Science.gov

Sample records for agents morphological study

  1. A comparative study of different bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel: an in vitro SEM study.

    PubMed

    Uthappa, Roshan; Suprith, M L; Bhandary, Shreetha; Dash, Sumit

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare two different commercial bleaching agents, Opalescence with Colgate Platinum, and 30% phosphoric acid used as aggressive agent on the morphology of human enamel. Ten freshly extracted, noncarious, human maxillary central incisors extracted for periodontal reasons were used in this study. The labial surface of the disinfected teeth were polished using a polishing paste with the help of rubber cup and a slow speed handpiece. Each tooth was sectioned at cement-enamel junction and the crown was separated into four specimens, all taken from labial surface. Group 1 was treated with Colgate Platinum for 7 hours, group 2 with Opalescence for 7 hours, group 3 was treated with 30% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds and group 4 was untreated and used as control. After the treatment period, the specimens were washed with normal saline and stored in sterile bottle and sealed. Photomicrographs obtained from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after surface treatments were examined for no alteration, slight alteration, moderate alteration and severe alterations. The specimens treated with commercial bleaching agents revealed no enamel surface morphologic alterations compared to control group. The specimen treated with phosphoric acid showed severe alterations. Ten percent carbamide peroxide evaluated in this study does not etch tooth enamel or alter enamel surface morphology as do conventional etching techniques. Carbamine peroxide is a safe and effective tooth whitening agent even when used for extended period of time. The enamel surface remains smooth which reduces caries due to plaque collection.

  2. Morphological study of polymethyl methacrylate microcapsules filled with self-healing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangaran, Fatemeh; Hayaty, Mehran; Navarchian, Amir H.

    2017-03-01

    Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) microcapsules filled with epoxy prepolymer, 3-aminomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexylamine, and pentaerythritol tetrakis (3-mercaptopropionate) as healing agents have been prepared separately through internal phase separation method for self-healing purposes. PMMA with two different molecular weights (M bar1 = 36,000 g/mol and M bar2 = 550,000 g/mol) were used with two types of different emulsifiers (ionic and polymeric) to prepare microcapsules. The morphology of healing agent microcapsules was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). It was found that PMMA microcapsules separately filled with epoxy and amine had core-shell morphologies with smooth surfaces. The mercaptan/PMMA particles exhibited core-shell and acorn-shape morphologies. The surface morphology of mercaptan microcapsules changed from holed to plain in different emulsion systems. The spreading coefficient (S) of phases in the prepared emulsion systems were calculated from interfacial tension (σ) and contact angle (θ) measurements. The theoretical equilibrium morphology of PMMA microcapsules was predicted according to spreading coefficient values of phases in emulsion systems. It was also found that the surface morphology of PMMA microcapsules depended strongly on the nature of the core, molecular weight of PMMA, type and concentration of emulsifier.

  3. In-Vitro Comparative Study of In-office and Home Bleaching Agents on Surface Micro-morphology of Enamel.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Nazish

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of home-use bleaching agent containing 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) and in-office bleaching agent with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) on surface micro-morphology of enamel. An experimental study. The discs were prepared at Material Engineering Department of NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, and surface morphology was analyzed at Centralized Science Laboratory of Karachi University, Pakistan. Duration of study was one year from January to December 2012. Forty five sound human third molar crowns, extracted for periodontal reason, were included in the study. Longitudinal sections were made using diamond disks (0.2 mm) under water lubrication to obtain enamel slabs measuring (3 mm x 3 mm). The slabs were embedded in polystyrene resin by using 2.0 cm diameter PVC molds, leaving the outer enamel surface uncovered by the resin. Ninety dental enamel slabs were prepared. The slabs were then randomly divided into 3 groups. Each group contained thirty specimens (n=30). Group 1 was kept in artificial saliva at 37°C in incubator (Memart, Germany) during whole experiment. Group 2 was treated with power whitening gel (White Smile 2011, Germany). Group 3 was treated with tooth whitening pen (White Smile 2011, Germany). The most central region or the region that was most representative of the entire surface area was used. The SEM (Jeol-Japan-JSM6380A, JAPAN) micrographs were examined to determine the type of surface presented. The enamel changes were classified as no or mild alteration, moderate alteration and severe altered surface. Regarding micro-morphology, the enamel surface of control groups showed smooth surface in general with some scattered clear scratches due to the polishing procedure. The specimens bleached in group 2 and group 3, represented areas of mild erosion. Bleaching with 38% Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) and 16% Carbamide Peroxide (CP) resulted in mild changes in surface micro-morphology of enamel.

  4. Mudflat surface morphology as a structuring agent of algae and associated macroepifauna communities: A case study in the Ria Formosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aníbal, J.; Rocha, C.; Sprung, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although mudflats seem relatively planar, closer inspection reveals a succession of meso-topographical features, including consecutive convex and concave meso- and micro-topographical features. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of meso-scale surface sediment morphology on the dynamics of the macroalgae Ulvales (Chlorophyta) and associated macroepifauna in the Ria Formosa tidal lagoon (southern coast of Portugal). Four sites in the Ria Formosa were sampled monthly. Two were located on convex sections (mounds) of the mudflat and the other two on concave sections (depressions). Macroalgae and related macroepifauna were sampled at each station. Biomass was quantified by determination of the ash-free dry weight (AFDW). Data were analysed using the software package 'PRIMER' (Plymouth Routines In Multivariate Ecological Research). Results show a clear distinction between convex and concave areas. In convex sections, Enteromorpha dominated, to the point of being the only algal species present during part of the year. Conversely, biomass and dynamics of Enteromorpha and Ulva were almost the same in concave sections. The associated macroepifauna was also different in protruding or depressed sections of the mudflat. In the convex areas, the macroepifauna population showed less diversity and was dominated by the snail Hydrobia ulvae. In concave areas, the species diversity was larger, but dominated in terms of biomass by the amphipod Melita palmata and the gastropod Nassarius pfeifferi. Results of the study indicate that the benthic communities associated with concave or convex features were different. No relevant differences in texture and sediment physico-chemical characteristics were found between convex and concave sections. The inference is that the morphological nature of the bottom in tidal mudflats can act as a structuring agent of benthic communities.

  5. Effect of two in-office whitening agents on the enamel surface in vivo: a morphological and non-contact profilometric study.

    PubMed

    Cadenaro, Milena; Breschi, Lorenzo; Nucci, Cesare; Antoniolli, Francesca; Visintini, Erika; Prati, Carlo; Matis, Bruce A; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the morphological effects produced in vivo by two in-office bleaching agents on enamel surface roughness using a noncontact profilometric analysis of epoxy replicas. The null hypothesis tested was that there would be no difference in the micromorphology of the enamel surface during or after bleaching with two different bleaching agents. Eighteen subjects were selected and randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n=9). The tooth whitening materials tested were 38% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Opalescence Xtra Boost) and 35% carbamide peroxide (CP) (Rembrandt Quik Start). The bleaching agents were applied in accordance with manufacturer protocols. The treatments were repeated four times at one-week intervals. High precision impressions of the upper right incisor were taken at baseline as the control (CTRL) and after each bleaching treatment (T0: first application, T1: second application at one week, T2: third application at two weeks and T3: fourth application at three weeks). Epoxy resin replicas were poured from impressions, and the surface roughness was analyzed by means of a non-contact profilometer (Talysurf CLI 1000). Epoxy replicas were then observed using SEM. All data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and differences were determined with a t-test. No significant differences in surface roughness were found on enamel replicas using either 38% hydrogen peroxide or 35% carbamide peroxide in vivo. This in vivo study supports the null hypothesis that two in-office bleaching agents, with either a high concentration of hydrogen or carbamide peroxide, do not alter enamel surface roughness, even after multiple applications.

  6. [Chemotherapeutic agents under study].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, S

    1998-12-01

    The development of new drugs with strong antituberculous activity and fewer side effects which are not cross-resistant to conventional antituberculosis drugs is urgently desired now. The chemotherapeutic agents under study which are considered a candidate for a new antituberculosis drug are listed below. 1) Rifamycin derivatives: rifabutin, rifapentin, KRM-1648, FCE-22250, 22807, CGP-7040, 27557, 29035, 29861, P-DEA, SPA-S-565, R-76-1. 2) New quinolones: ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, CS-940, Du-6859a. 3) Phenazines: clofazimine, B746, B4101, B4154, B4157. 4) Pyrazinamide derivatives: N-hydroxy pyrazinamide, N-hydroxy pyrazinamide-4-oxide. 5) Nitroimidazole derivatives: metronidazole et al.

  7. Morphological and biochemical characterization of the aetiological agents of white piedra.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, Alba Regina; Mondino, Silvia Susana Bona de; Silva, Manuela da; Nishikawa, Marilia Martins

    2008-12-01

    The Trichosporon genus is constituted by many species, of which Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon inkin are the causative agents of white piedra. They can cause nodules in genital hair or on the scalp. At present, Brazilian laboratory routines generally do not include the identification of the species of Trichosporon genus, which, although morphologically and physiologically distinct, present many similarities, making the identification difficult. The aim of this study was to identify the aetiological agents at the species level of white piedra from clinical specimens. Therefore, both the macro and micro morphology were studied, and physiological tests were performed. Trichosporon spp. was isolated from 10 clinical samples; T. ovoides was predominant, as it was found in seven samples, while T. inkin was identified just in two samples. One isolate could not be identified at the species level. T. inkin was identified for the first time as a white piedra agent in the hair shaft on child under the age of 10.

  8. Peroxide bleaching agent effects on enamel surface microhardness, roughness and morphology.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cristiane Franco; Oliveira, Rogério de; Cavalli, Vanessa; Giannini, Marcelo

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness, microhardness and morphology of human enamel exposed to six bleaching agents (at baseline and post-treatment). Human dental enamel samples were obtained from human third molars and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 11): control, Whiteness Perfect--10% carbamide peroxide (10% CP), Colgate Platinum--10% CP, Day White 2Z--7.5% hydrogen peroxide (7.5% HP), Whiteness Super--3% CP, Opalescence Quick--35% CP and Whiteness HP--35% HP. Bleaching agents were applied according to manufacturers' instructions. The control group remained not treated and stored in artificial saliva. Microhardness testing was performed with a Knoop indentor and surface roughness was analyzed with a profilometer. Morphologic observations were carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results were statistically analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's test (5%), and revealed a significant decrease in microhardness values and a significant increase in surface roughness post-bleaching. Changes in enamel morphology after bleaching were observed under SEM. It was concluded that bleaching agents can alter the microhardness, roughness and morphology of dental enamel surface.

  9. Infants' Attribution of a Goal to a Morphologically Unfamiliar Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimizu, Y. Alpha; Johnson, Susan C.

    2004-01-01

    How do infants identify the psychological actors in their environments? Three groups of 12-month-old infants were tested for their willingness to encode a simple approach behavior as goal-directed as a function of whether it was performed by (1) a human hand, (2) a morphologically unfamiliar green object that interacted with a confederate and…

  10. The Compatibility Effect Of Coupling Agent On Rheological-Morphological Relationship Of Banana Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S. Y.; Shamsudin, Z.

    2009-06-01

    The rheological properties of banana fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP/BF) composites at different composition were analysed using Shimadzu capillary rheometer. The effect of coupling agent concentration on the rheological properties was studied and followed by drawing a relationship of rheological-morphological properties of PP/BF composites. It was found that all composite system exhibits pseudoplasticity and incorporation of treated fibres consequents enhanced viscosity due to improved interfacial adhesion at fibre-matrix interface. However, it was observed that PP/BF composite with 2 wt% silane concentration does not yield further enhancement in the rheological properties when compared to that of 1 wt%. Composites with 1 wt% silane concentration were found to yield most promising compatibility effect with well-oriented and uniformly dispersed fibre morphology.

  11. Concentration Effect of Reducing Agents on Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Size, Morphology, and Growth Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-seok; Seo, Yu Seon; Kim, Kyeounghak; Han, Jeong Woo; Park, Youmie; Cho, Seonho

    2016-04-01

    Under various concentration conditions of reducing agents during the green synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), we obtain the various geometry (morphology and size) of AuNPs that play a crucial role in their catalytic properties. Through both theoretical and experimental approaches, we studied the relationship between the concentration of reducing agent (caffeic acid) and the geometry of AuNPs. As the concentration of caffeic acid increases, the sizes of AuNPs were decreased due to the adsorption and stabilizing effect of oxidized caffeic acids (OXCAs). Thus, it turns out that optimal concentration exists for the desired geometry of AuNPs. Furthermore, we investigated the growth mechanism for the green synthesis of AuNPs. As the caffeic acid is added and adsorbed on the surface of AuNPs, the aggregation mechanism and surface free energy are changed and consequently resulted in the AuNPs of various geometry.

  12. Effects of hydrogen peroxide-containing bleaching agents on the morphology of human enamel.

    PubMed

    Ernst, C P; Marroquín, B B; Willershausen-Zönnchen, B

    1996-01-01

    The effects of four bleaching agents (Opalescence, HiLite, 30% hydrogen peroxide, and 30% hydrogen peroxide mixed with sodium perborate) and 37% phosphoric acid on the external surface of human enamel were examined with the scanning electron microscope. The materials were applied to the enamel surfaces of 60 specimens obtained from 10 teeth. Each test agent was applied to one specimen from each tooth. One specimen of each tooth was left untreated. Comparison to the untreated control surfaces revealed that enamel exposed to the bleaching agents underwent slight morphologic surface alterations. The enamel surfaces treated with phosphoric acid, in contrast, showed severe morphologic alterations.

  13. Forest Service special agents, assistant special agents in charge, senior special agents, and supervisory special agents report: nationwide study

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2007-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues related to their jobs. An e-mail survey was administered to the 89 Forest Service special agents, assistant special agents in charge, senior special agents, and supervisory special agents...

  14. Cell morphology of extrusion foamed poly(lactic acid) using endothermic chemical foaming agent.

    PubMed

    Matuana, Laurent M; Faruk, Omar; Diaz, Carlos A

    2009-12-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was foamed with an endothermic chemical foaming agent (CFA) through an extrusion process. The effects of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed on the cellular structures, void fraction, and cell-population density of foamed PLA were investigated. The apparent melt viscosity of PLA was measured to understand the effect of melt index on the cell morphology of foamed PLA samples. The void fraction was strongly dependent on the PLA melt index. It increased with increasing melt index, reaching a maximum value, after which it decreased. Melt index showed no significant effect on the cell-population density of foamed samples within the narrow range studied. A gas containment limit was observed in PLA foamed with CFA. Both the void fraction and cell-population density increased with an initial increase in CFA content, reached a maximum value, and then decreased as CFA content continued to increase. The processing speed also affected the morphology of PLA foams. The void fraction reached a maximum value as the extruder's screw speed increased to 40 rpm and a further increase in the processing speed tended to reduce the void fraction of foamed samples. By contrast, cell-population density increased one order of magnitude by increasing the screw speed from 20 to 120 rpm. The experimental results indicate that a homogeneous and finer cellular morphology could be successfully achieved in PLA foamed in an extrusion process with a proper combination of polymer melt flow index, CFA content, and processing speed.

  15. Morphological study of semicrystalline polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rane, Shrish Yashwant

    1999-10-01

    This dissertation addresses several unresolved issues pertaining to the morphology of semi-crystalline polymers. The morphology of the simpler semi-crystalline polymers such as, polyethylene (PE) has been well characterized in the literature. Still large gaps exist in the quantitative understanding of the lamellar in the spherulites of these polymers. The intermediate regime between the lamellae and spherulites is still largely unexplored. Further information on this regime will enhance the establishment of vital structure-property relationships in commercially blown PE films. The lamellae may follow fractal scaling laws as they grow from the nucleus to form the spherulite. This mesoscale structure will be investigated by ultra low small angle (Bonse-Hart) scattering. Variables such as the orientation imported during processing and the branch content the effect the macro-properties of the finished polymer product. In the past the orientation of molecular chains has been studied by several authors using diffraction, birefringence and spectroscopic measurements. In this study the orientation of the lamellae will be quantified using small angle x-ray scattering and an attempt will be made to correlate the orientation to properties such as permeability and machine direction tear strength in blown films of commercial grades of high density polyethylene (HDPE), linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) and the newer metallocene resins. The origin and cause of spherulitic banding in semi-crystalline polymers remains another mystery. The classical formalisms of lamellar banding by Keith and Padden which attribute it to the regular twisting of lamellae are not universal and fail to explain the bands present in other materials such as agates, where there is no evidence of lamellar structures. The phenomena of lamellar banding will be studied in bio-polyester systems, which exhibit distinct, well developed banded spherulites. The effect of copolymerization and thermal

  16. Morphological study of penumbral formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitai, Reizaburo; Watanabe, Hiroko; Otsuji, Ken'ichi

    2014-12-01

    Penumbrae are known to be areas of mainly horizontal magnetic field surrounding umbrae of relatively large and mature sunspots. In this paper, we observationally studied the formation of penumbrae in NOAA 10978, where several penumbral formations were observed in G-band images of the Solar Optical Telescope on board Hinode. Thanks to the continuous observation by Hinode, we could morphologically follow the evolution of sunspots and found that there are several paths to the penumbral formation: (1) active accumulation of magnetic flux, (2) rapid emergence of magnetic field, and (3) appearance of twisted or rotating magnetic tubes. In all of these cases, magnetic fields are expected to sustain high inclination at the edges of flux tube concentration longer than the characteristic growth time of downward magnetic pumping.

  17. Changes in morphology and optical properties of sclera due to hyperosmotic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Rylander, Henry G., III; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Wang, Tianyi; Asokan, Nitin; Tunnell, James W.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2009-02-01

    The primary and the secondary goals of this study were to investigate the change in morphology and optical properties of sclera due to a hyperosmotic agent i.e. 100% anhydrous glycerol. We performed our experiments in vivo on the sclera of 8 rabbits and 3 miniature pigs. All the animals were under anesthetic for the entire experiment according to an approved protocol. The position of the eye was stabilized with a suture placed in the limbus. Glycerol was delivered to sclera in 2 methods (i) injection (using a hypodermic needle 27G ½), (ii) direct application after 0.3 cm incision at conjunctiva. A camera attached to a slit lamp was used to capture the morphological changes of the sclera. For the secondary goal we used a diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) system with a linear fiber arrangement to measure reflectance from the sclera before and after application of glycerol. The probe source-detector separation was set to 370 μm for optimal penetration depth. We fit the measured diffuse reflectance to a Lookup Table (LUT)-based inverse model specific to our probe geometry to determine the scattering and absorption properties of the sclera. This method estimated the size and density of scatterers, absorbers-blood volume fraction, melanin concentration, oxygen saturation, and blood vessel size. The results illustrated that the initial clearing of sclera started 3 minutes after injecting glycerol to sclera. The sclera became completely transparent at 8 minutes and stayed clear for 10-15 minutes. During this time the choroid layer was visible through sclera. The clear sclera became less transparent over next 11 minutes and became completely opaque once we applied 0.9% saline to hydrate the sclera. These dehydration and hydration cycles were repeated 4 times for each eye and the results were consistent for all animal models. When glycerol was applied directly to sclera after the incision at the conjunctiva, the sclera became transparent instantaneously. For the

  18. Morphological and molecular characterization of the causal agent of downy mildew on Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa).

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Joon; Danielsen, Solveig; Lübeck, Mette; Hong, Seung-Beom; Delhey, Rolf; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-05-01

    Downy mildew is an economically important and widespread disease in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) growing areas. Although in many studies Peronospora farinosa is most commonly regarded as the causal agent of the disease, identification and classification of the pathogen remain still uncertain due to its taxonomic confusion. Thirty-six Peronospora isolates from quinoa with different geographic origins including Argentina, Bolivia, Denmark, Ecuador, and Peru were morphologically and molecularly compared with Peronospora species from other Chenopodium species. The morphology of three herbarium specimens was similar to that of P. variabilis, which originated from C. album, characterized by flexuous to curved ultimate branchlets and pedicellated conidia. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS rDNA sequences also placed the quinoa pathogen within the same clade as P. variabilis. Within the ITS rDNA sequences of the quinoa pathogens, two base substitutions were found, which separated the majority of the Danish isolates from isolates from South America, but no sequence difference was found among the isolates from different cultivars of quinoa. The present results indicate that the pathogen responsible for the quinoa downy mildew is identical to Peronospora variabilis and that it should not be lumped with P. farinosa as claimed previously by most studies.

  19. Nature as a network of morphological infocomputational processes for cognitive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodig-Crnkovic, Gordana

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a view of nature as a network of infocomputational agents organized in a dynamical hierarchy of levels. It provides a framework for unification of currently disparate understandings of natural, formal, technical, behavioral and social phenomena based on information as a structure, differences in one system that cause the differences in another system, and computation as its dynamics, i.e. physical process of morphological change in the informational structure. We address some of the frequent misunderstandings regarding the natural/morphological computational models and their relationships to physical systems, especially cognitive systems such as living beings. Natural morphological infocomputation as a conceptual framework necessitates generalization of models of computation beyond the traditional Turing machine model presenting symbol manipulation, and requires agent-based concurrent resource-sensitive models of computation in order to be able to cover the whole range of phenomena from physics to cognition. The central role of agency, particularly material vs. cognitive agency is highlighted.

  20. METABOLIC AND MORPHOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS ON LEUKOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Graham, R. C.; Karnovsky, M. J.; Shafer, A. W.; Glass, E. A.; Karnovsky, Manfred L.

    1967-01-01

    Morphological and metabolic observations have been made on the effects of endotoxin, deoxycholate, and digitonin (at less than 50 µg/ml) on polymorphonuclear leukocytes and mononuclear cells. The agents stimulate the respiration and glucose oxidation of these cells in a manner similar to that seen during phagocytosis. Electron microscopy revealed no morphological changes with the first two agents, but dramatic membrane changes were seen in the case of digitonin. Here tubular projections of characteristic size and shape formed on and split off the membrane. All the agents stimulated uptake of inulin, but efforts to demonstrate increased pinocytosis by electron microscopy have not so far succeeded, probably due to limitations in present experimental techniques. PMID:6034482

  1. Gape-limited predators as agents of selection on the defensive morphology of an invasive invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Miehls, Andrea L J; Peacor, Scott D; McAdam, Andrew G

    2014-09-01

    Invasive species have widespread and pronounced effects on ecosystems and adaptive evolution of invaders is often considered responsible for their success. Despite the potential importance of adaptation to invasion, we still have limited knowledge of the agents of natural selection on invasive species. Bythotrephes longimanus, a cladoceran zooplankton, invaded multiple Canadian Shield lakes over the past several decades. Bythotrephes have a conspicuous caudal process (tail spine) that provides a morphological defense against fish predation. We measured viability selection on the longest component of the Bythotrephes spine, the distal spine segment, through a comparison of the lengths of first and second instar Bythotrephes collected from lakes differing in the dominance of gape-limited predation (GLP) and nongape-limited predation (NGLP) by fish. We found that natural selection varied by predator gape-limitation, with strong selection (selection intensity: 0.20-0.79) for increased distal spine length in lakes dominated by GLP, and no significant selection in lakes dominated by NGLP. Further, distal spine length was 17% longer in lakes dominated by GLP, suggesting the possibility of local adaptation. As all study lakes were invaded less than 20 years prior to our collections, our results suggest rapid divergence in defensive morphology in response to selection from fish predators.

  2. Effect of stabilizing agent on the morphology and optical properties of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seoudi, R.; Shabaka, A.; El Sayed, Z. A.; Anis, B.

    2011-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared in different sizes and forms by reduction of AgNO 3 using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent and different concentrations of dodecanethiol (DDT) as a stabilizing agent. The morphology and particle size were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and the results showed that different sizes of AgNPs were formed. The particle size was controlled by changing the ratio between AgNO 3 and (DDT) in the presence of NaBH 4. Appearance of surface Plasmon band in the ultraviolet-visible spectra (420-445 nm) was due to the formation of AgNPs in different sizes. The data of FTIR and X-ray diffraction confirm that the DDT molecules have coordinated to the surface of Nano-Ag particles through their head-groups. AgNPs were synthesized from a large enough concentration of DDT and had a very small grain size. It was supposed that the surface-capped AgNPs prohibits significantly increased stability and dispersibility.

  3. Morphological and chemical characterization of tooth enamel exposed to alkaline agents.

    PubMed

    Taube, F; Ylmén, R; Shchukarev, A; Nietzsche, S; Norén, J G

    2010-01-01

    In this study, morphological and chemical changes in teeth enamel exposed to alkaline agents, with or without surfactants, have been investigated. In addition, chemical effects of the organic surface layer, i.e. plaque and pellicle, were also investigated. The present study was conducted using several techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From XPS-measurements, it was found that exposure to alkaline solutions resulted in a massive removal of carbon from the tooth surface, and that the addition of surfactants increased the rate under present conditions. Based on the results from the FTIR-analysis, no substitution reactions between phosphate, carbonate and hydroxide ions in the enamel apatite could be detected. From a minor SEM-analysis, degradation and loss of substance of the enamel surface was found for the exposed samples. From XRD-analysis, no changes in crystallinity of the enamel apatite could be found between the samples. The findings in this study show that exposure to alkaline solutions results in a degradation of enamel surfaces very dissimilar from acidic erosion. No significant erosion or chemical substitution of the apatite crystals themselves could be discerned. However, significant loss of organic carbon at the enamel surface was found in all exposed samples. The degradation of the protective organic layer at the enamel surface may profoundly increase the risk for caries and dental erosion from acidic foods and beverages.

  4. The influence of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology and photoluminescence properties of calcium carbonate phosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Yongren; Kang, Ming; Liu, Min; Wang, Feng; Chen, Kexu; Sun, Rong

    2017-06-01

    In order to investigate the effect of amphiphilic additional agents on the morphology (particle shape, particle size and particle size distribution) and photoluminescence performance of calcium carbonate phosphor, the phosphors AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ (AA = glycerol or sodium dodecyl sulfate) were synthesized by the microwave-assisted co-precipitation method using glycerol (Gly) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as amphiphilic additional agents (AA), respectively. The phase structure, morphology and luminescent properties of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, laser diffraction particle size analyzer and Fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. The results showed that the phase structure and morphology of AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ changed along with different types and amount of amphiphilic additional agents evidently. The particle size of Gly-CaCO3 decreased to 1.383 µm when the volume ratio reached 8:2 (Gly:H2O). Photoluminescence (PL) spectra show that all the AA-CaCO3:Eu3+ phosphors exhibit strong red emission peak originating from electric-dipole transition 5D0 → 7F2 (614 nm) of Eu3+ ions and the amphiphilic molecules (Gly and SDS) had a huge influence on photoluminescence intensity.

  5. Halide test agent replacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J.

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  6. Study of the ethiological agent of gnathostomosis in Nayarit, Mexico.

    PubMed

    León-Règagnon, Virginia; Osorio-Sarabia, David; García-Prieto, Luis; Akahane, Hiroshige; Lamothe-Argumedo, Rafael; Koga, Masataka; Messina-Robles, Maud; Alvarez-Guerrero, César

    2002-06-01

    In order to clarify the specific identity of the etiological agent of human gnathostomosis in Nayarit State, Mexico, morphological and molecular studies were conducted on advanced third stage larvae obtained from human and fish tissue. Cathorops fuerthii from Agua Brava lagoons complex, was the only fish species found to be infected among four species surveyed. Morphological variability does not allow specific identification of the larvae. Internal transcribed spacer 2 of the ribosomal DNA was sequenced for six larvae (five from fish, one from human tissue). Low divergence in the sequences of Nayarit larvae and Gnathostoma binucleatum (0.24% or less) indicate that the larvae examined belong to this species.

  7. Morphology and forcing agents of the Monterey Canyon System: a quantitative geomorphic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taramelli, A.; Aiello, I. W.; Melelli, L.; Seeber, L.; Sorichetta, A.

    2007-12-01

    Landforms are shaped by tectonics and climate, which control deformation, deposition, and erosion at the fluid/solid interface. The recent re-emergence of geomorphology was spurred by the realization that the shape of the land is not only the result of many processes, but it also affects them. Tectonics builds mountains and geomorphic agents and climate conditions modify them. Thus geomorphologic processes and tectonics are major agents of change and landform is the variable that links them, the expression of a steady-state equilibrium controlled by multiple feed-backs. Measuring and parameterizing the shape of the landscape is the first step in understanding many natural processes critical to environment, such as terrain instability and fluid circulation. Furthermore, a multidimensional parameterization of the land surface (e.g., geomorphic indices) is useful in comparing different landforms and in isolating the effect of specific factors, such as the level of tectonic activity. So far geomorphology has dealt primarily with land areas, but an expansion to the sub-aqueous environment is already in the making due to high-resolution bathymetry increase. This research compares submarine and land morphology as they manifest tectonics in a rapidly transform continental margin. To this end the research has analyzed high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to interpret modern submarine processes from a study of geomorphic change. This research is applied on the Monterey Bay (California) due to the complex geomorphology of both the Coast Ranges and the seafloor. Tectonic has controlled the evolution and the present geometry of the branches and meanders of the Monterey Canyon system, one of the largest submarine canyon systems in the world. In particular the Monterey Canyon is an erosional, presently active feature, which has resulted from both canyon cutting and mass wasting. The deeper parts of the canyon have been progressively offset from the headward part by strike

  8. Polypropylene/Short Glass Fibers Composites: Effects of Coupling Agents on Mechanical Properties, Thermal Behaviors, and Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jia-Horng; Huang, Chien-Lin; Liu, Chi-Fan; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Zheng-Ian; Lou, Ching-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study uses the melt compounding method to produce polypropylene (PP)/short glass fibers (SGF) composites. PP serves as matrix while SGF serves as reinforcement. Two coupling agents, maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene, (PP-g-MA) and maleic anhydride grafted styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS-g-MA) are incorporated in the PP/SGF composites during the compounding process, in order to improve the interfacial adhesion and create diverse desired properties of the composites. According to the mechanical property evaluations, increasing PP-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with higher tensile, flexural, and impact properties. In contrast, increasing SEBS-g-MA as a coupling agent provides the composites with decreasing tensile and flexural strengths, but also increasing impact strength. The DSC results indicate that using either PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent increases the crystallization temperature. However, the melting temperature of PP barely changes. The spherulitic morphology results show that PP has a smaller spherulite size when it is processed with PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA as the coupling agent. The SEM results indicate that SGF is evenly distributed in PP matrices, but there are distinct voids between these two materials, indicating a poor interfacial adhesion. After PP-g-MA or SEBS-g-MA is incorporated, SGF can be encapsulated by PP, and the voids between them are fewer and indistinctive. This indicates that the coupling agents can effectively improve the interfacial compatibility between PP and SGF, and as a result improves the diverse properties of PP/SGF composites. PMID:28793710

  9. Morphologic studies in the skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed Central

    Sillence, D. O.; Horton, W. A.; Rimoin, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the delineation of the genetic skeletal dysplasias, a heterogeneous group of disorders, that consist of over 80 distinct conditions. Morphologic studies have added a further dimension to the delineation of these conditions, their diagnosis, and the investigation of their pathogenetic mechanisms. In certain diseases, the morphologic alterations are characteristic and pathognomonic. In others only nonspecific alterations are observed, whereas in still other disorders growth-plate structure is essentially normal. Histologic, histochemical, and electronmicroscopic studies of growth-plate cartilage have provided new insights into the complexity of morphogenetic events in normal growth through the demonstration of morphologic defects in the genetic disorders of skeletal growth. As yet, very little is known of the biochemical abnormalities underlying the morphologic abnormalities. However, the great variety of morphologic findings points to a number of different pathogenetic defects in the synthesis, release, and assembly of connective tissue macromolecules and in the cells involved in growth-plate metabolism. Images Figure 4 Figure 8 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 10 Figure 6 Figure 9 Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 2 PMID:474720

  10. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  11. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  12. Forging a morphological system out of two dimensions: Agentivity and number

    PubMed Central

    Horton, L.; Goldin-Meadow, S.; Coppola, M.; Senghas, A.; Brentari, D.

    2015-01-01

    Languages have diverse strategies for marking agentivity and number. These strategies are negotiated to create combinatorial systems. We consider the emergence of these strategies by studying features of movement in a young sign language in Nicaragua (NSL). We compare two age cohorts of Nicaraguan signers (NSL1 and NSL2), adult homesigners in Nicaragua (deaf individuals creating a gestural system without linguistic input), signers of American and Italian Sign Languages (ASL and LIS), and hearing individuals asked to gesture silently. We find that all groups use movement axis and repetition to encode agentivity and number, suggesting that these properties are grounded in action experiences common to all participants. We find another feature – unpunctuated repetition – in the sign systems (ASL, LIS, NSL, Homesign) but not in silent gesture. Homesigners and NSL1 signers use the unpunctuated form, but limit its use to No-Agent contexts; NSL2 signers use the form across No-Agent and Agent contexts. A single individual can thus construct a marker for number without benefit of a linguistic community (homesign), but generalizing this form across agentive conditions requires an additional step. This step does not appear to be achieved when a linguistic community is first formed (NSL1), but requires transmission across generations of learners (NSL2). PMID:26740937

  13. Haematopoietic necrosis in a goldfish (Carassius auratus) associated with an agent morphologically similar to herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Stephens, F J; Raidal, S R; Jones, B

    2004-03-01

    One of 14 goldfish (Carassius auratus) died 4 weeks after purchase and was investigated by necropsy and histological examination. Routine formalin fixation of the goldfish was followed by histopathology. Formalin fixed spleen and kidney from the fish was further processed by embedding in epoxy resin and examined by transmission electron microscopy (EM). Severe, diffuse necrosis of haematopoietic tissue in the spleen, thymus and kidney and severe, diffuse hyperplasia in the gill epithelial cells were seen. In the spleen there was severe, diffuse necrosis of lymphocytes and many nuclei with marginated chromatin and intranuclear inclusions were scattered throughout the necrotic tissue. EM of affected tissues demonstrated intranuclear particles morphologically similar to herpesvirus. The presence of an agent similar to a herpesvirus in a goldfish with severe haematopoietic necrosis suggests that the herpesvirus responsible for haematopoietic necrosis in cyprinid species throughout the world has entered the goldfish population in Australia.

  14. SeeDB: a simple and morphology-preserving optical clearing agent for neuronal circuit reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ke, Meng-Tsen; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Imai, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    We report a water-based optical clearing agent, SeeDB, which clears fixed brain samples in a few days without quenching many types of fluorescent dyes, including fluorescent proteins and lipophilic neuronal tracers. Our method maintained a constant sample volume during the clearing procedure, an important factor for keeping cellular morphology intact, and facilitated the quantitative reconstruction of neuronal circuits. Combined with two-photon microscopy and an optimized objective lens, we were able to image the mouse brain from the dorsal to the ventral side. We used SeeDB to describe the near-complete wiring diagram of sister mitral cells associated with a common glomerulus in the mouse olfactory bulb. We found the diversity of dendrite wiring patterns among sister mitral cells, and our results provide an anatomical basis for non-redundant odor coding by these neurons. Our simple and efficient method is useful for imaging intact morphological architecture at large scales in both the adult and developing brains.

  15. Water as an agent for the morphology modification of metal oxalate materials on the nanoscale: from sheets to rods

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minog; Kim, YooJin; Kwon, WonJong; Yoon, Sungho

    2016-01-01

    A number of approaches have been used to control the shape of metal oxalates, which often used as precursors for metal oxide nanomaterials. However, attempts to use water as a regulator have not been reported. Here in we report systematic studies on related topics: nanosheets, composed of 1-dimensional [M(C2O4)(EG)] (M = Zn or Co) polymeric structure, could be transformed into nanorods by using water as a shape-shifting agent because water can readily substitute EG ligand, leading alternation of inter-chain hydrogen bonding interactions. In addition, heat-treatment of these nanomaterials with diverse morphologies resulted in porous metal oxides with high degrees of shape retention. PMID:26763973

  16. Molecular and morphological surface analysis: effect of filling pastes and cleaning agents on root dentin

    PubMed Central

    DAINEZI, Vanessa Benetello; IWAMOTO, Alexsandra Shizue; MARTIN, Airton Abrahão; SOARES, Luís Eduardo Silva; HOSOYA, Yumiko; PASCON, Fernanda Miori; PUPPIN-RONTANI, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The quality of the dentin root is the most important factor for restoration resin sealing and drives the outcome of endodontic treatment. Objective This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Material and Methods Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. Conclusion The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules. PMID:28198982

  17. Molecular and morphological surface analysis: effect of filling pastes and cleaning agents on root dentin.

    PubMed

    Dainezi, Vanessa Benetello; Iwamoto, Alexsandra Shizue; Martin, Airton Abrahão; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Hosoya, Yumiko; Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different filling pastes and cleaning agents on the root dentin of primary teeth using Fourier-transformed Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), micro energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (µ-EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Eighty roots of primary teeth were endodontically prepared and distributed into 4 groups and filled according to the following filling pastes: Control-no filling (CP), Calen®+zinc oxide (CZ), Calcipex II® (CII), Vitapex® (V). After seven days, filling paste groups were distributed to 4 subgroups according to cleaning agents (n=5): Control-no cleaning (C), Ethanol (E), Tergenform® (T), 35% Phosphoric acid (PA). Then, the roots were sectioned and the dentin root sections were internally evaluated by FT-Raman, µ-EDXRF and SEM. Data was submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Regarding filling pastes, there was no significant difference in organic content. CP provided the lowest calcium values and, calcium/phosphoric ratio (Ca/P), and the highest phosphoric values. For cleaning agents there was no difference in organic content when compared to the C; however, T showed significantly higher calcium and Ca/P than PA. All groups showed similar results for phosphorus. The dentin smear layer was present after use of the cleaning agents, except PA. The filling pastes changed the inorganic content, however they did not change the organic content. Cleaning agents did not alter the inorganic and organic content. PA cleaned and opened dentin tubules.

  18. [Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae after exposure to oral antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Naoko; Morozumi, Miyuki; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2012-10-01

    Morphological changes in penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and beta-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (BLNAR) after exposure to oral antibacterial agents could be observed over time under a phase-contrast microscope. Morphological changes in BLNAR were also observed using a scanning electron microscope. The organisms used in this study were ME19F strain identified as genotypic(g) gPRSP (serotype: 19F) and JPH002 strain identified as gBLNAR (serotype: b). The antibacterial agents used were amoxicillin (AMPC), cefditoren (CDTR), tebipenem (TBPM), and tosufloxacin (TFLX). The concentration of each antibacterial agent to which the bacteria were exposed was set at the blood level one hour after Cmax when administered to children at the usual dose. Bacteriolysis of gPRSP cells started after exposure of only 20minutes to TBPM, and 90% of the cells were lysed within 2 hours. A high bactericidal action of TBPM on gPRSP was supported by these findings. When gBLNAR was exposed to AMPC and TBPM, lysis from spheroplasts and cells with vacuoles were sometimes observed. In contrast, after gBLNAR was exposed to CDTR, lysis occurred after marked filamentation in the cells, but after exposure to TFLX, cells deduced to be killed after mild filamentation without lysis. Time-dependent morphological changes that reflect the differences in bactericidal activity and PBP affinity among beta-lactams provide beneficial information to select antibacterial agents.

  19. Construction of Zinc Oxide into Different Morphological Structures to Be Utilized as Antimicrobial Agent against Multidrug Resistant Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Elkady, M. F.; Shokry Hassan, H.; Hafez, Elsayed E.; Fouad, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Nano-ZnO has been successfully implemented in particles, rods, and tubes nanostructures via sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques. The variation of the different preparation parameters such as reaction temperature, time, and stabilizer agents was optimized to attain different morphological structures. The influence of the microwave annealing process on ZnO crystallinity, surface area, and morphological structure was monitored using XRD, BET, and SEM techniques, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of zinc oxide produced in nanotubes structure was examined against four different multidrug resistant bacteria: Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) strains. The activity of produced nano-ZnO was determined by disc diffusion technique and the results revealed that ZnO nanotubes recorded high activity against the studied strains due to their high surface area equivalent to 17.8 m2/g. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ZnO nanotubes showed that the low concentrations of ZnO nanotubes could be a substitution for the commercial antibiotics when approached in suitable formula. Although the annealing process of ZnO improves the degree of material crystallinity, however, it declines its surface area and consequently its antimicrobial activity. PMID:26451136

  20. Morphology study in block copolymer electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, Scott; Wanakule, Nisita; Balsara, Nitash

    2008-03-01

    Poly(styrene-b-ethylene oxide)/lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide (SEO/LiTFSI) is of interest in battery applications since the doped PEO phase can conduct ions and the glassy PS phase can prevent dendrite growth upon recharging. It is believed that the LiTFSI molecules are localized in the PEO microphases. Previous studies have shown that highly conducting electrolytes can be made from symmetric SEO copolymers. The purpose of this study is to explore the conductivity of asymmetric SEO copolymer systems doped with LiTFSI. Our studies encompass both neat asymmetric SEO copolymers and SEO copolymers blended with PS homopolymers to separate the effects of architecture of the copolymer molecules and morphology adopted by the system in the melt state. Conductivity is measured by AC impedance, morphology is determined by small angle X-ray scattering, and crystallinity of the PEO chains is determined by differential scanning calorimetry. All samples were prepared in hermetically sealed sample cells in an Argon glovebox.

  1. Superior neuroprotective effects of cerebrolysin in heat stroke following chronic intoxication of Cu or Ag engineered nanoparticles. A comparative study with other neuroprotective agents using biochemical and morphological approaches in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Hari Shanker; Muresanu, Dafin Fior; Patnaik, Ranjana; Stan, Adina Dora; Vacaras, Vitalie; Perju-Dumbrav, Laura; Alexandru, Badisor; Buzoianu, Anca; Opincariu, Iulian; Menon, Preeti Kumaran; Sharma, Aruna

    2011-09-01

    effective in inducing neuroprotection in nanoparticles treated heat-exposed animals. These observations are the first to show that cerebrolysin exerts the most superior neuroprotective effects in heat stress as compared to other neuroprotective agents on brain pathology in normal and in nanoparticles treated group. Furthermore, cerebrolysin in double dose was the most effective in inducing neuroprotection in nanoparticles treated heat exposed rats on brain pathology as compared to double doses of other drugs. Taken together, our results show that cerebrolysin has the most superior neuroprotective effects on brain pathology in heat stroke in both normal and nanoparticles treated rats as compared to other contemporary neuroprotective agents, not reported earlier.

  2. Morphological study of the hoof in yak.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ren, X; Yu, S; Cui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

  3. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GLASS, CARBON AND GLASS/CARBON FIBER POSTS AND BONDING TO SELF OR DUAL-CURED RESIN LUTING AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini, Bruno; Correr, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Material and Methods: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. Results: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. Conclusion: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable. PMID:19936529

  5. Intelligent Agent Feasibility Study. Volume 1: Agent-based System Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-02-01

    ambitious in its scope. In OAA (Moran, Cheyer, Julia , Martin, 10 & Park, 1997), agents can operate on multiple platforms across a network, new agents can be...find the source and best price for a given item. This area of electronic commerce has been an active area for research in agent-based systems ( Chavez ...D. (1993). Towards a taxonomy of multi-agent systems. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies 36, 689-704. Chavez , A., Dreilinger, D., Guttman, R

  6. Effects of a marine serine protease inhibitor on viability and morphology of Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Nogueira, Natália Pereira; Morgado-Díaz, José Andrés; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo Sadok; Paes, Marcia Cristina; da Silva-López, Raquel Elisa

    2013-10-01

    It has been reported that serine peptidase activities of Trypanosoma cruzi play crucial roles in parasite dissemination and host cell invasion and therefore their inhibition could affect the progress of Chagas disease. The present study investigates the interference of the Stichodactyla helianthus Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (ShPI-I), a 55-amino acid peptide, in T. cruzi serine peptidase activities, parasite viability, and parasite morphology. The effect of this peptide was also studied in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes and it was proved to be a powerful inhibitor of serine proteases activities and the parasite viability. The ultrastructural alterations caused by ShPI-I included vesiculation of the flagellar pocket membrane and the appearance of a cytoplasmic vesicle that resembles an autophagic vacuole. ShPI-I, which showed itself to be an important T. cruzi serine peptidase inhibitor, reduced the parasite viability, in a dose and time dependent manner. The maximum effect of peptide on T. cruzi viability was observed when ShPI-I at 1×10(-5)M was incubated for 24 and 48h which killed completely both metacyclic trypomastigote and epimastigote forms. At 1×10(-6)M ShPI-I, in the same periods of time, reduced parasite viability about 91-95% respectively. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the formation of concentric membranar structures especially in the cytosol, involving organelles and small vesicles. Profiles of endoplasmic reticulum were also detected, surrounding cytosolic vesicles that resembled autophagic vacuoles. These results suggest that serine peptidases are important in T. cruzi physiology since the inhibition of their activity killed parasites in vitro as well as inducing important morphological alterations. Protease inhibitors thus appear to have a potential role as anti-trypanosomatidal agents.

  7. Effects of different cryoprotective agents on ram sperm morphology and DNAintegrity.

    PubMed

    Nur, Z; Zik, B; Ustuner, B; Sagirkaya, H; Ozguden, C G

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of glycerol, 1,2 propanediol, sucrose, and trehalose on post-thaw motility, morphology, and genome integrity of Awassi ram semen. Ejaculates of thick consistency with rapid wave motion (>+++) and >70% initial motility were pooled. Sperm were diluted to a final concentration of 1/5 (semen/extender) in 0% cryoprotectant, 6% glycerol, 6% 1,2 propanediol, 62.5 mM sucrose or 62.5 mM trehalose using a two-step dilution method. The equilibrated semen was frozen in 0.25-ml straws. Semen samples were examined for sperm motility, defective acrosomes (FITC-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC PSA)), DNA integrity (acridine orange staining (AO)) and apoptotic activity (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and Caspase-3 activity) at four time points: after dilution with extender A, after cooling to 5 degrees C, after equilibration and post-thaw. Freezing and thawing procedures (cooling at 5 degrees C, dilution, equilibration, and thawing) had negative effects on motility (P<0.001), acrosome integrity (P<0.001), and DNA integrity as determined by AO (P<0.001) and TUNEL (P<0.001) assays. There were positive correlations between sperm with defective acrosomes and apoptotic (AO- and TUNEL-positive) spermatozoa. In contrast, a significant negative correlation was found between sperm motility and defective acrosomes and AO- and TUNEL positivity (P<0.01). The cryopreservation process acts as an apoptotic inducer in ram semen; all cryoprotectants used in the present study allowed apoptosis to some extent, with negative effects on sperm morphology and DNA integrity. The glycerol group performed better than the propanediol, sucrose, trehalose, and control groups in terms of post-thaw sperm motility but not DNA integrity. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Spectral and Morphological Studies of Mercury's Hollows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blewett, D. T.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Ernst, C. M.; Murchie, S. L.; Izenberg, N. L.; Xiao, Z.; Vaughan, W. M.; Head, J. W.; Helbert, J.

    2012-03-01

    High-reflectance depressions found in and around impact structures on Mercury occur in several morphological types and in association with a dark global color unit. We compare spectra of Mercury surfaces with lab spectra of analog minerals.

  9. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S.; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-01-01

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed. PMID:27752038

  10. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-10-18

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed.

  11. Catechin tuned magnetism of Gd-doped orthovanadate through morphology as T1-T2 MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vairapperumal, Tamilmani; Saraswathy, Ariya; Ramapurath, Jayasree S.; Kalarical Janardhanan, Sreeram; Balachandran Unni, Nair

    2016-10-01

    Tetragonal (t)-LaVO4 has turned out to be a potential host for luminescent materials. Synthesis of t-LaVO4 till date has been based on chelating effect of EDTA making it not ideal for bioimaging applications. An alternative was proposed by us through the use of catechin. In recent times there is interest for new MRI contrast agents that can through appropriate doping function both as MRI contrast and optical/upconversion materials. It is generally believed that under appropriate doping, t-LaVO4 would be a better upconversion material than monoclinic (m)-LaVO4. Based on these postulations, this work explores the use of gadolinium doped t-LaVO4 as an MRI contrast agent. From literature, gadolinium oxide is a good T1 contrast agent. Through this work, using catechin as a template for the synthesis of Gd doped t-LaVO4, we demonstrate the possible use as a T1 contrast agent. Interestingly, as the catechin concentration changes, morphology changes from nanorods to square nanoplates and spheres. In this process, a switch from T1 to T2 contrast agent was also observed. Under optimal concentration of catechin, with a rod shaped Gd doped t-LaVO4 an r2/r1 value of 21.30 was observed. Similarly, with a spherical shape had an r2/r1 value of 1.48 was observed.

  12. Molecular Phylogeny and Morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae, the Causal Agent of Circular Leaf Spot on Persimmon

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yeol; Lim, Yang-Sook

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the phylogeny and morphology of Mycosphaerella nawae (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota) were examined using Korean and Japanese isolates, to establish the phylogenetic relationship between M. nawae and its allied species. Korean and Japanese isolates of M. nawae were collected from circular leaf spot-diseased leaves and were confirmed based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using multiple genes, including the ITS region, 28S rDNA, β-tubulin, translation elongation factor-1α, and actin genes. Our results revealed that M. nawae is closely related to members of the genus Phaeophleospora but are distant from the Ramularia spp. In addition, microscopic analysis revealed pseudothecia on the adaxial and abaxial surface of overwintered diseased leaves (ODL) and only on the abaxial surface of diseased leaves. Ascospores are oval to fusiform, one-septate, tapered at both ends, 1.7~3.1 × 8.1~14.1 µm, and were observed in ODL. Conidia are oval, guttulate, one-septate, 3.5~4.9 × 12.8~19.8 µm, and barely discernable on 30-day cultures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the phylogeny of M. nawae, which is closely related to the genus Phaeophleospora, especially P. scytalidii. PMID:28154478

  13. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 92 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and 15 accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions was used for morphological analyses of germplasm. Reiterative analyses examined data of both a...

  14. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 89 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and an additional ten accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions were used for morphological analyses of germplasm planted in a common garden in...

  15. Integrated molecular and morphological studies of Daucus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ninety-four nuclear orthologs were used to analyze phylogenetic structure in 89 accessions of 13 species and two subspecies of Daucus, and an additional ten accessions of related genera. A near parallel set of accessions were used for morphological analyses of germplasm planted in a common garden in...

  16. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  17. Morphological cladistic study of coregonine fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.R.; Todd, T.N.

    1992-01-01

    A cladistic analysis of 50 characters from 26 taxa of coregonine fishes and two outgroup taxa yields a phylogenetic tree with two major branches, best summarized as two genera - Prosopium and Coregonus. Presence of teeth on the palatine, long maxillae, and long supra-maxillae are primitive, whereas loss of teeth, short or notched maxillae, and short supermaxillae are derived traits. P. coulteri and C. huntsmani are morphologically and phylogenetically primitive members of their groups. The widespread species, P. cylindraceum and P. williamsoni are morphologically advanced in parallel with the subgenus Coregonus (whitefishes): they share subterminal mouths, short jaws, and reduced teeth. Prosopium gemmifer parallels the ciscoes, subgenus Leucichthys. The whitefishes, C. ussuriensis, C. lavaretus, C. clupeaformis, and C. nasus are a monophyletic group, the subgenus Coregonus. The subgenus Leucichthys is a diverse, relatively plesiomorphic assemblage, widespread in the Holarctic region. This assemblage includes the inconnu, Stenodus.

  18. Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

    2014-09-04

    Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories.

  19. Association between trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella: an MRI study.

    PubMed

    Duran, Semra; Cavusoglu, Mehtap; Kocadal, Onur; Sakman, Bulent

    This study aimed to compare trochlear morphology seen in magnetic resonance imaging between patients with chondromalacia patella and age-matched control patients without cartilage lesion. Trochlear morphology was evaluated using the lateral trochlear inclination, medial trochlear inclination, sulcus angle and trochlear angle on the axial magnetic resonance images. Consequently, an association between abnormal trochlear morphology and chondromalacia patella was identified in women. In particular, women with flattened lateral trochlea are at an increased risk of patellar cartilage structural damage.

  20. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  1. Morphological Awareness and Chinese Children's Literacy Development: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xiaoying; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Wenling; Wu, Xinchun; Li, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Qiu; Zhu, Jin; Shu, Hua; Jiang, Wei; Chen, Xi; Wang, Qiuying; Yin, Li; He, Yeqin; Packard, Jerome; Gaffney, Janet S.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development. Of the 169 children from elementary schools in Beijing, China, who participated in the study, about half received enhanced instruction on the morphology of characters and words in the first and second grade. At…

  2. [Vestibular compensation studies]. [Vestibular Compensation and Morphological Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, Adrian A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The following topics are reported: neurophysiological studies on MVN neurons during vestibular compensation; effects of spinal cord lesions on VNC neurons during compensation; a closed-loop vestibular compensation model for horizontally canal-related MVN neurons; spatiotemporal convergence in VNC neurons; contributions of irregularly firing vestibular afferents to linear and angular VOR's; application to flight studies; metabolic measures in vestibular neurons; immediate early gene expression following vestibular stimulation; morphological studies on primary afferents, central vestibular pathways, vestibular efferent projection to the vestibular end organs, and three-dimensional morphometry and imaging.

  3. The Social Studies Teacher: Agent of Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Richard E.

    Can educators be effective change agents, and if so, how? Let's consider our opportunities from three viewpoints: 1) the social setting of the school; 2) the school systems themselves; and, 3) the teacher. Within the social setting, one of the most important limitations to change is the resistance of many parents. The new curricula and approaches…

  4. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poindl, M.; Bonten, C.

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  5. Morphological studies on block copolymer modified PA 6 blends

    SciTech Connect

    Poindl, M. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de; Bonten, C. E-mail: christian.bonten@ikt.uni-stuttgart.de

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies show that compounding polyamide 6 (PA 6) with a PA 6 polyether block copolymers made by reaction injection molding (RIM) or continuous anionic polymerization in a reactive extrusion process (REX) result in blends with high impact strength and high stiffness compared to conventional rubber blends. In this paper, different high impact PA 6 blends were prepared using a twin screw extruder. The different impact modifiers were an ethylene propylene copolymer, a PA PA 6 polyether block copolymer made by reaction injection molding and one made by reactive extrusion. To ensure good particle matrix bonding, the ethylene propylene copolymer was grafted with maleic anhydride (EPR-g-MA). Due to the molecular structure of the two block copolymers, a coupling agent was not necessary. The block copolymers are semi-crystalline and partially cross-linked in contrast to commonly used amorphous rubbers which are usually uncured. The combination of different analysis methods like atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a detailed view in the structure of the blends. Due to the partial cross-linking, the particles of the block copolymers in the blends are not spherical like the ones of ethylene propylene copolymer. The differences in molecular structure, miscibility and grafting of the impact modifiers result in different mechanical properties and different blend morphologies.

  6. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  7. Morphology in Malay-English Biliteracy Acquisition: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2016-01-01

    This intervention study examined the effect of English morphological instruction on the development of English as well as Malay morphological awareness and word reading abilities among Malay-English bilingual fourth graders in Singapore, where English is the medium of instruction. The intervention group experienced semester-long instruction in…

  8. Deep learning for studies of galaxy morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuccillo, D.; Huertas-Company, M.; Decencière, E.; Velasco-Forero, S.

    2017-06-01

    Establishing accurate morphological measurements of galaxies in a reasonable amount of time for future big-data surveys such as EUCLID, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope or the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope is a challenge. Because of its high level of abstraction with little human intervention, deep learning appears to be a promising approach. Deep learning is a rapidly growing discipline that models high-level patterns in data as complex multilayered networks. In this work we test the ability of deep convolutional networks to provide parametric properties of Hubble Space Telescope like galaxies (half-light radii, Sérsic indices, total flux etc..). We simulate a set of galaxies including point spread function and realistic noise from the CANDELS survey and try to recover the main galaxy parameters using deep-learning. We compare the results with the ones obtained with the commonly used profile fitting based software GALFIT. This way showing that with our method we obtain results at least equally good as the ones obtained with GALFIT but, once trained, with a factor 5 hundred time faster.

  9. Labial morphology: a 3-dimensional anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Rosati, Riccardo; Peretta, Redento; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2009-09-01

    To develop a noninvasive 3-dimensional method to evaluate labial morphology and to assess gender-related differences in healthy young adults. Dental and lip impressions of 11 men and 10 women aged 21 to 34 years, with sound, full, permanent dentition were obtained. The models were digitized and 3-dimensional virtual reproductions obtained. The labial thickness, vermilion area, and volume of the upper and lower lips were measured from the digital reconstructions. The male and female data were compared using Student's t test. The mean lip thickness was significantly larger (P = .02) in men (14.3 mm) than in women (12.3 mm). The lower lip was thicker than the upper lip. The vermilion width was larger in men (75 mm) than in women (70 mm), and no differences were found for vermilion height (10 mm). In the upper lip, the height/width ratio was significantly larger in women (14.1%) than in men (12.3%). The vermilion surface area was slightly larger in men than in women (upper lip area: women, 467 mm(2); men, 501 mm(2); lower lip area: women, 491 mm(2); men, 569 mm(2)). The labial volume was significantly larger in men (upper lip, 2,390 mm(3); lower lip, 2,902 mm(3)) than in women (upper lip, 1,743 mm(3); lower lip, 1,764 mm(3); P = .021). The upper/lower lip area and volume ratios were similar in the 2 genders. Overall, men had larger lips than women. The inferior lip height/width ratio was similar in both genders, and men had a relatively thinner upper lip than women.

  10. Neural Correlates of Morphological Decomposition in a Morphologically Rich Language: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Minna; Vorobyev, Victor A.; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Tuokkola, Terhi; Laine, Matti

    2006-01-01

    By employing visual lexical decision and functional MRI, we studied the neural correlates of morphological decomposition in a highly inflected language (Finnish) where most inflected noun forms elicit a consistent processing cost during word recognition. This behavioral effect could reflect suffix stripping at the visual word form level and/or…

  11. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  12. Morphological change of the cupula due to an ototoxic agent: a comparison with semicircular canal pathology.

    PubMed

    Konomi, Ujimoto; Suzuki, Mamoru; Otsuka, Koji; Shimizu, Akira; Inagaki, Taro; Hasegawa, Go; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Motohashi, Rei

    2010-06-01

    The cupula shows various degrees of changes after gentamicin (GM) injection into the inner ear, with or without damage of the sensory cells. This cupula change may be a part of the etiology of peripheral vertigo, and is also potentially one of the mechanisms of reduced caloric response. To observe the morphological changes of the cupula after injecting GM in the frog inner ear and to compare the changes of the cupula with those of the ampullary sensory cells. We injected 300 microg (7.5 microl) of GM into the inner ear of 30 bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) using a microsyringe under ether anesthesia. The same amount of saline was injected into the other ear as control. The cupulae were observed at 3, 7, and 14 days after GM injection by stereoscopic microscope. The ampullae were fixed, and the sensory cells were assessed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The correlation between the changes in the cupula and sensory cells was evaluated using our own scale. In over half of the cupulae in the 7- and 14-day groups, cupula changes such as shrinkage were observed. In about 50% of the total cases, the degree of cupula and sensory cell change correlated in the two groups. In the 14-day group, these changes were more marked. However, there were cases in which the changes of the cupula and sensory cells did not correlate, indicating that the cupula alone can sustain changes without sensory cell damage.

  13. Cellular internalization and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of a highly hydrophilic octahedral rhenium cluster complex - a new promising X-ray contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Krasilnikova, Anna A; Solovieva, Anastasiya O; Trifonova, Kristina E; Brylev, Konstantin A; Ivanov, Anton A; Kim, Sung-Jin; Shestopalov, Michael A; Fufaeva, Maria S; Shestopalov, Alexander M; Mironov, Yuri V; Poveshchenko, Alexander F; Shestopalova, Lidia V

    2016-11-01

    The octahedral cluster compound Na2 H8 [{Re6 Se8 }(P(C2 H4 CONH2 )(C2 H4 COO)2 )6 ] has been shown to be highly radio dense, thus becoming a promising X-ray contrast agent. It was also shown that this compound had low cytotoxic effect in vitro, low acute toxicity in vivo and was eliminated rapidly from the body through the urinary tract. The present contribution describes a more detailed cellular internalization assay and morphological analysis after intravenous injection of this hexarhenium cluster compound at different doses. The median lethal dose (LD50 ) of intravenously administrated compound was calculated (4.67 ± 0.69 g/kg). Results of the study clearly indicated that the cluster complex Hn [{Re6 Se8 }(P(C2 H4 CONH2 )(C2 H4 COO)2 )6 ](n-10) was not internalized into cells in vitro and induced only moderate morphological alterations of kidneys at high doses without any changes in morphology of liver, spleen, duodenum, or heart of mice. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Early Changes of Retinal Morphology in Therapy of Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Three Commonly Used Anti-VEGF Agents.

    PubMed

    Enders, Philip; Sitnilska, Vasilena; Altay, Lebriz; Fauser, Sascha

    2017-09-27

    To compare changes of retinal morphology in the first weeks following injection of anti-VEGF agents for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). In a prospective study 50 patients with active choroidal neovascularization secondary to nAMD were monitored weekly by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography for 3 weeks after treatment. Twenty-two patients received bevacizumab, 15 ranibizumab, and 13 aflibercept. Morphological parameters of retinal compartments were compared. Mean central retinal thickness (391.22 ± 123.41 µm) was reduced by -26.15 µm (p < 0.001) after 1 week, by -12.54 µm (p < 0.001) after 2 weeks, and by -3.52 µm (p = 0.09) after 3 weeks. Mean intraretinal layer thickness changed only significantly between baseline and week 1 (p < 0.001). Mean subretinal thickness also decreased between weeks 1 and 2 (p = 0.01). Early morphological changes occur primarily in the first 14 days after treatment. This information could be clinically helpful to evaluate early non-response. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Tuning the morphology and structure of nanocarbons with activating agents for ultrafast ionic liquid-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yongpeng; Wang, Huanlei; Mao, Nan; Yu, Wenhua; Shi, Jing; Huang, Minghua; Liu, Wei; Chen, Shougang; Wang, Xin

    2017-09-01

    The increasing demand for supercapacitors with high energy and power density has attracted extensive attention in designing advanced carbon materials with high accessible surface area, hierarchical porosity, and 2D/3D morphology. Here, we report a new approach to tune the morphology and structure of the nanocarbons by using methyl cellulose as the precursor. Due to the varying effect of different activating agents, the interconnected sheet-like carbon with a high surface area of up to 2285 m2 g-1 and a thickness down to ∼4 nm can be obtained. These important characteristics make the nanocarbons demonstrate a high capacitance of 144 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and 20 °C, and an excellent capacitance retention ratio of 64% at 100 A g-1 in ionic liquid. Because of the high fraction of meso/macropores for nanocarbons, an outstanding capacitance of 116 F g-1 can be achieved at 0 °C, with a high capacitance retention ratio of 39% at 100 A g-1. A high energy of 16-17 and 9-10 W h kg-1 can be maintained at 20 and 0 °C when the supercapacitor is charged in less than 1s. The excellent electrochemical response of nanocarbons suggests that the proposed preparation process is promising for developing advanced carbon electrodes.

  16. Structural, morphological and electroluminescence studies of Zno:Co nanophosphor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Anju; Vishwakarma, H. L.

    2016-09-01

    The nanoparticles of zinc oxide (ZnO) doped with various concentrations of cobalt (Co) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method in the presence of capping agent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The effect of doping concentration on structural and morphological properties has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Cell volume, bond length, texture coefficient, lattice constants and dislocation density are also studied. Here, we also compared the interplaner spacing and relative peak intensities from their standard values with different angles. Crystallite sizes have been calculated by Debye-Scherrer's formula whose values are decreasing with increase in cobalt content up to 3 %. It has been seen that the growth orientation of the prepared ZnO nanorods was (101). The XRD analysis also ensures that ZnO has a hexagonal (wurtzite) crystal structure. The electroluminescence (EL) cells were prepared by placing pure and cobalt-doped ZnO nanoparticles between ITO-coated conducting glass plate and aluminium foil. Alternating voltage of various frequencies was applied, and EL brightness at different voltages was measured and corresponding current was also recorded. The voltage dependence of electroluminescence (EL) brightness of the ZnO:Co shows exponential increase. The linear voltage-current characteristic indicates ohmic nature. The EL brightness at a particular voltage is found to increase by increasing Co doping, but for higher percentage of Co the EL brightness is reduced. It is also seen that Co does not influence the threshold voltage. The brightness is also affected by increasing the frequency of AC signal.

  17. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

  18. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species.

  19. Removal of heavy metal ions by biogenic hydroxyapatite: Morphology influence and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Guan, Xiaomei; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Chen, Jun; Long, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Based on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) with different morphologies, such as nanorod-like, flower-like and sphere-like assembled HA nanorods, a new strategy has been developed for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+. The dependence of removal efficiency on the morphology and the suspended concentration of trapping agent, the removal time and selectivity were evaluated and discussed. The experimental results proved that the removal capacity of flower-like assembled HA nanorods (NAFL-HA) was the best, and the maximum removal ratio for Pb2+ ion was 99.97%. The mechanism of Pb2+ removal was studied in detail, noting that some metal ions were completely incorporated into hydroxyapatitie to produce Pb-HA. It reveals that the metal ions capture by HA is mainly controlled by sample surface adsorption and co-precipitation, which are directly controlled by sample morphology.

  20. Morphological studies of the vestibular nerve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstroem, B.

    1973-01-01

    The anatomy of the intratemporal part of the vestibular nerve in man, and the possible age related degenerative changes in the nerve were studied. The form and structure of the vestibular ganglion was studied with the light microscope. A numerical analysis of the vestibular nerve, and caliber spectra of the myelinated fibers in the vestibular nerve branches were studied in individuals of varying ages. It was found that the peripheral endings of the vestibular nerve form a complicated pattern inside the vestibular sensory epithelia. A detailed description of the sensory cells and their surface organelles is included.

  1. Profound Morphological Changes in the Erythrocytes and Fibrin Networks of Patients with Hemochromatosis or with Hyperferritinemia, and Their Normalization by Iron Chelators and Other Agents

    PubMed Central

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette; Vermeulen, Natasha; Lipinski, Boguslaw; Gericke, George S.; Kell, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that individuals with increased iron levels are more prone to thrombotic diseases, mainly due to the presence of unliganded iron, and thereby the increased production of hydroxyl radicals. It is also known that erythrocytes (RBCs) may play an important role during thrombotic events. Therefore the purpose of the current study was to assess whether RBCs had an altered morphology in individuals with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), as well as some who displayed hyperferritinemia (HF). Using scanning electron microscopy, we also assessed means by which the RBC and fibrin morphology might be normalized. An important objective was to test the hypothesis that the altered RBC morphology was due to the presence of excess unliganded iron by removing it through chelation. Very striking differences were observed, in that the erythrocytes from HH and HF individuals were distorted and had a much greater axial ratio compared to that accompanying the discoid appearance seen in the normal samples. The response to thrombin, and the appearance of a platelet-rich plasma smear, were also markedly different. These differences could largely be reversed by the iron chelator desferal and to some degree by the iron chelator clioquinol, or by the free radical trapping agents salicylate or selenite (that may themselves also be iron chelators). These findings are consistent with the view that the aberrant morphology of the HH and HF erythrocytes is caused, at least in part, by unliganded (‘free’) iron, whether derived directly via raised ferritin levels or otherwise, and that lowering it or affecting the consequences of its action may be of therapeutic benefit. The findings also bear on the question of the extent to which accepting blood donations from HH individuals may be desirable or otherwise. PMID:24416376

  2. [Collagenous colitis. Morphologic and immunohistochemical study].

    PubMed

    Genova, G; Arena, N; Guddo, F; Vita, C; Reitano, R; Nagar, C; Tralongo, V

    1993-01-01

    Collagenous colitis is a clinico-pathological entity characterized by chronic diarrhoeas and deposition of collagen beneath the epithelium surface of large bowel. We revised 265 endoscopy biopsy specimens of the large bowel from 198 consecutive patients with "aspecific chronic colitis". Morphometric study showed that were not significant differences among various tracts in the same patients regarding to the thickness of basament membrane. It was more than 11.9 +/- 0.49 mu only in 13 pts (6.6%), while it was 3.96 +/- 1.4 mu in the others. Immunohistochemistry study confirmed the normality of subepithelial basement membrane and the below deposition of the large quantity of collagen IV.

  3. The 100 XXL brightest clusters: morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Democles, J.; Ponman, T.; Le Brun, A.; McCarthy, I.; Faccioli, L.; Sauvageot, J.; Pierre, M.

    2014-07-01

    The XXL survey is the largest XMM-Newton cluster survey, covering an area of 50 deg^2 in two 25 deg^2 regions of contiguous 10ks pointings. We use this to study the properties and evolution of the cluster population, for comparison with realistic cosmological simulations incorporating AGN feedback. We will present results from an analysis of the dynamical state of the 100 brightest clusters from the survey, based on the surface brightness concentration parameter, the centroid-shift and the offset between X-ray peak and brightest cluster galaxy. We relate those parameters to the cluster scaling relations, and use them to test the realism of our simulated clusters.

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL STUDIES OF COLLAGEN FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, J. A.

    1961-01-01

    This paper describes electron microscopic studies of developing connective tissue in granulomata induced by the subcutaneous injection of carrageenin into guinea pigs. Seven days after injection the granulomata contained many fibroblasts and exhibited rapid production of collagen. The fibroblasts were characterised by an extensively developed endoplasmic reticulum and showed numbers of fine, unstriated filaments in the outer regions of the cytoplasm. The filaments, about 50 A in diameter, tended to lie parallel to and closely adjacent to the cell boundary. The cytoplasmic membrane was frequently ill defined or disrupted, particularly bordering regions in which filaments occurred. In longitudinal sections of extended cell processes, filaments were abundant and, in some instances, the cytoplasmic membrane was barely detectable. In the extracellular space striated collagen fibrils were usually accompanied by filaments, 50 to 100 A in diameter, and these often exhibited the characteristic periodicity of collagen, particularly after intense electron bombardment. Much cellular debris was present in the extracellular space. These observations have led to the suggestion that connective tissue precursors are released from fibroblasts by the disintegration or dissolution of the cytoplasmic membrane and the shedding of cytoplasmic material, as in the apocrine gland cells. In some instances this release may take the form of the elongation from the cell of extended processes; disintegration of the cytoplasmic membrane surrounding these processes then leaves the contents in the extracellular phase. PMID:13692398

  5. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid Morphology Radio Sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of a FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 years, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲ 1% of radio galaxies) and only for a few of them a detailed radio study, that goes beyond the morphological classification, has been conducted. In this paper we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multi-frequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarisation properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  6. Multifrequency study of a new Hybrid Morphology Radio Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gasperin, F.

    2017-05-01

    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a class of radio galaxies having the lobe morphology of a Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I on one side of the active nucleus and of an FR type II on the other. The origin of the different morphologies between FR I and FR II sources has been widely discussed in the past 40 yr, and HyMoRS may be the best way to understand whether this dichotomy is related to the intrinsic nature of the source and/or to its environment. However, these sources are extremely rare (≲1 per cent of radio galaxies), and only for a few of them, a detailed radio study that goes beyond the morphological classification has been conducted. In this paper, we report the discovery of one new HyMoRS; we present X-ray and multifrequency radio observations. We discuss the source morphological, spectral and polarization properties and confirm that HyMoRS are intrinsically bimodal with respect to these observational characteristics. We notice that HyMoRS classification based just on morphological properties of the source is hazardous.

  7. Changes in morphology and optical properties of sclera and choroidal layers due to hyperosmotic agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; Nichols, Brandon S.; Rylander, Henry G.; Wang, Tianyi; Tunnell, James W.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2011-07-01

    Light scattering in the normally white sclera prevents diagnostic imaging or delivery of a focused laser beam to a target in the underlying choroid layer. In this study, we examine optical clearing of the sclera and changes in blood flow resulting from the application of glycerol to the sclera of rabbits. Recovery dynamics are monitored after the application of saline. The speed of clearing for injection delivery is compared to the direct application of glycerol through an incision in the conjunctiva. Although, the same volume of glycerol was applied, the sclera cleared much faster (5 to 10 s) with the topical application of glycerol compared to the injection method (3 min). In addition, the direct topical application of glycerol spreads over a larger area in the sclera than the latter method. A diffuse optical spectroscopy system provided spectral analysis of the remitted light every two minutes during clearing and rehydration. Comparison of measurements to those obtained from phantoms with various absorption and scattering properties provided estimates of the absorption coefficient and reduced scattering coefficient of rabbit eye tissue.

  8. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  9. Acquisition of L2 English Morphology: A Family Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yanyin; Widyastuti, Ima

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the status of morphology in the L2 English of three members of a family from Indonesia (parents and their 5-year-old daughter) who have lived, studied or worked in Australia for a year. The investigation is contextualized against various learning settings in which the informants have learned English: formal instruction in…

  10. Morphological Study of Insoluble Organic Matter Residues from Primitive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changela, H. G.; Stroud, R. M.; Peeters, Z.; Nittler, L. R.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; DeGregorio, B. T.; Cody, G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble organic matter (IOM) constitutes a major proportion, 70-99%, of the total organic carbon found in primitive chondrites [1, 2]. One characteristic morphological component of IOM is nanoglobules [3, 4]. Some nanoglobules exhibit large N-15 and D enrichments relative to solar values, indicating that they likely originated in the ISM or the outskirts of the protoplanetary disk [3]. A recent study of samples from the Tagish Lake meteorite with varying levels of hydrothermal alteration suggest that nanoglobule abundance decreases with increasing hydrothermal alteration [5]. The aim of this study is to further document the morphologies of IOM from a range of primitive chondrites in order to determine any correlation of morphology with petrographic grade and chondrite class that could constrain the formation and/or alteration mechanisms.

  11. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  12. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  13. Effects of different cyclodextrins on the morphology, loading and release properties of poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide)-microparticles containing the hypnotic agent etizolam.

    PubMed

    Lopedota, A; Cutrignelli, A; Trapani, A; Boghetich, G; Denora, N; Laquintana, V; Trapani, G; Liso, G

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the feasibility of using microparticles (MPs) constituted by the biodegradable poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and a number of cyclodextrins (CDs) as an orally sustained delivery system of the hypnotic agent etizolam (ETZ). A further aim of the work was to investigate the effects of different CDs on the morphology, loading, and release properties of the MPs prepared. For these purposes, ETZ alone, and ETZ/CD-PLGA loaded MPs were prepared by the W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation method. It was found that the release of ETZ in vitro was more prolonged over three days with a kinetic constant proportional to t(1/2). It was also demonstrated that the CDs in these MPs are able to modulate several properties such as morphology, drug loading, and release properties. In fact, marked differences in shape, surface, and encapsulation efficiencies were noted depending on the presence, hydrophilicity, and charge of the CD employed. The obtained results induce us to consider the present ETZ-containing formulations as new valuable tools for the treatment of different insomnia categories.

  14. Morphological, molecular and biological evidence reveal two cryptic species in Mecinus janthinus Germar (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), a successful biological control agent of Dalmatian toadflax, Linaria dalmatica (Lamiales, Plantaginaceae)

    Treesearch

    Ivo Tosevski; Roberto Caldara; Jelena Jovic; Gerardo Hernandez-Vera; Cosimo Baviera; Andre Gassmann; Brent C. Emerson

    2011-01-01

    A combined morphological, molecular and biological study shows that the weevil species presently named Mecinus janthinus is actually composed of two different cryptic species: M. janthinus Germar, 1821 and M. janthiniformis Tosevski & Caldara sp.n. These species are morphologically distinguishable from each other by a few very subtle morphological characters. On...

  15. Planetary geological studies. [MARS crater morphology and ejecta deposit topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blasius, K. R.

    1981-01-01

    A global data base was assembled for the study of Mars crater ejecta morphology. The craters were classified as to morhology using individual photographic prints of Viking orbiter frames. Positional and scale information were derived by fitting digitized mosaic coordinates to lattitude-longitude coordinates of surface features from the Mars geodetic control net and feature coordinates from the U.S.G.S. series of 1:5,00,000 scale shaded relief maps. Crater morphology characteristics recorded are of two classes - attributes of each ejecta deposit and other crater charactersitics. Preliminary efforts to check the data base with findings of other workers are described.

  16. Systematic studies of morphological changes of precision polyethylene.

    PubMed

    Few, Chip S; Wagener, Kenneth B; Thompson, Donovan L

    2014-01-01

    The morphological changes of polyethylenes bearing precisely spaced "defects" are reviewed, focusing on the effects of defect frequency, size, and functionality on crystallization and crystalline structure. The precise defect interval is imparted through acyclic diene metathesis polymerization of structurally symmetric diene monomers. Studies have included structural characterization by differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and infrared spectroscopy. The collective results are presented separately for functionalized polyethylenes and for those containing alkyl chain branches, as these two classes of polymers vary greatly in morphology.

  17. [Bioterrorism, parasites as potential bioterrorism agents and biosecurity studies].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Umit

    2006-01-01

    A variety of agents have a potential risk for being use as weapons of biological terrorism. However, the use of parasites as bioterrorism agents has not received so much attention. Parasites could contribute to the installation of fear in human population upon intentional addition to their food and water supplies. On the other hand, vector-borne parasites can also constitute risk of bioterrorism. Biosecurity issues are gaining importance as a consequence of globalization. Surveillance is critical in maintaining biosecurity and early detection of infectious disease agents is essential. In this review article, bioterrorism, the role of parasites as potential bioterrorism agents, studies on biosecurity and laboratory design for biosafety have been discussed under the light of recent literature.

  18. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan

    2015-09-01

    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  19. Morphological Priming by Itself: A Study of Portuguese Conjugations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verissimo, Joao; Clahsen, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Does the language processing system make use of abstract grammatical categories and representations that are not directly visible from the surface form of a linguistic expression? This study examines stem-formation processes and conjugation classes, a case of "pure" morphology that provides insight into the role of grammatical structure in…

  20. Carbohydrate-directed synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: effect of the structure of carbohydrates and reducing agents on the size and morphology of the composites.

    PubMed

    Shervani, Zameer; Yamamoto, Yasushi

    2011-04-01

    A monosaccharide (β-D-glucose) and polysaccharide (soluble starch) were used as structure directing and subsequently stabilizing agents for the synthesis of spherical nanoparticles (NPs) and nanowires of silver and gold. Homogeneous monodispersed Ag(0) nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of 15 nm diameter were obtained when 10(-4)M AgNO(3) precursor salt was reduced in starch (1 wt%)-water gel by 1 wt% β-D-glucose. For a second preparation the effect of reducing agents on the synthesis of Au(0) metallic nanoparticles (Au NPs) of 2 × 10(-4)M concentration prepared in a β-D-glucose (0.03 M)-water dispersion was studied first in detail. Different equivalent amounts of NaBH(4) and a number of pH values were evaluated for the reduction of the Au salt HAuCl(4)·3H(2)O to obtain Au NPs. The type and the amount of reducing agent, as well as the pH of the solution was shown to affect the size and morphology of the NPs. NaBH(4) (4 equiv) produced the smallest (5.3 nm (σ 0.7)) metallic particles compared to larger particles (10.0 nm (σ 1.4)) when the salt was reduced by 1 equiv of NaBH(4). Addition of excess NaBH(4) caused the NPs to settle out as a precipitate forming a mesh or wire structure rather than monodispersed particles. Low pH (pH 6) resulted in incomplete reduction, while at pH 8 the salt was completely reduced. When the salt was reduced by NaOH at pH 8, the particles were larger (14.2 nm) and less homogeneous (σ 2.8) compared to those from NaBH(4) reduction.

  1. Boron nitride nanotubes coated with organic hydrophilic agents: stability and cytocompatibility studies.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Moreira, Luciana Mara Costa; da Silva, Paulo Roberto Ornelas; dos Santos, Raquel Gouvêa; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized and functionalized with organic hydrophilic agents constituted by glucosamine (GA), polyethylene glycol (PEG)1000, and chitosan (CH) forming new singular systems. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy, while their surface charge was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The functionalization was evaluated by Thermogravimetry analysis and Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were successfully obtained and functionalized, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vitro studies. The in vitro stability tests also revealed a good adhesion of functionalized agents on BNNT surfaces. Finally, the in vitro cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs against MCR-5 cells was evaluated, and the results revealed that none of the different functionalization agents disturbed the propagation of normal cells up to the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Furthermore, in this concentration, no significantly chromosomal or morphologic alterations or increase in ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species) could be observed. Thus, findings from the present study reveal an important stability and cytocompatibility of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures.

  2. Forest Service special agent in charge report: nationwide study

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez; Joanne F. Tynon

    2007-01-01

    This study is the second in a series of studies to evaluate perceptions of USDA Forest Service law enforcement personnel of the roles, responsibilities, and issues entailed in their jobs. An e-mail survey was administered to the nine Forest Service special agents in charge (SACs) across the United States. All nine completed and returned the survey. Communication with...

  3. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  4. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  5. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. PMID:27799213

  6. Decomposing Animacy Reversals between Agents and Experiencers: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Nicolas; Drury, John E.; Valois, Daniel; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to refine current hypotheses regarding thematic reversal anomalies, which have been found to elicit either N400 or--more frequently--"semantic-P600" (sP600) effects. Our goal was to investigate whether distinct ERP profiles reflect aspectual-thematic differences between Agent-Subject Verbs (ASVs; e.g., "to eat") and…

  7. Dens invaginatus in an impacted mesiodens: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Cantín, M; Fonseca, G M

    2013-01-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a dental anomaly originated from invagination of the enamel organ into the dental papilla, during odontogenesis. DI may be associated with other abnormalities such as dysmorphic mesiodens, and this unusual condition may be detected by chance on the conventional radiography. However, the three-dimensional nature and the exact morphological patterns of DI are impossible to appreciate from this method. We present a morphological study of impacted mesiodens in a 9-year-old girl, which the three coronal invaginations were detected only by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in the pre-surgical examination. CBCT, radiographic and microscopic reproductions allow transfer of images to facilitate cooperation of working groups, examination as well as for teaching purposes.

  8. Morphology Studies of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Ji Sun

    Energy is a prerequisite for creating and sustaining life. The need for energy increases globally as the world's population and economy grow. However, conventional energy sources---fossil fuels---generate carbon dioxide and contribute to global warming, perhaps the most serious environmental problem of our time. Carbon dioxide-free energy is required to stop global warming. Polymer solar cells have been attracting a great deal of interest as a source of renewable energy with a great potential for low cost. Polymer bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells have been greatly improved; the power conversion efficiency is already up to 9.2% making the future of the polymer solar cell very promising. This thesis is a study of the morphology of polymer:fullerene BHJ, one of the most critical and challenging parts of high efficiency polymer solar cells. To discover the morphology, cross-section as well as top-down transmission electron microscopy were used. The contrast was achieved by utilizing phase contrast microscopy. Thermal annealing, dependence of BHJ thickness, processing additives, solution sequential process and solution sequential process with the use of cosolvent that affects/controls the BHJ morphology are studied in detail.

  9. Enteric MRI contrast agents: comparative study of five potential agents in humans.

    PubMed

    Tart, R P; Li, K C; Storm, B L; Rolfes, R J; Ang, P G

    1991-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of 1 mM Geritol, 12% corn oil emulsion, Kaolin-pectin, single contrast oral barium sulfate, and effervescent granules as enteric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Five volunteers were recruited. Each volunteer ingested for examinations, separated by at least one week, either 500 ml of each of the liquid preparations or two packets of the CO2 granules (producing 400 ml of CO2 per packet). Abdominal MR images were then obtained using a 1.5 T Magnetom imager and SE 550/22, SE 2000/45/90 and FISP 40/18/40 degrees pulse sequences. The oil emulsions were best tolerated. Barium sulfate caused the greatest amount of nausea, followed by Geritol and Kaolin-pectin. With FISP 40/18/40 degrees, 60%-80% of the small bowel was well delineated using oil emulsion, Kaolin-pectin, or barium sulfate. We conclude that oil emulsion was by far the best enteric MR contrast agent in our study. Good delineation of the small bowel and pancreas can be achieved using oil emulsion and gradient echo pulse sequences. The lack of side-effects and the excellent taste make it highly acceptable to human subjects.

  10. Reducing agent (NaBH4) dependent structure, morphology and magnetic properties of nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4) nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Rani, B. Jansi; Ravi, G.; Thambidurai, M.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2017-04-01

    Nickel ferrite (Ni-Fe2O4) nanorods were synthesized employing a simple chemical reduction method. Reducing agent (NaBH4) influence on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of NiFe2O4 nanorods was investigated. XRD results clearly revealed the presence of inverse cubic spinel nickel ferrite structure characteristic peaks and confirmed the site inversion of inverse spinel structure of Fe3+ tetrahedral A site and Ni2+ octahedral B site. The observed Raman characteristic peak at 488 and 683 cm-1 were corresponded to E1 g and A1 g mode whereas A and B site respectively corresponded to tetrahedral and octahedral site of NiFe2O4 inverse spinel structure. The obtained PL peaks at 530 and 542 nm were attributed to the emission spectra of Fe3+ ions in site A of inverse spinel structure and Ni2+ ions in site B of inverse spinel structure respectively. SEM result clearly revealed that increase in NaBH4 concentration had remarkable impact on nanorods formation, nano-octahedron structure, homogeneity and regularity of Ni-Ferrites. VSM studies clearly revealed the soft ferromagnetic nature of NiFe2O4 and increase in NaBH4 concentration further induced raise in metal cations concentration in A- and B- site which might impact the resultant magnetization of ferrites.

  11. Influence of size scale and morphology on antibacterial properties of ZnO powders hydrothemally synthesized using different surface stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Stanković, A; Dimitrijević, S; Uskoković, D

    2013-02-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles represent a new class of important materials that are increasingly being developed for use in research and health-related applications. Although the antibacterial activity and efficiency of bulk zinc oxide were investigated in vitro, the knowledge about the antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles remains deficient. In this study, we have synthesized ZnO particles of different sizes and morphologies with the assistance of different types of surface stabilizing agents - polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and poly (α,γ, l-glutamic acid) (PGA) - through a low-temperature hydrothermal procedure. The characterization of the prepared powders was preformed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), as well as Malvern's Mastersizer instrument for particle size distribution. The specific surface area (SSA) of the ZnO powders was measured by standard Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. The antibacterial behavior of the synthesized ZnO particles was tested against gram-negative and gram-positive bacterial cultures, namely Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), respectively. We compared the results of the antibacterial properties of the synthesized ZnO samples with those of the commercial ZnO powder. According to the obtained results, the highest microbial cell reduction rate was recorded for the synthesized ZnO powder consisting of nanospherical particles. In all of the examined samples, ZnO particles demonstrated a significant bacteriostatic activity.

  12. Postnatal Ovary Development in the Rat: Morphologic Study and Correlation of Morphology to Neuroendocrine Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Picut, Catherine A.; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L.; Stump, Donald G.; Parker, George A.; Remick, Amera K.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0–7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of “atypical” follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8–14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15–20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their “atypical” appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21–32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33–37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat. PMID:25107574

  13. Postnatal ovary development in the rat: morphologic study and correlation of morphology to neuroendocrine parameters.

    PubMed

    Picut, Catherine A; Dixon, Darlene; Simons, Michelle L; Stump, Donald G; Parker, George A; Remick, Amera K

    2015-04-01

    Histopathologic examination of the immature ovary is a required end point on juvenile toxicity studies and female pubertal and thyroid function assays. To aid in this evaluation and interpretation of the immature ovary, the characteristic histologic features of rat ovary through the developmental periods are described. These histologic features are correlated with published changes in neuroendocrine profiles as the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis matures. During the neonatal stage (postnatal day [PND] 0-7), ovarian follicle development is independent of pituitary gonadotropins (luteinizing hormone [LH] or follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]), and follicles remain preantral. Antral development of "atypical" follicles occurs in the early infantile period (PND 8-14) when the ovary becomes responsive to pituitary gonadotropins. In the late infantile period (PND 15-20), the zona pellucida appears, the hilus forms, and antral follicles mature by losing their "atypical" appearance. The juvenile stage (PND 21-32) is the stage when atresia of medullary follicles occurs corresponding to a nadir in FSH levels. In the peripubertal period (PND 33-37), atresia subsides as FSH levels rebound, and LH begins its bimodal surge pattern leading to ovulation. This report will provide pathologists with baseline morphologic and endocrinologic information to aid in identification and interpretation of xenobiotic effects in the ovary of the prepubertal rat.

  14. Causative agents of superficial mycoses in Istanbul, Turkey: retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Fatma; Er, Emine; Samasti, Mustafa

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the percentage of agents, which can give rise to superficial fungal infections in Istanbul, Turkey. Between 2000 and 2007, the clinical samples collected from 8,200 patients attending the outpatient Dermatology Clinic at Mihrimahsultan Medical Center were examined by direct microscopy and culture. Pathogen fungi were detected in 5,722 of the patients. Of the isolates were 4,218 (74%) dermatophytes, 1,196 (21%) Candida sp., 170 (3%) Malassezia furfur, and 138 (2%) Trichosporon sp. Among the dermatophytes, Trichophyton sp. was the most common isolate followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (243) and Microsporum sp. Among the Candida species, C. albicans (549) was also frequently found. Onychomycosis was the most prevalent type of infection, followed by tinea pedis, tinea cruris, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. In conclusion, our study showed that the most common isolated agents from superficial infections were T. rubrum being Candida sp. the second most prevalent.

  15. Effects of xenobiotics on fish tissues: morphological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkes, J.W.

    1980-12-01

    Current applications of light and electron microscopy to investigations of changes in various tissues from fish exposed to xenobiotics have been reviewed. Emphasis has been placed on two types of contaminants, petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls, as examples of important xenobiotics found in the marine environment. Although the data are fragmentary because of the small number of studies, they clearly contribute new and valuable information to an understanding of the impact of these contaminants on the olfactory organ, liver, lens, and intestine from several species of fish. The morphological aspects of damage to the olfactory organs of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons included hyperplasia and attenuation of the chemosensory cilia. In the liver of fish exposed to chlorobiphenyls, one of the most evident cellular anomalies was whorls of smooth endoplasmic reticulum. The rough endoplasmic reticulum appeared proliferated and its cisternae were dilated. Changes in the amount of lipid stored in the hepatocytes have been observed in fish exposed to both petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorobiphenyls. Some hydrocarbons affected eye tissues. Structural alterations that occurred during hydration of lens fiber cells and cataract formation were elucidated. A synopsis of the morphological changes in the intestine of fish exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons alone, chlorobiphenyls alone, and the combined contaminants is presented. All three groups of contaminant-exposed fish have subcellular inclusions that are distinctly abnormal. Recommendations for future studies include the need for further characterization of the range of normal tissue structure, comparative studies of additional species, and multiple contaminant exposures.

  16. New metal based drug as a therapeutic agent: Spectral, electrochemical, DNA-binding, surface morphology and photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslu, Harun; Gölcü, Ayşegül

    2015-07-01

    Cu(II) complexes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Meloxicam (H2MLX) was synthesized and characterized via spectroscopic and analytical techniques. The thermal behavior of the complex was also analyzed. The photoluminescence properties of the compounds were analyzed under different conditions. The electrochemical properties of both ligand and complex have been analyzed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) using glassy carbon electrode. The biological activities of the compounds were evaluated through examining their capacity to bind to fish sperm double strand DNA (FSdsDNA) with absorption spectroscopy and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Absorption studies of the interaction of the H2MLX and its Cu(II) complex with FSdsDNA have indicated that these compounds could bind to FSdsDNA, and the binding constants were calculated. The morphology of the FSdsDNA, H2MLX, and Cu(II) complex were analyzed thanks to using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In the DPV technique, pencil graphite electrode was used as a working electrode. The decrease in the intensity of the guanine oxidation signals was used as an indicator for the interaction mechanism.

  17. Morphological studies of resonances in plasmonic metasurfaces for SPR sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelek, Jakub; Kwiecien, Pavel; Richter, Ivan; Homola, Jiří

    2015-05-01

    We investigate selected periodic arrays of nanostructures inspired by metasurfaces originally used in metamaterial structures and evaluate their potential for surface plasmon resonance applicable in sensing. Building blocks including rectangles, cut wires, crosses, fishnets, split ring resonators were ordered on suitable substrates and their reflection (R), transmission (T), and loss energy (L) spectra were calculated. The numerical studies were performed using our efficient in-house two-dimensional rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique. Our technique incorporates all the key improvements of the method available, taking into account both proper Fourier factorization rules, adaptive spatial resolution techniques, as well as structural symmetries. Using the R, T, and L spectra, we investigated spectral sensitivity of SPR and calculated the respective SPR sensor characteristics, such as figures of merit (FOM), enabling direct comparison of various structural morphologies for potential sensing applications. Also, optimization of the structures in terms of FOM has been performed to identify the most promising candidates. Additionally, to allow for interpretation of spectral resonant features and the interplay of individual and surface lattice resonances, we were gradually changing the morphology of individual building blocks from one type of element to another one. We believe that this study will bring insight into plasmonic behavior of nanostructured metasurfaces and will further benefit research into SPR biosensors.

  18. Morphological Study of the Persian Leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) Tongue.

    PubMed

    Sadeghinezhad, J; Sheibani, M T; Memarian, I; Chiocchetti, R

    2017-01-24

    This study described the morphological features of the Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The keratinized filiform papillae were distributed all over the entire dorsal surface of the tongue and contained small processes. They were changed into a cylindrical shape in the body and conical shape in the root. The fungiform papillae were found on the apex and margin of the tongue. Few taste pores were observed on the dorsal surface of each papilla. The foliate papillae on the margins of the tongue were composed of several laminae and epithelial fissures. Taste buds were not seen within the non-keratinized epithelium. The vallate papillae were six in total and arranged in a "V" shape just rostral to the root. Each papilla was surrounded by a groove and pad. Taste buds were seen within their lateral walls. Lyssa was visible on the ventral surface of the tongue tip and was found as cartilaginous tissue surrounded by thin connective tissue fibres. The core of the tongue was composed of lingual glands, skeletal muscle and connective tissue. These glands were confined to the posterior portion of the tongue and were composed of many serous cells and a few mucous cells. The results of this study contributed to the knowledge of the morphological characteristics of the tongue of wild mammals and provided data for the comparison with other mammals.

  19. A Morphological Study of the Petunia integrifolia Complex (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, TOSHIO; ISHIKAWA, NOBUYUKI; WATANABE, HITOSHI; KOKUBUN, HISASHI; YANAGISAWA, YOSHIKI; HASHIMOTO, GORO; MARCHESI, EDUARDO; SUÁREZ, ENRIQUE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Petunia inflata has been treated taxonomically in various ways: it has been described as an independent species, treated as a synonym of P. integrifolia, and also regarded as a subspecies of P. integrifolia. The present study was designed to resolve the ambiguity involving the P. integrifolia complex (P. integrifolia plus P. inflata). • Methods Tentative identification (either integrifolia group or inflata group) was carried out in the field based on the observation of live specimens at the restricted type localities. The accuracy of the tentative identification was later tested with principal component and cluster analyses of data obtained by measuring 21 morphological characters on cultivated live specimens sourced from 113 natural populations of the P. integrifolia complex in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. • Key Results There was a clear, statistically significant gap between the morphological measurements of the two groups, ensuring the accuracy of identification carried out in the field except for a probable hybrid swarm. Previously, the condition of the pedicel in the fruiting state was considered an important character distinguishing between these two groups; however, the condition of the pedicel was rather variable in the integrifolia group. The two groups were found to have geographically distinct distributions: the integrifolia group occurred in southern regions, whereas the inflata group occurred in northern regions. • Conclusions Based on the available evidence, it is suggested that the two groups are allopatric species, P. integrifolia and P. inflata, in agreement with the opinion of Fries (1911). PMID:16103037

  20. Hair morphology in androgenetic alopecia: sonographic and electron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Wortsman, Ximena; Guerrero, Robinson; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-07-01

    To assess hair morphology in androgenetic alopecia on sonography and electron microscopy. A prospective study was performed in 33 patients with androgenetic alopecia and 10 unaffected control participants. In vivo sonography of the hair follicles of the scalp and in vitro sonography and electron microscopy of the hair shafts were performed according to a standardized protocol that included analysis of the right frontal and occipital regions. The upper frequency limit of the ultrasound probes ranged between 15 and 18 MHz. Scalp hair follicles and hair shafts were recognizable on sonography in all cases. Hair follicles in alopecia cases had significantly lower depths (P < .05). The hair shafts in alopecia also had a different distribution of their laminar pattern on in vitro sonography, with a greater presence of mixed (trilaminar and bilaminar) and solely bilaminar tracts in comparison with the controls (mostly trilaminar). On electron microscopy, the alopecia hair tracts showed irregularities and commonly a "melted candle" appearance of the cuticle. Sonography and electron microscopy uncover distinct abnormalities in the morphology of hair in androgenetic alopecia, which may potentially support the diagnosis and management of this common condition. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  1. Morphological, magnetic and electronic structural studies of nanostructured spinel ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Marcos; Moura Prata, Daniela

    The scope of this thesis includes study of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructured ferrites with different morphology/geometries (e.g. core/shell and hollow nanoparticles), and non-stroichiomteric thin-films. In the case of core/shell, shell composition is varied and spin glass (SG) features due to the thick amorphous shells are explored. Exchange Bias (EB) for core/shell (ferromagnetic/SG) nanoparticles namely X33Fe 67/XFe67O4 (X = Co, Ni, Fe) is presented. Limitations in the synthesis of various other alloys by inert gas condensation (IGC) due to the difference in the melting points are discussed. The existence of SG phase in these nanoparticles with CoFe2O4 shell results in the enhancement in EB. This is attributed to the large bulk anisotropy constant of the shell compared to other spinel cubic ferrites. Both dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements revealed a SG like transition which occurs at unusually large spin freezing temperature (TF ˜ 175K). The SG nature of the transition is also confirmed by the field dependence of the freezing temperature (TF(H)) following the well-known Almeida-Thouless (AT) line, deltaT F ˜ H2/3. Particles exhibit a large exchange bias (HEB ˜ 1357Oe) arising from the core-shell (ferromagnetic-SG) coupling. The unusually high SG transition temperature and large exchange bias effects are attributed to a combination of several factors including the thickness of the amorphous oxide shell and large values of the exchange and anisotropy constants associated with the CoFe2O 4 shell. In another extreme case of disordered spin systems, we synthesized NPs with hollow morphology with intentional choice of material namely NiFe 2O4 (CoFe2O4) which has lowest (highest) bulk anisotropy constant among the spinel ferrites. The hollow NPs are synthesized by self-templating process utilizing coupled interfacial chemical reactions and Kirkendall effect between the core (X33Fe67) and the shell (XFe2O4) of the core

  2. Morphology of the bicipital aponeurosis: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S D; Yogesh, A S; Mittal, P S; Joshi, S S

    2014-02-01

    The bicipital aponeurosis (BA) is a fascial expansion which arises from the tendon of biceps brachii and dissipates some of the force away from its enthesis. It helps in dual action of biceps brachii as supinator and flexor of forearm. The aim of the present work was to study the morphology of BA. Thirty cadavericupper limbs (16 right and 14 left side limbs) were dissected and dimensions ofthe BA were noted. The average width of aponeurosis at its commencement on the right was 15.74 mm while on the left it was 17.57 mm. The average angle between tendon and aponeurosis on the right was 21.16° and on the left it was 21.78°. The fibres from the short head of the biceps brachii contributed to the formation of proximal part of aponeurosis. Fascial sheath over the tendon oflong head of biceps brachii was seen to form the distal part of the aponeurosis. In 5 cases, large fat globules were present between the sheath and the tendon. Histologically: The aponeurosis showed presence of thick collagen bundles. Fascials heath covering the tendon of long head extended towards the aponeurosis and passed superficial to the tendon of biceps. Blood vessels and adipose tissue were found to be present between fascial sheath and the tendon. This morphological description of BA may be helpful 1) in elucidating the dynamic role that BA plays in normal functioning and 2) to the surgeons in the repair of ruptured biceps brachii tendon.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of macroscopic morphology and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Barrall, Geoffrey Alden

    1995-09-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance techniques are traditionally used to study molecular level structure and dynamics with a noted exception in medically applied NMR imaging (MRI). In this work, new experimental methods and theory are presented relevant to the study of macroscopic morphology and dynamics using NMR field gradient techniques and solid state two-dimensional exchange NMR. The goal in this work is not to take some particular system and study it in great detail, rather it is to show the utility of a number of new and novel techniques using ideal systems primarily as a proof of principle. By taking advantage of the analogy between NMR imaging and diffraction, one may simplify the experiments necessary for characterizing the statistical properties of the sample morphology. For a sample composed of many small features, e.g. a porous medium, the NMR diffraction techniques take advantage of both the narrow spatial range and spatial isotropy of the sample`s density autocorrelation function to obtain high resolution structural information in considerably less time than that required by conventional NMR imaging approaches. The time savings of the technique indicates that NMR diffraction is capable of finer spatial resolution than conventional NMR imaging techniques. Radio frequency NMR imaging with a coaxial resonator represents the first use of cylindrically symmetric field gradients in imaging. The apparatus as built has achieved resolution at the micron level for water samples, and has the potential to be very useful in the imaging of circularly symmetric systems. The study of displacement probability densities in flow through a random porous medium has revealed the presence of features related to the interconnectedness of the void volumes. The pulsed gradient techniques used have proven successful at measuring flow properties for time and length scales considerably shorter than those studied by more conventional techniques.

  4. A new substance to relax polychaete worms (Annelida) prior to morphological study

    PubMed Central

    Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rahimian, Hassan; Glasby, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of chemical substances have been used to relax and/or immobilize polychaete worms, and other invertebrates, prior to specimen preparation for morphological examination. To solve difficulties encountered during the study of nereidid polychaetes (Annelida: Phyllodocida), an experiment was designed and carried out to investigate a new relaxing agent to immobilize nereidid specimens and stimulate pharynx eversion. The new substance, Dentol® (Khoraman laboratory, Iran), a dental anesthetic and antiseptic medicine containing 10% Carvacrol as the effective ingredient, was used for the first time and compared with other substances that have been used traditionally in polychaete studies. Crosstab analysis showed significant differences between different treatment groups, with Dentol® providing much better results for all considered criteria. PMID:27408556

  5. [Study on morphology and anatomy of Akebia trifoliate seeds].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Ri; Li, Xiao-Lin; Dong, Hong-Ran; Li, Jun-De; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-12-01

    Akebia trifoliate has been reported to have many pharmacological activities and the roots, petioles and seeds are used to different symptoms. However, the structure and anatomy of its seeds was almost not reported until now. In the present study, we investigated the morphological characters of the fruit and seed, and the anatomical characters of the testa, micropyle, embryo and endosperm, which could provide evidences for the study on classification, identification and application of A. trifoliate. Our results showed that the testa of A. trifoliate consisted of an epidermic cell layer, the sclerenchyma cells layer, the parenchyma cells layer and an innermost pigment layer. At the micropylar region, the outermost epidermal cells were specialized the white caruncle-like structure and the testa included a lot of lignified tissues. Endosperm comprises two layer cells. Outermost yellowish-brown layer cells contains lots of fat droplets, and innermost white layer cells contains lots of aleurone grains and crystalloids.

  6. Morphological Effect of the New Antifungal Agent ME1111 on Hyphal Growth of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Determined by Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Takahata, Sho; Abe, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The effects of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, on the hyphal morphology and ultrastructure of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Structural changes, such as pit formation and/or depression of the cell surface, and degeneration of intracellular organelles and plasmolysis were observed after treatment with ME1111. Our results suggest that the inhibition of energy production by ME1111 affects the integrity and function of cellular membranes, leading to fungal cell death. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. [Morphological manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis found in fundus (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Budzinskaia, M V; Fedorov, A A; Pliukhova, A A; Voevodina, T M; Balatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Results of angiography and morphology of 32 eyes (16 chinchilla rabbits) with experimental atherosclerosis are presented. N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatova experimental hypercholesterolemia model (1912) was used. The animals were divided into the following groups: initial and advanced atherosclerosis, control group, follow-up 3 and 6 months. After 3 months progressive reduction of perfused retinal vessels and early degenerative changes of neurons and photoreceptors were found. In 6 months these changes became more significant and generalized. Due to ongoing small vessel reduction blood flow went to the major vessels and changed its distribution followed by ischemia of adjacent retina. No changes in choriocapillary layer and retinal pigment epithelium were found in any of groups studied.

  8. The acetabular point: a morphological and ontogenetic study

    PubMed Central

    RISSECH, C.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; MALGOSA, A.

    2001-01-01

    The acetabular point was analysed by studying human pelvic bones from 326 individuals ranging from newborns to age 97 y. The bones were categorised into 3 groups according to the degree of fusion for the 3 elements of the pelvis: nonfused (59), semifused (5) and fused (262). The acetabular point in immature pelvic bones is clearly represented by the point of the fusion lines for each bony element at the level of the acetabular fossa. In adult pelvic bones the acetabular fossa has an irregular clover-leaf shape, the superior lobe being smaller than the anterior and posterior lobes. Cross-sectional analysis of acetabular morphology suggested that the acetabular point in adult pelvic bones is always represented by the indentation between the superior and the anterior lobes of the acetabular fossa. PMID:11465866

  9. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors.

    PubMed

    Khater, M M; Issa, Y M; Hassib, H B; Mohammed, S H

    2015-05-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L(-1) for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01-10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes.

  10. Dynamic potential and surface morphology study of sertraline membrane sensors

    PubMed Central

    Khater, M.M.; Issa, Y.M.; Hassib, H.B.; Mohammed, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive and simple electrometric method was developed to determine sertraline hydrochloride (Ser-Cl) in its pure raw material and pharmaceutical formulations. Membrane sensors based on heteropolyacids as ion associating material were prepared. Silicomolybdic acid (SMA), silicotungstic acid (STA) and phosphomolybdic acid (PMA) were used. The slope and limit of detection are 50.00, 60.00 and 53.24 mV/decade and 2.51, 5.62 and 4.85 μmol L−1 for Ser-ST, Ser-PM and Ser-SM membrane sensors, respectively. Linear range is 0.01–10.00 for the three sensors. These new sensors were used for the potentiometric titration of Ser-Cl using sodium tetraphenylborate as titrant. The surface morphologies of the prepared membranes with and without the modifier (ion-associate) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopes. PMID:26257944

  11. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A.; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerella immaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerella causeyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla. PMID:25829846

  12. Morphological and molecular study of Symphyla from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Moncada, Diego A; Calle-Osorno, Jaime; Ruiz-Lopez, Freddy

    2015-01-01

    The symphylans are a poorly studied group. In Colombia the number of symphylan species is unknown with only Scutigerellaimmaculata (Symphyla: Scutigerellidae) being reported previously. The aim of this research was to collect and identify the symphylan pests of flower crops in Colombia. Morphological descriptions showed that our specimens shared more than one of the characters that define different genera within Scutigerellidae. The COI barcode haplotype showed interspecific level genetic divergence with Scutigerellacauseyae (at least 23%) and Hanseniella sp. (22%). Furthermore, our Colombian symphylans shared the same COI haplotype as some Symphyla found in Cameroon indicating a wide geographical distribution of this taxon. Our results suggest the presence of a new genus or subgenus in the class Symphyla.

  13. Physical Model Study: Rill Erosion Morphology and Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohmeier, S.; Klik, A.; Nouwakpo, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Using common catchment size erosion model software either lack of knowledge or lack in process ability of watershed characteristics leads to increasing simplifications in model assumptions. Referring to open channel hydraulics, erosion model equations are prevalently based on stepwise uniform flow condition requirements. Approaching balance of gravitational and frictional resistance forces, channel roughness is fundamental model input. The fusion of simplified model assumptions and the use of lumped roughness determination cause ambivalence in model calibration. By means of a physical model experiment at the National Soil Erosion Laboratory (NSERL), West Lafayette, USA, channel roughness was itemized into skin friction and channel shape friction due to rill morphology. Particularly the Manning-Strickler equation was analyzed concerning the applicability of constant and holistic factors describing boundary friction impacts. The insufficiency in using the Manning-Strickler equation for non-uniform flow conditions is widely advised, whereas lack in predictability in rill erosion development inhibits proper model adoptions. The aim of the present study is to determine the impact of channel morphology on roughness assessment in rill erosion scale. Therefore a 1.9 meter long, 0.6 meter wide and 0.3 meter deep flume with an inclination of 10 % was filled with a loamy soil representing a section of a hill slope. The soil was prepared and saturated by simulated rainfall before each model run. A single erosion channel was enforced to develop by means of steady state runoff. Two different erosion channel types were initiated and observed: I.) a Straight Constrained Rill (SCR) shape by concentration of the runoff into a prepared straight initial rill and II.) a Free Developing Rill (FDR) by back-cut erosion through the plain soil body. Discharge of the outflow was measured in 5 minute interval and outflow sediment concentration was measured every minute. A top view stereo

  14. Massive obesity and the kidney. A morphologic and statistical study.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The renal morphology of 5 grossly obese patients with normal renal function and many of the features of the Pickwickian syndrome was studied at autopsy. The most striking feature was that of increased glomerular size. Measurements of two parameters of glomerular areas indicated statistically significant glomerular enlargement for both as compared to controls. Glomerulomegaly was primarily the result of vascular dilatation and a variable mesangial component. This abnormality was related to several factors, including increased blood volume, hypoxia, and increased right ventricular pressure. Polycythemia, commonly noted in other similar conditions with glomerulomegaly, is believed to be of no importance in the pathogenesis of glomerular enlargement. Images Figure 3-6 Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1180328

  15. Morphologic and Morphometric Studies of Integrated Gully Systems on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulick, V. C.; Glines, N. H.; Freeman, P. M.; Morkner, P.; Narlesky, C.

    2016-12-01

    We have been conducting detailed morphologic and morphometric studies of gullies formed in various environmental settings on Mars using HiRISE images and DTMs. Several highly integrated gully systems have concave longitudinal profiles similar to those of terrestrial fluvial systems. Importantly, we do not see significant evidence for debris flow lobes or deposits on the floors of the gullies, either in their profiles or in the HiRISE stereo images, as would be expected for debris flows or other dry processes. Instead, deviations in the profile concavity generally correlate with gullies incising through stratigraphic layers. We also note several interesting correlations/associations in our study locations. 1) RSL are often found either in the tributaries of these integrated systems or in adjacent regions. Therefore, this implies that RSL may play a role in initiating gully formation and/or mark the last vestiges of water activity in these locations. 2) The more highly integrated gullies have eroded volumes significantly larger than their deposited apron volumes, suggesting that the missing volumes may reflect the volatile volumes involved in gully formation. In contrast, the Matara dune gully, which is less integrated, has minimal volume discrepancy. 3) THEMIS and TES surface temperatures of these gully sites, many of which contain RSL, approach or exceed 273K seasonally, suggesting that the volatile component is consistent with H2O, although CO2 may also play a role particularly during other seasons. 4) Apron volumes that equal or exceed their gully volumes suggest that dry flows, avalanching, gully infill, or other dry processes may have been more important in these less integrated systems. These associations suggest that although there are various gully morphologies on Mars that reflect the involvement of multiple processes, we find gully systems in Moni, Corozal, Palikir, and Lyot craters to be consistent with a primary formation by fluvial processes.

  16. Alexithymia in healthy women: a brain morphology study.

    PubMed

    Borsci, Genoveffa; Boccardi, Marina; Rossi, Roberta; Rossi, Giuseppe; Perez, Jorge; Bonetti, Matteo; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2009-04-01

    Alexithymia relates to difficulty recognizing and describing own feelings. Recent literature shows that specific structures process emotions. Aim of this study was to investigate whether alexithymia is associated with a specific cerebral morphology of candidate structures in healthy adults. Fifty-four female volunteers were enrolled in the study and the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) was self-administered. Gray matter (GM) volume was assessed with an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol on high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. The following three experiments were carried out: 1) contrast between the 14 volunteers with TAS-20 scores > or = 61 (alexithymic) and the 30 with scores < 51 (non-alexithymic), 2) correlation of TAS-20 scores on the whole sample and 3) contrast between the 14 alexithymic and 14 non-alexithymic matched by age. The significant threshold for VBM comparisons and correlation was set at p<0.005 uncorrected. The alexithymic group showed smaller GM volume in the anterior cingulate cortex (cluster size: 735 voxel no.; z=3.26; stereotaxic coordinates: -12, 22, 30) and middle temporal gyrus (256; 3.21; -60, 2, -20). Of specific biological relevance, smaller clusters were located in the anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus. The opposite comparison was negative. The correlation analysis confirmed the pattern of results mainly in the left hemisphere. Our findings suggest that the ability to process emotional aspects of the self correlates with morphology of a specific set of cerebral structures known to be involved in decision making and self awareness and rich in neurons subserving social competence.

  17. Einstein and Einstein A: A Study in Crater Morphology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image release May 14, 2010 Einstein and Einstein A: A Study in Crater Morphology Located on the western limb of the Moon, Einstein and Einstein A craters (16.3oN, 271.3oE ) are only visible to Earth-based observers during certain lunar lighting and orientation conditions. Einstein A is younger than Einstein, as indicated by the fact that it lies squarely in the middle of the floor of Einstein. When viewed in topographic data, these two craters reveal much about the relative age and shape of an impact crater. To understand further, let's first take a look at Einstein. Einstein is a fairly large crater that spans 198 km across. A crater's size alone however cannot reveal much about age. ÊEinstein's relative age can be determined by examining the frequency and distribution of impact craters overprinted on its rim and floor. Younger craters have had fewer impacts, which enables them to retain their original morphology. Einstein A reveals most of its original structure, including a raised rim and ejecta blanket, and is therefore a relatively young crater as compared to Einstein, whose original structure has been somewhat degraded over time by smaller impacts. The Einstein craters were named after famed physicist, philosopher, and scientist Albert Einstein (1879-1955). To learn more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/multimedia/lroimages/lola-... NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is home to the nation's largest organization of combined scientists, engineers and technologists that build spacecraft, instruments and new technology to study the Earth, the sun, our solar system, and the universe.

  18. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models

    PubMed Central

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as “differential equation based” (DE) or “agent based” (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem—positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells—to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches. PMID:27811328

  19. Agent-based modeling: case study in cleavage furrow models.

    PubMed

    Mogilner, Alex; Manhart, Angelika

    2016-11-07

    The number of studies in cell biology in which quantitative models accompany experiments has been growing steadily. Roughly, mathematical and computational techniques of these models can be classified as "differential equation based" (DE) or "agent based" (AB). Recently AB models have started to outnumber DE models, but understanding of AB philosophy and methodology is much less widespread than familiarity with DE techniques. Here we use the history of modeling a fundamental biological problem-positioning of the cleavage furrow in dividing cells-to explain how and why DE and AB models are used. We discuss differences, advantages, and shortcomings of these two approaches.

  20. Synthesis of calcium carbonate using extract components of croaker gill as morphology and polymorph adjust control agent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Qing, Chengsong; Zheng, Jiaoling; Liu, Yuxi; Wu, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate with various polymorphs, sizes and morphologies by using organic substrates has become an interesting topic for the last years. Calcium carbonate has been synthesized by the reaction of Na2CO3 and CaCl2 in the presence of extract components of croaker gill. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum, and particle morphologies were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that at lower concentration yellow croaker gill extract has no effect on calcium carbonate crystal polymorph. Calcite was obtained only. But the morphologies of calcite particle change with the increase of the concentration. The corners of the particle change from angular to curved. However, with the further increase of the concentration of yellow croaker gill extract, the calcium carbonate obtained is a mixture of calcite and vaterite. The vaterite component in the mixture rises with increasing concentration of extract solution, indicating that the proteins from the yellow croaker gill during growth play a crucial role in stabilizing and directing the crystal growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of complexing agent TEA: The structural, morphological, topographical and optical properties of FexSx nano thin films deposited by SILAR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manikandan, K.; Mani, P.; Surendra Dilip, C.; Valli, S.; Fermi Hilbert Inbaraj, P.; Joseph Prince, J.

    2014-01-01

    Iron sulfide thin films (FexSx) (x = 0.05 M, 0.10 M, 0.15 M, 0.20 M and 0.25 M) were deposited by SILAR method from equimolar and equivolume aqueous solutions of ferrous nitrate and sodium sulfide with the addition of complexing agent TEA. The structural, morphological and optical characteristics of the films were derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-vis spectral techniques. The mixed characteristics (crystalline and amorphous) of the deposited films and the increasing crystalline qualities with the concentrations were understood from the XRD analysis. The grain sizes and roughness of the films were decreases with the increasing concentration and also at the higher concentration films are shown by the same images presence of hexagonal like crystallite structure. The influence of complexing agent TEA on the surface roughness and morphological properties are confirmed by the atomic force microscope (AFM) results. The effect of increasing substrate concentration on the absorption and transmission measurements and its impact on the optical band-gap energy were enumerated from the UV-vis analysis.

  2. Morphological, structural and thermal studies of gallium nitride ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Indrakanti, Rajani; Rao, V. Brahmaji; Kiran, C. Udaya

    2016-05-06

    We report the synthesis and Characterization of III-V doped Nano ferrite Ga{sub (2x+2)}N Fe{sub 2(49-x)}O{sub 3} for x=1 and x=5 by Sol-Gel method. The Morphological, structural and Thermal characterisation studies are done by using Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, Selected Area Electron Diffraction, Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis and Differential Thermal Analysis. Using the Sci-Finder software we could not trace any reports related to GaNFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the literature. It has been observed from our studies that the particles are in the Cylindrical and the Globular structure. The particle diameter values from the Histograms are in good agreement with the XRD values that were communicated by us earlier. The SAED and the EDAX studies reveal the confirmation of the composition and also that the synthesized Ferrite exhibits crystalline nature. The TG-DTA results show that the compound indicates constant sample weight.

  3. Morphological and stoichiometric study of chemical bath deposited CdS films by varying ammonia concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Q. Q.; Shi, J. H.; Li, Z. Q.; Zhang, D. W.; Li, X. D.; Sun, Z.; Zhang, L. Y.; Huang, S. M.

    2010-10-01

    The influence of ammonia concentration on stoichiometric, surface morphological, and optical properties of chemical bath deposited cadmium sulphide thin films has been studied systemically. Chemical bath deposition (CBD) of CdS thin films was carried out via using cadmium acetate as the cadmium ion source, thiourea as the sulphur source and ammonia as the complexing agent. Ammonia concentration was changed from 0 to 2.5 M. At ammonia concentration greater than or equal to 0.1 M and lower than 0.6 M, nanowires or flake-like structures were obtained. At ammonia concentration ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 M, uniform, dense, and continuously coated films were obtained. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis revealed that as the ammonia concentration changed from 0.1 to 2.0 M, the Cd/S ratio in the obtained film increased from 0.24 to 2.61. Not only typical cadmium-poor but also unusual sulphur deficiency phenomena were observed for CBD CdS thin films. The films deposited with ammonia concentration of 1.0 M show the highest degree of crystallinity and closest stoichiometry Cd/S≅1, and have a preferred orientation. The direct band energy gaps of as-grown films were found to be 2.23-2.77 eV. The formation mechanism of the films with various morphologies and cadmium and sulphur deficiencies are discussed.

  4. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  5. Morphological and microstructural studies on aluminizing coating of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect

    Samsu, Zaifol; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Daud, Abd Razak; Hussein, Hishammuddin

    2013-11-27

    Hot dip aluminizing is one of the most effective methods of surface protection for steels and is gradually gaining popularity. The morphology and microstructure of an inter-metallic layer form on the surface of low carbon steel by hot dip aluminization treatment had been studied in detail. This effect has been investigated using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The result shows that the reaction between the steel and the molten aluminium leads to the formation of Fe–Al inter-metallic compounds on the steel surface. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopic studies showed that a two layer coating was formed consisting of an external Al layer and a (Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5}) inter metallic on top of the substrate after hot dip aluminizing process. The inter-metallic layer is ‘thick’ and exhibits a finger-like growth into the steel. Microhardness testing shown that the intermetallic layer has high hardness followed by steel substrate and the lowest hardness was Al layer.

  6. The posterior meniscofemoral ligament: morphologic study and anatomic classification.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ho; Kim, Deog-Im; Choi, Seung-Gyu; Lee, Jun-Hee; Kim, Yi-Suk

    2012-07-01

    The meniscofemoral ligaments (MFLs) run from the medial femoral condyle to the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and consist of anterior MFL (aMFL) and/or posterior MFL (pMFL) components according to whether it passes anterior or posterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence and morphologic features of the MFLs in Koreans and formulate an anatomic classification system of MFLs to aid the detailed interpretation of medical imaging or biomechanical data. One hundred knees from 52 cadavers were studied. Eighty-seven knees had pMFLs, whereas an aMFL was only found in one knee from a male cadaver. The pMFLs and PCLs were longer in males than in females (P < 0.05). The most common type of MFL was the high crossing of a typical pMFL against the PCL in both genders. Regarding other types, the incidence of absent pMFLs was higher in males than in females and the oblique bundle of the PCL was easily confused with the pMFL in several cases in both genders. These results provide the basis for the classification system of the MFL and will contribute to better outcomes for evaluating the MFL and PCL when using medical imaging such as arthro-CT scan or MRI through a better understanding of the anatomy of the MFL and PCL.

  7. Preparation, structural and morphological studies of Ni doped titania nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamannan, B.; Mugundan, S.; Viruthagiri, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Gobi, R.; Praveen, P.

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanoparticles doped with different weight percentages (4%, 8%, 12% and 16%) of nickel contents were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using Titanium tetra iso propoxide and nickel nitrate as precursors and 2-propanol as a solvent. X-ray diffraction studies show that the as prepared and annealed products show anatase structure with average particle sizes running between of 8 and 16 nm. FTIR results demonstrate the presence of strong chemical bonding at the interface of TiO2 nanoparticles. The optical properties of bare and doped samples were carried out using UV-DRS and photoluminescence measurements. The surface morphology and the element constitution of the nickel doped TiO2 nanoparticles were studied by scanning electron microscope attached with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer arrangement. The non linear optical properties of the products were confirmed by Kurtz second harmonic generation (SHG) test and the output power generated by the nanoparticle was compared with that of potassium di hydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  8. Morphological Study of Palatal Rugae in a Sudanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla; Hamid, Awrad

    2015-01-01

    Palatal rugae patterns have unique characteristics and have been proposed as an alternative method to establish identity when other means, such as fingerprints and dental records, are not attainable. This study was conducted to determine the morphological characteristics of palatine rugae and to assess the existence of side asymmetry in them in Sudanese Arabs. It also assesses the possibility of determining sex using logistic regression. One hundred dental casts for 50 males and 50 females aged between 18 and 23 were studied for palatal rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, as well as sexual dimorphism and side symmetry. The most predominant rugae were primary, and the most prevalent shapes in both sexes were wavy, curved, and straight forms. The predominant orientation was forward. Side asymmetry existed more in the orientations than in the shapes, but no side asymmetry was recorded in the dimensions. There was no significant sexual dimorphism in the rugae dimensions, shapes, and orientations, except for forward-directed rugae (P < 0.037). A predictive value of 60% was obtained in assigning sex using dimensions and orientations and of 58% using shapes alone. Therefore, the palatal rugae are not recommended for assigning sex effectively among Sudanese Arabs unless it is the only means available. PMID:25737723

  9. CN MORPHOLOGY STUDIES OF COMET 103P/HARTLEY 2

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.

    2011-06-15

    We report on narrowband CN imaging of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory on 39 nights from 2010 July until 2011 January. We observed two features, one generally to the north and the other generally to the south. The CN morphology varied during the apparition: no morphology was seen in July; in August and September, the northern feature dominated and appeared as a mostly face-on spiral; in October, November, and December, the northern and southern features were roughly equal in brightness and looked like more side-on corkscrews; in January, the southern feature was dominant but the morphology was indistinct due to very low signal. The morphology changed smoothly during each night and similar morphology was seen from night to night. However, the morphology did not exactly repeat each rotation cycle, suggesting that there is a small non-principal axis rotation. Based on the repetition of the morphology, we find evidence that the fundamental rotation period was increasing: 16.7 hr from August 13 to 17, 17.2 hr from September 10 to 13, 18.2 hr from October 12 to 19, and 18.7 hr from October 31 to November 7. We conducted Monte Carlo jet modeling to constrain the pole orientation and locations of the active regions based on the observed morphology. Our preliminary, self-consistent pole solution has an obliquity of 10{sup 0} relative to the comet's orbital plane (i.e., it is centered near R.A. = 257{sup 0} and decl. = +67{sup 0} with an uncertainty around this position of about 15{sup 0}) and has two mid-latitude sources, one in each hemisphere.

  10. Cytoprotective drugs in the prevention of ethanol-induced experimental gastric mucosal damage: a morphological study.

    PubMed

    Gaudio, E; Carpino, F; Petrozza, V; Bianchi, G; Alberico, P; Melis, M; Carlei, F; Lygidakis, N J

    1993-04-01

    Various so-called "cytoprotective" agents (sucralfate, carbenoxolone, 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2, sulglycotide and Maalox TC) have been tested on rats, with the aim of quantifying their capability to prevent ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Rats fasted for 48 hours received 1 ml of 80% ethanol by oral gavage, after prior oral treatment with placebo or one of the above-mentioned drugs u.i.d. for 5 consecutive days. Six hours after ethanol administration, the animals were sacrificed and the stomach was removed and processed for computerized macroscopic assessment of the damaged surface and for structural (light microscopy) and ultrastructural (scanning and transmission electron microscopy) studies. The results obtained demonstrate that ethanol injury caused extensive mucosal necrosis of the glandular region of the stomach, an event that was effectively reduced in rats treated with 16,16-dm-PGE2, carbenoxolone or sulglycotide. These drugs appeared to preserve the mucosa, with morphology comparable to that of normal noninjured rats - in contrast to the other drugs investigated. These data confirm the cytoprotective properties of sulglycotide in particular, which was the most potent agent for preventing the development of ethanol-induced acute lesions of the gastric mucosa.

  11. Lung morphology: a cadaver study in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Prakash; Bhardwaj, Ajay Kumar; Shashirekha, M; Suma, H Y; Krishna, G Gowtham; Singh, Gajendra

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of anatomical variations of lung is required by clinicians for accurate interpretation on different imaging techniques. During routine dissection in the anatomy department, a single lung extending uniformly throughout the thoracic cavity was detected in a 35 year old male cadaver. Thereafter a cadaver study was undertaken to report the prevalence of variations involving number, lobes and fissures of lung in Indian population. The thoracic cavities of 29 properly embalmed cadavers containing lungs were dissected and morphological features like number, fissures and lobes were observed for the presence of anatomical variations. The aforementioned single lung cadaver had associated dextrocardia. One accessory lobe on the inferior aspect was observed in 27.2% of lungs studied, whereas supernumerary fissures which were most common in right lower lobe were detected in 35% of lung specimens. The transverse fissure on the right lung was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 50% of lung specimens. In the right lung, the oblique fissure was absent in 7.1% and incomplete in 39.3% of specimens. The oblique fissure was absent in 10.7% and incomplete in 35.7% of left lungs. Comparative analysis of our work with previous data in the literature suggest that different studies performed on radiological images reported greater prevalence of incomplete or absent pulmonary fissures as compared to various cadaver studies. Our aforementioned findings regarding the variations seen in fissures and lobes of both lungs were different from previous studies. Variations of lung anatomy are important for both the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases involving all the domains of medicine.

  12. Morphological studies of cartilage endplates in subaxial cervical region.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Songchuan; Hao, Dingjun; Jiang, Yonghong; Huang, Dageng; Ge, Chaoyuan; Feng, Hang

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to provide morphological data of endplates for the redesign of cervical artificial disc for use in the middle and lower cervical spine (C3-C7). Reformatted CT scans of 73 individuals were analysed. The shapes of superior endplates (SEPs) and inferior endplates (IEPs) were classified as either flat or arced. The curvature radius of the IEP and sagittal disc angle were measured in the mid-sagittal plane. The maximum transverse diameter (MTD) of the SEPs and IEP was measured in the coronal plane. The majority of SEPs were flat (79.5 % at C7 and 91.8-95.9 % at C3-C6). Almost all (98.6-100 %) IEPs were arced. The curvature radius has a gradually increasing trend from C3 to C6 (P < 0.05, mean 29.26 mm). There were significant differences at C3-C7 in the average sagittal disc angles (5.80°, 6.92°, 7.51°, and 8.82°, respectively; P < 0.05; mean 7.26°), the average MTDs of the SEPs (13.64, 14.42, 15.03, and 16.74 mm, respectively, P < 0.05; mean 14.96 mm) and the average MTD of the IEPs (16.77, 17.67, 19.15, and 21.66 mm, respectively; P < 0.05; mean 18.81 mm). The majority of SEPs were flat, while almost all IEPs were curved. The curvature radius of IEPs has a gradually increasing trend from C3 to C6. The average sagittal disc angles, MTDs of the SEPs and IEPs significantly increased from C3 to C7. Based on the above, the current cervical artificial disc design does not sufficiently match the morphology of cervical endplates (CEPs). This mismatch may lead to some postoperative complications of cervical disc arthroplasty.

  13. Morphological Study of Directionally Freeze-Cast Nickel Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hyungyung; Kim, Min Jeong; Choi, Hyelim; Sung, Yung-Eun; Choe, Heeman; Dunand, David C.

    2016-03-01

    Nickel foams, consisting of 51 to 62 pct aligned, elongated pores surrounded by a network of Ni walls, were fabricated by reduction and sintering of directionally cast suspensions of nanometric NiO powders in water. Use of dispersant in the slurry considerably affected the foam morphology and microstructure at both the micro- and macro-scale, most likely by modifying ice solidification into dendrites (creating the aligned, elongated macro-pores) and NiO powder accumulation in the inter-dendritic space (creating the Ni walls with micro-pores). The mean width of the Ni walls, in foams solidified with and without dispersant, was 21 ± 5 and 75 ± 13 µm, respectively. Additionally, the foams with the dispersant showed less dense walls and rougher surfaces than those without the dispersant. Moreover, the fraction of closed pores present in the foam walls with the dispersant was higher than that of the samples without dispersant. We finally verified the potential energy application of the Ni foam produced in this study by carrying out a preliminary single-cell performance test with the Ni foam sample as the gas diffusion layer on the anode side of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.

  14. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-04

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities.

  15. Structural, textural and morphological characteristics of tannins from Acacia mearnsii encapsulated using sol-gel methods: Applications as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Cristiane; Vargas, Álvaro; Fronza, Ney; Dos Santos, João Henrique Zimnoch

    2017-03-01

    Tannins from Acacia mearnsii were encapsulated using four different sol-gel methods acid (SGAR), basic (SGBR), silicate (SGSR) and non-hydrolytic (SGNHR) routes. The hybrid materials were analyzed using a set of techniques to characterize their structure, texture and morphology. The antimicrobial performance of the encapsulated materials was evaluated against different microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Candida sp.). The data showed that the encapsulation route significantly affects the characteristics of the resulting hybrid materials. Better functional performances were obtained using the silicate route, which produced mesoporous materials with a small surface area (0.96m(2)g(-1)) and small particle size (<1nm). These characteristics promoted the gradual release of tannins in an aqueous medium and improved their interactions with microorganisms. Furthermore, the process demonstrated the preservation of tannins after synthesis and increased antimicrobial activity (via a controlled tannin release), as demonstrated by the moderate activity against filamentous fungi and yeast.

  16. [Biofilm from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Morphological SEM studies].

    PubMed

    Głowacki, Roman; Strek, Paweł; Zagórska-Swiezy, Katarzyna; Składzień, Jacek; Oleś, Krzysztof; Hydzik-Sobocińska, Karolina; Miodoński, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm is a three-dimensional structure made of aggregates of bacterial cells (microcolonies) and the extra cellular matrix released by them, adhering to organic and inorganic surfaces. It is estimated that 99% of all bacteria exist in biofilms, and only 1% live in a free-floating or planktonic state at any given time. The aim of the study was to demonstrate biofilms in mucosal specimens of patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis and co-occurrence of such illnesses as nasal polyps, bronchial asthma, NSAIDs allergy, and aspirin-induced asthma. A prospective study of 25 patients suffering from chronic rhinosinusitis. All patients underwent completed a otolaryngological examination and paranasal sinus CT scans. Endoscopic surgery of nasal sinuses (ESS) was performed in all patients. The mucous membrane samples were taken from the inside of the sinus and concha bullosa. They were prepared and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The images were then compared with the available database of the biofilm images. Using SEM morphologic criteria, the biofilms were identified in the studied material in nineteen patients (83%). In four patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, no biofilms were found on the samples taken. A bacteriological examination of smears from inside of the sinus, revealed the presence of various types of bacteria. In two patients no bacteria was found in the smears. It is supposed that bacterial biofilms perform an essential role in the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis. One may speculate that, the presence of biofilms in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis could induce the co-occurrence of such illnesses as nasal polyps, bronchial asthma, aspirin-induced asthma or a NSAIDs allergy. In order to evaluate better the role of biofilms in chronic rhinosinusitis, it seems justified to extend the research to a larger group of patients and a control group.

  17. Morphological study of fossa ovalis and its clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, S.D.; Chawre, H.K.; Joshi, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been implicated in the etiology of a number of different pathologies, including cryptogenic stroke, decompression sickness in divers, etc. It can act as a channel for paradoxical embolism. PFO is not an uncommon condition, with a probe-patency in 15–35% population. The fossa ovalis (FOv) varies in size and shape from heart to heart; the prominence of annulus FOv also varies. The entire FOv may be redundant and aneurysmal. The anatomico-functional characterization of interatrial septum seems to be of paramount importance for both atrial septal defect (ASD) and PFO, not only for the device selection, but also for the evaluation of the outcome of this procedure. Method This study was conducted in 50 apparently normal hearts available in Department of Anatomy. After opening the right atrium, the shape of FOv was observed. The size was measured with the digital vernier caliper; the prominence and extent of limbus, and the redundancy or otherwise of FOv were noted; probe patency was confirmed. Results In the majority, FOv was oval (82%); average transverse diameter was 14.53 mm and vertical 12.60 mm. In 90%, the rim of the annulus was raised; in 20%, a recess was found deep to the margin of the annulus; and 18% showed probe patency. Conclusion As no study of this nature has been carried out in the Indian population, this provides pertinent information on the morphology of FOv, which may be useful for device selection in treating ASD and PFO. PMID:27133322

  18. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: an elicited production study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Stephen M; Brandt, Temre H; Henry, Maya L; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-09-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy.

  19. Inflectional morphology in primary progressive aphasia: An elicited production study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen M.; Brandt, Temre H.; Henry, Maya L.; Babiak, Miranda; Ogar, Jennifer M.; Salli, Chelsey; Wilson, Lisa; Peralta, Karen; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Inflectional morphology lies at the intersection of phonology, syntax and the lexicon, three language domains that are differentially impacted in the three main variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). To characterize spared and impaired aspects of inflectional morphology in PPA, we elicited inflectional morphemes in 48 individuals with PPA and 13 healthy age-matched controls. We varied the factors of regularity, frequency, word class, and lexicality, and used voxel-based morphometry to identify brain regions where atrophy was predictive of deficits on particular conditions. All three PPA variants showed deficits in inflectional morphology, with the specific nature of the deficits dependent on the anatomical and linguistic features of each variant. Deficits in inflecting low-frequency irregular words were associated with semantic PPA, with lexical/semantic deficits, and with left temporal atrophy. Deficits in inflecting pseudowords were associated with non-fluent/agrammatic and logopenic variants, with phonological deficits, and with left frontal and parietal atrophy. PMID:25129631

  20. The study of multiphase polymer-blend morphologies by HVEM

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanaugh, T.J.; Nauman, E.B.; Buttle, K.; Turner, J.N.

    1996-12-31

    Multiphase polymer blends are important in the polymer industry. Most commercial blends consist of two main polymers combined with a third, compatibilizing polymer, typically a graft or block copolymer. The most common examples are those involving the impact modification of a brittle thermoplastic by the microdispersion of a rubber into the matrix. Recently, a model of ternary polymer blend has provided a wealth of morphologies for examination. Even though this model can give an excellent basis for the design of a polymer blend, experimental verification is necessary. A correlation of blend properties such as impact strength with blend morphology must also be made. The focus is to confirm the predicted morphologies in binary and ternary blends using HVEM.

  1. Biology, behavior, and larval morphology of Salbia lotanalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens (Myrtales: Melastomataceae) from Costa Rica

    Treesearch

    Alexander Castillo; M. Tracy Johnson; Francisco R. Badenes-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The leaf roller Salbia lotanalis Druce (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a potential biological control agent of Miconia calvescens de Candolle (Melastomataceae), was studied in Costa Rica. Larvae were collected from a field site near San Jose and the insect was reared in the laboratory to study its biology and behavior. Chaetotaxy and...

  2. Collagenous gastritis: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study of 40 patients.

    PubMed

    Arnason, Thomas; Brown, Ian S; Goldsmith, Jeffrey D; Anderson, William; O'Brien, Blake H; Wilson, Claire; Winter, Harland; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-04-01

    Collagenous gastritis is a rare condition defined histologically by a superficial subepithelial collagen layer. This study further characterizes the morphologic spectrum of collagenous gastritis by evaluating a multi-institutional series of 40 patients (26 female and 14 male). The median age at onset was 16 years (range 3-89 years), including 24 patients (60%) under age 18. Twelve patients (30%) had associated celiac disease, collagenous sprue, or collagenous colitis. Hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed in biopsies from all patients and tenascin, gastrin, eotaxin, and IgG4/IgG immunohistochemical stains were applied to a subset. The distribution of subepithelial collagen favored the body/fundus in pediatric patients and the antrum in adults. There were increased surface intraepithelial lymphocytes (>25 lymphocytes/100 epithelial cells) in five patients. Three of these patients had associated celiac and/or collagenous sprue/colitis, while the remaining two had increased duodenal lymphocytosis without specific etiology. An eosinophil-rich pattern (>30 eosinophils/high power field) was seen in 21/40 (52%) patients. Seven patients' biopsies demonstrated atrophy of the gastric corpus mucosa. Tenascin immunohistochemistry highlighted the subepithelial collagen in all 21 specimens evaluated and was a more sensitive method of collagen detection in biopsies from two patients with subtle subepithelial collagen. No increased eotaxin expression was identified in 16 specimens evaluated. One of the twenty-three biopsies tested had increased IgG4-positive cells (100/high power field) with an IgG4/IgG ratio of 55%. In summary, collagenous gastritis presents three distinct histologic patterns including a lymphocytic gastritis-like pattern, an eosinophil-rich pattern, and an atrophic pattern. Eotaxin and IgG4 were not elevated enough to implicate these pathways in the pathogenesis. Tenascin immunohistochemistry can be used as a sensitive method of collagen detection.

  3. Perinatal hemochromatosis. Clinical, morphologic, and quantitative iron studies.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Beverley, D. W.; Valberg, L. S.; Cutz, E.; Phillips, M. J.; Shaheed, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    Three sibling and two isolated-case perinates (4 newborn, 1 stillborn) died with siderotic cirrhosis and widespread parenchymal siderosis, the latter similar to that seen in both hereditary and secondary hemochromatosis. Reticuloendothelial siderosis was absent, as occurs in primary hemochromatosis. Studies of iron metabolism were performed antemortem in two of the siblings and ante-, post- and internatally in their mother, who showed hyperferremia antenatally. The only finding in the affected family suggestive of hereditary hemochromatosis was the commonly associated HLA haplotype (A3, B7) in the mother and an infant. Liver morphology, including immunocytochemistry and ultrastructure, was similar in the 5 infants and suggested that liver disease commenced as massive necrosis in midfetal life. Histologic grading and chemical assays for iron and copper on liver and spleen of the 5 index cases were compared with 26 controls; placentas were compared with 12 control placentas. Hepatic iron concentration, but not hepatic copper concentration, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls. Hepatic iron to copper ratio was significantly increased in index cases, compared with controls, but this ratio was unaltered in spleen and placenta. Total hepatic iron, but not total hepatic copper, was significantly increased in index cases, compared with a subgroup of 11 controls of low gestational age, similar to the fetal stage when liver disease commenced in utero. The results suggest that, irrespective of the fetal liver disease being genetic or acquired, hepatic iron overload was directly involved in pathogenesis. Images Figure 5 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3307444

  4. Morphological Study of the Accommodative Apparatus in the Monkey Eye

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Mari; Inoue, Kenichi; Senoo, Haruki; Takada, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    For more than a century there has been debate concerning the mechanism of accommodation—whether the lens capsule or lens material itself determines the functional relationship between ciliary muscle contractility and lens deformation during refractive adaptation. This morphological study in monkey eyes investigates the composition and distribution of several connective tissue components in the accommodative apparatus relaying muscle force to lens organization. Elastin distributes on the marginal surface of the ciliary process. A zonule is composed of fibrillin produced by epithelial cells of the process. In the progress of extension over the posterior chamber, fibrils unite into strands and possess longitudinal plasticity. By induction of the elastin network, strands extend in a concentric direction covering the equatorial region of the capsule. Upon tethering to the lens, the strand ramifies into fibrils, penetrating deeply close to the epithelial layer of the lens and binding with the collagen of the intercellular spaces. Tight linkage of the zonule with the capsule transmits precise contractility. Inside the lens, the cortical layer's elastic connective tissue network forms widely spaced lamellae of crystalline fibers. In contrast, the central nuclear lamellae are tightly opposed. The accumulation of lamellae is greater in the anterior cortex than in the posterior, yielding a more variable anterior chamber depth in the visual axis. The plasticity of the zonule and connective tissue distribution inside the lens produces an adjustable configuration. Thus, tight linkage between the dynamism of the capsule with interaction of the lenticular flexibility provides a novel understanding of accommodation. Anat Rec, 298:630–636, 2015. PMID:25403484

  5. Morphological studies of sulfonated polystyrene and sulfonated EPDM ionomers

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    Two ionomer systems have been investigated in this research. Sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) is a typical random ionomer and is a good material for studies into the nature of phase separation in ionomers. A series of narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD) zinc neutralized SPS samples of varying sulfonation levels were prepared and analyzed through small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). Results indicated that the correlation distance varied with both molecular weight and sulfonation level. Increases in the position of the scattering maximum with sulfonation level is the result of a greater number of ionic groups. Increasing molecular weight led to the movement of the scattering maximum to smaller scattering vectors, an indication of larger distances. It was also observed that ionomer peak occurred at smaller scattering vectors for the narrow MWD samples than in corresponding materials of greater dispersity. SAXS was also used to examine the morphology of zinc stearate (ZnSt) filled sulfonated EPDM (S-EPDM) ionomers and the nature of the interaction between the plasticizer and the ionomer. S-EPDM is a material that may find use as a thermoplastic elastomer, although its melt viscosity is too high to allow for convenient processing. The addition of of ZnSt as a plasticizer greatly reduces the melt viscosity of S-EPDM. ZnSt exists in this system as very small crystallites which are associated with ionic groups. As the temperature is increased, the crystallites anneal briefly into larger crystals before melting and diffusing into the S-EPDM matrix. Above the melting temperature of the ZnSt, it solvates the ionic groups of the ionomer, decreasing their self-association and the viscosity of the system. Increasing ZnSt loading is seen in the SAXS as an increase in scattering in the low angle region. However, this increase in intensity is not linear with concentration, showing that ZnSt exists in different environments at higher concentrations.

  6. Morphological study of borosilicate glass surface irradiated by heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T. S.; Du, X.; Yuan, W.; Duan, B. H.; D. Zhang, J.; Chen, L.; Peng, H. B.; Yang, D.; Zhang, G. F.; Zhu, Z. H.

    2016-11-01

    Borosilicate glass is a candidate material for radiation waste formation and other optical applications in various fields. To understand the radiation effect of borosilicate glass, heavy ion (Arq+, Krq+ and Xeq+) irradiations were used to simulate the alpha and recoiled nuclei irradiations in this study. The surface morphology of glass has been compared to ion irradiation doses and ion energies. The surface topography evolution of irradiated samples is characterized by optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Micro-bumps are observed on the sample surface after irradiationwith 5 MeV Xeq+ over 5 × 1013 ions·cm-2. The size and density of the bumps increaseswith increasing irradiation dose. At a lowdose, bumps are on the nanometer (nm) scale and rather rare.While the dose is higher than 9 × 1015 ions·cm-2, the size of bumps is on the scale of a few microns, and the density is saturated. However, the height of the bumps increases froma fewnmto over 150nmwith further irradiation. The distribution of micro-bumps is nearly homogeneous. The bumps are condensed and swell up, and there is no crystallized structure according to the TEMdiffraction pattern. Elementmigration and concentrations are observedwith SIMS imaging. The arrayed micro-bumps are a new finding, and they might be used to change the surface properties. Bump formation is caused by phase separation, and volume swelling is induced by ion irradiation.

  7. Formation and Morphology of Zn2Ti3O8 Powders Using Hydrothermal Process without Dispersant Agent or Mineralizer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Li; Hwang, Weng-Sing; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Ko, Horng-Huey; Hsi, Chi-Shiung; Huang, Hong-Hsin; Wang, Moo-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Synthesis of Zn2Ti3O8 powders for attenuating UVA using TiCl4, Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and NH4OH as precursor materials by hydrothermal process has been investigated. The X-ray diffractometry (XRD) results show the phases of ZnO, anatase TiO2 and Zn2Ti3O8 coexisted when the zinc titanate powders were calcined at 600 °C for 1 h. When calcined at 900 °C for 1 h, the XRD results reveal the existence of ZnO, Zn2TiO4, rutile TiO2 and ZnTiO3. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations show extensive large agglomeration in the samples. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED) examination results indicate that ZnTiO3 crystallites formed with a size of about 5 nm on the matrix of plate-like ZnO when calcined at 700 °C for 1 h. The calcination samples have acceptable absorbance at a wavelength of 400 nm, indicating that the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 700 °C for 1 h can be used as an UVA-attenuating agent. PMID:21541035

  8. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  9. [Experiments using rats on Kosmos biosatellites: morphologic and biochemical studies].

    PubMed

    Il'in, E A; Kaplanskiĭ, A S; Savina, E A

    1989-01-01

    Results of morphological and biochemical investigations of rats flown on Cosmos biosatellites are discussed. It is emphasized that most changes occurring during exposure to microgravity are directly or indirectly related to lower musculoskeletal loads which in turn produce deconditioning of different physiological systems and organism as a whole. It is concluded that this deconditioning is associated with both metabolic and structural changes.

  10. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  11. Human lung morphology models for particle deposition studies.

    PubMed

    Martonen, T B; Schroeter, J D; Hwang, D; Fleming, J S; Conway, J H

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of human lung morphology is of paramount importance in calculating deposition patterns of inhaled particulate matter (PM) to be used in the definition of ambient air quality standards. Due to the inherently complex nature of the branching structure of the airway network, practical assumptions must be made for modeling purposes. The most commonly used mathematical models reported in the literature that describe PM deposition use Weibel's model A morphology. This assumes the airways of the lung to be a symmetric, dichotomously branching system. However, computer simulations of this model, when compared to scintigraphy images, have shown it to lack physiological realism (Martonen et al., 1994a). Therefore, a more physiologically realistic model of the lung is needed to improve the current PM dosimetry models. Herein, a morphological model is presented that is based on laboratory data from planar gamma camera and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Key elements of this model include: The parenchymal wall of the lung is defined in mathematical terms, the whole lung is divided into distinct left and right components, a set of branching angles is derived from experimental measurements, and the branching network is confined within the discrete left and right components (i.e., there is no overlapping of airways). In future work, this new, more physiologically realistic morphological model can be used to calculate PM deposition patterns for risk assessment protocols.

  12. Epidemiologic studies of environmental agents and systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, M D

    1999-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic scleroderma are autoimmune diseases thought to have an exogenous trigger. This review summarizes relevant case-control and cohort studies that investigated exogenous sex hormones, silica, silicone, solvents, pesticides, mercuric chloride, and hair dyes as putative risk factors for the development of these diseases. These studies indicate that estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women increases the risk of developing lupus, scleroderma, and Raynaud disease, although the increase in risk is relatively modest. Oral contraceptives may also play a role in disease susceptibility in lupus but not apparently in scleroderma. Environmental endocrine modulators, in the form of pesticides, may represent another opportunity for estrogenlike effects to occur, but there is scant evidence that these agents play a role in human systemic autoimmune disease. Although exposure to silica dust increases the risk of scleroderma in men occupied in the industry, this does not explain most male scleroderma cases. When this exposure was investigated among women, no significant risk was found. Additionally, silicone in implanted devices as well as occupational exposure to silicone-containing compounds did not pose an increased risk among women for scleroderma. The role of solvent exposure has been investigated as a risk factor for scleroderma with mixed findings. One study suggested a potential role in male patients or in those individuals with Scl-70 antibody positivity either male or female. Two other studies were unable to corroborate this finding. Mercuric chloride causes antifibrillarin antibodies and immune complex glomerulonephritis in susceptible mouse strains. Antifibrillarin antibodies, but not glomerulonephritis, occur in a subset of scleroderma patients and preliminary evidence suggests that mercury levels may be higher in this group of individuals. Hair products have been studied as possibly raising the risk of developing lupus

  13. The Study on Collaborative Manufacturing Platform Based on Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Qu, Zheng-geng

    To fulfill the trends of knowledge-intensive in collaborative manufacturing development, we have described multi agent architecture supporting knowledge-based platform of collaborative manufacturing development platform. In virtue of wrapper service and communication capacity agents provided, the proposed architecture facilitates organization and collaboration of multi-disciplinary individuals and tools. By effectively supporting the formal representation, capture, retrieval and reuse of manufacturing knowledge, the generalized knowledge repository based on ontology library enable engineers to meaningfully exchange information and pass knowledge across boundaries. Intelligent agent technology increases traditional KBE systems efficiency and interoperability and provides comprehensive design environments for engineers.

  14. Stability Study for Ultra-Dilute Chemical Warfare Agent ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report The purpose of this project was to determine the stability over time of the ultra-dilute chemical warfare agent (CWA) analytical standard solutions in dichloromethane and hexane for the five CWAs under normal conditions of storage and use.

  15. Hydrogen Generation Rate Scoping Study of DOW Corning Antifoam Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Charles

    2005-09-27

    The antifoam agent DOW Corning Q2-3183A will be added to waste streams in the Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) to prevent foaming. It consists mostly of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). These and other minor constituents of the antifoam have organic constituents that may participate in radiolytic and chemical reactions that produce hydrogen in Hanford waste. It has been recommended by The WTP R&T Department recommended personnel to treat the organic compounds of the antifoam like the in a similar manner as other organic compounds that are native to the Hanford waste with respect to hydrogen production. This testing has investigated the radiolytic and thermal production of hydrogen from antifoam added to simulant waste solutions to determine if the organic components of the antifoam produce hydrogen in the same manner as the native organic species in Hanford waste. Antifoam additions for this testing were in the range of 4 to 10 wt% to ensure adequate hydrogen detection. Test conditions were selected to bound exposures to the antifoam agent in the WTP. These levels are higher than previously recommended values of 350 mg/L for actual applications in WTP tanks containing air spargers and pulse jet mixers. Limited degradation analyses for the organic components of the antifoam were investigated in this study. A more detailed study involving analyses of antifoam degradation and product formation is in progress at SRNL and results from that study will be reported at a later time. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the Q2-3183A antifoam was measured to be 39.7 {+-} 4.9 wt% TOC. This measurement was performed in triplicate with on three different dilutions of the pure antifoam liquid using a TOC combustion analyzer instrument with catalytic oxidation, followed by CO{sub 2} quantification using an infrared detector. Test results from this study indicate that the WTP HGR correlation

  16. Nonplanar property study of antifungal agent tolnaftate-spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2011-09-01

    Vibrational analysis of the thionocarbamate fungicide tolnaftate which is antidermatophytic, antitrichophytic and antimycotic agent, primarily inhibits the ergosterol biosynthesis in the fungus, was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and torsional potential energy surface (PES) scan studies have been computed using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and optimized molecular structure show the clear evidence for electronic interaction of thionocarbamate group with aromatic ring. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Vibrational analysis reveals that the simultaneous IR and Raman activation of the C-C stretching mode in the phenyl and naphthalene ring provide evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donor and acceptor groups and is responsible for its bioactivity as a fungicide.

  17. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination.

  18. Morphologic study of nipple-areola complex in 600 breasts.

    PubMed

    Sanuki, Jun-ichi; Fukuma, Eisuke; Uchida, Yoshihiro

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the morphologic characteristics of the nipple-areola complex, the diameter of the nipple-areola complex and the height of the nipple in 300 adult women (600 breasts) were measured using micrometer calipers. Furthermore, the morphologic characteristics were classified into four types by visual observation. Mean diameter of the areola was 4.0 cm, mean diameter of the nipple was 1.3 cm, and mean height of the nipple was 0.9 cm. From the morphologic point of view, the elevated plateau type without constriction (IIs) was most commonly found, being present in 60.2% of breasts. Inverted nipples (III) were found in 3.5% and unclassified type (IV) such as multiple or divided nipples was found in 0.3%. Because women have become sensitive about the appearance of their breasts and there is increasing cosmetic interest following surgery for breast carcinoma, operations on the nipple-areola complex are now common. When a surgeon counsels a patient and designs a reconstruction method prior to operation, these data may be helpful.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Morphological Awareness Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established that morphological awareness is an important skill because it contributes unique variance to word-level reading and reading comprehension; however, few studies include students with reading disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether training morphological awareness would improve morphological…

  20. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Morphological Awareness Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimo, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have established that morphological awareness is an important skill because it contributes unique variance to word-level reading and reading comprehension; however, few studies include students with reading disorders. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate whether training morphological awareness would improve morphological…

  1. In pursuit of ceruminolytic agents: a study of earwax composition.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, C N; Burkhart, C G; Williams, S; Andrews, P C; Adappa, V; Arbogast, J

    2000-03-01

    To assess the protein and simple sugar content of earwax in pursuit of better ceruminolytic agents. Collected earwax specimens were tested in several media for dissolution before being analyzed for amino acid and carbohydrate content. The samples were obtained from eight random patients requiring ear plug removal. The amino acid composition differs considerably from hair and stratum corneum of glabrous skin. Sugar analysis revealed high levels of galactosamine and galactose. This analysis of proteins and carbohydrates further characterizes earwax. Future ceruminolytic agents must dissolve lipid, keratin, and a monolayer of lipid covalently bound to the epidermal cells, which encourages cellular aggregation.

  2. Structure, morphology and optical studies of Li+ doped polyaniline composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesappa, L.; Niranjana, M.; Ashokkumar, S. P.; Vijeth, Chapi, Sharanappa; Raghu, S.; Devendrappa, H.

    2017-05-01

    Conjugating Polyaniline (PANI) composites have many interesting optical property useful in optical device applications. The pure PANI and PANI-Lithium perchlorate composites (PL1 & PL10) were prepared by chemical reaction method. The composites are characterized with the help of FT-IR, SEM and UV-Vis to confirm the chemical interactions, change in surface morphology and optical changes respectively. The direct optical band gap was found decreased from 3.89 to 2.97eV with increasing the LiClO4. The obtained results suggesting these polymer composites are suitable candidates for optoelectronics display, electrode material and electrochromic devices.

  3. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  4. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Lee, Sang Seop; Kim, Hyery; Park, June Dong; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox. PMID:23737969

  5. Morphological transformations of native petroleum emulsions. I. Viscosity studies.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Igor N; Efimov, Yaroslav O; Losev, Aleksandr P; Novikov, Mikhail A

    2008-07-15

    Emulsions of water in as-recovered native crude oils of diverse geographical origin evidently possess some common morphological features. At low volume fractions varphi of water, the viscosity behavior of emulsions is governed by the presence of flocculated clusters of water droplets, whereas characteristic tight gels, composed of visually monodisperse small droplets, are responsible for the viscosity anomaly at varphi approximately 0.4-0.5. Once formed, small-droplet gel domains apparently retain their structural integrity at higher varphi, incorporating/stabilizing new portions of water as larger-sized droplets. The maximum hold-up of disperse water evidently is the close-packing limit of varphi approximately 0.74. At higher water contents (up to varphi approximately 0.83), no inversion to O/W morphology takes place, but additional water emerges as a separate phase. The onset of stratified flow (W/O emulsion gel + free water) is the cause of the observed viscosity decrease, contrary to the conventional interpretation of the viscosity maximum as a reliable indicator of the emulsion inversion point.

  6. Gold Nanoparticle Contrast Agents in Mammography: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    The successful translation of molecular imaging to mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis would allow clinical molecular imaging of the breast...nanoparticle (NP) imaging agents, used in conjunction with digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis , should provide improved lesion conspicuity. Au-NP...used in conjunction with digital mammography and breast tomosynthesis , should result in significantly improved lesion conspicuity. Molecular

  7. Decontamination Technologies for Emerging CBRNE Agents: Scoping Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    quaternary ammonium herbicides (diquat and paraquat) that pose an extreme vulnerability as CBRNE agents for use in oral exposure particularly in fluids...organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), gamma radiolysis for chlorpyrifos, and bio -detoxification of pesticides such as diazinon and chlorpyrifos. For instance

  8. A study on etiologic agents and clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, S; Falahati, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M; Sadeghi Tafti, H; Mahmoudi, S; Zaini, F

    2015-12-01

    Dermatophytosis is one of the most common infections of skin, hair, and nails, caused by a group of keratinophilic fungi known as dermatophytes. Species identification of these fungi is of great significance from epidemiological and therapeutic points of view. The objective of the present study was to investigate dermatophytosis and its causative agents in patients, referring to the Central Mycology Laboratory of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. In total, 139 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were examined during 12 months from February 2014 to February 2015. Skin scrapings were assessed through direct microscopic examinations and culture studies. Dermatophyte isolates were identified based on colony morphology on potato dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium, nutritional requirements, urease and hair perforation tests, and microscopic characteristics on slide cultures. Dermatophytosis was mycologically confirmed in 26 (18.70%) out of 139 cases. Although there was a statistically insignificant difference between male and female subjects, men were dominantly affected. Infection was significantly common in the age group of ≤ 29 years (P<0.043). The most common clinical manifestation of dermatophytosis was tinea corporis (69.2%), followed by tinea cruris (15.4%), tinea manuum (11.5%), and tinea pedis (3.8%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex was the main etiologic agent (38.5%), followed by T. rubrum (23%), T. violaceum (15.5%), T. verrucosum (11.5%), Microsporum canis (7.7%), and Epidermophyton floccosum (3.8%). In comparison with previous research, epidemiology of dermatophytosis has changed in Yazd over the past decades. Therefore, periodical investigations on the epidemiological aspects of this infection are required for efficient control and prevention of this cutaneous dermatophytic disease.

  9. Experimental evaluation of a hyperspectral imager for near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthman, A. S.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems have the potential to combine morphological and spectral information to provide detailed and high sensitivity readouts in biological and medical applications. As HSI enables simultaneous detection in several spectral bands, the technology has significant potential for use in real-time multiplexed contrast agent studies. Examples include tumor detection in intraoperative and endoscopic imaging as well as histopathology. A multiplexed readout from multiple disease targets, such as cell surface receptors overexpressed in cancer cells, could improve both sensitivity and specificity of tumor identification. Here, we evaluate a commercial, compact, near-infrared HSI sensor that has the potential to enable low cost, video rate HSI for multiplexed fluorescent contrast agent studies in biomedical applications. The hyperspectral imager, based on a monolithically integrated Fabry-Perot etalon, has 70 spectral bands between 600-900 nm, making it ideal for this application. Initial calibration of the imager was performed to determine wavelength band response, quantum efficiency and the effect of F-number on the spectral response. A platform for wide-field fluorescence imaging in reflectance using fluorophore specific LED excitation was then developed. The applicability of the imaging platform for simultaneous readout of multiple fluorophore signals was demonstrated using a dilution series of Alexa Fluor 594 and Alexa Fluor 647, showing that nanomolar fluorophore concentrations can be detected. Our results show that the HSI system can clearly resolve the emission spectra of the two fluorophores in mixtures of concentrations across several orders of magnitude, indicating a high dynamic range performance. We therefore conclude that the HSI sensor tested here is suitable for detecting fluorescence in biomedical imaging applications.

  10. A study on etiologic agents and clinical manifestations of dermatophytosis in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, S; Falahati, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M; Sadeghi Tafti, H; Mahmoudi, S; Zaini, F

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Dermatophytosis is one of the most common infections of skin, hair, and nails, caused by a group of keratinophilic fungi known as dermatophytes. Species identification of these fungi is of great significance from epidemiological and therapeutic points of view. The objective of the present study was to investigate dermatophytosis and its causative agents in patients, referring to the Central Mycology Laboratory of Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran. Materials and Methods: In total, 139 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis were examined during 12 months from February 2014 to February 2015. Skin scrapings were assessed through direct microscopic examinations and culture studies. Dermatophyte isolates were identified based on colony morphology on potato dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium, nutritional requirements, urease and hair perforation tests, and microscopic characteristics on slide cultures. Results: Dermatophytosis was mycologically confirmed in 26 (18.70%) out of 139 cases. Although there was a statistically insignificant difference between male and female subjects, men were dominantly affected. Infection was significantly common in the age group of ≤ 29 years (P<0.043). The most common clinical manifestation of dermatophytosis was tinea corporis (69.2%), followed by tinea cruris (15.4%), tinea manuum (11.5%), and tinea pedis (3.8%). Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex was the main etiologic agent (38.5%), followed by T. rubrum (23%), T. violaceum (15.5%), T. verrucosum (11.5%), Microsporum canis (7.7%), and Epidermophyton floccosum (3.8%). Conclusion: In comparison with previous research, epidemiology of dermatophytosis has changed in Yazd over the past decades. Therefore, periodical investigations on the epidemiological aspects of this infection are required for efficient control and prevention of this cutaneous dermatophytic disease. PMID:28681000

  11. Effect of γ-aminopropyltriethoxy silane (γ-APS) coupling agent on mechanical and morphological properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE)/acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR)/palm pressed fibre (PPF) composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norizan, Nabila Najwa; Santiagoo, Ragunathan; Ismail, Hanafi

    2017-07-01

    The fabrication of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/ Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR)/ Palm Pressed Fibre (PPF) composite were investigated. The effect of γ-Aminopropyltriethoxy Silane (APS) as coupling agent on the properties of HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composite were studied. The composites were melt mixed using heated two roll mill at 180°C and speed of 15rpm with six different loading (100/0/10, 80/20/10, 70/30/10, 60/40/10, 50/50/10, and 40/60/10). The effects of γ-APS silane on mechanical, and morphological properties were examined using universal tensile machine (UTM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. Tensile strength and Young's modulus of HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composites decrease with increasing of NBR loading, whilst increasing the elongation at break. However, treated composites have resulted 3% to 29%, and 9% to 19%, higher in tensile strength and young's modulus compared to untreated composites. This was due to the better adhesion between HDPE/ NBR matrices and PPF filler with the presence of silanol moieties. From the morphological study, the micrograph of treated composites has proved the well bonded and good attachment of PPF filler with HDPE/ NBR matrices which resulted to better tensile strength to the HDPE/ NBR/ PPF composites.

  12. The effects of two 10% carbamide peroxide nightguard bleaching agents, with and without desensitizer, on enamel and sensitivity: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Navarra, C O; Reda, B; Diolosà, M; Casula, I; Di Lenarda, R; Breschi, L; Cadenaro, M

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of two 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) agents with or without desensitizers on tooth sensitivity, colour and enamel morphological changes. Twenty subjects used a 10% carbamide peroxide gel with or without fluoride and potassium nitrate for 2 weeks. Sensitivity, spectrophotometric evaluation of colour and morphological analyses of replicas with scanning electron microscope (SEM) were performed before and after treatment. All data were analysed statistically. Both bleaching agents induced sensitivity; however, the 10% CP bleaching agent with fluoride and potassium nitrate produced significantly lower sensitivity (P < 0.05) than the bleaching product without desensitizing agents. In spectrophotometric evaluation, no difference in bleaching effectiveness was found between the tested bleaching gels, and the SEM analysis confirmed the absence of relevant alterations of the enamel surface in both groups. The use of 10% carbamide peroxide gel with fluoride and potassium nitrate reduced the incidence of sensitivity during the bleaching treatment compared to a bleaching agent that did not contain desensitizing agents. The bleaching effectiveness of the tested products was comparable. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. X-ray morphological study of galaxy cluster catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Democles, Jessica; Pierre, Marguerite; Arnaud, Monique

    2016-07-01

    Context : The intra-cluster medium distribution as probed by X-ray morphology based analysis gives good indication of the system dynamical state. In the race for the determination of precise scaling relations and understanding their scatter, the dynamical state offers valuable information. Method : We develop the analysis of the centroid-shift so that it can be applied to characterize galaxy cluster surveys such as the XXL survey or high redshift cluster samples. We use it together with the surface brightness concentration parameter and the offset between X-ray peak and brightest cluster galaxy in the context of the XXL bright cluster sample (Pacaud et al 2015) and a set of high redshift massive clusters detected by Planck and SPT and observed by both XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories. Results : Using the wide redshift coverage of the XXL sample, we see no trend between the dynamical state of the systems with the redshift.

  14. Morphological studies of DBSA-doped polyaniline/PVC blends.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Asma Binat; Akhtar, Muhammad Javed; Ahmad, Maqsood

    2010-01-01

    Solution blending technique has been used to synthesize dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA)-doped polyaniline (PAND)/poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) blends by two methods, namely redoping method (PANDR/PVC blends) and aqueous polymerization method (PANDA/PVC blends). PANDR/PVC blends show improved mechanical properties as compared to PANDA/PVC blends, which show brittle nature of the films. However, by increasing concentration of PANDR in the PVC matrix, PANDR/PVC blend films are becoming more rigid due to increases in the modulus of elasticity. Irradiation of blend samples by electron beam used during scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses has changed the morphology of PANDA/PVC blend films due to dehydrochlorination of free PVC, whereas PANDR/PVC blends remain unaffected during irradiation by electron beam.

  15. Using Spectroscopic Profiles to Study the Morphology of Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ien; Pierce, Donna M.; Cochran, Anita L.

    2016-10-01

    We have used the integral-field unit spectrograph (the George and Cynthia Mitchell Spectrograph) on the 2.7m Harlan J. Smith telescope at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectroscopic images of the comae of several comets. The images were obtained for various radical species (C2, C3. CH, CN, NH2). Radial and azimuthal average profiles of the radical species were created to enhance any observed cometary coma morphological features. We compare the observed coma features across the observed species and over the different observation periods in order to constrain possible rotational states of the observed comets. We will present results for several comets, including 2009P1 (Garradd). This work was funded by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres program (Award No. NNX14AH186).

  16. Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

  17. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  18. Inflectional Morphology in Cri du Chat Syndrome--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-01-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be…

  19. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  20. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological…

  1. Morphological Awareness and Bilingual Word Learning: A Longitudinal Structural Equation Modeling Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko; Leong, Che Kan

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the contribution of morphological awareness to bilingual word learning of Malay-English bilingual children in Singapore where English is the medium of instruction. Participants took morphological awareness and lexical inference tasks in both English and Malay twice with an interval of about half a year, the first…

  2. The Relation between Morphological Awareness and Reading and Spelling in Greek: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittas, Evdokia; Nunes, Terezinha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study is to examine the contribution of morphological awareness to the prediction of reading and spelling in Greek. The target group (N = 404) consisted of children, aged 6-9 years at the start of the project, who learn literacy in Cyprus. Because there are no standardized measures of morphological awareness for Greek…

  3. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.

  4. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone. PMID:28222099

  5. Artificial biomembrane morphology: a dissipative particle dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Becton, Matthew; Averett, Rodney; Wang, Xianqiao

    2017-09-18

    Artificial membranes mimicking biological structures are rapidly breaking new ground in the areas of medicine and soft-matter physics. In this endeavor, we use dissipative particle dynamics simulation to investigate the morphology and behavior of lipid-based biomembranes under conditions of varied lipid density and self-interaction. Our results show that a less-than-normal initial lipid density does not create the traditional membrane; but instead results in the formation of a 'net', or at very low densities, a series of disparate 'clumps' similar to the micelles formed by lipids in nature. When the initial lipid density is high, a membrane forms, but due to the large number of lipids, the naturally formed membrane would be larger than the simulation box, leading to 'rippling' behavior as the excess repulsive force of the membrane interior overcomes the bending energy of the membrane. Once the density reaches a certain point however, 'bubbles' appear inside the membrane, reducing the rippling behavior and eventually generating a relatively flat, but thick, structure with micelles of water inside the membrane itself. Our simulations also demonstrate that the interaction parameter between individual lipids plays a significant role in the formation and behavior of lipid membrane assemblies, creating similar structures as the initial lipid density distribution. This work provides a comprehensive approach to the intricacies of lipid membranes, and offers a guideline to design biological or polymeric membranes through self-assembly processes as well as develop novel cellular manipulation and destruction techniques.

  6. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  7. Blaptica dubia as sentinels for exposure to chemical warfare agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Neumaier, Katharina; Wille, Timo; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-11-16

    The increased interest of terrorist groups in toxic chemicals and chemical warfare agents presents a continuing threat to our societies. Early warning and detection is a key component for effective countermeasures against such deadly agents. Presently available and near term solutions have a number of major drawbacks, e.g. lack of automated, remote warning and detection of primarily low volatile chemical warfare agents. An alternative approach is the use of animals as sentinels for exposure to toxic chemicals. To overcome disadvantages of vertebrates the present pilot study was initiated to investigate the suitability of South American cockroaches (Blaptica dubia) as warning system for exposure to chemical warfare nerve and blister agents. Initial in vitro experiments with nerve agents showed an increasing inhibitory potency in the order tabun - cyclosarin - sarin - soman - VX of cockroach cholinesterase. Exposure of cockroaches to chemical warfare agents resulted in clearly visible and reproducible reactions, the onset being dependent on the agent and dose. With nerve agents the onset was related to the volatility of the agents. The blister agent lewisite induced signs largely comparable to those of nerve agents while sulfur mustard exposed animals exhibited a different sequence of events. In conclusion, this first pilot study indicates that Blaptica dubia could serve as a warning system to exposure of chemical warfare agents. A cockroach-based system will not detect or identify a particular chemical warfare agent but could trigger further actions, e.g. specific detection and increased protective status. By designing appropriate boxes with (IR) motion sensors and remote control (IR) camera automated off-site warning systems could be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphologic study of the effect of iron on pseudocyst formation in Trichomonas vaginalis and its interaction with human epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Dias-Lopes, Geovane; Saboia-Vahia, Leonardo; Margotti, Eliane Trindade; Fernandes, Nilma de Souza; Castro, Cássia Luana de Faria; Oliveira, Francisco Odencio; Peixoto, Juliana Figueiredo; Britto, Constança; Silva, Fernando Costa E; Cuervo, Patricia; Jesus, José Batista de

    2017-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the aetiological agent of human trichomoniasis, which is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases in humans. Iron is an important element for the survival of this parasite and the colonisation of the host urogenital tract. In this study, we investigated the effects of iron on parasite proliferation in the dynamics of pseudocyst formation and morphologically characterised iron depletion-induced pseudocysts. We performed structural and ultrastructural analyses using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was observed that iron depletion (i) interrupts the proliferation of T. vaginalis, (ii) induces morphological changes in typical multiplicative trophozoites to spherical non-proliferative, non-motile pseudocysts, and (iii) induces the arrest of cell division at different stages of the cell cycle; (iv) iron is the fundamental element for the maintenance of typical trophozoite morphology; (v) pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are viable and reversible forms; and, finally, (vi) we demonstrated that pseudocysts induced by iron depletion are able to interact with human epithelial cells maintaining their spherical forms. Together, these data suggest that pseudocysts could be induced as a response to iron nutritional stress and could have a potential role in the transmission and infection of T. vaginalis.

  9. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children.

    PubMed

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling.

  10. The effect of morphology on spelling and reading accuracy: a study on Italian children

    PubMed Central

    Angelelli, Paola; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Burani, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In opaque orthographies knowledge of morphological information helps in achieving reading and spelling accuracy. In transparent orthographies with regular print-to-sound correspondences, such as Italian, the mappings of orthography onto phonology and phonology onto orthography are in principle sufficient to read and spell most words. The present study aimed to investigate the role of morphology in the reading and spelling accuracy of Italian children as a function of school experience to determine whether morphological facilitation was present in children learning a transparent orthography. The reading and spelling performances of 15 third-grade and 15 fifth-grade typically developing children were analyzed. Children read aloud and spelled both low-frequency words and pseudowords. Low-frequency words were manipulated for the presence of morphological structure (morphemic words vs. non-derived words). Morphemic words could also vary for the frequency (high vs. low) of roots and suffixes. Pseudo-words were made up of either a real root and a real derivational suffix in a combination that does not exist in the Italian language or had no morphological constituents. Results showed that, in Italian, morphological information is a useful resource for both reading and spelling. Typically developing children benefitted from the presence of morphological structure when they read and spelled pseudowords; however, in processing low-frequency words, morphology facilitated reading but not spelling. These findings are discussed in terms of morpho-lexical access and successful cooperation between lexical and sublexical processes in reading and spelling. PMID:25477855

  11. Hydrogel based tissue mimicking phantom for in-vitro ultrasound contrast agents studies.

    PubMed

    Demitri, Christian; Sannino, Alessandro; Conversano, Francesco; Casciaro, Sergio; Distante, Alessandro; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    Ultrasound medical imaging (UMI) is the most widely used image analysis technique, and often requires advanced in-vitro set up to perform morphological and functional investigations. These studies are based on contrast properties both related to tissue structure and injectable contrast agents (CA). In this work, we present a three-dimensional structure composed of two different hydrogels reassembly the microvascular network of a human tissue. This phantom was particularly suitable for the echocontrastographic measurements in human microvascular system. This phantom has been characterized to present the acoustic properties of an animal liver, that is, acoustic impedance (Z) and attenuation coefficient (AC), in UMI signal analysis in particular; the two different hydrogels have been selected to simulate the target organ and the acoustic properties of the vascular system. The two hydrogels were prepared starting from cellulose derivatives to simulating the target organ parenchyma and using a PEG-diacrylate to reproduce the vascular system. Moreover, harmonic analysis was performed on the hydrogel mimicking the liver parenchyma hydrogel to evaluate the ultrasound (US) distortion during echographic measurement. The phantom was employed in the characterization of an experimental US CA. Perfect agreement was found when comparing the hydrogel acoustical properties materials with the corresponding living reference tissues (i.e., vascular and parenchimal tissue).

  12. Protocols for Studying Antimicrobial Peptides (AMPs) as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Madera, Laurence; Hoskin, David W

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are a class of small cationic peptides that are important for host defense. In a manner that is similar to AMP-mediated destruction of microbial pathogens, certain AMPs can physically associate with the anionic lipid membrane components of cancer cells, resulting in destabilization of the lipid membrane and subsequent peptide binding to intracellular targets, which ultimately leads to the death of the cancer cell. In comparison, normal healthy cells possess a neutral membrane charge and are therefore less affected by AMPs. Based on the selective cytotoxicity of certain AMPs for cancer cells, these peptides represent a potential reservoir of novel anticancer therapeutic agents. The development and improvement of AMPs as anticancer agents requires appropriate methods for determining the effects of these peptides on the viability and function of cancer cells. In this chapter, we describe methods to assess the ability of AMPs to cause cell membrane damage (measured by propidium iodide uptake), apoptosis and/or necrosis (measured by annexin V-FLUOS/propidium iodide staining), and mitochondrial membrane destabilization (measured by 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide staining), as well as reduced motility (measured by a migration and invasion assay) of cancer cells growing in suspension or as monolayers. We also describe a tubule-forming assay that can be used to assess the effect of AMPs on angiogenesis.

  13. Enteromyxum leei infection in parrotfish, Sparisoma cretense: histopathological, morphological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Katharios, Pantelis; Kokkari, Constantina; Sterioti, Aspasia; Smyrli, Maria; Kalatzis, Panos G

    2014-01-31

    Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) has been identified as the aetiological agent of morbidity and mortality in captive feral parrotfish, Sparisoma cretense held at the facilities of Cretaquarium, the public aquarium of the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research in Crete. The parasite caused substantial mortality to the parrotfish exceeding 60% over a period of 3.5 months. Here we describe the course of disease, the effects of the parasite on the host based on histopathological observations and we provide morphological and molecular data on the parasite.

  14. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels.

  15. Endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography of murine colonic morphology to determine effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGendre-McGhee, Susan; Rice, Photini F. S.; Wall, R. Andrew; Klein, Justin; Luttman, Amber; Sprute, Kyle; Gerner, Eugene; Barton, Jennifer K.

    2012-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging modality capable of tracking the development of individual colonic adenomas. As such, OCT can be used to evaluate the mechanisms and effectiveness of chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents in colorectal cancer models. The data presented here represent part of a larger study evaluating α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) and Sulindac as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents using mice treated with the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). 27 A/J mice were included in the chemoprevention study, subdivided into four treatment groups (No Drug, DFMO, Sulindac, DFMO/Sulindac). 30 mm lateral images of each colon at eight different rotations were obtained at five different time points using a 2 mm diameter spectral domain OCT endoscopy system centered at 890 nm with 3.5 μm axial resolution in air and 5 μm lateral resolution. Images were visually analyzed to determine number and size of adenomas. Gross photos of the excised colons and histology provided gold standard confirmation of the final imaging time point. Preliminary results show that 100% of mice in the No Drug group developed adenomas over the course of the chemoprevention study. Incidence was reduced to 71.43% in mice given DFMO, 85.71% for Sulindac and 0% for DFMO/Sulindac. Discrete adenoma size did not vary significantly between experimental groups. Additional experiments are currently under way to verify these results and evaluate DFMO and Sulindac for chemotherapeutic applications.

  16. Spelling and Morphology in Dyslexia: A Developmental Study Across the School Years.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Rachel; Levie, Ronit

    2017-01-25

    The current study examined the effect of morphological knowledge on spelling development in Hebrew-speaking schoolchildren, adolescents and adults with dyslexia, compared with typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 238 Hebrew-speaking readers of five grade levels of whom 139 were TD and 99 had developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants were tested on a function letter spelling task, a phonological awareness task and a morphological awareness task. The overall picture that emerged from the results is that performance on all measures increased with grade level, with TD participants always scoring higher than peers with DD. Moreover, the higher the morphological complexity in spelling and irregularity in noun inflection, the higher the differences between the DD and TD participants. Finally, performance on the morphological awareness task contributed to spelling morphologically more complex spelling items in the TD, but not in the DD group. From clinical and educational perspectives, these results strongly suggest that rigorous morphological instruction is necessary in teaching children and adolescents with dyslexia to identify and use morphological cues in spoken and written Hebrew. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Surface structural, morphological, and catalytic studies of homogeneously dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sareen, Shweta; Mutreja, Vishal; Pal, Bonamali; Singh, Satnam

    2016-11-01

    Highly dispersed anisotropic Ag nanostructures were synthesized within the channels of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS)-modified mesoporous SBA-15 for catalyzing the reduction of p-dinitrobenzene, p-nitrophenol, and p-nitroacetophenone, respectively. A green templating process without involving any reducing agent, by varying the amount (1-10 wt.%) of Ag loading followed by calcination at 350 °C under H2 led to change in the morphology of Ag nanoparticles from nanospheres ( 7-8 nm) to nanorods (aspect ratio 12-30 nm) without any deformation in mesoporous sieves. In comparison to white bare SBA-15, gray-colored samples were formed with Ag impregnation exhibiting absorption bands at 484 and 840 nm indicating the formation of anisotropic Ag nanostructures within mesoporous matrix. TEM and FE-SEM micrographs confirmed the presence of evenly dispersed Ag nanostructures within as well as on the surface of mesoporous matrix. AFM studies indicated a small decrease in the average roughness of SBA-15 from 20.59 to 19.21 nm for 4 wt.% Ag/m-SBA-15, illustrating the encapsulation of majority of Ag nanoparticles in the siliceous matrix and presence of small amount of Ag nanoparticles on the mesoporous support. Moreover, due to plugging of mesopores with Ag, a significant decrease in surface area from 680 m2/g of SBA-15 to 385 m2/g was observed. The Ag-impregnated SBA-15 catalyst displayed superior catalytic activity than did bare SBA-15 with 4 wt.% Ag-loaded catalyst exhibiting optimum activity for selective reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol (100 %), p-nitroacetophenone to p-aminoacetophenone (100 %), and p-dinitrobenzene to p-nitroaniline (87 %), with a small amount of p-phenylenediamine formation.

  18. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies on nitrofuranyl antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Ball, David M.; Buolamwini, John K.

    2008-01-01

    A series of nitrofuranylamide and related aromatic compounds displaying potent activity against M. tuberculosis has been investigated utilizing 3-Dimensional Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Indices Analysis (CoMSIA) methods were used to produce 3D-QSAR models that correlated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) values against M. tuberculosis with the molecular structures of the active compounds. A training set of 95 active compounds was used to develop the models, which were then evaluated by a series of internal and external cross-validation techniques. A test set of 15 compounds was used for the external validation. Different alignment and ionization rules were investigated as well as the effect of global molecular descriptors including lipophilicity (cLogP, LogD), Polar Surface Area (PSA), and steric bulk (CMR), on model predictivity. Models with greater than 70% predictive ability, as determined by external validation, and high internal validity (cross validated r2 > .5) have been developed. Incorporation of lipophilicity descriptors into the models had negligible effects on model predictivity. The models developed will be used to predict the activity of proposed new structures and advance the development of next generation nitrofuranyl and related nitroaromatic anti-tuberculosis agents. PMID:18701298

  19. Morphological studies of Hyphoderma cremeoalbum and Radulomyces roseolus

    Treesearch

    Karen K. Nakasone

    2010-01-01

    Type studies reveal that Radulomyces roseolus is conspecific with Hyphoderma cremeoalbum (Basidiomycota, Polyporales). Embedded, fusoid cystidia and haplohyphidia are critical diagnostic features of H. cremeoalbum. Known from Europe, United States, Argentina, and New Zealand, its preferred...

  20. [Morphological study of the heart of Electrophorus electricus].

    PubMed

    Camilli, J A; Dias, S M; Orsi, A M; Viotto, M J; Vicentini, C A

    1989-01-01

    Hearts of 7 Electrophorus electricus have been investigated on macroscopical and microscopical levels. Generally, the structure of the heart exhibits relative similarities with the other studied teleosts. The ventricular myocardium is mainly spongy and suggests that these structural features can offer an additional contraction power.

  1. Type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis: morphologic and immunohistopathologic studies.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, M; Keene, D R; Blank, E; Hori, H; Sakai, L Y; Sherwin, L A; Hollister, D W

    1988-12-01

    A 32-wk-gestation female with type II achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis has been studied. The clinical features were typical, and radiographs revealed short ribs, hypoplastic ilia, absence of ossification of sacrum, pubis, ischia, tali, calcanei, and many vertebral bodies; the long bones were short with mild metaphyseal flaring. The femoral cylinder index was 6.3. Comparison with previous cases placed the patient toward the mild end of the achondrogenesis-hypochondrogenesis spectrum (Whitley-Gorlin prototype IV). Light microscopy revealed hypercellular cartilage with decreased matrix traversed by numerous fibrous vascular canals. The growth plate was markedly abnormal. Ultrastructural studies revealed prominently dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum containing a fine granular material with occasional fibrils in all chondrocytes. Immunohistologic studies indicated irregular large areas of cartilage matrix staining with monoclonal antibody to human type III collagen. The relative intensity of matrix staining for type II collagen appeared diminished. More striking, however, were intense focal accumulations of type II collagen within small rounded perinuclear structures of most chondrocytes but not other cell types. These results strongly suggest intracellular retention of type II collagen within vacuolar structures, probably within the dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum observed in all chondrocytes by electron microscopy (EM), and imply the presence of an abnormal, poorly secreted type II collagen molecule. Biochemical studies (see companion paper) suggest that this patient had a new dominant lethal disorder caused by a structural abnormality of type II collagen.

  2. Electrochemical and morphological studies of ionic polymer metal composites as stress sensors

    DOE PAGES

    Hong, Wangyujue; Almomani, Abdallah; Montazami, Reza

    2016-10-04

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are the backbone of a wide range of ionic devices. IPMC mechanoelectric sensors are advanced nanostructured transducers capable of converting mechanical strain into easily detectable electric signal. Such attribute is realized by ion mobilization in and through IPMC nanostructure. In this study we have investigated electrochemical and morphological characteristics of IPMCs by varying the morphology of their metal composite component (conductive network composite (CNC)). We have demonstrated the dependence of electrochemical properties on CNC nanostructure as well as mechanoelectrical performance of IPMC sensors as a function of CNC morphology. Lastly, it is shown that themore » morphology of CNC can be used as a means to improve sensitivity of IPMC sensors by 3–4 folds.« less

  3. Electrochemical and morphological studies of ionic polymer metal composites as stress sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wangyujue; Almomani, Abdallah; Montazami, Reza

    2016-10-04

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are the backbone of a wide range of ionic devices. IPMC mechanoelectric sensors are advanced nanostructured transducers capable of converting mechanical strain into easily detectable electric signal. Such attribute is realized by ion mobilization in and through IPMC nanostructure. In this study we have investigated electrochemical and morphological characteristics of IPMCs by varying the morphology of their metal composite component (conductive network composite (CNC)). We have demonstrated the dependence of electrochemical properties on CNC nanostructure as well as mechanoelectrical performance of IPMC sensors as a function of CNC morphology. Lastly, it is shown that the morphology of CNC can be used as a means to improve sensitivity of IPMC sensors by 3–4 folds.

  4. Morphology and size of stem cells from mouse and whale: observational study

    PubMed Central

    van den Beukel, Johanna C; Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Ijzer, Jooske

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the morphology and size of stem cells from two mammals of noticeably different body size. Design Observational study. Setting The Netherlands. Participants A humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) and a laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). Main outcome measures Morphology and size of mesenchymal stem cells from adipose tissue. Results Morphologically, mesenchymal stem cells of the mouse and whale are indistinguishable. The average diameter of 50 mesenchymal stem cells from the mouse was 28 (SD 0.86) µm and 50 from the whale was 29 (SD 0.71) µm. The difference in cell size between the species was not statistically significant. Although the difference in bodyweight between the species is close to two million-fold, the mesenchymal stem cells of each were of similar size. Conclusions The mesenchymal stem cells of whales and mice are alike, in both morphology and size. PMID:24336001

  5. Electrochemical and morphological studies of ionic polymer metal composites as stress sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Wangyujue; Almomani, Abdallah; Montazami, Reza

    2016-10-04

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are the backbone of a wide range of ionic devices. IPMC mechanoelectric sensors are advanced nanostructured transducers capable of converting mechanical strain into easily detectable electric signal. Such attribute is realized by ion mobilization in and through IPMC nanostructure. In this study we have investigated electrochemical and morphological characteristics of IPMCs by varying the morphology of their metal composite component (conductive network composite (CNC)). We have demonstrated the dependence of electrochemical properties on CNC nanostructure as well as mechanoelectrical performance of IPMC sensors as a function of CNC morphology. Lastly, it is shown that the morphology of CNC can be used as a means to improve sensitivity of IPMC sensors by 3–4 folds.

  6. An ER-fMRI study of Russian inflectional morphology.

    PubMed

    Slioussar, Natalia; Kireev, Maxim V; Chernigovskaya, Tatiana V; Kataeva, Galina V; Korotkov, Alexander D; Medvedev, Svyatoslav V

    2014-03-01

    The generation of regular and irregular past tense verbs has long been a testing ground for different models of inflection in the mental lexicon. Behavioral studies examined a variety of languages, but neuroimaging studies rely almost exclusively on English and German data. In our fMRI experiment, participants inflected Russian verbs and nouns of different types and corresponding nonce stimuli. Irregular real and nonce verbs activated inferior frontal and inferior parietal regions more than regular verbs did, while no areas were more activated in the opposite comparison. We explain this activation pattern by increasing processing load: a parametric contrast revealed that these regions are also more activated for nonce stimuli compared to real stimuli. A very similar pattern is found for nouns. Unlike most previously obtained results, our findings are more readily compatible with the single-system approach to inflection, which does not postulate a categorical difference between regular and irregular forms.

  7. A feasibility study of pelvic morphology for curved implants.

    PubMed

    Zakariaee, Roja; Schlosser, Colin L; Baker, Daniel R; Meek, Robert N; Coope, Robin J N

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesize that inserting a curved intramedullary internal fixation device which follows curved osseous fixation paths (OFPs) would be more versatile and mechanically stronger than straight screws for fixation of pelvic ring and acetabular injuries. This study characterizes the dimensions of curved OFPs of the pelvic ring and acetabulum and suggests design parameters for such a curved device. CT scans of intact pelves of 50 female and 50 male subjects were studied using MIM Maestro™ and Solidworks™ to determine the constriction points (smallest cross sections) and the tightest radii of curvature (RoC) in the anterior column, posterior column, iliosacral and pubic symphysis OFPs. The constriction point diameters for the superior pubic ramus and supra-acetabular areas were 13±3mm and 12±3mm, respectively. The anterior column RoC was greater than 65mm in all cases. The minimum observed RoC for the path from one ilium, across the SI joint, the sacrum and to the other ilium was 71mm, with 99% of the cases having a RoC of at least 80mm, in both the inlet and outlet views. This study shows that if a flexible implant which could be stiffened once in place was available, it would enable the use of larger and longer fixation taking advantage of the pelvis's curved intracortical spaces. Even for dysmorphic pelves, accessible tunnels support a long, strong, curved fixation device. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological study of the attachment of the sternocleidomastoid muscle

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Anubha; Mandal, Shyamash; Chakraborty, Sandip; Bandyopadhyay, Manimay

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle is a major muscle of the neck. Classically, this muscle is attached below the sternum and clavicle, although the mode of attachment might vary. As the SCM is related to numerous important neurovascular structures, its variable anatomy is clinically relevant, particularly for neck surgeries. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the mode of attachment of the SCM muscle in an Indian population. METHODS We studied the variations in the attachment of the SCM muscle during the dissection of 18 cadavers for undergraduate teaching in two medical colleges in West Bengal, India. RESULTS Variations in the attachment of the SCM muscle were found in 5 (27.8%) specimens. Of these five specimens, three had unilateral variations and two had bilateral variations. In each specimen, the modes of presentation of the SCM and its fusion with the major bulk were also different. CONCLUSION In this study, we found variations in the attachment of the SCM muscle in more than a quarter of the specimens dissected. Surgeons should bear in mind such variations when performing neck surgeries. PMID:24241357

  9. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P < 0.05). The comparison with the results of ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  10. Gestational diabetes insipidus: a morphological study of the placenta.

    PubMed

    Castiglione, F; Buccoliero, A M; Garbini, F; Gheri, C F; Moncini, D; Poggi, G; Saladino, V; Rossi Degl'Innocenti, D; Gheri, R G; Taddei, G L

    2009-12-01

    Gestational diabetes insipidus (GDI) refers to the state of excessive water intake and hypotonic polyuria. Those cases manifesting in pregnancy and referred to as GDI may persist thereafter or may be a transient latent form that resolves after delivery. Microscopic examination of affected subjects has not been previously reported. In the literature, there are various case reports and case series on diabetes insipidus in pregnancy. In this study, we present a case that had transient diabetes insipidus during pregnancy in which the placenta was examined.

  11. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts.

  12. [Age-dependent morphology of human pineal gland: supravital study].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, S V

    2007-01-01

    On the base of analysis of 5784 events of diagnostic magnetic-resonance tomography studies of the head of patients in radio diagnosis departments the database is formed. Only events (n=411) without cerebral, oncology, endocrine and other pathology are taken in database. The material was grouped to time and date of the study, sex and age in accordance with generally accepted categorization. Maximum linear sizes of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri in sagittal, axial and coronar projection were measured in all events; volumes of the organs were calculated on the formula of a ball. It is defined that the volume of pineal gland increases from birth till 17-21 year age, gradually falls till the second mature age and is getting stable in old age. The normative factors of the volume of pineal gland and hypophysis cerebri for 8 age groups are determined. "Brain sand" and false cysts in pineal gland can be observed in all age groups. The petrification degree of pineal gland, as of computer tomography, varies from 30 to 277 ed. HV. For the factor of pineal gland volume and factor of cysts frequency in pineal gland a puberty "collapse" is typical, mainly in men.

  13. How well can morphology assess cell death modality? A proteomics study

    PubMed Central

    Chernobrovkin, Alexey L; Zubarev, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    While the focus of attempts to classify cell death programs has finally shifted in 2010s from microscopy-based morphological characteristics to biochemical assays, more recent discoveries have put the underlying assumptions of many such assays under severe stress, mostly because of the limited specificity of the assays. On the other hand, proteomics can quantitatively measure the abundances of thousands of proteins in a single experiment. Thus proteomics could develop a modern alternative to both semiquantitative morphology assessment as well as single-molecule biochemical assays. Here we tested this hypothesis by analyzing the proteomes of cells dying after been treated with various chemical agents. The most striking finding is that, for a multivariate model based on the proteome changes in three cells lines, the regulation patterns of the 200–500 most abundant proteins typically attributed to household type more accurately reflect that of the proteins directly interacting with the drug than any other protein subset grouped by common function or biological process, including cell death. This is in broad agreement with the 'rigid cell death mechanics' model where drug action mechanism and morphological changes caused by it are bijectively linked. This finding, if confirmed, will open way for a broad use of proteomics in death modality assessment. PMID:27752363

  14. Morphological and cytochemical study of a hypothalamochiasmatic perivascular neuronal system.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rodriguez, R; Martínez-Murillo, R; Toledano, A; García-Segura, L M; Rovira, M

    1979-01-01

    The topographical localization and some cytochemical characteristics of groups of perivascular neurons in the hypothalamus and in the optic chiasma have been studied. In the anterior hypothalamic area there are neuronal groups located around the blood vessels which penetrate the optic chiasma still associated with neurons. These perivascular neurons show some characteristics similar to those observed in neurosecretory hypothalamic neurons, but differ from them in that they show a greater intensity of thiaminopyrophosphatase and nucleoside-diphosphataseactivities. It is suggested that these neuronal groups may constitute a special hypothalamochiasmatic-perviscular-neurosecretory system (H. Ch. P. N. S.). Images Figs. 1,2,3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Figs. 17,18 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 Fig. 21 Fig. 22 PMID:224026

  15. Resampling-Based Approaches to Study Variation in Morphological Modularity

    PubMed Central

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Modularity has been suggested to be connected to evolvability because a higher degree of independence among parts allows them to evolve as separate units. Recently, the Escoufier RV coefficient has been proposed as a measure of the degree of integration between modules in multivariate morphometric datasets. However, it has been shown, using randomly simulated datasets, that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size. Also, so far there is no statistical test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations. Here, we (1), using a rarefaction analysis, show that the value of the RV coefficient depends on sample size also in real geometric morphometric datasets; (2) propose a permutation procedure to test for the difference in the RV coefficient between a priori defined groups of observations; (3) show, through simulations, that such a permutation procedure has an appropriate Type I error; (4) suggest that a rarefaction procedure could be used to obtain sample-size-corrected values of the RV coefficient; and (5) propose a nearest-neighbor procedure that could be used when studying the variation of modularity in geographic space. The approaches outlined here, readily extendable to non-morphometric datasets, allow study of the variation in the degree of integration between a priori defined modules. A Java application – that will allow performance of the proposed test using a software with graphical user interface – has also been developed and is available at the Morphometrics at Stony Brook Web page (http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/morph/). PMID:23874956

  16. Cellular Differentiation in Moss Protonemata: A Morphological and Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Methods Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. Key Results The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Conclusions

  17. Cellular differentiation in moss protonemata: a morphological and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pressel, Silvia; Ligrone, Roberto; Duckett, Jeffrey G

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies of protonemal morphogenesis in mosses have focused on the cytoskeletal basis of tip growth and the production of asexual propagules. This study provides the first comprehensive description of the differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids, which share the same cytology, and the roles of the cytoskeleton in organelle shaping and spatial arrangement. Light and electron microscope observations were carried out on in vitro cultured and wild protonemata from over 200 moss species. Oryzalin and cytochalasin D were used to investigate the role of the cytoskeleton in the cytological organization of fully differentiated protonemal cells; time-lapse photography was employed to monitor organelle positions. The onset of differentiation in initially highly vacuolate subapical cells is marked by the appearance of tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) profiles with crystalline inclusions, closely followed by an increase in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). The tonoplast disintegrates and the original vacuole is replaced by a population of vesicles and small vacuoles originating de novo from RER. The cytoplasm then becomes distributed throughout the cell lumen, an event closely followed by the appearance of endoplasmic microtubules (MTs) in association with sheets of ER, stacks of vesicles that subsequently disperse, elongate mitochondria and chloroplasts and long tubular extensions at both poles of the nucleus. The production of large vesicles by previously inactive dictysomes coincides with the deposition of additional cell wall layers. At maturity, the numbers of endoplasmic microtubules decline, dictyosomes become inactive and the ER is predominantly smooth. Fully developed cells remain largely unaffected by cytochalasin; oryzalin elicits profound cytological changes. Both inhibitors elicit the formation of giant plastids. The plastids and other organelles in fully developed cells are largely stationary. Differentiation of caulonemata and rhizoids involves a

  18. Effects of Cardiolipin on Membrane Morphology: A Langmuir Monolayer Study

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Minh Dinh; Shin, Kwanwoo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a complex phospholipid that is specifically found in mitochondria. Owing to the association of the CL levels with mitochondrial physiopathology such as in Parkinson’s disease, we study the molecular effect of CL on membrane organization using model Langmuir monolayer, fluorescence microscopy, and x-ray reflectivity. We find that the liquid-expanded phase in membranes increases with increasing CL concentration, indicating an increase in the elasticity of the mixed membrane. The Gibbs excess free energy of mixing indicates that the binary monolayer composed of CL and DPPC is most thermodynamically stable at ΦCL = 10 mol %, and the stability is enhanced when the surface pressure is increased. Additionally, when ΦCL is small, the expansion of the membrane with increasing CL content was slower at higher surface pressure. These abnormal results are indicative of a folding structure being present before a collapsing structure, which was confirmed by using fluorescence microscopy and was characterized by using x-ray reflectivity with the electron density profile along the membrane’s surface normal. PMID:25902437

  19. In Vitro Reparative Dentin: a Biochemical and Morphological Study

    PubMed Central

    Teti, G.; Salvatore, V.; Ruggeri, A.; Manzoli, L.; Gesi, M.; Orsini, G.; Falconi, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, starting from human dental pulp cells cultured in vitro, we simulated reparative dentinogenesis using a medium supplemented with different odontogenic inductors. The differentiation of dental pulp cells in odontoblast-like cells was evaluated by means of staining, and ultramorphological, biochemical and biomolecular methods. Alizarin red staining showed mineral deposition while transmission electron microscopy revealed a synthesis of extracellular matrix fibers during the differentiation process. Biochemical assays demonstrated that the differentiated phenotype expressed odontoblast markers, such as Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) and Dentin Sialoprotein (DSP), as well as type I collagen. Quantitative data regarding the mRNA expression of DMP1, DSP and type I collagen were obtained by Real Time PCR. Immunofluorescence data demonstrated the various localizations of DSP and DMP1 during odontoblast differentiation. Based on our results, we obtained odontoblast-like cells which simulated the reparative dentin processes in order to better investigate the mechanism of odontoblast differentiation, and dentin extracellular matrix deposition and mineralization. PMID:24085272

  20. Craniofacial morphologic parameters in a Persian population: an anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Mashayekhi, Ziba; Rahimi, Hajir; Morad, Golnaz

    2014-09-01

    Limited data are available regarding the reference ranges of facial proportions of the Persian population in Iran. This study aimed to establish the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements in an adult Iranian population. On 100 individuals (men = women), aged 18 to 30 years with normal faces and occlusions, 34 linear and 7 angular measurements as well as 24 indices were calculated. The difference of measurements between men and women were evaluated by paired t-test. The data were compared with the norms of North American whites using 1-sample t-test. The subjects belonged to 5 ethnic groups (57% from Fars, 14% from Kord, 11% from Azari, 10% from Gilaki-Mazani, and 2% from Lor). All head measurements were greater in men except for the head index and the head height. The subjects had leptoprosopic faces. The intercanthal width was almost one third of the biocular width and greater than the eye fissure length. Although the nose width of women was significantly smaller, both sexes had leptorrhine noses. The chin height and lower chin height were greater in men. In comparison with North American whites, considerable differences were found regarding head height and width, biocular width, nose height, face height, mouth width, and upper chin height. In conclusion, the reference range of craniofacial anthropometric measurements established for the Iranian population might be efficiently used for esthetic treatments.

  1. [Morphological approach to facial esthetics: a Tunisian study].

    PubMed

    Ben Amor, A; Ben Amor, F; Dhidah, M

    2003-12-01

    Over the course of time, an esthetic standard, molded by a certain number of rules, recognized virtually universally, has gained widespread recognition. Orthodontics, like the rest of the world, accepts this rule. So, we all try in our treatment objectives to conform to a set of standardized "norms" of facial and cephalometric esthetics. Still, one question must be asked: can these norms be the same throughout the four corners of the globe? Having pondered this matter carefully, we attempted to find an answer by undertaking a study of 53 patients with "normal dentitions", all students of dental medicine. On profile cephalograms and profile photographs of these patients, we carried out a variety of esthetic analyses. We then compared the results obtained with orthodontic averages and found that they differed in many points. Should this finding impel us to adopt different esthetic criteria? However, this question may be answered, we retain our essential conviction that we should endeavor to preserve the goal of achieving facial harmony for our patients and that we should know what its criteria are.

  2. Time resolved strain dependent morphological study of electrically conducting nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imran; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Mateus, Artur; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.

    2015-10-01

    An efficient and reliable method is introduced to understand the network behaviour of nano-fillers in a polymeric matrix under uniaxial strain coupled with small angle x-ray scattering measurements. The nanoparticles (carbon nanotubes) are conductive and the particles form a percolating network that becomes apparent source of electrical conduction and consequently the samples behave as a bulk conductor. Polyurethane based nanocomposites containing 2% w/w multiwall carbon nanotubes are studied. The electrical conductivity of the nanocomposite was (3.28×10-5s/m).The sample was able to be extended to an extension ratio of 1.7 before fracture. A slight variation in the electrical conductivity is observed under uniaxial strain which we attribute to the disturbance of conductive pathways. Further, this work is coupled with in- situ time resolved small angle x-ray scattering measurements using a synchrotron beam line to enable its measurements to be made during the deformation cycle. We use a multiscale structure to model the small angle x-ray data. The results of the analysis are interpreted as the presence of aggregates which would also go some way towards understanding why there is no alignment of the carbon nanotubes.

  3. Morphological and physiological studies on Indian national kabaddi players.

    PubMed Central

    Dey, S K; Khanna, G L; Batra, M

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five national kabaddi players (Asiad gold medalists 1990), mean age 27.91 years, who attended a national camp at the Sports Authority of India, Bangalore before the Beijing Asian Games in 1990, were investigated for their physical characteristics, body fat, lean body mass (LBM) and somatotype. The physiological characteristics assessed included back strength, maximum oxygen uptake capacity and anaerobic capacity (oxygen debt) and related cardiorespiratory parameters (oxygen pulse, breathing equivalent, maximum pulmonary ventilation, maximum heart rate). Body fat was calculated from skinfold thicknesses taken at four different sites, using Harpenden skinfold calipers. An exercise test (graded protocol) was performed on a bicycle ergometer (ER-900) using a computerized EOS Sprint (Jaeger, West Germany). The mean(s.d.) percentage body fat (17.56(3.48)) of kabaddi players was found to be higher than normal sedentary people. Their physique was found to be endomorphic mesomorph (3.8-5.2-1.7). Mean(s.d.) back strength, maximum oxygen uptake capacity (VO2max) and oxygen debt were found to be 162.6(18.08) kg, 42.6(4.91) ml kg-1 min-1 and 5.02(1.29) litre respectively. Physical characteristics, percentage body fat, somatotype, maximum oxygen uptake capacity and anaerobic capacity (oxygen debt) and other cardiorespiratory parameters were compared with other national counterparts. Present data are comparable with data for judo, wrestling and weightlifting. Since no such study has been conducted on international counterparts, these data could not be compared. These data may act as a guideline in the selection of future kabaddi players and to attain the physiological status comparable to the present gold medalists. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 p242-a PMID:8130960

  4. [Quantitative study on esophageal cytology. I. Quantitative morphologic studies of normal, dysplastic and malignant squamous cells].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Y V

    1990-03-01

    On cytosmears of esophageal epithelium of individuals from high-risk area of esophageal cancer squamous epithelial cells, according to standard cytologic diagnostic criteria, can be categorized as normal, hyperplasia, severely dysplastic grade I and grade II, nearly-carcinoma and early carcinoma. Cytosmears from 60 patients, 10 for each category, were studied with a semiautomatic image analysis system. Thirteen morphologic parameters so obtained were further analyzed by computer-based stepwise regression and linear correlation analyses. The results showed that the following 5 parameters could be used to judge the nature of the cells, i.e. a) cytoplasmic area, b) cytoplasmic mean diameter, c) cytoplasmic form factor, d) nuclear form factor and e) N/C ratio. Comparing with cells of the other categories, values of the first 4 parameters for early cancer cells were decreased whereas that of the fifth parameter was significantly increased. From normal to hyperplastic and to dysplastic cells, the nuclear area and mean nuclear diameter were gradually increasing. Therefore, they were the major parameters in judging the degree of hyperplasia and dysplasia. These numerical features of morphologic quantitation conformed with the cytologic diagnostic criteria for cancer, hyperplasia and dysplasia under light microscope. It indicates that visual judgement is relatively accurate and application of the ocular micrometer to measure the cells would make this grading more objective.

  5. Experiment K-7-28: Lung Morphology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.; Elliott, A. R.; Mathieu-Costello, O.; Kaplansky, A. S.

    1994-01-01

    There are no previous studies investigating the effect of microgravity exposure during spaceflight on lung tissue. We examined the ultrastructure of the left lungs of 5 Czechoslovakian Wistar rats flown on the 13 day, 19+ hr. Cosmos 2044 mission, and compared them to 5 vivarium and 5 synchronous controls at 1-g conditions, and 5 rats exposed to 14 days of tail-suspension. Within 10 minutes of sacrifice by decapitation, the lungs were removed and immersed in 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1M phosphate buffer (total osmolarity of the fixative: 560 mOsm; pH = 7.4). The tissue stored at 5 C was transported to our laboratory where it was processed for light and electron microscopy. No significant perivascular cuffing caused by interstitial edema was present in the tissue samples. Some of the flight, tail-suspended, and synchronous control rats showed alveolar edema, while vivarium controls did not. The pulmonary capillaries appeared to be more congested in the flight animals than in the other groups. This could be related to the increased hematocrit due to the microgravity exposure. In all 5 flight, 4 tail-suspended, and 3 synchronous rats, red blood cells (RBC) were present in the alveolar spaces. The RBC were either suspended free in the alveoli or observed lining the alveolar wall. The frequency of RBC lining the alveolar walls appeared greater in the dorsal (gravity non-dependent) than in ventral (gravity dependent) regions of the lung in these three animal groups. In 3 of the vivarium controls, a few RBC were found in the alveolar spaces. Intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles were observed in the flight, tail-suspended and synchronous animals, but not in the vivarium controls. The formation of intra-capillary fluid-filled vesicles has been previously associated with pulmonary hypertension induced by high altitude exposure and mitral stenosis. In conclusion, pulmonary hemorrhage and alveolar edema of unknown origin occurred to a greater extent in the flight, tail

  6. Quantifying morphological heterogeneity: a study of more than 1 000 000 individual stored red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Piety, N Z; Gifford, S C; Yang, X; Shevkoplyas, S S

    2015-10-01

    The morphology of red blood cells (RBCs) deteriorates progressively during hypothermic storage. The degree of deterioration varies between individual cells, resulting in a highly heterogeneous population of cells contained within each RBC unit. Current techniques capable of categorizing the morphology of individual stored RBCs are manual, laborious and error-prone procedures that limit the number of cells that can be studied. Our objective was to create a simple, automated system for high-throughput RBC morphology classification. A simple microfluidic device, designed to enable rapid, consistent acquisition of images of optimally oriented RBCs, was fabricated using soft lithography. A custom image analysis algorithm was developed to categorize the morphology of each individual RBC in the acquired images. The system was used to determine morphology of individual RBCs in several RBC units stored hypothermically for 6-8 weeks. The system was used to automatically determine the distribution of cell diameter within each morphological class for >1 000 000 individual stored RBCs (speed: >10 000 cells/h; accuracy: 91·9% low resolution, 75·3% high resolution). Diameter mean and standard deviation by morphology class were as follows: discocyte 7·80 ± 0·49 μm, echinocyte 1 7·61 ± 0·63 μm, echinocyte 2 7·02 ± 0·61 μm, echinocyte 3 6·47 ± 0·42 μm, sphero-echinocyte 6·01 ± 0·26 μm, spherocyte 6·02 ± 0·27 μm, stomatocyte 1 6·95 ± 0·61 μm and stomatocyte 2 7·32 ± 0·47 μm. The automated morphology classification procedure described in this study is significantly simpler, faster and less subjective than conventional manual procedures. The ability to evaluate the morphology of individual RBCs automatically, rapidly and in statistically significant numbers enabled us to perform the most extensive study of stored RBC morphology to date. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Novel ceria-zirconia-yttria mesostructures: Synthesis, characterization, diffusional studies & the effects of morphology on their properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova Morales, Alma Iris

    Ceria-zirconia-yttria (CZY) mixed oxides are used as catalyst supports for three-way catalysts for automotive exhaust emission control and in solid oxide fuel cells. By improving the morphology of CZY mesopores it is possible to reduce the sintering of supported noble metals and enhance overall catalyst lifetime and performance. However, limited studies have been published on the synthetic control of the morphology of CZY materials and the effects that CZY pore geometry has on catalyst operation. To create optimized CZY catalyst supports, novel mesoporous CZY oxides were synthesized via classical sol-gel and evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA) methods, obtaining mesostructures that exhibited excellent physical and diffusional properties. This dissertation provides a detailed analysis of the factors and mechanisms that promote the creation of ordered mesoporous CZY structures via classical sol-gel and EISA approaches. Classical sol-gel methods are reaction-limited syntheses in which, for the case of CZY materials, the formation of polyoxides occurs rapidly as a result of the availability of water and hydrolyzing agents in the initial solution, yielding disordered oxide mesostructures. Alternatively, EISA is a diffusion-limited process, where the rate of oxide forming reactions is limited by the slow diffusion of water into the initial ethanolic-metal salts solution. The slow loss of ethanol by evaporation enables the condensation-polymerization of metal oxy-hydroxide species to coincide with the ordering of these oligomers around the self-organized polymer template. Thus, for the templated synthesis of mesoporous CZY materials, it is the rate of metal oxide condensation that determines the nature of the resulting oxide structure. The choice of templating technique used during CZY synthesis heavily influenced post-calcination morphologies and pore sizes, but to-date no relationships between pore morphology and catalyst performance for CZY materials was presented

  8. [Study on the morphology of influenza virus A by atomic force microscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Fei; Hu, Kong-Xin; Hong, Yi-Jiang; Yang, Yun-Qiu; Suo, Hua-Qian; Wang, Jing

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study is through observing the morphology of the prepared influenza virus (H1N1) with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the application of AFM on the research of the external character of viruses and provide a new, simple and efficient technique for the study of the viral morphology. TEM image was obtained by negatively stained influenza virus with 1% Phosphotungstic Acid; AFM image applied the tapping mode to influenza virus without any further treatment in air at room temperature, and the morphology parameters, including length (diameter), Ra and Rq are calculated by sectional analysis. The shapes of influenza virus A are spherical, filamentous or other pleomorphous particles observed by both AFM and TEM. TEM image of influenza virus A is two-dimensional image, and viral surface has visible spikes, while AFM exhibits the three-dimensional image that can be described with several quantifiable indexes through sectional analysis. AFM phase images show viral surface clearly which is characterized by rugged feature and gear-like protuberance. As compared with TEM, AFM is a new research tool for viral morphology study with the advantages of simple sample preparing, visible interface and is intuitionistic for researchers. The surface characteristic parameters of viruses provided by AFM can be served as the main quantifiable indexes for viral morphological study.

  9. Quantitative and morphological aspects of Unicryl versus Lowicryl K4M embedding in immunoelectron microscopic studies.

    PubMed

    Bogers, J J; Nibbeling, H A; Deelder, A M; van Marck, E A

    1996-01-01

    In this study we compared the recently commercialized electron microscopy embedding resin Unicryl with the well-known resin Lowicryl K4M with regard to morphological and immunohistochemical preservation properties. The standard embedding procedure recommended by the manufacturer for the use of Unicryl resulted in considerable morphological alterations of the tissue, with the appearance of large gaps in and between the cells of the examined tissue. Morphometric analysis pointed to a swelling of the extracellular matrix as the main cause of these morphological artifacts. A slight modification in the protocol to correct this artifact is proposed and tested. Immunohistochemically, tissue embedded in Unicryl resulted in a significantly stronger immunogold labeling than identical tissue embedded in Lowicryl K4M. From the results of this technical study, it can be concluded that Unicryl embedding is a valuable new tool to supplement the available techniques for immunoelectron microscopic studies.

  10. A preliminary study on the interaction of ferritin single crystals with chelating agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domininguez-Vera, Jose M.; Rondón, Deyanira; Moreno, Abel; García-Ruiz, Juan Ma.

    1996-10-01

    The crystallization of ferritin and the subsequent in situ study of the process of iron removal from the crystals by using chelating agents is reported. The chelating agents, oxalate and acetohydroxamate, were chosen because of their high iron(III) affinity. The formation of the corresponding soluble iron(III) complexes arising from the reaction with the iron cores was detected by UV-visible spectroscopy. Furthermore, we show that for a given concentration range of the chelating agents, the iron removal process takes place without crystal destruction. This ferritin-apoferritin (or iron-depleted ferritin) conversion was followed by video-microscopy and checked by X-ray diffraction.

  11. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  12. The Effect of Morphological Awareness on Reading Comprehension: A Study with Adolescent Spanish-English Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curinga, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    The present research examines the role of morphological awareness in reading comprehension of high school emergent bilinguals. As an increasing number of research studies contribute to our understanding of morphological awareness, i.e. the ability to reflect on and manipulate morphologically complex derived words, we are better able to appreciate…

  13. Imageability and Transparency in Morphological Awareness: A Study of How Third-Grade Children Made Lemonade from Lemon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Morphological awareness has been established as important to literacy success, and as such, it is critical to study factors affecting children's performance on measures of this skill. Morphological transparency, or the clarity of the sound and letter pattern relationship between base words and their associated morphological forms, has been found…

  14. Cytotoxic potential of vasoconstrictor experimental gingival retraction agents: in vitro study on primary human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, D; Saczko, J; Kulbacka, J; Choromanska, A; Raszewski, Z

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of the vasoconstrictor experimental gingival retraction agents (VEGRAs) in a dynamic setting. The strong cytotoxic effects of the astringent-based conventional gingival retraction agents (ACGRAs) on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) in vitro was our motivation to evaluate the biocompatibility of the vasoconstrictor-based experimental gingival retraction agents (VEGRAs) for the selected minimally invasive chemical agent. These agents were used to create three self-made retraction gels. Human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) were treated with two groups of retraction agents: 1) three α- and β-adrenergic agents (VEGRA-αβ-s) based on 0.1%, 0.01% and 0.05% HCl-epinephrine, and 2) seven α-adrenergic agents (VEGRA-α-s), including two commercially available 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline solutions, one 0.05% HCl-oxymetazoline solution, 10% HCl-phenylephrine solution, and three new self-made experimental 0.05% HCl-tetrahydro zoline-based gels. The methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay was performed to determine the oxidoreductive mitochondrial function after 3, 5, 10 min and 24 h of incubation. The cytotoxic effect, measured by cell viability lower than the 50% threshold, was not observed at any time period, even 24 h after application of 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozolinebased self-manufactured retraction gels. High cell viability values of human gingival fibroblasts after the treatment with the three self-made 0.05% HCl-tetrahydrozoline- based gels may serve as a basis for further studies aimed at selecting the best retraction agents biocompatible with gingival margin tissues.

  15. Studies on adsorption of nickel on sand from constructed wetland and effect of leaching agents.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Namasivayam; Palanivelu, Kandasamy; Joysula, Sowmya; Manoj, Valsa Remony

    2012-07-01

    The present study chronicles experiments done on the feasibility of exploiting sand's natural capacity as an adsorbant for the removal of nickel laden wastewater. Batch adsorbtion studies were carried out. Leaching agents such as 0.01 M EDTA (disodium salt), 0.1 N HCI and acetic acid alongwith water as control showed 0.01 M EDTA-Na and 0.1 N HCl as suitable leaching agents to enhance metal removal from sand. Pot experiments were successively carried out with Arundo donax plants to determine the effectiveness of treatment on the sand. It was found that sand could continue as a good substrate for plant growth and the amount of leaching agent required for a pilot scale constructed wetland was estimated. The maximum amount of nickel adsorbed was 5 mg/L at a pH of 6. EDTA was selected as the chelating agent and the pot experiments showed no immediate effects on plant growth.

  16. [Morphological study of the adrenals of rats exposed on the Kosmos-690 satellite].

    PubMed

    Savina, E A; Alekseev, E I

    1979-01-01

    Adrenals of 12 rats flown aboard the biosatellite Cosmos-690 and 30 rats used in the ground-based experiments Control-1 and Control-2 were studied morphologically. The animals were sacrificed on the 2nd and 27th days after completion of the experiments (i. e., on the 12 and 37th days after irradiation at a total dose of 800 rad). A comparative study of morphological changes in the adrenals of flight and control rats did not show any distinct differences. It is therefore concluded that space flight factors did not produce a significant effect on the adrenal response to irradiation at a dose of 800 rad.

  17. A Study of Supernova Remnants with Center-Filled X-Ray Morphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2001-01-01

    The proposed study entails use of archival data, primarily from past and active X-ray observatories, to study the properties of a class of supernova remnants (SNRs) which display a centrally-bright X-ray morphology. Several models which have been proposed to explain the morphology are being investigated for comparisons with measured characteristics of several remnants: nonthermal emission from a central synchrotron nebula; thermal emission enhanced by slow evaporation of cool clouds in the hot SNR interior; and relic thermal emission from the SNR interior after the remnant has entered the radiative phase of evolution, thus causing the shell emission to cease.

  18. Antifungal Activities of Antineoplastic Agents: Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a Model System To Study Drug Action

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Maria E.; Cruz, M. Cristina; Del Poeta, Maurizio; Chung, Namjin; Perfect, John R.; Heitman, Joseph

    1999-01-01

    Recent evolutionary studies reveal that microorganisms including yeasts and fungi are more closely related to mammals than was previously appreciated. Possibly as a consequence, many natural-product toxins that have antimicrobial activity are also toxic to mammalian cells. While this makes it difficult to discover antifungal agents without toxic side effects, it also has enabled detailed studies of drug action in simple genetic model systems. We review here studies on the antifungal actions of antineoplasmic agents. Topics covered include the mechanisms of action of inhibitors of topoisomerases I and II; the immunosuppressants rapamycin, cyclosporin A, and FK506; the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin; the angiogenesis inhibitors fumagillin and ovalicin; the HSP90 inhibitor geldanamycin; and agents that inhibit sphingolipid metabolism. In general, these natural products inhibit target proteins conserved from microorganisms to humans. These studies highlight the potential of microorganisms as screening tools to elucidate the mechanisms of action of novel pharmacological agents with unique effects against specific mammalian cell types, including neoplastic cells. In addition, this analysis suggests that antineoplastic agents and derivatives might find novel indications in the treatment of fungal infections, for which few agents are presently available, toxicity remains a serious concern, and drug resistance is emerging. PMID:10515904

  19. The Role of Phonological versus Morphological Skills in the Development of Arabic Spelling: An Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Taha, Haitham; Saiegh-Haddad, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the contribution of two linguistic intervention programs, phonological and morphological to the development of word spelling among skilled and poor native Arabic readers, in three grades: second, fourth and sixth. The participants were assigned to three experimental groups: morphological intervention, phonological intervention and a non-intervention control group. Phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and spelling abilities were tested before and after the intervention. Participants from both linguistic intervention programs and in all grades made significant progress in linguistic awareness and spelling after the intervention. The results showed that both intervention programs were successful in promoting children's spelling skills in both groups. Also, older poor readers showed a stronger response to the morphological intervention than the older skilled readers. A transfer effect was found with the phonological training contributing to the morphological skills and vice versa. The results of the current study were discussed in the light of developmental and psycholinguistic views of spelling acquisition as well as the characteristics of Arabic language and orthography.

  20. A Comparative Morphological Study of the Jugal and Quadratojugal in Early Birds and Their Dinosaurian Relatives.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Hu, Han

    2017-01-01

    The zygoma (called jugal bar) in modern birds accounts for a large portion of the ventral margin of the cranium. As a delicate and rod-like element, the jugal bar is functionally integrated into the avian cranial kinesis, a unique property that allows the beak to be elevated or depressed with respect to the braincase and thus distinguishes birds from all other modern vertebrates. Developmental studies show that the jugal bar of modern birds is formed by the fusion of the jugal and quadratojugal that are ossified from separated centers. However, those two bones are unfused and exhibit complicated morphological variations in basal birds and their dinosaurian relatives. Moreover, the jugal and quadratojugal form rigid articulations with the postorbital and squamosal, respectively, consequently hindering the movement of the upper jaw in most non-avian dinosaurs and some basal birds. A comparative study of the jugal and quadratojugal morphology of basal birds and their close relatives such as dromaeosaurids and oviraptorids elucidates how modern birds has achieved its derived jugal bar morphology, and sheds light on the evolution of the postorbital configuration of birds. We propose that numerous morphological modifications of those two elements (morphology changes and reduced articulation with other elements) took place in early bird history, and some of them pertinent to the refinement of the cranial kinesis. Anat Rec, 300:62-75, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Gold Nanoparticle Contrast Agents in Mammography: A Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    breast tomosynthesis would allow clinical molecular imaging of the breast. This is a potentially more sensitive approach to early breast cancer...breast tomosynthesis , should provide improved lesion conspicuity. We are studying the feasibility of mammographic molecular imaging through in vitro...mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis to test for adequate contrast enhancement, both conventionally and using dual-energy subtraction methods

  2. Structural, morphological, and wettability study of electrochemically anodized 1D TiO2 nanotube arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Jyoti V.; Mali, Sawanta S.; Hong, Chang K.; Kim, Jin H.; Patil, Pramod S.

    2017-10-01

    In the present investigation, anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays (NTAs) have been successfully synthesized by a simple and cost-effective electrochemical anodization of titanium (Ti) foil. To investigate the effect of reaction time on the TiO2 NTAs, the reaction time was varied from 6, 12, 18, and 24 h and studied its morphological changes. Furthermore, the synthesized TiO2 NTAs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FT-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photospectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and the wettability measurement to study detailed investigation of structural, morphological, and wettability characteristics. These results demonstrated that the anodization time is strongly affecting on the morphology and wettability of the TiO2 NTAs. In addition, these results will be useful in dye-sensitized solar cell and supercapacitor applications.

  3. Towards a comprehensive integration of morphological and genetic studies of floral development.

    PubMed

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S; Ma, Hong

    2004-04-01

    Floral developmental genetics has exploded as a discipline. In addition to the rich genetic database for well-established models (Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum, Zea), numerous species have become the focus of floral genomic and genetic initiatives. Extensive documentation of the developmental morphology of Arabidopsis flowers has facilitated the linkage of genes and morphology. Complete developmental series also need to be assembled for emerging systems of molecular studies of floral genes. We address issues of homology assessment in floral structures, emphasize the need for assembling a complete floral developmental series for each species studied molecularly and genetically, stress the importance of a common set of terminology, and suggest a set of 'landmarks' to designate major events in floral development. We compare the floral developmental series of three species with different floral morphologies and propose a consensus of developmental stages to facilitate comparison of gene expression patterns. Taxa occupying key phylogenetic positions offer great potential for generating hypotheses about the regulation of floral development.

  4. The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active Against RNA Viruses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-15

    5012 62770A 62770A8,1. AH 355 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) The Synthesis and Study of Azole Carboxamide Nucleosides as Agents Active...broad-spectrum antiviral agent has stimulated a great deal of effort toward the chemical synthesis of nucleosides of other azole heterocycles. During the...4 II. Chemistry and Discussion . . .. .. . 6 1. Synthesis of Certain 5’-Substituted Derivatives of Ribavirin and Tiazofurin . . .. . 6 2

  5. The effect of different chemical agents on human enamel: an atomic force and scanning electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominu, Roxana O.; Rominu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Pop, Daniela; Petrescu, Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to investigate the changes in enamel surface roughess induced by the application of different chemical substances by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. METHOD: Five sound human first upper premolar teeth were chosen for the study. The buccal surface of each tooth was treated with a different chemical agent as follows: Sample 1 - 38% phosphoric acid etching (30s) , sample 2 - no surface treatment (control sample), 3 - bleaching with 37.5 % hydrogen peroxide (according to the manufacturer's instructions), 4 - conditioning with a self-etching primer (15 s), 5 - 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching (30s). All samples were investigated by atomic force microscopy in a non-contact mode and by scanning electron microscopy. Several images were obtained for each sample, showing evident differences regarding enamel surface morphology. The mean surface roughness and the mean square roughness were calculated and compared. RESULTS: All chemical substances led to an increased surface roughness. Phosphoric acid led to the highest roughness while the control sample showed the lowest. Hydrofluoric acid also led to an increase in surface roughness but its effects have yet to be investigated due to its potential toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: By treating the human enamel with the above mentioned chemical compounds a negative microretentive surface is obtained, with a morphology depending on the applied substance.

  6. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  7. Stability studies of selected doping agents in urine: caffeine.

    PubMed

    Ventura, R; Jiménez, C; Closas, N; Segura, J; De la Torre, R

    2003-10-05

    The stability of caffeine in urine samples has been studied. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantification of caffeine in urine samples was validated for that purpose. The method consists of a liquid-liquid extraction at alkaline pH with chloroform-2-propanol (9:1, v/v) with a salting out effect. 7-Ethyltheophylline was used as internal standard (ISTD). Analyses were performed with an Ultrasphere ODS C18 column using water/acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as a mobile phase at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Ultraviolet absorption at 280 nm was monitored. Extraction recoveries for caffeine and 7-ethyltheophylline were 81.4+/-6.0 and 87.3+/-5.7%, respectively. The calibration curves were demonstrated to be linear in the working range of 6-30 microg/ml (r2>0.990). The limit of detection and the limit of quantitation were estimated as 0.7 and 2.0 microg/ml, respectively. Precisions in the range of 1.5-9.2 and 4.1-5.8% were obtained in intra- and inter-assay studies, respectively, using control samples containing 10, 14 and 26 microg/ml of caffeine. Accuracies ranging from 2.9 to 7.4% for intra-assay experiments, and from 3.9 to 5.4% in inter-assay studies were obtained. Stability of caffeine in urine samples was evaluated after long- and short-term storage at different temperature conditions. The batches of spiked urine were submitted to sterilization by filtration. No adsorption of the analyte on filters was observed. Before starting stability studies, batches of reference materials were tested for homogeneity. For long-term stability testing, caffeine concentration in freeze-dried urine stored at 4 degrees C and in liquid urine samples stored at 4, -20, -40 and -80 degrees C was determined at several time intervals for 18 months. For short-term stability testing, caffeine concentration was evaluated in liquid urine stored at 37 degrees C for 7 days. The effect of repeated freezing (at -20 degrees C) and thawing was also studied for up to three

  8. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  9. Vanadium compounds as therapeutic agents: some chemical and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Faneca, H; Figueiredo, V A; Tomaz, Isabel; Gonçalves, Gisela; Avecilla, Fernando; Pedroso de Lima, M C; Geraldes, Carlos F G C; Pessoa, João Costa; Castro, M Margarida C A

    2009-04-01

    The behaviour of three vanadium(V) systems, namely the pyridinone (V(V)-dmpp), the salicylaldehyde (V(V)-salDPA) and the pyrimidinone (V(V)-MHCPE) complexes, is studied in aqueous solutions, under aerobic and physiological conditions using (51)V NMR, EPR and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopies. The speciations for the V(V)-dmpp and V(V)-salDPA have been previously reported. In this work, the system V(V)-MHCPE is studied by pH-potentiometry and (51)V NMR. The results indicate that, at pH ca. 7, the main species present are (V(V)O(2))L(2) and (V(V)O(2))LH(-1) (L=MHCPE(-)) and hydrolysis products, similar to those observed in aqueous solutions of V(V)-dmpp. The latter species is protonated as the pH decreases, originating (V(V)O(2))L and (V(V)O(2))LH. All the V(V)-species studied are stable in aqueous media with different compositions and at physiological pH, including the cell culture medium. The compounds were screened for their potential cytotoxic activity in two different cell lines. The toxic effects were found to be incubation time and concentration dependent and specific for each compound and type of cells. The HeLa tumor cells seem to be more sensitive to drug effects than the 3T3-L1 fibroblasts. According to the IC(50) values and the results on reversibility to drug effects, the V(V)-species resulting from the V(V)-MHCPE system show higher toxicity in the tumor cells than in non-tumor cells, which may indicate potential antitumor activity.

  10. Fraud Detection by Human Agents: A Pilot Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almendra, Vinicius; Schwabe, Daniel

    Fraud is a constant problem for online auction sites. Besides failures in detecting fraudsters, the currently employed methods yield many false positives: bona fide sellers that end up harassed by the auction site as suspects. We advocate the use of human computation (also called crowdsourcing) to improve precision and recall of current fraud detection techniques. To examine the feasibility of our proposal, we did a pilot study with a set of human subjects, testing whether they could distinguish fraudsters from common sellers before negative feedback arrived and looking just at a snapshot of seller profiles. Here we present the methodology used and the obtained results, in terms of precision and recall of human classifiers, showing positive evidence that detecting fraudsters with human computation is viable.

  11. [Study on geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds].

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng-Li; Wang, Wen-Quan; Qin, Shu-Ying; Liu, Chang-Li; Zhang, Zhao-Ying; Di, Ming

    2008-04-01

    To study the geographical variation of morphologic and germination characteristic of different Glycyrrhiza uralensis provenance seeds, approach the geographical variation mode and ecology mechanism, and laid theoretical foundation for districting and allocating of G. uralensis seeds. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were applied. Seed shape and kilosseed weight were sampled randomly, germination rate germination force by general methods. The morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis seeds showed roughly longitude variation tendency that the seeds increased gradually from west to east. While the germination characteristic showed roughly altitude variation tendency that the seeds germination rate and germination force increased with the increase of the altitude, and the average germination rate was the same with the seeds morphologic characteristic. The results of analysis correlated with the climatic factors show that the morphologic characteristic of G. uralensis was positive correlated with annual rain-fall of the habitat, and the germination rate was quickened by drought, high temperature and strong sunshine. The morphologic and germination characteristic and of G. uralensis seeds present distinguished geographical variation, and the formation of the variation was related to the ecological environment in which the seed provenance adapted.

  12. Optical modulation study of repaired damage morphologies of fused silica by scalar diffraction theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Zhou, Qingyan; Jiang, Yong; Xiang, Xia; Liao, Wei; Jiang, Xiaolong; Wang, Haijun; Luan, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Wanguo; Yuan, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    The cone and Gaussian repaired damage craters are two typical morphologies induced by CO2 laser evaporation and nonevaporation technologies. The mathematical models are built for these two types of repaired craters, and the light modulation at 355 nm induced by the millimeter-scale repaired damage morphology is studied by scalar diffraction theory. The results show that the modulation of the Gaussian repaired morphology has one peak and then decreases with the increasing distance from 0 to 30 cm. While the modulation for cone repaired morphology remains stable after decreasing quickly with the increasing distance. When the horizontal radius increases, the modulation looks like a saw-tooth. However, the modulation has irregular variations for two kinds of morphologies with the increasing vertical depth. The simulated results agree well with experimental results. The horizontal and vertical dimensions, and downstream distance have different influences on the modulation. The risk of damage to downstream optical components can be suppressed to improve the stability of the optical system if the shape and size of repaired craters are well controlled and the positions of downstream optical components are selected appropriately.

  13. A rapid method combining Golgi and Nissl staining to study neuronal morphology and cytoarchitecture.

    PubMed

    Pilati, Nadia; Barker, Matthew; Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Donga, Revers; Hamann, Martine

    2008-06-01

    The Golgi silver impregnation technique gives detailed information on neuronal morphology of the few neurons it labels, whereas the majority remain unstained. In contrast, the Nissl staining technique allows for consistent labeling of the whole neuronal population but gives very limited information on neuronal morphology. Most studies characterizing neuronal cell types in the context of their distribution within the tissue slice tend to use the Golgi silver impregnation technique for neuronal morphology followed by deimpregnation as a prerequisite for showing that neuron's histological location by subsequent Nissl staining. Here, we describe a rapid method combining Golgi silver impregnation with cresyl violet staining that provides a useful and simple approach to combining cellular morphology with cytoarchitecture without the need for deimpregnating the tissue. Our method allowed us to identify neurons of the facial nucleus and the supratrigeminal nucleus, as well as assessing cellular distribution within layers of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. With this method, we also have been able to directly compare morphological characteristics of neuronal somata at the dorsal cochlear nucleus when labeled with cresyl violet with those obtained with the Golgi method, and we found that cresyl violet-labeled cell bodies appear smaller at high cellular densities. Our observation suggests that cresyl violet staining is inadequate to quantify differences in soma sizes.

  14. Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Pavel; Radakovič, Miloslav; Obitko, Marek; Mařík, Vladimír

    The paper reports on the latest R&D activities in the field of agent-based manufacturing control systems. It is documented that this area becomes strongly influenced by the advancements of semantic technologies like the Web Ontology Language. The application of ontologies provides the agents with much more effective means for handling, exchanging and reasoning about the knowledge. The ontology dedicated for semantic description of orders, production processes and material handling tasks in discrete manufacturing domain has been developed. In addition, the framework for integration of this ontology in distributed, agent-based control solutions is given. The Manufacturing Agent Simulation Tool (MAST) is used as a base for pilot implementation of the ontology-powered multiagent control system; the packing cell environment is selected as a case study.

  15. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  16. Clindamycin and tetracycline as immunomodulating agents: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Corrales, I; Suarez, A; Lima, A; Ballestero, S; Gómez-Lus, M L; Prieto, J

    1989-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of clindamycin and tetracycline, both intravenously administered, on antibody response to thymus-dependent antigen (PC-KLH) in BALB/c mice. The immunological parameters evaluated were: DPFC/spleen (direct plaque forming-cells), antibody secretion median rate (PC50), heterogeneity index (Hi), number of total splenic lymphocytes and cellular viability. The results showed that clindamycin (i.v.) increased the humoral response; 28 mg/kg was the dose that showed the greatest enhancement (+73%). The PC50 was not affected by clindamycin but Hi decreased at 28 mg/kg and increased at 2.8 mg/kg doses, although neither result was statistically significant. When tetracycline was given i.v., a slight decrease in the anti-PC DPFC number was observed. Although the PC50 was greater at 10 mg/kg (p less than 0.05), Hi was smaller at the 1 mg/kg dose (p less than 0.05).

  17. Atomic force microscopic study of the effects of ethanol on yeast cell surface morphology.

    PubMed

    Canetta, Elisabetta; Adya, Ashok K; Walker, Graeme M

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of ethanol toxicity on the cell surface morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain NCYC 1681) and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (strain DVPB 1354) were investigated using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In combination with culture viability and mean cell volume measurements AFM studies allowed us to relate the cell surface morphological changes, observed on nanometer lateral resolution, with the cellular stress physiology. Exposing yeasts to increasing stressful concentrations of ethanol led to decreased cell viabilities and mean cell volumes. Together with the roughness and bearing volume analyses of the AFM images, the results provided novel insight into the relative ethanol tolerance of S. cerevisiae and Sc. pombe.

  18. A comparative morphological study of the epiandrous apparatus in mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae).

    PubMed

    Ferretti, N; Pompozzi, G; Copperi, S; Wehitt, A; Galíndez, E; González, A; Pérez-Miles, F

    2017-02-01

    Many adult male spiders have silk glands which are not associated with the spinnerets. They occur on the anterior margin of the genital furrow and are used during the building of the sperm web and sperm droplet induction. These epiandrous glands exit the body through ducts which lead to specialized spigots. In the taxon Mygalomorphae, the presence of epiandrous spigots is just reported for a couple of species but their morphology has not been investigated. In this paper we provide a detailed study of the ultrastructure morphology of eighteen species belonging to eight families using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We describe and present images of the epiandrous spigots above the genital opening. Also, we compare the morphology of spigots between families and describe the epiandrous glands through histology.

  19. Experimental Artifacts for Morphological Tweaking of Chemical Sensor Materials: Studies on ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Ikram Ul; Azad, Abdul-Majeed

    2012-01-01

    Sensing mechanisms of gases on solid structures are predominantly surface-dominated. Benign surface features in terms of small grain size, high aspect ratio, large surface area and open and connected porosity, are required to realize a successful sensor material. Such morphological artifacts are a function of the fabrication and processing techniques employed. In this paper, we describe the fabrication of monoshaped and monosized zinc oxide (ZnO) particles by a homogeneous precipitation method, using urea and/or hexmethyltetraamine as the reductant. The effect of operating conditions and experimental variables, such as the relative concentration of the precursors, temperature, and the aging time on the morphology of the resulting particles was studied systematically. These experimental parameters were optimized in order to achieve particles of uniform morphology and of narrow size distribution. Some of these particles were employed for the detection of ammonia gas at room temperature. PMID:22969399

  20. Orientation and Morphology of Calcite Nucleated under Floating Monolayers: A Magnesium-ion-enhanced Nucleation Study

    SciTech Connect

    B Stripe; A Uysal; P Dutta

    2011-12-31

    We have studied the biomimetic growth of calcium carbonate crystals under floating monolayer templates, in the presence of Mg ions, using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and SEM imaging. Crystals grown under sulfate monolayers nucleate from the (0 0 1) plane with and without Mg ions, while undergoing substantial changes in morphology. Crystals grown under alcohol monolayers nucleate from the (1 0 4) plane in the presence of Mg. X-ray data do not detect orientation in crystals grown under acid monolayers, but at higher Mg concentrations the resulting morphologies are indicative of template-nucleated growth. These results suggest that Mg provides living organisms a way to enhance the orientation and control the morphology of acid-templated crystals.

  1. Fundamental studies of copper anode passivation during electrorefining: Part II. Surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuan; Hiskey, J. Brent

    1996-08-01

    Passivation of commercial copper anodes and pure copper has been previously analyzed by performing electrochemical measurements. Chronopotentiometry results revealed four characteristic regions involving I—active dissolution, II—prepassivation, III—passivation onset, and IV—passivation, for commercial copper anodes, while only active dissolution was observed for pure copper under the conditions employed. In order to establish the relationship between surface morphology and passivation response, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were applied to characterize morphology of the product layers formed on a commercial copper anode surface for the distinctive electrochemical regions. The morphology studies suggested that the formation and stability of copper oxide surface films are critical to the onset and development of passivation. The structure and porosity of the slimes layer present in the outer layer of the anode influence the stability of copper oxide surface films which dominantly control the passivation response.

  2. AFM study of the morphologic change of HDPE surface photografted with glycidyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huiliang; Han, Jianmei

    2009-05-01

    The UV-induced grafting of glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) onto high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and the atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the morphologic change of the grafted surface are reported. The grafting was carried out in GMA acetone solutions with different monomer concentrations. Grafting was much faster in a solution with a higher monomer concentration. FTIR analyses proved that GMA had been successfully grafted onto HDPE. The morphologies of grafted HDPE surfaces changed with UV irradiation time. The monomer concentration had a significant effect on the morphologies of the grafted HDPE surfaces. The HDPE surface grafted in a solution with a higher monomer concentration was much rougher than that grafted in a solution with a lower monomer concentration. The growth models of the grafted granules or clusters are also proposed.

  3. [Experimental studies of ferrite as a MRI contrast agent].

    PubMed

    Aoki, F

    1992-02-01

    Using a 0.2 T permanent MR imaging system, the gradual changes of signal intensity after intravenous injection of Ferrite suspension were studied in liver of normal rabbits and those with intrahepatic VX2 tumor. After injection of Ferrite suspension, decreased signal intensities of liver were observed on both T1 and T2 weighted images. The decrease on T2 weighted images was more remarkable than that on the T1 weighted image. The image with 8 mg/kg (50 mumol/kg) dose of Ferrite suspension showed significant changes of signal intensity, while, the image with 24 mg/kg (150 mumol/kg) dose was hardly evaluated because of inducing intense artifacts. The decrease of signal intensity in liver was observed immediately after the injection and was lowest after 1 hour. After 48 hours, the signal intensity began to increase. However, a slight loss of signal intensity was visualized even after 4 weeks. A clear MRI of the intrahepatic tumor following injection of Ferrite suspension was acquired especially on T2 weighted image in comparison with MRI after Gd-DTPA administration. In addition, MRI using Ferrite suspension could detect the small intrahepatic tumors which had been unable to be visualized by plain CT or enhanced CT. It is of benefit, furthermore, that Ferrite suspension could be an useful tracer for observing the intrahepatic tumor growth by a first single injection. Histologically, Ferrite particles were accumulated in reticuloendothelial system of liver whereas no accumulated in intrahepatic tumor was verified. The particles produced changes in local magnetic field resulting that signal intensity of liver showed decrease on the image. Subsequently, relatively negative contrast enhancement of liver was displayed. As a result of the present investigation, the MR imaging following injection of Ferrite suspension was found to be useful for detection of intrahepatic tumors, particularly of metastatic tumors which were isointense or hypovascular to the surrounding tissue

  4. Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence in Korean Vietnam veterans: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2014-12-01

    During the Vietnam War, US and allied military sprayed approximately 77 million liters of tactical herbicides including Agent Orange, contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. To the authors' knowledge, few studies to date have examined the association between Agent Orange exposure and cancer incidence among Korean veterans who were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. An Agent Orange exposure index, based on the proximity of the veteran's military unit to the area that was sprayed with Agent Orange, was developed using a geographic information system-based model. Cancer incidence was followed for 180,251 Vietnam veterans from 1992 through 2003. After adjustment for age and military rank, high exposure to Agent Orange was found to significantly increase the risk of all cancers combined (adjusted hazards ratio [aHR], 1.08). Risks for cancers of the mouth (aHR, 2.54), salivary glands (aHR, 6.96), stomach (aHR, 1.14), and small intestine (aHR, 2.30) were found to be significantly higher in the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. Risks for cancers of all sites combined (aHR, 1.02) and for cancers of the salivary glands (aHR, 1.47), stomach (aHR, 1.03), small intestine (aHR, 1.24), and liver (aHR, 1.02) were elevated with a 1-unit increase in the exposure index. Exposure to Agent Orange several decades earlier may increase the risk of cancers in all sites combined, as well as several specific cancers, among Korean veterans of the Vietnam War, including some cancers that were not found to be clearly associated with exposure to Agent Orange in previous cohort studies primarily based on Western populations. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  5. Knowledge of Morphologically Complex Words: A Developmental Study of Older Children and Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Sun, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined knowledge of derived nominals (e.g., measurement, prediction) and derived adjectives (e.g., algebraic, molecular) in older children and young adolescents. Little was known about students' comprehension of these morphologically complex words that occur in textbooks that are used in public schools to teach challenging…

  6. [Experimental and morphological study of the effect of antiangiogenic therapy on corneal neovessels].

    PubMed

    Mamikonian, V R; Voevodina, T M; Fedorov, A A; Budzinskaia, M V; Balaian, M L

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of an experimental and morphological study of combined antiangiogenic effect of photodynamic therapy with Photosens photosensitizer and Avastin (bevacizumab) on neovascularization process in corneal stroma. The combined approach has demonstrated an advantage over separate application of these methods, what, however, has to be proved clinically.

  7. Unit 1201: A Historical Study of English Phonology, Morphology, and Syntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This unit for grade 12 is concerned with both the methods and purposes of the historical study of phonology, morphology, and syntax in the English language. The introduction to the unit illustrates language change in Old, Middle, and Modern English versions of "The Prodigal Son" and examines the causes of current language changes as…

  8. Combining ontogenetic and evolutionary scales of morphological disparity: a study of early Jurassic ammonites.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Sylvain; Neige, Pascal; Eble, Gunther J

    2007-01-01

    Two major research themes in Evolutionary Developmental Biology and in Paleobiology, respectively, have each become central for the analysis and interpretation of morphological changes in evolution: the study of ontogeny/phylogeny connections, mainly within the widespread and controversial framework of heterochrony; and the study of morphological disparity, the morphological signal of biodiversity, describing secular changes in morphospace occupation during the history of any given clade. Although enriching in their respective fields, these two themes have remained rather isolated to date, despite the potential value of integrating them as some recent studies begin to suggest. Here, we explore the recent notion of developmental morphospace-morphospace carrying ontogenetic information-as a potential tool for bridging the gap between disparity dynamics and developmental dynamics. We elaborate this approach with a case study of Early Jurassic ammonite family Hildoceratidae (Mollusca, Cephalopoda). Morphometric analyses of the shell shape of 20 species spanning the morphological spectrum of the family are used to quantify and contrast juvenile and adult disparity levels. Adult disparity is significantly greater than juvenile disparity at the family level; yet, some subclades also display different patterns. In addition, comparisons of ontogenetic trajectories underline the prevalence of heterochrony-based evolutionary modifications within subfamilies (via ontogenetic scaling); they also point to the probable existence of pervasive developmental constraints structuring inhomogeneous morphospace occupation.

  9. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  10. The Development of Past Tense Morphology in L2 Spanish. Studies in Bilingualism 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaberry, M. Rafael

    The general objective of this study is the investigation of some of the cognitive processes underlying adult second language acquisition through the analysis of the development of morphological markers of temporality in the acquisition of Spanish as a second language (L2) among native English speakers. It is argued that analysis of data on the…

  11. Knowledge of Morphologically Complex Words: A Developmental Study of Older Children and Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nippold, Marilyn A.; Sun, Lei

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined knowledge of derived nominals (e.g., measurement, prediction) and derived adjectives (e.g., algebraic, molecular) in older children and young adolescents. Little was known about students' comprehension of these morphologically complex words that occur in textbooks that are used in public schools to teach challenging…

  12. Morphological Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Matched Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozgen, Heval; Hellemann, Gerhard S.; Stellato, Rebecca K.; Lahuis, Bertine; van Daalen, Emma; Staal, Wouter G.; Rozendal, Marije; Hennekam, Raoul C.; Beemer, Frits A.; van Engeland, Herman

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine morphological features in a large group of children with autism spectrum disorder versus normal controls. Amongst 421 patients and 1,007 controls, 224 matched pairs were created. Prevalence rates and odds ratios were analyzed by conditional regression analysis, McNemar test or paired t-test matched pairs.…

  13. A comparative study of the effect of different topical agents on burn wound infections.

    PubMed

    Gunjan, Katara; Shobha, Chamania; Sheetal, Chitnis; Nanda, Hemvani; Vikrant, Chitnis; Chitnis, Dhananjay Sadashiv

    2012-05-01

    Topical agents are used to treat burn wound infections. The present work was aimed to find out the in vitro efficacy of different topical agents against burn wound pathogens. Randomly selected gram-positive (29) and gram-negative bacterial (119) isolates from burn wound cases admitted in burn unit of Choithram Hospital and Research Centre, Indore, were included in the in vitro activity testing for silver nitrate, silver sulphadiazine (SSD), chlorhexidine, cetrimide, nitrofuran, soframycin, betadine, benzalkonium chloride and honey by growth inhibition on agar medium. Multidrug-resistant isolates of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria were checked for different topical agents. 1% topical agent was mixed with Mueller-Hinton agar. Two microlitres of bacterial suspension adjusted to 0.5 McFarland turbidity standard was spread over the topical agent containing plates. The plates without the topical agent were used as control plates. The plates were incubated for 48 h at 37°C. SSD (148/148), silver nitrate (148/148) and chlorhexidine (148/148) showed excellent activity against all the pathogens. Neosporin had poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, (4/44) Proteus spp. (2/4) and group D streptococci (1/4). Betadine did not show activity against the bacterial isolates in the presence of organic matter. Honey did not exert any antimicrobial activity under the study conditions. SSD, silver nitrate and chlorhexidine have excellent activity against all the bacterial pathogens and could be used empirically, while identification of the infective agent is required for selecting the alternative topical agents such as nitrofuran, soframycin, and benzalkonium chloride.

  14. The Location and Distribution of Transurethral Bulking Agent: 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Yune, Junchan Joshua; Quiroz, Lieschen; Nihira, Mikio A; Siddighi, Sam; O'Leary, Dena E; Santiago, A; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    2016-01-01

    To use 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound to describe the location and distribution of bulking agent after an uncomplicated transurethral injection. Endovaginal ultrasound was performed in 24 treatment-naive patients immediately after bulking agent was injected. The distance between the center of the hyperechoic density of bulking agent and the urethrovesical junction (UVJ) was measured in the sagittal and axial views. This was calculated in percentile length of urethra. Also, the pattern of tracking of bulking agent was assessed if it is presented. After the 2 subjects were excluded because of the poor quality of images, 22 patients were included in this study. Eighteen (82%) subjects showed 2 sites of bulking agents, and mostly, they were located around 3- and 9-o'clock positions. The average distance of bulking agent from left UVJ was at 16.9% of the length of the urethra (6.2 mm; range, 0.5-17 mm) and at 25.5% of the length of the urethra (8.9 mm; range, 0-24.8 mm) in the right side. The average length of urethra was 36.7 mm. Eleven of the 22 subjects (50%) had both sides within upper one third of urethra. The difference in distance between the 2 sides was less than 10 mm in 12 of 22 patients (54%). Nine of the 22 patients (41%) had a significant spread of bulking agent mostly either into the bladder neck or toward the distal urethra. Although the bulking agent is most often found at 3- and 9-o'clock positions as intended, the distance from the UVJ is highly variable after an uncomplicated office-based transurethral injection. The bulking material does not form the characteristic spheres in 41% of cases and tracks toward the bladder neck or the distal urethra.

  15. Deproteinizing Agents as an Effective Enamel Bond Enhancer-An in Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Hasija, Pallavi; Sachdev, Vinod; Mathur, Shivani; Rath, Rishi

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different deproteinizing agents on shear bond strength of composite to primary teeth enamel. Forty sound primary molars divided in 4 groups of 10 teeth each. In control group 1, enamel was etched for 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid and rinsed with water. Group 2: after acid etching deproteinizing agent 5 % sodium hypochlorite was applied for 60 seconds and rinsed. Group 3: after acid etching deproteinizing agent papain gel was applied for 60 seconds and rinsed. Group 4: after acid etching deproteinizing agent bromelain gel applied for 60 seconds and rinsed. Following this, bonding agent was applied to treated enamel surface and composite resin disc were build. Samples were then tested for shear bond strength using Universal Testing Machine. Mean SBS was highest for group 4 and lowest for group 1. No statistically significant difference (p value >0.05) was found between all the four groups. Among deproteinizing agents, deproteinization when carried out with bromelain gel and sodium hypochlorite showed effective bond strength as compared to papain.

  16. [Study on an enhancing agent for removing arsenic from drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ling, B; Li, S; Zhu, Y; Zhang, B

    2001-05-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic for an extended period of time could be detrimental to the health of people. Some preliminary symptoms could be alleviated by drinking water non-contaminated. It is important to develop an arsenic removal agent with a specific property of most efficient, cost-effective and easy for operation. The results showed that the capacity of the agent developed in this study was 10 times higher for arsenic removal than other agent available. The lowest arsenic content of the treated water was 0.05 mg/L. The special function of this agent was arsenic removing without changing other components and the concentrations of other elements in the treated water. The operation and management was simple without adjusting pH of the influent and effluent water. The agent was 5 times cheaper in cost than alumina or activated carbon, because it was a reusable oxidation-catalyst. Therefore, the agent could be widely applied in drinking water plants or used as a purifier at home in the high arsenic areas.

  17. The aneurysmal arteriovenous fistula - morphological study and assessment of clinical implications. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kenneth R; Gallagher, Maeve; Ross, Rose; Severn, Alison; Nagy, Janos; Cochrane, Lynda; Griffiths, Gareth D

    2015-10-01

    Aneurysmal dilation of arteriovenous fistulae used for haemodialysis is a recognised complication but its clinical significance is a contentious issue. Our aims were to describe aneurysmal fistulae morphologically and clinically.Sixty patients underwent duplex scanning to measure the maximum diameter and skin thickness of their fistula. Haemodialysis function and bleeding risk were assessed clinically.The 75th percentile of maximum diameter was 2.05 cm. In addition to conventional diameter measurement, we describe a novel volume measurement technique which may be of value. No relationship was found between maximum diameter or volume and function, skin thickness or bleeding.Some studies define aneurysm at 2 cm (75th percentile); however, this definition and other arbitrary definitions lack clinical significance. This work suggests that fistula dilation should be considered together with clinical issues when determining the clinical significance of an aneurysm. Our finding that haemodialysis function, skin thickness and bleeding were not associated with diameter needs further study.

  18. Chronic administration of the neurotrophic agent cerebrolysin ameliorates the behavioral and morphological changes induced by neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion in a rat model of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Chronic Administration of the Neurotrophic Agent Cerebrolysin Ameliorates the Behavioral and Morphological Changes Induced by Neonatal Ventral Hippocampus Lesion in a Rat Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Roque, Rubén Antonio; Ramos, Brenda; Tecuatl, Carolina; Juárez, Ismael; Adame, Anthony; de la Cruz, Fidel; Zamudio, Sergio; Mena, Raúl; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer; Flores, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal ventral hippocampal lesion (nVHL) in rats has been widely used as a neurodevelopmental model to mimic schizophrenia-like behaviors. Recently, we reported that nVHLs result in dendritic retraction and spine loss in prefrontal cortex (PFC) pyramidal neurons and medium spiny neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Cerebrolysin (Cbl), a neurotrophic peptide mixture, has been reported to ameliorate the synaptic and dendritic pathology in models of aging and neurodevelopmental disorder such as Rett syndrome. This study sought to determine whether Cbl was capable of reducing behavioral and neuronal alterations in nVHL rats. The behavioral analysis included locomotor activity induced by novel environment and amphetamine, social interaction, and sensoriomotor gating. The morphological evaluation included dendritic analysis by using the Golgi-Cox procedure and stereology to quantify the total cell number in PFC and NAcc. Behavioral data show a reduction in the hyperresponsiveness to novel environment- and amphetamine-induced locomotion, with an increase in the total time spent in social interactions and in prepulse inhibition in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. In addition, neuropathological analysis of the limbic regions also showed amelioration of dendritic retraction and spine loss in Cbl-treated nVHL rats. Cbl treatment also ameliorated dendritic pathology and neuronal loss in the PFC and NAcc in nVHL rats. This study demonstrates that Cbl promotes behavioral improvements and recovery of dendritic neuronal damage in postpubertal nVHL rats and suggests that Cbl may have neurotrophic effects in this neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. These findings support the possibility that Cbl has beneficial effects in the management of schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:21932359

  20. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non

  1. Morphological abnormalities in baseline ECGs in healthy normal volunteers participating in phase I studies

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Pooja; Natekar, Mili; Deshmukh, Sheetal; Karnad, Dilip R.; Kothari, Snehal; Narula, Dhiraj; Lokhandwala, Yash

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Morphological abnormalities in 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) are seen in subgroups of healthy individuals like athletes and air-force personnel. As these populations may not truly represent healthy individuals, we assessed morphological abnormalities in ECG in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies, who are screened to exclude associated conditions. Methods: ECGs from 62 phase I studies analyzed in a central ECG laboratory were pooled. A single drug-free baseline ECG from each subject was reviewed by experienced cardiologists. ECG intervals were measured on five consecutive beats and morphological abnormalities identified using standard guidelines. Results: Morphological abnormalities were detected in 25.5 per cent of 3978 healthy volunteers (2495 males, 1483 females; aged 18-76 yr); the presence was higher in males (29.3% vs. 19.2% in females; P<0.001). Rhythm abnormalities were the commonest (11.5%) followed by conduction abnormalities (5.9%), axis deviation (4%), ST-T wave changes (3.1%) and chamber enlargement (1.4%). Incomplete right bundle branch block (RBBB), short PR interval and right ventricular hypertrophy were common in young subjects (<20 yr) while atrial fibrillation, first degree atrioventricular block, complete RBBB and left anterior fascicular block were more prevalent in elderly subjects (>65 yr). Prolonged PR interval, RBBB and intraventricular conduction defects were more common in males while sinus tachycardia, short PR interval and non-specific T wave changes were more frequent in females. Interpretation & Conclusions: Morphological abnormalities in ECG are commonly seen in healthy volunteers participating in phase I studies; and vary with age and gender. Further studies are required to determine whether these abnormalities persist or if some of these disappear on follow up. PMID:22561618

  2. Studying nanoparticles' 3D shape by aspect maps: Determination of the morphology of bacterial magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Peddis, D; Muscas, G; Mathieu, R; Kumar, P Anil; Varvaro, G; Singh, G; Orue, I; Gil-Carton, D; Marcano, L; Muela, A; Fdez-Gubieda, M L

    2016-10-06

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are widely investigated due to their potential use in various applications, ranging from electronics to biomedical devices. The magnetic properties of MNPs are strongly dependent on their size and shape (i.e., morphology), thus appropriate tools to investigate their morphology are fundamental to understand the physics of these systems. Recently a new approach to study nanoparticle morphology by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis has been proposed, introducing the so-called Aspect Maps (AMs). In this paper, a further evolution of the AM method is presented, allowing determination of the nanoparticles' 3D shape by TEM image. As a case study, this paper will focus on magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4), with a mean size of ∼45 nm extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense magnetostatic bacteria (MTB). The proposed approach gives a complete description of the nanoparticles' morphology, allowing estimation of an average geometrical size and shape. In addition, preliminary investigation of the magnetic properties of MTB nanoparticles was performed, giving some insight into interparticle interactions and on the reversal mechanism of the magnetization.

  3. A study of cortical morphology in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    De Guio, François; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis; Perrot, Matthieu; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M; Jacobson, Joseph L

    2014-05-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is responsible for a broad range of brain structural malformations, which can be studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI methods have emerged to characterize brain abnormalities, but the teratogenic effects of alcohol on cortical morphology have received little attention to date. Twenty-four 9-year-old children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (9 with fetal alcohol syndrome, 15 heavy exposed nonsyndromal children) and 16 age-matched controls were studied to assess the effect of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on cortical morphology. An automated method was applied to 3D T1-weighted images to assess cortical gyrification using global and regional sulcal indices and two region-based morphological measurements, mean sulcal depth and fold opening. Increasing levels of alcohol exposure were related to reduced cortical folding complexity, even among children with normal brain size, indicating a reduction of buried cortical surface. Fold opening was the strongest anatomical correlate of prenatal alcohol intake, indicating a widening of sulci in all regions that were examined. These data identify cortical morphology as a suitable marker for further investigation of brain damage associated with prenatal alcohol exposure.

  4. A morphological and morphometric study of the prosimian lung: the lesser bushbaby Galago senegalensis.

    PubMed Central

    Maina, J N

    1990-01-01

    The lung of the lesser bushbaby (Galago senegalensis) has been investigated morphologically and morphometrically using the transmission and scanning electron microscopes. Grossly and microscopically, the bushbaby lung was found to be essentially similar to that of the other primates and the mammals in general. Subtle morphometric differences were, however, observed, with the bushbaby lung being generally structurally less sophisticated than that of the other primates on which comparable data are available, except for man. The weight-specific surface area of the blood-gas (tissue) barrier in G. senegalensis was 25 cm2 g-1. The thickness of the blood-gas barrier was 0.355 micron and the weight specific total anatomical pulmonary diffusing capacity 0.045 mlO2 sec-1 mbar1 kg-1. The morphological similarity of the galago lung to that of man gives sufficient grounds to justify its possible use in human pulmonary studies but caution has been called for in the general utilisation of primate tissues without first establishing their morphological characteristics, just because the primates are taken to be evolutionally close to man. The dearth of morphological studies on the various organ systems of the prosimians is pointed out. Images Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:2272898

  5. Characterization of lumbar spinous process morphology: a cadaveric study of 2,955 human lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jeremy D; Shaw, Daniel L; Cooperman, Daniel R; Eubanks, Jason D; Li, Ling; Kim, David H

    2015-07-01

    Despite the interest in lumbar spinous process (SP)-based surgical innovation, there are no large published studies that have characterized the morphometry of lumbar SPs. To provide accurate level-specific morphometric data with respect to human lumbar SPs using a human cadaveric lumbar spine model and to describe the morphometric variation of lumbar SPs with respect to gender, race, and age. An anatomic observational study. This study used 2,955 cadaveric lumbar vertebrae from 591 adult spines at the Hamann-Todd Human Osteological Collection. Specimens were aged 20 to 79 years. Each vertebra was photographed in standardized positions and measured using ImageJ software. Direct measurements were made for the SP length, width, height, slope, and caudal morphology. Gender, race, and age were recorded and analyzed. Spinous process length was 24.8±4.6 mm (L5) to 33.9±3.9 mm (L3). Effective length varied from 19.5±2.6 mm (L1) to 24.6±3.3 mm (L4). Height was shortest at L5 (18.2±2.7 mm). Caudal width was greater than the cranial width. Slope, caudal morphology, and radius measures showed large interspecimen variation. Slope at L5 was steeper than other levels (23.7°±10.5°, p<.0001). Most specimens demonstrated convex caudal morphology. L4 had the highest proportion of convexity (80.7%). L1 was the only level with predominantly concave morphology. Measurements for female SPs were smaller, but the slope was steeper. Anatomic and effective SP lengths were longer for specimens from white individuals. Specimens from black individuals had larger width and height, as well as steeper slope. Black specimens had more convex morphology at L4 and L5. With increasing age, the SP length, effective length, and width increased. Height increased with age only at L4 and L5. Slope and caudal radius of curvature decreased with age, and increasingly convex morphology was noted at most levels. This large cadaveric study provides level-specific morphometric data regarding the osseous

  6. Primary culture of trigeminal satellite glial cells: a cell-based platform to study morphology and function of peripheral glia.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Jeppe N; Larsen, Frederik; Duroux, Meg; Gazerani, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Primary cell culture provides an experimental platform in which morphology, physiology, and cell-cell communication pathways can be studied under a well-controlled environment. Primary cell cultures of peripheral and central glia offer unique possibilities to clarify responses and pathways to different stimuli. Peripheral glia, satellite glial cells (SGCs), which surround neuronal cell bodies within sensory ganglia, have recently been known as key players in inflammation and neuronal sensitization. The objectives of this study were 1) to establish a cell-based platform of cultured trigeminal SGCs to study glial marker expression and functions under control conditions; 2) to validate the cell-based platform by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release response following administration of Cisplatin; and 3) to investigate inhibition of PGE2 release by glial modulators, Ibudilast and SKF86002. Primary cell cultures of SGCs from rat trigeminal ganglia were established following enzymatically and mechanically dissociation of the ganglia. Cultures were characterized in vitro for up to 21 days post isolation for morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics. PGE2 release, determined by ELISA, was used as a pro-inflammatory marker to characterize SGCs response to chemotherapeutic agent, Cisplatin, known to contribute in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Our results indicate that 1) isolated SGCs maintained their characteristics in vitro for up to 21 days; 2) Cisplatin enhanced PGE2 release from the SGCs, which was attenuated by Ibudilast and SKF86002. These findings confirm the utility and validity of the cultured trigeminal SGCs platform for glial activation and modulation; and suggest further investigation on Ibudilast and SKF86002 in prevention of chemotherapy-induced pain.

  7. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls: a radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S; Haubek, Dorte

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology and craniofacial morphology. The study population comprised 36 HR patients and 49 controls. The atlas and axis dimensions were measured on cephalograms, and the differences between the groups were estimated by regression analysis. The upper spine morphology was visually assessed to estimate the prevalence of cervical vertebral anomalies. The dimensions of the atlas and the axis were larger in HR patients than in controls (P ≤ 0.001), and fusions (FUS) occurred more often in HR patients (39%) than in controls (6%; P ≤ 0.001). In HR patients, the length of the atlas correlated positively (P = 0.008) and the height of the dens correlated negatively (P = 0.043) with the severity of skeletal impact. The height of the posterior arch of the atlas and the length of the axis correlated negatively with the cranial base angle (P ≤ 0.017), and the vertical dimensions of the atlas correlated positively with the thickness of the occipital skull (P ≤ 0.015). The length of the atlas correlated positively with mandibular prognathism (P = 0.042). FUS correlated positively with the frontal and parietal thickness (P = 0.034 and P = 0.003, respectively). The dimension of the atlas and the axis and the prevalence of the FUS were increased in HR patients compared with controls. Upper spine dimensions were associated with craniofacial dimensions, primarily in relation to the posterior cranial fossa.

  8. Effect of temperature and host plant leaf morphology on the efficacy of two entomopathogenic biocontrol agents of Thrips palmi (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, A G S; North, J P; Walters, K F A

    2005-08-01

    The efficacy of two entomopathogenic biocontrol agents, Steinernema feltiae (Filipjev) and Verticillium lecanii (Zimmerman) Viégas (reclassified now as Lecanicillium muscarium (Petch) Zare & Gams), against Thrips palmi Karny was investigated. Assessments of the effect of temperature on the efficacy of S. feltiae indicated that higher mortality of T. palmi was recorded at 20 degrees C compared to either 15 or 25 degrees C, whereas significantly higher T. palmi mortality followed application of L. muscarium at 25 degrees C. Testing the control agents efficacy on three host plants; chrysanthemum, sweet pepper and cucumber, under constant temperature and high humidity conditions produced no significant difference in the level of T. palmi larval mortality on each host plant. Incorporating the chemical insecticide imidacloprid with both biological agents in a combined control strategy increased T. palmi juvenile mortality. The potential role of S. feltiae and L. muscarium within integrated pest management programmes for the control of T. palmi is discussed.

  9. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population. PMID:24883246

  10. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population.

    PubMed

    Bounthavong, Mark; Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn's disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population.

  11. Molecular Characterization and Histopathology of Myxobolus koi Infecting the Gills of A koi Cyprinus carpio, with an Amended Morphologic Description of the Agent

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A Myxobolus sp., morphologically resembling M. toyamai, M. longisporus, and M. koi, was isolated from the gills of a koi, Cyprinus carpio that died in an ornamental pond. Large plasmodia were localized within lamellae, causing severe disruption of the normal branchial architecture, sufficient to com...

  12. Distinct morphological processing of recently learned compound words: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Kaczer, Laura; Timmer, Kalinka; Bavassi, Luz; Schiller, Niels O

    2015-12-10

    Our vocabulary is, at least in principle, infinite. We can create new words combining existing ones in meaningful ways to form new linguistic expressions. The present study investigated the morphological processing of novel compound words in overt speech production. Native speakers of Dutch learned a series of new compounds (e.g. appelgezicht, 'apple-face') that were later used as primes in a morphological priming task. In this protocol, primes were compound words morphologically related to a target's picture name (e.g. appelgezicht was used for a picture of an apple, Dutch appel). The novel primes were compared with corresponding familiar compounds sharing a free morpheme (e.g. appelmoes, 'applesauce') and with unrelated compounds. Participants were required to read aloud words and to name pictures in a long-lag design. Behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) data were collected in two sessions, separated by 48h. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological related words. Notably, our results show that novel compounds have a stronger priming effect than familiar compounds in both sessions, which is expressed in a marked reduction in target naming latencies and a decrease in the N400 amplitude. These results suggest that participants focused more on the separate constituents when reading novel primes than in the case of existing compounds.

  13. Morphologic variability of nonsyndromic operated patients affected by cleft lip and palate: a geometric morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Toro-Ibacache, Viviana; Cortés Araya, Juan; Díaz Muñoz, Alejandro; Manríquez Soto, Germán

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we compared patterns of morphologic variations of the craniofacial skeleton between patients affected by clefts who were operated on and unaffected subjects, aiming to discuss possible morpho-functional consequences of treatment in craniofacial development. The lateral cephalograms of 76 subjects, comprising patients with operated unilateral cleft lip and palate (OpC) and a group matched for sex and age without cleft, were used. Thirteen landmarks were used as variables in geometric morphometric tests quantifying and describing overall shape variation, differences between group means, allometry, and upper-lower face covariation. The OpC group showed broader shape variations including noncleft group characteristics, but mainly a retrognathic maxilla, a vertically elongated face, a more open mandibular angle, and a more closed basicranial angle. Group means differed mainly in the maxillomandibular relationships. Allometry differed between groups, with the smallest OpC patients showing the most altered morphology. Upper and lower face covariation was stronger in the OpC group, showing mainly vertical changes in the anterior face. Operated patients affected by clefts achieve a broad range of morphologies; the most altered were found in those with skeletal Class III and small size. Furthermore, their strongest upper and lower face shape covariation suggests that a harmonic dental occlusion could be a key factor in achieving "normal" craniofacial morphology. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. History of studies on mammalian middle ear evolution: a comparative morphological and developmental biology perspective.

    PubMed

    Takechi, Masaki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2010-09-15

    The mammalian middle ear represents one of the most fundamental morphological features that define this class of vertebrates. Its skeletal pattern differs conspicuously from those of other amniotes and has attracted the attention of comparative zoologists for about 200 years. To reconcile this morphological inconsistency, early comparative morphologists suggested that the mammalian middle ear was derived from elements of the jaw joint of nonmammalian amniotes. Fossils of mammalian ancestors also implied a transition in skeletal morphology that resulted in the mammalian state. During the latter half of the 20th century, developmental mechanisms controlling the formation of the jaw skeleton became the subject of studies in developmental biology and molecular genetics. Mammalian middle ear evolution can now be interpreted as a series of changes in the developmental program of the pharyngeal arches. In this review, we summarize the history of middle ear research, highlight some of the remaining problems, and suggest possible future directions. We propose that to understand mammalian middle ear evolution, it is essential to identify the critical developmental events underlying the particular mammalian anatomy and to describe the evolutionary sequence of changes in developmental and molecular terms. We also discuss the degree of consistency between the developmental explanation of the mammalian middle ear based on molecular biology and morphological changes in the fossil record.

  15. European species of Clavaria (Agaricales, Agaricomycetes) with dark basidiomata - a morphological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Kautmanová, I; Tomšovský, M; Dueñas, M; Martín, M P

    2012-12-01

    Clavaria species with dark basidiomata occurring in Europe were analysed using morphological and molecular methods. Morphological analyses revealed four groups containing seven Clavaria species with dark basidiomata. Phylogenetic analysis of the LSU nrDNA region confirmed the separate positions of all seven Clavaria species within the genus. All sequences were grouped in four well-supported clades, mostly corresponding to defined morphological species. The results of the molecular study are inconsistent with the infrageneric classification of Clavaria based on the presence or absence of clamps on the bases of basidia and two widely accepted subgenera. Clavaria and Holocoryne appear to be polyphyletic. A new approach in species delimitation is presented: 1) C. asperulispora and C. atrofusca are two distinct species recognized by the shape of their spores, and the name C. neo-nigrita is a possible synonym of C. asperulispora; 2) species with clustered fragile basidiomata, C. fumosa and Clavaria cf. fuscoferruginea, which are almost identical in shape and size of spores differing only in the darker basidiomata of the latter, are phylogenetically unrelated; 3) Clavaria atrobadia is a dubious species, the name being most likely a synonym of C. fuscoferruginea; 4) two species with close morphological and phylogenetic affinity, C. atroumbrina and C. pullei, are distinguished based on the more oblong and narrower spores of the former. Comparison of European and North American material suggests the transatlantic nature of the distribution of C. asperulispora, C. atroumbrina and C. fumosa.

  16. Metric and morphological assessment of facial features: a study on three European populations.

    PubMed

    Ritz-Timme, S; Gabriel, P; Tutkuviene, J; Poppa, P; Obertová, Z; Gibelli, D; De Angelis, D; Ratnayake, M; Rizgeliene, R; Barkus, A; Cattaneo, C

    2011-04-15

    Identification from video surveillance systems is becoming more and more frequent in the forensic practice. In this field, different techniques have been improved such as height estimation and gait analysis. However, the most natural approach for identifying a person in everyday life is based on facial characteristics. Scientifically, faces can be described using morphological and metric assessment of facial features. The morphological approach is largely affected by the subjective opinion of the observer, which can be mitigated by the application of descriptive atlases. In addition, this approach requires one to investigate which are the most common and rare facial characteristics in different populations. For the metric approach further studies are necessary in order to point out possible metric differences within and between different populations. The acquisition of statistically adequate population data may provide useful information for the reconstruction of biological profiles of unidentified individuals, particularly concerning ethnic affiliation, and possibly also for personal identification. This study presents the results of the morphological and metric assessment of the head and face of 900 male subjects between 20 and 31 years from Italy, Germany and Lithuania. The evaluation of the morphological traits was performed using the DMV atlas with 43 pre-defined facial characteristics. The frequencies of the types of facial features were calculated for each population in order to establish the rarest characteristics which may be used for the purpose of a biological profile and consequently for personal identification. Metric analysis performed in vivo included 24 absolute measurements and 24 indices of the head and face, including body height and body weight. The comparison of the frequencies of morphological facial features showed many similarities between the samples from Germany, Italy and Lithuania. However, several characteristics were rare or

  17. [New microsurgical model for the study of the morphological adaptative response of venous grafts].

    PubMed

    Quiroga-Garza, Alejandro; Delgado-Brito, Miriam; Bazaldúa-Cruz, Juan José; Villarreal-Silva, Eliud; Velázquez-Gauna, Sergio E; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2011-01-01

    Animal models have been developed for the study of the intimal hyperplasia, a common cause of venous graft stenosis. To establish a venous graft animal model for the study of the morphologic adaptative response to the arterial circulation. A venous graft was placed in the arterial circulation of the caudal extremity from Wistar rats. In order to develop the model, it was carried out a morphologic study of the caudal extremity blood vessels. Three possible sites were evaluated for the obtaining of the venous graft. Graft permeability and viability were observed only in one segment, between the muscular branches and the origin of the saphenous vein. The portion of vein that was obtained from one extremity, was placed in the arterial circulation of the opposite extremity. A venous graft animal model was established, using a femoral vein segment, between the muscular branches and the origin of the saphenous vein, placing it in the homonyme artery of the opposite extremity.

  18. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Joginder; Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-01

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential -1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ɛ) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In3+ and Sb3+ ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  19. Structural, morphological and Raman studies of pulse electrosynthesised indium antimonide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Joginder Chandel, Tarun; Rajaram, P.

    2015-08-28

    InSb films deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates by a pulse elctrodeposition technique. The deposition was carried out at an applied potential −1.3V versus Ag/AgCl electrode. Structural, morphological and optical studies were performed on the electrodeposited InSb. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies show that the deposited InSb films are polycrystalline in nature having the zinc blend structure. The crystallite size (D), dislocation density (δ) and strain (ε) were calculated using XRD results. The EDAX analysis shows that chemical composition of In{sup 3+} and Sb{sup 3+} ions is close to the required stoichiometry. The surface morphology of the deposited films was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM studies reveal that the surface of the films is uniformly covered with submicron sized spherical particles. However, the crystallite size determined by the Scherrer method shows a size close to 30 nm. Surface morphology studies of the InSb films were also performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The average surface roughness as measured by AFM is around 40 nm. Hot probe studies show that all the electrodeposited thin films have n type conductivity and the thickness of the films is calculated using electrochemical formula.

  20. The study of combined action of agents using differential geometry of dose-effect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lam, G K

    1992-09-01

    Although graphic surfaces have been used routinely in the study of combined action of agents, they are mainly used for display purposes. In this paper, it is shown that useful mechanistic information can be obtained from an analytical study of these surfaces using the tools of differential geometry. From the analysis of some simple dose-effect surfaces, it is proposed that the intrinsic curvature, referred to in differential geometry as the Gaussian curvature, of a dose-effect surface can be used as a general criterion for the classification of interaction between different agents. This is analogous to the interpretation of the line curvature of a dose-effect curve as an indication of self-interaction between doses for an agent. In this framework, the dose-effect surface would have basic uniform fabric with zero curvature in the absence of interaction, tentatively referred to as null-interaction. Pictorially speaking, this fabric is distorted locally or globally like the stretching and shrinking of a rubber sheet by the presence of interaction mechanisms between different agents. Since self-interaction with dilution dummies does not generate intrinsic curvature, this criterion of null-interaction would describe the interaction between two truly different agents. It is shown that many of the published interaction mechanisms give rise to dose-effect surfaces with characteristic curvatures. This possible correlation between the intrinsic geometric curvature of dose-effect surfaces and the biophysical mechanism of interaction presents an interesting philosophical viewpoint for the study of combined action of agents.

  1. Family of enhanced photoacoustic imaging agents for high-sensitivity and multiplexing studies in living mice.

    PubMed

    de la Zerda, Adam; Bodapati, Sunil; Teed, Robert; May, Salomón Y; Tabakman, Scott M; Liu, Zhuang; Khuri-Yakub, Butrus T; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Hongjie; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2012-06-26

    Photoacoustic imaging is a unique modality that overcomes to a great extent the resolution and depth limitations of optical imaging while maintaining relatively high contrast. However, since many diseases will not manifest an endogenous photoacoustic contrast, it is essential to develop exogenous photoacoustic contrast agents that can target diseased tissue(s). Here we present a family of novel photoacoustic contrast agents that are based on the binding of small optical dyes to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT-dye). We synthesized five different SWNT-dye contrast agents using different optical dyes, creating five "flavors" of SWNT-dye nanoparticles. In particular, SWNTs that were coated with either QSY(21) (SWNT-QSY) or indocyanine green (SWNT-ICG) exhibited over 100-times higher photoacoustic contrast in living animals compared to plain SWNTs, leading to subnanomolar sensitivities. We then conjugated the SWNT-dye conjugates with cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp peptides to molecularly target the α(v)β(3) integrin, which is associated with tumor angiogenesis. Intravenous administration of these tumor-targeted imaging agents to tumor-bearing mice showed significantly higher photoacoustic signal in the tumor than in mice injected with the untargeted contrast agent. Finally, we were able to spectrally separate the photoacoustic signals of SWNT-QSY and SWNT-ICG in living animals injected subcutaneously with both particles in the same location, opening the possibility for multiplexing in vivo studies.

  2. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  3. Study of craniofacial morphology and skeletal maturation in juvenile diabetics (Type I).

    PubMed

    El-Bialy, T; Aboul-Azm, S F; El-Sakhawy, M

    2000-08-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the craniofacial morphology of patients with juvenile diabetes, to investigate the effects of juvenile diabetes on general growth and skeletal maturation, and to analyze the pattern of association between craniofacial morphology and skeletal maturation in these patients. The sample consisted of 20 male patients with juvenile diabetes whose ages ranged from 14 to 16 years and who were affected with the condition at least 5 years before the study. Twenty normal subjects, with the same age range, were chosen as a control group. Height, weight, lateral cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs were taken for all subjects, corrected for magnification distortion, and analyzed. The diabetic patients showed decreased skeletal maturation and decreased cephalometric linear and angular measurements when compared with the control group. These results should be considered when diabetic patients require orthodontic or orthopedic treatment.

  4. [Comparative study on botanical morphologic character of different cultivated types medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Bin

    2008-12-01

    Botanical character of different cultivated types medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium were observed and compared, which can offer reference for its genetic diversity research and breeding. Based on the random blocks field experiments design, the main character of leaf and capitulum of medicinal C. morifolium were observed, it was studied on that the botanical character of different cultivated types medicinal C. mortfolium in China were comparatively study with statistical means. There are some different of botanical character among different cultivated types medicinal C. morifolium in China, which can be divided into 7 colonies according as its diversity of the botanical and morphological character. The sawtooth number of lamina, leafstalk length and leaf division number are the important laminae morphologic character of different types medicinal C. morifolium, which are relative independent characters.

  5. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system. c2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Three-dimensional morphology of heel fat pad: an in vivo computed tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Campanelli, Valentina; Fantini, Massimiliano; Faccioli, Niccolò; Cangemi, Alessio; Pozzo, Antonio; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Heel fat pad cushioning efficiency is the result of its structure, shape and thickness. However, while a number of studies have investigated heel fat pad (HFP) anatomy, structural behavior and material properties, no previous study has described its three-dimensional morphology in situ. The assessment of the healthy, unloaded, three-dimensional morphology of heel pad may contribute to deepen the understanding of its role and behavior during locomotion. It is the basis for the assessment of possible HFP morphological modifications due to changes in the amount or distribution of the loads normally sustained by the foot. It may also help in guiding the surgical reconstruction of the pad and in improving footwear design, as well as in developing a correct heel pad geometry for finite element models of the foot. Therefore the purpose of this study was to obtain a complete analysis of HFP three-dimensional morphology in situ. The right foot of nine healthy volunteers was scanned with computed tomography. A methodological approach that maximizes reliability and repeatability of the data was developed by building a device to lock the foot in a neutral position with respect to the scan planes during image acquisition. Scan data were used to reconstruct virtual three-dimensional models for both the calcaneus and HFP. A set of virtual coronal and axial sections were extracted from the three-dimensional model of each HFP and processed to extract a set of one- and two-dimensional morphometrical measurements for a detailed description of heel pad morphology. The tissue exhibited a consistent and sophisticated morphology that may reflect the biomechanics of the foot support. HFP was found to be have a crest on its anterior dorsal surface, flanges on the sides and posteriorly, and a thick portion that reached and covered the posterior surface of the calcaneus and the achilles tendon insertion. Its anterior internal portion was thinner and a lump of fat was consistently present in

  7. A study on the sensitivity of bovine rotavirus to some chemical agents.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, M; Gualandi, G L; Minelli, M F

    1986-04-01

    The behaviour of bovine rotavirus, strain 81/36 F, to some chemical agents was studied. The chemicals tested were all more or less effective, depending on their concentration and time of exposure under room temperature. It is suggested therefore, that they could be used as disinfectants in the case of rotaviral contamination.

  8. Alternative Strategies for Proof-of-Principle Studies of Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    The proof that a new antibacterial agent is not only active in vitro but also effective in vivo under clinically relevant conditions is currently provided (i) by using appropriate nonclinical models of infection and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis providing evidence of the likelihood of clinical efficacy and (ii) by examining the study drug in exploratory clinical trials, as well as dose and schedule finding during phase II of clinical development. This approach is both time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, PK-PD targets for any novel antibacterial agent cannot be derived from studies with experimental animals. Therefore, alternative strategies have to be identified to prove the principle that a novel antibacterial agent is active under clinically relevant conditions. This review summarizes evidence that the quantitative analysis of shifts in the viable counts of pathogens in infected patients or the evaluation of the PD effect of an investigational agent on indicator organisms of the human resident microflora or colonizers of healthy volunteers, if paralleled with PK monitoring of serum and the target site, provides an alternative to a classical proof-of-principle study in the course of a phase II study program. PMID:24867989

  9. Studies of the action of chemical agents on the heart. Annual report, February 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, G.R.; Moutvic, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes initial studies to determine the subchronic effect of Soman and Sarin, on the electrical, mechanical, and neurochemical properties of the heart. Two different animal models are under development. The electrophysiologic and hemodynamic aspects of survival doses of chemical agent are begin studied in the dog. Two chronically instrumented dog models have been developed. The first is a hemodynamic dog model in which long-term measurements of left and right heart pressures, aortic flow, coronary flow as well as epicardial electrocardiograms, are monitored. The animals will be monitored at baseline and for one month following exposure in survival of a chemical-warfare-agent insult. These animals are stressed via treadmill exercise. The electrophysiology dog model consists of chronically implanted electrodes for performance of repetitive ventricular response stimulation, His bundle recording, and ECG analysis. Measurements are made prior to, and for one month following, exposure to survivable doses of CW agent. This dog model is further probed by sequential administration of various pharmacologic agents designed to study the autonomic status of the heart. All dogs and a limited number of the guinea pigs will be continuously monitored for occurrence of arrhythmic events utilizing Holter monitoring technology. The guinea pig neurochemical studies will include acetylcholines, choline acetyltransferase activity, QNB binding, choline uptake, norepinephrine levels and turnover, and norepinephrine uptake experiments.

  10. [Morphological radioautographic study of the palatine tonsils in chronic tonsillitis and healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Pal'chun, V T; Gospodar', M A; Kolokol'chikova, E G; Pal'tsyn, A A; Poliakova, T S; Chervonskaia, N V; Konstantinova, N B

    2006-01-01

    A pilot morphological (radioautographic) study of healthy and affected palatine tonsils (in hypertrophy and toxic-allergic form of chronic tonsillitis) in children and adults has shown that intensity of biosynthetic processes (protein-synthetic -- RNA synthesis and proliferative activity -- DNA synthesis) in the cells of palatine tonsils and structural changes of their tissues depend on characteristics of pathological process. Microbial penetration into the tonsils with formation of an active focus of chronic infection is traced.

  11. Surface Morphology and Dielectric Studies of Zr{sup 4+}-Rich Barium Titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Sagar, Raghavendra; Madolappa, Shivanand; Raibagkar, R. L.

    2011-07-15

    In the current work, we have characterized a compound with general formula Ba(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}(BZT). Surface morphology including grain distribution, histogram of area, volume, length and perimeter was examined through atomic force microscope (AFM). The AFM data revealed the non-uniform distribution of grains in the BZT ceramics. The temperature dependent relative permittivity of the sample was studied and found to exhibit diffuse phase transition phenomenon.

  12. Off-specular x-ray scattering studies of the morphology of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, S.K.; Feng, Y.P.; Melendres, C.A.

    1996-09-01

    We discuss the scattering of x-rays from thin films at a surface or interface decorated with a morphology of islands and how these effects manifest themselves in the specular reflectivity and the diffuse (off-specular) scattering. We show how this technique has been used to study block copolymer films decorated with islands on the surface and the development of electrochemically induced pitting on a Cu electrode in an electrolyte solution.

  13. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  14. On the Relationship between Phonological Awareness, Morphological Awareness and Chinese Literacy Skills: Evidence from an 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jinger; Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; Li, Hong; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study reported data on phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and Chinese literacy skills of 294 children from an 8-year longitudinal study. Results showed that mainland Chinese children's preliterate syllable awareness at ages 4 to 6 years uniquely predicted post-literate morphological awareness at ages 7 to 10 years.…

  15. Morphological differences between normal and cancerous mammalian cells via multitechnique microscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saab, Marie-Belle; Estephan, Elias; Martin, Marta; Bec, Nicole; Larroque, Christian; Cloître, Thierry; Cuisinier, Frédéric; Gergely, Csilla

    2010-04-01

    Despite of the recent year's important advances in breast cancer biology, there is a continuous demand for new microscopic studies able to provide complementary information on cell shape that is an essential feature of the tumour cells affecting their proliferation and spreading. Understanding the relationship between cell shape and cellular function is important for regulation of cell phenotype modification in particular during cancerogenesis. Utilizing a multitechnique approach, we have investigated the morphological differences of normal human mammalian epithelial cells (HMEC) and cancerous breast epithelial cells (MCF7) cells, both mammalian epithelial cells, but from the same cell type, allowing us to compare them. The goal of our investigation was to combine information on morphological properties of these cells provided by imaging techniques like atomic force microscopy (AFM), brightfield microscopy with in-depth images of microtubules via the multiphoton microscopy (MPM). Cells morphology studies for both cells' types were first carried out using the contact mode AFM which has gained great potential for studying biological systems. Brightfield optical imaging was operated in correlation with the AFM measurements. Topography analyses were performed for living cells as well as fixed ones for both MCF7 and HMEC 184 A1 cells. Living cancerous cells are much softer than normal ones, smaller in shape, and more difficult to manipulate. Photonic responses of fixed cells have been then evaluated by the multiphoton microscopy. Due to light's good penetration depth (IR excitation) in biological samples, MPM has already proved to be a reliable and powerful tool in medical and biological deep tissue imaging. Moreover, MPM provides useful three-dimensional information on the structural and optical properties of the specimen due to its intrinsic optical sectioning resolution. Combination of these microscopic techniques allows us to correlate external cell morphology, with

  16. Molecular Modeling Approaches to Study the Binding Mode on Tubulin of Microtubule Destabilizing and Stabilizing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Maurizio; Forli, Stefano; Magnani, Matteo; Manetti, Fabrizio

    Tubulin targeting agents constitute an important class of anticancer drugs. By acting either as microtubule stabilizers or destabilizers, they disrupt microtubule dynamics, thus inducing mitotic arrest and, ultimately, cell death by apoptosis. Three different binding sites, whose exact location on tubulin has been experimentally detected, have been identified so far for antimitotic compound targeting microtubules, namely the taxoid, the colchicine and the vinka alkaloid binding site. A number of ligand- and structure-based molecular modeling studies in this field has been reported over the years, aimed at elucidating the binding modes of both stabilizing and destabilizing agent, as well as the molecular features responsible for their efficacious interaction with tubulin. Such studies are described in this review, focusing on information provided by different modeling approaches on the structural determinants of antitubulin agents and the interactions with the binding pockets on tubulin emerged as fundamental for antitumor activity.To describe molecular modeling approaches applied to date to molecules known to bind microtubules, this paper has been divided into two main parts: microtubule destabilizing (Part 1) and stabilizing (Part 2) agents. The first part includes structure-based and ligand-based approaches to study molecules targeting colchicine (1.1) and vinca alkaloid (1.2) binding sites, respectively. In the second part, the studies performed on microtubule-stabilizing antimitotic agents (MSAA) are described. Starting from the first representative compound of this class, paclitaxel, molecular modeling studies (quantitative structure-activity relationships - QSAR - and structure-based approaches), performed on natural compounds acting with the same mechanism of action and temptative common pharmacophoric hypotheses for all of these compounds, are reported.

  17. When dark matter interacts with cosmic rays or interstellar matter: A morphological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Eric; Profumo, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Excess emission over expected diffuse astrophysical backgrounds in the direction of the Galactic center region has been claimed at various wavelengths, from radio to gamma rays. Among particle models advocated to explain such observations, a few invoke interactions between dark matter particles and ordinary matter, such as cosmic rays, interstellar gas or free electrons. Depending on the specific interstellar matter particles' species and energy, such models predict distinct morphological features. In this study we make detailed, model-independent predictions for the morphology of models where the relevant electromagnetic emission is proportional to the product of the dark matter density profile and the density of interstellar matter or cosmic rays. We compare the predicted latitudinal and longitudinal distributions with observations, and provide the associated set of relevant spatial templates.

  18. Swelling and morphology of the skin layer of polyamide composite membranes: an atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Freger, Viatcheslav

    2004-06-01

    The paper introduces a new methodology for studying polyamide composite membranes for reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) in liquid environments. The methodology is based on atomic force microscopy of the active layer, which had been separated from the support and placed on a solid substrate. The approach was employed to determine the thickness, interfacial morphology, and dimensional changes in solution (swelling) of polyamide films. The face (active) and back (facing the support) surfaces of the RO films appeared morphologically similar, in agreement with the recently proposed model of skin formation. Measured thickness and swelling data in conjunction with the intrinsic permeability of the membranes suggest that the selective barrier in RO membrane constitutes only a fraction of the polyamide skin, whereas NF membranes behave as nearly uniform films. For NF membranes, there was reasonable correlation between the changes in the swelling and in the permeability of the membrane and the salinity and pH of the feed.

  19. A Morphological Study of Compact Narrow Emission Line Galaxies In The COSMOS Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldassare, Vivienne; Feldman, D.; Greenbaum, A.; Hasan, I.; Mahalchick, S.; Liu, C.; COSMOS Team

    2010-01-01

    We present a morphological study of 139 spectroscopically selected compact narrow emission line galaxies (CNELGs) from the COSMOS HST Treasury Survey, using a comparison sample of field galaxies of similar magnitude obtained from the COSMOS field. The CNELGs range in magnitude from 18.13 < V < 21.95 and in redshift from 0 < z < 0.9. Preliminary results indicate that, whereas statistically the CNELGs are clearly morphologically distinct from our comparison sample, at HST resolution they are also clearly not all - or even predominantly - "compact." This work was supported by an NSF REU Site grant to The City University of New York and American Museum of Natural History; an NSF STEAM grant to the College of Staten Island; the NASA New York Space Grant program; Barnard College; and the CUNY Macaulay Honors College.

  20. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, A. S. Mamat, M. H. Rusop, M.; Malek, M. F. Abdullah, M. A. R. Sin, M. D.

    2016-07-06

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  1. A study on different morphological structures of zinc oxide nanostructures for humidity sensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. S.; Mamat, M. H.; Malek, M. F.; Abdullah, M. A. R.; Sin, M. D.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    Effects of different morphological structures of ZnO to the performance of the device in the humidity sensing have been studied. Two different kinds of nanostructures were obtained which are nanords and nanoflakes. From the surface morphology image, the ZnO nanoflakes has lower diameter size of 100 nm compared to ZnO nanorods of 250 nm. The ZnO nanoflakes are not aligned and has low porous structure compared to ZnO nanorods. The humidity sensor performance of ZnO nanorods has superior performance compared to ZnO nanoflakes. The sensitivity of the ZnO nanorods sensor is 3.20 which are almost two times higher than the ZnO nanoflakes of 1.65. The structural properties of the samples have been characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) electrical properties has been characterized using current voltage (I-V) measurement.

  2. Morphological study of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles precipitated in dilute aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrist, C.; Mathieu, J.-P.; Vogels, C.; Rulmont, A.; Cloots, R.

    2003-02-01

    Among other applications, magnesium hydroxide is commonly used as a flame-retardant filler in composite materials, as well as a precursor for magnesium oxide refractory ceramic. The microstructure of the powder is of prime importance in both technical applications. The influence of synthesis parameters on the morphological characteristics of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles precipitated in dilute aqueous medium was studied. Several parameters were envisaged such as chemical nature of the base precipitant, type of counter-ion, temperature and hydrothermal treatment. Special attention was given to the obtaining of platelet-shaped, nanometric and de-agglomerated powders. The powders were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, crystal habits, morphology and ability to be re-dispersed in water. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption and laser diffusion analyses were used for this purpose.

  3. Amorphous material of the skin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a morphologic and biochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Nagao, K.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    We performed morphologic studies on skin from seven patients with ALS and seven control subjects. By light microscopy, the wide spaces that separated collagen bundles reacted strongly with colloidal iron and alcian blue in ALS patients. Electron microscopy revealed markedly increased amorphous material that was positive for ruthenium red in the ground substance. These findings were not present in controls. Quantitative amino acid analysis showed that the amount of total amino acids (nmoles per mg dry weight) was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in ALS patients compared with that of controls, and there was a significant negative correlation between skin amino acid content and duration of illness in ALS patients (r = -0.83, p < 0.001). These morphologic findings and biochemical data indicate that the amorphous material, which is markedly increased in ALS skin, includes glycosaminoglycans.

  4. Morphological study of Pipelle biopsy specimens in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Khadim, Muhammad Tahir; Zehra, Talat; Ashraf, Hafiz Murtuza

    2015-07-01

    To determine the frequencies of common morphological patterns of abnormal uterine bleeding on Pipelle biopsy specimen. The cross-sectional study was conducted at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, and comprised endometrial Pipelle biopsies of patients with abnormal uterine bleeding received between January 2013 and January 2014. Patient's age, marital status, parity and histopatholgical spectrum were recorded. SPSS 17 was used for data analysis. Of the 101 patients, 53(52.50%) presented with proliferative endometrium, 22(21.80%) had secretory endometrium, 13(12.9%) presented with chronic non-specific endometritis, 8(7.9%) had endometrial hyperplasia without atypia, and 5(5%) had endometrial hyperplasia with atypia. Besides, 86(85.1 %) were nulliparous; 15(14.9%) were parous; 92(91.1%) were married and 9(8.9%) were unmarried. The most common morphological pattern was proliferative endometrium. Though Pipelle has its own limitations, it performed better when endometrial pathology was global rather than focal.

  5. Nasal glioma or nasal glial heterotopia? Morphological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cerdá-Nicolás, M; Sanchez Fernandez de Sevilla, C; Lopez-Ginés, C; Peydro-Olaya, A; Llombart-Bosch, A

    2002-01-01

    The term nasal glioma has been used to describe a congenital benign tumor of the nasal region containing neural tissue. The nature of these lesions remains open to controversy, because of the different locations of the heterotopic neural tissue involved, the deficient development of the bony structures and the persistence or not of the structural relations with the central nervous system. More recent terms define these lesions as ectopic nervous tissue. A clinical, morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study is made of two cases of nasal glioma, one associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum. In this case, the mother had been treated with clomiphene. In such cases, morphological and immunohistochemical findings support that "nasal glioma" remain valid as a descriptive term defining a congenital benign tumor composed of heterotopic neural tissue within the nasal region and covered by skin, that may recur following incomplete surgical resection.

  6. A morphological study of the tracheal epithelium of the snake Natrix maura.

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, L M

    1990-01-01

    The epithelium of the trachea of the Natrix maura snake was studied by conventional light microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The epithelium is formed of basal, ciliated, endocrine and secretory cells. It shows different thickness and distribution of the cells, depending on the area (covering the cartilaginous or the membranous zone). Secretory cells show a morphology similar to that found in lizards but it is different from the mucous cells reported in the extrapulmonary airways of turtles, birds and mammals. The ultrastructure of the secretory cells is similar to that reported for serous cells in the airways of mammals. Intra-epithelial plasma cells are also found within the epithelium. The present results show that there are marked morphological differences between the tracheal epithelium of lizards and snakes and that of turtles, birds and mammals. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:2272908

  7. Amorphous material of the skin in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a morphologic and biochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, S.; Nagao, K.; Yamauchi, M.

    1994-01-01

    We performed morphologic studies on skin from seven patients with ALS and seven control subjects. By light microscopy, the wide spaces that separated collagen bundles reacted strongly with colloidal iron and alcian blue in ALS patients. Electron microscopy revealed markedly increased amorphous material that was positive for ruthenium red in the ground substance. These findings were not present in controls. Quantitative amino acid analysis showed that the amount of total amino acids (nmoles per mg dry weight) was significantly decreased (p < 0.01) in ALS patients compared with that of controls, and there was a significant negative correlation between skin amino acid content and duration of illness in ALS patients (r = -0.83, p < 0.001). These morphologic findings and biochemical data indicate that the amorphous material, which is markedly increased in ALS skin, includes glycosaminoglycans.

  8. A morphological study of the retinal ganglion cells of the Afghan pika (Ochotona rufescens).

    PubMed

    Akaishi, Y; Uchiyama, H; Ito, H; Shimizu, Y

    1995-03-01

    The distribution and morphology of the retinal ganglion cells was studied in a relative of the rabbit, the Afghan pika. The total number of retinal ganglion cells was approximately 170,000. The total number of optic nerve fibers was between 160,000 and 190,000, corresponding to the total number of retinal ganglion cells. Retinal ganglion cells were found to have a horizontal region of high-density. The maximum density was 5250 cells/mm2. This region was located in the central retina below the optic disc. This area contained numerous closely packed small ganglion cells, while the peripheral retina (especially in the dorsal periphery) contained large ganglion cells more loosely dispersed. The retinal ganglion cells labeled by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were morphologically classified into three types based on dendritic length and ramification pattern.

  9. Morphological and ultrastructural studies of some acritarchs from the Lower Cambrian Lükati Formation, Estonia.

    PubMed

    Talyzina; Moczydowska

    2000-10-01

    Six acritarch species from the Lükati Formation were studied using a combination of techniques, including transmitted light, scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy. New details of wall ultrastructure, surface microsculpture and internal morphology of the vesicle and processes significantly add to the previously known morphological features and increase the understanding of the form-genera Archaeodiscina, Globosphaeridium, Comasphaeridium, Skiagia, Tasmanites and Leiosphaeridia. Examination of microfossils using TEM revealed a substantial variation in wall ultrastructure among acritarchs. The diversity includes four structural types of vesicle wall in addition to their single- and multi-layered structure and the variable thickness of the wall. These are: electron-tenuous and fibrous; electron-dense and homogeneous; electron-dense and homogeneous but perforated by radial canals; and composite laminated structure. Morphologically recognised groupings of acritarchs (acanthomorphic, disphaeromorphic, sphaeromorphic) and tasmanitid taxa appear to be characterised by particular features of the wall structure, although the wall structure in itself may not be directly indicative of systematic relationships. Structurally diverse vesicle walls are observed in Tasmanites and Leiosphaeridia, taxa that both have been interpreted, based on other lines of evidence, to be of prasinophycean (green algal) affinities. The distinct wall ultrastructure of the Leiosphaeridia studied is similar to that of extant green algal genera, which provides evidence that some Cambrian leiosphaerids were chlorophycean algae, probably related to the Order Chlorococcales. Previous research and interpretations of the wall ultrastructure are also briefly discussed.

  10. Effect of women's age on embryo morphology, cleavage rate and competence-A multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Marie Louise; Christiansen, Sofie Lindgren; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler; Agerholm, Inge Errebo; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela; Lundstrøm, Peter; Bogstad, Jeanette; Raaschou-Jensen, Morten; Ladelund, Steen

    2017-01-01

    This multicenter cohort study on embryo assessment and outcome data from 11,744 IVF/ICSI cycles with 104,830 oocytes and 42,074 embryos, presents the effect of women's age on oocyte, zygote, embryo morphology and cleavage parameters, as well as cycle outcome measures corrected for confounding factors as center, partner's age and referral diagnosis. Cycle outcome data confirmed the well-known effect of women's age. Oocyte nuclear maturation and proportion of 2 pro-nuclear (2PN) zygotes were not affected by age, while a significant increase in 3PN zygotes was observed in both IVF and ICSI (p<0.0001) with increasing age. Maternal age had no effect on cleavage parameters or on the morphology of the embryo day 2 post insemination. Interestingly, initial hCG value after single embryo transfer followed by ongoing pregnancy was increased with age in both IVF (p = 0.007) and ICSI (p = 0.001) cycles. For the first time, we show that a woman's age does impose a significant footprint on early embryo morphological development (3PN). In addition, the developmentally competent embryos were associated with increased initial hCG values as the age of the women increased. Further studies are needed to elucidate, if this increase in initial hCG value with advancing maternal age is connected to the embryo or the uterus.

  11. Developmental toxicity (dominant lethal mutation) study on agent lewisite. Dominant lethal study of lewisite in male rats. Final report, 15 September 1988-14 June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Dacre, J.C.; Denny, K.H.

    1993-12-01

    Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine, Agent L) was investigated as part of the US Army Toxicological Program on Chemical Agents. The study was conducted during January - April, 1990. Dosing was performed during 3-12 January, 1990. Twenty male CD rats per dose group were given 1.5, 0.75 or 0.375 mg/kg Lewisite or vehicle control (one ml sesame seed oil) daily by gavage for 5 days. Positive control males were given one ml sesame seed oil by gavage on Day 1-4 and on Day 5 they were given an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg ethyl methanesulphonate, a known mutagen. Each male was mated to two virgin females (12 weeks of age) per counted and the uteri and contents were examined. Implantation sites were categorized as live/dead fetuses or early/late resorption. No significant differences inreproductive indices were seen between treatment groups and the control group with the exception of the positive control. Males were killed during Week 13 and necropsied. Sperm morphology/modify, testicular histopathologic evaluation and morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubule cross-sections revealed no differences among Lewisite-treated rats and rats given sesame seed oil. There was no indication of a dominant lethal mutagenic or other toxic effect on the male reproductive tract as a result of exposure to Lewisite, under the conditions of this study. The No Observable Adverse Effect Level was the highest dose used, 1.500 mg/kg.

  12. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  13. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie‐Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The high gray‐white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1‐weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1‐weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1‐weighted images (R 1 (=1/T1), R 2*, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18–87 years). Synthetic T1‐weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features—gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue—myelination, iron, and water content—on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801–1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876452

  14. Morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from contrasting locations in southern tropical India - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsan, Aswathy E.; Priyamvada, Hema; Ravikrishna, R.; Després, Viviane R.; Biju, C. V.; Sahu, Lokesh K.; Kumar, Ashwini; Verma, R. S.; Philip, L.; Gunthe, Sachin S.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols, which are ubiquitous in the earth's atmosphere, are poorly characterized in terms of their physical and chemical properties. Improved knowledge of their physical and chemical properties is essential to have a better understanding of their dispersion and long-range transport in the atmosphere and at the same time to assess their role as potential Ice Nuclei (IN). In the present work, possibly for the first time we report the morphological characteristics of bioaerosols from marine urban and high altitude continental regions in Southern India. The samples were collected using polycarbonate filter paper and analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy-dispersive Spectra Detector (EDX/EDS). The observed bioaerosols exhibited great variability in their morphological features over this region of the world. At these contrasting environments, we found that fungal spores constituted the major fraction of the total observed bioaerosols. Pollen grains, plant and insect fragments, and lot of other non-identified bio-particles were also observed constituting the remaining fraction. Further, the classification of fungal spores exhibited strong variability over this region. For example, fungal spores of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota class were seen in abundance in marine environment, while Ascomycota especially Cladosporium were seen in abundance in high altitude continental environment. Our findings also suggest that increase in diversity of bioaerosol particles at marine site appeared to coincide with precipitation. It appears that vast diversity in the morphological features of bioaerosols exists over this region, which should further be studied using advanced online techniques for better quantification under contrasting environments. However, the diversity observed in morphological characteristics of bioaerosols at these two contrasting locations is limited and restricted to these two sites and season of the year, and should therefore

  15. Comparative scale morphologies in common freshwater fishes of Peninsular Malaysia - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farah-Ayuni, F.; Muse, A. O.; Samat, A.; Shukor, M. N.

    2016-11-01

    Hard plates covering fish body or scales, do not only serve as external protection, but are also important as one of the tools for species identification. This study was designed to recognise morphological characters of fish scales that can be used for identification and to comprehend the inter-specific variations of scales from different species by using selected indices from scale measurements; L1/1, L2/L, L1/L2, and W/L. Sixteen species of common freshwater fishes were sampled from a few localities in Peninsular Malaysia. Examinations were based on photographs to determine the scale morphologies. Basic distinguishable characteristics that were identified are type of scale, the overall shape, the position and shape of the focus, distribution of radii, and the circuli appearance. It was found that scale type and radii arrangement at the anterior field are two significant morphological features that could distinguish between Cyprinidae and other families. Main characters used to identify scales at species level are radii cover, structure of inter radial tongue, and radii arrangement. Meanwhile, multiple comparison tests to reveal inter-specific variations suggested that there are significant differences among 16 species of common freshwater fishes studied. Two indices were found to be suitable to highlight the significant differences (P<0.05) for all species which are index L1/L2 and index W/L. For all indices, species that showed significantly different with most of other species are Osteochilus vittatus, Pristolepis fasciata, Rasbora sumatrana, and Labeo rohita. The scales of Osteochilus vittatus showed significant values with most of other species in more than one index; index L1/L and index L2/L. The distinctive morphological character that distinguished it from other Cyprinidae species is having clearly formed serrations in the middle of the inter-radial tongue at the anterior region.

  16. Neurobiological origin of spurious brain morphological changes: A quantitative MRI study.

    PubMed

    Lorio, Sara; Kherif, Ferath; Ruef, Anne; Melie-Garcia, Lester; Frackowiak, Richard; Ashburner, John; Helms, Gunther; Lutti, Antoine; Draganski, Bodgan

    2016-05-01

    The high gray-white matter contrast and spatial resolution provided by T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has made it a widely used imaging protocol for computational anatomy studies of the brain. While the image intensity in T1-weighted images is predominantly driven by T1, other MRI parameters affect the image contrast, and hence brain morphological measures derived from the data. Because MRI parameters are correlates of different histological properties of brain tissue, this mixed contribution hampers the neurobiological interpretation of morphometry findings, an issue which remains largely ignored in the community. We acquired quantitative maps of the MRI parameters that determine signal intensities in T1-weighted images (R1 (=1/T1), R2 *, and PD) in a large cohort of healthy subjects (n = 120, aged 18-87 years). Synthetic T1-weighted images were calculated from these quantitative maps and used to extract morphometry features-gray matter volume and cortical thickness. We observed significant variations in morphometry measures obtained from synthetic images derived from different subsets of MRI parameters. We also detected a modulation of these variations by age. Our findings highlight the impact of microstructural properties of brain tissue-myelination, iron, and water content-on automated measures of brain morphology and show that microstructural tissue changes might lead to the detection of spurious morphological changes in computational anatomy studies. They motivate a review of previous morphological results obtained from standard anatomical MRI images and highlight the value of quantitative MRI data for the inference of microscopic tissue changes in the healthy and diseased brain. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1801-1815, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Makyoh-topography studies of the morphology of the cross sections of renal stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesz, Ferenc; Pramatarova, L. D.; Pramatarova, R.; Tóth, A. L.

    2002-11-01

    Makyoh topography is applied to study the morphology of mechanically polished cross sections of renal stones. The results are compared to roughness and height profile data obtained by white-light interferometry, and to microstructure studies using optical and scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that Makyoh topography is able to furnish qualitative information on the surface roughness and height profile. Correlation with compositional data obtained by X-ray diffraction are established and discussed in terms of mechanical properties. Potential application for the study of the inner structure of the renal stones and implications for shock wave lithotripsy are discussed.

  18. A pilot study: the efficacy of virgin coconut oil as ocular rewetting agent on rabbit eyes.

    PubMed

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being.

  19. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  20. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  1. [Design and study of new agents having antitubercular activity: the original compound perchlosone as a potent agent of etiotropic therapy for tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, T I; Aleksandrova, A E; Antonenkova, E V; Elokhina, V N; Nakhmanovich, A S

    1999-01-01

    Studies dealing with the design of new antituberculous agents based on goal-oriented synthesis have provided the agent Perchlosone which is similar to isoniazid and rifampicin, produces in tuberculostatic activity against sensitive laboratory cultured mycobacteria, produces an inhibitory action on polyresistant clinical strains. Experiments on animals (mice, rabbits) with experimental tuberculosis have established that Perchlosone and isoniazid have equal therapeutical properties, and the former shows a synergist interaction with rifampicin, has neither mutagenic activity nor negative effects on immunity and the surfactant system of the lung.

  2. Morphological study of the lingual papillae of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) by scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pastor, J F; Barbosa, M; De Paz, F J

    2008-01-01

    Due to the scarcity of giant pandas, there are few descriptions of their morphology and even fewer of their microscopic anatomy and the ultrastructure of their organs. In this study of the complete tongue of an adult male giant panda, we describe the morphology of its lingual surface, the different types of papillae, their characteristics and topographic distribution. It was seen that there are four main types of lingual papillae: filiform, conical, fungiform and vallate. There was no sign of foliate papillae, tuberculum intermolare or sublingua. Papilla distribution was not limited to the dorsum of the tongue, but was also seen on the anterior and ventral surfaces of the tongue. In the anterior third of the midline there is a smooth area with no papillae at all. Morphology of the microgrooves and pores is similar to that observed in other mammals. The papillae share characteristics encountered in Carnivora and herbivorous species of mammals. A narrow bamboo-based diet and specialized manner of eating have together resulted in modification of the tongue of a carnivoran, giving it some characteristics typical of an herbivore. PMID:18254792

  3. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan

    2014-09-01

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec-1. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD50 to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  4. Effect of cold plasma on glial cell morphology studied by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Recek, Nina; Cheng, Xiaoqian; Keidar, Michael; Cvelbar, Uros; Vesel, Alenka; Mozetic, Miran; Sherman, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is broadly used to study the morphology of cells. The morphological characteristics and differences of the cell membrane between normal human astrocytes and glial tumor cells are not well explored. Following treatment with cold atmospheric plasma, evaluation of the selective effect of plasma on cell viability of tumor cells is poorly understood and requires further evaluation. Using AFM we imaged morphology of glial cells before and after cold atmospheric plasma treatment. To look more closely at the effect of plasma on cell membrane, high resolution imaging was used. We report the differences between normal human astrocytes and human glioblastoma cells by considering the membrane surface details. Our data, obtained for the first time on these cells using atomic force microscopy, argue for an architectural feature on the cell membrane, i.e. brush layers, different in normal human astrocytes as compared to glioblastoma cells. The brush layer disappears from the cell membrane surface of normal E6/E7 cells and is maintained in the glioblastoma U87 cells after plasma treatment.

  5. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  6. Radiosensitivity study and radiation effects on morphology characterization of grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Rosnani Abdul; Awang, Mat Rasol; Mohamad, Azhar; Mutaat, Hassan Hamdani; Maskom, Mohd Meswan; Daud, Fauzi; Senafi, Sahidan

    2014-09-03

    Radiosensitive dosage and morphology characterization of irradiated grey oyster mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju by gamma rays was investigated due to effects of irradiation. In order to establish the effect, mycelium of P. sajor-caju was irradiated by gamma rays at dose 0.1 to 8.0 kGy with dose rate 0.227 Gy sec{sup −1}. The irradiation of mycelia was carried out at the radiation facility in Malaysian Nuclear Agency. The radiosensitivity study was performed by evaluating the percentage of survival irradiated mycelia. The lethal dose of the mycelium P. sajor-caju was determined at 4.0 kGy and LD{sub 50} to be equal at 2.2 kGy. The radiation effects on morphology were evaluated based on growth rate of irradiated mycelia, mycelia types, colonization period on substrate, morphology of fruit bodies and yields. The results shown growth rate of irradiated mycelium was slightly lower than the control and decreased as the dose increased. Irradiation was found can induced the primordia formation on PDA and the BE of irradiated seed is higher than to control. The irradiation is proven to be useful for generating new varieties of mushroom with commercial value to the industry.

  7. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    SciTech Connect

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  8. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    DOE PAGES

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; ...

    2016-05-19

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%–46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml–1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the additionmore » of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. Furthermore, these established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.« less

  9. Morphological study of Socorro Island Merino sheep and its crosses with hair breeds.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Juan Augusto; Lepe, Marissa; Macedo, Rafael; Arredondo, Victalina; Cortez, Carlos Eliseo; García, Luis Jorge; Prado, Omar

    2017-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective to characterize the morphology of Socorro Island Merino sheep. A total of 67 sheep, 62 females, 26 purebred and 36 crossbred with hair breeds, and five males were scored for 10 body measurements in addition to live weight, and four racial and seven functional indices were calculated. The influence of sex and crossbreeding on the body measurements and indices was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance, and morphological harmony was determined using Spearman correlation. With exception of rump length, body measurements and live weight were significantly greater in males than in females. Sexual dimorphism was 1.21, with males being 78 % heavier than females. Socorro Island Merino sheep were dolichocephalous, elipometric, with a convex curve rump, and with a high and low morphological harmony for females and males, respectively. They had undefined zootechnical aptitude tended toward dairy phenotype as long as crossbreeding with hair breeds did not affect their functional or productive aptitude. It can be concluded that Socorro Island Merino sheep is a new biotype of the Merino breed, which is necessary to preserve and evaluate as a source of genetic characteristics such as adaptation to harsh environmental conditions.

  10. Morphological integration and adaptation in the snake feeding system: a comparative phylogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S E; Dang, P D; Herrel, A; Kley, N J

    2006-09-01

    A long-standing hypothesis for the adaptive radiation of macrostomatan snakes is that their enlarged gape--compared to both lizards and basal snakes--enables them to consume "large" prey. At first glance, this hypothesis seems plausible, or even likely, given the wealth of studies showing a tight match between maximum consumed prey mass and head size in snakes. However, this hypothesis has never been tested within a comparative framework. We address this issue here by testing this hypothesis in 12 monophyletic clades of macrostomatan snakes using recently published phylogenies, published maximum consumed prey mass data and morphological measurements taken from a large sample of museum specimens. Our nonphylogenetically corrected analysis shows that head width--independent of body size--is significantly related to mean maximum consumed prey mass among these clades, and this relationship becomes even more significant when phylogeny is taken into account. Therefore, these data do support the hypothesis that head shape is adapted to prey size in snakes. Additionally, we calculated a phylogenetically corrected morphological variance-covariance matrix to examine the role of morphological integration during head shape evolution in snakes. This matrix shows that head width strongly covaries with both jaw length and out-lever length of the lower jaw. As a result, selection on head width will likely be associated with concomitant changes in jaw length and lower jaw out-lever length in snakes.

  11. Comparative study of plant responses to carbon-based nanomaterials with different morphologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiani, Mohamed H.; Dervishi, Enkeleda; Ivanov, Ilia; Chen, Jihua; Khodakovskaya, Mariya

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between the morphology of carbon-based nanomaterials (CBNs) and the specific response of plants exposed to CBNs has not been studied systematically. Here, we prove that CBNs with different morphologies can activate cell growth, germination, and plant growth. A tobacco cell culture growth was found to increase by 22%-46% when CBNs such as helical multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), few-layered graphene, long MWCNTs, and short MWCNTs were added to the growth medium at a concentration of 50 μg ml-1. The germination of exposed tomato seeds, as well as the growth of exposed tomato seedlings, were significantly enhanced by the addition of all tested CBNs. The presence of CBNs inside exposed seeds was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of helical MWCNTs on gene expression in tomato seeds and seedlings were investigated by microarray technology and real time-PCR. Helical MWCNTs affected a number of genes involved in cellular and metabolic processes and response to stress factors. It was shown that the expression of the tomato water channel gene in tomato seeds exposed to helical MWCNTs was upregulated. These established findings demonstrate that CBNs with different morphologies can cause the same biological effects and share similar mechanisms in planta.

  12. Formation of chemical bonds and morphological studies of a-CNx : Effects of PECVD deposition pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purhanudin, Noorain; Awang, Rozidawati

    2016-11-01

    We report the structural difference and film properties of amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films as a function of PECVD deposition pressure using precursor gases of ethane (C2H6) and nitrogen (N2). The Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectra reveal peaks of single C-N (1100 cm-1), double C=C (1500 cm-1), double C=N (1670 cm-1) and triple C≡N (2340 cm-1). A systematic change in the preferential peaks correspond to the C=N and C≡N triple bonds were found to increase as deposition pressure increased. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) provides morphological structure of the film. From the samples prepare at low deposition pressure, the particles tend to agglomerate into clusters with non-homogenous grains distributed over the surface. Higher deposition pressure results in coalescence process of the film, reflecting the formation of grains evenly distributed on the film. The film morphology is increased in voids structure with increase in deposition pressure. Finally, the samples were successfully prepared by PECVD technique with deposition pressure in varied, and the effect of deposition pressure on the chemical bonding and the morphology of the films had been studied.

  13. Study of the Effect of Nanoparticles and Surface Morphology on Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration Membrane Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuming; Duranceau, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1) and particle back diffusion term (k2) was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion. PMID:24956946

  14. A computerized tomography study of the morphological interrelationship between the temporal bones and the craniofacial complex

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Helder Nunes; Slavicek, Rudolf; Sato, Sadao

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis that the temporal bones are at the center of the dynamics of the craniofacial complex, directly influencing facial morphology, has been put forward long ago. This study examines the role of the spatial positioning of temporal bones (frontal and sagittal inclination) in terms of influencing overall facial morphology. Several 3D linear, angular and orthogonal measurements obtained through computerized analysis of virtual models of 163 modern human skulls reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography images were analyzed and correlated. Additionally, the sample was divided into two subgroups based on the median value of temporal bone sagittal inclination [anterior rotation group (n = 82); posterior rotation group (n = 81)], and differences between groups evaluated. Correlation coefficients showed that sagittal inclination of the temporal bone was significantly (P < 0.01) related to midline flexion, transversal width and anterior–posterior length of the basicranium, to the anterior–posterior positioning of the mandible and maxilla, and posterior midfacial height. Frontal inclination of the temporal bone was significantly related (P < 0.01) to basicranium anterior–posterior and transversal dimensions, and to posterior midfacial height. In comparison with the posterior rotation group, the anterior rotation group presented a less flexed and anterior–posteriorly longer cranial base, a narrower skull, porion and the articular eminence located more superiorly and posteriorly, a shorter posterior midfacial height, the palatal plane rotated clockwise, a more retrognathic maxilla and mandible, and the upper posterior occlusal plane more inclined and posteriorly located. The results suggest that differences in craniofacial morphology are highly integrated with differences in the positional relationship of the temporal bones. The sagittal inclination of the temporal bone seems to have a greater impact on the 3D morphology of the craniofacial complex than

  15. Study of the effect of nanoparticles and surface morphology on reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membrane productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yuming; Duranceau, Steven J

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the significance of reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) surface morphology on membrane performance, productivity experiments were conducted using flat-sheet membranes and three different nanoparticles, which included SiO2, TiO2 and CeO2. In this study, the productivity rate was markedly influenced by membrane surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of membrane surfaces revealed that the higher productivity decline rates associated with polyamide RO membranes as compared to that of a cellulose acetate NF membrane was due to the inherent ridge-and-valley morphology of the active layer. The unique polyamide active layer morphology was directly related to the surface roughness, and was found to contribute to particle accumulation in the valleys causing a higher flux decline than in smoother membranes. Extended RO productivity experiments using laboratory grade water and diluted pretreated seawater were conducted to compare the effect that different nanoparticles had on membrane active layers. Membrane flux decline was not affected by particle type when the feed water was laboratory grade water. On the other hand, membrane productivity was affected by particle type when pretreated diluted seawater served as feed water. It was found that CeO2 addition resulted in the least observable flux decline, followed by SiO2 and TiO2. A productivity simulation was conducted by fitting the monitored flux data into a cake growth rate model, where the model was modified using a finite difference method to incorporate surface thickness variation into the analysis. The ratio of cake growth term (k1) and particle back diffusion term (k2) was compared in between different RO and NF membranes. Results indicated that k2 was less significant for surfaces that exhibited a higher roughness. It was concluded that the valley areas of thin-film membrane surfaces have the ability to capture particles, limiting particle back diffusion.

  16. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  17. Morphologic Characteristics of Choroid in the Major Choroidal Thickening Diseases, Studied by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Se Woong; Woo, Se Joon; Ryoo, Na-Kyung; Kim, Sang Jin; Han, Gyule

    2016-01-01

    We investigated morphologic features of choroid in the choroidal thickening diseases, including central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC), polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV), and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH), by a novel tomographic classification system of the choroid. This cross-sectional study involved 30 patients with active CSC, 30 patients with active PCV, and 27 patients with active VKH, and 30 normal controls. Utilizing enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography, we classified the morphology of the choroid into five categories: 1) Standard (S), 2) Dilated outer layer and Attenuated inner layer (DA), 3) Darkened (D), 4) Marbled (M), and 5) Pauci-Vascular (PV) types. Additional tomographic characteristics of the choroid such as choroidal vascular dilation, convolution, scleral invisibility, and choroidal hyper- or hypo-thickening were identified as well. The distribution of five choroidal tomographic morphology and additional tomographic characteristics in each group were analyzed. The DA type was observed in the CSC group more frequently than in the normal control group (53.3% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001). Additional tomographic characteristics, such as choroidal vascular dilation (76.7%), and choroidal hyper-thickening (36.7%), were more prevalent in the CSC group than in the control group. The PCV group showed higher prevalence of DA type (33.3% vs. 3.3%, P = 0.006) than the control group. The VKH group showed a significantly higher frequency of the D type (63.0%), convolution (40.7%), and scleral invisibility (70.4%) than controls (0% for all three findings). In conclusion, CSC and PCV shared common morphologic characteristics of choroid, including dilated outer vascular layer and focally attenuated innermost layer. Dense hypo-reflectivity and convolution of choroid were the specific tomographic markers for acute VKH. A new tomographic classification system of choroid may provide discrimination ability and insight into major pachychoroidopathies

  18. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  20. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Achievement among Young Chinese-Speaking English Language Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…

  1. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Incremental Rehearsal with a Morphological Component for Teaching Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Elena; Burns, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal (IR) for teaching Chinese character recognition using a single-case experimental design. In addition, a morphological component was added to standard IR procedures (IRM) to take into account the role of morphological awareness in Chinese reading. Three kindergarten students in…

  2. Preliminary Study of the Effect of Incremental Rehearsal with a Morphological Component for Teaching Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwong, Elena; Burns, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the effectiveness of Incremental Rehearsal (IR) for teaching Chinese character recognition using a single-case experimental design. In addition, a morphological component was added to standard IR procedures (IRM) to take into account the role of morphological awareness in Chinese reading. Three kindergarten students in…

  3. The Role of Morphological Awareness in Reading Achievement among Young Chinese-Speaking English Language Learners: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Katie; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Luo, Yang C.; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the development of morphological awareness and its contribution to vocabulary and reading comprehension among young Chinese-speaking English language learners (ELLs). We focused on two aspects of morphological awareness: derivational awareness and compound awareness. Participants included 46 kindergarteners (younger…

  4. Effect of bleaching agents on enamel surface of bovine teeth: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta-Dutra, Ana-Cristina; Albuquerque, Rodrigo-de Castro; Morgan, Luís-Fernando-dos Santos-Alves; Pereira, Geraldo-Magela; Nunes, Eduardo; Horta, Martinho-Campolina-Rebello

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate changes in the enamel surface of bovine teeth after whitening with exogenous bleaching agents: 10% carbamide peroxide (group 1), 16% carbamide peroxide (group 2) and 35% hydrogen peroxide activated by a light-emitting diode (LED) (group 3). The evaluations were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Material and Methods Ninety bovine teeth were divided into five groups (n = 18). The bleaching agents 10% and 16% carbamide peroxide were applied for eight hours a day for 14 consecutive days. The third agent, LED-activated 35% hydrogen peroxide, was used four times at seven-day intervals. Each of the four time points consisted of three applications of 10 minutes each. A 37% phosphoric acid solution and artificial saliva were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Results The evaluations by SEM showed changes in the enamel surfaces of the specimens. Based on the Mann-Whitney statistical test, the data showed significant differences (p<0.05) between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 2 and 3. However, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between groups 1 and 3. Conclusions Based on these results, it can be concluded that bleaching agents can cause changes in the structure of tooth enamel and that these changes are related to the concentration and the duration of contact with the tooth surface. Key words:Bovine teeth, carbamide peroxide, enamel, hydrogen peroxide, scanning electronic microscopy. PMID:28149462

  5. Impact of chemical warfare with agent orange on women's reproductive lives in Vietnam: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Le, T N; Johansson, A

    2001-11-01

    During the American war in Vietnam, huge quantities of the highly toxic herbicide dioxin ('Agent Orange'), were sprayed over large areas of central and south Vietnam. In addition to polluting the environment and causing cancers and other diseases in those directly exposed to it, dioxin has caused high rates of pregnancy loss, congenital birth defects and other health problems in their children. This paper reports the findings of a pilot study in the year 2000 among 30 Vietnamese women whose husbands and/or who themselves were exposed to Agent Orange. The aim was to develop research in order to explore the impact of chemical warfare on people's lives. Using the reproductive lifeline and semi-structured interviews, information was gathered on both partners' periods of exposure to Agent Orange, pregnancy outcomes, perceived health problems of children and experiences of living with handicapped children. The women had had a high number of miscarriages and premature births. About two-thirds of their children had congenital malformations or developed disabilities within the first years of life. Most of the families were poor, aggravated by impaired health in the men, the burden of caring for disabled children, and feelings of guilt and inferiority. The plight of 'Agent Orange families' is special and should be placed in its historical and political context.

  6. TETIS study: evaluation of new topical hemostatic agent TT-173 in tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Jané-Salas, Enric; Santamaría, Amparo; González-Navarro, Beatriz; Arranz-Obispo, Carlos; López, Ramón; Miquel, Ignasi; Arias, Belén; Sánchez, Pilar; Rincón, Esther; Rodríguez, Juan R; Rojas, Santiago; Murat, Jesus

    2016-06-01

    TT-173 is a new hemostatic agent consisting of yeast-derived microvesicles containing a modified version of recombinant human tissue factor. In the present work, the procoagulant activity of TT-173 has been evaluated for the first time in humans. This is a phase I, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy, safety, systemic absorption, and immunogenicity of TT-173 in healthy volunteers undergoing tooth extraction. Subjects received TT-173 or placebo into the alveolar cavity, just after tooth extraction. Time to clot formation, bleeding time, and adverse events were recorded. Treatment with TT-173 reduced the bleeding time and the time to clot formation. No adverse events related with product administration were reported. In the same way, neither systemic absorption nor immunogenic reaction against the product was detected. Our findings pave the way to evaluate the usefulness of this new topical hemostatic agent in more complex oral surgeries and in those patients affected with coagulation disorders that may compromise the realization of dental procedures. The new hemostatic agent TT-173 has proven efficacious and safe in healthy subjects undergoing tooth extraction supporting its further evaluation in more complex surgeries. The development of this new topical hemostatic agent could contribute to bleeding control in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  7. A morphological and anatomical study of an annual grass Eremopyrum (Poaceae) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Maryam; Seifali, Mahvash; Babaii, Khadijeh

    2007-01-01

    Eremopyrum (Poaceae) is distributed in various habitats in Iran. This genus is an Irano touranian floristic element and is represented by five species in Iran. In the morphological study 55 quantitative and qualitative characters were evaluated in 26 populations. It was observed that length of lowermost and uppermost glumes and its awn, spike length and lodicules lengths are diagnostic characters. In anatomical studies, the cross sections of the leaf blade and dorsal epidermis were examined and the stomata index was calculated. Characters as frequency of short and silica cells, number of macro hairs, prickles, subsidiaries, shape and number of vascular bundles are diagnostic. Inter- and intra- specific variation in Eremopyrum is evaluated.

  8. Morphology and etching studies on YBCO and CuO single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakaran, D.; Subramanian, C.; Balakumar, S.; Ramasamy, P.

    1999-06-01

    Single crystals of YBCO (Y123) and CuO have been grown from a BaO-CuO (28:72) flux using a low axial gradient furnace (∼1°C/cm). Growth morphology of the grown crystals was studied using an optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Cell parameter values and chemical composition of the grown crystals were determined from the X-ray diffraction data and inductively coupled plasma analysis, respectively. Etching studies were done for both the crystals using different etchants. Oxygen stoichiometry of the YBCO crystal was determined by iodometry titration analysis.

  9. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  10. Investigation of peripheral photoplethysmographic morphology changes induced during a hand-elevation study.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Michelle; Phillips, Justin P; Kyriacou, Panayiotis A

    2016-10-01

    A hand-elevation study was carried out in the laboratory in order to alter peripheral blood flow with the aim of increasing understanding of factors affecting the morphology of peripheral photoplethysmographic signals. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals were recorded from twenty healthy volunteer subjects during a hand-elevation study in which the right hand was raised and lowered relative to heart level, while the left hand remained static. Red and infrared (IR) PPG signals were obtained from the right and left index fingers using a custom-made PPG processing system. PPG features were identified using a feature-detection algorithm based on the first derivative of the PPG signal. The systolic PPG amplitude, the reflection index, crest time, pulse width at half height, and delta T were calculated from 20 s IR PPG signals from three positions of the right hand with respect to heart level (-50, 0, +50 cm) in 19 volunteers. PPG features were found to change with hand elevation. On lowering the hand to 50 cm below heart level, ac systolic PPG amplitudes from the finger decreased by 68.32 %, while raising the arm increased the systolic amplitude by 69.99 %. These changes in amplitude were attributed to changes in hydrostatic pressure and the veno-arterial reflex. Other morphological variables, such as crest time, were found to be statistically significantly different across hand positions, indicating increased vascular resistance on arm elevation than on dependency. It was hypothesized that these morphological PPG changes were influenced by changes in downstream venous resistance, rather than arterial, or arteriolar, resistance. Changes in hand position relative to heart level can significantly affect the morphology of the peripheral ac PPG waveform. These alterations are due to a combination of physical effects and physiological responses to changes in hand position, which alter vascular resistance. Care should be taken when interpreting morphological data derived

  11. Tuning the Morphology and Activity of Electrospun Polystyrene/UiO-66-NH2 Metal-Organic Framework Composites to Enhance Chemical Warfare Agent Removal.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Gregory W; Lu, Annie X; Epps, Thomas H

    2017-09-20

    This work investigates the processing-structure-activity relationships that ultimately facilitate the enhanced performance of UiO-66-NH2 metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in electrospun polystyrene (PS) fibers for chemical warfare agent detoxification. Key electrospinning processing parameters including solvent type (dimethylformamide [DMF]) vs DMF/tetrahydrofuran [THF]), PS weight fraction in solution, and MOF weight fraction relative to PS were varied to optimize MOF incorporation into the fibers and ultimately improve composite performance. It was found that composites spun from pure DMF generally resulted in MOF crystal deposition on the surface of the fibers, while composites spun from DMF/THF typically led to MOF crystal deposition within the fibers. For cases in which the MOF was incorporated on the periphery of the fibers, the composites generally demonstrated better gas uptake (e.g., nitrogen, chlorine) because of enhanced access to the MOF pores. Additionally, increasing both the polymer and MOF weight percentages in the electrospun solutions resulted in larger diameter fibers, with polymer concentration having a more pronounced effect on fiber size; however, these larger fibers were generally less efficient at gas separations. Overall, exploring the electrospinning parameter space resulted in composites that outperformed previously reported materials for the detoxification of the chemical warfare agent, soman. The data and strategies herein thus provide guiding principles applicable to the design of future systems for protection and separations as well as a wide range of environmental remediation applications.

  12. Caries-removal effectiveness of a papain-based chemo-mechanical agent: A quantitative micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline A; Lourenço, Roseane A; Alves, Haimon D; Lopes, Ricardo T; Primo, Laura G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to access the effectiveness and specificity of a papain-based chemo-mechanical caries-removal agent in providing minimum residual caries after cavity preparation. In order to do it, extracted carious molars were selected and scanned in a micro-CT before and after caries-removal procedures with the papain-based gel. Similar parameters for acquisition and reconstruction of the image stacks were used between the scans. After classification of the dentin substrate based on mineral density intervals and establishment of a carious tissue threshold, volumetric parameters related to effectiveness (mineral density of removed dentin volume and residual dentin tissue) and specificity (relation between carious dentin in removed volume and initial caries) of this caries-removal agent were obtained. In general, removed dentin volume was similar or higher than the initial carious volume, indicating that the method was able to effectively remove dentin tissue. Samples with an almost perfect accuracy in carious dentin removal also showed an increased removal of caries-affected tissue. On the contrary, less or no affected dentin was removed in samples where some carious tissue was left in residual dentin. Mineral density values in residual dentin were always higher or similar to the threshold for mineral density values in carious dentin. In conclusion, the papain-based gel was effective in removing carious dentin up to a conservative in vitro threshold. Lesion characteristics, such as activity and morphology of enamel lesion, may also influence caries-removal properties of the method. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Lower Lateral Cartilages: An Anatomic and Morphological Study in Noses of Black Southern Africans.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Cameron N D; van Wyk, F Carl; Joubert, Gina; Seedat, Riaz Y

    2017-03-01

    The anatomy of the nose of different ethnic groups has been widely researched in order to facilitate a better understanding of the individual nose as a foundation for improving surgical outcomes. The only anatomical research of the lower lateral cartilages (LLCs) available to the surgeon working with an African patient is to extrapolate data from studies already published on African Americans. The aim of this descriptive cadaveric study was to assess the normal anatomy of the LLCs in noses of Black South Africans and compare this to data from studies on noses from Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. Ninety lower lateral cartilages of 45 cadavers of Black South Africans who did not have previous surgery or trauma to the nose were dissected. The morphological shapes and 12 standard anatomical measurements were recorded. The results were analyzed and compared to data in the literature from studies on lower lateral cartilages of Caucasian, Asian, Korean, and African-American populations. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of overall cartilage dimensions, distance from nasal rim, and morphological shapes, compared to all previously studied groups, including the African-American population. There were significant differences in cartilage dimensions between males and females. This translates to clinically significant data that is useful during reconstructive and aesthetic nasal surgery on patients with a Southern African background. This study sets norms for alar cartilages in Black Southern Africans.

  14. Study suggests dentine bonding agents provided better relief from dentine hypersensitivity than a desensitising toothpaste.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Thomas; Innes, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Randomised, controlled, single-blind, three-arm parallel-group trial set in general dental practice with a single general dental practitioner operator/assessor. Seventy-five adult patients, with basic periodontal examination scores of 0 in all sextants, good oral hygiene, at least one sensitive tooth (not diagnosed as pulpitis) and willing to comply with the trial regime were entered into the trial and randomised. Seventy-two participants completed the study. The three interventions were; non-desensitising toothpaste (Colgate Cavity Protection Regular, Colgate-Palmolive, USA), desensitising toothpaste (Colgate Sensitive Fresh Stripe, Colgate-Palmolive, USA) and dentine bonding agent (Seal and Protect, Denpsly, USA). The non-desensitising toothpaste and desensitising toothpastes were provided to the subjects for use at home but dentine bonding agent was applied in the surgery. Dentinal hypersensitivity was measured using a participant completed Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at baseline, two weeks, three months and six months. At baseline and six months a standardised air blast to the buccal cervical root stimulus was used with the VAS. At two weeks and at three months participants self-completed the VAS at home with no stimulus. Although there was a reduction in dentinal hypersensitivity over time for all three groups, dentinal hypersensitivity reduced significantly (p<0.0001) in both desensitising toothpaste and dentine bonding agent groups. The mean VAS scores in the dentine bonding agent group were statistically significantly lower when compared to both non-desensitising toothpaste (p<0.001) and desensitising toothpaste (p<0.001). In addition, mean scores for non-desensitising toothpaste were higher than desensitising toothpaste (p<0.05). Dentine bonding agents provided the greatest improvement in dentinal hypersensitivity at two weeks and six months. This reduction was greater than that achieved with the desensitising and non-desensitising toothpastes tested.

  15. Diarrheal diseases of infancy in Cali, Colombia: study design and summary report on isolated disease agents.

    PubMed

    Newell, K W; Dover, A S; Clemmer, D I; D'Alessandro, A; Duenas, A; Gracián, M; LeBlanc, D R

    1976-01-01

    For public health reasons, it is important that the etiologic agents of early childhood diarrhea be isolated and identified, and that their routes of transmission be defined. This is especially true in tropical and subtropical developing countries, where childhood patterns of exposure to diarrheal disease agents usually differ from those in developed countries, and where diarrheal illness is a frequent harbinger of death among children under five years of age. This artical describes a study designed to identify diarrheal disease agents and transmission patterns in Cali, a large city of western Colombia's fertile Cauca River Valley. The study area, composed of five working-class districts with a total population of some 40,000, appeared to provide an environment fairly similar to those of many other "average" working-class communities in Latin America. Beginning in July 1962, a cohort of 296 children being born in these districts was studied, the period of investigation starting with the date of birth and continuing until each child's second birthday or its premature withdrawal from the study. Weekly home visits were made to establish defecation patterns, feeding practices, and anthropometry. The resulting data were then analyzed in terms of defecation frequencies, occurrence of liquid stools, and the presence of blood, mucus, or pus in the stools. Differences were noted in male and female defecation patterns and in the defecation frequencies of different age groups. Stool specimens for bacteriologic, virologic, and parasitologic examination were collected monthly on a regular basis and weekly when diarrhea occurred. Numerically, viruses were isolated and identified more often than other agents. The most commonly isolated parasite species and viral and bacterial serotypes were G. lamblia (from 222 subjects), echovirus 11 (from 166 subjects), and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli 026:B6 (from 138 subjects). Compared with the findings of several studies in other

  16. Phase I study of a topical skin protectant against chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Eisenkraft, Arik; Krivoy, Amir; Vidan, Aviv; Robenshtok, Eyal; Hourvitz, Ariel; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Markel, Gal

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants and some nerve agents penetrate exposed skin, mainly through the sensitive integration areas of the personal protective equipment. Therefore, improving dermal barrier with a topical agent should reduce the threat of exposure. A topical skin protectant lotion (IB1) was developed to improve protection against chemical warfare agents. Preclinical studies in several animal models have proven the protective efficacy of IB1. Here we present the results of a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind phase I clinical study, performed with 34 healthy volunteers. The study tested the safety of repeated applications, including ruling out transdermal permeation of magnesium, which may lead to a dangerous blood magnesium level, since the lotion contains magnesium sulfate. Other objectives included detection of dermatological adverse effects, assessment of application convenience, and effect on daily activities. Importantly, no serious adverse effects were recorded and the lotion did not interfere with daily tasks. There were no significant differences in magnesium levels between the placebo and the study groups in any of the applications. No toxic levels of magnesium were found in either group. We conclude that IB1 is probably safe, easily self-applied, and does not cause any significant inconvenience. Therefore, IB1 can be considered as an adjunctive chemical, biological, and radio-nuclear (CBRN) protective aid to field soldiers.

  17. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  18. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  19. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2016-01-08

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  20. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  1. IRetinal Organization in the retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) Mutant Mouse: a Morphological and ERG Study

    PubMed Central

    Gargini, Cludia; Terzibasi, Eva; Mazzoni, Francesca; Strettoi, Enrica

    2008-01-01

    Retinal degeneration 10 (rd10) mice are a model of autosomal recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), identified by Chang et al. in 2002. These mice carry a spontaneous mutation of the rod-phosphodiesterase (PDE) gene, leading to a rod degeneration that starts around P18. Later, cones are also lost. Because of photoreceptor degeneration does not overlap with retinal development, and light responses can be recorded for about a month after birth, rd10 mice mimic typical human RP more closely than the well-known rd1 mutants. Aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the morphology and function of the rd10 mouse retina during the period of maximum photoreceptor degeneration, thus contributing useful data for exploiting this novel model to study RP. We analyze the morphology and survival of retinal cells in rd10 mice of various ages with quantitative immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy; we also study retinal function with the electroretinogram (ERG), recorded between P18 and P30. We find that photoreceptor death (peaking around P25) is accompanied and followed by dendritic retraction in bipolar and horizontal cells, which eventually undergo secondary degeneration. ERG reveals alterations in the physiology of the inner retina as early as P18 (before any obvious morphological change of inner neurons) and yet consistently with a reduced band amplification by bipolar cells. Thus, changes in the rd10 retina are very similar to what previously found in rd1 mutants. However, an overall slower decay of retinal structure and function predict that rd10 mice might become excellent models for rescue approaches. PMID:17111372

  2. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Five Loci Influencing Facial Morphology in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan; van der Lijn, Fedde; Schurmann, Claudia; Zhu, Gu; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Hysi, Pirro G.; Wollstein, Andreas; Lao, Oscar; de Bruijne, Marleen; Ikram, M. Arfan; van der Lugt, Aad; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J.; Homuth, Georg; de Zubicaray, Greig; McMahon, Katie L.; Thompson, Paul M.; Daboul, Amro; Puls, Ralf; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Bevan, Liisa; Pausova, Zdenka; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Wright, Margaret J.; Wicking, Carol; Boehringer, Stefan; Spector, Timothy D.; Paus, Tomáš; Martin, Nicholas G.; Biffar, Reiner; Kayser, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Inter-individual variation in facial shape is one of the most noticeable phenotypes in humans, and it is clearly under genetic regulation; however, almost nothing is known about the genetic basis of normal human facial morphology. We therefore conducted a genome-wide association study for facial shape phenotypes in multiple discovery and replication cohorts, considering almost ten thousand individuals of European descent from several countries. Phenotyping of facial shape features was based on landmark data obtained from three-dimensional head magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and two-dimensional portrait images. We identified five independent genetic loci associated with different facial phenotypes, suggesting the involvement of five candidate genes—PRDM16, PAX3, TP63, C5orf50, and COL17A1—in the determination of the human face. Three of them have been implicated previously in vertebrate craniofacial development and disease, and the remaining two genes potentially represent novel players in the molecular networks governing facial development. Our finding at PAX3 influencing the position of the nasion replicates a recent GWAS of facial features. In addition to the reported GWA findings, we established links between common DNA variants previously associated with NSCL/P at 2p21, 8q24, 13q31, and 17q22 and normal facial-shape variations based on a candidate gene approach. Overall our study implies that DNA variants in genes essential for craniofacial development contribute with relatively small effect size to the spectrum of normal variation in human facial morphology. This observation has important consequences for future studies aiming to identify more genes involved in the human facial morphology, as well as for potential applications of DNA prediction of facial shape such as in future forensic applications. PMID:23028347

  3. A morphologic study of long-term retention of fluorocarbon after liquid ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hood, C I; Modell, J H

    2000-11-01

    To determine how long perfluorinated hydrocarbons remain in the lung after they are used for lung ventilation in dogs, and to determine if residual perfluorinated hydrocarbons cause structural alteration or an inflammatory reaction of the lung. Adult dogs were anesthetized and received ventilation with oxygenated perfluorinated hydrocarbon liquid. Morphologic studies of tissue from the lungs of these dogs were performed at intervals of a few minutes to 10 years after reconversion to breathing gas. University College of Medicine. Adult mongrel and beagle dogs. Anesthetized adult dogs breathed oxygenated liquid fluorocarbons for 1 h and then were reconverted to breathing air. Three fluorocarbons, FX-80 (C(8)F(16)O; 3M Company; St. Paul, MN), Caroxin-D (C(10)F(22)O(2); P-1D; Allied Chemical Company; Morristown, NJ), and Caroxin-F (C(9)F(20)O; P-12F; Allied Chemical Company), were used. Morphologic studies of the lungs of these animals were performed immediately after restoration of air breathing and at intervals for up to 10 years. Not all animals were studied at each time interval. A transient, acute inflammatory reaction was followed by a massive influx of macrophages, which were at first intra-alveolar and later interstitial, especially around vessels and bronchioles. Fluorocarbons remained in the lung in diminishing amounts for at least 5 years, as evidenced by persistent vacuolated macrophages in the alveoli, interstitium, and hilar lymph nodes; fluorocarbon was also detected in these tissues by chemical assays. In no case was there fibrosis or any other structural alteration associated with the residual fluorocarbon, which suggests that it was inert. At 10 years, no evidence of residual fluorocarbon was seen morphologically.

  4. Experimental Study of Ultrasound Contrast Agent Mediated Heat Transfer for Therapeutic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razansky, D.; Adam, D. R.; Einziger, P. D.

    2006-05-01

    Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCA) have been recently suggested as efficient enhancers of ultrasonic power deposition in tissue. The ultrasonic energy absorption by UCA, considered as disadvantageous in diagnostic imaging, might be valuable in therapeutic applications such as targeted hyperthermia or ablation treatments. The current study, based on theoretical predictions, was designed to experimentally measure the dissipation and heating effects of encapsulated UCA (Optison™) in a well-controlled and calibrated environment.

  5. Study of simple land battles using agent-based modeling: Strategy and emergent phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westley, Alexandra; de Meglio, Nicholas; Hager, Rebecca; Mok, Jorge Wu; Shanahan, Linda; Sen, Surajit

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we expand upon our recent studies of an agent-based model of a battle between an intelligent army and an insurgent army to explore the role of modifying strategy according to the state of the battle (adaptive strategy) on battle outcomes. This model leads to surprising complexity and rich possibilities in battle outcomes, especially in battles between two well-matched sides. We contend that the use of adaptive strategies may be effective in winning battles.

  6. Agent Based Study of Surprise Attacks:. Roles of Surveillance, Prompt Reaction and Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Linda; Sen, Surajit

    Defending a confined territory from a surprise attack is seldom possible. We use molecular dynamics and statistical physics inspired agent-based simulations to explore the evolution and outcome of such attacks. The study suggests robust emergent behavior, which emphasizes the importance of accurate surveillance, automated and powerful attack response, building layout, and sheds light on the role of communication restrictions in defending such territories.

  7. Field Studies and Laboratory Bearing of Arzama densa Walker, A Biological Control Agent against Waterhyacinth.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    WLK.. A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT AGAINST WATERHYACINTH PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. Waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, is a perennial... crassipes Solms) in the Nile System, Egypt," Aquatic Bot. 1:243-252. Bock, J. H. 1966. "An Ecological Study of Eichhornia crassipes with Special...biological organisms combined with other types of control methods. 2 141 REFERENCES Batanouny, K. H. and El-Fiky, A. M. 1975. "The Waterhyacinth ( Eichhornia

  8. Teratology Studies of Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Effects of Lewisite in Rats and Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    semen donors were trained to service an AV during a 2- to 3-week period (Gregoire et al., 1958). On the day of AI, semen samples from at least 3... Semen samples of satisfactory quality were pooled and diluted with buffered citrate/egg-yolk extender to a concentration of 21 to 30 million sperm/ml...V) ,NI REPORT NO. PNL-6408 00 TERATOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS: EFFECTS OF LEWISITE IN RATS AND RABBITS FINAL REPORT P. L

  9. Molecular and Morphological Study of Leaping Frogs (Anura, Ranixalidae) with Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Garg, Sonali; Biju, S D

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixalids have been subjected to DNA barcoding and systematic studies. Nearly half of the presently recognized species in this family have been described over the last three years, along with recognition of a new genus to accommodate three previously known members. Our surveys in the Western Ghats further suggest the presence of undescribed diversity in this group, thereby increasing former diversity estimates. Based on rapid genetic identification using a mitochondrial gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses with an additional nuclear gene and detailed morphological studies including examination of museum specimens, new collections, and available literature, here we describe two new species belonging to the genus Indirana from the Western Ghats states of Karnataka and Kerala. We also provide new genetic and morphological data along with confirmed distribution records for all the species known prior to this study. This updated systematic revision of family Ranixalidae will facilitate future studies and provide vital information for conservation assessment of these relic frogs.

  10. Molecular and Morphological Study of Leaping Frogs (Anura, Ranixalidae) with Description of Two New Species

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sonali; Biju, S. D.

    2016-01-01

    The monotypic anuran family Ranixalidae is endemic to India, with a predominant distribution in the Western Ghats, a region that is home to several unique amphibian lineages. It is also one of the three ancient anuran families that diversified on the Indian landmass long before several larger radiations of extant frogs in this region. In recent years, ranixalids have been subjected to DNA barcoding and systematic studies. Nearly half of the presently recognized species in this family have been described over the last three years, along with recognition of a new genus to accommodate three previously known members. Our surveys in the Western Ghats further suggest the presence of undescribed diversity in this group, thereby increasing former diversity estimates. Based on rapid genetic identification using a mitochondrial gene, followed by phylogenetic analyses with an additional nuclear gene and detailed morphological studies including examination of museum specimens, new collections, and available literature, here we describe two new species belonging to the genus Indirana from the Western Ghats states of Karnataka and Kerala. We also provide new genetic and morphological data along with confirmed distribution records for all the species known prior to this study. This updated systematic revision of family Ranixalidae will facilitate future studies and provide vital information for conservation assessment of these relic frogs. PMID:27851823

  11. Optical properties and surface morphology studies of palladium contacts on mercuric iodide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Burger, A.; Biao, Y.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    1993-04-01

    Palladium is chemically suitable for electric contacts on mercuric iodide detectors for photon and nuclear radiation detection, so the understanding of palladium contacts is important for fundamental and practical scientific purposes. A study has been conducted on the surface morphology of evaporated contacts using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical transmission and reflection. Evaporated palladium coatings are typically nonuniform and may deposit selectively on mercuric iodide surface defects. Reflection measurements show that coating thickness and surface treatment affect intensity, position, and shape of a reflected peak characteristic of the mercuric iodide structure. Results indicate that the band gap energy in the surface of the mercuric iodide is lowered by palladium contacts.

  12. SAXS study on the morphology of etched and un-etched ion tracks in apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadzri, A.; Schauries, D.; Afra, B.; Rodriguez, M. D.; Mota-Santiago, P.; Muradoglu, S.; Hawley, A.; Kluth, P.

    2015-04-01

    Natural apatite samples were irradiated with 185 MeV Au and 2.3 GeV Bi ions to simulate fission tracks. The resulting track morphology was investigated using synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements before and after chemical etching. We present preliminary results from the SAXS measurement showing the etching process is highly anisotropic yielding faceted etch pits with a 6-fold symmetry. The measurements are a first step in gaining new insights into the correlation between etched and unetched fission tracks and the use of SAXS as a tool for studying etched tracks.

  13. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    SciTech Connect

    Veksler, B A; Kuz'min, V L; Kobzev, E D; Meglinski, I V

    2012-05-31

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  14. A morphological and chemical study of calcification of the pineal gland.

    PubMed

    Michotte, Y; Lowenthal, A; Knaepen, L; Collard, M; Massart, D L

    1977-06-13

    A general scheme of analysis for the investigation of minute calcification is presented. After low temperature ashing, the samples are subjected to chemical, structural and morphological study, using atomic absorption spectrometry, infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Details about the calcification of the human pineal gland are given. The content of trace elements is very high, but within the limits found in other biological apatites. It is concluded that calcification of the pineal is a more general occurence than has been realized.

  15. The use of optical coherence tomography for morphological study of scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veksler, B. A.; Kuz'min, V. L.; Kobzev, E. D.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2012-05-01

    Aimed at possible widening of the optical coherence tomography (OCT) field of application, an attempt is made to use OCT in tissue engineering and cell transplantology as a tool for morphological studies of substrate materials by the example of scaffolds. By means of the traditional fibreoptical OCT scheme the images of inner structure of scaffolds are obtained, and simultaneously the spatial distribution of the intralipid flow velocity is reconstructed using the Doppler OCT. It is shown that combined use of traditional OCT and Doppler OCT schemes allows revealing the regions of the scaffold demonstrating optimal effect of shear stress, which is a key factor of cell growth.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of Antarctophthirus microchir (Phthiraptera: Anoplura: Echinophthiriidae): studying morphological adaptations to aquatic life.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, María Soledad; Crespo, Enrique A; Raga, Juan Antonio; Fernández, Mercedes

    2012-09-01

    The members of the Family Echinophthiriidae (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) are unique among insects because they infest hosts with an amphibious lifestyle. During their evolution they developed morphological traits that are reflected in unique features. The SEM is a helpful tool to analyze them. Knowing in detail the external structure of these lice is the first step to understand the whole process that derived from the co-adaptation of lice and pinnipeds to the marine environment. For the first time, we studied the external structure of all stages of an echinophthiriid louse. The results are discussed in the light of their evolutionary, functional, and ecological implications.

  17. Photo acoustic study of plants exposed to varying light intensity growth conditions: Spectral and morphological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, R. C.; Barja, P. R.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper we describe results of photo acoustic (PA) measurements carried out on various plants exposed to varying light intensity conditions. Depending on the species and light intensity conditions, the PA absorption spectra show differences in peaks associated with pigments and the cuticle. These differences are related to the spatial distribution of the pigments that differs from plant to plant. We have also performed systematic study of oxygen evolution at different wavelengths. The obtained oxygen spectra are equivalent to the action spectra usually acquired by determining the CO2 uptake and energy storage. The intensities of oxygen spectra exhibit differences depending on distinct morphology of plant.

  18. Hemostatic Agents in Periapical Surgery: A Randomized Study of Gauze Impregnated in Epinephrine versus Aluminum Chloride.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-Nieto, Isabel; Cervera-Ballester, Juan; Maestre-Ferrín, Laura; Blaya-Tárraga, Juan Antonio; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    Adequate bleeding control is essential for the success of periapical surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 hemostatic agents on the outcome of periapical surgery and their relationship with patient and teeth parameters. A prospective study was designed with 2 randomized parallel groups, depending on the hemostatic agent used: gauze impregnated in epinephrine (epinephrine group) and aluminum chloride (aluminum chloride group). The analysis of the hemorrhage control was judged before and after the application of the hemostatic agents by the surgeon, and 2 examiners independently recorded it as adequate (complete hemorrhage control) or inadequate (incomplete hemorrhage control). Ninety-nine patients with a periradicular lesion were enrolled in this study and divided into 2 groups: gauze impregnated in epinephrine in 48 patients (epinephrine group) or aluminum chloride in 51 (aluminum chloride group). In epinephrine group adequate hemostasis was achieved in 25 cases, and in aluminum chloride group it was achieved in 37 cases (P < .05). The outcome was better in the aluminum chloride group than in the gauze impregnated in epinephrine group. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  20. Mechanism of action of diabetogenic zinc-chelating agents. Model system studies.

    PubMed

    Epand, R M; Stafford, A R; Tyers, M; Nieboer, E

    1985-03-01

    Using model systems, we have studied the properties of a number of zinc-chelating agents which are known to cause diabetes in laboratory animals. The abilities to permeate membranes and to complex zinc inside liposomes with the release of protons are suggested as chemical properties that can enhance diabetogenicity. When such complexing agents are added to lipid vesicles at pH 6 containing entrapped zinc ions, they acidify the contents of these vesicles. We have demonstrated this effect by measuring intravesicular pH both with a fluorine-containing F NMR probe as well as with the fluorescent probe, quinine. For example, using quinine, we observed that 0.1 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline reduced the intravesicular pH of sonicated phospholipid vesicles containing entrapped Zn2+ (as sulfate) from pH 6.0 to 2.8. These diabetogenic chelating agents also solubilized zinc-insulin precipitates from unbuffered suspensions at pH 6.0. The solubilization results from the acidification of these suspensions. Dithizone and 8-hydroxyquinoline at 4 mM solubilized 97 and 42%, respectively, of the suspended insulin. We suggest that if such proton release occurs within the zinc-containing insulin storage granules of pancreatic beta-cells, solubilization of insulin would be induced. Such an event would lead to osmotic stress and eventually to rupture of the granule. The effects of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), an agent that has been found to protect rabbits against the induction of diabetes by some other zinc-chelating agents, were also studied. DDC caused a decrease of 3.5 units in the intravesicular pH of zinc-containing vesicles by a mechanism not involving the release of protons upon chelation of zinc. We have demonstrated several properties of DDC which may contribute to its ability to protect against the induction of diabetes. These include its ability to store zinc as a hydrophobic complex in membranes, its consumption of protons upon spontaneous decomposition, and the ability of one of

  1. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-08-15

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 microg/kg/day, 0.05 LD(50)) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (approximately 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (approximately 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures.

  2. Drug utilization study of systemic antifungal agents in a Brazilian tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Maria Clara Padovani; Dos Santos, Andrezza Gouvêa; Reis, Adriano Max Moreira

    2016-12-01

    Background The inappropriate use of systemic antifungal agents can result in unnecessary exposure, adverse events, increased microbial resistance and increased costs. Aim This study analysed the use of systemic antifungal agents and adherence to treatment guidelines for fungal infections. Setting A Brazilian tertiary hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated 183 patients who were treated with systemic antifungals. Antifungal drugs were classified according to the fourth level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification system. The appropriateness of treatments was analysed with respect to the indication, dose and potential drug-drug interactions. Descriptive and univariate statistical analyses were performed. The main outcome measure was the frequency of adherence to treatment guidelines for fungal infections. Results The number of established treatments was 320, with 163 (50.9 %) pre-emptive, 63 (19.7 %) targeted, 56 (17.5 %) empirical and 38 (11.9 %) prophylactic treatments. The overall adherence to the treatment guidelines was 29.4 %. The proportion of appropriate treatment considering indication, dosage and drug-drug interactions was 84.1, 67.8 and 47.2 %, respectively. The most commonly prescribed systemic antifungal agents were fluconazole in 170 (53.1 %), voriconazole in 43 (13.4 %) and amphotericin B deoxycholate in 36 (11.3 %) cases. Conclusion The study showed a low proportion of appropriate antifungal drug use; the dosage and drug-drug interactions criteria were the determining factors for the high percentage of non-adherence to treatment guidelines in the hospital. The profile of antifungal agents used showed the predominance of fluconazole as well as the use of new antifungal drugs.

  3. Morphology, orthography, and the two hemispheres: A divided visual field study with Hindi/Urdu biliterates.

    PubMed

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna

    2017-04-01

    Although identical on the spoken level, Hindi and Urdu differ markedly on the written level in terms of reading/writing direction and orthographic depth, with discernible processing consequences. The present study used a divided field paradigm to study the impact of writing system characteristics of Hindi and Urdu on word naming latencies in skilled biliterate users of these languages. Hindi (read/written from left to right) was hypothesized to show a larger right field advantage than Urdu (read/written from right to left); Hindi words sharing form overlap with primes were expected to show a significant priming effect in the left visual field, but a significant right field effect for morphologically-primed naming. Both these expectations were confirmed. An overall right field advantage was obtained for one syllable Hindi and Urdu words; two syllable Urdu words showed either no visual field differences or a left field advantage, and the right field advantage for Hindi was significantly greater for two syllable than one syllable words. Further, Hindi words showed significant form priming (relative to control stimuli) in the left visual field and significant morphological priming (relative to form priming) in the right visual field. By contrast, Urdu words showed no significant form priming in either visual field, and significantly greater morphological than form priming in the left visual field. These results are taken to suggest that visual field asymmetries in word naming are sensitive to differences in reading habit-related scanning biases and to orthographic depth-related differences in word recognition processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Marković, Smilja; Veselinović, Ljiljana; Lukić, Miodrag J; Karanović, Ljiljana; Bračko, Ines; Ignjatović, Nenad; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-08-01

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [00l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 °C, from HAp to β-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  5. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1-1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of differences in the optical cross sections and asymmetry parameters. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in

  6. Black carbon fractal morphology and short-wave radiative impact: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahnert, M.; Devasthale, A.

    2011-11-01

    We investigate the impact of the morphological properties of freshly emitted black carbon aerosols on optical properties and on radiative forcing. To this end, we model the optical properties of fractal black carbon aggregates by use of numerically exact solutions to Maxwell's equations within a spectral range from the UVC to the mid-IR. The results are coupled to radiative transfer computations, in which we consider six realistic case studies representing different atmospheric pollution conditions and surface albedos. The spectrally integrated radiative impacts of black carbon are compared for two different fractal morphologies, which brace the range of recently reported experimental observations of black carbon fractal structures. We also gauge our results by performing corresponding calculations based on the homogeneous sphere approximation, which is commonly employed in climate models. We find that at top of atmosphere the aggregate models yield radiative impacts that can be as much as 2 times higher than those based on the homogeneous sphere approximation. An aggregate model with a low fractal dimension can predict a radiative impact that is higher than that obtained with a high fractal dimension by a factor ranging between 1.1-1.6. Although the lower end of this scale seems like a rather small effect, a closer analysis reveals that the single scattering optical properties of more compact and more lacy aggregates differ considerably. In radiative flux computations there can be a partial cancellation due to the opposing effects of different error sources. However, this cancellation effect can strongly depend on atmospheric conditions and is therefore quite unpredictable. We conclude that the fractal morphology of black carbon aerosols and their fractal parameters can have a profound impact on their radiative forcing effect, and that the use of the homogeneous sphere model introduces unacceptably high biases in radiative impact studies. We emphasise that there

  7. Hip Morphology in MPS-1H Patients: An MRI-based Study.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Sandra R; Muschol, Nicole; Schmidt, Mona; Rupprecht, Martin; Babin, Kornelia; Herrmann, Jochen; Stücker, Ralf

    2016-09-15

    Hip dysplasia is common in mucopolysaccharidosis type-1H (MPS-1H) patients, but its morphology is not completely understood. No magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based studies have been reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to improve knowledge of hip dysplasia pathology by describing the hip morphology of these patients in MRI scans, plain radiographs, and arthrograms. We performed a retrospective chart review of 18 MPS-1H patients. Supine anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 36 hips and MRI scans of 18 hips were analyzed. Six arthrographs were also available. Plain radiographs were available for 18 patients. The mean age was 6.0 (SD=3.8) years. The mean acetabular index (AI) was 36.2 degrees (SD=5.8), and the mean migration percentage was 59.0% (SD=17.2). MRI data were available for 9 patients. The MRI findings were compared with the radiographs of the same patient. The mean AI (39.3 degrees, SD=5.8) was confirmed by the MRI findings (39.1 degrees, SD=5.5). The migration percentage was lower in the MRI scans than in the radiographs. Radiologically, the center-edge angle was negative in all patients, with a mean of -16.8 degrees (SD=7.9), and the MRI images produced a more negative value (-19.6 degrees, SD=7.6). The soft tissue coverage of the femoral head was described with the inclusion of the cartilaginous roof and labrum. The cartilaginous AI was 22.4 degrees (SD=7.5), and the labral AI was 13.5 degrees (SD=6.7). All 6 arthrograms revealed stability during dynamic testing. This study provides the first description of hip morphology in MPS-1H patients through MRI-based data. The cartilaginous coverage of the hip was increased compared with that of healthy children. The use of radiography alone may lead to a misunderstanding of hip morphology. MRI and arthrogram is highly recommended if surgery is considered.

  8. Knowledge of morphologically complex words: a developmental study of older children and young adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Sun, Lei

    2008-07-01

    This study examined knowledge of derived nominals (e.g., measurement, prediction) and derived adjectives (e.g., algebraic, molecular) in older children and young adolescents. Little was known about students' comprehension of these morphologically complex words that occur in textbooks that are used in public schools to teach challenging subjects such as science, mathematics, social studies, health, and literature. The Word Knowledge Task (WKT), designed for the present study, was used to examine participants' comprehension of 15 derived nominals and 15 derived adjectives that were selected from state-adopted textbooks. This written, multiple-choice task was administered to 10-year-old children and 13-year-old adolescents (N = 94) who were attending public schools. All participants spoke English and were typical achievers. The findings indicated that the adolescents outperformed the children on both types of derived words; the derived nominals were more difficult than the derived adjectives for both groups; and comprehension was associated with frequency of occurrence in print, with easier words generally more common than more difficult ones. Knowledge of morphologically complex words such as derived nominals and derived adjectives is a late linguistic attainment. Given the importance of these words for academic success, instructional programs are needed to ensure that children and adolescents are able to learn their meanings using appropriate strategies.

  9. Variations in the frenal morphology in the diverse population: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vikas; Kaur, Rupinder; Goel, Amit; Mahajan, Atika; Mahajan, Neha; Mahajan, Atin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The upper labial frenum is a normal anatomic structure with inherent morphological variations. Frenum has variations depending upon the attachment of fibers along with the presence of structural variations. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of frenal variations in a diverse ethnic population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 500 subjects within age group of 16–40 years (285 females, 215 males). Intraoral examination was done to evaluate the variations in frenum and photographs were taken. Results: In this study, depending upon structural variations, normal frenum was most common followed by frenum with nodule while frenum with appendix was found to be least common. However, no significant difference was found between males and females (P > 0.05) with respect to all frenal attachments. Furthermore, other structural variations were found in the diverse population of Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh. Conclusion: Upper labial frenum is a small anatomical landmark in the oral cavity found to have diverse morphology. The dentist needs to give due importance for frenum assessment during the oral examination. PMID:27563207

  10. STM/AFM studies of the evolution of morphology of electroplated Ni/W alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Younes, O.; Ashkenasy, N.; Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Gileadi, E.

    2002-11-01

    The surface morphology evolution of Ni/W alloys was studied, as a function of the alloy composition. Using the modified plating baths developed in our laboratory recently, electroplated Ni/W alloys with different W content, in the range of 7-67 atom percent (a/o), can be obtained. This was found to lead to different structures, ranging from polycrystalline fcc-Ni type structure to amorphous, followed by orthorhombic with increasing W content in the alloy. Powder XRD was studied to determine the crystal structures. Ex situ STM, AFM and SEM were used to study in detail the surface morphologies of the different alloys, and their evolution with increasing W content. The important findings are that a mixture of two crystalline forms can give rise to an amorphous structure. Hillocks that are usually a characteristic of epitaxial growth can also exist in the amorphous alloys. Oriented scratches caused by stress can also be formed. Up to 20 a/o of W is deposited in the alloys in crystalline form, with the fcc-Ni type structure. Between 20 and about 40 a/o an amorphous structure is observed, and above that an orthorhombic crystal structure is seen, which is characteristic of the NiW binary alloy. Careful choice of the composition of the plating bath allowed us to deposit an alloy containing 67 a/o W, which corresponds to the composition NiW 2.

  11. Synthesis of nanoparticle CT contrast agents: in vitro and in vivo studies

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung June; Xu, Wenlong; Ahmad, Md Wasi; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble and biocompatible D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time to be used as x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Their average particle diameters were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.1 nm for D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles, respectively. All the nanoparticles exhibited a strong x-ray attenuation. In vivo CT images were obtained after intravenous injection of an aqueous sample suspension of D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 nanoparticles, and positive contrast enhancements in the kidney were clearly shown. These findings indicate that the nanoparticles reported in this study may be promising CT contrast agents. PMID:27877838

  12. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    PubMed

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  13. Synthesis of nanoparticle CT contrast agents: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung June; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-10-01

    Water-soluble and biocompatible D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time to be used as x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Their average particle diameters were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.1 nm for D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles, respectively. All the nanoparticles exhibited a strong x-ray attenuation. In vivo CT images were obtained after intravenous injection of an aqueous sample suspension of D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 nanoparticles, and positive contrast enhancements in the kidney were clearly shown. These findings indicate that the nanoparticles reported in this study may be promising CT contrast agents.

  14. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Graham, Stuart J.; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved. PMID:27547080

  15. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  16. An analytical study of photoacoustic and thermoacoustic generation efficiency towards contrast agent and film design optimization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fei; Kishor, Rahul; Feng, Xiaohua; Liu, Siyu; Ding, Ran; Zhang, Ruochong; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2017-09-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) and thermoacoustic (TA) effects have been explored in many applications, such as bio-imaging, laser-induced ultrasound generator, and sensitive electromagnetic (EM) wave film sensor. In this paper, we propose a compact analytical PA/TA generation model to incorporate EM, thermal and mechanical parameters, etc. From the derived analytical model, both intuitive predictions and quantitative simulations are performed. It shows that beyond the EM absorption improvement, there are many other physical parameters that deserve careful consideration when designing contrast agents or film composites, followed by simulation study. Lastly, several sets of experimental results are presented to prove the feasibility of the proposed analytical model. Overall, the proposed compact model could work as a clear guidance and predication for improved PA/TA contrast agents and film generator/sensor designs in the domain area.

  17. Theoretical Studies of Oxygen Reduction and Proton Transfer in SOFCs and Nerve Agents on Selected Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-19

    Terzyk, A. P.; Neimark, A. V., Screening of carbonaceous nanoporous materials for capture of nerve agents. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2013... materials are considered for two types of nerve agents: sarin, a nerve gas, (see Fig. 1) and VX type nerve agents . Although both nerve agents are

  18. Impact of Various Irrigating Agents on Root Fracture: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Sukriti; Nikhade, Pradnya; Chandak, Manoj; Sudarshan, C; Shetty, Priyadarshini; Gupta, Naveen K

    2016-08-01

    Irrigating solutions are used for cleaning and removing dentinal debris, and the other remains from pulpal space during biomechanical preparation. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of various irrigating agents on root fracture at 5-minute time exposure. We sectioned 60 permanent maxillary premolars with fully formed root structures transversely maintaining the root length of approximately 14 mm. Five study groups were made comprising ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), cetrimide, citric acid, and so on as various irrigating agents. A universal force test machine was used to calculate the force which was enough to fracture each root. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used to access the level of significance. About 10% citric acid solution as an irrigating agent showed minimal fracture opposing results, whereas 10% EDTA solution showed the maximum fracture resistance of root portion. Selection of suitable EDTA concentration that has minimal adverse effect on the mechanical properties of the tooth is very important for the successful management of tooth fracture. About 10% EDTA provided the highest fracture resistance, necessitating the use of irrigating solution in root canal therapy (RCT). Further research with higher and different study groups is required to search for more efficient irrigating solution to improve the outcome of RCT.

  19. Quantitative study of temperature-dependent order in thin films of cylindrical morphology block copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward

    2010-03-01

    Disordering and defect generation in block copolymer systems at high temperatures is of significance to get a better understanding of the physics governing these systems, which can also direct efforts to minimize them. We have studied the smectic-nematic-isotropic transition in confined monolayers and bilayers of cylindrical morphology poly (styrene-b-2vinyl pyridine) diblock copolymer. Previous studies of melting phenomena in block copolymer thin films have relied on quantitative AFM studies alone. We have supplemented AFM studies with grazing incidence small angle X-ray diffraction lineshape analysis to quantify the decay of translational and orientational order with increasing temperature. The results have been interpreted in the context of the Toner-Nelson theory of melting for layered systems.

  20. Morphological and biodegradability studies of Euphorbia latex modified polyester - Banana fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Bhuvneshwar; Kumar, Gulshan; Diwan, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The composites of Banana fiber were prepared using polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum, morphology and the degree of rate of aerobic biodegradation of the prepared composites were studied. Polyester resin blended Euphorbia coagulum containing Banana fiber, Euphorbia coagulum and polyester resin taken in the ratio 40: 24: 36 was used for the study, which was the optimum composition of the composite reported in a previous study by the authors. In the biodegradability study cellulose has been used as positive reference material. Result shows that Euphorbia coagulum modified polyester - Banana fiber composites exhibited biodegradation to the extent of around 40%. The use of developed green composites may help in reducing the generation of non-biodegradable polymeric wastes.

  1. Effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal agents on dentin microhardness: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ramamoorthi, Surendar; Nivedhitha, Malli Sureshbabu; Vanajassun, P Pranav

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents on dentin microhardness. In this study, the crown portion of ten carious-free and ten caries-affected teeth were selected. In carious-free samples, the teeth were decoronated at the level of cemento - enamel junction. Only the crown portion of the teeth was selected. Occlusal one-third of the crowns were cross-sectioned and discarded to expose the dentin, and it was divided into two groups, five teeth in each group. Then, they were further sectioned longitudinally through the centre. In one group, no agent was applied on one half and Carisolv was applied on other half. In another group, no agent was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half for 1 min. In carious samples, the crowns were sectioned through the centre of carious lesion. Carisolv was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half. After using CMCR agents, surface hardness of dentin was examined using Vickers hardness number (VHN). The data were analyzed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant difference among normal dentin (62.91 ± 2.76), Carisolv-treated normal dentin (61.72 ± 2.89), and Carie-Care-treated normal dentin (61.90 ± 3.19). In carious samples, the results of Carisolv-treated dentin (58.57 ± 2.62) was not statistically significantly different from those of the Carie-Care-treated dentin (56.77 ± 4.41). In conclusion, neither of the CMCR methods caused a significant change in the microhardness of normal dentin and the treated carious dentin.

  2. Effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal agents on dentin microhardness: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthi, Surendar; Nivedhitha, Malli SureshBabu; Vanajassun, P Pranav

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two different chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR) agents on dentin microhardness. Materials and Methods: In this study, the crown portion of ten carious-free and ten caries-affected teeth were selected. In carious-free samples, the teeth were decoronated at the level of cemento – enamel junction. Only the crown portion of the teeth was selected. Occlusal one-third of the crowns were cross-sectioned and discarded to expose the dentin, and it was divided into two groups, five teeth in each group. Then, they were further sectioned longitudinally through the centre. In one group, no agent was applied on one half and Carisolv was applied on other half. In another group, no agent was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half for 1 min. In carious samples, the crowns were sectioned through the centre of carious lesion. Carisolv was applied on one-half and Carie-Care was applied on the other half. After using CMCR agents, surface hardness of dentin was examined using Vickers hardness number (VHN). Statistical Analysis and Results: The data were analyzed using t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). There were no significant difference among normal dentin (62.91 ± 2.76), Carisolv-treated normal dentin (61.72 ± 2.89), and Carie-Care-treated normal dentin (61.90 ± 3.19). In carious samples, the results of Carisolv-treated dentin (58.57 ± 2.62) was not statistically significantly different from those of the Carie-Care-treated dentin (56.77 ± 4.41). Conclusion: In conclusion, neither of the CMCR methods caused a significant change in the microhardness of normal dentin and the treated carious dentin. PMID:24082572

  3. Linking drainage front morphology with gaseous diffusion in unsaturated porous media: a lattice Boltzmann study.

    PubMed

    Chau, Jessica Furrer; Or, Dani

    2006-11-01

    The effect of drainage front morphology on gaseous diffusion through partially saturated porous media is analyzed using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM). Flow regimes for immiscible displacement in porous media have been characterized as stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. The dominance of a flow regime is associated with the relative magnitudes of gravity, viscous, and capillary forces, quantifiable via the Bond number Bo, capillary number Ca, and their difference, Bo-Ca . Forced drainage from an initially saturated two-dimensional (2D) porous medium was simulated and the resulting flow patterns were analyzed and compared with theoretical predictions and experimental results. The LBM simulations reproduced expected flow morphologies for a range of drainage velocities and gravitational forces (i.e., a range of capillary and Bond numbers). Furthermore, measures of drainage front width as a function of the dimensionless difference Bo-Ca correspond well with scaling laws derived from percolation theory. Effects of flow morphology on residual fluid entrapment and gaseous diffusion were assessed by running LBM diffusion simulations through the partially saturated domain for a range of water contents. The effective diffusion coefficient as a function of water content was estimated for three regimes: stable drainage front, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering. Significant reductions in gaseous diffusion coefficient were found for viscous fingering relative to stable displacement, and to a lesser extent for capillary fingering, indicating that wetting phase distribution with a high degree of fingering in the 2D domain severely restricts connectivity of gas diffusion pathways through the medium. The study lends support for the use of LBM in design and management of fluids in porous media under variable gravity, and enhances the understanding of the role of dynamic fluid behavior on macroscopic transport properties of partially saturated

  4. Morphological study and comprehensive cellular constituents of milky spots in the human omentum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiu-Yang; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Geng, Xia-Fei; Qu, Ai-Ping; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze morphological features of omental milky spots (MS). Method: Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry technique were used to study the omental MS of gastric cancer (GC) patients and rectal cancer (RC) patients. We focused on morphological features of MS and conducted quantitative analysis on the cells number and cellular constituents. Differences in MS parameters between GC and RC were also analyzed. Results: Various shapes of MS were mainly round, oval, irregular form in the adipose and perivascular annular. The median MS perimeter was 2752 (range 817~7753) computer-based pixels. The median value of immune cells in one MS was 141 (43~650), comprising T lymphocytes (46.1%), B lymphocytes (28.4%), macrophages (12.4%) and other immune cells (13.1%). Relatively high density of vessels in MS could be calculated by micro-vessel density (MVD) as 4 (0~13). The median value of mesothelial cells loosely arranged in the surface layer was 5 (0~51). There were no significant differences in MS perimeter, MVD, the number of mesothelial cells, total immune cells, T lymphocytes and macrophages between GC and RC (P>0.05), while the number of MS B lymphocytes in RC was significantly higher than that in GC (P<0.001). Conclusion: MS are primary immune tissues in the omentum and structural bases for development and progression of peritoneal dissemination of GC and RC. Analyzing the morphology and cellular constituents could help understanding the mechanism of peritoneal metastasis. PMID:26722479

  5. Morphological processing in early bilinguals: an ERP study of regular and irregular verb processing.

    PubMed

    De Diego Balaguer, R; Sebastián-Gallés, N; Díaz, B; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2005-09-01

    Although the age of acquisition of a language has an effect when learning a second language, the similarity between languages may also have a crucial role. The aim of the present study is to understand the influence of this latter factor in the acquisition of morphosyntactic information. With this purpose, two groups of highly proficient early Catalan-Spanish bilinguals were presented with a repetition-priming paradigm with regular and irregular verbs of Spanish. Catalan and Spanish have a similar suffix (-o) for regular verbs and completely different alternations for irregular verbs. Two types of irregular verbs were studied (semi-regular verbs with a systematic diphthong alternation, sentir-siento, and verbs with idiosyncratic changes, venir-vengo). Regular verbs showed the same centro-parietal N400 priming effect in the second-language speakers (L2) as in primary-language (L1) speakers. However, differences between groups, in the ERP pattern and the topography of the N400 effect, were observed for irregular morphology. In L1 speakers, the N400 effect was attenuated only for semi-regular verbs. In contrast, L2 speakers showed a reduced N400 priming effect in both irregular contrasts. This pattern of results suggests that the similarity between languages may help for similar structures but may interfere for dissimilar structures, at least when the two languages have very similar morphological systems.

  6. [Study on molecular chain morphology and chain parameters of konjac glucomannan].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Xie, Bi-jun

    2003-11-01

    To study the molecular chain morphology and chain parameters of konjac glucomannan (KGM). Solution behavior was studied by using light scattering(LS), gel permeation chromatograph (GPC) and method of viscosity. The molecular morphology was observed directly by atom force microscope (AFM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The average molecular weight (Mw), root-mean-square ratio of gyration(1/2), second Viral coefficients (A2) and multi-disperse coefficients (Mw/Mn) are 1.04 x 10(6), 105.0 +/- 0.9 nm, (-1.59 +/- 0.28) x 10(-3) mol.mL.g-2 and (1.020 +/- 0.003) respectively; Mark-Houwink equation was established as [eta] = 5.96 x 10(-2) Mw0.73, the molecular chain parameters were as follows: ML = 982.82 nm-1, q = 27.93 nm, d = 0.74 nm, h = 0.26 nm, L = 1,054.11 nm. Both the result showed by direct observation and the deduction drawn by solution behavior confirmed that the KGM molecular is stentering semi-flexible linear chain without branch.

  7. Structural, morphological, and optical study of titania-based nanopowders suitable for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šćepanović, M.; Grujić-Brojčin, M.; Abramović, B.; Golubović, A.

    2017-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the relationship between structural, morphological, optical and photocatalytic properties of the titania-based nanopowders is presented. A series of pure and doped titania catalysts with various (anatase and brookite) phase compositions have been prepared by sol–gel or hydrothermal route. The crystal structure and composition of the synthesized samples have been extensively characterised by XRD and Raman scattering measurements. The nanopowder morphology has been studied using microscopic methods (SEM, AFM, and STM), whereas the porous structure has been revealed by the analysis of nitrogen sorption data. The optical and electronic properties have been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry. All investigated properties have been correlated to photocatalytic activity, tested in degradation of the pharmaceutically active substances (such as metoprolol and alprazolam) induced by UVA or visible radiation. Based on this correlation, the physical properties which contribute most to the increase in photocatalytic activity of synthesized nanopowders have been determined, in order to optimize the synthesis conditions which could lead to the maximal efficiency in degradation of particular pollutant.

  8. Morphology studies on high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Florian; Klages, Merle; Scholta, Joachim; Jörissen, Ludwig; Morawietz, Tobias; Hiesgen, Renate; Kramer, Dominik; Zeis, Roswitha

    2014-06-01

    The electrode morphology influences the properties and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Here we report our studies of two different electrodes for high-temperature PEMFC prepared by spraying and coating and their impact on the fuel cell performance. Differences in 3D microstructure and adhesion between catalyst layer and gas diffusion layer (GDL) of the electrodes were studied with X-ray microtomography. Scanning electrode microscope investigations show hairline cracks between agglomerates on the surface of the sprayed electrode, whereas the coated electrode shows a network of shrinkage cracks in the catalyst layer. The distribution of the electrode binder polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is related to the locally resolved conductivity, which was determined by scanning the electrode surfaces with a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. The macrostructures of the sprayed and coated electrodes are different but contain similar pore structures. The coated electrode has a higher PTFE concentration on the top region, which tends to form a nonconductive and less wettable "skin" on the electrode surface and delays the start-up of the fuel cell. In contrast to low-temperature PEMFC, the electrode morphology has only a minor impact on the steady-state cell performance of high-temperature PEMFC.

  9. Morphology of glass fibers in electronics workers with fiberglass dermatitis--a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, M Y; Guo, Y L; Shiao, J S; Sheu, H M

    2001-04-01

    Fiberglass is used as a reinforcement filler material in printed circuit boards (PCBs) which are widely used in the electronics industry. In a recent survey, we demonstrated that fiberglass dermatitis is the most common occupational dermatosis among electronics industry workers in Taiwan. Little is known, however, about the morphologic structures of the glass fibers which induce dermatitis. The purpose of this study was to assess the morphology of fiber spicules and to determine the relationship of this structure to fiberglass dermatitis. Fourteen female patients with a diagnosis of fiberglass dermatitis were selected for study. The diagnosis was confirmed in all patients by positive skin stripping for glass fibers and matching with glass fibers from dust collected in work areas and from samples collected by scraping the edge of PCBs. Samples of collected glass fibers were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM of the fiberglass samples revealed that fibers were approximately 10 microm in diameter. In samples from both the edge of PCBs and from dust collected in work areas, SEM revealed that most of the fibers were in bundles of various sizes and lengths. All fibers collected from patients' skin by tape stripping showed a singular spicule, most had a sharp free end, and the lengths were in the range 50-150 microm . Singular glass fibers with a sharp free end and a length of 50-150 microm are most likely to induce fiberglass dermatitis.

  10. Inflectional morphology in cri du chat syndrome--a case study.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil

    2012-02-01

    This study examined morphological skills in a girl with cri du chat syndrome, addressing three questions: (1) To what extent does the subject inflect words? (2) To what extent are words inflected correctly? (3) To what extent do the inflected words reflect productive morphological rules, and to what extent can they be considered to be rote-learned? The study draws on two sources of data: a corpus of spontaneous utterances collected when the subject was 14 years old and her performance on a past tense elicitation test at 11;10 and 16;5. It was found that most inflectional forms in the nominal, verbal, pronominal and adjectival paradigms of the target language were attested in the corpus. These forms were in all but a few instances inflected correctly. The most frequent inflection errors were infinitive for present, past or past participle in verbs and wrong gender in determiners. Furthermore, performance on the elicitation test indicated some knowledge of productive inflectional rules of the target language, despite relatively poor phonetic, phonological and syntactic skills.

  11. Epididymis of Viscacha (Lagostomus maximus maximus): A Morphological Comparative Study in Relation to Sexual Maturity.

    PubMed

    Cruceño, A A M; Aguilera-Merlo, C I; Chaves, E M; Mohamed, F H

    2017-02-01

    The morphological variations and the androgen receptor (AR) expression were studied in viscacha epididymis in relation to sexual maturity. The animals were divided into immature, pre-pubertal and adult, according to their corporal weight and testicular histology. The epididymides were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry for AR and morphometric analysis. In pre-pubertal and adult animals, four well-differentiated segments (initial, caput, corpus and cauda) were observed, while in immature animals, three segments were identified (initial-caput segment, corpus and cauda). In each segment, the structural parameters and the relative cell distribution were different between the groups. The serum testosterone levels of pre-pubertal and adults showed a very significant increase related to sexual maturity. The AR expression in epithelial and fibromuscular stromal cells was different between the groups. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that the morphological characteristics of the viscacha epididymis vary while sexual maturity is reached, the development of initial and caput is subsequent to corpus and cauda development and the androgens might play an important role during this process.

  12. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia; Costa, Manoel L

    2016-11-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin.

  13. Alterations in zebrafish development induced by simvastatin: Comprehensive morphological and physiological study, focusing on muscle

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Laise M; Rios, Eduardo A; Guapyassu, Livia; Midlej, Victor; Atella, Georgia C; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana; Benchimol, Marlene; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The cholesterol synthesis inhibitor simvastatin, which is used to treat cardiovascular diseases, has severe collateral effects. We decided to comprehensively study the effects of simvastatin in zebrafish development and in myogenesis, because zebrafish has been used as a model to human diseases, due to its handling easiness, the optical clarity of its embryos, and the availability of physiological and structural methodologies. Furthermore, muscle is an important target of the drug. We used several simvastatin concentrations at different zebrafish developmental stages and studied survival rate, morphology, and physiology of the embryos. Our results show that high levels of simvastatin induce structural damage whereas low doses induce minor structural changes, impaired movements, and reduced heart beating. Morphological alterations include changes in embryo and somite size and septa shape. Physiological changes include movement reduction and slower heartbeat. These effects could be reversed by the addition of exogenous cholesterol. Moreover, we quantified the total cell number during zebrafish development and demonstrated a large reduction in cell number after statin treatment. Since we could classify the alterations induced by simvastatin in three distinct phenotypes, we speculate that simvastatin acts through more than one mechanism and could affect both cell replication and/or cell death and muscle function. Our data can contribute to the understanding of the molecular and cellular basis of the mechanisms of action of simvastatin. PMID:27444151

  14. The morphology and classification of α ganglion cells in the rat retinae: a fractal analysis study.

    PubMed

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Ristanović, Dušan; Milošević, Nebojša T

    2011-09-30

    Rat retinal ganglion cells have been proposed to consist of a varying number of subtypes. Dendritic morphology is an essential aspect of classification and a necessary step toward understanding structure-function relationships of retinal ganglion cells. This study aimed at using a heuristic classification procedure in combination with the box-counting analysis to classify the alpha ganglion cells in the rat retinae based on the dendritic branching pattern and to investigate morphological changes with retinal eccentricity. The cells could be divided into two groups: cells with simple dendritic pattern (box dimension lower than 1.390) and cells with complex dendritic pattern (box dimension higher than 1.390) according to their dendritic branching pattern complexity. Both were further divided into two subtypes due to the stratification within the inner plexiform layer. In the present study we have shown that the alpha rat RCGs can be classified further by their dendritic branching complexity and thus extend those of previous reports that fractal analysis can be successfully used in neuronal classification, particularly that the fractal dimension represents a robust and sensitive tool for the classification of retinal ganglion cells. A hypothesis of possible functional significance of our classification scheme is also discussed.

  15. Aerosol Composition and Morphology during the 2005 Marine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle Study

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Laskin, Alexander; Laulainen, Nels S.

    2005-12-01

    The composition and morphology of aerosols activated within cloud droplets relative to the properties of aerosols not activated is of central importance to studies directed at improved parameterization of the treatment of aerosols in large-scale models. These models have many applications, including evaluations of the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on climate. To further our understanding of these aerosol characteristics, scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Science Program (ASP), joined forces with other participants of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) "Marine Stratus Radiation Aerosol and Drizzle Study" between July 4 and July 29, 2005, at Pt. Reyes, California. Observations from in situ aerosol instruments and from the ARM Mobile Facility will be combined in a first look at observations from this period. The in situ aerosol measurements included high time resolution data of size-resolved bulk composition (sulfate, nitrate, NH4, organics, etc.) and single particle analysis to determine elemental composition and morphology. A CCN counter was also deployed to measure the fraction of cloud droplet kernels that are CCN active over a range of super-saturations. Our presentation will partition measurements into periods of cloudy and cloud-free periods, and will also be partitioned between periods associated with northerly back trajectories that arrived at Pt. Reyes after passing along the Washington-Oregon coast, westerly oceanic trajectories and a very limited number of periods when the air flow appeared to be associated with urban areas to the south and southeast.

  16. Scanning electron microscopic study of laser-induced morphologic changes of a coated enamel surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    A low-energy Nd:YAG laser was used to irradiate extracted human teeth coated with a black energy-absorbent laser initiator in a study to determine the extent of the morphologic changes produced in the enamel surface. The laser initiator was applied to a cleaned enamel surface and irradiated at an energy output of 30 mJ or 75 mJ. Both energy levels produced morphologic changes of the surface. There was a sharp line of demarcation between the coated, irradiated area and the surrounding noncoated enamel surface. The scanning electron microscope view at the lower energy level showed that the surface had melted and reformed with numerous small, bubble-like inclusions. The 75 mJ energy level showed individual impact craters with shallow centers and raised edges containing numerous pores and large, bubble-like inclusions. Etching is a dental procedure in which an acid is normally used to remove a thin outer layer of the tooth structure. This is necessary to create a roughened, irregular surface in order to provide mechanical retention for dental restorative materials. The changes produced by the laser in this study suggest a simple, effective, and controlled method of etching the enamel surface of a tooth by altering its surface characteristics.

  17. Morphology of polyacrylate/nanosilica composites as studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szybowicz, Mirosław; Nowicka, Ariadna B.; Sądej, Mariola; Andrzejewska, Ewa; Drozdowski, Mirosław

    2014-07-01

    The Raman scattering study of the morphology of poly(2-hydroxyethyl acrylate) (PHEA)/nanosilica composites at various levels of the filler loading was performed. Two types of nanosilica were applied: unmodified (Aerosil 200) and surface and structure modified (Aerosil R7200). The composites were obtained by photocuring of monomer/silica mixtures. Using surface Raman mapping method we obtained information concerning the distribution of nanosilica particles in the composites being under study. The size and structure of nanosilica aggregates within the polymer matrix strongly depend on the amount of the nanosilica added. To check uniformity of the nanosilica dispersion in the composites the Raman depth studies were also performed for PHEA containing 20 wt.-% of nanosilica.

  18. Study of structural, morphological and mechanical properties of PMMA, PVC and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelkar, D. S.; Soman, Vijay V.

    2012-02-01

    PMMA, PVC and their five blends in different compositions were irradiated by γ -rays of 2 Mrad dose. A comparative study of structural, morphological and mechanical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated samples was carried out. The structural changes that have taken place due to irradiation are seen in the FTIR and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra. The ester group is mainly affected in PMMA and the blends. The XRD results have confirmed that the irradiated samples are more amorphous in nature than the non-irradiated ones. The DSC study reveals that some irradiated samples undergo cross-linking, whereas some of them undergo degradation. One of the irradiated blend compositions has become thermally more stable. The SEM study suggests that the irradiated samples have undergone curing. An improvement in the mechanical properties has been observed in some of the irradiated blend compositions.

  19. Digital Holographic Microscopy for the Study of Morphological Changes in Cells under Simulated Microgravity Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, C.; Westphal, K.; Parent, J.; Franco-Obregon, A.; Depeursinge, C.; Egli, M.

    2008-06-01

    Previous investigations on mammalian cells have shown that real microgravity in space and/or simulated microgravity causes severe cellular modifications. Aim of the study was to use Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) to investigate morphological changes of cells under simulated microgravity generated by the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) in real-time. Preliminary studies were carried out on mouse myoblasts (C2C12). Besides showing cellular modification under simulated microgravity similar to the results obtained by using conventional methods, an increase of the phase height of the cell was measured which have not been reported yet. Our technique provides a new approach in the study of cellular adaptations to microgravity, providing real-time images of living cells.

  20. Effect of SDS on human hair: Study on the molecular structure and morphology.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhawana; Umapathy, Siva

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents a model study to understand the effect of surfactants on the physicochemical properties of human hair. FT-IR ATR spectroscopy has been employed to understand the chemical changes induced by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human scalp hair. In particular, the SDS induced changes in the secondary structure of protein present in the outer protective layer of hair, i.e. cuticle, have been investigated. Conformational changes in the secondary structure of protein were studied by curve fitting of the amide I band after every phase of SDS treatment. It has been found that SDS brings rearrangements in the protein backbone conformations by transforming β -sheet structure to random coil and β -turn. Additionally, AFM and SEM studies were carried out to understand the morphological changes induced on the hair surface. SEM and AFM images demonstrated the rupture and partial erosion of cuticle sublayers. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Histopathologic diagnosis of lymphomatous versus inflammatory erythroderma: a morphologic and phenotypic study on 47 skin biopsies.

    PubMed

    Ram-Wolff, Caroline; Martin-Garcia, Nadine; Bensussan, Armand; Bagot, Martine; Ortonne, Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Erythroderma may be secondary to a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and various other erythrodermic inflammatory dermatoses (EID), and their histopathologic distinction is often difficult. The aim of this study was to determine if morphological parameters, namely: the presence of b-catenin, and JunB (previously shown to be expressed by CTCL cells), the epidermal CD8:CD3 ratio, and CD30 expression may help in the histopathologic diagnosis of erythroderma, especially in differentiating CTCL and EID. We retrospectively reviewed a series of 47 skin biopsies from patients with erythroderma (18 CTCL and 29 EID). The diagnosis of each case was established using clinical, biological and histopathologic data. After a blind assessment of the hematoxylin--eosin--safran stained slides, a correct diagnosis of the underlying cause of erythroderma was made only in 31% of cases. A correct differential diagnosis between lymphoma and EID was done with certainty in 57% of cases. Various morphologic and phenotypic parameters were then recorded and we compared their frequency in the CTCL versus the EID group. With the exception of atypical lymphocytes, the moderate to high density of dermal infiltrates and Pautrier microabcesses, only found in CTCL, no morphologic parameter was found to be specific of CTCL, although single lymphocytes epidermotropism, telangiectasias, and slight lymphocytic dermal infiltrate were significantly more frequent in EID. A low (<10%) CD8:CD3 ratio in the epidermal lymphocytic infiltrate and dermal CD30+ lymphocytes were significantly more frequent in CTCL. JunB expression by lymphocytes was specific of CTCL, but was inconstant in our series (17%). We found β-catenin expression in a minority of cases from both the CTCL and EID groups. Among EID, dermal suprapapillary thinning was specific of psoriasis. Neutrophils exocytosis and edema of papillary dermis were significantly more frequent in psoriasis, and spongiosis was more frequent in eczema. In conclusion

  2. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Timpanaro, Andre M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-24

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2](where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: {eta}{sub {sigma}} = {Sigma}{sub {sigma}}'{sup M} = 1{eta}{sub {sigma}}{eta}{sigma}'({eta}{sub {sigma}}{rho}{sigma}'{yields}{sigma}-{sigma}'{rho}{sigma}{yields}{sigma}').Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin){sigma}', M is the number of opinions and {sigma}'{yields}{sigma}' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion {sigma} being convinced by another agent with opinion {sigma}'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabasi-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  3. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. Setting A university hospital in Japan. Participants 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Results Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Conclusions Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients’ inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. PMID:25872938

  4. The potential of antiviral agents to control classical swine fever: a modelling study.

    PubMed

    Backer, Jantien A; Vrancken, Robert; Neyts, Johan; Goris, Nesya

    2013-09-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) represents a continuous threat to pig populations that are free of disease without vaccination. When CSF virus is introduced, the minimal control strategy imposed by the EU is often insufficient to mitigate the epidemic. Additional measures such as preemptive culling encounter ethical objections, whereas emergency vaccination leads to prolonged export restrictions. Antiviral agents, however, provide instantaneous protection without inducing an antibody response. The use of antiviral agents to contain CSF epidemics is studied with a model describing within- and between-herd virus transmission. Epidemics are simulated in a densely populated livestock area in The Netherlands, with farms of varying sizes and pig types (finishers, piglets and sows). Our results show that vaccination and/or antiviral treatment in a 2 km radius around an infected herd is more effective than preemptive culling in a 1 km radius. However, the instantaneous but temporary protection provided by antiviral treatment is slightly less effective than the delayed but long-lasting protection offered by vaccination. Therefore, the most effective control strategy is to vaccinate animals when allowed (finishers and piglets) and to treat with antiviral agents when vaccination is prohibited (sows). As independent control measure, antiviral treatment in a 1 km radius presents an elevated risk of epidemics running out of control. A 2 km control radius largely eliminates this risk.

  5. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yagasaki, Kaori; Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-04-14

    To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. A university hospital in Japan. 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients' inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2] (where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: ησ = ∑ σ' = 1Mησησ'(ησρσ'→σ-σ'ρσ→σ'). Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin) σ', M is the number of opinions and σ'→σ' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion σ being convinced by another agent with opinion σ'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabási-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  7. [Study on expert system of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible smoke agent].

    PubMed

    Song, Dong-ming; Guan, Hua; Hou, Wei; Pan, Gong-pei

    2009-05-01

    The present paper studied the application of expert system in prediction of infrared spectral characteristic of combustible anti-infrared smoke agent. The construction of the expert system was founded, based on the theory of minimum free energy and infrared spectral addition. After the direction of smoke agent was input, the expert system could figure out the final combustion products. Then infrared spectrogram of smoke could also be simulated by adding the spectra of all of the combustion products. Meanwhile, the screening index of smoke was provided in the wave bands of 3-5 im and 8-14 microm. FTIR spectroscope was used to investigate the performance of one kind of HC smoke. The combustion products calculated by the expert system were coincident with the actual data, and the simulant infrared spectrum was also similar to the real one of the smoke. The screening index given by the system was consistent with the known facts. It was showed that a new approach was offered for the fast discrimination of varieties of directions of smoke agent.

  8. The walking bleach procedure: an in vitro study to measure microleakage of five temporary sealing agents.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, N; Cox, C F; Arai, T; Nakamura, J

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro sealing capacity of five materials, each used as a temporary sealing agent for the walking bleach technique. All teeth received traditional biomechanical root canal instrumentation, after which the walking bleach agent was placed in the pulp chamber space. The occlusal access was sealed with one of five temporary materials: two hydraulic filling materials, a photoactivated resin composite, a zinc oxide-eugenol cement, and a zinc oxide phosphate cement with/without the placement of a piece of rubber sheet that was placed as a barrier to isolate filling material from the bleaching agent. All teeth were stored in a 1% solution of Alcian blue with thermal cycling stress. After 1 wk, they were sectioned longitudinally, and ranked by graded scores of 0 to 3, according to the degree of the dye penetration. Significantly less dye microleakage was observed in the two hydraulic materials than in the photoactivated resin. Both zinc oxide-eugenol and zinc phosphate cements showed a considerable amount of microleakage. There were no significant differences between the groups with and without a rubber sheet. Our data demonstrate that hydraulic filling materials provide the most favorable cavosurface seal when they are firmly packed into the cavity space to prevent microleakage.

  9. In vivo microdialysis in pharmacological studies of antibacterial agents in the brain.

    PubMed

    Notkina, N; Dahyot-Fizelier, C; Gupta, A K

    2012-08-01

    Cerebral microdialysis (MD) has proven to be a valuable clinical and research tool in neuroscience. It allows sampling of endogenous and exogenous molecules of interest from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain. MD has also been successfully used to assess drug delivery to the target tissues in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies. There is a concern that due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB), current regimens of commonly used antibiotics might be inadequate. Although PK/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies play an important role in drug evaluation, PK MD studies of antibacterial agents in cerebral tissue are few in number. These studies demonstrate a significant variation in drug penetration in the presence of intracranial pathology. Antibacterial agents from the same chemical group have significantly different PK profiles due to different affinity to the transport proteins of the BBB. Some studies suggest that commonly used antibiotics do not reach a therapeutic concentration range in brain ECF. Studies reviewed in this article are small and performed in different patient populations (brain tumour, head injury, epilepsy) using different methodological approaches to the drug recovery estimation. Nevertheless, they provide interesting and important data on the variability of antibiotic penetration that could be utilized for PK/PD studies and which may have clinical relevance.

  10. Feasibility study for the manufacture of zero gravity pharmaceuticles, immunological, and viral agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting, isolating, purifying, separating, or preparing medical and biological products of high socio-economic value in space was studied. In particular, the study was designed to concentrate on the isolation or purification of virals, pharmaceutical and immunological agents by means of electrophoresis, as the Apollo 16 flight demonstrated that a mixed population of latex spheres (.2 and .8 microns) could be successfully separated by electrophoresis in space and without sedimentation with minimal convection. This prompted NASA scientists to look into the possibility of carrying out types of biochemical experiments that would utilize space for medical purposes.

  11. Comparative morphology and ultrastructure of the prosomal salivary glands in the unfed larvae Leptotrombidium orientale (Acariformes, Trombiculidae), a possible vector of tsutsugamushi disease agent.

    PubMed

    Shatrov, Andrew B

    2015-07-01

    The prosomal salivary glands of the unfed larvae Leptotrombidium orientale (Schluger) were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. In total, four pairs of the prosomal glands were identified--three pairs, the lateral, the medial and the anterior, belong to the podocephalic system, and one pair, the posterior, is separate having an own excretory duct. All glands are simple alveolar/acinous with prismatic cells arranged around a relatively small intra-alveolar lumen with the duct base. The cells of all glands besides the lateral ones contain practically mature electron-dense secretory granules ready to be discharged from the cells. The secretory granules in the lateral glands undergo formation and maturation due to the Golgi body activity. The cells of all gland types contain a large basally located nucleus and variously expressed rough endoplasmic reticulum. Specialized duct-forming cells filled with numerous freely scattered microtubules are situated in the middle zone of each gland's acinus and form the intra-alveolar lumen and the duct base. Both the acinar (secretory) and the duct-forming cells contact each other via gap junctions and septate desmosomes. Axons of nerve cells come close to the basal extensions of the duct-forming cells where they form the bulb-shaped synaptic terminations. The process of secretion is under the control of the nerve system that provides contraction of the duct-forming cells and discharge of secretion from the secretory cells into the intra-alveolar lumen and further to the exterior. Unfed larvae of L. orientale, the potential vector of tsutsugamushi disease agents, contain the most simply organized salivary secretory granules among known trombiculid larvae, and this secretion, besides the lateral glands, does not undergo significant additional maturation. Thus, the larvae are apparently ready to feed on the appropriate host just nearly after hatching.

  12. Stereomicroscopic study of the human tooth caries: clinical and morphological correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oancea, Roxana; Vasile, Liliana; Marchese, Cristian; Sava-Rosianu, Ruxandra

    2012-06-01

    Objectives: Stereomicroscopy allows a three-dimensional study of the images and of laterality at superior quality in comparison with other methods. Those advantages are given by the large examination fields and the wide work distances. The adding of the clinical and morphological data at the results gathered with stereomicroscopy and the stereo micrometry is useful in order to appreciate the deepness and the widening of the carious process, and the necessity to reconsider the therapeutically strategy. Materials and methods: During 2009-2011 the study material was represented by 10 surgically removed impacted third molars, and by 20 premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes, with closed and macroscopically apparently integer surfaces. 13 premolars with different degrees of carious affectation and periodontal lesions, which were surgically extracted without trauma, were also selected. The in situ measurements at the occlusal site were realized through the utilization of a fluorescent laser device - DIAGNOdent. The basic principles in stereomicroscopy stood at the base of the obliquely and circularly coaxial illumination techniques, one with optical alignment adjustment of the optical microscope and mechanical adjustment for the optimal illumination and micrometry. The Olympus Microscope SZ ×7 and an Olympus camera with 2,5 × digital zoom and a 3× optical zoom has been used to study the samples in stereomicroscopy and through polarized light it. Results: The DiagnoDent measured the following data: out of 43 apparently healthy teeth, 18 presented values between 2 and 13 (D1), 13 showed values between 14 and 24 (D2), 12 measured values over 24 (D3). After the histological examination in stereomicroscopy and in the polarized light: 25 teeth were healthy, 10 presented caries extended in dental enamel and 8 presented dentinal caries. Stereomicroscopy has allowed the morphological study, the color absorption, the appreciation of the lesions' deepness and substance

  13. Dy uniform film morphologies on graphene studied with SPA-LEED and STM

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, D.; Hattab, H.; Hershberger, M. T.; Hupalo, M.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Thiel, P. A.; Tringides, M. C.

    2016-07-01

    The use of graphene for microelectronics and spintronic applications requires strategies for metals to wet graphene and to grow layer-by-layer. This is especially important when metals will be used as electrical contacts or as spin filters. Extensive work in the literature so far has shown that this is very challenging, since practically all metals grow 3D, with multi-height islands forming easily. Reasons for the 3D morphology are the much weaker metal carbon bond when compared to the metal cohesive energy and the role of Coulomb repulsion of the poorly screened charges at the metal graphene interface. We employed the complementary techniques of SPA-LEED and STM to study the growth of Dy on graphene. It was found that under kinetic limitations it is possible to fully cover graphene with a bilayer Dy film, by growing well below room temperature in stepwise deposition experiments. Lastly, the Dy film, however, is amorphous but ways to crystallize it within the 2D morphology are possible, since long range order improves at higher growth temperature.

  14. Environment Quality: Impact From Traffic, Power Plant and Land Morphology, a Case Study of Prishtina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajcinovci, Bujar

    2017-05-01

    Environmental air pollution is a global health concern, a complex phenomenon which is directly reflected on public health, economic and human development. Environmental air pollution has been drastically multiplied, followed by the beginning of the new Millennia in Prishtina, the capital city of the Kosovo. The new millennium began as a crucial activity for the city of Prishtina in terms of demographic, human geography, social and economic phenomena. The presented study aims to determine prevalent traffic and land morphology composition attributes, which have influenced and continue to have environmental impact in the city of Prishtina. According to the conceptual findings from the empirical observations, the heavy city traffic and the land morphology structure, determine the urban air pollution level. Prishtina is generally polluted due to its geomorphic position in relation to the power plants Kosovo A, and Kosova B. The impact of the above cited factors, is even bigger when the dominant winds prevail through valley, which encompasses the city. The findings from this paper propose the necessity of careful driven urban solutions.

  15. Morphology and Postnatal Development of Lower Hindlimbs in Desmodus rotundus (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae): A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Amaya, Nicolás; Jerez, Adriana; Flores, David

    2017-08-14

    The hindlimbs in bats are functionally adapted to serve as a hook to attach to the mother from birth, and to roost during independent life. Although bats exhibit different terrestrial locomotion capabilities involving hindlimbs, hindlimb morphology and postnatal development have been poorly studied. We describe in detail the postnatal development and bone morphology of hindlimbs of the nimble walker vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, and compare adult characters with the insectivorous Molossus molossus (erratic walker) and the frugivorous Artibeus lituratus (non-walker). The advanced ossification of most hindlimb elements of D. rotundus at the newborn stage is consistent with the functional role of this structure at birth in bats. The development completion events of hindlimb bone elements and bone processes in D. rotundus coincide with the cranial bone processes completion and suture closure events. Those events occur when individuals begin to feed by themselves. There are differences in the number and position of bone processes and sesamoids in adults among the compared species, most of which are described for the first time, and in the case of D. rotundus and M. molossus mostly related to a greater and tight articulation between elements. These facts seem to be closely associated with the different terrestrial locomotion capabilities, and in the case of the exclusively sanguivorous D. rotundus with specializations for obtaining food. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Morphological studies on supramolecular hybrids comprising a block copolymer and semiconductor nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noro, Atsushi; Higuchi, Kota; Sageshima, Yoshio; Matsushita, Yushu

    2013-03-01

    Well-ordered periodic nanostructures have been attaining much attention due to their high potential for nano-applications. Nanophase-separated structures of block copolymer/inorganic nanoparticle hybrids are one of good candidates for such applications. Here we report a systematic study on preparation and morphological observation of hybrids composed of a block copolymer and hydroxy-capped cadmium selenide nanoparticles (h-CdSe) via hydrogen bonding. Three polystyrene- b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-P4VP) block copolymers with the same PS chain length but with different P4VP chain length were synthesized for hybrid preparation. Each PS-P4VP was mixed with h-CdSe by varying a weight ratio of PS-P4VP:h-CdSe. A hybrid composed of h-CdSe and PS-P4VP bearing long P4VP blocks represents a single nanophase-separated structure, where domain spacing expansion and morphology transition induced by addition of h-CdSe were observed. On the other hand, macrophase separation accompanied by overflow of h-CdSe from nanophase-separated domains was observed in hybrids which contain PS-P4VP bearing short P4VP blocks. These results are attributed to hydrogen-bonding formation and the stoichiometric balance of functional groups. This work was financially supported by JSPS through KAKENHI Grants (no. 22245038 (Y.M.), no. 23655123 (A.N.), and no. 24685035 (A.N.)).

  17. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, S.; Bierkens, M. F.; Oude Essink, G.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal regions around the world climate change will lead to a sea level rise and an increase in extreme weather conditions. This prospect has resulted in a new focus on coastal protection in the Netherlands, resulting in the initiation of an innovative coastal defence project called the Sand Motor. In this project a large body of sand or so-called mega-nourishment has been constructed along the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents. Keeping the coastal defence structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. Because of the large size of the body of sand (21.5 million m3) and the position at the coastline and near coastal dunes, the Sand Motor might cause a substantial increase of the fresh water availability by increasing the volume fresh water lens underneath the dunes. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied.

  18. [Study on morphology, quality and germination characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Juan

    2014-05-01

    To preliminary explore the difference of the morphological, quality and germinal characteristics of Acanthopanax trifoliatus seeds under different habitats. Collect the wild seeds from different habitats in West Mountain, and then observe their external appearances and internal structure, and test the thousand seeds weight,water content and seed vigor. What's more, the influence to germination rates of the seeds from different temperatures and light intensities in artificial bioclimatic chamber was studied. Orthogonal test in experimental plots was carried out to screen the different sowing dates, matrix types and soil depths which may influence germination rate. The external appearances and quality characteristics of wild seeds from three habitats were different. Seeds could germinate in the both light and dark, the germination rate of the habitat II was as high as 70.5% at the optimum temperature 20 degrees C in artificial bioclimatic chamber. The optimal combination A1, B1, C1 was screened out through orthogonal test, namely, the germination rate would be the highest when the seeds sowed in autumn covering with 2 cm depth of matrix type which component of the ratio of soil, sand and organic fertilizer was 6: 3: 1. There was significant difference in the morphology and germination rate of the three habitats seeds. The habitat II seeds were the optimal choice when culture seedling. The influences of different temperatures on germination rate were different, and the dried seeds should sow in current autumn, better than the next spring.

  19. STUDY ON THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT USING MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING: MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION OF THE MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT

    PubMed Central

    Netto, Alfredo dos Santos; de Brito, Marcelo Botelho Soares; Severino, Fabrício Roberto; Campos, Leila Rodrigues Andrade; Nico, Marcelo Astolfi Caetano; de Oliveira, Victor Marques; Severino, Nilson Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To study the measurements and anatomical relationships of the patellofemoral joint using magnetic resonance imaging, and to evaluate the variation in the morphology of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) according to patients' heights and ages and the variation in measurements on other structures that are known to be involved in predisposition to patellar instability. Method: Twenty-three knees (18 patients) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and their interepicondylar distance, patellar height, trochlear depth, ventral trochlear prominence, trochlear groove angle, lateral facet tilt, lateral patellar tilt and size of the lateral and medial facets and their ratio were measured. These measurements were compared with the length and thickness of the MPFL. Results: The average length of the MPFL was 46.4 mm, while the average thicknesses of its patellar insertion, middle third and femoral insertion were, respectively, 1.7 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.2 mm. The thickness of the MPFL correlated positively with the lateral condyle and interepicondylar distance measurements, and negatively with the patients' ages. Conclusion: The morphology of the MPFL varies with the interepicondylar distance and the lateral condyle distance, and with patients' ages. PMID:27042622

  20. Effects of diode laser (810 nm) irradiation on root canal walls: thermographic and morphological studies.

    PubMed

    da Costa Ribeiro, Adriana; Nogueira, Gessé Eduardo Calvo; Antoniazzi, João Humberto; Moritz, Andreas; Zezell, Denise Maria

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the thermal effects and the morphological changes after diode laser irradiation (810 nm) of root canals. Samples were irradiated at 2.5 W, 1,989 W/cm2 (group 2) and 1.25 W, 10 Hz, 994 W/cm2 (group 3), with group 1 being the control group of nonirradiated samples. The temperature rise was evaluated using an infrared thermographic camera, and the morphological changes were assayed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The SEM images revealed closed dentinal tubules, especially at the apical regions when compared with the control samples. The maximum temperature variations at the apical region were analyzed, and the resulting 95% confidence intervals of the medians (Wilcoxon) ranged from 1.6 to 8.6 degrees C (group 2) and from 1.2 to 3.3 degrees C (group 3). The results suggest that the diode laser can be used for endodontic purposes and show that the method is safe for periodontal tissues at the investigated parameters.

  1. Dy uniform film morphologies on graphene studied with SPA-LEED and STM

    SciTech Connect

    McDougall, D.; Hattab, H.; Hershberger, M. T.; Hupalo, M.; Horn von Hoegen, M.; Thiel, P. A.; Tringides, M. C.

    2016-07-01

    The use of graphene for microelectronics and spintronic applications requires strategies for metals to wet graphene and to grow layer-by-layer. This is especially important when metals will be used as electrical contacts or as spin filters. Extensive work in the literature so far has shown that this is very challenging, since practically all metals grow 3D, with multi-height islands forming easily. Reasons for the 3D morphology are the much weaker metal carbon bond when compared to the metal cohesive energy and the role of Coulomb repulsion of the poorly screened charges at the metal graphene interface. We employed the complementary techniques of SPA-LEED and STM to study the growth of Dy on graphene. It was found that under kinetic limitations it is possible to fully cover graphene with a bilayer Dy film, by growing well below room temperature in stepwise deposition experiments. Lastly, the Dy film, however, is amorphous but ways to crystallize it within the 2D morphology are possible, since long range order improves at higher growth temperature.

  2. Structural and surface morphological study of Ni doped ZnS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Khawal, H. A. Dole, B. N.

    2014-04-24

    Samples of Zn{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x}S (x=0.00, 0.04, 0.08) nanoparticles were synthesized by using the co-precipitation method at room temperature. Structural parameters were investigated by X – ray diffraction (XRD), it reveals that all samples of Ni doped ZnS exhibit the cubic structure with no additional impurity phase. The average crystallite size of all samples is in the range of 2.70 to 2.90 nm. The lattice parameters, X – ray density, volume of unit cell and grain size were calculated using XRD data. It is found that the lattice parameter increases with increasing Ni concentration. Surface morphology of samples was investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). From this study it is concluded that samples exhibit cubic morphology. Chemical compositions of Ni doped and pure ZnS samples were detected using EDAX spectra. It is confirmed from EDAX that Ni substitute into ZnS lattice.

  3. Morphological and histological study of the ostrich (Struthio Camelus L.) liver and biliary system.

    PubMed

    Stornelli, Maria Rita; Ricciardi, Maria Paola; Giannessi, Elisabetta; Coli, Alessandra

    2006-01-01

    The peculiarity of the digestive system of the ostrich (Struthio Camelus L.), which is characterized by the continuous production of bile, led us to undertake macroscopical and histological studies of the liver and its biliary system, since very little bibliographic data exist on the subject. For this purpose we observed the organs of male and female ostriches 16-18 months of age, in situ, in order to describe their location, relationships and morphology. Samples of the liver were processed for observation by light microscopy; samples of the hepatoenteric duct were processed for observation by light and electron microscopy. Our findings regarding the liver revealed the presence of two lobes: a left lobe, subdivided into three lobes, and a right undivided lobe. There was no gall-bladder. The histological picture showed unlimited hepatic lobules, with hepatocytes arranged in cord-like fashion two cells thick. A large hepatoenteric duct arose from the porta hepatis, and opened into a papilla in the descending limb of the duodenum. The mucosa of the duct was lined by simple columnar epithelium consisting of cells having the same morphological cytoplasmatic features but distinguished by either a light or a dark nucleus.

  4. Study Of Genetic Diversity Between Grasspea Landraces Using Morphological And Molecular Marker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedehi, Abbasali Vahabi; Lotfi, Asefeh; Solooki, Mahmood

    2008-01-01

    Grass pea is a beneficial crop to Iran since it has some major advantageous such as high grain and forage quality, high drought tolerance and medium level of salinity tolerance and a good native germplasm variation which accessible for breeding programs. This study was carried out to evaluate morphological traits of the grass pea landraces using a randomized complete block design with 3 replications at Research Farm of Isfahan University of Technology. To evaluate genetic diversity of 14 grass pea landraces from various locations in Iran were investigated using 32 RAPD & ISJ primers at Biocenter of University of Zabol. Analysis of variance indicated a highly significant differences among 14 grass pea landrace for the morphological traits. Average of polymorphism percentage of RAPD primer was 73.9%. Among used primer, 12 random primers showed polymorphism and a total of 56 different bands were observed in the genotypes. Jafar-abad and Sar-chahan genotypes with similarity coefficient of 66% and Khoram-abad 2 and Khoram-abad 7 genotypes with similarity coefficient of 3% were the most related and the most distinct genotypes, respectively. Fourteen primers out of 17 semi random primers produced 70 polymorphic bands which included 56% of the total 126 produced bands. Genetic relatedness among population was investigated using Jacard coefficient and unweighted pair group mean analysis (UPGMA) algorithm. The result of this research verified possibility of use of RAPD & ISJ markers for estimation of genetic diversity, management of genetic resources and determination of repetitive accessions in grass pea.

  5. Modeling Changing Morphology and Density Dependent Groundwater Flow in a Dynamic Environment: case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Bierkens, Marc; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2015-04-01

    The prospect of sea level rise and increase in extreme weather conditions has led to a new focus on coastal defense in the Netherlands. As an innovative solution for coastal erosion a mega-nourishment named the Sand Motor (or Sand Engine) has been constructed at the Dutch coast. This body of sand will be distributed slowly along the coastline by wind, waves and currents; keeping the coastal defense structures in place and creating a unique, dynamic environment with changing morphology over time. The large size and position of the Sand Motor might lead to a substantial increase of fresh ground water resources. This creates an opportunity to combine coastal protection with an increase of fresh water resources in coastal regions. With a three dimensional, density dependent, groundwater model the effects of changing morphology over time and the potential increase in fresh water availability have been studied. The preliminary model calculations show that in a period of 20 years volume of fresh water gradually increases to ca. 12 Mm3. In the nearby dune area 7-8 Mm3 is abstracted yearly, therefore the first results are promising in increasing fresh groundwater resources. More model calculations will be performed to investigate the sensitivity of the change in the fresh, brackish and salt water distribution.

  6. Microstructure and morphological study of ball-milled metal matrix nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afkham, Y.; Khosroshahi, R. Azari; Kheirifard, R.; Mousavian, R. Taherzadeh; Brabazon, D.

    2017-08-01

    Due to the difficulty of preparation and beneficial properties achievable, copper and iron matrix nanocomposites are materials for which fabrication via the powder metallurgy route is attracting increasing research interest. The presence of ceramic nanoparticles in their matrix can lead to considerable changes in the microstructure and morphology. The effects of the type of metallic matrix and ceramic nanoparticle on the distribution of nano reinforcements and the morphology of ball-milled composite powders were evaluated in this study. For this purpose, 25 wt % of Al2O3 and SiC nanoparticles were separately ball-milled in the presence of iron and copper metals. The SEM, FESEM, and XRD results indicated that as-received nanoparticles, which were agglomerated before milling, were partially separated and embedded in the matrix of both the metals after the initial stages of ball milling, while prolonged milling was not found to further affect the distribution of nanoparticles. It was also observed that the Al2O3 phase was not thermodynamically stable during ball milling with copper powders. Finally, it was found that the presence of nanoparticles considerably reduce the average size of metallic powder particles.

  7. Dy uniform film morphologies on graphene studied with SPA-LEED and STM

    DOE PAGES

    McDougall, D.; Hattab, H.; Hershberger, M. T.; ...

    2016-07-01

    The use of graphene for microelectronics and spintronic applications requires strategies for metals to wet graphene and to grow layer-by-layer. This is especially important when metals will be used as electrical contacts or as spin filters. Extensive work in the literature so far has shown that this is very challenging, since practically all metals grow 3D, with multi-height islands forming easily. Reasons for the 3D morphology are the much weaker metal carbon bond when compared to the metal cohesive energy and the role of Coulomb repulsion of the poorly screened charges at the metal graphene interface. We employed the complementarymore » techniques of SPA-LEED and STM to study the growth of Dy on graphene. It was found that under kinetic limitations it is possible to fully cover graphene with a bilayer Dy film, by growing well below room temperature in stepwise deposition experiments. Lastly, the Dy film, however, is amorphous but ways to crystallize it within the 2D morphology are possible, since long range order improves at higher growth temperature.« less

  8. Influence of Zn incorporation in CdS: Structural and morphological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Fu, M.; Mitra, P.

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, cadmium zinc sulfide (CdxZn1-xS) alloy compounds have been paid much attention in the fields of opto-electronics, particularly in photovoltaic devices. In this report, the structural, morphological and optical properties of Cdx Zn1-x S films deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), which is a very attractive method for low-cost and large-area solar cell applications, has been presented. The as-grown layers were characterized using XRD, EDAX, FESEM, TEM and UV-vis spectrophotometers. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and SAED measurement reveals a dominant cubic structure with a minor hexagonal phase for high zinc content films. EDAX analysis shows nearly stoichiometric films with cadmium excess. Close packed and less dissociated surface morphology was observed in the Cdx Zn1-x S ternary thin films with lower Zn2+ content than the higher Zn2+ content one. Agglomeration of nanocrystals for high zinc content films results in enhanced absorption. The mean grain size of Cd0.5 Zn0.5 S calculated from TEM image is ~15 nm. Optical absorption study exhibits a distinct blue shift in band gap energy with enhancement of zinc content in the film.

  9. Root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar in a gujarati population - an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Atul; Bahuguna, Rachana

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge about root canal morphology and its frequent variations can exert considerable influence on the success of endodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to survey the root canal morphology of mandibular first premolar teeth in a Gujarati population by decalcification and clearing technique. One hundred thirty eight extracted mandibular first premolar teeth were collected from a Gujarati population. After decalcifying and clearing, the teeth were examined for tooth length, number of cusps and roots, number and shape of canal orifices and canal types. The average length of mandibular first premolar teeth was 21.2 mm. All the teeth had 2 cusps. One hundred thirty four teeth (97.1%) had one root, and just 4 teeth (2.89%) had two roots. Mesial invagination of root was found in 21 teeth (15.21%). One canal orifice was found in 122 teeth (88.4%) and two canal orifices in 16 teeth (11.59%). Shape of orifices was found to be round in 46 teeth (33.33%), oval in 72 teeth (52.17%) and flattened ribbion in 20 teeth (14.49%). According to Vertucci's classification, Type I canal system was found in 93 teeth (67.39%), Types II,III,IV,V,and VI in 11 teeth (7.97%), 5 teeth (3.62%), 4 teeth (2.89%), 24 teeth (17.39%), and 1 tooth (0.72%) respectively. Mandibular first premolar teeth were mostly found to have one root and Type I canal system.

  10. Crenosoma vulpis in wild and domestic carnivores from Italy: a morphological and molecular study.

    PubMed

    Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Lia, Riccardo Paolo; Giannelli, Alessio; Colella, Vito; Santoro, Mario; D'Alessio, Nicola; Campbell, Bronwyn Evelyn; Parisi, Antonio; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mutafchiev, Yasen; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Otranto, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Crenosoma vulpis is a metastrongyloid nematode primarily associated with respiratory tract infections of red foxes in North America and Europe. Sporadic cases have also been reported in domestic dogs. The present study aimed to provide morphological, molecular, and epidemiological data on the geographical distribution of this nematode throughout Italy. From 2012 to 2014, 12 of the 138 foxes examined, three dogs and one badger scored positive for C. vulpis. Forty adults were isolated from foxes and the badger, whereas first-stage larvae were detected in the three dogs. All specimens were morphologically identified as C. vulpis, and 28 nematodes were also molecularly characterized by sequencing mitochondrial (12S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)) and nuclear (18S rDNA) ribosomal genes. Four haplotypes were identified based on the 12S rDNA target gene, with the most representative (78.5%) designated as haplotype I. No genetic variability was detected for the 18S rDNA gene. The molecular identification was consistent with the distinct separation of species-specific clades inferred by the phylogenetic analyses of both mitochondrial and ribosomal genes. Data herein reported indicates that C. vulpis has a wide distribution in foxes from southern Italy, and it also occurs in dogs from southern and northern regions of the country. Practitioners should consider the occurrence of this nematode in the differential diagnosis of canine respiratory disease, particularly in dogs living close to rural areas where foxes are present.

  11. Ultrastructural changes in the cemento-enamel junction after vital tooth bleaching with fluoride and fluoride-free agents - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gasic, Jovanka; Kesic, Ljiljana; Popovic, Jelena; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolic, Marija; Stankovic, Sasa; Barac, Radomir

    2012-03-01

    The impact of bleaching on the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) is not well known. Due to frequent sensitivity of the cervical region of teeth after the vital bleaching, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the morphological features of the CEJ of human teeth after application of fluoridated and fluoride-free bleaching agents, as well as post-bleaching fluoridation treatment, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. Thirty-five extracted permanent human teeth were longitudinally cut, yielding 70 specimens. Thirty specimens were randomly divided into the 3 experimental groups, and 20 specimens, were used as (2) control groups, each: negative (untreated) control group; positive control group treated with 35% hydrogen peroxide; experimental group 1, bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide (CP); experimental group 2, treatment with a mixture of 10% CP and fluoride; and experimental group 3, treatment with 10% CP and 2% sodium fluoride gel applied 30 minutes after bleaching. Experimental groups were treated 8 h per day for 14 days. The samples were examined by SEM. The bleaching materials tested caused morphological changes to the surface of the CEJ. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups (Kruskal Wallis Test chi-square=11,668; p<0.005). Mean value of experimental group 2 scores showed statistically significant difference from groups 1 and 3. Bleaching gel with fluorides does not significantly change morphological appearance of the CEJ and represents a better choice than the hard tissue fluoridation process after bleaching.

  12. Reovirus infection in psittacine birds (Psittacus erithacus): morphologic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Hervás, J; Chacón de Lara, F; Jahn, J; Salguero, F J; Gómez-Villamandos, J C

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we report on an outbreak of reovirus, herpesvirus (Pacheco disease), and/or mycosis infection (Aspergillus spp. and Zygomyces spp.) affecting a batch of young African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus), with 80% morbidity and 30% mortality. Study material was taken from five birds (four dead and one euthanatized) with a range of clinical symptoms (depression, diarrhea, respiratory symptoms). Diagnosis was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of avian reovirus, electron microscopy, and virus isolation. Viral antigen of reovirus was detected mainly in large mononuclear cells in the bursa of Fabricius and the spleen, pancreas epithelial cells, and circulating cells; lymphoid organs displayed the largest number of immunopositive cells and severe lymphocyte depletion. Bacteriologic study was negative. Reovirus infection was common in all birds studied, whereas Pacheco disease and mycosis were found in only some, suggesting that reovirus could be the initial cause triggering the outbreak and facilitating infection by other agents and their swift spread through the batch.

  13. [Morphological study of periodontal tissues in the initial stage of periodontal disease. Part 2. Analysis of morphological measurement and status of periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Tawara, H; Yamaguchi, S; Lee, J H; Ishikawa, I; Masunaga, H; Nishibori, M; Hirota, Y; Matsue, M; Matsue, I

    1989-06-01

    The morphological characteristics of periodontal tissue in periodontal disease have been interpreted differently by a number of clinical observers. Many have reported that the malposition and functional malocclusion of teeth is injurious to the periodontium. We reported in Part I that a system for evaluating periodontal status was developed for the diagnosis and management of the interproximal area at the initial stage of bone resorption. The patient group consisted of 36 adults, from 21 to 55 years of age. The severity score represented the calculated loss of periodontal support tissues: loss of alveolar bone, evaluated roentgenologically, bone level and pattern in vertical and horizontal form, periodontal pocket and gingival inflammation. Because poor oral hygiene and other factors caused swelling by gingival inflammation, we obtained study specimens from patients with chronic periodontal disease after a few tooth brushing instructions, and scalings during initial therapy in order to detect initial and established pathological changes in periodontal tissue. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between periodontal disease status and morphological diagnostic indicators and different degrees of harmony and disharmony in the lower jaw. In all age groups the average percentage of bone loss and intraosseous defects tended to be higher in the groups categorized as Type III and Type F, and in the area that showed a very deep concave Spee curve to the occlusal plane in Pattern D. We considered that these morphological characteristics might be of secondary importance for diagnosis. Oral local factors were the primary extrinsic factor in the pathogenesis of horizontal and vertical interproximal bone absorption in the area of the premolars and molars.

  14. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    strains TA98 or TAI00. Sulfur mustard has been reported to induce a linear increase in the mutation of L5178Y cells as determined by reversion from...PNL-6945 Tokicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of to Sulfur Mustard in RatsiU) if) Final Report 6t...Frederick, MD 21701-5010 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official

  15. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soifer, Ya. M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E.

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO 3 was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young’s modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young’s modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  16. Effect of temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Gopal, V. R.; Kamila, Susmita

    2017-04-01

    The present study reports the comparative analysis for the synthesis of zinc oxide nano particles by precipitation techniques using different zinc precursors. The synthesized nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis for their sizes, shapes and arrangement. SEM has been studied for the samples before as well as after calcination to know the effect of temperature on structural behaviours. The XRD pattern shows the purity of synthesized zinc oxide nano particles and using Debye-Scherrer equation, the average crystal size of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated. The results have been discussed in the light of variation of morphological structures of different samples. Apart from this, the band gap energies of the synthesized particles have also been calculated from UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis, which is quite appreciable with the reported results.

  17. The feeding apparatus of Caiman crocodilus; a functional-morphological study.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, W; Dullemeijer, P

    1982-01-01

    A functional morphological study on the cranio-facial region of Caiman crocodilus was carried out. The anatomy of the skull, mandible, cartilaginous structures and the muscles of the jaw was described. Myography experiments, an X-ray study and observations of behaviour gave insight into the sequence of actions during food-intake. Evidence has been obtained that the cartilago transiliens, attached to the medial side of the mandible, is used to block the jaws relative to each other. For each food-intake action, the amount of material necessary to resist muscle force was calculated. Integration of these figures, together with a consideration on the lines of stress, resulted in a paradigm for the mandible.

  18. Effect of temperature on the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venu Gopal, V. R.; Kamila, Susmita

    2017-03-01

    The present study reports the comparative analysis for the synthesis of zinc oxide nano particles by precipitation techniques using different zinc precursors. The synthesized nano particles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis for their sizes, shapes and arrangement. SEM has been studied for the samples before as well as after calcination to know the effect of temperature on structural behaviours. The XRD pattern shows the purity of synthesized zinc oxide nano particles and using Debye-Scherrer equation, the average crystal size of synthesized nanoparticles was calculated. The results have been discussed in the light of variation of morphological structures of different samples. Apart from this, the band gap energies of the synthesized particles have also been calculated from UV-visible spectrophotometric analysis, which is quite appreciable with the reported results.

  19. Effects of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) on the liver of diabetic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Ozsoy-Sacan, O; Karabulut-Bulan, O

    2004-12-01

    Parsley is used by diabetics in Turkey to reduce blood glucose. The present study aims to investigate both the morphological and biochemical effects of parsley on liver tissue. Rat hepatocytes were examined by light and electron microscopy. Degenerative changes were observed in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats. These degenerative changes were significantly reduced or absent in the hepatocytes of diabetic rats treated with parsley. Blood glucose levels, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase were observed to be raised in diabetic rats. Diabetic rats treated with parsley demonstrated significantly lower levels of blood glucose, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase. The present study suggests that parsley demonstrates a significant hepatoprotective effect in diabetic rats. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Morphology studies of hydrophobic silica on filter surface prepared via spray technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahfiq Zulkifli, Nazrul; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Ahmad, Azlinnorazia; Harun, Zawati; Akhair, Siti Hajar Mohd; Adibah Raja Ahmad, Raja; Hafeez Azhar, Faiz; Rashid, Abdul Qaiyyum Abd; Ismail, Al Emran

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of the hydrophobic surface treatment effect of air filter performance by using silica aerogel powder as an additive by using spray coating techniques. The membrane characterization tests were carried out on a filter prepared from different additive concentration. Studies on the cross-section and the distribution of particles on the membrane were carried out using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the surface morphology was investigated by x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results are shown by SEM and EDS that the microstructure filter, especially in the upper layer and sub-layer has been changed. The results also show an increase of hydrophobicity due to the increased quantity of silica aerogel powder.