pores. Fluorescent tracer molecules entrapped in the lumen of the vesicles leak through these pores and RepA-WH1 can then form large aggregates on the surface of the vesicles without inducing their lysis. These findings prove that it is feasible to generate in vitro a synthetic proteinopathy with a minimal set of cytomimetic components and support the view that cell membranes are primary targets in protein amyloidoses. PMID:26984374

  9. Real-World Experiences With a Direct-Acting Antiviral Agent for Patients With Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Louie, Vincent; Latt, Nyan L; Gharibian, Derenik; Sahota, Amandeep; Yanny, Beshoy T; Mittal, Rasham; Bider-Canfield, Zoe; Cheetham, T Craig

    2017-01-01

    Context Traditional hepatitis C virus treatment was limited by low cure rates, side effects, and stringent monitoring requirements. Sofosbuvir, a direct-acting antiviral agent with a cure rate of 96%, was introduced in 2013. However, trials frequently excluded patients with advanced liver disease and prior treatment experience. This study aims to elucidate the real-world cure rates and sofosbuvir safety profile. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted at Kaiser Permanente Southern California involving patients with hepatitis C virus who received sofosbuvir treatment. Patients age 18 years and older were included, and pregnant patients were excluded. The primary end point was sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment. Secondary end points were safety and medication adherence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to compare patients with genotypes 1 and 2 infections. Results Of the 213 study patients, 42.3% had cirrhosis, and 38% were treatment-experienced. Most patients (69.5%) received dual therapy (sofosbuvir + ribavirin), whereas the remainder (30.5%) received triple therapy (sofosbuvir + ribavirin + interferon). The overall rate of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment rate was 72.9% for genotype 1 infection, 64.7% in the treatment-experienced subgroup, and 66.7% in the cirrhosis subgroup. Rates of sustained virologic response at 12 weeks posttreatment for genotypes 2 and 3 were 90.8% and 55%, respectively. Most patients experienced anemia and fatigue. Women and patients with a lower baseline viral load were statistically more likely to be cured. Conclusion Real-world cure rates were similar to rates seen in clinical trials for genotype 2 infection and lower for genotype 1 infection. Patients with genotype 1 and 3 infection did better with triple therapy compared with dual therapy. Patients tolerated therapy well with side effects, serious adverse events, and discontinuation rates similar to clinical trials

  10. Inhibitory effect of gut bacteria from the Japanese honey bee, Apis cerana japonica, against Melissococcus plutonius, the causal agent of European foulbrood disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Iwata, Kyoko; Takaya, Noriko; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaru; Taylor, DeMar; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yoshiyama, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    European foulbrood is a contagious bacterial disease of honey bee larvae. Studies have shown that the intestinal bacteria of insects, including honey bees, act as probiotic organisms. Microbial flora from the gut of the Japanese honey bee, Apis cerana japonica F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), were characterized and evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of Melissococcus plutonius corrig. (ex White) Bailey and Collins (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), the causative agent of European foulbrood. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 17 bacterial strains isolated by using a culture-dependent method revealed that most isolates belonged to Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Pantoea. The isolates were screened against the pathogenic bacterium M. plutonius by using an in vitro growth inhibition assay, and one isolate (Acja3) belonging to the genus Bacillus exhibited inhibitory activity against M. plutonius. In addition, in vivo feeding assays revealed that isolate Acja3 decreased the mortality of honey bee larvae infected with M plutonius, suggesting that this bacterial strain could potentially be used as a probiotic agent against European foulbrood.

  11. Inhibition of the growth of Paenibacillus larvae, the causal agent of American foulbrood of honeybees, by selected strains of aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from apiarian sources.

    PubMed

    Alippi, Adriana M; Reynaldi, Francisco J

    2006-03-01

    The bacterium Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood disease of honeybee larvae, occurs throughout the world and is found in many beekeeping areas of Argentina. The potential as biocontrol agents of antagonic aerobic spore-forming bacteria isolated from honey samples and other apiarian sources were evaluated. Each isolate was screened against one strain of Paenibacillus larvae (ATCC 9545) by using a perpendicular streak technique. Ten randomly selected bacterial strains from the group that showed the best antagonistic effect to P. larvae ATCC 9545 were selected for further study. These were identified as Bacillus subtilis (m351), B. pumilus (m350), B. licheniformis (m347), B. cereus (mv33), B. cereus (m387), B. cereus (m6c), B. megaterium (m404), Brevibacillus laterosporus (BLAT169), B. laterosporus (BLAT170), and B. laterosporus (BLAT171). The antagonistic strains were tested against 17 P. larvae strains from different geographical origins by means of a spot test in wells. The analysis of variance and posterior comparison of means by Tukey method (P < 0.01) showed that the best antagonists were B. megaterium (m404), B. licheniformis (m347), B. cereus (m6c), B. cereus (mv33), and B. cereus (m387).

  12. Inhibitory Effect of Gut Bacteria from the Japanese Honey Bee, Apis cerana japonica, Against Melissococcus plutonius, the Causal Agent of European Foulbrood Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meihua; Sugimura, Yuya; Iwata, Kyoko; Takaya, Noriko; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Masaru; Taylor, DeMar; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Yoshiyama, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    European foulbrood is a contagious bacterial disease of honey bee larvae. Studies have shown that the intestinal bacteria of insects, including honey bees, act as probiotic organisms. Microbial flora from the gut of the Japanese honey bee, Apis cerana japonica F. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), were characterized and evaluated for their potential to inhibit the growth of Melissococcus plutonius corrig. (ex White) Bailey and Collins (Lactobacillales: Enterococcaceae), the causative agent of European foulbrood. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from 17 bacterial strains isolated by using a culture-dependent method revealed that most isolates belonged to Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Pantoea. The isolates were screened against the pathogenic bacterium M. plutonius by using an in vitro growth inhibition assay, and one isolate (Acja3) belonging to the genus Bacillus exhibited inhibitory activity against M. plutonius. In addition, in vivo feeding assays revealed that isolate Acja3 decreased the mortality of honey bee larvae infected with M. plutonius, suggesting that this bacterial strain could potentially be used as a probiotic agent against European foulbrood. PMID:25368073

  13. Cynaropicrin: A Comprehensive Research Review and Therapeutic Potential As an Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Agent

    PubMed Central

    Elsebai, Mahmoud F.; Mocan, Andrei; Atanasov, Atanas G.

    2016-01-01

    The different pharmacologic properties of plants-containing cynaropicrin, especially artichokes, have been known for many centuries. More recently, cynaropicrin exhibited a potential activity against all genotypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Cynaropicrin has also shown a wide range of other pharmacologic properties such as anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-trypanosomal, anti-malarial, antifeedant, antispasmodic, anti-photoaging, and anti-tumor action, as well as activation of bitter sensory receptors, and anti-inflammatory properties (e.g., associated with the suppression of the key pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway). These pharmacological effects are very supportive factors to its outstanding activity against HCV. Structurally, cynaropicrin might be considered as a potential drug candidate, since it has no violations for the rule of five and its water-solubility could allow formulation as therapeutic injections. Moreover, cynaropicrin is a small molecule that can be easily synthesized and as the major constituent of the edible plant artichoke, which has a history of safe dietary use. In summary, cynaropicrin is a promising bioactive natural product that, with minor hit-to-lead optimization, might be developed as a drug for HCV. PMID:28008316

  14. Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin Neuraminidase as a Potential Cancer Targeting Agent

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Ali; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with its immunotherapeutic activities and sialic acid binding abilities is a promising cancer adjuvant. The HN was surfaced displayed on Lactococcus lactis and its cancer targeting ability was investigated via attachment to the MDA-MB231 breast cancers. To surface display the HN protein on the bacterial cell wall, HN was fused to N-acetylmuraminidase (AcmA) anchoring motif of L. lactis and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The expressed recombinant fusion proteins were purified and mixed with a culture of L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant HN-AcmA protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The bacterial cells carrying the HN-AcmA protein interacted with the MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Direct and fluorescent microscopy confirmed that L. lactis and Lb. plantarum surface displaying the recombinant HN were attached to the breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, providing evidence for the potential ability of HN in targeting to cancer cells. PMID:26918060

  15. Newcastle Disease Virus Hemagglutinin Neuraminidase as a Potential Cancer Targeting Agent.

    PubMed

    Baradaran, Ali; Yusoff, Khatijah; Shafee, Norazizah; Rahim, Raha Abdul

    2016-01-01

    The hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with its immunotherapeutic activities and sialic acid binding abilities is a promising cancer adjuvant. The HN was surfaced displayed on Lactococcus lactis and its cancer targeting ability was investigated via attachment to the MDA-MB231 breast cancers. To surface display the HN protein on the bacterial cell wall, HN was fused to N-acetylmuraminidase (AcmA) anchoring motif of L. lactis and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The expressed recombinant fusion proteins were purified and mixed with a culture of L. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Immunofluorescence assay showed the binding of the recombinant HN-AcmA protein on the surface of the bacterial cells. The bacterial cells carrying the HN-AcmA protein interacted with the MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells. Direct and fluorescent microscopy confirmed that L. lactis and Lb. plantarum surface displaying the recombinant HN were attached to the breast cancer MDA-MB231 cells, providing evidence for the potential ability of HN in targeting to cancer cells.

  16. [Susceptibility of clinically-isolated bacteria strains to respiratory quinolones and evaluation of antimicrobial agent efficacy by Monte Carlo simulation].

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Tadashi; Yamada, Yukiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kodama, Mai; Fujitomo, Yumiko; Masaki, Nakanishi; Toshiaki, Komori; Keisuke, Shikata; Fujita, Naohisa

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory quinolones (RQs) are broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents used for the treatment of a wide variety of community-acquired and nosocomial infections. However, bacterial resistance to quinolones has been on the increase. In this study, we investigated the predicted efficacy of RQs for various strains of 9 bacterial species clinically isolated at our university hospital using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling. In addition, the influence of the patients' renal function on the efficacy of RQs was evaluated. We surveyed antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 9 bacterial species (n = number of strains) [Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 15), Streptococcus pyogenes (n = 14), Streptococcus agalactiae (n = 19), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (n = 24), Escherichia coli (n = 35), Haemophilus influenzae (n = 17), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 14), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 31), and Moraxella catarrhalis (n = 11)] to 4 RQs [garenoxacin (GRNX), levofloxacin (LVFX), sitafloxacin (STFX), and moxifloxacin (MFLX)]. We found that compared with the other RQs, Gram-positive cocci was most resistant to LVFX, and that the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC₉₀) values for S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and MSSA were high (2, 16, > 16, and 8 µg/mL, respectively). In regard to Gram-negative rods, the susceptibility of E. coli to RQs was found to be decreased, with the MIC₉₀ values of GRNX, LVFX, STFX, and MFLX being > 16, 16, 1, and 16 µg/mL, respectively. MCS revealed that the target attainment rate of the area under the unbound concentration-time curve divided by the MIC₉₀ (ƒ · AUC/MIC ratio), against S. pneumoniae was 86.9-100%, but against E. coli was low (52.1-66.2%). The ƒ · AUC/MIC target attainment rate of LVFX against S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, and S. agalactiae tended to decrease due to increased creatinine clearance, and that of LVFX and STFX against MSSA also

  17. Nanodiscs as a therapeutic delivery agent: inhibition of respiratory syncytial virus infection in the lung.

    PubMed

    Numata, Mari; Grinkova, Yelena V; Mitchell, James R; Chu, Hong Wei; Sligar, Stephen G; Voelker, Dennis R

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the application of nanotechnology to solve the difficult problem of therapeutic administration of pharmaceuticals. Nanodiscs, composed of a stable discoidal lipid bilayer encircled by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein that is an engineered variant of the human Apo A-I constituent of high-density lipoproteins, have been a successful platform for providing a controlled lipid composition in particles that are especially useful for investigating membrane protein structure and function. In this communication, we demonstrate that nanodiscs are effective in suppressing respiratory syncytial viral (RSV) infection both in vitro and in vivo when self-assembled with the minor pulmonary surfactant phospholipid palmitoyloleoylphosphatidylglycerol (POPG). Preparations of nanodiscs containing POPG (nPOPG) antagonized interleukin-8 production from Beas2B epithelial cells challenged by RSV infection, with an IC50 of 19.3 μg/mL. In quantitative in vitro plaque assays, nPOPG reduced RSV infection by 93%. In vivo, nPOPG suppressed inflammatory cell infiltration into the lung, as well as IFN-γ production in response to RSV challenge. nPOPG also completely suppressed the histopathological changes in lung tissue elicited by RSV and reduced the amount of virus recovered from lung tissue by 96%. The turnover rate of nPOPG was estimated to have a halftime of 60-120 minutes (m), based upon quantification of the recovery of the human Apo A-I constituent. From these data, we conclude that nPOPG is a potent antagonist of RSV infection and its inflammatory sequelae both in vitro and in vivo.

  18. Treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection with direct-acting antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zanaga, L.P.; Miotto, N.; Mendes, L.C.; Stucchi, R.S.B.; Vigani, A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 is responsible for 30.1% of chronic hepatitis C infection cases worldwide. In the era of direct-acting antivirals, these patients have become one of the most challenging to treat, due to fewer effective drug options, higher risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and lower sustained virological response (SVR) rates. Currently there are 4 recommended drugs for the treatment of HCV genotype 3: pegylated interferon (PegIFN), sofosbuvir (SOF), daclatasvir (DCV) and ribavirin (RBV). Treatment with PegIFN, SOF and RBV for 12 weeks has an overall SVR rate of 83–100%, without significant differences among cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. However, this therapeutic regimen has several contraindications and can cause significant adverse events, which can reduce adherence and impair SVR rates. SOF plus RBV for 24 weeks is another treatment option, with SVR rates of 82–96% among patients without cirrhosis and 62–92% among those with cirrhosis. Finally, SOF plus DCV provides 94–97% SVR rates in non-cirrhotic patients, but 59–69% in those with cirrhosis. The addition of RBV to the regimen of SOF plus DCV increases the SVR rates in cirrhotic patients above 80%, and extending treatment to 24 weeks raises SVR to 90%. The ideal duration of therapy is still under investigation. For cirrhotic patients, the optimal duration, or even the best regimen, is still uncertain. Further studies are necessary to clarify the best regimen to treat HCV genotype 3 infection. PMID:27783808

  19. Coral-Associated Bacteria as a Promising Antibiofilm Agent against Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Gowrishankar, Shanmugaraj; Duncun Mosioma, Nyagwencha; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2012-01-01

    The current study deals with the evaluation of two coral-associated bacterial (CAB) extracts to inhibit the biofilm synthesis in vitro as well as the virulence production like hemolysin and exopolysaccharide (EPS), and also to assess their ability to modify the adhesion properties, that is cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and -susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Out of nine CAB screened, the ethyl acetate extract of CAB-E2 (Bacillus firmus) and CAB-E4 (Vibrio parahemolyticus) have shown excellent antibiofilm activity against S. aureus. CAB-E2 reduced the production of EPS (57–79%) and hemolysin (43–70%), which ultimately resulted in the significant inhibition of biofilms (80–87%) formed by both MRSA and MSSA. Similarly, CAB-E4 was also found to decrease the production of EPS (43–57%), hemolysin (43–57%) and biofilms (80–85%) of test pathogens. CLSM analysis also proved the antibiofilm efficacy of CAB extracts. Furthermore, the CAB extracts strongly decreased the CSH of S. aureus. Additionally, FT-IR analysis of S. aureus treated with CAB extracts evidenced the reduction in cellular components compared to their respective controls. Thus, the present study reports for the first time, B. firmus—a coral-associated bacterium, as a promising source of antibiofilm agent against the recalcitrant biofilms formed by multidrug resistant S. aureus. PMID:22988476

  20. Degradation of paraoxon (VX chemical agent simulant) and bacteria by magnesium oxide depends on the crystalline structure of magnesium oxide.

    PubMed

    Sellik, A; Pollet, T; Ouvry, L; Briançon, S; Fessi, H; Hartmann, D J; Renaud, F N R

    2016-11-22

    In this work, our goal was to study the capability of a single metallic oxide to neutralize a chemical agent and to exhibit an antibacterial effect. We tested two types of magnesium oxides, MgO. The first MgO sample tested, which commercial data size characteristic was -325 mesh (MgO-1) destroyed in 3 h, 89.7% of paraoxon and 93.2% of 4-nitrophenol, the first degradation product. The second MgO sample, which commercial data size was <50 nm (MgO-2) neutralized in the same time, 19.5% of paraoxon and 10.9% of 4-nitrophenol. For MgO-1 no degradation products could be detected by GC-MS. MgO-1 had a bactericidal activity on Escherichia coli (6 log in 1 h), and showed a decrease of almost 3 log on a Staphylococcus aureus population in 3 h. MgO-2 caused a decrease of 2 log of a E.coli culture but had no activity against S. aureus. Neither of these two products had an activity on Bacillus subtilis spores. Analytical investigations showed that the real sizes of MgO nanoparticles were 11 nm for MgO-1 and 25 nm for MgO-2. Moreover, their crystalline structures were different. These results highlighted the importance of the size of the nanoparticles and their microscopic arrangements to detoxify chemical products and to inhibit or kill microbial strains.

  1. Scientific and ethical considerations in trial design for investigational agents for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Judith; Japour, Anthony J

    2003-01-15

    The design of clinical trials for new antiretroviral agents poses unique challenges, given the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These challenges include the selection of appropriate populations, the methods used to partition the effects of the study drug under observation from those of the other concurrently administered medications in early studies, performance of dose-ranging studies for disease states in which suboptimal drug exposure may lead to the development of viral resistance that limits future treatment options, and the need to fulfill the obligations of international regulatory agencies. Throughout, science and ethics are tightly woven elements in study designs for antiretroviral drug trials. Fast-track drug approval status and successful lobbying by advocates for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aimed at the US Food and Drug Administration, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, university teaching centers, pharmaceutical companies, and members of Congress undoubtedly contributed to the development and swift regulatory approvals of the 17 antiretroviral medications now available in the United States for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  2. Association of Virus with Cases of Rubella Studied in Toronto: Propagation of the Agent and Transmission to Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Bergthora; Givan, Kathleen F.; Rozee, K. R.; Rhodes, A. J.

    1963-01-01

    Using an interference test with indicator virus Echo 11, a virus has been isolated in nine of 18 specimens from cases of typical rubella. The virus will interfere with the development of cytopathology in green monkey kidney cells with viruses Echo 11, Coxsackie B1 and B4, Poliovirus I and III (Sabin strains) and simian virus SV4. In four of five paired sera this virus was neutralized by convalescent but not by the acute phase serum, tested by interference inhibition. No cytopathology was observed in unstained cultures or in sequential cultures stained with acridine orange or fluorescent antibody. The virus was destroyed by exposure to 56° C. for 30 minutes and 15% ether at 4° C. for 24 hours, but survived with some reduction in titre at 4° C. for 24 hours. Green monkeys infected by this virus developed a macular rash, lymphadenopathy and modest rise in white blood cell count. PMID:13989076

  3. Characterization of the efficiency and uncertainty of skimmed milk flocculation for the simultaneous concentration and quantification of water-borne viruses, bacteria and protozoa.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy; Cárdenas-Youngs, Yexenia; Calvo, Miquel; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Rosell, Rosa; Ganges, Llilianne; Araujo, Rosa; Girones, Rosina

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the use of skimmed milk flocculation (SMF) to simultaneously concentrate viruses, bacteria and protozoa was evaluated. We selected strains of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. The viruses selected were adenovirus (HAdV 35), rotavirus (RoV SA-11), the bacteriophage MS2 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). The protozoa tested were Acanthamoeba, Giardia and Cryptosporidium. The mean recoveries with q(RT)PCR were 66% (HAdV 35), 24% (MS2), 28% (RoV SA-11), 15% (BVDV), 60% (E. coli), 30% (H. pylori) and 21% (Acanthamoeba castellanii). When testing the infectivity, the mean recoveries were 59% (HAdV 35), 12% (MS2), 26% (RoV SA-11) and 0.7% (BVDV). The protozoa Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum were studied by immunofluorescence with recoveries of 18% and 13%, respectively. Although q(RT)PCR consistently showed higher quantification values (as expected), q(RT)PCR and the infectivity assays showed similar recoveries for HAdV 35 and RoV SA-11. Additionally, we investigated modelling the variability and uncertainty of the recovery with this method to extrapolate the quantification obtained by q(RT)PCR and estimate the real concentration. The 95% prediction intervals of the real concentration of the microorganisms inoculated were calculated using a general non-parametric bootstrap procedure adapted in our context to estimate the technical error of the measurements. SMF shows recoveries with a low variability that permits the use of a mathematical approximation to predict the concentration of the pathogen and indicator with acceptable low intervals. The values of uncertainty may be used for a quantitative microbial risk analysis or diagnostic purposes.

  4. Relative potencies of different anti-herpes agents in the topical treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection of athymic nude mice.

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, J; De Clercq, E; Barr, P J; Jones, A S; Walker, R T; Torrence, P F; Shugar, D

    1979-01-01

    Thirteen established anti-herpes compounds have been directly compared in a single assay system for their effects on the development of herpetic skin lesions, and mortality associated therewith, in athymic nude (nu/nu) mice inoculated intracutaneously with herpes simplex virus type 1 (KOS). When applied topically (at 1% in a water-soluble ointment), phosphonoacetic acid, E-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine, acycloguanosine, and trisodium phosphonoformate emerged as the most active agents. PMID:526011

  5. Assessment of burden of virus agents in an urban sewage treatment plant in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fumian, Tulio Machado; Vieira, Carmen Baur; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Sewage discharge is considered to be the main source of virus contamination in aquatic environments. There is no correlation between the presence of viruses and the presence of fecal coliforms in water; therefore virological markers are needed when monitoring contamination. This study investigates DNA and RNA virus concentrations in wastewater and evaluates a potential virus marker of human contamination. Influent and effluent samples were collected twice a month throughout a 1-year period. Viruses were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction protocols; nucleotide sequencing was carried out for virus genotyping. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and polyomavirus JC (JCPyV) were the most prevalent viruses found in influent samples (100%) with a virus load that ranged from 10(6) to 10(5) genome copies per liter (gc l(-1)). Norovirus genogroup II (NoV GII) and human astrovirus (HAstV) were less prevalent, and ranged from 10(4) to 10(3)gc l(-1). Quantitative data on virus profiles in wastewaters stress the high level of rotavirus species A environmental dissemination and address the potential of HAdV as a useful virological marker of virus contamination in aquatic environments. This study corroborates other studies performed in developed countries on DNA viruses as good markers of human fecal contamination.

  6. Assessment of a portable handheld UV light device for the disinfection of viruses and bacteria in water.

    PubMed

    Abd-Elmaksoud, Sherif; Naranjo, Jaime E; Gerba, Charles P

    2013-06-01

    Effective individual microbiological water purifiers are needed for consumption of untreated water sources by campers, emergency use, military, and in developing counties. A handheld UV light device was tested to assess if it could meet the virus reduction requirements established by the United State Environmental Protection Agency, National Science Foundation and the World Health Organization. The device was found capable of inactivating at least 4 log₁₀ of poliovirus type 1, rotavirus SA-11 and MS-2 virus in 500 mL volumes of general case test water. But in the presence of high turbidity and organic matter, filtration was necessary to achieve a 4 log₁₀ reduction of the test viruses.

  7. Quantification of enteric viruses, pathogen indicators, and Salmonella bacteria in class B anaerobically digested biosolids by culture and molecular methods.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-10-01

    The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.

  8. Gammasphaerolipovirus, a newly proposed bacteriophage genus, unifies viruses of halophilic archaea and thermophilic bacteria within the novel family Sphaerolipoviridae.

    PubMed

    Pawlowski, Alice; Rissanen, Ilona; Bamford, Jaana K H; Krupovic, Mart; Jalasvuori, Matti

    2014-06-01

    A new family of viruses named Sphaerolipoviridae has been proposed recently. It comprises icosahedral, tailless haloarchaeal viruses with an internal lipid membrane located between the protein capsid and the dsDNA genome. The proposed family Sphaerolipoviridae was divided into two genera: Alphasphaerolipovirus, including Haloarcula hispanica viruses SH1, PH1 and HHIV-2, and Betasphaerolipovirus, including Natrinema virus SNJ1. Here, we propose to expand the family Sphaerolipoviridae to include a group of bacteriophages infecting extreme thermophilic Thermus thermophilus and sharing a number of structural and genomic properties with archaeal sphaerolipoviruses. This new group comprises two members, lytic phage P23-77 and temperate phage IN93, as well as putative members P23-72 and P23-65H. In addition, several related proviruses have been discovered as integrated elements in bacterial genomes of the families Thermus and Meiothermus. Morphology of the virus particles and the overall capsid architecture of these bacteriophages resembles that of archaeal members of the Sphaerolipoviridae, including an unusual capsid arrangement in a T = 28 dextro lattice. Alpha- and betasphaerolipoviruses share with P23-77-like bacteriophages a conserved block of core genes that encode a putative genome-packaging ATPase and the two major capsid proteins (MCPs). The recently determined X-ray structure of the small and large MCPs of P23-77 revealed a single beta-barrel (jelly-roll) fold that is superimposable with the cryo-EM density maps of the SH1 capsomers. Given the common features of these viruses, we propose to include the so far unclassified P23-77-like bacteriophages into a new genus, "Gammasphaerolipovirus", within the family Sphaerolipoviridae.

  9. Synthesis of 2-furyl-4-arylidene-5(4H)-oxazolones as new potent antibacterial agents against phyto-pathogenic and nitrifying bacteria.

    PubMed

    Thombare, Nandkishore S; Aggarwal, Nisha; Kumar, Rajesh; Gopal, Madhuban

    2012-01-01

    Crop losses due to bacterial pathogens are a major global concern. Most of the available pesticides for these pathogens suffer from various drawbacks such as complicated synthesis, high cost, high toxicity, pesticide resistance and environmental hazards. To overcome these drawbacks, the present study was undertaken to find a potent bactericide. Therefore, a series of compounds comprising bioactive furyl and oxazolone rings was synthesized under microwave irradiation and screened for in vitro antibacterial activity. The reactions were completed in fewer than 2 minutes with minimal use of solvents and resulted in high yields. These compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against plant pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae, Ralstonia solanacearum and nitrifying bacteria, Nitrosomonas species under laboratory conditions. Five compounds were active as antibacterial agents against Xanthomonas oryzae and Ralstonia solanacearum. However, all compounds were effective against the Nitrosomonas species and the best one was 2-furyl-4-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-5(4H)-oxazolone. The study revealed the fast and environmentally friendly synthesis of bioactive title compounds, which also hold promise to be used as prototypes for the discovery of potent analogues.

  10. Modeling the 2014 Ebola Virus Epidemic - Agent-Based Simulations, Temporal Analysis and Future Predictions for Liberia and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    Siettos, Constantinos; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Russo, Lucia; Grigoras, Christos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2015-03-09

    We developed an agent-based model to investigate the epidemic dynamics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia and Sierra Leone from May 27 to December 21, 2014. The dynamics of the agent-based simulator evolve on small-world transmission networks of sizes equal to the population of each country, with adjustable densities to account for the effects of public health intervention policies and individual behavioral responses to the evolving epidemic. Based on time series of the official case counts from the World Health Organization (WHO), we provide estimates for key epidemiological variables by employing the so-called Equation-Free approach. The underlying transmission networks were characterized by rather random structures in the two countries with densities decreasing by ~19% from the early (May 27-early August) to the last period (mid October-December 21). Our estimates for the values of key epidemiological variables, such as the mean time to death, recovery and the case fatality rate, are very close to the ones reported by the WHO Ebola response team during the early period of the epidemic (until September 14) that were calculated based on clinical data. Specifically, regarding the effective reproductive number Re, our analysis suggests that until mid October, Re was above 2.3 in both countries; from mid October to December 21, Re dropped well below unity in Liberia, indicating a saturation of the epidemic, while in Sierra Leone it was around 1.9, indicating an ongoing epidemic. Accordingly, a ten-week projection from December 21 estimated that the epidemic will fade out in Liberia in early March; in contrast, our results flashed a note of caution for Sierra Leone since the cumulative number of cases could reach as high as 18,000, and the number of deaths might exceed 5,000, by early March 2015. However, by processing the reported data of the very last period (December 21, 2014-January 18, 2015), we obtained more optimistic estimates indicative of a remission of

  11. Muscavirus (MdSGHV) disease dynamics in house fly populations--how is this virus transmitted and has it potential as a biological control agent?

    PubMed

    Lietze, Verena-Ulrike; Keesling, James E; Lee, Jo Ann; Vallejo, Celeste R; Geden, Christopher J; Boucias, Drion G

    2013-03-01

    The newly classified family Hytrosaviridae comprises several double-stranded DNA viruses that have been isolated from various dipteran species. These viruses cause characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy and suppress gonad development in their hosts. One member, Muscavirus or MdSGHV, exclusively infects adult house flies (Musca domestica) and, owing to its massive reproduction in and release from the salivary glands, is believed to be transmitted orally among feeding flies. However, results from recent experiments suggest that additional transmission routes likely are involved in the maintenance of MdSGHV in field populations of its host. Firstly, several hours before newly emerged feral flies begin feeding activities, the fully formed peritrophic matrix (PM) constitutes an effective barrier against oral infection. Secondly, flies are highly susceptible to topical virus treatments and intrahemocoelic injections. Thirdly, disease transmission is higher when flies are maintained in groups with infected conspecifics than when flies have access to virus-contaminated food. We hypothesize that interactions between flies may lead to cuticular damage, thereby providing an avenue to viral particles for direct access to the hemocoel. Based on our current knowledge, two options seem plausible for developing Muscavirus as a sterilizing agent to control house fly populations: The virus may either be formulated with PM-disrupting materials to facilitate oral infection from a feeding bait system, or amended with abrasive materials to enhance infection through a damaged cuticle after topical aerosol applications.

  12. Efficacy of CMX001 as a Prophylactic and Presymptomatic Antiviral Agent in New Zealand White Rabbits Infected with Rabbitpox Virus, a Model for Orthopoxvirus Infections of Humans

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amanda D.; Adams, Mathew M.; Lampert, Bernhard; Foster, Scott; Lanier, Randall; Robertson, Alice; Painter, George; Moyer, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    CMX001, a lipophilic nucleotide analog formed by covalently linking 3-(hexdecyloxy)propan-1-ol to cidofovir (CDV), is being developed as a treatment for smallpox. CMX001 has dramatically increased potency versus CDV against all dsDNA viruses and, in contrast to CDV, is orally available and has shown no evidence of nephrotoxicity in healthy volunteers or severely ill transplant patients to date. Although smallpox has been eliminated from the environment, treatments are urgently being sought due to the risk of smallpox being used as a bioterrorism agent and for monkeypox virus, a zoonotic disease of Africa, and adverse reactions to smallpox virus vaccinations. In the absence of human cases of smallpox, new treatments must be tested for efficacy in animal models. Here we first review and discuss the rabbitpox virus (RPV) infection of New Zealand White rabbits as a model for smallpox to test the efficacy of CMX001 as a prophylactic and early disease antiviral. Our results should also be applicable to monkeypox virus infections and for treatment of adverse reactions to smallpox vaccination. PMID:21369346

  13. Virus diversity of acute diarrhea in tropical highlands.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Maria Fernanda; Matiz, Adriana; Trespalacios, Alba Alicia; Parra, Miguel; Riaño, Marcela; Mercado, Marcela

    2006-01-01

    Infectious acute diarrhea (IAD) is an important health problem affecting a large number of Latin-American children. Several reports show that bacteria, parasites and virus are involved in the burden of this disease. Most reports reveal Rotavirus A as the responsible etiological agent, at the same time, there seems to be some correlation between IAD and seasonal weather changes. To learn about the type of microbial agents associated with IAD in children during mildly changing yearly climatic conditions, as found in a high altitude tropical city, and to identify the viral agents affecting this population, stool samples from 300 children under 5 years of age were studied throughout a one-year period. Bacteria and intestinal parasites were identified by routine methods, while viruses were detected and typed by EIA and PCR. 20.6% of the IAD studied was associated with bacteria; 9% with parasites and 40% with virus. Group C Rotavirus accounted for 20.2%, group A Rotavirus for 13% and Calicivirus 10%. During November-April (p < 0.007) more virus associated IAD was found, while bacteria (p < 0.03) or parasite (p < 0.00014) related IAD was prevalent from May to October. The mild seasonal weather changes don't seem to be associated with any other microbial agent.

  14. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  15. Transfer of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase synthesized in bacteria by a high-expression plasmid to tissue culture cells by protoplast fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, A.S.; Milman, G.

    1984-08-01

    The introduction of a protein into living tissue culture cells may permit the in vivo study of functions of the protein. The authors have previously described a high-efficiency-expression plasmid, pHETK2, containing the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (TK) gene which, upon temperature induction, causes TK to be synthesized as greater than 4% of the bacterial protein. In this report it is shown that enzymatically active TK was transferred to mouse Ltk- cells by polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion with protoplasts prepared from bacteria containing induced levels of TK. The presence of TK in the Ltk- cells was detected by the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine into cell nuclei as measured by autoradiography.

  16. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  17. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. • The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. • New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  18. Agents of Bioterrorism: Argument For and Against a List That Needs Cropping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    Pathogens * Bacteria • Diarrheagenic E.coli • Pathogenic Vibrios • Shigella species • Salmonella • Listeria monocytogenes • Campylobacter jejuni...pathogen obscure • Resistance to antimicrobial agents • Stability in disseminating vehicle • Little risk to perpetrator • Availability of bioweapon...monocytogenes • Campylobacter jejuni • Yersinia enterocolitica • Viruses (Caliciviruses, Hepatitis A) • Protozoa • Cryptosporidium parvum • Cyclospora

  19. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with animal and treatment information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) occurring in the feedlot represent the major disease entity during the feeding period. Several bacteria, viruses, and Mycoplasma spp. are reported as causative agents. Feedlot BRD may occur at various times, although the early disease appearing after arrival and pro...

  20. Lung pathology and infectious agents in fatal feedlot pneumonias and relationship with animal and treatment information.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) occurring in the feedlot represent the major, if not the most important, disease entities during the feeding period. Several bacteria, viruses, Mycoplasma spp.are reported as causative agents. The feedlot BRD may occur at varied times, although the ear...

  1. Expression of all six human Torque teno virus (TTV) proteins in bacteria and in insect cells, and analysis of their IgG responses.

    PubMed

    Kakkola, Laura; Bondén, Heidi; Hedman, Lea; Kivi, Niina; Moisala, Susanna; Julin, Jaakko; Ylä-Liedenpohja, Jussi; Miettinen, Simo; Kantola, Kalle; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2008-12-20

    Torque teno virus (TTV) is a non-enveloped human virus with a circular ( approximately 3800 nt) ssDNA genome. TTV transcription results in three viral mRNAs and six proteins, the function or antigenicity of which are unknown. The six open reading frames of TTV genotype 6 were expressed in bacteria and insect cells. Expression of the ORF1/1-encoded protein was inefficient, while expression of the others was successful, with ORF1 and ORF1/2 as arginine-rich region depleted. All six recombinant TTV proteins were antigenic. Of healthy adults, 11/25 (44%) showed strong IgG reactivity with one or more proteins. Four subjects, two of whom were genotype-6-DNA positive, were followed. One of the latter showed concurrently a strong IgG response against the ORF1 protein. The other showed appearance of IgG against the ORF2 protein concomitantly with resolution of the genotype-6 viremia. The genotype-6 sequences remained unaltered for years, suggesting that some mechanisms other than amino acid substitutions play a role in TTV immune evasion.

  2. Effects of environmental variation and spatial distance on bacteria, archaea and viruses in sub-polar and arctic waters.

    PubMed

    Winter, Christian; Matthews, Blake; Suttle, Curtis A

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the influence of environmental parameters and spatial distance on bacterial, archaeal and viral community composition from 13 sites along a 3200-km long voyage from Halifax to Kugluktuk (Canada) through the Labrador Sea, Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. Variation partitioning was used to disentangle the effects of environmental parameters, spatial distance and spatially correlated environmental parameters on prokaryotic and viral communities. Viral and prokaryotic community composition were related in the Labrador Sea, but were independent of each other in Baffin Bay and the Arctic Archipelago. In oceans, the dominant dispersal mechanism for prokaryotes and viruses is the movement of water masses, thus, dispersal for both groups is passive and similar. Nevertheless, spatial distance explained 7-19% of the variation in viral community composition in the Arctic Archipelago, but was not a significant predictor of bacterial or archaeal community composition in either sampling area, suggesting a decoupling of the processes regulating community composition within these taxonomic groups. According to the metacommunity theory, patterns in bacterial and archaeal community composition suggest a role for species sorting, while patterns of virus community composition are consistent with species sorting in the Labrador Sea and suggest a potential role of mass effects in the Arctic Archipelago. Given that, a specific prokaryotic taxon may be infected by multiple viruses with high reproductive potential, our results suggest that viral community composition was subject to a high turnover relative to prokaryotic community composition in the Arctic Archipelago.

  3. Bacteria and viruses of the ice-free aquatic area of the Barents Sea at the beginning of polar night.

    PubMed

    Shirokolobova, T I; Zhichkin, A P; Venger, M P; Vodopyanova, V V; Moiseev, D V

    2016-07-01

    The most massive components of the microplankton were studied in the open sea waters for the first time at the end of the autumn season. It has been found that abundance of the virio- and bacterioplankton exceeded that observed in winter in the coastal zone. Against the background of a relatively uniform distribution of bacteria, the viral abundance and the lysis-mediated bacterioplankton death rate reached the maximum values in the most cold and salty waters of the northern sea areas.

  4. Nano-ZnO/ZnO-HAPw prepared via sol-gel method and antibacterial activities of inorganic agents on six bacteria associated with oral infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Jianfeng; Liu, Wenying; Zhang, Wenyun; Chen, Qinghua; Yuan, Yanbo; Yang, Lidou; Wang, Qintao

    2014-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of zinc oxide (ZnO) and the strengthening of hydroxylapatite whiskers (HAPws) have been widely studied and applied. However, the antibacterial properties of ZnO-HAPws have scarcely been researched. The aim of this study was to further investigate several types of nano-ZnO morphologies of ZnO-HAPws that were prepared using the sol-gel method at different pondus hydrogenii (pH) values and temperatures. The four morphologies of ZnO-HAPws that were investigated here were granule, triangle, short rod and disc type, and these morphologies were investigated at 70 °C at pH 6.4, 37 °C at pH 6.6, 70 °C at pH 6.6 and 70 °C at pH 6.6, respectively. Next, the antibacterial activity of ZnO-HAPw was compared to that of nano-ZnO, commercially available ZnO and tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers (T-ZnOw) with six bacteria that are associated with oral infections: Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, Candida albicans, Actinomyces viscosus, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results of examinations of the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) showed that the antibacterial activity of ZnO-HAPw exceeded that of the commercially available ZnO and T-ZnOw. Additionally, analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis of the MBCs revealed that the four tested antibacterial agents had significantly different effects on S. mutans ( F = 8.940; P = 0.006), S. aureus ( F = 6.924; P = 0.013) and E. coli ( F = 4.468; P = 0.04). ANOVA analyses of the MICs revealed that the four tested antibacterial agents had significantly different effects on S. mutans ( F = 6.183; P = 0.018), A. viscosus ( F = 4.531; P = 0.039) and S. aureus ( F = 18.976; P = 0.001).

  5. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  6. Antiviral potential of lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins.

    PubMed

    Al Kassaa, I; Hober, D; Hamze, M; Chihib, N E; Drider, D

    2014-12-01

    Emerging resistance to antiviral agents is a growing public health concern worldwide as it was reported for respiratory, sexually transmitted and enteric viruses. Therefore, there is a growing demand for new, unconventional antiviral agents which may serve as an alternative to the currently used drugs. Meanwhile, published literature continues shedding the light on the potency of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their bacteriocins as antiviral agents. Health-promoting LAB probiotics may exert their antiviral activity by (1) direct probiotic-virus interaction; (2) production of antiviral inhibitory metabolites; and/or (3) via stimulation of the immune system. The aim of this review was to highlight the antiviral activity of LAB and substances they produce with antiviral activity.

  7. Variables influencing extraction of nucleic acids from microbial plankton (viruses, bacteria, and protists) collected on nanoporous aluminum oxide filters.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jaclyn A; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2014-07-01

    Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) filters have high porosity and can be manufactured with a pore size that is small enough to quantitatively capture viruses. These properties make the filters potentially useful for harvesting total microbial communities from water samples for molecular analyses, but their performance for nucleic acid extraction has not been systematically or quantitatively evaluated. In this study, we characterized the flux of water through commercially produced nanoporous (0.02 μm) AAO filters (Anotop; Whatman) and used isolates (a virus, a bacterium, and a protist) and natural seawater samples to test variables that we expected would influence the efficiency with which nucleic acids are recovered from the filters. Extraction chemistry had a significant effect on DNA yield, and back flushing the filters during extraction was found to improve yields of high-molecular-weight DNA. Using the back-flush protocol, the mass of DNA recovered from microorganisms collected on AAO filters was ≥ 100% of that extracted from pellets of cells and viruses and 94% ± 9% of that obtained by direct extraction of a liquid bacterial culture. The latter is a minimum estimate of the relative recovery of microbial DNA, since liquid cultures include dissolved nucleic acids that are retained inefficiently by the filter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that nucleic acids can be extracted from microorganisms on AAO filters with an efficiency similar to that achievable by direct extraction of microbes in suspension or in pellets. These filters are therefore a convenient means by which to harvest total microbial communities from multiple aqueous samples in parallel for subsequent molecular analyses.

  8. Bacteria and virus removal effectiveness of ceramic pot filters with different silver applications in a long term experiment.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, H; van Halem, D; Smeets, P W M H; Soppe, A I A; Kroesbergen, J; Wubbels, G; Nederstigt, J; Gensburger, I; Heijman, S G J

    2014-03-15

    In 2012 more than 4 million people used a ceramic pot filter (CPF) as household water treatment system for their daily drinking water needs. In the normal production protocol most low cost filters are impregnated with a silver solution to enhance the microbial removal efficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the role of silver during the filtration and subsequent storage. Twenty-two CPFs with three different silver applications (non, only outside and both sides) were compared in a long-term loading experiment with Escherichia coli (K12 and WR1) and MS2 bacteriophages in natural challenge water under highly controlled laboratory circumstances. No significant difference in Log Removal Values were found between the filters with different silver applications. The results show that the storage time in the receptacle is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation by silver, and not the contact time during the filtration phase. The hypothesis that the absence of silver would enhance the virus removal, due to biofilm formation on the ceramic filter element, could not be confirmed. The removal effectiveness for viruses is still of major concern for the CPF. This study suggests that the ceramic pot filter characteristics, such as burnt material content, do not determine E. coli removal efficacies, but rather the contact time with silver during storage is the dominant parameter to reach E. coli inactivation.

  9. Estimation of the age-specific per-contact probability of Ebola virus transmission in Liberia using agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siettos, Constantinos I.; Anastassopoulou, Cleo; Russo, Lucia; Grigoras, Christos; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-06-01

    Based on multiscale agent-based computations we estimated the per-contact probability of transmission by age of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) that swept through Liberia from May 2014 to March 2015. For the approximation of the epidemic dynamics we have developed a detailed agent-based model with small-world interactions between individuals categorized by age. For the estimation of the structure of the evolving contact network as well as the per-contact transmission probabilities by age group we exploited the so called Equation-Free framework. Model parameters were fitted to official case counts reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as to recently published data of key epidemiological variables, such as the mean time to death, recovery and the case fatality rate.

  10. Simultaneous detection of bee viruses by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Sguazza, Guillermo Hernán; Reynaldi, Francisco José; Galosi, Cecilia Mónica; Pecoraro, Marcelo Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    Honey bee mortality is a serious problem that beekeepers in Argentina have had to face during the last 3 years. It is known that the consequence of the complex interactions between environmental and beekeeping parameters added to the effect of different disease agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasitic mites may result in a sudden collapse of the colony. In addition, multiple viral infections are detected frequently concomitantly in bee colonies. The aim of this study was to establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction method for rapid and simultaneous detection of the most prevalent bee viruses. This multiplex PCR assay will provide specific, rapid and reliable results and allow for the cost effective detection of a particular virus as well as multiple virus infections in a single reaction tube. This method could be a helpful tool in the surveillance of the most frequently found bee viruses and to study the dynamics and the interactions of the virus populations within colonies.

  11. Zinc and copper in animal feed – development of resistance and co-resistance to antimicrobial agents in bacteria of animal origin

    PubMed Central

    Yazdankhah, Siamak; Rudi, Knut; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2014-01-01

    Farmed animals such as pig and poultry receive additional Zn and Cu in their diets due to supplementing elements in compound feed as well as medical remedies. Enteral bacteria in farmed animals are shown to develop resistance to trace elements such as Zn and Cu. Resistance to Zn is often linked with resistance to methicillin in staphylococci, and Zn supplementation to animal feed may increase the proportion of multiresistant E. coli in the gut. Resistance to Cu in bacteria, in particular enterococci, is often associated with resistance to antimicrobial drugs like macrolides and glycopeptides (e.g. vancomycin). Such resistant bacteria may be transferred from the food-producing animals to humans (farmers, veterinarians, and consumers). Data on dose-response relation for Zn/Cu exposure and resistance are lacking; however, it seems more likely that a resistance-driven effect occurs at high trace element exposure than at more basal exposure levels. There is also lack of data which could demonstrate whether Zn/Cu-resistant bacteria may acquire antibiotic resistance genes/become antibiotics resistant, or if antibiotics-resistant bacteria are more capable to become Zn/Cu resistant than antibiotics-susceptible bacteria. Further research is needed to elucidate the link between Zn/Cu and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. PMID:25317117

  12. Tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate stimulates simian virus 40 induction by DNA-damaging agents and tumor initiators

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, S.; Shobu, N.; Oishi, M.

    1983-05-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed Syrian hamster kidney cells produce infectious SV40 virus particles after treatments which damage DNA, such as UV irradiation or mitomycin C treatment. We have found that the induction of SV40 by DNA-damaging agents is greatly stimulated when a typical tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA), is present in the medium. Phorbol, which has a molecular structure similar to TPA but does not have any tumor-promoting activity, showed no such stimulatory effect on SV40 induction. This apparent synergistic effect of DNA-damaging agents and tumor promoter (TPA) was more pronounced when a tumor initiator, benzo (a)pyrene or 2-acetamido-fluorene, was combined with TPA. The effect of TPA on UV-triggered SV40 induction was greatly influenced by the timing of TPA addition to the culture medium, which was most efficient when addition of TPA was 5 to 20 h before UV irradiation. The effect of TPA, however, was not observed in SV40 rescue from hamster cells by cell fusion with permissive monkey (C7) cells.

  13. When viruses were not in style: parallels in the histories of chicken sarcoma viruses and bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Neeraja

    2014-12-01

    The discovery that cancer may be caused by viruses occurred in the early twentieth century, a time when the very concept of viruses as we understand it today was in a considerable state of flux. Although certain features were agreed upon, viruses, more commonly referred to as 'filterable viruses' were not considered much different from other microbes such as bacteria except for their extremely small size, which rendered them ultramicroscopic and filterable. For a long time, in fact, viruses were defined rather by what they were not and what they could not do, rather than any known properties that set them apart from other microbes. Consequently when Peyton Rous suggested in 1912 that the causative agent of a transmissible sarcoma tumor of chickens was a virus, the medical research community was reluctant to accept his assessment on the grounds that cancer was not infectious and was caused by a physiological change within the cells. This difference in the bacteriological and physiological styles of thinking appears to have been prevalent in the wider research community, for when in 1917 Felix d'Herelle suggested that a transmissible lysis in bacteria, which he called bacteriophagy, was caused by a virus, his ideas were also opposed on similar grounds. It was not until the 1950s when when André Lwoff explained the phenomenon of lysogeny through his prophage hypothesis that the viral identities of the sarcoma-inducing agent and the bacteriophages were accepted. This paper examines the trajectories of the curiously parallel histories of the cancer viruses and highlights the similarities and differences between the ways in which prevailing ideas about the nature of viruses, heredity and infection drove researchers from disparate disciplines and geographic locations to develop their ideas and achieve some consensus about the nature of cancer viruses and bacteriophages.

  14. A hot pepper cDNA encoding ascorbate peroxidase is induced during the incompatible interaction with virus and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Tae Hyoung; Park, Chang-Jin; Lee, Gil-Je; Shin, Ryoung; Yun, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Rhee, Ki-Hyeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2002-08-31

    Capsicum annuum L. is infected by a number of viruses, including the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). To study the defense-related genes that are induced by TMV in hot peppers, the pepper plant, which is susceptible to P1.2 but resistant to the P0 pathotype of TMV, was inoculated with TMV-P0. Differential screening isolated the genes that were specifically up- or down-regulated during the hypersensitive response (HR). The CaAPX1 cDNA clone that putatively encodes a polypeptide of cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase was selected as an up-regulated gene. It was isolated for further study. The full-length cDNA for CaAPX1, which is 972 bp long, contained the open-reading frame of 250-amino acid residues. A genomic Southern blot analysis showed that there were only limited copies of the CaAPX1 gene in the hot pepper genome. In hot pepper cv. Bugang, which is resistant to TMV-P0 and susceptible to TMV-P1.2, the CaAPX1 gene transcript was accumulated by TMV-P0, but not by TMV-P1.2 inoculation. CaAPX1 transcripts began to accumulate 24 h post-inoculation of TMV-P0, and increased gradually until 96 h. To investigate whether each transcript is induced by other stimuli, the plants were treated with various chemicals and wounding. A striking induction of the CaAPX1 transcript was observed at 2 h. It subsided 12 h after salicylic acid (SA), ethephon, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatments. The response of the gene upon other pathogen infection was also examined by a bacterial pathogen (Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria race 3) inoculation. The CaAPX1 gene was induced in a hot pepper (C. annuum cv. ECW 20R) that was resistant to this bacterial pathogen, but not in a susceptible hot pepper (C. annuum cv. ECW). These results suggest the possible role(s) for the CaAPX1 gene in plant defense against viral and bacterial pathogen.

  15. Common mechanisms of DNA translocation motors in bacteria and viruses using one-way revolution mechanism without rotation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peixuan; Zhao, Zhengyi; Haak, Jeannie; Wang, Shaoying; Wu, Dong; Meng, Bing; Weitao, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Biomotors were once described into two categories: linear motor and rotation motor. Recently, a third type of biomotor with revolution mechanism without rotation has been discovered. By analogy, rotation resembles the Earth rotating on its axis in a complete cycle every 24h, while revolution resembles the Earth revolving around the Sun one circle per 365 days (see animations http://nanobio.uky.edu/movie.html). The action of revolution that enables a motor free of coiling and torque has solved many puzzles and debates that have occurred throughout the history of viral DNA packaging motor studies. It also settles the discrepancies concerning the structure, stoichiometry, and functioning of DNA translocation motors. This review uses bacteriophages Phi29, HK97, SPP1, P22, T4, and T7 as well as bacterial DNA translocase FtsK and SpoIIIE or the large eukaryotic dsDNA viruses such as mimivirus and vaccinia virus as examples to elucidate the puzzles. These motors use ATPase, some of which have been confirmed to be a hexamer, to revolve around the dsDNA sequentially. ATP binding induces conformational change and possibly an entropy alteration in ATPase to a high affinity toward dsDNA; but ATP hydrolysis triggers another entropic and conformational change in ATPase to a low affinity for DNA, by which dsDNA is pushed toward an adjacent ATPase subunit. The rotation and revolution mechanisms can be distinguished by the size of channel: the channels of rotation motors are equal to or smaller than 2 nm, that is the size of dsDNA, whereas channels of revolution motors are larger than 3 nm. Rotation motors use parallel threads to operate with a right-handed channel, while revolution motors use a left-handed channel to drive the right-handed DNA in an anti-chiral arrangement. Coordination of several vector factors in the same direction makes viral DNA-packaging motors unusually powerful and effective. Revolution mechanism that avoids DNA coiling in translocating the lengthy genomic

  16. Using Chemical Probes to Assess the Feasibility of Targeting SecA for Developing Antimicrobial Agents against Gram-Negative Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jinshan; Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Cui, Jianmei; Damera, Krishna; Dai, Chaofeng; Chaudhary, Arpana S; Zhang, Hao; Yang, Hsiuchin; Cao, Nannan; Jiang, Chun; Vaara, Martti; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2016-11-21

    With the widespread emergence of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to search for new antimicrobials, especially those against Gram-negative bacteria. Along this line, the identification of viable targets is a critical first step. The protein translocase SecA is commonly believed to be an excellent target for the development of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In recent years, we developed three structural classes of SecA inhibitors that have proven to be very effective against Gram-positive bacteria. However, we have not achieved the same level of success against Gram-negative bacteria, despite the potent inhibition of SecA in enzyme assays by the same inhibitors. In this study, we use representative inhibitors as chemical probes to gain an understanding as to why these inhibitors were not effective against Gram-negative bacteria. The results validate our initial postulation that the major difference in effectiveness against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is in the additional permeability barrier posed by the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. We also found that the expression of efflux pumps, which are responsible for multidrug resistance (MDR), have no effect on the effectiveness of these SecA inhibitors. Identification of an inhibitor-resistant mutant and complementation tests of the plasmids containing secA in a secAts mutant showed that a single secA-azi-9 mutation increased the resistance, providing genetic evidence that SecA is indeed the target of these inhibitors in bacteria. Such results strongly suggest SecA as an excellent target for developing effective antimicrobials against Gram-negative bacteria with the intrinsic ability to overcome MDR. A key future research direction should be the optimization of membrane permeability.

  17. Anaerobic bacteria

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic bacteria are bacteria that do not live or grow when oxygen is present. In humans, these bacteria ... Goldstein EJ. Diseases caused by non-spore forming anaerobic bacteria. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  18. Small Molecule Inhibitors of AI-2 Signaling in Bacteria: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Anti-Quorum Sensing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Min; Gamby, Sonja; Zheng, Yue; Sintim, Herman O.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria respond to different small molecules that are produced by other neighboring bacteria. These molecules, called autoinducers, are classified as intraspecies (i.e., molecules produced and perceived by the same bacterial species) or interspecies (molecules that are produced and sensed between different bacterial species). AI-2 has been proposed as an interspecies autoinducer and has been shown to regulate different bacterial physiology as well as affect virulence factor production and biofilm formation in some bacteria, including bacteria of clinical relevance. Several groups have embarked on the development of small molecules that could be used to perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria, with the ultimate goal that these molecules could be used to inhibit bacterial virulence and biofilm formation. Additionally, these molecules have the potential to be used in synthetic biology applications whereby these small molecules are used as inputs to switch on and off AI-2 receptors. In this review, we highlight the state-of-the-art in the development of small molecules that perturb AI-2 signaling in bacteria and offer our perspective on the future development and applications of these classes of molecules. PMID:23994835

  19. Assessment of nitrogen and phosphate balance and the roles of bacteria and viruses at the water-sediment interface in the Allal El Fassi reservoir (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Alaoui-Mhamdi, Mohamed; Dhib, Amel; Bouhaddioui, Abderrahim; Ziadi, Boutheina; Turki, Souad; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-09-01

    Balances of nitrogen and phosphate were studied in the Allal El Fassi reservoir (Morocco); the results showing that nitrogen input (296 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was 161% higher than output (183 mg m(-2) d(-1)). Phosphate input (35.65 mg m(-2) d(-1)) was 865% higher than output (4.12 mg m(-2) d(-1)), causing a progressive increase in the internal phosphate stock. Sedimentation flux was equally high (53.80 and 18 mg m(-2) d(-1)) for both nitrogen and phosphate input, mainly from the Sebou River and in particulate form which immediately settles upon arrival in the reservoir. The release of nitrogen and phosphate from the sediment (5.40 and 1.15 mg m(-2) d(-1), respectively) depended on physicochemical and biological (bacteria and viruses) variability and the calcareous nature of the catchment basin. Calcium-bound phosphate prevailed in the reservoir. Drastic control of phosphate input is suggested to avoid accumulation of calcium-bound phosphate which may dissociate and thereby contribute to eutrophication.

  20. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  1. Efficiency of peracetic acid in inactivating bacteria, viruses, and spores in water determined with ATP bioluminescence, quantitative PCR, and culture-based methods.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunyoung; Lee, Cheonghoon; Bisesi, Michael; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-03-01

    The disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA) was investigated on three microbial types using three different methods (filtration-based ATP (adenosine-triphosphate) bioluminescence, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), culture-based method). Fecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus faecium), virus indicator (male-specific (F(+)) coliphages (coliphages)), and protozoa disinfection surrogate (Bacillus subtilis spores (spores)) were tested. The mode of action for spore disinfection was visualized using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that PAA concentrations of 5 ppm (contact time: 5 min), 50 ppm (10 min), and 3,000 ppm (5 min) were needed to achieve 3-log reduction of E. faecium, coliphages, and spores, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy observation showed that PAA targets the external layers of spores. The lower reduction rates of tested microbes measured with qPCR suggest that qPCR may overestimate the surviving microbes. Collectively, PAA showed broad disinfection efficiency (susceptibility: E. faecium > coliphages > spores). For E. faecium and spores, ATP bioluminescence was substantially faster (∼5 min) than culture-based method (>24 h) and qPCR (2-3 h). This study suggests PAA as an effective alternative to inactivate broad types of microbial contaminants in water. Together with the use of rapid detection methods, this approach can be useful for urgent situations when timely response is needed for ensuring water quality.

  2. Molecular identification of marine symbiont bacteria of gastropods from the waters of the Krakal coast Yogyakarta and its potential as a Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahry, Muhammad Syaifudien; Pringgenies, Delianis; Trianto, Agus

    2017-01-01

    The resistance of pathogenic bacteria may occur to many types of antibiotics, especially in cases of non-compliance use of antibiotics, which likely to allow the evolution of Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) bacteria. Gastropods seas are marine invertebrates informed capable of production of secondary metabolites as antibacterial MDR. The purpose of the study was the isolation and identification of gastropod symbiont bacteria found in the waters of Krakal, Gunung Kidul, Yogyakarta, which has the ability to produce antibacterial compounds against MDR(Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MRSA (methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus), Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus homunis) molecular. Stages of this research began with the isolation of bacteria, bacteria screening for anti-MDR compound, mass culture, and extraction, antibacterial activity test, DNA extraction, amplification by PCR 16S rDNA and sequencing. The results of the study showed that 19 isolates of bacteria were isolated from three species of gastropods namely Littorina scabra, Cypraea moneta and Conus ebraeus. Among them, 4 isolates showed activity against MDR test bacteria (E. coli, E. cloacae, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus and S. homunis). The highest activity was displayed by code LS.G1.8 isolate with the largest inhibition zone 15.47±0.45mm on S. humonis at 250 µg/disk concentration. Isolate CM.G2.1 showed largest inhibition zone, with 21.5±0.07mm on MRSA at 1000 µg/disk concentration and isolate the largest inhibition zone CM.G2.5 14.37±0.81mm on MRSA 14.37±0.81mm at concentrations 1000 µg/disk. The molecular identification of isolates LS.G1.8 has 99% homology with Bacillus subtilis and isolates CM.G2.1 has 99% homology with Bacillus pumillus.

  3. Disease resistance and immune-relevant gene expression in golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri Steindachner, infected with infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus-like agent.

    PubMed

    Shin, G W; White, S L; Dahms, H U; Jeong, H D; Kim, J H

    2014-12-01

    Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV), family Iridoviridae, genus Megalocytivirus, may cause high mortality rates such as those seen in mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi. ISKNV has attracted much attention due to the possible environmental threat and economic losses it poses on both cultured and wild populations. We have investigated the pathogenicity of ISKNV-like agent Megalocytivirus, isolated from infected pearl gourami, in golden mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri - a member of the Percichthyidae family - and in another Percichthyidae species, S. chuatsi. Fish were challenged with four different doses of ISKNV-like agent Megalocytivirus (1, 10, 100 or 1000 μg per fish) over a 30-day period, and cumulative fish mortalities were calculated for each group. No significant mortality was observed for fish challenged with the lowest dose (1 μg per fish) relative to a control group. However, all other challenged groups showed 100% mortality over a 30-day period in proportion to the challenge dose. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure mRNA expression levels for six immune-related genes in golden mandarin fish following ISKNV-like agent challenge. mRNA expression levels for IRF1, Mx, viperin and interleukin 8 significantly increased, while mRNA levels for IRF2 and IRF7 remained constant or declined during the challenge period.

  4. Identification of Antiviral Agents Targeting Hepatitis B Virus Promoter from Extracts of Indonesian Marine Organisms by a Novel Cell-Based Screening Assay

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Tamaki, Mayumi; Setiawan, Andi; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Okuyama-Dobashi, Kaori; Kasai, Hirotake; Watashi, Koichi; Wakita, Takaji; Toyama, Masaaki; Baba, Masanori; de Voogd, Nicole J.; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    The current treatments of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) face a limited choice of vaccine, antibody and antiviral agents. The development of additional antiviral agents is still needed for improvement of CHB therapy. In this study, we established a screening system in order to identify compounds inhibiting the core promoter activity of hepatitis B virus (HBV). We prepared 80 extracts of marine organisms from the coral reefs of Indonesia and screened them by using this system. Eventually, two extracts showed high inhibitory activity (>95%) and low cytotoxicity (66% to 77%). Solvent fractionation, column chromatography and NMR analysis revealed that 3,5-dibromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 1) and 3,4,5-tribromo-2-(2,4-dibromophenoxy)-phenol (compound 2), which are classified as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), were identified as anti-HBV agents in the extracts. Compounds 1 and 2 inhibited HBV core promoter activity as well as HBV production from HepG2.2.15.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The EC50 values of compounds 1 and 2 were 0.23 and 0.80 µM, respectively, while selectivity indexes of compound 1 and 2 were 18.2 and 12.8, respectively. These results suggest that our cell-based HBV core promoter assay system is useful to determine anti-HBV compounds, and that two PBDE compounds are expected to be candidates of lead compounds for the development of anti-HBV drugs. PMID:26561821

  5. Endophytic bacteria from Piper tuberculatum Jacq.: isolation, molecular characterization, and in vitro screening for the control of Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of root rot disease in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, S B; Lima, A M; Borges, B N; de Souza, C R B

    2015-07-06

    Endophytic bacteria have been found to colonize internal tissues in many different plants, where they can have several beneficial effects, including defense against pathogens. In this study, we aimed to identify endophytic bacteria associated with roots of the tropical piperaceae Piper tuberculatum, which is known for its resistance to infection by Fusarium solani f. sp piperis, the causal agent of black pepper (Piper nigrum) root rot disease in the Amazon region. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, we isolated endophytes belonging to 13 genera: Bacillus, Paenibacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Sinorhizobium, Agrobacterium, Ralstonia, Serratia, Cupriavidus, Mitsuaria, Pantoea, and Staphylococcus. The results showed that 56.52% of isolates were associated with the phylum Proteobacteria, which comprised α, β, and γ classes. Other bacteria were related to the phylum Firmicutes, including Bacillus, which was the most abundant genus among all isolates. Antagonistic assays revealed that Pt12 and Pt13 isolates, identified as Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas sp, respectively, were able to inhibit F. solani f. sp piperis growth in vitro. We describe, for the first time, the molecular identification of 23 endophytic bacteria from P. tuberculatum, among which two Pseudomonas species have the potential to control the pathogen responsible for root rot disease in black pepper in the Amazon region.

  6. The Putative Role of Viruses, Bacteria, and Chronic Fungal Biotoxin Exposure in the Genesis of Intractable Fatigue Accompanied by Cognitive and Physical Disability.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Patients who present with severe intractable apparently idiopathic fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability present a significant therapeutic challenge. The effect of psychological counseling is limited, with significant but very slight improvements in psychometric measures of fatigue and disability but no improvement on scientific measures of physical impairment compared to controls. Similarly, exercise regimes either produce significant, but practically unimportant, benefit or provoke symptom exacerbation. Many such patients are afforded the exclusionary, non-specific diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome if rudimentary testing fails to discover the cause of their symptoms. More sophisticated investigations often reveal the presence of a range of pathogens capable of establishing life-long infections with sophisticated immune evasion strategies, including Parvoviruses, HHV6, variants of Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma, and Borrelia burgdorferi. Other patients have a history of chronic fungal or other biotoxin exposure. Herein, we explain the epigenetic factors that may render such individuals susceptible to the chronic pathology induced by such agents, how such agents induce pathology, and, indeed, how such pathology can persist and even amplify even when infections have cleared or when biotoxin exposure has ceased. The presence of active, reactivated, or even latent Herpes virus could be a potential source of intractable fatigue accompanied by profound physical and or cognitive disability in some patients, and the same may be true of persistent Parvovirus B12 and mycoplasma infection. A history of chronic mold exposure is a feasible explanation for such symptoms, as is the presence of B. burgdorferi. The complex tropism, life cycles, genetic variability, and low titer of many of these pathogens makes their detection in blood a challenge. Examination of lymphoid tissue or CSF in such circumstances may be warranted.

  7. Discovery and SARs of Trans-3-Aryl Acrylic Acids and Their Analogs as Novel Anti- Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Wang, Ziwen; Meng, Chuisong; Wang, Kailiang; Hu, Yanna; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Qingmin

    2013-01-01

    A series of trans-3-aryl acrylic acids 1–27 and their derivatives 28–34 were prepared and evaluated for their antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for the first time. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good antiviral activity against TMV, of which compounds 1, 5, 6, 20, 27 and 34 exhibited significantly higher activity against TMV than commercial Ribavirin both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these compounds have more simple structure than commercial Ribavirin, and can be synthesized more efficiently. These new findings demonstrate that trans-3-aryl acrylic acids and their derivatives represent a new template for antiviral studies and could be considered for novel therapy against plant virus infection. PMID:23418574

  8. Discovery of novel antiviral agents directed against the influenza A virus nucleoprotein using photo-cross-linked chemical arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Hagiwara, Kyoji; Kondoh, Yasumitsu; Ueda, Atsushi; Yamada, Kazunori; Goto, Hideo; Watanabe, Toshiki; Nakata, Tadashi; Osada, Hiroyuki; Aida, Yoko

    2010-04-09

    The nucleoprotein (NP) of the influenza virus is expressed in the early stage of infection and plays important roles in numerous steps of viral replication. NP is relatively well conserved compared with viral surface spike proteins. This study experimentally demonstrates that NP is a novel target for the development of new antiviral drugs against the influenza virus. First, artificial analogs of mycalamide A in a chemical array bound specifically with high affinity to NP. Second, the compounds inhibited multiplication of the influenza virus. Furthermore, surface plasmon resonance imaging experiments demonstrated that the binding activity of each compound to NP correlated with its antiviral activity. Finally, it was shown that these compounds bound NP within the N-terminal 110-amino acid region but their binding abilities were dramatically reduced when the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail was deleted, suggesting that the compounds might bind to this region, which mediates the nuclear transport of NP and its binding to viral RNA. These data suggest that compound binding to the N-terminal 13-amino acid tail region may inhibit viral replication by inhibiting the functions of NP. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that chemical arrays are convenient tools for the screening of viral product inhibitors.

  9. Comparative study of inactivation of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 by commonly used antiseptic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Croughan, W.S.; Behbehani, A.M.

    1988-02-01

    A comparative study of the different reactions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 to Lysol, Listerine, bleach, rubbing alcohol, Alcide disinfectant (Alcide Corp., Westport, Conn.), and various pHs, temperatures, and UV light exposures was performed. Both types of stock virus (titers of approximately 10(6) and 10(5.5) for types 1 and 2, respectively) were inactivated by 0.5% Lysol in 5 min; by Listerine (1:1 mixtures) in 5 min; by 2000 ppm (2000 microliters/liter) of bleach in 10 min; by rubbing alcohol (1:1 mixtures) at zero time; by Alcide disinfectant (0.2 ml of virus plus 2.0 ml of Alcide) at zero time; by pHs 3, 5, and 11 in 10 min; and by a temperature of 56 degrees C in 30 min. A germicidal lamp at a distance of 48 cm failed to completely inactivate the two types in 15 min. Type 1 showed slightly more resistance to Listerine and bleach and significantly more resistance to heat; moreover, pH 9 did not affect the infectivity of either type after 10 min.

  10. Viral agents causing lower respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children: evaluation of the Speed-Oligo® RSV assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Yebra, W; Ávila-Carrillo, J A; Giménez-Sánchez, F; Reyes-Bertos, A; Sánchez-Forte, M; Morales-Torres, M; Rojas, A; Mendoza, J

    2012-03-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the viral agent which is more frequently involved in lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in infants under 1 year of age in developed countries. A new oligochromatographic assay, Speed-Oligo® RSV, was designed and optimized for the specific detection and identification of RSV subtypes A and B. The test was evaluated in 289 clinical samples from 169 hospitalized children using an immunochromatography (IC) test, virus isolation by culture, and an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Other viruses causing LRTIs were investigated by cell culture or PCR-based tests. Sixty-two patients were infected by RSV (36.7%). In addition, adenovirus, influenza B, parainfluenza 2, and human metapneumovirus were detected in rates ranging from 5 to 8%. A proportion of 10.1% of the patients had mixed infections. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were, respectively, 94.9, 99.4, 98.9, and 97.4% for Speed-Oligo® RSV, 92.9, 96.3, 92.9, and 96.3% for RT-PCR/RSV, and 58.4, 98.1, 93.3, and 82.6% for IC. Our rates of viral detection and co-infection were similar to those of previously reported series. Finally, we find that Speed-Oligo® RSV is a rapid and easy-to-perform technique for the detection of RSV and the identification of subtypes A and B.

  11. [Microbial resistance to formaldehyde. I. Comparative quantitative studies in some selected species of vegetative bacteria, bacterial spores, fungi, bacteriophages and viruses].

    PubMed

    Spicher, G; Peters, J

    1976-12-01

    The resistence of different microorganisms to formaldehyde was determined. As test objects served gram-negative and gram-positive vegetative germs (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella paratyphi-B, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis), bacterial spores (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus subtilis), fungi (Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans), bacteriophages (Escherichia coli phages, T1, T2, T3), and viruses (adenovirus, poliomyelitis virus, vaccinia virus). For the studies, suspensions of germs were exposed at identical temperature (20 degrees C) and pH (7.0). The microbicidal effect of formaldehyde was measured by the decrease of the proportion of germs capable of multiplication in the suspension (lg (N/N0); where: N0 equals initial number of germs capable of multiplication; N equals number of germs capable of multiplication after exposure to formaldehyde). For all germs the dependence of the microbicidal effect on the concentration of formaldehyde was determined. In all experiments, the duration of exposure was two hours. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella paratyphi-B were found to be more susceptible than Staphylococcus aureus (vf. Fig. 1 A). The strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa used were widely varying as to their susceptibility. To obtain equal microbicidal effects, concentrations of formaldehyde almost three times as high had to be used for the most resistant strain than were necessary for the most susceptible strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae examined were found to have an identical resistence to formaldehyde. Streptococcus faecalis was even more resistant to formaldehyde than Staphylococcus aureus. In the case of Streptococcus faecalis, a concentration of formaldehyde about three times as high had to be used to obtain microbicidal effects of identical magnitude. For the killing of Candida albicans cells concentrations of

  12. The influence of immunosuppressive agents on BK virus risk following kidney transplantation, and implications for choice of regimen.

    PubMed

    Suwelack, Barbara; Malyar, Viola; Koch, Martina; Sester, Martina; Sommerer, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    The increasing incidence of BK-associated nephropathy following kidney transplantation has prompted an examination of strategies for risk reduction and management through immunosuppression manipulation. Evidence from retrospective and prospective studies suggests that BK viruria and viremia, and the need for BK virus treatment, are higher with tacrolimus than cyclosporine. Combined therapy with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid may be associated with a particularly higher risk of BK infection, but data are conflicting as to whether mycophenolic acid per se is an independent risk factor. The incidence of BK-related events may be reduced in patients receiving mTOR inhibitors (everolimus or sirolimus) with cyclosporine vs a calcineurin inhibitor with mycophenolic acid. De novo immunosuppression regimens that avoid rabbit antithymocyte globulin and tacrolimus, particularly tacrolimus with mycophenolic acid, may be advantageous, whereas low-exposure cyclosporine with an mTOR inhibitor appears a favorable option. Routine screening for BK infection during the first 2 years posttransplant is recommended to allow preemptive modification of the immunosuppressive regimen. In patients at high risk of BK virus infection, appropriate de novo immunosuppression or very early conversion to an mTOR inhibitor to facilitate reduction or discontinuation of calcineurin inhibitors or antimetabolites should be considered. Extensive further research into optimal avoidance, screening, and treatment strategies is required.

  13. Aloe-emodin is an interferon-inducing agent with antiviral activity against Japanese encephalitis virus and enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Cheng-Wen; Wu, Chia-Fang; Hsiao, Nai-Wan; Chang, Ching-Yao; Li, Shih-Wein; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Wei-Yong

    2008-10-01

    In this study, aloe-emodin was identified as a potential interferon (IFN)-inducer by screening compounds from Chinese herbal medicine. Aloe-emodin showed low cytotoxicity to human HL-CZ promonocyte cells and TE-671 medulloblastoma cells and significantly activated interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and gamma-activated sequence (GAS)-driven cis-reporting systems. Moreover, aloe-emodin upregulated expression of IFN-stimulated genes such as dsRNA-activated protein kinase and 2',5'-oligoisoadenylate synthase. Aloe-emodin resulted in significant activation of nitric oxide production. The antiviral activity of aloe-emodin against Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) was evaluated using dose- and time-dependent plaque reduction assays in HL-CZ cells and TE-671 cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aloe-emodin ranged from 0.50microg/mL to 1.51microg/mL for JEV and from 0.14microg/mL to 0.52microg/mL for EV71. Aloe-emodin showed clearly potent virus inhibitory abilities and achieved high therapeutic indices, in particular for HL-CZ cells. Therefore, the study demonstrated dose- and time-dependent actions of aloe-emodin on the inhibition of JEV and EV71 replication via IFN signalling responses.

  14. Recommendations for standardized nomenclature and definitions of viral response in trials of hepatitis C virus investigational agents.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, Heiner; Jensen, Donald M; Godofsky, Eliot; Mani, Nina; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Miller, Veronica

    2012-12-01

    Outdated virological response terms used at key trial timepoints in clinical trials with first-generation direct-acting antivirals plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin have failed to keep pace with hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug development. A more intuitive and flexible nomenclature capable of adapting to continuing advances in HCV drug development is needed. Assistance in standardization of the field was provided by members of the Hepatitis C Virus Drug Development Advisory Group, a project of the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research with participation from the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, European Association for the of the liver, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Our proposed descriptive, virological response nomenclature for key decision points in trials (with and without lead-in treatment) is based on an assay-specified lower limit of quantitation cutoff. This allows responses to be categorized as either quantifiable or unquantifiable HCV RNA, with unquantifiable responses further divided based on whether target HCV RNA was detected or not detected. The unified reporting recommendations will facilitate interpretation of results across clinical trials and validation of new response-guided timepoints. As time-critical treatment parameters are shortened in HCV trials, the proposed nomenclature will greatly simplify and facilitate future adaptations of virological response terms. Our proposed nomenclature will also be helpful in developing treatment guidelines for use in clinical practice.

  15. Susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group O isolates to antiretroviral agents: in vitro phenotypic and genotypic analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Descamps, D; Collin, G; Letourneur, F; Apetrei, C; Damond, F; Loussert-Ajaka, I; Simon, F; Saragosti, S; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the phenotypic and genotypic susceptibility of 11 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group O strains to nucleoside and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors and protease inhibitors in vitro. Phenotypic susceptibility was determined by using a standardized in vitro assay of RT inhibition, taking into account the replication kinetics of each strain. HIV-1 group M and HIV-2 isolates were used as references. DNA from cocultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was amplified by using pol-specific group O primers and cloned for sequencing. Group O isolates were highly sensitive to nucleoside inhibitors, but six isolates were naturally highly resistant to all of the nonnucleoside RT inhibitors tested. Phylogenetic analysis of the pol gene showed that these isolates formed a separate cluster within group O, and genotypic analysis revealed a tyrosine-to-cysteine substitution at residue 181. Differences in susceptibility to saquinavir and ritonavir (RTV) were not significant between group O and group M isolates, although the 50% inhibitory concentration of RTV for group O isolates was higher than that for the HIV-1 subtype B strains. The study of HIV-1 group O susceptibility to antiretroviral drugs revealed that the viruses tested had specific phenotypic characteristics contrasting with the group M phenotypic expression. PMID:9343254

  16. Evaluation of skin cancer chemoprevention potential of sunscreen agents using the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in vitro assay.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, G J; Rao, G S; Takayasu, J; Takasaki, M; Iida, A; Suzuki, N; Konoshima, T; Tokuda, H

    2013-04-01

    In our continuing search for novel cancer chemopreventive compounds of natural and synthetic origin, we have evaluated 14 commonly used ultraviolet (UV) sunscreen agents (designated UV-1 to UV-14) for their skin cancer chemoprevention potential. They belong to 8 different chemical categories: aminobenzoate (UV-5, UV-7, UV-8 and UV-14), benzophenone (UV-1, UV-2, UV-3 and UV-13), benzotriazole (UV-10), benzyloxyphenol (UV-9), cinnamate (UV-6), quinolone (UV-4), salicylate (UV-11) and xanthone (UV-12). In the in vitro assay employed, the sunscreens were assessed by their inhibition of the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in human lymphoblastoid Raji cells. All sunscreens tested were found to exhibit anti-tumour promoting activity: listed in decreasing order, moderate (UV-11, UV-2, UV-7, UV-12, UV-3, UV-9 and UV-14) to weak (UV-1, UV-6, UV-8, UV-16, UV-5, UV-4 and UV-10) with octyl salicylate (UV-11) as the most potent and drometrizole (UV-10) as the least potent among the compounds evaluated. A plausible relationship between the antioxidant property of sunscreens and their ability to promote anti-tumour activity was noted. The results call for a comprehensive analysis of skin cancer chemoprevention potential of currently used UV sunscreen agents around the globe to identify those with the best clinical profile.

  17. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at -20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents.

    PubMed

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl₂)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at -20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl₂ inactivated 6 log₁₀ AIV within 5 min at -20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl₂ solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl₂ is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons.

  18. Enhanced inactivation of avian influenza virus at −20°C by disinfectants supplemented with calcium chloride or other antifreeze agents

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jiewen; Chan, Maria; Brooks, Brian W.; Rohonczy, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Avian influenza outbreaks have occurred during winter months, and effective disinfection of poultry premises at freezing temperatures is needed. The commercial disinfectants Virkon and Accel, supplemented with an antifreeze agent [propylene glycol (PG), methanol (MeOH), or calcium chloride (CaCl2)], were evaluated for their effectiveness in killing avian influenza virus (AIV) at −20°C or 21°C. An AIV suspension was applied to stainless steel disks, air-dried, and covered with a disinfectant or antifreeze agent for 5 to 30 min. Virkon (2%) and Accel (6.25%) with 30% PG, 20% MeOH, or 20% CaCl2 inactivated 6 log10 AIV within 5 min at −20°C and 21°C. At these temperatures PG and MeOH alone did not kill AIV, but the 20% CaCl2 solution alone inactivated 5 log10 AIV within 10 min. The results suggested that CaCl2 is potentially useful to enhance the effectiveness of disinfection of poultry facilities after outbreaks of AIV infection in warm and cold seasons. PMID:26424918

  19. Effect of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides as a novel antibacterial agent on cell membrane of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Xia, Wenshui; Jiang, Qixing; Xu, Yanshun; Yu, Peipei

    2015-09-01

    Our work here, for the first time, reported the antibacterial activity of kojic acid-grafted-chitosan oligosaccharides (COS/KA) against three gram-positive and three gram-negative bacteria. Integrity of cell membrane, outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) permeabilization assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) assay, and SDS-PAGE assay techniques were used to investigate the interactions between COS/KA and bacterial membranes. The antibacterial activity of COS/KA was higher than those of unmodified COS. The electric conductivity of bacteria suspensions increased, followed by increasing of the units of average release for ALP and G6PDH. COS/KA can also rapidly increase the 1-N-phenylanphthylamine (NPN) uptake and the release of β-galactosidase via increasing the permeability of OM and IM in Escherichia coli. SDS-PAGE indicated the content of cellular soluble proteins decreased significantly in COS/KA-treated bacteria. Hence, COS/KA has potential in food industry and biomedical sciences.

  20. Cr-resistant rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with Prosopis juliflora and their potential as phytoremediation enhancing agents in metal-degraded soils

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad U.; Sessitsch, Angela; Harris, Muhammad; Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Arslan, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Khan, Qaiser M.; Afzal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is characterized by distinct and profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soil and environmentally stressed conditions and is believed to harbor some novel heavy metal-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere. This study was performed to isolate and characterize Cr-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere and endosphere of P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. A total of 5 and 21 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and endosphere, respectively, and were shown to tolerate Cr up to 3000 mg l−1. These isolates also exhibited tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and high concentration (174 g l−1) of NaCl. Moreover, most of the isolated bacterial strains showed one or more plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the predominant species included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Aerococcus. As far as we know, this is the first report analyzing rhizo- and endophytic bacterial communities associated with P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. The inoculation of three isolates to ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) improved plant growth and heavy metal removal from the tannery effluent contaminated soil suggesting that these bacteria could enhance the establishment of the plant in contaminated soil and also improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of heavy metal-degraded soils. PMID:25610444

  1. Cr-resistant rhizo- and endophytic bacteria associated with Prosopis juliflora and their potential as phytoremediation enhancing agents in metal-degraded soils.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad U; Sessitsch, Angela; Harris, Muhammad; Fatima, Kaneez; Imran, Asma; Arslan, Muhammad; Shabir, Ghulam; Khan, Qaiser M; Afzal, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is characterized by distinct and profuse growth even in nutritionally poor soil and environmentally stressed conditions and is believed to harbor some novel heavy metal-resistant bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere. This study was performed to isolate and characterize Cr-resistant bacteria from the rhizosphere and endosphere of P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. A total of 5 and 21 bacterial strains were isolated from the rhizosphere and endosphere, respectively, and were shown to tolerate Cr up to 3000 mg l(-1). These isolates also exhibited tolerance to other toxic heavy metals such as, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and high concentration (174 g l(-1)) of NaCl. Moreover, most of the isolated bacterial strains showed one or more plant growth-promoting activities. The phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the predominant species included Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Aerococcus. As far as we know, this is the first report analyzing rhizo- and endophytic bacterial communities associated with P. juliflora growing on the tannery effluent contaminated soil. The inoculation of three isolates to ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) improved plant growth and heavy metal removal from the tannery effluent contaminated soil suggesting that these bacteria could enhance the establishment of the plant in contaminated soil and also improve the efficiency of phytoremediation of heavy metal-degraded soils.

  2. Selective enhancement of radiation response of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase transduced 9L gliosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo by antiviral agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Sang Hie; Kolozsvary, A.

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate in a well-characterized tumor model that the radiosensitivity of tumor cells transduced with a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (HS-tk) would be selectively enhanced by antiviral agents. Rat 9L gliosarcoma cells transduced with a retroviral vector containing an HS-tk gene, 9L-tk cells were exposed to various doses or irradiation under either in vitro or in vivo conditions. The radiation sensitizing potential of two antiviral drugs, bromovinyl deoxyuridine (BVdU) and dihydroxymethyl ethyl methyl guanine (acyclovir), was evaluated in vitro. The radiosensitizing ability of BVdU was also evaluated with a 9L-tk tumor growing in the rat brain. Tumors growing in the right hemisphere of rat brains were irradiated stereotactically with single-dose irradiation. The radiation response of 9L-tk cells was selectively enhanced by antiviral agents relative to nontransduced cells. In the cell culture, when a 24-h drug exposure (20 {mu}g/ml) preceded radiation, the sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) for BVdU and acyclovir was 1.4 {plus_minus} 0.1 and 1.3 {plus_minus} 0.1, respectively. Exposure of cells to 10 {mu}g/ml acyclovir for two 24-h periods both pre- and postirradiation resulted in a SER of 1.6 {plus_minus} 0.1. In vivo, a significant increase in median survival time of rats with 9L-tk tumors was found when BVdU was administered prior to single-dose irradiation relative to the survival time of similar rats receiving radiation alone. An antiviral agent can enhance cell killing by radiation with selective action in cells transduced with the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene. The results suggest that the three-pronged therapy of HS-tk gene transduction, systemically administered antiviral drug, and stereotactically targeted radiation therapy will improve the effectiveness of radiation therapy for the treatment of radioresistant tumors. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Rapid viral expansion and short drug half-life explain the incomplete effectiveness of current herpes simplex virus 2-directed antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David A; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2013-12-01

    The nucleoside analogues acyclovir (ACV) and famciclovir (FCV) reduce the frequency and severity of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding, yet despite their high potency in vitro and a lack of induced drug resistance, frequent episodes of breakthrough mucosal shedding occur. We tested a published stochastic, spatial mathematical model of HSV-2 replication and spread, in concert with pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic equations, against virologic data from clinical trials of twice-daily acyclovir and famciclovir suppression. The model reproduced the key features of clinical trial data, including genital shedding episode rate, expansion and decay dynamics, and heterogeneous peak viral production and duration. In simulations, these agents shortened episode duration by limiting the extent of viral production by 1 to 2 log units and limiting the formation of secondary ulcers by ∼50%. However, drug concentrations were noninhibitory during 42% of the dosing cycle. Even if drug concentrations were high at episode initiation, prolonged episodes often ensued due to drug decay over ensuing hours and subsequent rebound of rapidly replicating HSV-2. The local CD8(+) T-cell density was more predictive of episode viral production (R(2) = 0.42) and duration (R(2) = 0.21) than the drug concentration at episode onset (R(2) = 0.14 and 0.05, respectively), though the model projected that an agent with an equivalent potency but a two times longer half-life would decrease shedding by 80% compared to that of standard twice-daily regimens. Therefore, long half-life is a key characteristic of any agent that might fully suppress HSV-2 reactivations.

  4. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    PubMed

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-11-15

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce "killed but metabolically active" microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat

  5. Can biowarfare agents be defeated with light?

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Ferraresi, Cleber; de Sousa, Marcelo Victor Pires; Yin, Rui; Rineh, Ardeshir; Sharma, Sulbha K; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Biological warfare and bioterrorism is an unpleasant fact of 21st century life. Highly infectious and profoundly virulent diseases may be caused in combat personnel or in civilian populations by the appropriate dissemination of viruses, bacteria, spores, fungi, or toxins. Dissemination may be airborne, waterborne, or by contamination of food or surfaces. Countermeasures may be directed toward destroying or neutralizing the agents outside the body before infection has taken place, by destroying the agents once they have entered the body before the disease has fully developed, or by immunizing susceptible populations against the effects. A range of light-based technologies may have a role to play in biodefense countermeasures. Germicidal UV (UVC) is exceptionally active in destroying a wide range of viruses and microbial cells, and recent data suggests that UVC has high selectivity over host mammalian cells and tissues. Two UVA mediated approaches may also have roles to play; one where UVA is combined with titanium dioxide nanoparticles in a process called photocatalysis, and a second where UVA is combined with psoralens (PUVA) to produce “killed but metabolically active” microbial cells that may be particularly suitable for vaccines. Many microbial cells are surprisingly sensitive to blue light alone, and blue light can effectively destroy bacteria, fungi, and Bacillus spores and can treat wound infections. The combination of photosensitizing dyes such as porphyrins or phenothiaziniums and red light is called photodynamic therapy (PDT) or photoinactivation, and this approach cannot only kill bacteria, spores, and fungi, but also inactivate viruses and toxins. Many reports have highlighted the ability of PDT to treat infections and stimulate the host immune system. Finally pulsed (femtosecond) high power lasers have been used to inactivate pathogens with some degree of selectivity. We have pointed to some of the ways light-based technology may be used to defeat

  6. A quantitative structure-activity relationship study on a few series of anti-hepatitis C virus agents.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Jonish; Sharma, Anjana; Gupta, Satya P

    2012-05-01

    A 2-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship study has been performed on 2 series of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibitors, i.e., Isothiazoles and Thiazolones. In each case significant correlations are found between the anti-HCV potencies and some physicochemical, electronic and steric properties of the compounds, indicating that for the first series the activity is controlled by density and two indicator parameters (one for halogen and other for methyl), while for the second series density, Hammett constant and Kier's first order valence molecular connectivity index are important for anti-HCV activity. The validity of the correlation has been judged by leave-one-out jackknife procedure and predicting the activity of some test compounds. Using the correlations obtained, some new compounds of high potency have been predicted in each series.

  7. Synthetic pregnenolone derivatives as antiviral agents against acyclovir-resistant isolates of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    Dávola, María Eugenia; Mazaira, Gisela I; Galigniana, Mario D; Alché, Laura E; Ramírez, Javier A; Barquero, Andrea A

    2015-10-01

    The conventional therapy for the management of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) infections mainly comprises acyclovir (ACV) and other nucleoside analogues. A common outcome of this treatment is the emergence of resistant viral strains, principally when immunosuppressed patients are involved. Thus, the development of new antiherpetic compounds remains as a central challenge. In this work we describe the synthesis and the in vitro antiherpetic activity of a new family of steroidal compounds derived from the endogenous hormone pregnenolone. Some of these derivatives showed a remarkable inhibitory effect on HSV-1 spread both on wild type and ACV-resistant strains. The results also show that these compounds seem to interfere with the late steps of the viral cycle.

  8. Bacterial Exopolysaccharide of Shallow Marine Vent Origin as Agent in Counteracting Immune Disorders Induced by Herpes Virus.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Antonio; Arena, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is responsible of the continuously increasing viral infections in humans. In a previous study we demonstrated that the exopolysaccharide produced by Bacillus licheniformis strain B3-15 (EPS-B3-15), was able to hinder the HSV-2 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and this antiviral activity appear to be related to a significant stimulation of the Th1-cytokines. In this study we analyse the role of EPS-B3-15 on Th2 cytokine production by PBMC infected or not with HSV-2. EPS-B3-15 demonstrate the ability to induce a particular cytokine network with consequent effects on the immune cells during HSV-2 infection.

  9. Consequences of inaccurate hepatitis C virus genotyping on the costs of prescription of direct antiviral agents in an Italian district

    PubMed Central

    Polilli, Ennio; Cento, Valeria; Restelli, Umberto; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Aragri, Marianna; Di Maio, Velia Chiara; Sciacca, Antonina; Santoleri, Fiorenzo; Fazii, Paolo; Costantini, Alberto; Perno, Carlo Federico; Parruti, Giustino

    2016-01-01

    Available commercial assays may yield inaccurate hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype assignment in up to 10% of cases. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of re-evaluating HCV genotype by population sequencing, prior to choosing a direct acting antiviral (DAA) regimen. Between March and September 2015, HCV sequence analysis was performed in order to confirm commercial LiPA-HCV genotype (Versant® HCV Genotype 2.0) in patients eligible for treatment with DAAs. Out of 134 consecutive patients enrolled, sequencing yielded 21 (15.7%) cases of discordant results. For three cases of wrong genotype assignment, the putative reduction in efficacy was gauged between 15% and 40%. Among the eight cases for whom G1b was assigned by commercial assays instead of G1a, potentially suboptimal treatments would have been prescribed. Finally, for five patients with G1 and indeterminate subtype, the choice of regimens would have targeted the worst option, with a remarkable increase in costs, as in the case of the four mixed HCV infections for whom pan-genotypic regimens would have been mandatory. Precise assignment of HCV genotype and subtype by sequencing may, therefore, be more beneficial than expected, until more potent pan-genotypic regimens are available for all patients. PMID:27695353

  10. Fluoxetine a novel anti-hepatitis C virus agent via ROS-, JNK-, and PPARβ/γ-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Young, Kung-Chia; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Su, Hui-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Ju; Pu, Chien-Yu; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Min; Lai, Hsin-Wen; Chong, Lee-Won; Tsai, Yau-Sheng; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2014-10-01

    More than 20% of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients receiving interferon-alpha (IFN-α)-based anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy experienced significant depression, which was relieved by treatment with fluoxetine. However, whether and how fluoxetine affected directly the anti-HCV therapy remained unclear. Here, we demonstrated that fluoxetine inhibited HCV infection and blocked the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid accumulation in Huh7.5 cells. Fluoxetine facilitated the IFN-α-mediated antiviral actions via activations of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-1 and c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK). Alternatively, fluoxetine elevated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element activity under HCV infection. The inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on HCV infection and lipid accumulation, but not production of ROS, were partially reversed by the PPAR-β, -γ, and JNK antagonists. Furthermore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-α-2b regimen facilitated to reduce HCV titer and alanine transaminase level for CHC patients. Therefore, fluoxetine intervention to the IFN-α-2b regimen improved the efficacy of anti-HCV treatment, which might be related to blockades of ROS generation and lipid accumulation and activation of host antiviral JNK/STAT-1 and PPARβ/γ signals.

  11. Design and Engineering of a Multi-Target (Multiplex) DNA Simulant to Evaluate Nulceic Acid Based Assays for Detection of Biological Threat Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    Using the actual bio-threat agents for testing is impractical since producing a number of different threat bacteria and viruses, isolating and...Brucella species are recognized as potential agricultural, civilian, and military bioterrorism agents. Rickettsia are classified into two groups; the...spotted fever group (SFG), which includes R. conorii, R. sibirica, and R. rickettsii , and the typhus group (TG), which includes R. prowazekii and R

  12. Resistant Pathogens, Fungi, and Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Guidry, Christopher A.; Mansfield, Sara A.; Sawyer, Robert G.; Cook, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    The first reports of antibiotic pathogens occurred a few short years after the introduction of these powerful new agents, heralding a new kind of war between medicine and pathogens. Although originally described in Staphylococcus aureus, resistance among bacteria has now become a grim race to determine which classes of bacteria will become more resistant, pitting the Gram positive staphylococci, enterococci, and streptococci against the increasingly resistant Gram negative pathogens, e. g., carbapenemase-resistant enterobacteriaceae. In addition, the availability of antibacterial agents has allowed the development of whole new kinds of diseases caused by non-bacterial pathogens, related largely to fungi that are inherently resistant to antibacterials. All of these organisms are becoming more prevalent and, ultimately, more clinically relevant for surgeons. It is ironic that despite their ubiquity in our communities, there is seldom a second thought given to viral infections in patients with surgical illness. The extent of most surgeon’s interest in viral infections ends with hepatitis and HIV, no doubt related to transmissibility as well as the implications that these viruses might have in a patient’s hepatic or immune functions. There are chapters and even textbooks written about these viruses so these will not be considered here. Instead, we will present the growing body of knowledge of the herpes family viruses and their occurrence and consequences in patients with concomitant surgical disease or critical illness. We have also chosen to focus this chapter on previously immune competent patients, as the impact of herpes family viruses in immunosuppressed patients such as transplant or AIDS patients has received thorough treatment elsewhere. PMID:25440119

  13. Elimination of bioweapons agents from forensic samples during extraction of human DNA.

    PubMed

    Timbers, Jason; Wilkinson, Della; Hause, Christine C; Smith, Myron L; Zaidi, Mohsin A; Laframboise, Denis; Wright, Kathryn E

    2014-11-01

    Collection of DNA for genetic profiling is a powerful means for the identification of individuals responsible for crimes and terrorist acts. Biologic hazards, such as bacteria, endospores, toxins, and viruses, could contaminate sites of terrorist activities and thus could be present in samples collected for profiling. The fate of these hazards during DNA isolation has not been thoroughly examined. Our goals were to determine whether the DNA extraction process used by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police eliminates or neutralizes these agents and if not, to establish methods that render samples safe without compromising the human DNA. Our results show that bacteria, viruses, and toxins were reduced to undetectable levels during DNA extraction, but endospores remained viable. Filtration of samples after DNA isolation eliminated viable spores from the samples but left DNA intact. We also demonstrated that contamination of samples with some bacteria, endospores, and toxins for longer than 1 h compromised the ability to complete genetic profiling.

  14. Acute otitis media and respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Yunus; Güven, Mehmet; Otlu, Bariş; Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Aladağ, Ibrahim; Eyibilen, Ahmet; Doğru, Salim

    2007-03-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the clinical outcome, and etiology of acute otitis media (AOM) in children based on virologic and bacteriologic tests. The study group consisted of 120 children aged 6 to 144 months with AOM. Middle ear fluid (MEF) was tested for viral pathogens by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and for bacteria by gram-staining and culture. Clinical response was assessed on day 2 to 4, 11 to 13, 26 to 28. Respiratory viruses were isolated in 39 patients (32.5%). Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (46.5%) was the most common virus identified in MEF samples, followed by human rhinovirus (HRV) (25.6%), human coronavirus (HCV) (11.6%), influenza (IV) type A (9.3%), adenovirus type sub type A (AV) (4%), and parainfluenza (PIV) type -3 (2%) by RT-PCR. In total 69 bacterial species were isolated from 65 (54.8%) of 120 patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was the most frequently isolated bacteria. Viral RNA was detected in 31 (56.3%) of 55 bacteria-negative specimens and in 8 (12.3%) of 65 bacteria-positive MEF samples. No significant differences were found between children representing viral infection alone, combined viral and bacterial infection, bacterial infection alone, and neither viral nor bacterial infection, regarding clinical cure, relapse and reinfection rates. A significantly higher rate of secretory otitis media (SOM) was observed in alone or combined RSV infection with S. pneumonia or Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenzae) than in other viruses infection. Conclusion. This study provides information about etiologic agents and diagnosis of AOM in Turkish children. The findings highlight the importance of common respiratory viruses and bacterial pathogens, particularly RSV, HRV, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, in predisposing to and causing AOM in children.

  15. Experience with direct acting anti-viral agents for treating hepatitis C virus infection in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Goel, Amit; Bhadauria, Dharmendra Singh; Kaul, Anupma; Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rai, Praveer; Aggarwal, Rakesh

    2017-03-27

    In recent past, direct-acting anti-viral drugs (DAAs) have become the standard of care for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, the experience with the use of these drugs in Indian renal transplant recipients is limited. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with DAA-based treatment for HCV infection in such patients. Between April 2015 and December 2016, six adults (median age 41 [range 34-52] years, male 5; GT1 2, GT3 3, and GT4 1; including three with prior failed interferon-based treatment) had received genotype-guided, DAA-based anti-HCV treatment 1 to 158 (median 15) months after renal transplantation. Of them, four completed the planned 24-week treatment without any significant adverse event. One of them had increase in serum creatinine after 16 weeks of treatment with sofosbuvir and daclatasvir, with acute interstitial nephritis on kidney biopsy; his renal function improved on stopping the drugs. The other patient had preexisting mild renal dysfunction, which worsened after 8 weeks of sofosbuvir-ledipasvir treatment; this did not reverse on stopping treatment. All the six patients achieved undetectable HCV RNA after 4 weeks of treatment and also achieved sustained virologic response, i.e. lack of detectable HCV RNA in serum 12 weeks after stopping treatment. Overall, DAA-based treatment was effective in treating HCV infection in our renal transplant recipients; however, caution and monitoring of renal function during such treatment is advisable in patients who have additional factors that predispose to renal injury.

  16. Paradigm shift in discovering next-generation anti-infective agents: targeting quorum sensing, c-di-GMP signaling and biofilm formation in bacteria with small molecules.

    PubMed

    Sintim, Herman O; Smith, Jacqueline A I; Wang, Jingxin; Nakayama, Shizuka; Yan, Lei

    2010-06-01

    Small molecules that can attenuate bacterial toxin production or biofilm formation have the potential to solve the bacteria resistance problem. Although several molecules, which inhibit bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing), biofilm formation and toxin production, have been discovered, there is a paucity of US FDA-approved drugs that target these processes. Here, we review the current understanding of quorum sensing in important pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and provide examples of experimental molecules that can inhibit both known and unknown targets in bacterial virulence factor production and biofilm formation. Structural data for protein targets that are involved in both quorum sensing and cyclic diguanylic acid signaling are needed to aid the development of molecules with drug-like properties in order to target bacterial virulence factors production and biofilm formation.

  17. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions. PMID:22163336

  18. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    PubMed

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  19. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  20. Viruses in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttle, Curtis A.

    2005-09-01

    Viruses exist wherever life is found. They are a major cause of mortality, a driver of global geochemical cycles and a reservoir of the greatest genetic diversity on Earth. In the oceans, viruses probably infect all living things, from bacteria to whales. They affect the form of available nutrients and the termination of algal blooms. Viruses can move between marine and terrestrial reservoirs, raising the spectre of emerging pathogens. Our understanding of the effect of viruses on global systems and processes continues to unfold, overthrowing the idea that viruses and virus-mediated processes are sidebars to global processes.

  1. Aqueous two-phase system cold-set gelation using natural and recombinant probiotic lactic acid bacteria as a gelling agent.

    PubMed

    Léonard, Lucie; Husson, Florence; Langella, Philippe; Châtel, Jean-Marc; Saurel, Rémi

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to entrap probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a sodium alginate and sodium caseinate aqueous two-phase gel system. The natural acidifying properties of two therapeutic probiotic LAB were exploited to liberate calcium ions progressively from calcium carbonate (CaCO3), which caused the gelation of the co-existing phases. Bi-biopolymeric matrix gelation of GDL/CaCO3 or LAB/CaCO3 was monitored by dynamic rheological measurements, and the final gels were characterized by frequency dependence measurements and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Weak to strong gels were formed with an elastic modulus G' from 10 to 1.000Pa, respectively. After cold-set gelation of our system, confocal laser scanning microscopy showed spherical protein microdomains trapped within a calcium alginate network. LAB cells were stained to study their partition in the self-gelling matrices. Our LAB strains showed two different behaviors, which may relate to the exopolysaccharide production: (i) Lactobacillus plantarum CNRZ1997 cells were found mainly in continuous alginate networks, whereas (ii) Lactococcus lactis cells were localized in protein microdomains. This alginate-caseinate phase-separated system that was self-gelled by LAB cells may be an innovative approach for immobilizing and protecting LAB cells.

  2. Design and synthesis of marine natural product-based 1H-indole-2,3-dione scaffold as a new antifouling/antibacterial agent against fouling bacteria.

    PubMed

    Majik, Mahesh S; Rodrigues, Cheryl; Mascarenhas, Stacey; D'Souza, Lisette

    2014-06-01

    Marine organisms such as seaweeds, sponges and corals protect their own surfaces from fouling by their high anesthetic, repellant, and settlement inhibition properties. Within the marine ecosystem, evolution has allowed for the development of certain antifouling properties. Isatin is a biologically active chemical produced by an Alteromonas sp. strain inhibiting the surface of embryos of the cardiean shrimp Palaemon macrodectylus, which protect them from the pathogenic fungus Lagenidium callinectes. In present study, an antibacterial activity of isatin and its synthetic analogues were evaluated against different fouling bacteria in order to explore the structure activity relationships for the first time. The synthesized compounds along with parent isatin were tested against different ecologically relevant marine microorganisms by using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Few synthetically modified isatin exhibited potent inhibitory activity at concentration of 2 μg/disc against Planococcus donghaensis, Erythrobacter litoralis, Alivibrio salmonicida, Vibrio furnisii. Overall, the modified analogues showed stronger activity than the parent marine natural product (isatin) and hence 1H-indole-2,3-dione scaffold has immense potential as future antibacterial/antifouling candidate.

  3. Modeling the interactions between pathogenic bacteria, bacteriophage and immune response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Chung Yin (Joey); Weitz, Joshua S.

    The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in the use of bacteriophage (phage), or virus that infects bacteria, as a therapeutic agent against bacterial infections. However, little is known about the theoretical mechanism by which phage therapy may work. In particular, interactions between the bacteria, the phage and the host immune response crucially influences the outcome of the therapy. Few models of phage therapy have incorporated all these three components, and existing models suffer from unrealistic assumptions such as unbounded growth of the immune response. We propose a model of phage therapy with an emphasis on nonlinear feedback arising from interactions with bacteria and the immune response. Our model shows a synergistic effect between the phage and the immune response which underlies a possible mechanism for phage to catalyze the elimination of bacteria even when neither the immune response nor phage could do so alone. We study the significance of this effect for different parameters of infection and immune response, and discuss its implications for phage therapy.

  4. Coagulase-negative staphylococci: pathogenesis, occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes and in vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on biofilm-growing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Szczuka, Ewa; Jabłońska, Lucyna; Kaznowski, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15 %), aminoglycoside [aac(6')/aph(2″)(11 %), aph (3')-IIIa (15 %), ant(4')-Ia (19 %)] and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) [erm(A) (4 %), erm(B) (13 %), erm(C) (41 %), msr(A) (11 %)] antibiotics. CoNS isolates (64 %) were able to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that these biofilms formed a three-dimensional structure composed mainly of living cells. All biofilm-positive strains carried the ica operon. In vitro studies demonstrated that a combination treatment with tigecycline and rifampicin was more effective against biofilms than one with ciprofloxacin and rifampicin. The minimum biofilm eradication concentration values were 0.062-0.5 µg ml-1 for tigecycline/rifampicin and 0.250-2 µg ml-1 for ciprofloxacin/rifampicin. All CoNS strains adhered to the human epithelial cell line HeLa, and more than half of the isolates were able to invade the HeLa cells, although most invaded relatively poorly. The virulence of CoNS is also attributed to their cytotoxic effects on HeLa cells. Incubation of HeLa cells with culture supernatant of the CoNS isolates resulted in cell death. The results indicate that the pathogenicity of S. capitis, S. auricularis, S. lugdunensis, S. cohnii and S. caprae is multi-factorial, involving the ability of these bacteria to adhere to human epithelial cells, form biofilms and invade and destroy human cells.

  5. A Virus-like disease of chinook salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, A.J.; Pelnar, J.; Rucker, R.R.

    1960-01-01

    Consideration is given to a recurring disease of early feeding chinook salmon fingerlings at the Coleman, California, Federal Fish Cultural Station. The infection becomes manifest in the early spring months at low water temperatures and abates as the water temperature rises. Bacteriological studies have failed to yield the presence of a disease agent, either by cultural or staining procedures. The disease has been successfully transmitted from infected fish to healthy fish by the injection of bacteria-free filtrates prepared from diseased fish tissue. The causative agent is therefore believed to be a virus-like entity.

  6. Antibacterial susceptibility of plaque bacteria.

    PubMed

    Newman, M G; Hulem, C; Colgate, J; Anselmo, C

    1979-07-01

    Selected anaerobic, capnophilic and facultative bacteria isolated from patients with various forms of periodontal health and disease were tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents. Specific bactericidal and minimum inhibitory concentrations were compared to disc zone diameters, thereby generating new standards for the potential selection of antimicrobial agents.

  7. Shewanella sp. O23S as a Driving Agent of a System Utilizing Dissimilatory Arsenate-Reducing Bacteria Responsible for Self-Cleaning of Water Contaminated with Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Drewniak, Lukasz; Stasiuk, Robert; Uhrynowski, Witold; Sklodowska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was a detailed characterization of Shewanella sp. O23S, a strain involved in arsenic transformation in ancient gold mine waters contaminated with arsenic and other heavy metals. Physiological analysis of Shewanella sp. O23S showed that it is a facultative anaerobe, capable of growth using arsenate, thiosulfate, nitrate, iron or manganite as a terminal electron acceptor, and lactate or citrate as an electron donor. The strain can grow under anaerobic conditions and utilize arsenate in the respiratory process in a broad range of temperatures (10–37 °C), pH (4–8), salinity (0%–2%), and the presence of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Se, V and Zn). Under reductive conditions this strain can simultaneously use arsenate and thiosulfate as electron acceptors and produce yellow arsenic (III) sulfide (As2S3) precipitate. Simulation of As-removal from water containing arsenate (2.5 mM) and thiosulfate (5 mM) showed 82.5% efficiency after 21 days of incubation at room temperature. Based on the obtained results, we have proposed a model of a microbially mediated system for self-cleaning of mine waters contaminated with arsenic, in which Shewanella sp. O23S is the main driving agent. PMID:26121297

  8. The liver partition coefficient-corrected inhibitory quotient and the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship of directly acting anti-hepatitis C virus agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jianmin; Bolger, Gordon; Garneau, Michel; Amad, Ma'an; Batonga, Joëlle; Montpetit, Hélène; Otis, François; Jutras, Martin; Lapeyre, Nicole; Rhéaume, Manon; Kukolj, George; White, Peter W; Bethell, Richard C; Cordingley, Michael G

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) data analyses from early hepatitis C virus (HCV) clinical trials failed to show a good correlation between the plasma inhibitory quotient (IQ) and antiviral activity of different classes of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs). The present study explored whether use of the liver partition coefficient-corrected IQ (LCIQ) could improve the PK-PD relationship. Animal liver partition coefficients (Kp(liver)) were calculated from liver to plasma exposure ratios. In vitro hepatocyte partition coefficients (Kp(hep)) were determined by the ratio of cellular to medium drug concentrations. Human Kp(liver) was predicted using an in vitro-in vivo proportionality method: the species-averaged animal Kp(liver) multiplied by the ratio of human Kp(hep) over those in animals. LCIQ was calculated using the IQ multiplied by the predicted human Kp(liver). Our results demonstrated that the in vitro-in vivo proportionality approach provided the best human Kp(liver) prediction, with prediction errors of <45% for all 5 benchmark drugs evaluated (doxorubicin, verapamil, digoxin, quinidine, and imipramine). Plasma IQ values correlated poorly (r(2) of 0.48) with maximum viral load reduction and led to a corresponding 50% effective dose (ED(50)) IQ of 42, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.1 to 148534. In contrast, the LCIQ-maximum VLR relationship fit into a typical sigmoidal curve with an r(2) value of 0.95 and an ED(50) LCIQ of 121, with a 95% CI of 83 to 177. The present study provides a novel human Kp(liver) prediction model, and the LCIQ correlated well with the viral load reductions observed in short-term HCV monotherapy of different DAAs and provides a valuable tool to guide HCV drug discovery.

  9. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells

    PubMed Central

    Koonin, Eugene V; Senkevich, Tatiana G; Dolja, Valerian V

    2006-01-01

    precellular evolution under which the primordial gene pool dwelled in a network of inorganic compartments. Somewhat paradoxically, under this scenario, we surmise that selfish genetic elements ancestral to viruses evolved prior to typical cells, to become intracellular parasites once bacteria and archaea arrived at the scene. Selection against excessively aggressive parasites that would kill off the host ensembles of genetic elements would lead to early evolution of temperate virus-like agents and primitive defense mechanisms, possibly, based on the RNA interference principle. The emergence of the eukaryotic cell is construed as the second melting pot of virus evolution from which the major groups of eukaryotic viruses originated as a result of extensive recombination of genes from various bacteriophages, archaeal viruses, plasmids, and the evolving eukaryotic genomes. Again, this vision is predicated on a specific model of the emergence of eukaryotic cell under which archaeo-bacterial symbiosis was the starting point of eukaryogenesis, a scenario that appears to be best compatible with the data. Conclusion The existence of several genes that are central to virus replication and structure, are shared by a broad variety of viruses but are missing from cellular genomes (virus hallmark genes) suggests the model of an ancient virus world, a flow of virus-specific genes that went uninterrupted from the precellular stage of life's evolution to this day. This concept is tightly linked to two key conjectures on evolution of cells: existence of a complex, precellular, compartmentalized but extensively mixing and recombining pool of genes, and origin of the eukaryotic cell by archaeo-bacterial fusion. The virus world concept and these models of major transitions in the evolution of cells provide complementary pieces of an emerging coherent picture of life's history. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, J. Peter Gogarten, and Arcady Mushegian. PMID:16984643

  10. Quantification of Enteric Viruses, Pathogen Indicators, and Salmonella Bacteria in Class B Anaerobically Digested Biosolids by Culture and Molecular Methods ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M.; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 104 MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency. PMID:20693452

  11. Ecology of Anti-Biofilm Agents I: Antibiotics versus Bacteriophages

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriophages, the viruses that infect bacteria, have for decades been successfully used to combat antibiotic-resistant, chronic bacterial infections, many of which are likely biofilm associated. Antibiotics as anti-biofilm agents can, by contrast, be inefficacious against even genetically sensitive targets. Such deficiencies in usefulness may result from antibiotics, as naturally occurring compounds, not serving their producers, in nature, as stand-alone disruptors of mature biofilms. Anti-biofilm effectiveness by phages, by contrast, may result from a combination of inherent abilities to concentrate lytic antibacterial activity intracellularly via bacterial infection and extracellularly via localized population growth. Considered here is the anti-biofilm activity of microorganisms, with a case presented for why, ecologically, bacteriophages can be more efficacious than traditional antibiotics as medically or environmentally applied biofilm-disrupting agents. Four criteria, it can be argued, generally must be met, in combination, for microorganisms to eradicate biofilms: (1) Furnishing of sufficiently effective antibacterial factors, (2) intimate interaction with biofilm bacteria over extended periods, (3) associated ability to concentrate antibacterial factors in or around targets, and, ultimately, (4) a means of physically disrupting or displacing target bacteria. In nature, lytic predators of bacteria likely can meet these criteria whereas antibiotic production, in and of itself, largely may not. PMID:26371010

  12. Occurrence of Bacteria and Viruses on Elementary Classroom Surfaces and the Potential Role of Classroom Hygiene in the Spread of Infectious Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Kelly R.; Boone, Stephanie A.; Gerba, Charles P.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of microorganisms on common classroom contact surfaces (fomites) was determined to identify the areas most likely to become contaminated. Six elementary classrooms were divided into control and intervention groups (cleaned daily with a quaternary ammonium wipe) and tested for heterotrophic bacteria. Three classrooms were also tested…

  13. Muscavirus (MdHV) disease dynamics in house fly populations – how is this virus transmitted and has it potential as a biological control agent?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly classified family Hytrosaviridae comprises several double-stranded DNA viruses that have been isolated from various dipteran species. These viruses cause characteristic salivary gland hypertrophy and suppress gonad development in their hosts. One member, Muscavirus or MdHV, exclusively in...

  14. Lassa virus.

    PubMed

    Günther, Stephan; Lenz, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    Lassa virus is a RNA virus belonging to the family of Arenaviridae. It was discovered as the causative agent of a hemorrhagic fever--Lassa fever--about 30 years ago. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and is estimated to affect some 100,000 people annually. Great progress in the understanding of the life cycle of arenaviruses, including Lassa virus, has been made in recent years. New insights have been gained in the pathogenesis and molecular epidemiology of Lassa fever, and state-of the-art technologies for diagnosing this life-threatening disease have been developed. The intention of this review is to summarize in particular the recent literature on Lassa virus and Lassa fever. Several aspects ranging from basic research up to clinical practice and laboratory diagnosis are discussed and linked together.

  15. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Analyte-Specific Reagents for High-Throughput, Simultaneous Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Parasites of Clinical and Public Health Importance

    PubMed Central

    Navidad, Jose F.; Griswold, David J.; Gradus, M. Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens

  16. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen analyte-specific reagents for high-throughput, simultaneous detection of bacteria, viruses, and parasites of clinical and public health importance.

    PubMed

    Navidad, Jose F; Griswold, David J; Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib

    2013-09-01

    Acute diarrheal disease (ADD) can be caused by a range of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Conventional diagnostic methods, such as culture, microscopy, biochemical assays, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), are laborious and time-consuming and lack sensitivity. Combined, the array of tests performed on a single specimen can increase the turnaround time (TAT) significantly. We validated a 19plex laboratory-developed gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) using Luminex xTAG analyte-specific reagents (ASRs) to simultaneously screen directly in fecal specimens for diarrhea-causing pathogens, including bacteria (Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli [ETEC], Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC], E. coli O157:H7, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, and toxigenic Clostridium difficile), parasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus 40/41, and rotavirus A). Performance characteristics of GPP ASRs were determined using 48 reference isolates and 254 clinical specimens. Stool specimens from individuals with diarrhea were tested for pathogens using conventional and molecular methods. Using the predictive methods as standards, the sensitivities of the GPP ASRs were 100% for adenovirus 40/41, norovirus, rotavirus A, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia enterocolitica, Entamoeba histolytica, Cryptosporidium spp., and E. coli O157:H7; 95% for Giardia lamblia; 94% for ETEC and STEC; 93% for Shigella spp.; 92% for Salmonella spp.; 91% for C. difficile A/B toxins; and 90% for Campylobacter jejuni. The overall comparative performance of the GPP ASRs with conventional methods in clinical samples was 94.5% (range, 90% to 97%), with 99% (99.0% to 99.9%) specificity. Implementation of the GPP ASRs enables our public health laboratory to offer highly sensitive and specific screening and identification of the major ADD-causing pathogens.

  17. Microbial agents associated with waterborne diseases.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, H; Schwartzbrod, L; Dei-Cas, E

    2002-01-01

    Many classes of pathogens excreted in feces are able to initiate waterborne infections. There are bacterial pathogens, including enteric and aquatic bacteria, enteric viruses, and enteric protozoa, which are strongly resistant in the water environment and to most disinfectants. The infection dose of viral and protozoan agents is lower than bacteria, in the range of one to ten infectious units or oocysts. Waterborne outbreaks of bacterial origin (particularly typhoid fever) in the developing countries have declined dramatically from 1900s. Therefore, some early bacterial agents such as Shigella sonnei remains prevalent and new pathogens of fecal origin such as zoonotic C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 may contaminate pristine waters through wildlife or domestic animal feces. The common feature of these bacteria is the low inoculum (a few hundred cells) that may trigger disease. The emergence in early 1992 of serotype O139 of V. cholerae with epidemic potential in Southeast Asia suggests that other serotypes than V. cholerae O1 could also getting on epidemic. Some new pathogens include environmental bacteria that are capable of surviving and proliferating in water distribution systems. Other than specific hosts at risk, the general population is refractory to infection with ingested P. aeruginosa. The significance of Aeromonas spp. in drinking water to the occurrence of acute gastroenteritis remains a debatable point and has to be evaluated in further epidemiological studies. Legionella and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are environmental pathogens that have found an ecologic niche in drinking and hot water supplies. Numerous studies have reported Legionnaires' disease caused by L. pneumophila occurring in residential and hospital water supplies. M. avium complex frequently causes disseminated infections in AIDS patients and drinking water has been suggested as a source of infection; in some cases the relationship has been proven. More and more numerous reports show

  18. Introduction and history of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mahy, B W J

    2005-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has been recognized as a significant epidemic disease threatening the cattle industry since the sixteenth century, and in the late nineteenth century it was shown by Loeffler and Frosch to be caused by a submicroscopic, filterable transmissible agent, smaller than any known bacteria. The agent causing FMD was thus the first virus of vertebrates to be discovered, soon after the discovery of tobacco mosaic virus of plants. It was not until 1920 that a convenient animal model for the study of FMD virus was established by Waldmann and Pape, using guinea-pigs, and with the later development of in vitro cell culture systems for the virus, the chemical and physical properties of FMD virus were elucidated during the remainder of the twentieth century, culminating in 1989 with a complete description of the three-dimensional structure of the virion. FMD virus is classified as a species in the Aphthovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. The virus is acid labile, and the genome RNA contains a characteristic tract of polyC located about 360 nucleotides from the 5' terminus. Seven main serotypes exist throughout the world, as well as numerous subtypes. The World Reference Laboratory for FMD is located at Pirbright, Surrey, UK and undertakes surveillance of FMD epidemics by serotyping as well as by genotyping isolates of the virus. A major epidemic of FMD occurred in the UK in 2001 and was caused by a virulent strain of FMD virus with origins in Asia. The advantages and some disadvantages of controlling FMD outbreaks by vaccination are discussed.

  19. Rescue from Cloned cDNAs and In Vivo Characterization of Recombinant Pathogenic Romero and Live-Attenuated Candid #1 Strains of Junin Virus, the Causative Agent of Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever Disease ▿

    PubMed Central

    Emonet, Sebastien F.; Seregin, Alexey V.; Yun, Nadezhda E.; Poussard, Allison L.; Walker, Aida G.; de la Torre, Juan C.; Paessler, Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    The New World arenavirus Junin virus (JUNV) is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), which is associated with high morbidity and significant mortality. Several pathogenic strains of JUNV have been documented, and a highly attenuated vaccine strain (Candid #1) was generated and used to vaccinate the human population at risk. The identification and functional characterization of viral genetic determinants associated with AHF and Candid #1 attenuation would contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms contributing to AHF and the development of better vaccines and therapeutics. To this end, we used reverse genetics to rescue the pathogenic Romero and the attenuated Candid #1 strains of JUNV from cloned cDNAs. Both recombinant Candid #1 (rCandid #1) and Romero (rRomero) had the same growth properties and phenotypic features in cultured cells and in vivo as their corresponding parental viruses. Infection with rRomero caused 100% lethality in guinea pigs, whereas rCandid #1 infection was asymptomatic and provided protection against a lethal challenge with Romero. Notably, Romero and Candid #1 trans-acting proteins, L and NP, required for virus RNA replication and gene expression were exchangeable in a minigenome rescue assay. These findings support the feasibility of studies aimed at determining the contribution of each viral gene to JUNV pathogenesis and attenuation. In addition, we rescued Candid #1 viruses with three segments that efficiently expressed foreign genes introduced into their genomes. This finding opens the way for the development of a safe multivalent arenavirus vaccine. PMID:21123388

  20. A novel hemagglutinin protein produced in bacteria protects chickens against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses by inducing H5 subtype-specific neutralizing antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Sączyńska, Violetta; Romanik, Agnieszka; Florys, Katarzyna; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Kęsik-Brodacka, Małgorzata; Śmietanka, Krzysztof; Olszewska, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, Katarzyna; Minta, Zenon; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Płucienniczak, Grażyna; Płucienniczak, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The highly pathogenic (HP) H5N1 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause a mortality rate of up to 100% in infected chickens and pose a permanent pandemic threat. Attempts to obtain effective vaccines against H5N1 HPAIVs have focused on hemagglutinin (HA), an immunodominant viral antigen capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies. The vast majority of vaccine projects have been performed using eukaryotic expression systems. In contrast, we used a bacterial expression system to produce vaccine HA protein (bacterial HA) according to our own design. The HA protein with the sequence of the H5N1 HPAIV strain was efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli, recovered in the form of inclusion bodies and refolded by dilution between two chromatographic purification steps. Antigenicity studies showed that the resulting antigen, referred to as rH5-E. coli, preserves conformational epitopes targeted by antibodies specific for H5-subtype HAs, inhibiting hemagglutination and/or neutralizing influenza viruses in vitro. The proper conformation of this protein and its ability to form functional oligomers were confirmed by a hemagglutination test. Consistent with the biochemical characteristics, prime-boost immunizations with adjuvanted rH5-E. coli protected 100% and 70% of specific pathogen-free, layer-type chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous H5N1 HPAIVs, respectively. The observed protection was related to the positivity in the FluAC H5 test (IDVet) but not to hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers. Due to full protection, the effective contact transmission of the homologous challenge virus did not occur. Survivors from both challenges did not or only transiently shed the viruses, as established by viral RNA detection in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Our results demonstrate that vaccination with rH5-E. coli could confer control of H5N1 HPAIV infection and transmission rates in chicken flocks, accompanied by reduced virus shedding. Moreover, the role of

  1. Looking at protists as a source of pathogenic viruses.

    PubMed

    La Scola, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    In the environment, protozoa are predators of bacteria and feed on them. The possibility that some protozoa could be a source of human pathogens is consistent with the discovery that free-living amoebae were the reservoir of Legionella pneumophila, the agent of Legionnaires' disease. Later, while searching for Legionella in the environment using amoeba co-culture, the first giant virus, Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus, was discovered. Since then, many other giant viruses have been isolated, including Marseilleviridae, Pithovirus sibericum, Cafeteria roenbergensis virus and Pandoravirus spp. The methods used to isolate all of these viruses are herein reviewed. By analogy to Legionella, it was originally suspected that these viruses could be human pathogens. After showing by indirect evidence, such as sero-epidemiologic studies, that it was possible for these viruses to be human pathogens, the recent isolation of some of these viruses (belonging to the Mimiviridae and Marseilleviridae families) in humans in the context of pathologic conditions shows that they are opportunistic human pathogens in some instances.

  2. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  3. What is the role of respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia?: What is the best therapy for influenza and other viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Pavia, Andrew T

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses have long been appreciated as a cause of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly among children, people with serious medical comorbidities, and military recruits. They are increasingly recognized as a cause of CAP among adults. Polymerase chain reaction-based testing has allowed detection of newer agents and improved the ability to detect such viral infections as influenza virus and rhinovirus. Coinfection with viruses and bacteria is common and it remains challenging to determine which patients have only viral infection as the cause of CAP. Better ways to diagnose viral CAP and to integrate detection into management, and better treatment options for noninfluenza respiratory viral infections are needed.

  4. Nitric oxide and virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Akaike, T; Maeda, H

    2000-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has complex and diverse functions in physiological and pathophysiological phenomena. The mechanisms of many events induced by NO are now well defined, so that a fundamental understanding of NO biology is almost established. Accumulated evidence suggests that NO and oxygen radicals such as superoxide are key molecules in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. NO biosynthesis, particularly through expression of an inducible NO synthase (iNOS), occurs in a variety of microbial infections. Although antimicrobial activity of NO is appreciated for bacteria and protozoa, NO has opposing effects in virus infections such as influenza virus pneumonia and certain other neurotropic virus infections. iNOS produces an excessive amount of NO for long periods, which allows generation of a highly reactive nitrogen oxide species, peroxynitrite, via a radical coupling reaction of NO with superoxide. Thus, peroxynitrite causes oxidative tissue injury through potent oxidation and nitration reactions of various biomolecules. NO also appears to affect a host's immune response, with immunopathological consequences. For example, overproduction of NO in virus infections in mice is reported to suppress type 1 helper T-cell-dependent immune responses, leading to type 2 helper T-cell-biased immunological host responses. Thus, NO may be a host response modulator rather than a simple antiviral agent. The unique biological properties of NO are further illustrated by our recent data suggesting that viral mutation and evolution may be accelerated by NO-induced oxidative stress. Here, we discuss these multiple roles of NO in pathogenesis of virus infections as related to both non-specific inflammatory responses and immunological host reactions modulated by NO during infections in vivo. PMID:11106932

  5. Magnetic Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jane Bray; Nelson, Jim

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of Richard Blakemore's discovery of magnetotaxic organisms. Discusses possible reasons why the magnetic response in bacteria developed. Proposes research experiments integrating biology and physics in which students investigate problems using cultures of magnetotaxic organisms. (MDH)

  6. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites in an intermittent stream protected from and exposed to pasturing cattle: prevalence, densities, and quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, G; Brassard, J; Edge, T A; Gannon, V; Jokinen, C C; Jones, T H; Neumann, N; Pintar, K D M; Ruecker, N; Schmidt, P J; Sunohara, M; Topp, E; Lapen, D R

    2013-10-15

    Over 3500 individual water samples, for 131 sampling times, targeting waterborne pathogens/fecal indicator bacteria were collected during a 7-year period from 4 sites along an intermittent stream running through a small livestock pasture system with and without cattle access-to-stream restriction measures. The study assessed the impact of cattle pasturing/riparian zone protection on: pathogen (bacterial, viral, parasite) occurrence, concentrations of fecal indicators, and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRA) of the risk of Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in humans. Methodologies were developed to compute QMRA mean risks on the basis of water samples exhibiting potentially human infectious Cryptosporidium and E. coli based on genotyping Crytosporidium, and E. coli O157:H7 presence/absence information paired with enumerated E. coli. All Giardia spp. were considered infectious. No significant pasturing treatment effects were observed among pathogens, with the exception of Campylobacter spp. and E. coli O157:H7. Campylobacter spp. prevalence significantly decreased downstream through pasture treatments and E. coli O157:H7 was observed in a few instances in the middle of the unrestricted pasture. Densities of total coliform, fecal coliform, and E. coli reduced significantly downstream in the restricted pasture system, but not in the unrestricted system. Seasonal and flow conditions were associated with greater indicator bacteria densities, especially in the summer. Norovirus GII was detected at rates of 7-22% of samples for all monitoring sites, and rotavirus in 0-7% of samples for all monitoring sites; pasture treatment trends were not evident, however. Seasonal and stream flow variables (and their interactions) were relatively more important than pasture treatments for initially stratifying pathogen occurrence and higher fecal indicator bacteria densities. Significant positive associations among fecal indicator bacteria and

  7. An abyssal mobilome: viruses, plasmids and vesicles from deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

    PubMed

    Lossouarn, Julien; Dupont, Samuel; Gorlas, Aurore; Mercier, Coraline; Bienvenu, Nadege; Marguet, Evelyne; Forterre, Patrick; Geslin, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs) such as viruses, plasmids, vesicles, gene transfer agents (GTAs), transposons and transpovirions, which collectively represent the mobilome, interact with cellular organisms from all three domains of life, including those thriving in the most extreme environments. While efforts have been made to better understand deep-sea vent microbial ecology, our knowledge of the mobilome associated with prokaryotes inhabiting deep-sea hydrothermal vents remains limited. Here we focus on the abyssal mobilome by reviewing accumulating data on viruses, plasmids and vesicles associated with thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Bacteria and Archaea present in deep-sea hydrothermal vents.

  8. In defense of phage: viral suppressors of CRISPR-mediated adaptive immunity in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wiedenheft, Blake

    2013-05-01

    Viruses that infect bacteria are the most abundant biological agents on the planet and bacteria have evolved diverse defense mechanisms to combat these genetic parasites. One of these bacterial defense systems relies on a repetitive locus, referred to as a CRISPR (clusters of regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats). Bacteria and archaea acquire resistance to invading viruses and plasmids by integrating short fragments of foreign nucleic acids at one end of the CRISPR locus. CRISPR loci are transcribed and the long primary CRISPR transcript is processed into a library of small RNAs that guide the immune system to invading nucleic acids, which are subsequently degraded by dedicated nucleases. However, the development of CRISPR-mediated immune systems has not eradicated phages, suggesting that viruses have evolved mechanisms to subvert CRISPR-mediated protection. Recently, Bondy-Denomy and colleagues discovered several phage-encoded anti-CRISPR proteins that offer new insight into the ongoing molecular arms race between viral parasites and the immune systems of their hosts.

  9. [Pseudomonas genus bacteria on weeds].

    PubMed

    Gvozdiak, R I; Iakovleva, L M; Pasichnik, L A; Shcherbina, T N; Ogorodnik, L E

    2005-01-01

    It has been shown in the work that the weeds (couch-grass and ryegrass) may be affected by bacterial diseases in natural conditions, Pseudomonas genus bacteria being their agents. The isolated bacteria are highly-aggressive in respect of the host-plant and a wide range of cultivated plants: wheat, rye, oats, barley, apple-tree and pear-tree. In contrast to highly aggressive bacteria isolated from the affected weeds, bacteria-epi phytes isolated from formally healthy plants (common amaranth, orache, flat-leaved spurge, field sow thistle, matricary, common coltsfoot, narrow-leaved vetch) and identified as P. syringae pv. coronafaciens, were characterized by weak aggression. A wide range of ecological niches of bacteria evidently promote their revival and distribution everywhere in nature.

  10. Tandem Fusion of Hepatitis B Core Antigen Allows Assembly of Virus-Like Particles in Bacteria and Plants with Enhanced Capacity to Accommodate Foreign Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Peyret, Hadrien; Gehin, Annick; Thuenemann, Eva C.; Blond, Donatienne; El Turabi, Aadil; Beales, Lucy; Clarke, Dean; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; Fry, Elizabeth E.; Stuart, David I.; Holmes, Kris; Stonehouse, Nicola J.; Whelan, Mike; Rosenberg, William; Lomonossoff, George P.; Rowlands, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The core protein of the hepatitis B virus, HBcAg, assembles into highly immunogenic virus-like particles (HBc VLPs) when expressed in a variety of heterologous systems. Specifically, the major insertion region (MIR) on the HBcAg protein allows the insertion of foreign sequences, which are then exposed on the tips of surface spike structures on the outside of the assembled particle. Here, we present a novel strategy which aids the display of whole proteins on the surface of HBc particles. This strategy, named tandem core, is based on the production of the HBcAg dimer as a single polypeptide chain by tandem fusion of two HBcAg open reading frames. This allows the insertion of large heterologous sequences in only one of the two MIRs in each spike, without compromising VLP formation. We present the use of tandem core technology in both plant and bacterial expression systems. The results show that tandem core particles can be produced with unmodified MIRs, or with one MIR in each tandem dimer modified to contain the entire sequence of GFP or of a camelid nanobody. Both inserted proteins are correctly folded and the nanobody fused to the surface of the tandem core particle (which we name tandibody) retains the ability to bind to its cognate antigen. This technology paves the way for the display of natively folded proteins on the surface of HBc particles either through direct fusion or through non-covalent attachment via a nanobody. PMID:25830365

  11. Quasispecies of dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Kurosu, Takeshi

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic viruses have RNA genomes that cause acute and chronic infections. These viruses replicate with high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity, so-called viral quasispecies. Viral quasispecies play an important role in chronic infectious diseases, but little is known about their involvement in acute infectious diseases such as dengue virus (DENV) infection. DENV, the most important human arbovirus, is a causative agent of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). Accumulating observations suggest that DENV exists as an extremely diverse virus population, but its biological significance is unclear. In other virus diseases, quasispecies affect the therapeutic strategies using drugs and vaccines. Here, I describe the quasispecies of DENV and discuss the possible role of quasispecies in the pathogenesis of and therapeutic strategy against DENV infection in comparison with other viruses such as Hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and poliovirus.

  12. Wolbachia Occurrence in Planthopper (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Vectors of Cereal Viruses in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mattio, M F; Argüello Caro, E B; Rodriguero, M S; Dumón, A D; Alemandri, V M; Truol, G

    2015-08-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are the most important cereal crops for the Argentinean economy and are affected by several diseases. Different planthopper species transmit causal agents of some of those diseases, including Mal de Río Cuarto virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus, and the recently proposed maize yellow striate virus. Many planthopper species are sap feeders and therefore are expected to host bacteria providing essential nutrients lacking in the diet. Previous studies have evidenced that some of these bacterial symbionts are involved in the virus transmission. Wolbachia is a group of obligate intracellular bacteria infecting numerous arthropod species and causing reproductive alterations in their hosts. These bacteria have been detected in planthopper species, considered rice pests in various regions of the world. To date, Wolbachia infection status of planthopper species of Argentina is unknown. Amplification by PCR and sequencing of 16S rDNA, wsp- and ftsZ-specific genes demonstrated Wolbachia infection in Caenodelphax teapae (Fowler), Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah, Pyrophagus tigrinus Remes Lenicov & Varela, Tagosodes orizicolus (Muir), and Toya propinqua (Fieber). This is the first report of Wolbachia in delphacid vectors of viruses affecting maize and wheat. An understanding of the bacterial diversity harbored by these insect vectors could lead to new options for future management of diseases of economically important crops in a developing country.

  13. Antibiotics and gene transfer in swine gut bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract hosts a diverse collection bacteria, most of which are beneficial for host health. This bacterial community also supports a community of viruses that infect bacteria (called bacteriophages or phages). Phages transfer genes between bacteria, and phage-media...

  14. Multicenter Evaluation of BioFire FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis Panel for Detection of Bacteria, Viruses, and Yeast in Cerebrospinal Fluid Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Everhart, Kathy; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Cullison, Jillian; Daly, Judy; Holt, Sarah; Lephart, Paul; Salimnia, Hossein; Schreckenberger, Paul C.; DesJarlais, Sharon; Reed, Sharon L.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; LeBlanc, Lindsay; Johnson, J. Kristie; Soliven, Nicole L.; Carroll, Karen C.; Miller, Jo-Anne; Dien Bard, Jennifer; Mestas, Javier; Bankowski, Matthew; Enomoto, Tori; Hemmert, Andrew C.; Bourzac, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis and treatment of infectious meningitis and encephalitis are critical to minimize morbidity and mortality. Comprehensive testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) often includes Gram stain, culture, antigen detection, and molecular methods, paired with chemical and cellular analyses. These methods may lack sensitivity or specificity, can take several days, and require significant volume for complete analysis. The FilmArray Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) Panel is a multiplexed in vitro diagnostic test for the simultaneous, rapid (∼1-h) detection of 14 pathogens directly from CSF specimens: Escherichia coli K1, Haemophilus influenzae, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae, cytomegalovirus, enterovirus, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6, human parechovirus, varicella-zoster virus, and Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii. We describe a multicenter evaluation of 1,560 prospectively collected CSF specimens with performance compared to culture (bacterial analytes) and PCR (all other analytes). The FilmArray ME Panel demonstrated a sensitivity or positive percentage of agreement of 100% for 9 of 14 analytes. Enterovirus and human herpesvirus type 6 had agreements of 95.7% and 85.7%, and L. monocytogenes and N. meningitidis were not observed in the study. For S. agalactiae, there was a single false-positive and false-negative result each, for a sensitivity and specificity of 0 and 99.9%, respectively. The specificity or negative percentage of agreement was 99.2% or greater for all other analytes. The FilmArray ME Panel is a sensitive and specific test to aid in diagnosis of ME. With use of this comprehensive and rapid test, improved patient outcomes and antimicrobial stewardship are anticipated. PMID:27335149

  15. Novel Host-Related Virulence Factors Are Encoded by Squirrelpox Virus, the Main Causative Agent of Epidemic Disease in Red Squirrels in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Karina Hansen; Wood, Ann R.; Hughes, Margaret; Martensen, Pia Møller; Radford, Alan D.; Hall, Neil; Chantrey, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Squirrelpox virus (SQPV) shows little evidence for morbidity or mortality in North American grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), in which the virus is endemic. However, more recently the virus has emerged to cause epidemics with high mortality in Eurasian red squirrels (S. vulgaris) in Great Britain, which are now threatened. Here we report the genome sequence of SQPV. Comparison with other Poxviridae revealed a core set of poxvirus genes, the phylogeny of which showed SQPV to be in a new Chordopoxvirus subfamily between the Molluscipoxviruses and Parapoxviruses. A number of SQPV genes were related to virulence, including three major histocomaptibility class I homologs, and one CD47 homolog. In addition, a novel potential virulence factor showing homology to mammalian oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) was identified. This family of proteins normally causes activation of an endoribonuclease (RNaseL) within infected cells. The putative function of this novel SQPV protein was predicted in silico. PMID:24983354

  16. Basic chemokine-derived glycosaminoglycan binding peptides exert antiviral properties against dengue virus serotype 2, herpes simplex virus-1 and respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Vanheule, Vincent; Vervaeke, Peter; Mortier, Anneleen; Noppen, Sam; Gouwy, Mieke; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela; Van Damme, Jo; Liekens, Sandra; Proost, Paul

    2016-01-15

    Chemokines attract leukocytes to sites of infection in a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) dependent manner. Therefore, chemokines are crucial molecules for proper functioning of our antimicrobial defense mechanisms. In addition, some chemokines have GPCR-independent defensin-like antimicrobial activities against bacteria and fungi. Recently, high affinity for GAGs has been reported for the positively charged COOH-terminal region of the chemokine CXCL9. In addition to CXCL9, also CXCL12γ has such a positively charged COOH-terminal region with about 50% positively charged amino acids. In this report, we compared the affinity of COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ for GAGs and KD values in the low nM range were detected. Several enveloped viruses such as herpesviruses, hepatitis viruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dengue virus (DENV), etc. are known to bind to GAGs such as the negatively charged heparan sulfate (HS). In this way GAGs are important for the initial contacts between viruses and host cells and for the infection of the cell. Thus, inhibiting the virus-cell interactions, by blocking GAG-binding sites on the host cell, might be a way to target multiple virus families and resistant strains. This article reports that the COOH-terminal peptides of CXCL9 and CXCL12γ have antiviral activity against DENV serotype 2, clinical and laboratory strains of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Moreover, we show that CXCL9(74-103) competes with DENV envelope protein domain III for binding to heparin. These short chemokine-derived peptides may be lead molecules for the development of novel antiviral agents.

  17. Serodiagnosis for Tumor Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Brian J.; Labo, Nazzarena; Miley, Wendell J.; Whitby, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The known human tumor viruses include the DNA viruses Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, Merkel cell polyomavirus, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus. RNA tumor viruses include Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type-1 and hepatitis C virus. The serological identification of antigens/antibodies in plasma serum is a rapidly progressing field with utility for both scientists and clinicians. Serology is useful for conducting seroepidemiology studies and to inform on the pathogenesis and host immune response to a particular viral agent. Clinically, serology is useful for diagnosing current or past infection and for aiding in clinical management decisions. Serology is useful for screening blood donations for infectious agents and for monitoring the outcome of vaccination against these viruses. Serodiagnosis of human tumor viruses has improved in recent years with increased specificity and sensitivity of the assays, as well as reductions in cost and the ability to assess multiple antibody/antigens in single assays. Serodiagnosis of tumor viruses plays an important role in our understanding of the prevalence and transmission of these viruses and ultimately in the ability to develop treatments/preventions for these globally important diseases. PMID:25843726

  18. Virus transmission via food.

    PubMed

    Cliver, D O

    1997-01-01

    Viruses are transmitted to humans via foods as a result of direct or indirect contamination of the foods with human faeces. Viruses transmitted by a faecal-oral route are not strongly dependent on foods as vehicles of transmission, but viruses are important among agents of foodborne disease. Vehicles are most often molluscs from contaminated waters, but many other foods are contaminated directly by infected persons. The viruses most often foodborne are the hepatitis A virus and the Norwalk-like gastroenteritis viruses. Detection methods for these viruses in foods are very difficult and costly; the methods are not routine. Indicators that would rapidly and reliably suggest the presence of viral contamination of foods are still being sought. Contamination can be prevented by keeping faeces out of food or by treating vehicles such as water in order to inactivate virus that might be carried to food in this way. Virus cannot multiply in food, but can usually be inactivated by adequate heating. Other methods of inactivating viruses within a food are relatively unreliable, but viruses in water and on exposed surfaces can be inactivated with ultraviolet light or with strong oxidizing agents.

  19. Methanotrophic bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, R S; Hanson, T E

    1996-01-01

    Methane-utilizing bacteria (methanotrophs) are a diverse group of gram-negative bacteria that are related to other members of the Proteobacteria. These bacteria are classified into three groups based on the pathways used for assimilation of formaldehyde, the major source of cell carbon, and other physiological and morphological features. The type I and type X methanotrophs are found within the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria and employ the ribulose monophosphate pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, whereas type II methanotrophs, which employ the serine pathway for formaldehyde assimilation, form a coherent cluster within the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Methanotrophic bacteria are ubiquitous. The growth of type II bacteria appears to be favored in environments that contain relatively high levels of methane, low levels of dissolved oxygen, and limiting concentrations of combined nitrogen and/or copper. Type I methanotrophs appear to be dominant in environments in which methane is limiting and combined nitrogen and copper levels are relatively high. These bacteria serve as biofilters for the oxidation of methane produced in anaerobic environments, and when oxygen is present in soils, atmospheric methane is oxidized. Their activities in nature are greatly influenced by agricultural practices and other human activities. Recent evidence indicates that naturally occurring, uncultured methanotrophs represent new genera. Methanotrophs that are capable of oxidizing methane at atmospheric levels exhibit methane oxidation kinetics different from those of methanotrophs available in pure cultures. A limited number of methanotrophs have the genetic capacity to synthesize a soluble methane monooxygenase which catalyzes the rapid oxidation of environmental pollutants including trichloroethylene. PMID:8801441

  20. Strains of Citrus tristeza virus do not exclude superinfection by other strains of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Superinfection exclusion or homologous interference, a phenomenon in which a primary viral infection prevents a secondary infection with the same or closely-related virus, has been observed commonly for viruses in various systems, including viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals. With plant viruse...

  1. Squash vein yellowing virus, causal agent of viral watermelon vine decline in Florida, USA – reservoirs, genome characterization and mixed infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) was identified in cucurbits in Florida in 2005, shown to be whitefly-transmissible and to induce a previously observed watermelon vine decline and fruit rind necrosis. SqVYV has been isolated from declining watermelons for the past six growing seasons in southwes...

  2. Gut Bacteria Metabolism Impacts Immune Recovery in HIV-infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Rojo, David; Martínez-Martínez, Mónica; Deusch, Simon; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Bargiela, Rafael; Sainz, Talía; Vera, Mar; Moreno, Santiago; Estrada, Vicente; Gosalbes, María José; Latorre, Amparo; Seifert, Jana; Barbas, Coral; Moya, Andrés; Ferrer, Manuel

    2016-06-01

    While changes in gut microbial populations have been described in human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART), the mechanisms underlying the contributions of gut bacteria and their molecular agents (metabolites and proteins) to immune recovery remain unexplored. To study this, we examined the active fraction of the gut microbiome, through examining protein synthesis and accumulation of metabolites inside gut bacteria and in the bloodstream, in 8 healthy controls and 29 HIV-infected individuals (6 being longitudinally studied). We found that HIV infection is associated to dramatic changes in the active set of gut bacteria simultaneously altering the metabolic outcomes. Effects were accentuated among immunological ART responders, regardless diet, subject characteristics, clinical variables other than immune recovery, the duration and type of ART and sexual preferences. The effect was found at quantitative levels of several molecular agents and active bacteria which were herein identified and whose abundance correlated with HIV immune pathogenesis markers. Although, we cannot rule out the possibility that some changes are partially a random consequence of the disease status, our data suggest that most likely reduced inflammation and immune recovery is a joint solution orchestrated by both the active fraction of the gut microbiota and the host.

  3. Temporal Analysis of the Honey Bee Microbiome Reveals Four Novel Viruses and Seasonal Prevalence of Known Viruses, Nosema, and Crithidia

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Juan C.; Ruby, J. Graham; Ganem, Donald; Andino, Raul; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) play a critical role in global food production as pollinators of numerous crops. Recently, honey bee populations in the United States, Canada, and Europe have suffered an unexplained increase in annual losses due to a phenomenon known as Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD). Epidemiological analysis of CCD is confounded by a relative dearth of bee pathogen field studies. To identify what constitutes an abnormal pathophysiological condition in a honey bee colony, it is critical to have characterized the spectrum of exogenous infectious agents in healthy hives over time. We conducted a prospective study of a large scale migratory bee keeping operation using high-frequency sampling paired with comprehensive molecular detection methods, including a custom microarray, qPCR, and ultra deep sequencing. We established seasonal incidence and abundance of known viruses, Nosema sp., Crithidia mellificae, and bacteria. Ultra deep sequence analysis further identified four novel RNA viruses, two of which were the most abundant observed components of the honey bee microbiome (∼1011 viruses per honey bee). Our results demonstrate episodic viral incidence and distinct pathogen patterns between summer and winter time-points. Peak infection of common honey bee viruses and Nosema occurred in the summer, whereas levels of the trypanosomatid Crithidia mellificae and Lake Sinai virus 2, a novel virus, peaked in January. PMID:21687739

  4. Association of fecal indicator bacteria with human viruses and microbial source tracking markers at coastal beaches impacted by nonpoint source pollution.

    PubMed

    McQuaig, Shannon; Griffith, John; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-09-01

    Water quality was assessed at two marine beaches in California by measuring the concentrations of culturable fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and by library-independent microbial source tracking (MST) methods targeting markers of human-associated microbes (human polyomavirus [HPyV] PCR and quantitative PCR, Methanobrevibacter smithii PCR, and Bacteroides sp. strain HF183 PCR) and a human pathogen (adenovirus by nested PCR). FIB levels periodically exceeded regulatory thresholds at Doheny and Avalon Beaches for enterococci (28.5% and 31.7% of samples, respectively) and fecal coliforms (20% and 5.8%, respectively). Adenoviruses were detected at four of five sites at Doheny Beach and were correlated with detection of HPyVs and human Bacteroides HF183; however, adenoviruses were not detected at Avalon Beach. The most frequently detected human source marker at both beaches was Bacteroides HF183, which was detected in 27% of samples. Correlations between FIBs and human markers were much more frequent at Doheny Beach than at Avalon Beach; e.g., adenovirus was correlated with HPyVs and HF183. Human sewage markers and adenoviruses were routinely detected in samples meeting FIB regulatory standards. The toolbox approach of FIB measurement coupled with analysis of several MST markers targeting human pathogens used here demonstrated that human sewage is at least partly responsible for the degradation of water quality, particularly at Doheny Beach, and resulted in a more definitive assessment of recreational water quality and human health risk than reliance on FIB concentrations alone could have provided.

  5. Pathogen bacteria adhesion to skin mucus of fishes.

    PubMed

    Benhamed, Said; Guardiola, Francisco A; Mars, Mohammed; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-06-25

    Fish are always in intimate contact with their environment; therefore they are permanently exposed to very vary external hazards (e.g. aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, viruses, parasites, pollutants). To fight off pathogenic microorganisms, the epidermis and its secretion, the mucus acts as a barrier between the fish and the environment. Fish are surrounded by a continuous layer of mucus which is the first physical, chemical and biological barrier from infection and the first site of interaction between fish's skin cells and pathogens. The mucus composition is very complex and includes numerous antibacterial factors secreted by fish's skin cells, such as immunoglobulins, agglutinins, lectins, lysins and lysozymes. These factors have a very important role to discriminate between pathogenic and commensal microorganisms and to protect fish from invading pathogens. Furthermore, the skin mucus represents an important portal of entry of pathogens since it induces the development of biofilms, and represents a favorable microenvironment for bacteria, the main disease agents for fish. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the interaction between bacteria and fish skin mucus, the adhesion mechanisms of pathogens and the major factors influencing pathogen adhesion to mucus. The better knowledge of the interaction between fish and their environment could inspire other new perspectives to study as well as to exploit the mucus properties for different purposes.

  6. Statin (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitor)-based therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection-related diseases in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Kishta, Sara Sobhy; Kishta, Sobhy Ahmed; El-Shenawy, Reem

    2017-01-01

    Recent improvements have been made in the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). However, despite successful viral clearance, many patients continue to have HCV-related disease progression. Therefore, new treatments must be developed to achieve viral clearance and prevent the risk of HCV-related diseases. In particular, the use of pitavastatin together with DAAs may improve the antiviral efficacy as well as decrease the progression of liver fibrosis and the incidence of HCV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. To investigate the management methods for HCV-related diseases using pitavastatin and DAAs, clinical trials should be undertaken. However, concerns have been raised about potential drug interactions between statins and DAAs. Therefore, pre-clinical trials using a replicon system, human hepatocyte-like cells, human neurons and human cardiomyocytes from human-induced pluripotent stem cells should be conducted. Based on these pre-clinical trials, an optimal direct-acting antiviral agent could be selected for combination with pitavastatin and DAAs. Following the pre-clinical trial, the combination of pitavastatin and the optimal direct-acting antiviral agent should be compared to other combinations of DAAs ( e.g., sofosbuvir and velpatasvir) according to the antiviral effect on HCV infection, HCV-related diseases and cost-effectiveness. PMID:27583130

  7. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water on bacteria invading dentinal tubules.

    PubMed

    Nagayoshi, Masato; Kitamura, Chiaki; Fukuizumi, Takaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Terashita, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    Ozone is known to act as a strong antimicrobial agent against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. In the present study, we examined the effect of ozonated water against Enterococcus faecalis and Streptcoccus mutans infections in vitro in bovine dentin. After irrigation with ozonated water, the viability of E. faecalis and S. mutans invading dentinal tubules significantly decreased. Notably, when the specimen was irrigated with sonication, ozonated water had nearly the same antimicrobial activity as 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). We also compared the cytotoxicity against L-929 mouse fibroblasts between ozonated water and NaOCl. The metabolic activity of fibroblasts was high when the cells were treated with ozonated water, whereas that of fibroblasts significantly decreased when the cells were treated with 2.5% NaOCl. These results suggest that ozonated water application may be useful for endodontic therapy.

  8. 9 CFR 121.3 - VS select agents and toxins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... agent or toxin to APHIS or CDC. (i) The seizure of any of the following VS select agents and toxins must... virus, and swine vesicular disease virus. This report must be followed by submission of APHIS/CDC Form 4... toxins, APHIS/CDC Form 4 must be submitted within 7 calendar days after seizure of the agent or...

  9. Viruses in Antarctic lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepner, R. L. Jr; Wharton, R. A. Jr; Suttle, C. A.; Wharton RA, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Water samples collected from four perennially ice-covered Antarctic lakes during the austral summer of 1996-1997 contained high densities of extracellular viruses. Many of these viruses were found to be morphologically similar to double-stranded DNA viruses that are known to infect algae and protozoa. These constitute the first observations of viruses in perennially ice-covered polar lakes. The abundance of planktonic viruses and data suggesting substantial production potential (relative to bacteria] secondary and photosynthetic primary production) indicate that viral lysis may be a major factor in the regulation of microbial populations in these extreme environments. Furthermore, we suggest that Antarctic lakes may be a reservoir of previously undescribed viruses that possess novel biological and biochemical characteristics.

  10. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  11. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  12. Bacteria Counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Science Applications, Inc.'s ATP Photometer makes a rapid and accurate count of the bacteria in a body fluid sample. Instrument provides information on the presence and quantity of bacteria by measuring the amount of light emitted by the reaction between two substances. Substances are ATP adenosine triphosphate and luciferase. The reactants are applied to a human body sample and the ATP Photometer observes the intensity of the light emitted displaying its findings in a numerical output. Total time lapse is usually less than 10 minutes, which represents a significant time savings in comparison of other techniques. Other applications are measuring organisms in fresh and ocean waters, determining bacterial contamination of foodstuffs, biological process control in the beverage industry, and in assay of activated sewage sludge.

  13. New Disinfection Agents for Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    with HTH being the better disinfectant. In similar experiments involving Entamoeba invadens and Giardia Lamblia Compound I was more effective than...different and dependent upon the nature of the organism. Keywords: Water disinfections; N-Chloramines; HTH; Bacteria; Viruses; Protozoa; Giardia lamblia ; Stability in water; 3-Chloro-4,4-dimethy1-2-oxazolidinone; Calcium hypochlorite.

  14. [The taxonomy of the Issyk-Kul virus (ISKV, Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus), the etiologic agent of the Issyk-Kul fever isolated from bats (Vespertilionidae) and ticks Argas (Carios) vespertilionis (Latreille, 1796)].

    PubMed

    Al'khovskiĭ, S V; L'vov, D K; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shchetinin, A M; Deriabin, P G; Samokhvalov, E I; Gitel'man, A K; Botikov, A G

    2013-01-01

    The Issyk-Kul virus (etiological agent of the Issyk-Kul fever) was originally isolated from bats (Nyctalus noctula Schreber, 1774 (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)) and their parasites ticks (Argas (Carios) vespertilionis Latreille, 1796 (Parasitiformes: Argasidae)) in Kirghizia. Sporadic cases and epidemics of the Issyk-Kul fever are observed in Central Asia since 1979. The ISKV genome was de novo sequenced using the next-generation sequencing technology. According to the molecular-genetic and phylogenetic analysis, the ISKV is a member of a novel group in the genus Nairovirus (Bunyaviridae). Based on the data obtained, molecular-genetic methods can be used for ISKV detection (PCR) for the Issyk-Kul fever monitoring and diagnosis in the endemic areas.

  15. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  16. Biocide tolerance in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ortega Morente, Elena; Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Grande Burgos, Maria José; Abriouel, Hikmate; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    Biocides have been employed for centuries, so today a wide range of compounds showing different levels of antimicrobial activity have become available. At the present time, understanding the mechanisms of action of biocides has also become an important issue with the emergence of bacterial tolerance to biocides and the suggestion that biocide and antibiotic resistance in bacteria might be linked. While most of the mechanisms providing antibiotic resistance are agent specific, providing resistance to a single antimicrobial or class of antimicrobial, there are currently numerous examples of efflux systems that accommodate and, thus, provide tolerance to a broad range of structurally unrelated antimicrobials, both antibiotics and biocides. If biocide tolerance becomes increasingly common and it is linked to antibiotic resistance, not only resistant (even multi-resistant) bacteria could be passed along the food chain, but also there are resistance determinants that can spread and lead to the emergence of new resistant microorganisms, which can only be detected and monitored when the building blocks of resistance traits are understood on the molecular level. This review summarizes the main advances reached in understanding the mechanism of action of biocides, the mechanisms of bacterial resistance to both biocides and antibiotics, and the incidence of biocide tolerance in bacteria of concern to human health and the food industry.

  17. Antimicrobial peptides: Possible anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah Narayana, Jayaram; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation. Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly distributed in nature. AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and even cancerous cells. They also show potential immunomodulatory properties, and are highly responsive to infectious agents and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. In recent years, many AMPs have undergone or are undergoing clinical development, and a few are commercially available for topical and other applications. In this review, we outline selected anion and cationic AMPs which are at various stages of development, from preliminary analysis to clinical drug development. Moreover, we also consider current production methods and delivery tools for AMPs, which must be improved for the effective use of these agents.

  18. High pressure processing of bivalve shellfish and HPP's potential use as a virus intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bivalve shellfish readily bioconcentrate pathogenic microbes and substance, such as algal and dinoflagulate toxins, fecal viruses and bacteria, and naturally present vibrio bacteria. High pressure processing (HPP) is currently used as an intervention for Vibrio vulnificus bacteria within molluscan ...

  19. Identification of 23-(S)-2-Amino-3-Phenylpropanoyl-Silybin as an Antiviral Agent for Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jian-Ping; Wu, Li-Qi; Li, Rui; Zhao, Xiang-Feng; Wan, Qian-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Xuan; Li, Wei-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that autophagy is involved in the replication of many viruses. In this study, we screened 89 medicinal plants, using an assay based on the inhibition of the formation of the Atg12-Atg5/Atg16 heterotrimer, an important regulator of autophagy, and selected Silybum marianum L. for further study. An antiviral assay indicated that silybin (S0), the major active compound of S. marianum L., can inhibit influenza A virus (IAV) infection. We later synthesized 5 silybin derivatives (S1 through S5) and found that 23-(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl-silybin (S3) had the best activity. When we compared the polarities of the substituent groups, we found that the hydrophobicity of the substituent groups was positively correlated with their activities. We further studied the mechanisms of action of these compounds and determined that S0 and S3 also inhibited both the formation of the Atg12-Atg5/Atg16 heterotrimer and the elevated autophagy induced by IAV infection. In addition, we found that S0 and S3 could inhibit several components induced by IAV infection, including oxidative stress, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and IκB kinase (IKK) pathways, and the expression of autophagic genes, especially Atg7 and Atg3. All of these components have been reported to be related to the formation of the Atg12-Atg5/Atg16 heterotrimer, which might validate our screening strategy. Finally, we demonstrated that S3 can significantly reduce influenza virus replication and the associated mortality in infected mice. In conclusion, we identified 23-(S)-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoyl-silybin as a promising inhibitor of IAV infection. PMID:23836164

  20. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  1. Smaller Fleas: Viruses of Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Hyman, Paul; Abedon, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Life forms can be roughly differentiated into those that are microscopic versus those that are not as well as those that are multicellular and those that, instead, are unicellular. Cellular organisms seem generally able to host viruses, and this propensity carries over to those that are both microscopic and less than truly multicellular. These viruses of microorganisms, or VoMs, in fact exist as the world's most abundant somewhat autonomous genetic entities and include the viruses of domain Bacteria (bacteriophages), the viruses of domain Archaea (archaeal viruses), the viruses of protists, the viruses of microscopic fungi such as yeasts (mycoviruses), and even the viruses of other viruses (satellite viruses). In this paper we provide an introduction to the concept of viruses of microorganisms, a.k.a., viruses of microbes. We provide broad discussion particularly of VoM diversity. VoM diversity currently spans, in total, at least three-dozen virus families. This is roughly ten families per category—bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protist—with some virus families infecting more than one of these microorganism major taxa. Such estimations, however, will vary with further discovery and taxon assignment and also are dependent upon what forms of life one includes among microorganisms. PMID:24278736

  2. Human Subtilisin Kexin Isozyme-1 (SKI-1)/Site-1 Protease (S1P) regulates cytoplasmic lipid droplet abundance: A potential target for indirect-acting anti-dengue virus agents

    PubMed Central

    Hyrina, Anastasia; Meng, Fanrui; McArthur, Steven J.; Eivemark, Sharlene; Nabi, Ivan R.; Jean, François

    2017-01-01

    Viral hijacking and manipulation of host-cell biosynthetic pathways by human enveloped viruses are shared molecular events essential for the viral lifecycle. For Flaviviridae members such as hepatitis C virus and dengue virus (DENV), one of the key subsets of cellular pathways that undergo manipulation is the lipid metabolic pathways, underlining the importance of cellular lipids and, in particular, lipid droplets (LDs) in viral infection. Here, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes that act as key regulators of lipid homeostasis and LD formation could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with all DENV serotypes (1–4) circulating around the world. Using PF-429242, an active-site-directed inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P, we demonstrate that inhibition of SKI-1/S1P enzymatic activity in human hepatoma Huh-7.5.1 cells results in a robust reduction of the LD numbers and LD-positive areas and provides a means of effectively inhibiting infection by DENV (1–4). Pre-treatment of Huh-7.5.1 cells with PF-429242 results in a dose-dependent inhibition of DENV infection [median inhibitory dose (EC50) = 1.2 microM; median cytotoxic dose (CC50) = 81 microM; selectivity index (SI) = 68)] and a ~3-log decrease in DENV-2 titer with 20 microM of PF-429242. Post-treatment of DENV-2 infected Huh-7.5.1 cells with PF-429242 does not affect viral RNA abundance, but it does compromise the assembly and/or release of infectious virus particles. PF-429242 antiviral activity is reversed by exogenous oleic acid, which acts as an inducer of LD formation in PF-429242-treated and non-treated control cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that human SKI-1/S1P is a potential target for indirect-acting pan-serotypic anti-DENV agents and reveal new therapeutic opportunities associated with the use of lipid-modulating drugs for controlling DENV infection. PMID:28339489

  3. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  4. Proteases as Insecticidal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Robert L.; Bonning, Bryony C.

    2010-01-01

    Proteases from a variety of sources (viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and insects) have toxicity towards insects. Some of these insecticidal proteases evolved as venom components, herbivore resistance factors, or microbial pathogenicity factors, while other proteases play roles in insect development or digestion, but exert an insecticidal effect when over-expressed from genetically engineered plants or microbial pathogens. Many of these proteases are cysteine proteases, although insect-toxic metalloproteases and serine proteases have also been examined. The sites of protease toxic activity range from the insect midgut to the hemocoel (body cavity) to the cuticle. This review discusses these insecticidal proteases along with their evaluation and use as potential pesticides. PMID:22069618

  5. Strategies for Human Tumor Virus Discoveries: From Microscopic Observation to Digital Transcriptome Subtraction

    PubMed Central

    Mirvish, Ezra D.; Shuda, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Over 20% of human cancers worldwide are associated with infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Various methods have been used to identify human tumor viruses, including electron microscopic observations of viral particles, immunologic screening, cDNA library screening, nucleic acid hybridization, consensus PCR, viral DNA array chip, and representational difference analysis. With the Human Genome Project, a large amount of genetic information from humans and other organisms has accumulated over the last decade. Utilizing the available genetic databases, Feng et al. (2007) developed digital transcriptome subtraction (DTS), an in silico method to sequentially subtract human sequences from tissue or cellular transcriptome, and discovered Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) from Merkel cell carcinoma. Here, we review the background and methods underlying the human tumor virus discoveries and explain how DTS was developed and used for the discovery of MCV. PMID:27242703

  6. [Detection of human papillomaviruses and other agents causing sexually transmitted diseases with molecular diagnosis methods].

    PubMed

    Grce, Magdalena; Husnjak, Koraljka; Milutin, Nina; Matovina, Mihaela

    2003-01-01

    Causative agents of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are different types of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. The last two decades of the twentieth century were marked with a sudden rise in the number of cases of STDs. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which emerged in the 1980s, is the most prominent STD agent because of its fast spread and severity of the disease it causes, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Beside HIV, human papillomaviruses (HPVs), herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) and Chlamydia trachomatis are nowadays among most health-threatening STD pathogens. In order to stop the spread of infection, apart from education about precautions, early detection of the disease is essential. Although most STD pathogens can be detected by classical methods of cultivation, biochemical and/or serologic methods, molecular diagnosis of infectious diseases has largely simplified and accelerated their detection. For instance, HPVs that cause benign and malignant tumors of genital skin and mucosa cannot be routinely detected on cell culture, whereas serologic analysis is not sensitive and informative enough. Moreover, cytologic (Pap smear) and histologic analyses can indicate changes associated with HPV infection, but neither of these methods can prove the presence of HPV. That is why the molecular methods are essential to demonstrate the presence of the infection and, even more important, to determine the type of the virus, which is associated either with low-grade or high-grade genital lesions. There are numerous methods based on hybridization with DNA or RNA probes, some of them are suitable for detecting wide range of types and screening of large collection of samples. However, the most sensitive and informative methods are based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and they have the advantage of being able to determine the type of the virus and distinguishing between multiple infections. Herein, we present when and why molecular analysis is useful and

  7. [Acute encephalitis. Neuropsychiatric manifestations as expression of influenza virus infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Flagge, Noris; Bayard, Vicente; Quirós, Evelia; Alonso, Tomás

    2009-01-01

    The aim is to review the encephalitis in infants and adolescents as well as its etiology, clinical manifestation, epidemiology, physiopathology, diagnostic methods and treatment, and the neuropsyquiatric signs appearing an influenza epidemy. Encephalitis is an inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) which involves the brain. The clinical manifestations usually are: headache, fever and confusional stage. It could also be manifested as seizures, personality changes, or psiqyiatric symptoms. The clinical manifestations are related to the virus and the cell type affected in the brain. A meningitis or encephalopathy need to be ruled out. It could be present as an epidemic or isolated form, beeing this the most frequent form. It could be produced by a great variety of infections agents including virus, bacterias, fungal and parasitic. Viral causes are herpesvirus, arbovirus, rabies and enterovirus. Bacterias such as Borrelia burgdorferi, Rickettsia and Mycoplasma neumoniae. Some fungal causes are: Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum. More than 100 agents are related to encephalitis. The diagnosis of encephalitis is a challenge for the clinician and its infectious etiology is clear in only 40 to 70% of all cases. The diagnosis of encephalitis can be established with absolute certainty only by the microscopic examination of brain tissue. Epidemiology is related to age of the patients, geographic area, season, weather or the host immune system. Early intervention can reduce the mortality rate and sequels. We describe four patients with encephalitis and neuropsychiatric symptoms during an influenza epidemic.

  8. Microbial Pest Control Agents: Are they a specific and safe tool for insect pest management?

    PubMed

    Deshayes, Caroline; Siegwart, Myriam; Pauron, David; Froger, Josy-Anne; Lapied, Bruno; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique

    2017-03-14

    Microorganisms (viruses, bacteria and fungi) or their bioactive agents can be used as active substances and therefore are referred as Microbial Pest Control Agents (MPCA). They are used as alternative strategies to chemical insecticides to counteract the development of resistances and to reduce adverse effects on both environment and human health. These natural entomopathogenic agents, which have specific modes of action, are generally considered safer as compared to conventional chemical insecticides. Baculoviruses are the only viruses being used as the safest biological control agents. They infect insects and have narrow host ranges. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely and successfully bioinsecticide used in the world in the integrated pest management programs. Bt mainly produces crystal delta-endotoxins and secreted toxins. However, the Bt toxins are not stable for a very long time and are highly sensitive to solar UV. So genetically modified plants that express toxins have been developed and represent a large part of the phytosanitary biological products. Finally, entomopathogenic fungi and particularly, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae, are also used for their insecticidal properties. Most studies on various aspects of the safety of MPCA to human, non-target organisms and environment have only reported acute but not chronic toxicity. This paper reviews the modes of action of MPCA, their toxicological risks to human health and ecotoxicological profiles together with their environmental persistence. This review is part of the special issue "Insecticide Mode of Action: From Insect to Mammalian Toxicity.

  9. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-01

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  10. Antibacterial activity of silver-killed bacteria: the "zombies" effect.

    PubMed

    Wakshlak, Racheli Ben-Knaz; Pedahzur, Rami; Avnir, David

    2015-04-23

    We report a previously unrecognized mechanism for the prolonged action of biocidal agents, which we denote as the zombies effect: biocidally-killed bacteria are capable of killing living bacteria. The concept is demonstrated by first killing Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 with silver nitrate and then challenging, with the dead bacteria, a viable culture of the same bacterium: Efficient antibacterial activity of the killed bacteria is observed. A mechanism is suggested in terms of the action of the dead bacteria as a reservoir of silver, which, due to Le-Chatelier's principle, is re-targeted to the living bacteria. Langmuirian behavior, as well as deviations from it, support the proposed mechanism.

  11. Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Black elderberries (Sambucus nigra L.) are well known as supportive agents against common cold and influenza. It is further known that bacterial super-infection during an influenza virus (IV) infection can lead to severe pneumonia. We have analyzed a standardized elderberry extract (Rubini, BerryPharma AG) for its antimicrobial and antiviral activity using the microtitre broth micro-dilution assay against three Gram-positive bacteria and one Gram-negative bacteria responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, as well as cell culture experiments for two different strains of influenza virus. Methods The antimicrobial activity of the elderberry extract was determined by bacterial growth experiments in liquid cultures using the extract at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The inhibitory effects were determined by plating the bacteria on agar plates. In addition, the inhibitory potential of the extract on the propagation of human pathogenic H5N1-type influenza A virus isolated from a patient and an influenza B virus strain was investigated using MTT and focus assays. Results For the first time, it was shown that a standardized elderberry liquid extract possesses antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria of Streptococcus pyogenes and group C and G Streptococci, and the Gram-negative bacterium Branhamella catarrhalis in liquid cultures. The liquid extract also displays an inhibitory effect on the propagation of human pathogenic influenza viruses. Conclusion Rubini elderberry liquid extract is active against human pathogenic bacteria as well as influenza viruses. The activities shown suggest that additional and alternative approaches to combat infections might be provided by this natural product. PMID:21352539

  12. Virioplankton: Viruses in Aquatic Ecosystems†

    PubMed Central

    Wommack, K. Eric; Colwell, Rita R.

    2000-01-01

    The discovery that viruses may be the most abundant organisms in natural waters, surpassing the number of bacteria by an order of magnitude, has inspired a resurgence of interest in viruses in the aquatic environment. Surprisingly little was known of the interaction of viruses and their hosts in nature. In the decade since the reports of extraordinarily large virus populations were published, enumeration of viruses in aquatic environments has demonstrated that the virioplankton are dynamic components of the plankton, changing dramatically in number with geographical location and season. The evidence to date suggests that virioplankton communities are composed principally of bacteriophages and, to a lesser extent, eukaryotic algal viruses. The influence of viral infection and lysis on bacterial and phytoplankton host communities was measurable after new methods were developed and prior knowledge of bacteriophage biology was incorporated into concepts of parasite and host community interactions. The new methods have yielded data showing that viral infection can have a significant impact on bacteria and unicellular algae populations and supporting the hypothesis that viruses play a significant role in microbial food webs. Besides predation limiting bacteria and phytoplankton populations, the specific nature of virus-host interaction raises the intriguing possibility that viral infection influences the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. Novel applications of molecular genetic techniques have provided good evidence that viral infection can significantly influence the composition and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. PMID:10704475

  13. The silver lining of a viral agent: increasing seed yield and harvest index in Arabidopsis by ectopic expression of the potato leaf roll virus movement protein.

    PubMed

    Kronberg, Kristin; Vogel, Florian; Rutten, Twan; Hajirezaei, Mohammed-Reza; Sonnewald, Uwe; Hofius, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    Ectopic expression of viral movement proteins (MPs) has previously been shown to alter plasmodesmata (PD) function and carbon partitioning in transgenic plants, giving rise to the view of PD being dynamic and highly regulated structures that allow resource allocation to be adapted to environmental and developmental needs. However, most work has been restricted to solanaceous species and the potential use of MP expression to improve biomass and yield parameters has not been addressed in detail. Here we demonstrate that MP-mediated modification of PD function can substantially alter assimilate allocation, biomass production, and reproductive growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These effects were achieved by constitutive expression of the potato leaf roll virus 17-kD MP (MP17) fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in different Arabidopsis ecotypes. The resulting transgenic plants were analyzed for PD localization of the MP17:GFP fusion protein and different lines with low to high expression levels were selected for further analysis. Low-level accumulation of MP17 resulted in enhanced sucrose efflux from source leaves and a considerably increased vegetative biomass production. In contrast, high MP17 levels impaired sucrose export, resulting in source leaf-specific carbohydrate accumulation and a strongly reduced vegetative growth. Surprisingly, later during development the MP17-mediated inhibition of resource allocation was reversed, and final seed yield increased in average up to 30% in different transgenic lines as compared to wild-type plants. This resulted in a strongly improved harvest index. The release of the assimilate export block was paralleled by a reduced PD binding of MP17 in senescing leaves, indicating major structural changes of PD during leaf senescence.

  14. A filterable lytic agent obtained from a red tide bloom that caused lysis of Karenia brevis (Gymnodinum breve) cultures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2002-01-01

    A filterable lytic agent (FLA) was obtained from seawater in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico during a red tide bloom that caused lysis of Karenia brevis (formerly Gymnodinium breve) Piney Island. This agent was obtained from <0.2µ  filtrates that were concentrated by ultrafiltration using a 100 kDa filter. The FLA was propagated by passage on K. brevis cultures, and the filtered supernatants of such cultures resulted in K. brevis lysis when added to such cultures. The lytic activity was lost upon heating to 65°C or by 0.02 µm filtration. Epifluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of supernatants of K. brevis cultures treated with the lytic agent indicated a high abundance of viral particles (4 × 109 to 7 × 109 virus-like particles [VLPs] ml–1) compared to control cultures (~107 ml–1). However, viral particles were seldom found in TEM photomicrograph thin sections of lysing K. brevis cells. Although a virus specific for K. brevis may have been the FLA, other explanations such as filterable bacteria or bacteriophages specific for bacteria associated with the K. brevis cultures cannot be discounted.

  15. Tabanids: neglected subjects of research, but important vectors of disease agents!

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Frédéric; Desquesnes, Marc; Mihok, Steve; Foil, Lane D; Duvallet, Gérard; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn

    2014-12-01

    Tabanids are nuisance pests for people and livestock because of their painful and irritating bite, persistent biting behavior, and blood ingestion. About 4400 tabanid species have been described; they are seasonally present in all kinds of landscapes, latitudes, and altitudes. High populations have a significant economic impact on outdoor activities, tourism, and livestock production. Tabanids are also vectors of animal disease agents, including viruses, bacteria and parasites. However, tabanids have received little attention in comparison with other hematophagous Diptera. Here, we highlight the many direct and indirect impacts of tabanids and provide a brief summary of tabanid morphology, biology, and life cycle. Impacts include pathogen transmission, parasite transportation (Dermatobia hominis), biological transmission (Loa loa), and mechanical transmission of viruses, such as equine infectious anemia virus, protozoa, such as Trypanosoma evansi and Besnotia besnoiti, and bacteria, such as Bacillus anthracis and Anaplasma marginale. We discuss parameters of mechanical transmission and its mathematical modeling. Control methods for tabanid populations are also summarized; these include trapping, the use of insecticides, repellents, and livestock protection. Lastly recommendations are provided for the direction of future research.

  16. Are herpes virus associated to aggressive periodontitis? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Patrícia Maria de Sousa; Teixeira, Ana Luísa; Kustner, Eduardo Chimenos; Medeiros, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal Disease includes a wide variety of infectious entities with various clinical manifestations in the oral cavity and responses to treatment. The determinants of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease include the type of infectious agent, the host immune response and environmental factors. Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is defined as a type of inflammation with specific clinical and laboratory features, which distinguish it from other types of periodontitis, with high incidence rates in a sub-group of individuals. Bacteria have been frequently mentioned as the agent inciting gingival inflammation and tissue destruction that underlies the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, recent studies, with some controversial results, have suggested that the herpes family of viruses, including CMV and EBV-1 as well as papillomaviruses, HIV, Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, Torquetenovirus and hepatitis B and C occur with high frequency in active periodontal lesions. There is a lack of information about this disease and the role of herpesviruses in its pathophysiology. This review provides a critical analysis of the scientific evidence linking bacteria and viruses with AP and their potential impact on clinical characteristics, prognosis and therapy. PMID:26980964

  17. Role of noroviruses as aetiological agents of diarrhoea in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Lindh, Magnus; Bergström, Tomas

    2015-08-01

    Diarrhoea is considered to be the second leading cause of death due to infections among children  < 5 years of age worldwide that may be caused by bacteria, parasites, viruses and non-infectious agents. The major causative agents of diarrhoea in developing countries may vary from those in developed countries. Noroviruses are considered to be the most common cause of acute diarrhoea in both children and adults in industrialized countries. On the other hand, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological evidence from developing countries that norovirus is a major cause of diarrhoea. In these regions, asymptomatic norovirus infections are very common, and similar detection rates have been observed in patients with diarrhoea and asymptomatic persons. This review summarizes the current knowledge of norovirus infection in developing countries and seeks to position infections with noroviruses among those of other enteropathogens in terms of disease burden in these regions.

  18. Development of biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents: its issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Harish; Rani, Renu

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses current development in biosensors for the detection of biological warfare agents (BWAs). BWAs include bacteria, virus and toxins that are added deliberately into air water and food to spread terrorism and cause disease or death. The rapid and unambiguous detection and identification of BWAs with early warning signals for detecting possible biological attack is a major challenge for government agencies particularly military and health. The detection devices--biosensors--can be classified (according to their physicochemical transducers) into four types: electrochemical, nucleic acid, optical and piezoelectric. Advantages and limitations of biosensors are discussed in this review followed by an assessment of the current state of development of different types of biosensors. The research and development in biosensors for biological warfare agent detection is of great interest for the public as well as for governments.

  19. Leukocyte filtration mechanisms. Factors influencing the removal of infectious agents from red cell concentrates.

    PubMed

    Steneker, I; Pietersz, R N; Reesink, H W

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present overview was to determine the factors influencing the removal of infectious agents from red cell concentrates by filtration. In general, the efficacy of the filtration method depends on the physical as well as the functional properties of blood cells. These properties are highly influenced by the changes exerted on the blood cells during blood collection, processing and storage and the filtration method itself. In particular, the removal of infectious agents of red cell concentrates by filtration will be determined by the type of virus and therewith the binding towards leukocytes, the type of bacteria and holding period before filtration, the deformability of infected cells and the disintegration of cells in the filter.

  20. Detection of Occult Hepatitis C Virus Infection in Patients Who Achieved a Sustained Virologic Response to Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents for Recurrent Infection After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Sandra; Wadhwa, Sanya; Bang, Bo-Ram; Cook, Linda; Chopra, Shefali; Kanel, Gary; Kim, Brian; Harper, Tammy; Feng, Zongdi; Jerome, Keith R; Kahn, Jeffrey A; Saito, Takeshi

    2017-02-01

    Occult infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is defined as the presence of the HCV genome in either liver tissue or peripheral blood monocytes, despite constant negative results from tests for HCV RNA in serum. We investigated whether patients who maintained a sustained virologic response 12 weeks after therapy (SVR12) with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents for recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation had occult HCV infections. We performed a prospective study of 134 patients with recurrent HCV infection after liver transplantation who were treated with DAAs, with or without ribavirin, from 2014 through 2016 (129 patients achieved an SVR12). In >10% of the patients who achieved SVR12 (n = 14), serum levels of aminotransferases did not normalize during or after DAA therapy, or they normalized transiently but then increased sharply after DAA therapy. Of these 14 patients, 9 were assessed for occult HCV infection by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. This analysis revealed that 55% of these patients (n = 5) had an occult infection, with the detection of negative strand viral genome, indicating viral replication. These findings indicate the presence of occult HCV infection in some patients with abnormal levels of serum aminotransferases, despite SVR12 to DAAs for HCV infection after liver transplantation.

  1. Back To Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1997-01-01

    Explores new research about bacteria. Discusses bacterial genomes, archaea, unusual environments, evolution, pathogens, bacterial movement, biofilms, bacteria in the body, and a bacterial obsession. Contains 29 references. (JRH)

  2. Three-Year Study To Assess Human Enteric Viruses in Shellfish

    PubMed Central

    Le Guyader, F.; Haugarreau, L.; Miossec, L.; Dubois, E.; Pommepuy, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main pathogenic enteric viruses able to persist in the environment, such as hepatitis A virus (HAV), Norwalk-like virus (NLV), enterovirus (EV), rotavirus (RV), and astrovirus (AV), were detected by reverse transcription-PCR and hybridization in shellfish during a 3-year study. Oyster samples (n = 108), occasionally containing bacteria, were less frequently contaminated, showing positivity for AV (17%), NLV (23%), EV (19%), and RV (27%), whereas mussel samples, collected in areas routinely impacted by human sewage, were more highly contaminated: AV (50%), HAV (13%), NLV (35%), EV (45%), and RV (52%). Sequences obtained from HAV and NLV amplicons showed a great variety of strains, especially for NLV (strains close to Mexico, Snow Mountain Agent, or Norwalk virus). Viral contamination was mainly observed during winter months, although there were some seasonal differences among the viruses. This first study of virus detection over a fairly long period of time suggests that routine analysis of shellfish by a molecular technique is feasible. PMID:10919776

  3. Cancer-associated infectious agents and epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Vedham, Vidya; Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Infectious agents are one of the factors which contribute to cancer development. Few examples include human papilloma virus in cervical cancer, hepatitis virus in hepatocellular carcinoma, herpes virus in Kaposi's sarcoma, Epstein-Barr virus in nasopharyngeal carcinoma, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) in T-cell leukemia and lymphoma, Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. These agents cause genomic instability in the host and most of them affect host immune system. Infectious agents may integrate in the host genome although their sit of integration is not fixed. Expression of some infectious agents involves epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation, histone modification, miRNA level alteration, and chromatin condensation. This chapter provides examples where epigenetic regulation has been reported in cancer-associated infectious agents. Epigenetic inhibitors and their potential in cancer control and treatment are also discussed.

  4. New dimensions of the virus world discovered through metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, David M.; Mushegian, Arcady R.; Dolja, Valerian V.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis of viruses suggests novel patterns of evolution, changes the existing ideas of the composition of the virus world and reveals novel groups of viruses and virus-like agents. The gene composition of the marine DNA virome is dramatically different from that of known bacteriophages. The virome is dominated by rare genes, many of which might be contained within virus-like entities such as gene transfer agents. Analysis of marine metagenomes thought to consist mostly of bacterial genes revealed a variety of sequences homologous to conserved genes of eukaryotic nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, resulting in the discovery of diverse members of previously undersampled groups and suggesting the existence of new classes of virus-like agents. Unexpectedly, metagenomics of marine RNA viruses showed that representatives of only one superfamily of eukaryotic viruses, the picorna-like viruses, dominate the RNA virome. PMID:19942437

  5. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    PubMed

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  6. Three-Dimensional Structure of a Protozoal Double-Stranded RNA Virus That Infects the Enteric Pathogen Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Mandy E. W.; Takagi, Yuko; Parent, Kristin N.; Cardone, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Giardia lamblia virus (GLV) is a small, nonenveloped, nonsegmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus infecting Giardia lamblia, the most common protozoan pathogen of the human intestine and a major agent of waterborne diarrheal disease worldwide. GLV (genus Giardiavirus) is a member of family Totiviridae, along with several other groups of protozoal or fungal viruses, including Leishmania RNA viruses and Trichomonas vaginalis viruses. Interestingly, GLV is more closely related than other Totiviridae members to a group of recently discovered metazoan viruses that includes penaeid shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Moreover, GLV is the only known protozoal dsRNA virus that can transmit efficiently by extracellular means, also like IMNV. In this study, we used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and icosahedral image reconstruction to examine the GLV virion at an estimated resolution of 6.0 Å. Its outermost diameter is 485 Å, making it the largest totivirus capsid analyzed to date. Structural comparisons of GLV and other totiviruses highlighted a related “T=2” capsid organization and a conserved helix-rich fold in the capsid subunits. In agreement with its unique capacity as a protozoal dsRNA virus to survive and transmit through extracellular environments, GLV was found to be more thermoresistant than Trichomonas vaginalis virus 1, but no specific protein machinery to mediate cell entry, such as the fiber complexes in IMNV, could be localized. These and other structural and biochemical findings provide a basis for future work to dissect the cell entry mechanism of GLV into a “primitive” (early-branching) eukaryotic host and an important enteric pathogen of humans. IMPORTANCE Numerous pathogenic bacteria, including Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Salmonella enterica, and Vibrio cholerae, are infected with lysogenic bacteriophages that contribute significantly to bacterial virulence. In line with this phenomenon, several pathogenic protozoa

  7. Junín Virus Pathogenesis and Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ashley; Seregin, Alexey; Huang, Cheng; Kolokoltsova, Olga; Brasier, Allan; Peters, Clarence; Paessler, Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Junín virus, the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever, causes significant morbidity and mortality. The virus is spread through the aerosolization of host rodent excreta and endemic to the humid pampas of Argentina. Recently, significant progress has been achieved with the development of new technologies (e.g. reverse genetics) that have expanded knowledge about the pathogenesis and viral replication of Junín virus. We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. We will highlight current research regarding the role of molecular biology of Junín virus in elucidating virus attenuation. We will also summarize current knowledge on Junín virus pathogenesis focusing on the recent development of vaccines and potential therapeutics. PMID:23202466

  8. Light-activated nanotube-porphyrin conjugates as effective antiviral agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Douaisi, Marc P.; Mondal, Dhananjoy; Kane, Ravi S.

    2012-03-01

    Porphyrins have been used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) against a wide range of targets like bacteria, viruses and tumor cells. In this work, we report porphyrin-conjugated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (NT-P) as potent antiviral agents. Specifically, we used Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), which we attached to acid-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs). We decided to use carbon nanotubes as scaffolds because of their ease of recovery from a solution through filtration. In the presence of visible light, NT-P was found to significantly reduce the ability of Influenza A virus to infect mammalian cells. NT-P may be used effectively against influenza viruses with little or no chance of them developing resistance to the treatment. Furthermore, NT-P can be easily recovered through filtration which offers a facile strategy to reuse the active porphyrin moiety to its fullest extent. Thus NT-P conjugates represent a new approach for preparing ex vivo reusable antiviral agents.

  9. Hemocytes are sites of persistence for virus-contaminated oysters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Like fecal bacteria, waterborne enteric viruses are readily bioconcentrated by bivalve shellfish. However while many bacteria decline rapidly when bivalves are placed in uncontaminated water, viruses tend to be retained within shellfish. In this study, we offer evidence that phagocytic blood cells...

  10. Virus, Oncolytic virus and Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang Bin; Zhao, Liang; Zhang, Lifang; Zhao, Kong-Nan

    2016-12-15

    Prostate cancer (PCa), a disease, is characterized by abnormal cell growth in the prostate - a gland in the male reproductive system. PCa is one of the leading causes of cancer death among men of all races. Although older age and a family history of the disease have been recognized as the risk factors of PCa, the cause of this cancer remains unclear. Mounting evidence suggests that infections with various viruses are causally linked to PCa pathogenesis. Published studies have provided strong evidence that at least two viruses (RXMV and HPV) contribute to prostate tumourigenicity and impact on the survival of patients with malignant PCa. Traditional therapies including chemotherapy and radiotherapy are unable to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells, which are a significant drawback and leads to toxicities for PCa patients undergoing treatment. So far, few other options are available for treating patients with advanced PCa. Virotherapy is being developed to be a novel therapy for cancers, which uses oncotropic and oncolytic viruses with their abilities to find and destroy malignant cells in the body. For PCa treatment, oncolytic virotherapy appears to be much more attractive, which uses live viruses to selectively kill cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can be genetically engineered to induce cancer cell lysis through virus replication and expression of cytotoxic proteins. As oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents, several important barriers still exist on the road to the use of oncolytic viruses for PCa therapy. In this review, we first discuss the controversy of the contribution of virus infection to PCa, and subsequently summarize the development of oncolytic virotherapy for PCa in the past several years.

  11. A Systematic Screen of FDA-Approved Drugs for Inhibitors of Biological Threat Agents

    PubMed Central

    Madrid, Peter B.; Chopra, Sidharth; Manger, Ian D.; Gilfillan, Lynne; Keepers, Tiffany R.; Shurtleff, Amy C.; Green, Carol E.; Iyer, Lalitha V.; Dilks, Holli Hutcheson; Davey, Robert A.; Kolokoltsov, Andrey A.; Carrion, Ricardo; Patterson, Jean L.; Bavari, Sina; Panchal, Rekha G.; Warren, Travis K.; Wells, Jay B.; Moos, Walter H.; Burke, RaeLyn L.; Tanga, Mary J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rapid development of effective medical countermeasures against potential biological threat agents is vital. Repurposing existing drugs that may have unanticipated activities as potential countermeasures is one way to meet this important goal, since currently approved drugs already have well-established safety and pharmacokinetic profiles in patients, as well as manufacturing and distribution networks. Therefore, approved drugs could rapidly be made available for a new indication in an emergency. Methodology/Principal Findings A large systematic effort to determine whether existing drugs can be used against high containment bacterial and viral pathogens is described. We assembled and screened 1012 FDA-approved drugs for off-label broad-spectrum efficacy against Bacillus anthracis; Francisella tularensis; Coxiella burnetii; and Ebola, Marburg, and Lassa fever viruses using in vitro cell culture assays. We found a variety of hits against two or more of these biological threat pathogens, which were validated in secondary assays. As expected, antibiotic compounds were highly active against bacterial agents, but we did not identify any non-antibiotic compounds with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Lomefloxacin and erythromycin were found to be the most potent compounds in vivo protecting mice against Bacillus anthracis challenge. While multiple virus-specific inhibitors were identified, the most noteworthy antiviral compound identified was chloroquine, which disrupted entry and replication of two or more viruses in vitro and protected mice against Ebola virus challenge in vivo. Conclusions/Significance The feasibility of repurposing existing drugs to face novel threats is demonstrated and this represents the first effort to apply this approach to high containment bacteria and viruses. PMID:23577127

  12. Virus-Based Chemical and Biological Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chuanbin; Liu, Aihua; Cao, Binrui

    2009-01-01

    Viruses have recently proven useful for the detection of target analytes such as explosives, proteins, bacteria, viruses, spores, and toxins with high selectivity and sensitivity. Bacteriophages (often shortened to phages), viruses that specifically infect bacteria, are currently the most studied viruses, mainly because target-specific nonlytic phages (and the peptides and proteins carried by them) can be identified by using the well-established phage display technique, and lytic phages can specifically break bacteria to release cell-specific marker molecules such as enzymes that can be assayed. In addition, phages have good chemical and thermal stability, and can be conjugated with nanomaterials and immobilized on a transducer surface in an analytical device. This Review focuses on progress made in the use of phages in chemical and biological sensors in combination with traditional analytical techniques. Recent progress in the use of virus—nanomaterial composites and other viruses in sensing applications is also high-lighted. PMID:19662666

  13. Significant increase in titer of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus when present in combination with Raspberry leaf mottle virus and its effect on raspberry plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Raspberry crumbly fruit is a virus-induced disease widespread in the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) has been attributed as the causal agent of the disease. Recently, the identification of two new viruses: Raspberry leaf mottle virus (RLMV) and Raspberry latent virus (RpL...

  14. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  15. Characteristics of Filoviridae: Marburg and Ebola Viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, Brigitte; Kurth, Reinhard; Bukreyev, Alexander

    Filoviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented negative-stranded RNA viruses. The two species, Marburg and Ebola virus, are serologically, biochemically, and genetically distinct. Marburg virus was first isolated during an outbreak in Europe in 1967, and Ebola virus emerged in 1976 as the causative agent of two simultaneous outbreaks in southern Sudan and northern Zaire. Although the main route of infection is known to be person-to-person transmission by intimate contact, the natural reservoir for filoviruses still remains a mystery.

  16. A support vector machine approach to the automatic identification of fluorescence spectra emitted by biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lungaroni, M.; Malizia, A.; Parracino, S.; Peluso, E.; Cenciarelli, O.; Carestia, M.; Pizzoferrato, R.; Vega, J.; Gaudio, P.

    2016-10-01

    Two of the major new concerns of modern societies are biosecurity and biosafety. Several biological agents (BAs) such as toxins, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are able to cause damage to living systems either humans, animals or plants. Optical techniques, in particular LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR), based on the transmission of laser pulses and analysis of the return signals, can be successfully applied to monitoring the release of biological agents into the atmosphere. It is well known that most of biological agents tend to emit specific fluorescence spectra, which in principle allow their detection and identification, if excited by light of the appropriate wavelength. For these reasons, the detection of the UVLight Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF) emitted by BAs is particularly promising. On the other hand, the stand-off detection of BAs poses a series of challenging issues; one of the most severe is the automatic discrimination between various agents which emit very similar fluorescence spectra. In this paper, a new data analysis method, based on a combination of advanced filtering techniques and Support Vector Machines, is described. The proposed approach covers all the aspects of the data analysis process, from filtering and denoising to automatic recognition of the agents. A systematic series of numerical tests has been performed to assess the potential and limits of the proposed methodology. The first investigations of experimental data have already given very encouraging results.

  17. Tissues Derived From Reprogrammed Wharton's Jelly Stem Cells of the Umbilical Cord Provide an Ideal Platform to Study the Effects of Glucose, Zika Virus, and Other Agents on the Fetus.

    PubMed

    Fong, Chui-Yee; Biswas, Arijit; Stunkel, Walter; Chong, Yap-Seng; Bongso, Ariff

    2017-03-01

    The infants of mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have an increased risk of metabolic and cardiovascular disease. It has been difficult to study the direct effects of maternal hyperglycemia on the fetus because of inaccessibility of fetal tissues. The development of tissues that simulate the function of fetal organs using stem cell technology provides an unprecedented opportunity to study this disorder. Stem cells in the Wharton's jelly of the umbilical cord (hWJSCs), possess unique properties that are different from other stem cells. They are primitive, present in large numbers, non-tumorigenic, hypoimmunogenic, tumoricidal, and carry a genetic signature that represents the fetus. They are multipotent but their differentiation into functional pancreatic and cardiovascular tissues has been challenging. We have been able to reprogram hWJSCs from normal and GDM cords into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from which a variety of functional fetal tissues including insulin-producing and cardiovascular tissues could be derived. Such tissues from reprogrammed hWJSCs of normal and GDM cords that physiologically and genetically mimic the fetus of the diabetic or non-diabetic mother are an ideal platform to study the effects of glucose, the Zika virus, and other harmful agents on the fetus. The immature stemness phenotype of hWJSCs, easy accessibility, availability in large numbers without the need for propagation, and lower risk of accumulation of epigenetic mutations make them the most attractive candidate over other umbilical cord cell types for reprogramming. Additionally, some of their beneficial genes may be retained in memory in the iPSCs derived from them. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 437-441, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Detection of Biological Warfare Agents in Municipal Tap Water via Standardized Culture Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    contaminants of various sizes and types, such as the simultaneous collection of viruses, bacteria and protozoa (2-4). The difficulty in using this...Optimization of a Reusable Hollow-Fiber Ultrafilter for Simultaneous Concentration of Enteric Bacteria, Protozoa , and Viruses from Water. Appl. Environ

  19. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122