Science.gov

Sample records for agents previous studies

  1. [Comparative studies on activities of antimicrobial agents against causative organisms isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (1995). III. Differences in susceptibilities from previous years].

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Y; Tsukamoto, T; Hirose, T; Yokoo, A; Hikichi, Y; Shigeta, S; Takahashi, T; Shiraiwa, Y; Ogiwara, M; Yoshida, H; Imafuku, Y; Murai, M; Watanabe, K; Uchida, H; Kobayashi, Y; Matsuda, S; Fujime, M; Fujita, K; Igari, J; Oguri, T; Kosakai, N; Yamaguchi, K; Matsumoto, T; Kashitani, F; Mochida, C

    1997-04-01

    Susceptibilities to various antimicrobial agents were examined for Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that were isolated from patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) in 11 hospitals during June, 1995 through May, 1996, and the results were compared with those obtained during the same period in earlier years. 1. Macrolide resistant E. faecalis isolated from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period appeared to have increased compared to those in previous study periods. More than 50% of the isolated E. faecalis during the latest study period were resistant to macrolide antibiotics, for the first time in our history. 2. No obvious changes were observed through the years for susceptibilities of S. aureus to various antimicrobial agents. Vancomycin (VCM) showed the highest activity against S. aureus, with MICs below 2 micrograms/ml or below. 3. Among E. coli strains, those with low susceptibilities to quinolones appeared to have increased over the years with MIC90 changed from between 0.125 microgram/ml or below and 0.5 microgram/ml in the 1989-1990 period to between 8 micrograms/ml and 128 micrograms/ml in the latest study period. 4. Klebsiella spp. showed higher resistance to most antimicrobial agents during periods of 1993-1994 and 1994-1995, but somewhat lower resistance during period of 1995-1996. No resistant Klebsiella spp. were detected from uncomplicated UTIs during the latest study period. 5. Among P. aeruginosa isolates from complicated UTIs, resistance isolates to gentamicin appeared to be increasing over the years. Resistant strains to quinolones were isolated at lower frequencies during periods of 1991-1994, but higher frequency was observed in the latest period, and MIC50s were between 0.5 and 4 micrograms/ml during 1991-1994, but were 16-32 micrograms/ml during 1995-1996. These susceptibility changes should be utilized in determining clinical treatments. PMID:9192248

  2. Single-Agent Lenalidomide in the Treatment of Previously Untreated Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christine I.; Bergsagel, P. Leif; Paul, Harminder; Xu, Wei; Lau, Anthea; Dave, Nimisha; Kukreti, Vishal; Wei, Ellen; Leung-Hagesteijn, Chungyee; Li, Zhi Hua; Brandwein, Joseph; Pantoja, Mariela; Johnston, James; Gibson, Spencer; Hernandez, Tiffany; Spaner, David; Trudel, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Lenalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory drug with multiple effects on the immune system and tumor cell microenvironment leading to inhibition of malignant cell growth. Based on encouraging reports of lenalidomide in relapsed and refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we investigated the first-line use of single-agent lenalidomide in CLL. Patients and Methods Using a starting dose of lenalidomide 10 mg/d for 21 days of a 28-day cycle and weekly 5-mg dose escalations to a target of 25 mg, we encountered severe toxicities (tumor lysis, fatal sepsis) in the first two patients enrolled. The study was halted and the protocol amended to a more conservative regimen: starting dose of lenalidomide 2.5 mg with monthly escalations to a target dose of 10 mg, and extended tumor lysis prophylaxis and monitoring. Gene expression profiles from patient samples before and after 7 days of lenalidomide were performed. Results Twenty-five patients were enrolled on the amended protocol. No further tumor lysis events were reported. Tumor flare was common (88%) but mild. Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia occurred in 72% of patients, with only five episodes of febrile neutropenia. The overall response rate was 56% (no complete responses). Although rapid peripheral lymphocyte reductions were observed, rebound lymphocytoses during the week off-therapy were common. Lenalidomide-induced molecular changes enriched for cytoskeletal and immune-related genes were identified. Conclusion Lenalidomide is clinically active as first-line CLL therapy and is well-tolerated if a conservative approach with slow dose escalation is used. A lenalidomide-induced molecular signature provides insights into its immunomodulatory mechanisms of action in CLL. PMID:21189385

  3. Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor: an adult with previous exposure to agent orange.

    PubMed

    Baz, Walid; El-Soueidi, Raymond; Nakhl, Fadi; Aoun, Nelly; Chin, Nena; Dhar, Meeko

    2010-06-01

    Desmoplastic small round-cell tumor is an uncommon, highly aggressive tumor with a predilection for pediatric age groups and young adults. It is very unusual in the elderly population. Although Agent Orange has been associated with soft-tissue sarcoma, an association with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor has not been reported. A 52-year-old male presented with abdominal distention, dyspnea, and a 9 kg weight loss. Prior history was significant for hepatitis C and diabetes. He was a Vietnam veteran and he admitted being exposed to Agent Orange. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended and tense. Computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis demonstrated extensive mediastinal and retroperitoneal adenopathy, diffuse omental masses and extensive pleural, intra-abdominal and pelvic ascites. Omental core needle biopsy was consistent with desmoplastic small round-cell tumor based on morphology and immunohistochemistry. He responded poorly to chemotherapy with high-dose cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and vincristine and died 5 months after presentation secondary to neutropenic sepsis despite G-CSF support and antibiotics. PMID:20382635

  4. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Krabbendam, Anne A; Colins, Olivier F; Doreleijers, Theo A H; van der Molen, Elsa; Beekman, Aartjan T F; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a personality disorder (i.e., ASPD 15.8%, BPD 9.2%, or both ASPD and BPD 15.2%). Posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and dissociation during detention increased the risk for BPD in adulthood. Surprisingly, neither conduct problems nor substance dependence predicted ASPD; these findings require further study because they add to the controversy surrounding ASPD in females. The high prevalence rates of personality disorders indicate the need for intervention programs that target these unwanted outcomes. PMID:25420142

  5. [Management of type 2 diabetes: new or previous agents, how to choose?].

    PubMed

    Halimi, Serge

    2013-05-01

    Once lifestyle measures implemented, if hyperglycemia persists, above individual HbA1c targets, a medication should be started in type 2 diabetic patients (T2DM). First, unless exception, an oral antidiabetic drug. Except in case of intolerance, the initial monotherapy, metformin remains the strengthening treatment. Latter, combination of two oral drugs, now offers several options, mainly the choice to associate a "conventional insulin-secretor", sulfonylureas, glinide, or a "new one" belonging the class of "incretin", more readily a gliptine (DPP-4 inhibitors) rather than injectable GLP-1 analogue which can also be sometimes chosen at this stage. These options are mostly new and have the advantage a neutral or favourable (for GLP-1) effect on body weight in obese type 2 DM patient and the absence of any hypoglycaemic risk in both classes of incretins. But this risk varies depending on the patient profile, much higher if the target HbA1c is low (6 to 6.5 or 7%), or in the elderly, fragile and/or in case of renal insufficiency. These two different situations with a high risk of hypoglycaemia, define best indications of this new class. If dual oral therapy does not achieve the goals we are faced with three options: triple oral therapy: metformin-sulfonylurea-gliptine or one of two approaches with injections, insulin or GLP-1 analogues. The use of GLP-1 analogues is often delayed today and put wrongly in balance with the transition to insulin, a use already delayed in France and insufficient. The use of incretins is new and needs to be validated by studies of sustainability on glycemic control, prevention of microvascular and macrovascular complications and after years on the market security of use, primarily on the exocrine pancreas. In short, individualization of strategies and HbA1c targets are required, the new molecules can help us in this process. This individualization can easily be done through the handy guide proposed by the experts ADA EASD statement

  6. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  7. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  8. Echographic studies of osmotic agents.

    PubMed

    Vucicevic, Z M; Tark, E; Ahmad, S

    1979-09-01

    The effectiveness of osmotic agents, acetazolamide (Diamox), urea, glycerol, and mannitol, and massages (5 and 10 minutes) for inducing hypotony in rabbit eyes was evaluated by ultrasonography. Mannitol was found to have the greatest hypotonic effect followed closely by urea and glycerol, then acetazolamide. The difference between the 5 and 10 minute massages was negligible. PMID:122221

  9. Halide test agent replacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J.

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  10. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…

  11. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  12. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  13. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study. PMID:3169095

  14. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  15. Amphipathic agents for membrane protein study.

    PubMed

    Sadaf, Aiman; Cho, Kyung Ho; Byrne, Bernadette; Chae, Pil Seok

    2015-01-01

    Membrane proteins (MPs) are insoluble in aqueous media as a result of incompatibility between the hydrophilic property of the solvent molecules and the hydrophobic nature of MP surfaces, normally associated with lipid membranes. Amphipathic compounds are necessary for extraction of these macromolecules from the native membranes and their maintenance in solution. The amphipathic agents surround the hydrophobic segments of MPs, thus serving as a membrane mimetic system. Of the available amphipathic agents, detergents are most widely used for MP manipulation. However, MPs encapsulated by conventional detergent micelles have a tendency to undergo structural degradation, hampering MP advance, and necessitating the development of novel detergents with enhanced efficacy for MP study. In this chapter, we will introduce both conventional and novel classes of detergents and discuss about the chemical structures, design principles, and efficacies of these compounds for MP solubilization and stabilization. The behaviors of those agents toward MP crystallization will be a primary topic in our discussion. This discussion highlights the common features of popular conventional/novel detergents essential for successful MP structural study. The conclusions reached by this discussion would not only enable MP scientists to rationally select a set of detergent candidates among a large number of detergents but also provide detergent inventors with useful guidelines in designing novel amphipathic systems. PMID:25950960

  16. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  17. Sleep Irregularity in the Previous Week Influences the First-Night Effect in Polysomnographic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Hye; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Han, Changsu; Bok, Ki-Nam; Moon, Jung Ho; Lee, Eunil; Kim, Leen

    2016-01-01

    Objective The first-night effect is a well-known phenomenon resulting from an individual's maladaptation to the unfamiliar environment of a sleep laboratory. However, there have been no direct reports of the effect of previous sleep patterns on the first-night effect. We aimed to investigate the effect the previous week's sleep pattern on the first-night effect. Methods Twenty-four young, healthy, male participants completed the study procedure. During one week prior to study, the participants kept sleep diaries and wore actigraphs to identify sleep-wake pattern. Two consecutive nights of polysomnography were conducted after that. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were applied to compare sleep variables of the two nights. Variance (standard deviation) of sleep onset time during the previous week was used as an index of irregularity. A Kendall's ranked correlation analysis and a linear regression test were applied to detect correlation between sleep irregularity and the first-night effect measured by polysomnography. Results There were significant differences in the values of sleep efficiency (p=0.011) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) (p=0.006) between the two nights. Sleep efficiency was lower and WASO was higher on the first night as compared to the second night. Sleep irregularity in the previous week was negatively correlated with sleep efficiency (p<0.001) of the first night, but was not significantly correlated with any other sleep parameters. Conclusion We replicated the existence of the first-night effect commonly observed in sleep studies. Sleep irregularity in the previous week may influence the first-night effect in polysomnographic studies. PMID:27081381

  18. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. STUDIES OF WATERBORNE AGENTS OF VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The etiologic agent of a large outbreak of waterborne viral gastroenteritis was detected employing immune electron microscopy (IEM) and a newly developed solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). This agent, referred to as the Snow Mountain Agent (SMA), is 27-32 nm. in diameter, has cu...

  20. The role of previously untreated patient studies in understanding the development of FVIII inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carcao, M; Re, W; Ewenstein, B

    2016-01-01

    Development of inhibitors against factor VIII (FVIII), the major complication of haemophilia A treatment today, is influenced by multiple factors. Genetic (F8 mutation, family history, ethnicity, polymorphisms in immune modulating genes) and non-genetic (intensive exposure to FVIII, presence of pro-inflammatory signals as might occur with large bleeds, infections, surgery, or other immune stimulants [e.g. vaccines]) risk factors as well as their complex inter-relationships contribute to the inhibitor risk profile of haemophilia patients, particularly in the previously untreated patient (PUP) population. Studies in PUPs have been fundamental to furthering the understanding of FVIII inhibitor development, as well as discovering previously unappreciated risk factors. The multi-factorial nature of inhibitor development makes it difficult to ascertain the contribution of FVIII products in inhibitor development through individual PUP studies. Sufficiently powered studies of large cohorts may overcome these limitations but interpretations should be conducted cautiously. Proper design and implementation of PUP safety studies will become even more important with the introduction of new molecules, such as extended half-life or human cell-line derived FVIII that propose reduced immunogenicity. Despite these difficulties, carefully performed clinical studies in PUPs may provide important insights into the natural history of the immune response to FVIII and may suggest targets for intervention to reduce immunogenicity. PMID:26315604

  1. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  2. Nerve conduction, visual evoked responses and electroretinography in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide containing grouting agents.

    PubMed

    Goffeng, Lars Ole; Heier, Mona Skard; Kjuus, Helge; Sjöholm, Hans; Sørensen, Kjell Aage; Skaug, Vidar

    2008-01-01

    The study examines possible persisting effects on the peripheral nervous system and visual system in tunnel workers previously exposed to acrylamide and N-methylolacrylamide during grouting work. We compared neurophysiological function in 44 tunnel workers previously exposed during grouting operations (2-10 years post exposure), with 49 tunnel workers with no history of exposure to acrylamide. Nerve conduction velocities (NCV), distal delay, F-response and amplitude in median and ulnar nerves of the right arm, peroneal, sural and tibial nerves of the right leg, visual evoked response (VER) and electroretinography (ERG) were measured. VER and ERG were also performed in 24 subjects more recently exposed to acrylamide grout (16 months post exposure). Exposure to acrylamide containing grouts was assessed by questionnaires. A statistically significant reduction in the mean sensory NCV of the sural nerve (p=0.005), as well as a non-significant reduction of sural amplitude was found in the previously exposed group compared to the control group. VER latencies to the onset of the occipital potential (N75) were prolonged in both exposed groups compared to the control group (p<0.05). ERG 30 Hz flicker amplitude was reduced in the recently exposed group compared to the referents (p<0.05). The results indicate slight subclinical, but persistent toxic effects in the sural nerve and the visual system in tunnel workers exposed to N-methylolacrylamide and acrylamide during grouting operations. PMID:18353610

  3. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  4. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  5. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  6. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; McCarthy Persson, U; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. PMID:25913546

  7. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  8. Blood Pressure Targets in CKD: Lessons Learned from SPRINT and Previous Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension management is one of the most common clinical tasks in the care of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular (CV) disease, and CKD progression in this population. However, it is still debated, to what target(s) BP should be lowered in patients with signs of kidney damage. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) provided new and important information about the effects of lowering systolic BP to a target of <120 mmHg, which is lower than the levels currently recommended by the most guidelines (<140/90 mmHg). The SPRINT results were not only exciting but also surprising for many clinicians because evidence from well-conducted observational studies in CKD patient showed increased mortality in patients with CKD whose office systolic BP levels were <120 mmHg, as compared with systolic BP in 120-139 mmHg range. In the present review, we will discuss whether a systolic BP goal of <120 mmHg that was found to be beneficial for CV and all-cause mortality outcomes in the SPRINT can be generalized to the entire CKD population. PMID:27448402

  9. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  10. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  11. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22cm diameter and 30cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  12. A decontamination study of simulated chemical and biological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Lee, Han Y.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Park, Yun H.; Hong, Yi F.; Lee, Chong K.

    2007-07-01

    A comprehensive decontamination scheme of the chemical and biological agents, including airborne agents and surface contaminating agents, is presented. When a chemical and biological attack occurs, it is critical to decontaminate facilities or equipments to an acceptable level in a very short time. The plasma flame presented here may provide a rapid and effective elimination of toxic substances in the interior air in isolated spaces. As an example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies air with an airflow rate of 5000 l/min contaminated with toluene, the simulated chemical agent, and soot from a diesel engine, the simulated aerosol for biological agents. Although the airborne agents in an isolated space are eliminated to an acceptable level by the plasma flame, the decontamination of the chemical and biological agents cannot be completed without cleaning surfaces of the facilities. A simulated sterilization study of micro-organisms was carried out using the electrolyzed ozone water. The electrolyzed ozone water very effectively kills endospores of Bacillus atrophaeus (ATCC 9372) within 3 min. The electrolyzed ozone water also kills the vegetative micro-organisms, fungi, and virus. The electrolyzed ozone water, after the decontamination process, disintegrates into ordinary water and oxygen without any trace of harmful materials to the environment.

  13. Advocating for Social Studies: Becoming AGENTS for Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heafner, Tina L.; O'Connor, Katherine A.; Groce, Eric C.; Byrd, Sandra; Good, Amy J.; Oldendorf, Sandra; Passe, Jeff; Rock, Tracy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors emphasize the role of elementary social studies teachers as citizen activists and reformers. The authors call upon all teachers to become AGENTS for change in order to strengthen the role of social studies in elementary schools, to guarantee that all students have an equitable opportunity to learn social studies, and…

  14. An fMRI Study of Neuronal Activation in Schizophrenia Patients with and without Previous Cannabis Use

    PubMed Central

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Johnsen, Erik; Kroken, Rune A.; Jørgensen, Hugo A.; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI). Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention, and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients. PMID:23115554

  15. Hydrogen Generation Rate Scoping Study of DOW Corning Antifoam Agent

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Charles

    2005-09-27

    The antifoam agent DOW Corning Q2-3183A will be added to waste streams in the Hanford River Protection Program-Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) to prevent foaming. It consists mostly of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polypropylene glycol (PPG). These and other minor constituents of the antifoam have organic constituents that may participate in radiolytic and chemical reactions that produce hydrogen in Hanford waste. It has been recommended by The WTP R&T Department recommended personnel to treat the organic compounds of the antifoam like the in a similar manner as other organic compounds that are native to the Hanford waste with respect to hydrogen production. This testing has investigated the radiolytic and thermal production of hydrogen from antifoam added to simulant waste solutions to determine if the organic components of the antifoam produce hydrogen in the same manner as the native organic species in Hanford waste. Antifoam additions for this testing were in the range of 4 to 10 wt% to ensure adequate hydrogen detection. Test conditions were selected to bound exposures to the antifoam agent in the WTP. These levels are higher than previously recommended values of 350 mg/L for actual applications in WTP tanks containing air spargers and pulse jet mixers. Limited degradation analyses for the organic components of the antifoam were investigated in this study. A more detailed study involving analyses of antifoam degradation and product formation is in progress at SRNL and results from that study will be reported at a later time. The total organic carbon (TOC) content of the Q2-3183A antifoam was measured to be 39.7 {+-} 4.9 wt% TOC. This measurement was performed in triplicate with on three different dilutions of the pure antifoam liquid using a TOC combustion analyzer instrument with catalytic oxidation, followed by CO{sub 2} quantification using an infrared detector. Test results from this study indicate that the WTP HGR correlation

  16. Decomposing Animacy Reversals between Agents and Experiencers: An ERP Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourguignon, Nicolas; Drury, John E.; Valois, Daniel; Steinhauer, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to refine current hypotheses regarding thematic reversal anomalies, which have been found to elicit either N400 or--more frequently--"semantic-P600" (sP600) effects. Our goal was to investigate whether distinct ERP profiles reflect aspectual-thematic differences between Agent-Subject Verbs (ASVs; e.g., "to eat") and…

  17. Factors Associated with Unfavorable Treatment Outcomes in New and Previously Treated TB Patients in Uzbekistan: A Five Year Countrywide Study

    PubMed Central

    Gadoev, Jamshid; Asadov, Damin; Tillashaykhov, Mirzagolib; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Gudmund Hinderaker, Sven; Parpieva, Nargiza; Ulmasova, Dilrabo; Jalolov, Avazbek; Hamraev, Atadjan; Ali, Engy; van den Boom, Martin; Hammerich, Asmus; Gozalov, Ogtay; Dara, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background TB is one of the main health priorities in Uzbekistan and relatively high rates of unfavorable treatment outcomes have recently been reported. This requires closer analysis to explain the reasons and recommend interventions to improve the situation. Thus, by using countrywide data this study sought to determine trends in unfavorable outcomes (lost-to-follow-ups, deaths and treatment failures) and describe their associations with socio-demographic and clinical factors. Method A countrywide retrospective cohort study of all new and previously treated TB patients registered in the National Tuberculosis programme between January 2006 and December 2010. Results Among 107,380 registered patients, 67% were adults, with smaller proportions of children (10%), adolescents (4%) and elderly patients (19%). Sixty per cent were male, 66% lived in rural areas, 1% were HIV-infected and 1% had a history of imprisonment. Pulmonary TB (PTB) was present in 77%, of which 43% were smear-positive and 53% were smear-negative. Overall, 83% of patients were successfully treated, 6% died, 6% were lost-to-follow-up, 3% failed treatment and 2% transferred out. Factors associated with death included being above 55 years of age, HIV-positive, sputum smear positive, previously treated, jobless and living in certain provinces. Factors associated with lost-to-follow-up were being male, previously treated, jobless, living in an urban area, and living in certain provinces. Having smear-positive PTB, being an adolescent, being urban population, being HIV-negative, previously treated, jobless and residing in particular provinces were associated with treatment failure. Conclusion Overall, 83% treatment success rate was achieved. However, our study findings highlight the need to improve TB services for certain vulnerable groups and in specific areas of the country. They also emphasize the need to develop unified monitoring and evaluation tools for drug-susceptible and drug-resistant TB, and

  18. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety. PMID

  19. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  20. Cardiac function associated with previous, current and repeated depression and anxiety symptoms in a healthy population: the HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    Gustad, L T; Bjerkeset, O; Strand, L B; Janszky, I; Dalen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Symptoms of anxiety and depression often co-exist with cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about the association with left ventricular (LV) subclinical dysfunction. We aimed to study the cross-sectional associations of previous, current and repeated depression or anxiety symptoms, with sensitive indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, based on tissue Doppler (TD) and speckle tracking (ST) imaging methods. Methods A random selection of 1296 individuals free from known CVD, hypertension and diabetes were examined with echocardiography at baseline of the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, (HUNT3, 2006–2008). The primary outcomes were LV diastolic function (e′) and LV systolic function (longitudinal global strain). The primary exposures were self-report on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Associations between outcomes and baseline exposures were available for 1034 (80%), and with previous and repeated exposures for 700 participants who also participated in HUNT2 (1995–1997). Results Previous and repeated depression symptoms, but not current depression, were linearly associated with a reduction in e′. The average sum of two repeated HADS-D scores 10 years apart had the strongest effect on e′ (−8.3%; 95% CI −13.9% to −2.7%) per 5 units. We observed a sex difference between depression symptoms and longitudinal global strain (p for interaction 0.019), where women had a marginal negative effect. Anxiety symptoms, neither previous, current nor repeated were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Conclusions In a healthy sample, confirmed free of CVD, past and repeated depression symptoms were associated with subclinical LV dysfunction. Thus, depression symptoms might represent a modifiable risk factor for future CVD. PMID:26925243

  1. Diffuse reflectance study of the effects of bleaching agents in damaged dental pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bante-Guerra, J.; Trejo-Tzab, R.; Macias, J. D.; Quintana, P.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.

    2011-03-01

    One of the most important subjects of interest in dentistry and teeth preservation is related to the effects of bleaching agents on the integrity of the dental pieces. This is especially crucial when teeth surface has received some damage, generated by chemical, biological and mechanical agents or weathering in the case of dental pieces recovered from burial sites. In this work the time evolution of the effects of bleaching agents on the surface of dental pieces is monitored using diffuse reflectance in the visible spectrum is reported. The effects were monitored in teeth previously subject to chemical agents. Bleaching was induced using commercial whitening products. It is shown that the time evolution of the reflectance depends strongly on the condition of the surface as well as on the thickness of enamel. Additionally the colorimetric analysis of the samples during the bleaching is presented. This is especially useful in for comparing with previous studies. In order to complement our studies, the effects of the bleaching on the surface of the teeth were monitored by scanning electron microscopy.

  2. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    PubMed Central

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  3. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K.; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10–0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0–6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4–7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  4. Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Docetaxel Combination in Patients with Previously Treated Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Zyad; Heilbrun, Lance K; Sukari, Ammar; Yoo, George; Jacobs, John; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Mulrenan, Heather; Smith, Daryn; Kucuk, Omer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To explore the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine and docetaxel (GEMDOC) in previously treated patients with recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and Methods. Patients with advanced SCCHN previously pretreated with one or two lines of palliative chemotherapy were treated with gemcitabine and docetaxel until disease progression. Results. Thirty-six patients were enrolled, and 29 were response evaluable. 16 (55%) experienced clinical benefit (response or stable disease). Six (21%) patients achieved partial response (PR), none achieved complete response (CR), and the overall response rate (ORR) was 21% (95% CI: 0.10-0.38). Ten (28%) patients had stable disease. The median response duration (RD) for the 6 PR patients was 3.2 months (80% CI: 2.0-6.1 months). Median overall survival was 4.2 months (95% CI: 2.4-7.0 months). Among the 33 treated patients: 13 (39%) patients had grade 3-4 anemia, 10 (30%) had grade 3-4 neutropenia. Conclusion. The study drugs were relatively safe, and the clinical benefit (PR + SD) rate was 55%. However, the efficacy objective for this regimen was not met. Given the good safety profile, further investigation of this regimen with the addition of a targeted agent may lead to better efficacy. PMID:22655205

  5. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study.

    PubMed

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  6. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  7. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000-2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 10(4) person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  8. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  9. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  10. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  11. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  12. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  13. Blood pressure and complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease: national population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Manhem, Karin; Rosengren, Annika; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Björck, Staffan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the risk associated with systolic blood pressure that meets current recommendations (that is, below 140 mm Hg) with the risk associated with lower levels in patients who have type 2 diabetes and no previous cardiovascular disease. Design Population based cohort study with nationwide clinical registries, 2006-12. The mean follow-up was 5.0 years. Setting 861 Swedish primary care units and hospital outpatient clinics. Participants 187 106 patients registered in the Swedish national diabetes register who had had type 2 diabetes for at least a year, age 75 or younger, and with no previous cardiovascular or other major disease. Main outcome measures Clinical events were obtained from the hospital discharge and death registers with respect to acute myocardial infarction, stroke, a composite of acute myocardial infarction and stroke (cardiovascular disease), coronary heart disease, heart failure, and total mortality. Hazard ratios were estimated for different levels of baseline systolic blood pressure with clinical characteristics and drug prescription data as covariates. Results The group with the lowest systolic blood pressure (110-119 mm Hg) had a significantly lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.91; P=0.003), total acute myocardial infarction (0.85, 0.72 to 0.99; P=0.04), non-fatal cardiovascular disease (0.82, 0.72 to 0.93; P=0.002), total cardiovascular disease (0.88, 0.79 to 0.99; P=0.04), and non-fatal coronary heart disease (0.88, 0.78 to 0.99; P=0.03) compared with the reference group (130-139 mm Hg). There was no indication of a J shaped relation between systolic blood pressure and the endpoints, with the exception of heart failure and total mortality. Conclusions Lower systolic blood pressure than currently recommended is associated with significantly lower risk of cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. The association between low

  14. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  15. Results of a randomized study of previously-untreated intermediate and high grade lymphoma using CHOP versus CNOP.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, S; Santarelli, M T; Erazo, A; Diaz Maqueo, J C; Somoza, N; Lluesma Goñalons, M; Cervantes, G; Garcia Vela, E L; Corrado, C; Magnasco, H

    1992-03-01

    A randomized multicenter phase III study was conducted to compare the efficacy and toxicity of CHOP and CNOP in intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. CHOP consisted of cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2, doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1 and prednisone 50 mg/m2 on days 1 to 5. The CNOP regimen was identical to CHOP except for replacement of doxorubicin by 10 mg/m2 mitoxantrone. Patient characteristics were evenly distributed in the two arms, except for age and stage, which slightly favoured the CHOP arm. The rate of complete remission was 70% (31/44) in patients treated with CHOP and 51% (23/45) in those receiving CNOP (P = 0.09). At 48 months and with a median follow-up of 41 months, 44% of the complete responders treated with CHOP and 64% of those treated with CNOP were estimated to still be in their first complete remission (P = 0.14), while 31% and 34% remained alive and free of progression. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 48 months is 53% and 50%, respectively. The higher response rate obtained with CHOP probably reflected a less aggressive lymphoma population. The mean WBC nadir was 2.0 x 10(9)/l for CHOP and 1.8 x 10(9)/l for CNOP. One and three patients, respectively, died during induction. Nausea, vomiting and cardiac toxicity were similar. More alopecia and mucositis were observed with CHOP. We conclude that CHOP and CNOP have similar toxicities and are equivalent in previously untreated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in terms of complete response rate, event-free survival and overall survival. PMID:1586618

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of asiatic acid derivatives as anti-fibrotic agents: structure/activity studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Yang, Fang; Yuan, Mingxing; Jiang, Lijuan; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Xiaowei; Li, Ying; Dong, Lin; Bao, Xu; Yin, Shufan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrotic diseases are characterized by the over-accumulation of fibrous components in the extracellular matrix and the liver, which can lead to liver cirrhosis. Current treatment options cannot reverse or halt liver fibrosis, motivating a search for newer treatment options. Previously, we showed that asiaticoside, a bioactive triterpene glycoside from Centella asiatica, has anti-fibrotic properties. Here, the aglycone asiatic acid was chemically modified, and these derivatives were evaluated for their potential as anti-fibrotic agents. The data obtained from in vivo testing of these compounds in a rodent CCl4-induced liver injury model are discussed. The information obtained from these studies may be useful in the design of novel anti-fibrotic agents. PMID:25461275

  17. Use of human tissue explants to study human infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    The study of human cell–cell and cell–pathogen interactions that occur in the context of complex tissue cytoarchitecture is critical for deciphering the mechanisms of many normal and pathogenic processes. This protocol describes methods for culturing and infecting explants of human tissues to study the pathogenesis of human infectious agents and their local interactions. The protocol relies on the use of fresh human tissues dissected into small blocks or biopsies that are cultured at the liquid–air interface on collagen rafts. These tissue blocks retain their cytoarchitecture and support productive infection of various pathogens without exogenous stimulation. Experimental details for setting up cultures of human tonsils, lymph nodes and cervicovaginal and rectosigmoid tissues, including protocols for their infection with HIV-1 and other pathogens, are described here. Using this protocol, culture and infections can be set up in 3–6 h and be maintained for 2–3 weeks, depending on the tissue used. PMID:19197269

  18. REVEAL-1, a phase 2 dose regimen optimization study of vosaroxin in older poor-risk patients with previously untreated acute myeloid leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Robert K; Cripe, Larry D; Maris, Michael B; Cooper, Maureen A; Stone, Richard M; Dakhil, Shaker R; Turturro, Francesco; Stock, Wendy; Mason, James; Shami, Paul J; Strickland, Stephen A; Costa, Luciano J; Borthakur, Gautam; Michelson, Glenn C; Fox, Judith A; Leavitt, Richard D; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    This phase 2 study (N = 116) evaluated single-agent vosaroxin, a first-in-class anticancer quinolone derivative, in patients ≥60 years of age with previously untreated unfavourable prognosis acute myeloid leukaemia. Dose regimen optimization was explored in sequential cohorts (A: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8, 15; B: 72 mg/m2 d 1, 8; C: 72 mg/m2 or 90 mg/m2 d 1, 4). The primary endpoint was combined complete remission rate (complete remission [CR] plus CR with incomplete platelet recovery [CRp]). Common (>20%) grade ≥3 adverse events were thrombocytopenia, febrile neutropenia, anaemia, neutropenia, sepsis, pneumonia, stomatitis and hypokalaemia. Overall CR and CR/CRp rates were 29% and 32%; median overall survival (OS) was 7·0 months; 1-year OS was 34%. Schedule C (72 mg/m2) had the most favourable safety and efficacy profile, with faster haematological recovery (median 27 d) and lowest incidence of aggregate sepsis (24%) and 30-d (7%) and 60-d (17%) all-cause mortality; at this dose and schedule, CR and CR/CRp rates were 31% and 35%, median OS was 7·7 months and 1-year OS was 38%. Overall, vosaroxin resulted in low early mortality and an encouraging response rate; vosaroxin 72 mg/m2 d 1, 4 is recommended for further study in this population. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov: #NCT00607997. PMID:25403830

  19. Structure-activity studies on organoselenium alkylating agents.

    PubMed

    Kang, S I; Spears, C P

    1990-01-01

    A variety of organoselenium alkylating agents were synthesized, using 2-hydroxyethyl and 3-hydroxypropyl selenocyanate intermediates, and studied to determine their chemical reactivities with 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP) and cytotoxicities against CCRF-CEM, L1210/0, and L1210/L-PAM cells. The comparison between the 2-chloroethyl sulfides and selenides 1-4 revealed the markedly enhanced nucleophilicity of selenium (Se) over sulfur (S) by two or more orders of magnitude. This finding indicates that a major consideration in the design of antitumor alkylating organoselenides is the reactivity of selenium. A Taft plot of the experimental first-order rate constant, knbp, and sigma* in a series of 2-chloroethylseleno compounds gave a slope of -1.73 (rho*), with the exception of 2-chloroethyl 2-nitrophenyl selenide (10). The anomalous behavior of 10 is explained in terms of the ortho-nitro stabilization effect directly interacting with the selenium atom of ethyleneselenonium ion to form a 5-membered cyclic intermediate. In the same series, a 5000-fold difference in alkylating reactivity offered only a sixfold variation in cytotoxicity against CCRF-CEM cells. Increasing the alkylating chain length from ethlene to propylene units markedly reduced alkylating reactivities. In the CH3Se(CH2)n Cl series, 16 (n = 3) was 1.5 X 10(5) times slower than 2 (n = 2) in NBP alkylation, revealing that 3-chloro-n-propyl selenides are not chemically reactive enough to be biological alkylating agents despite the presence of the highly nucleophilic selenium atom. Replacement of chloride with mesylate in 3-substituted propyl selenides, such as 17 and 20, restored desirable reactivities and cytotoxicities. PMID:2313578

  20. Cardiac toxicity of trastuzumab in metastatic breast cancer patients previously treated with high-dose chemotherapy: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bengala, C; Zamagni, C; Pedrazzoli, P; Matteucci, P; Ballestrero, A; Da Prada, G; Martino, M; Rosti, G; Danova, M; Bregni, M; Jovic, G; Guarneri, V; Maur, M; Conte, P F

    2006-01-01

    HER-2 overexpression is associated to a poor prognosis in high-risk and metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy (HDC). HER-2 status is also a predictive factor and when trastuzumab is administered in combination with or sequentially to chemotherapy, a significant disease-free and/or overall survival improvement has been observed in HER-2+ early and MBC. Unfortunately, in both settings, trastuzumab is associated with an increased risk of cardiac dysfunction (CD). We have reviewed the clinical charts of HER-2-overexpressing MBC patients treated with trastuzumab after HDC. Age, baseline left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), radiation therapy on cardiac area, exposure to anthracycline, single or multiple transplant, high-dose agents, trastuzumab treatment duration were recorded as potential risk factors. In total, 53 patients have been included in the analysis. Median LVEF at baseline was 60.5%; at the end of trastuzumab (data available for 28 patients only), it was 55% (P=0.01). Five out of the 28 (17.9%) patients experienced CD. Two out of 53 (3.8%) patients developed a congestive heart failure. Age ⩾50 years and multiple transplant procedure were potential risk factors for CD. The overall incidence of CD observed in this population of HER-2+ MBC patients treated with trastuzumab after HDC is not superior to that reported with concomitant trastuzumab and anthracyclines. However, patients with age ⩾50 years or receiving multiple course of HDC should be considered at risk for CD. PMID:16570045

  1. Study of suspending agents for gadolinium(III)-exchanged hectorite. An oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    SciTech Connect

    Balkus, K.J. Jr.; Shi, J.

    1996-12-25

    Clays modified with paramagnetic ions have been shown to be effective magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. The efficacy in part relies on the suspension of the small clay particles in aqueous solution. In this study a series of macromolecules were eveluated as suspending agents for Gd(III) ion exchanged hectorite clay in water. The room temperature relaxivities for the Gd-hectorite clays were enhanced by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide), poly(ethylene glycol), cyclodextrins, and cholic acid to aqueous suspensions. Additionally, there was no evidence of free Gd(III) in solution in the presence of these suspending agents. In contrast the combination of alginic acid or poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) with the clays resulted in release of the Gd(III) into solution. Xanthan gum, which is often used as an emulsifier and stabilizer in food products, forms a viscous suspension but also reacts with free Gd(III) ions. 25 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Experimental study of the effect of drag reducing agent on pressure drop and thermal efficiency of an air cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyghambarzadeh, S. M.; Hashemabadi, S. H.; Saffarian, H.; Shekari, F.

    2016-01-01

    Effect of polymeric drag reduction agents (DRAs) on pressure drop and heat transfer was studied. Aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose were used inside an air-finned heat exchanger. Despite the previous studies which indicated the importance of drag reduction just in turbulent flow, results of this study in laminar flow indicated that the addition of DRA increases drag reduction, and decreases the overall heat transfer coefficient.

  3. The Study on Collaborative Manufacturing Platform Based on Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-yan; Qu, Zheng-geng

    To fulfill the trends of knowledge-intensive in collaborative manufacturing development, we have described multi agent architecture supporting knowledge-based platform of collaborative manufacturing development platform. In virtue of wrapper service and communication capacity agents provided, the proposed architecture facilitates organization and collaboration of multi-disciplinary individuals and tools. By effectively supporting the formal representation, capture, retrieval and reuse of manufacturing knowledge, the generalized knowledge repository based on ontology library enable engineers to meaningfully exchange information and pass knowledge across boundaries. Intelligent agent technology increases traditional KBE systems efficiency and interoperability and provides comprehensive design environments for engineers.

  4. Abrasive blasting agents: designing studies to evaluate relative risk.

    PubMed

    Hubbs, Ann; Greskevitch, Mark; Kuempel, Eileen; Suarez, Fernando; Toraason, Mark

    Workers exposed to respirable crystalline silica used in abrasive blasting are at increased risk of developing a debilitating and often fatal fibrotic lung disease called silicosis. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that silica sand be prohibited as abrasive blasting material and that less hazardous materials be used in blasting operations. However, data are needed on the relative risks associated with exposure to abrasive blasting materials other than silica. NIOSH has completed acute studies in rats (Hubbs et al., 2001; Porter et al., 2002). To provide dose-response data applicable to making recommendation for occupational exposure limits, NIOSH has collaborated with the National Toxicology Program (NTP) to design longer term studies with silica substitutes. For risk assessment purposes, selected doses will include concentrations that are relevant to human exposures. Rat lung burdens achieved should be comparable to those estimated in humans with working lifetime exposures, even if this results in "overloading" doses in rats. To quantify both dose and response, retained particle burdens in the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes will be measured, as well as biochemical and pathological indices of pulmonary response. This design will facilitate assessment of the pulmonary fibrogenic potential of inhaled abrasive blasting agents at occupationally relevant concentrations. PMID:16020188

  5. Agent Orange exposure and disease prevalence in Korean Vietnam veterans: the Korean veterans health study.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sang-Wook; Hong, Jae-Seok; Ohrr, Heechoul; Yi, Jee-Jeon

    2014-08-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, military herbicides were used by the United States and allied forces for military purposes. Agent Orange, the most-used herbicide, was a mixture of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and contained an impurity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Many Korean Vietnam veterans were exposed to Agent Orange during the Vietnam War. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between Agent Orange exposure and the prevalence of diseases of the endocrine, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, and digestive systems. The Agent Orange exposure was assessed by a geographic information system-based model. A total of 111,726 Korean Vietnam veterans were analyzed for prevalence using the Korea National Health Insurance claims data from January 2000 to September 2005. After adjusting for covariates, the high exposure group had modestly elevated odds ratios (ORs) for endocrine diseases combined and neurologic diseases combined. The adjusted ORs were significantly higher in the high exposure group than in the low exposure group for hypothyroidism (OR=1.13), autoimmune thyroiditis (OR=1.93), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.04), other endocrine gland disorders including pituitary gland disorders (OR=1.43), amyloidosis (OR=3.02), systemic atrophies affecting the nervous system including spinal muscular atrophy (OR=1.27), Alzheimer disease (OR=1.64), peripheral polyneuropathies (OR=1.09), angina pectoris (OR=1.04), stroke (OR=1.09), chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) including chronic bronchitis (OR=1.05) and bronchiectasis (OR=1.16), asthma (OR=1.04), peptic ulcer (OR=1.03), and liver cirrhosis (OR=1.08). In conclusion, Agent Orange exposure increased the prevalence of endocrine disorders, especially in the thyroid and pituitary gland; various neurologic diseases; COPD; and liver cirrhosis. Overall, this study suggests that Agent Orange/2,4-D/TCDD exposure several decades earlier may increase morbidity

  6. Mortality during the 2013 heatwave in England - How did it compare to previous heatwaves? A retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Green, Helen K; Andrews, Nick; Armstrong, Ben; Bickler, Graham; Pebody, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Heatwaves are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity as a result of climate change. The health impacts of these events can be significant, particularly for vulnerable populations when mortality can occur. England experienced a prolonged heatwave in summer 2013. Daily age-group and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer 2013 and previous heatwave periods back to 2003 was determined using the same linear regression model and heatwave definition to estimate impact and place observations from 2013 in context. Predicted excess mortality due to heat during this period was also independently estimated. Despite a sustained heatwave in England in 2013, the impact on mortality was considerably less than expected; a small cumulative excess of 195 deaths (95% confidence interval -87 to 477) in 65+ year olds and 106 deaths (95% CI -22 to 234) in <65 year olds was seen, nearly a fifth of excess deaths predicted based on observed temperatures. This impact was also less than seen in 2006 (2323 deaths) and 2003 (2234 deaths), despite a similarly prolonged period of high temperatures. The reasons for this are unclear and further work needs to be done to understand this and further clarify the predicted impact of increases in temperature. PMID:26938849

  7. Nonplanar property study of antifungal agent tolnaftate-spectroscopic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arul Dhas, D.; Hubert Joe, I.; Roy, S. D. D.; Balachandran, S.

    2011-09-01

    Vibrational analysis of the thionocarbamate fungicide tolnaftate which is antidermatophytic, antitrichophytic and antimycotic agent, primarily inhibits the ergosterol biosynthesis in the fungus, was carried out using NIR FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The equilibrium geometry, various bonding features, harmonic vibrational wavenumbers and torsional potential energy surface (PES) scan studies have been computed using density functional theory method. The detailed interpretation of the vibrational spectra has been carried out with the aid of VEDA.4 program. Vibrational spectra, natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis and optimized molecular structure show the clear evidence for electronic interaction of thionocarbamate group with aromatic ring. Predicted electronic absorption spectrum from TD-DFT calculation has been compared with the UV-vis spectrum. The Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges and the HOMO-LUMO energy were also calculated. Vibrational analysis reveals that the simultaneous IR and Raman activation of the C-C stretching mode in the phenyl and naphthalene ring provide evidence for the charge transfer interaction between the donor and acceptor groups and is responsible for its bioactivity as a fungicide.

  8. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  9. Phase I Study of Axitinib in Combination with Cisplatin and Capecitabine in Patients with Previously Untreated Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Do-Youn; Doi, Toshihiko; Shirao, Kuniaki; Lee, Keun-Wook; Park, Sook Ryun; Chen, Ying; Yang, Liqiang; Valota, Olga; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This phase I trial evaluated the question of whether the standard starting dose of axitinib could be administered in combination with therapeutic doses of cisplatin/capecitabine in patients with previously untreated advanced gastric cancer, and assessed overall safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of this combination. Materials and Methods Patients in dose level (DL) 1 received axitinib 5 mg twice a day (days 1 to 21) with cisplatin 80 mg/m2 (day 1) and capecitabine 1,000 mg/m2 twice a day (days 1 to 14) in 21-day cycles. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was the highest dose at which ≤ 30% of the first 12 patients experienced a dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) during cycle 1. Ten additional patients were enrolled and treated at the MTD in order to obtain additional safety and pharmacokinetic data. Results Three DLTs occurred during cycle 1 in three (25%) of the first 12 patients: ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, acute renal failure, and > 5 consecutive days of missed axitinib due to thrombocytopenia. DL1 was established as the MTD, since higher DL cohorts were not planned. Common grade 3/4 non-hematologic adverse events in 22 patients treated at DL1 included hypertension (36.4%) and decreased appetite and stomatitis (18.2% each). Cisplatin/capecitabine slightly increased axitinib exposure; axitinib decreased capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil exposure. Eight patients (36.4%) each had partial response or stable disease. Median response duration was 9.1 months; median progression-free survival was 3.8 months. Conclusion In patients with advanced gastric cancer, standard doses of axitinib plus therapeutic doses of cisplatin and capecitabine could be administered in combination. Adverse events were manageable. PMID:25687867

  10. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  11. STUDIES OF ECHOVIRUS-12 IN VOLUNTEERS: DETERMINATION OF MINIMAL INFECTIOUS DOSE AND THE EFFECT OF PREVIOUS INFECTION ON INFECTIOUS DOSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-part study of echovirus-12 was done in volunteers. In the first part the human infectious dose of the virus was determined in 149 healthy adults with undetectable serum antibody, each of whom drank 0-330,000 plaque-forming units (pfu) of virus in 100 ml of nonchlorinated wa...

  12. Pharmacogenetic Study of Deferasirox, an Iron Chelating Agent

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Won; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Nam Hee; Jang, Mi Kyung; Yeo, Chang-Woo; Lee, Sang Seop; Kim, Hyery; Park, June Dong; Park, Kyung Duk; Shin, Hee Young; Shin, Jae-Gook; Ahn, Hyo Seop

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion-associated iron overload induces systemic toxicity. Deferasirox, a convenient long acting oral agent, has recently been introduced in clinical practice with a promising efficacy. But there are some patients who experience drug-related toxicities and cannot tolerate it. To investigate effect of genetic variations on the toxicities and find optimal target population, we analyzed the genetic polymorphisms of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) subfamily, multi-drug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). A total of 20 functional genetic polymorphisms were analyzed in 98 patients who received deferasirox to reduce transfusion-induced iron overload. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records to find out the drug-related toxicities. Fifteen (15.3%) patients developed hepatotoxicity. Patients without wild-type allele carrying two MRP2 haplotypes containing −1774 del and/or −24T were at increased risk of developing hepatotoxicity compared to patients with the wild-type allele on multivariate analysis (OR = 7.17, 95% CI = 1.79–28.67, P = 0.005). Creatinine elevation was observed in 9 patients (9.2%). Body weight ≥40 kg and homozygosity for UGT1A1*6 were risk factors of creatinine elevation (OR = 8.48, 95% CI = 1.7–43.57, P = 0.010 and OR = 14.17, 95% CI = 1.34–150.35, P = 0.028). Our results indicate that functional genetic variants of enzymes to metabolize and transport deferasirox are associated with drug-related toxicities. Further studies are warranted to confirm the results as the pharmacogenetic biomarkers of deferasirox. PMID:23737969

  13. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. PMID:16094658

  14. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  15. The Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle over the Arctic Basin from Reanalyses. Part I: Comparison with Observations and Previous Studies*.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Bromwich, David H.; Serreze, Mark C.

    2000-03-01

    The atmospheric moisture budget is evaluated for the region 70°N to the North Pole using reanalysis datasets of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF; ERA: ECMWF Re-Analysis) and the collaborative effort of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). For the forecast fields of the reanalyses, the ERA annually averaged P E (precipitation minus evaporation/sublimation) field reproduces the major features of the basin perimeter as they are known, while the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis forecast fields contain a spurious wave pattern in both P and E. Comparisons between gauge data from Soviet drift camp stations and forecast P values of the reanalyses show reasonable agreement given the difficulties (i.e., gauge accuracy, translating location). When averaged for 70°-90°N, the ERA and NCEP-NCAR forecast P E are similar in the annual cycle. Average reanalysis forecast values of E for the north polar cap are found to be 40% or more too large based on comparisons using surface latent heat flux climatologies.Differences between a synthesized average moisture flux across 70°N from rawinsonde data of the Historical Arctic Rawinsonde Archive (HARA) and the reanalysis data occur in the presence of rawinsonde network problems. It is concluded that critical deficiencies exist in the rawinsonde depiction of the summertime meridional moisture transport. However, it remains to be seen whether the rawinsonde estimate can be rectified with a different method. For 70°-90°N, annual moisture convergence (P E) values from the ERA and NCEP-NCAR are very similar; for both reanalyses, annual P E values obtained from forecast fields are much lower than those obtained from moisture flux convergence by about 60%, indicating severe nonclosure of the atmospheric moisture budget. The nonclosure primarily results from anomalously large forecast E values. In comparison with other studies, reanalyses moisture

  16. Comparative in vivo study of the efficacy and tolerance of exfoliating agents using reflectance spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Luisa; Frasca, Giuseppina; Bonina, Claudia; Puglia, Carmelo

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and the safety of different topical agents (glycolic acid, mandelic acid, and grape juice acid mixture) in skin exfoliation by objective instrumental methods. To evaluate the exfoliating effects of these substances, a new experimental in vivo protocol based on DHA (dihydroxyacetone)-induced skin pigmentation was used. Skin acceptability towards acid application was investigated by the evaluation of skin erythema induced by topical application of these substances at increased concentrations. Furthermore, their photosensitizing effects were evaluated by determining the increase in sensitivity to UV-light exposure in cutaneous sites previously treated with acids. These in vivo evaluations were monitored by reflectance spectophotometry. From the results obtained, we observed the differing capacities of the tested acids to increase the rate of skin regeneration, with a significant reduction in the time required to obtain skin renewal. The study pointed out that glycolic acid (10% w/w) induced a faster skin exfoliation, a more intense erythema, and a higher photosensitizing effect in comparison with the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures. Further evidence showed that the mandelic acid and grape juice acid mixtures were able to induce a slower and safer peeling action in comparison with glycolic acid. Finally, our results suggest that the methodologies and protocols used in this study may help in choosing the most appropriate topical agents for skin exfoliating treatments. PMID:20587353

  17. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  18. A Phase III Study of Durvalumab (MEDI4736) With or Without Tremelimumab for Previously Treated Patients With Advanced NSCLC: Rationale and Protocol Design of the ARCTIC Study.

    PubMed

    Planchard, David; Yokoi, Takashi; McCleod, Michael J; Fischer, Jürgen R; Kim, Young-Chul; Ballas, Marc; Shi, Kelvin; Soria, Jean-Charles

    2016-05-01

    Anti-programmed cell death-1 and anti-programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1) monotherapies have shown promising clinical activity in advanced, refractory non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but antitumor activity appears to be greater in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors compared with patients harboring PD-L1(-) tumors. Combining the anti-PD-L1 antibody durvalumab and the anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody tremelimumab offers the potential for antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 tumor status. ARCTIC (NCT02352948) is a global, phase III, randomized, open-label multicenter study in patients with advanced NSCLC assessing the safety and clinical activity of durvalumab versus standard of care (SoC; erlotinib, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine) in patients with PD-L1(+) tumors (≥25% of tumor cells with membrane staining using VENTANA PD-L1 [SP263] CDx Assay) (Sub-study A) and the combination of durvalumab + tremelimumab or either agent as monotherapy versus SoC in patients with PD-L1(-) tumors (Sub-study B). Eligible patients are those with locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC (Stage IIIB/IV), without epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements, who have received at least 2 prior systemic regimens, including 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Co-primary endpoints are progression-free survival and overall survival. Secondary endpoints include the proportion of patients alive at 12 months, objective response rate, duration of response, progression-free survival at 6 and 12 months, safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, immunogenicity, and quality of life. The exploratory endpoints will assess potential biomarkers of treatment response. Recruitment started in January 2015 and is ongoing. PMID:27265743

  19. Effect of Antithrombotic Agents on the Patency of PTFE-Covered Stents in the Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Makutani, Shiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Uchida, Hideo; Maeda, Munehiro; Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kimura, Yukio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system. Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n= 5), warfarin potassium (n= 5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n= 5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups. Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group. Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system.

  20. Studies of the transmissibility of the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to the domestic chicken

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Transmission of the prion disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) occurred accidentally to cattle and several other mammalian species via feed supplemented with meat and bone meal contaminated with infected bovine tissue. Prior to United Kingdom controls in 1996 on the feeding of mammalian meat and bone meal to farmed animals, the domestic chicken was potentially exposed to feed contaminated with the causal agent of BSE. Although confirmed prion diseases are unrecorded in avian species a study was undertaken to transmit BSE to the domestic chicken by parenteral and oral inoculations. Transmissibility was assessed by clinical monitoring, histopathological examinations, detection of a putative disease form of an avian prion protein (PrP) in recipient tissues and by mouse bioassay of tissues. Occurrence of a progressive neurological syndrome in the primary transmission study was investigated by sub-passage experiments. Results No clinical, pathological or bioassay evidence of transmission of BSE to the chicken was obtained in the primary or sub-passage experiments. Survival data showed no significant differences between control and treatment groups. Neurological signs observed, not previously described in the domestic chicken, were not associated with significant pathology. The diagnostic techniques applied failed to detect a disease associated form of PrP. Conclusion Important from a risk assessment perspective, the present study has established that the domestic chicken does not develop a prion disease after large parenteral exposures to the BSE agent or after oral exposures equivalent to previous exposures via commercial diets. Future investigations into the potential susceptibility of avian species to mammalian prion diseases require species-specific immunochemical techniques and more refined experimental models. PMID:22093239

  1. (D, L) polylactide microspheres as embolic agent. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Flandroy, P; Grandfils, C; Collignon, J; Thibaut, A; Nihant, N; Barbette, S; Jerome, R; Teyssie, P

    1990-01-01

    Owing to their shape, accurately calibrated microspheres appear to be very suitable material for distal embolization. Moreover, the biocompatible (D, L) polyactide (PLA) microspheres possess two other valuable advantages: easy adjustment of their biodegradation rate, and incorporation of chemotherapeutic agents during their production. The authors describe the preparation of these (D, L) PLA microspheres and their clinical applications as a preliminary step to arterial chemoembolization. PMID:2234391

  2. A study of the simulated evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual agent receptors.

    PubMed

    Liese, A; Polani, D; Uthmann, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article we study a model for the evolution of the spectral sensitivity of visual receptors for agents in a continuous virtual environment. The model uses a genetic algorithm (GA) to evolve the agent sensors along with the control of the agents by requiring the agents to solve certain tasks in the simulation environment. The properties of the evolved sensors are analyzed for different scenarios. In particular, it is shown that the GA is able to find a balance between sensor costs and agent performance in such a way that the spectral sensor sensitivity reflects the emission spectrum of the target objects and that the capability of the sensors to evolve can help the agents significantly in adapting to their task. PMID:11580876

  3. In-Service Training of Agricultural Agents in New York State: 1963; Extension Study Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Frank D.; Harshaw, Jean

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the nature and amount of inservice training which the 168 agricultural agents in New York State received during 1963. Emphasis was on refresher and other training. The greatest number of days of training offered agents was in November followed closely by March and February, in all, a total of 36% of the…

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  5. Novel dual-mode immunomagnetic method for studying reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase.

    PubMed

    Abney, Carter W; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Ali, Ahmed A I; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2013-05-20

    A novel immunomagnetic method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and free OPNAs in serum. This new approach, deemed dual-mode immunomagnetic analysis (Dual-Mode IMA), combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunomagnetic scavenging (IMSc) and has been used to measure the effectiveness of cholinesterase reactivators on OPNA-inhibited BuChE in serum. BuChE inhibited by the nerve agent VX, uninhibited BuChE, and unbound VX were measured up to 1 h after the addition of oxime reactivators pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime. IMS experiments consisted of extracting BuChE and VX-BuChE serum adducts using antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles. In a parallel set of experiments using IMSc, BuChE-coated magnetic beads were used to extract free VX from protein-depleted serum. Adducts from both IMS and IMSc were analyzed using a published IMS liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IMS-LC-MS/MS) protocol, which has also been demonstrated with other OPNAs. By applying this Dual-Mode IMA approach, 2-PAM was observed to be more potent than obidoxime in reactivating VX-adducted BuChE. VX-BuChE peptide concentrations initially measured at 19.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL decreased over 1 h to 10.6 ± 0.6 ng/mL when reactivated with 2-PAM and 14.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL when reactivated with obidoxime. These experiments also show that previously published IMS-LC-MS/MS analyses are compatible with serum treated with oximes. Dual-Mode IMA is the first immunoaffinity method developed for the simultaneous measurement of OPNA adducted BuChE, unadducted BuChE, and free nerve agent in serum and is a promising new tool for studying reactivator effectiveness on cholinesterases inhibited by nerve agents. PMID:23656164

  6. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  7. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  8. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  9. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  10. Phase II study of reintroduction of oxaliplatin for advanced colorectal cancer in patients previously treated with oxaliplatin and irinotecan: RE-OPEN study

    PubMed Central

    Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Shinozaki, Eiji; Ozaka, Masato; Ogura, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of reintroducing oxaliplatin in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to standard chemotherapy has not been verified. We performed a single-arm, open-label, Phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of reintroducing oxaliplatin. Methods Eligible patients had received prior chemotherapy including oxaliplatin and irinotecan that achieved a response or stable disease followed by confirmed disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior oxaliplatin-based therapy. The primary endpoint was the disease control rate (DCR) after 12 weeks of treatment starting. The DCR was defined as the sum of patients with complete response, partial response, and stable disease. Results Thirty-three patients were enrolled. The median age was 62 (range: 35–77) years and the male/female ratio was 19/14. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 0 in 84.8%. Fourteen primary tumors were in the colon and 19 were in the rectum. All patients received modified FOLFOX6 as the protocol treatment. After 12 weeks of treatment starting, the DCR was 39.4% (95% confidence interval 21.8–57.0) and the response rate (complete response and partial response) was 6.1%. The median number of chemotherapy cycles was five and the median total dose of oxaliplatin was 425 mg/m2. Median progression-free survival time was 98 days and median overall survival was 300 days. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 allergic reactions was 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively. The incidence of grade ≥1 and grade ≥3 peripheral sensory neuropathy was 53.1% and 0%, respectively. There were no other severe adverse events and no treatment-related deaths. Conclusion Reintroducing oxaliplatin can be both safe and effective. This may be a salvage option for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who achieved a response or stable disease with prior oxaliplatin-based therapy followed by disease progression ≥6 months previously during prior

  11. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels. PMID:2598833

  12. Previous sickness absence and current low perceived social support at work among employees in the general population: a historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Knapstad, Marit; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel; Øverland, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although sickness absence often is a process over time, most studies have treated the phenomenon as a discrete event and focused more on its causes than its consequences. We aimed to examine whether various patterns of previous long-term sickness absence were associated with current low perceived social support at work. Method This is a historical cohort study based on data from a population-based survey among Swedish employees (n=2581). The survey data were linked to official registries yielding data on sickness absence 1–7 years prior to the survey. Results The main finding was that previous sickness absence was associated with current low perceived social support at work. The highest odds for low social support were found among those who had a stable high level of sickness absence. The two indicators of perceived social support employed were somewhat differently associated with previous sickness absence: Recency of absence showed to be of importance for general support at the workplace and the relationship with colleagues and superiors. Experiencing that one's immediate superior rarely or never regards one's view was, on the other hand, mainly related to having had a high level of sickness absence, irrespective of recency. Conclusions Our results indicate that recency and extent of previous sickness absence are related to perceived social support at work. Future research on the relationship between social support and sickness absence should use repeated measurements and acknowledge the possible bidirectional relationship. PMID:25351599

  13. Contrast agent comparison for three-dimensional micro-CT angiography: A cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Kingston, Mitchell J; Perriman, Diana M; Neeman, Teresa; Smith, Paul N; Webb, Alexandra L

    2016-07-01

    Barium sulfate and lead oxide contrast media are frequently used for cadaver-based angiography studies. These contrast media have not previously been compared to determine which is optimal for the visualisation and measurement of blood vessels. In this study, the lower limb vessels of 16 embalmed Wistar rats, and four sets of cannulae of known diameter, were injected with one of three different contrast agents (barium sulfate and resin, barium sulfate and gelatin, and lead oxide combined with milk powder). All were then scanned using micro-computed tomography (CT) angiography and 3-D reconstructions generated. The number of branching generations of the rat lower limb vessels were counted and compared between the contrast agents using ANOVA. The diameter of the contrast-filled cannulae, were measured and used to calculate the accuracy of the measurements by comparing the bias and variance of the estimates. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients. There was no significant difference (mean difference [MD] 0.05; MD 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.83 to 0.93) between the number of branching generations for barium sulfate-resin and lead oxide-milk powder. Barium sulfate-resin demonstrated less bias and less variance of the estimates (MD 0.03; standard deviation [SD] 1.96 mm) compared to lead oxide-milk powder (MD 0.11; SD 1.96 mm) for measurements of contrast-filled cannulae scanned at high resolution. Barium sulfate-resin proved to be more accurate than lead oxide-milk powder for high resolution micro-CT scans and is preferred due to its non-toxicity. This technique could be applied to any embalmed specimen model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27075920

  14. Comparative study of the effects of two bleaching agents on oral microbiota.

    PubMed

    Alkmin, Yara Tardelli; Sartorelli, Renata; Flório, Flávia Martão; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vivo effects of bleaching agents containing 10% carbamide peroxide (Platinum/Colgate) or 7.5% hydrogen peroxide (Day White 2Z/Discus Dental) on mutans Streptococcus during dental bleaching. The products were applied on 30 volunteers who needed dental bleaching. In each volunteer, one of the two bleaching agents was used on both dental arches one hour a day for three weeks. Analysis of the bacterial counts was made by collecting saliva before (baseline values), during (7 and 21 days) bleaching treatments and 14 days posttreatment. The Friedman non-parametric analysis (alpha=0.05) found no differences in microorganism counts at different times for each group for both agents (p>0.05). The Mann Whitney nonparametric test (alpha=0.05) showed no differences in micro-organism counts for both agents (p>0.05). Different bleaching agents did not change the oral cavity mutans Streptococcus counts. PMID:16130860

  15. Preliminary study of sperm chromatin characteristics of the brachyuran crab Maja brachydactyla. Histones and nucleosome-like structures in decapod crustacean sperm nuclei previously described without SNBPs.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, K; Ausió, J; Chiva, M

    2009-10-01

    An interesting characteristic of decapod crustacean sperm nuclei is that they do not contain highly packaged chromatin. In the present study we re-examine the presence of DNA-interacting proteins in sperm nuclei of the brachyuran Maja brachydactyla. Although previous reports have indicated that, unlike the majority of sperm cells, DNA of decapod sperm is not organized by basic proteins, in this work we show that: (1) histones are present in sperm of M. brachydactyla; (2) histones are associated with sperm DNA; (3) histone H3 appears in lower proportions than the other core histones, while histone H2B appears in higher proportions; and (4) histone H3 in sperm nuclei is acetylated. This work complements a previous study of sperm histones of Cancer pagurus and supports the suggestion that decapod crustacean sperm chromatin deserves further attention. PMID:19324386

  16. Sonophoresis using ultrasound contrast agents for transdermal drug delivery: an in vivo experimental study.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Ryu, Heungil; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young-Sun; Choi, Kyu-Sil; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2012-04-01

    Sonophoresis temporally increases skin permeability such that various medications can be delivered noninvasively. Previous sonophoresis studies have suggested that cavitation plays an important role in enhancing transdermal drug delivery (TDD). In this study, the feasibility of controlled cavitation using ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) at high frequency was explored through in vivo experiments in a rat model. Two commercially available UCAs, SonoVue® and Definity®, were used at 2.47 MHz and 1.12 MHz, respectively. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextran with 0.1% UCA was used as the drug to be delivered through the skin. Ultrasound with a 10 ms pulse and a 1% duty cycle at 1 MPa acoustic pressure for 30 min was applied in all sonication sessions. The efficacy of sonophoresis with UCAs was quantitatively analyzed using an optical imaging system that was used to count photons emitted from fluorescein. The results showed that the proposed sonophoresis method significantly improved drug penetration compared with the traditional sonophoresis method with 4 kD, 20 kD and 150 kD FITC-dextrans at 1.12 MHz, and with 4 kD and 20 kD FITC-dextrans at 2.47 MHz. Sonophoresis for TDD was performed more effectively with the aid of UCAs. Sonophoresis with UCAs has excellent potential for broad applications in drug delivery for diseases requiring the chronic administration of medications such as diabetes. PMID:22341597

  17. Comparative studies on the thermostability of five strains of transmissible-spongiform-encephalopathy agent.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Karen; Steele, Philip J; Taylor, David M; Somerville, Robert A

    2007-08-01

    The causal infectious agents of TSEs (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies or prion diseases) are renowned for their resistance to complete inactivation. Survival of TSE infectivity after autoclaving potentially compromises many procedures where TSE infectivity may be present, including surgical instrument sterilization. In the present study, the heat inactivation properties of five different TSE agents were tested in a variety of experiments by exposing them to a range of heat inactivation conditions. Although TSE infectivity was reduced after heating to 200 degrees C in a hot air oven, substantial amounts of infectivity remained. Unlike wet heat inactivation, no TSE strain-dependent differences were observed in the reduction in the amounts of infectivity produced by dry heat inactivation. However, the incubation periods of mice infected with one dry heated TSE strain, ME7, were substantially prolonged, whereas there was little or no effect for two other TSE models. Varying autoclaving conditions for three TSE strains between 132 and 138 degrees C, and times of exposure between 30 and 120 min, had little or no effect on the recovery of TSE infectivity. The results illustrate the limitations of TSE agent inactivation using heat-based methods. The results support the hypothesis that the structures of TSE agents are stabilized during heat-inactivation procedures, rendering them much more refractory to inactivation. This may occur through dehydration of the causal agents, specifically through the removal of the water of solvation from agent structures and hence stabilize interactions between prion protein and TSE agent-specific ligands. PMID:17331068

  18. Crafting an Agentive Self: Case Studies of Digital Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Glynda A.; Katz, Mira-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on data from a multi-year digital storytelling project, this comparative case study offers portraits of two emerging authors--one a child and the other a young adult--who used multiple media and modes to articulate pivotal moments in their lives and reflect on life trajectories. The conceptual framework blends recent scholarship on…

  19. Desensitizing Agent Reduces Dentin Hypersensitivity During Ultrasonic Scaling: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tomonari; Akiyama, Toshiharu; Takano, Takuya; Gokyu, Misa; Sudo, Takeaki; Khemwong, Thatawee; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Dentin hypersensitivity can interfere with optimal periodontal care by dentists and patients. The pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling is intolerable for patient and interferes with the procedure, particularly during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) for patients with gingival recession. Aim This study proposed to evaluate the desensitizing effect of the oxalic acid agent on pain caused by dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. Materials and Methods This study involved 12 patients who were incorporated in SPT program and complained of dentin hypersensitivity during ultrasonic scaling. We examined the availability of the oxalic acid agent to compare the degree of pain during ultrasonic scaling with or without the application of the dentin hypersensitivity agent. Evaluation of effects on dentin hypersensitivity was determined by a questionnaire and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores after ultrasonic scaling. The statistical analysis was performed using the paired Student t-test and Spearman rank correlation coefficient. Results The desensitizing agent reduced the mean VAS pain score from 69.33 ± 16.02 at baseline to 26.08 ± 27.99 after application. The questionnaire revealed that >80% patients were satisfied and requested the application of the desensitizing agent for future ultrasonic scaling sessions. Conclusion This study shows that the application of the oxalic acid agent considerably reduces pain associated with dentin hypersensitivity experienced during ultrasonic scaling. This pain control treatment may improve patient participation and treatment efficiency. PMID:26501012

  20. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  1. Semantic Extension of Agent-Based Control: The Packing Cell Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, Pavel; Radakovič, Miloslav; Obitko, Marek; Mařík, Vladimír

    The paper reports on the latest R&D activities in the field of agent-based manufacturing control systems. It is documented that this area becomes strongly influenced by the advancements of semantic technologies like the Web Ontology Language. The application of ontologies provides the agents with much more effective means for handling, exchanging and reasoning about the knowledge. The ontology dedicated for semantic description of orders, production processes and material handling tasks in discrete manufacturing domain has been developed. In addition, the framework for integration of this ontology in distributed, agent-based control solutions is given. The Manufacturing Agent Simulation Tool (MAST) is used as a base for pilot implementation of the ontology-powered multiagent control system; the packing cell environment is selected as a case study.

  2. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  3. Docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy: a phase I, dose-finding study.

    PubMed

    Lortholary, A; Maillard, P; Delva, R; Boisdron-Celle, M; Perard, D; Vernillet, L; Besenval, M; Gamelin, E

    2000-09-01

    This phase I study evaluated the maximum tolerated dose, dose-limiting toxicity and recommended dose of docetaxel in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. 32 patients received docetaxel at 60, 75, 85 or 100 mg/m(2) by 1-h intravenous (i.v.) infusion, followed, after a 1-h interval, by 5-FU at 250, 350, 500 or 750 mg/m(2)/day by continuous infusion over 5 days every 3 weeks. Dose-limiting stomatitis defined the maximum tolerated dose at a docetaxel dose of 100 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day. None of 5 patients treated at the previous dose level (docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-FU 750 mg/m(2)/day) had a dose-limiting toxicity in the first cycle, and this was, therefore, considered the recommended dose. The combination was generally well tolerated. Grade 4 neutropenia was common (29 patients; 91%), but no patient experienced febrile neutropenia of duration >3 days requiring i.v. antibiotics. An objective response was achieved by 18 patients overall (56%), and in 4 out of 5 patients treated with the determined recommended dose. No pharmacokinetic interaction between docetaxel and 5-fluorouracil was apparent. The activity of docetaxel 85 mg/m(2) with 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m(2)/day will be explored more extensively in phase II studies of patients with metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. PMID:10974625

  4. Phase II Study of the MEK1/MEK2 Inhibitor Trametinib in Patients With Metastatic BRAF-Mutant Cutaneous Melanoma Previously Treated With or Without a BRAF Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kevin B.; Kefford, Richard; Pavlick, Anna C.; Infante, Jeffrey R.; Ribas, Antoni; Sosman, Jeffrey A.; Fecher, Leslie A.; Millward, Michael; McArthur, Grant A.; Hwu, Patrick; Gonzalez, Rene; Ott, Patrick A.; Long, Georgina V.; Gardner, Olivia S.; Ouellet, Daniele; Xu, Yanmei; DeMarini, Douglas J.; Le, Ngocdiep T.; Patel, Kiran; Lewis, Karl D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose BRAF mutations promote melanoma cell proliferation and survival primarily through activation of MEK. The purpose of this study was to determine the response rate (RR) for the selective, allosteric MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor trametinib (GSK1120212), in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma. Patients and Methods This was an open-label, two-stage, phase II study with two cohorts. Patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor (cohort A) or treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy (BRAF-inhibitor naive; cohort B) were enrolled. Patients received 2 mg of trametinib orally once daily. Results In cohort A (n = 40), there were no confirmed objective responses and 11 patients (28%) with stable disease (SD); the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 1.8 months. In cohort B (n = 57), there was one (2%) complete response, 13 (23%) partial responses (PRs), and 29 patients (51%) with SD (confirmed RR, 25%); the median PFS was 4.0 months. One patient each with BRAF K601E and BRAF V600R had prolonged PR. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events for all patients were skin-related toxicity, nausea, peripheral edema, diarrhea, pruritis, and fatigue. No cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma was observed. Conclusion Trametinib was well tolerated. Significant clinical activity was observed in BRAF-inhibitor–naive patients previously treated with chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. Minimal clinical activity was observed as sequential therapy in patients previously treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Together, these data suggest that BRAF-inhibitor resistance mechanisms likely confer resistance to MEK-inhibitor monotherapy. These data support further evaluation of trametinib in BRAF-inhibitor–naive BRAF-mutant melanoma, including rarer forms of BRAF-mutant melanoma. PMID:23248257

  5. Experimental studies of the physiologic properties of technetium-99m agents: Myocardial transport of perfusion imaging agents

    SciTech Connect

    Meerdink, D.J.; Leppo, J.A. )

    1990-10-16

    The physiologic properties of new technetium-99m-labeled myocardial imaging agents (Tc-99m sestamibi, an isonitrile; and Tc-99m teboroxime, a boronic acid adduct of technetium dioxime) are discussed and compared to thallium-201 (Tl-201). Studies with isolated hearts, subcellular fractions and cell cultures indicate that Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 do not share common transport or sequestration mechanisms. Although peak Tc-99m sestamibi myocardial extraction over time is about half that of Tl-201 at equivalent coronary blood flows, the amount of Tc-99m sestamibi that remains in the heart is similar to that of Tl-201 because of its higher retention efficiency. The high retention efficiency for Tc-99m sestamibi also results in minimal redistribution. In contrast, Tc-99m teboroxime myocardial extraction is higher than that of Tl-201, but its retention is less efficient, resulting in relatively rapid washout characteristics which may quickly result in tracer redistribution. During reperfusion after a no-flow period, Tc-99m sestamibi extraction and retention increase, but for Tc-99m teboroxime and Tl-201 these values tend to decrease. All tracers show adequate transport characteristics for perfusion imaging, and differences in transport and retention should lead to the development of new clinical protocols.27 references.

  6. Genome-wide association study of serum lipids confirms previously reported associations as well as new associations of common SNPs within PCSK7 gene with triglyceride.

    PubMed

    Kurano, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa; Kamitsuji, Shigeo; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Hara, Masumi; Ishikawa, Toshio; Kim, Bong-Jo; Moon, Sanghoon; Jin Kim, Young; Teramoto, Tamio

    2016-05-01

    Previous reports including genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have described associations of serum lipids with genomic variations. In the present study, we examined the association of ∼2.5 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 3041 Japanese healthy volunteers obtained from the Japan Pharmacogenomics Data Science Consortium (JPDSC) database with serum lipids. We confirmed the previously reported associations of 14 SNPs in 5 regions for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 23 SNPs in 12 regions for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 16 SNPs in 6 regions for triglyceride and 5 SNPs in 1 region for phospholipid. Furthermore, we identified 16 possible novel candidate genes associated with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol or triglycerides, where SNPs had P-values of <1 × 10(-5). Further replication analyses of these genes with Korean data revealed significant associations of SNPs located within the PCSK7 gene and triglyceride (Pmeta=7.98 × 10(-9) and 1.91 × 10(-8) for rs508487 and rs236911, respectively). These associations remained significant even by the conditional analysis adjusting for three neighboring variations associated with triglyceride. Our present data suggest that PCSK7 as well as PCSK9 may be associated with lipids, especially triglyceride, and may serve as a candidate for a new drug target to treat lipid abnormality syndromes. PMID:26763881

  7. Clinical effects of rifaximin in patientswith hepatic encephalopathy intolerant or nonresponsive to previous lactulose treatment: An open-label, pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sama, Claudia; Morselli-Labate, Antonio Maria; Pianta, Paolo; Lambertini, Laura; Berardi, Sonia; Martini, Gabriella

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a metabolic-neurophysiologicsyndrome that occurs in patients with advanced hepatic disease. One of the main pathogenic mechanisms is represented by circulating toxins produced by the intestinal metabolism of nitrogenous compounds. The therapeutic approach to HE is mainly based on drugs that eliminate ammonia-producing bacteria. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin in patients with HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide (lactulose). Methods: This uncontrolled, open-label, pilot study was conducted at the University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with histologically proven liver cirrhosis and HE were studied. All patients were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with lactulose. Rifaximin tablets were administered to patients at a dosage of 400 mg TID for 10 days. The portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE) index was evaluated at enrollment and at the end of the treatment period. Tolerability was assessed using hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis and by recording adverse effects (AEs). Results: Twenty-six patients (18 men, 8 women; mean [SD] age, 55.8 [8.0] years) were enrolled (intolerants, n = 17; nonresponders, n = 9). All patients completed the study. Significant improvement was shown in most of the 5 components of the PSE index after rifaximin administration in both intolerants and nonresponders. At the end of the 10-day treatment period, the PSE index was significantly reduced in both intolerants and nonresponders. Rifaximin was well tolerated; no clinically relevant AEs were observed during the treatment period. Conclusions: This pilot study of patients with liver cirrhosis and HE who were intolerant or nonresponsive to previous treatment with an oral, nonabsorbable disaccharide suggests that treatment with rifaximin may be considered as an adjuvant or an

  8. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  9. [Study on an enhancing agent for removing arsenic from drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ling, B; Li, S; Zhu, Y; Zhang, B

    2001-05-01

    Drinking water contaminated by arsenic for an extended period of time could be detrimental to the health of people. Some preliminary symptoms could be alleviated by drinking water non-contaminated. It is important to develop an arsenic removal agent with a specific property of most efficient, cost-effective and easy for operation. The results showed that the capacity of the agent developed in this study was 10 times higher for arsenic removal than other agent available. The lowest arsenic content of the treated water was 0.05 mg/L. The special function of this agent was arsenic removing without changing other components and the concentrations of other elements in the treated water. The operation and management was simple without adjusting pH of the influent and effluent water. The agent was 5 times cheaper in cost than alumina or activated carbon, because it was a reusable oxidation-catalyst. Therefore, the agent could be widely applied in drinking water plants or used as a purifier at home in the high arsenic areas. PMID:12525087

  10. Evaluation of Microleakage of Dental Composites Using Bonding Agents with Different Placement Techniques: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasvir; Garg, Deepanshu; Sunil, MK; Sawhney, Anshul; Malaviya, Neha; Tripathi, Shashank; Arora, Saloni

    2015-01-01

    Background The rapid progress of adhesive dentistry over the past decade has been attributed to the significant advances in dentin bonding technology. Requirements of an ideal bonding agent are quite similar to those indicated by Buonocore despite of many improvements. As we enter the new millennium, it is important for us to examine the past. Objective To evaluate the microleakage of three bonding agents namely Single Bond, Prime & Bond NT and Excite using different composite materials namely Z100, Spectrum TPH, Tetric with three different placement techniques. Materials and Methods Fifty four extracted human premolars were taken & divided into 9 groups depending upon application of bonding agents followed by composite restorations. Specimens were subjected to thermal cycling at 60C, 370C, 540C and again at 370C & then placed in 10 ml each of freshly prepared 50% silver nitrate solution for 2 hour in darkness, washed & placed under sun light for 24 hours. The sectioned specimens were then observed under stereomicroscope to detect microleakage. Results On comparing the mean microleakage scores among the three groups, maximum microleakage scores have been obtained when no bonding agent was used, while least microleakage scores were obtained with double coat of bonding agent. Conclusion The present study suggests that the placement of bonding agent technique before composite restoration can be effective to limit the microleakage at the tooth restoration interface. PMID:26501015

  11. Cobalt Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as a Potential Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agent: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemian, Zeinab; Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush; Manouchehri, Sohrab

    2015-01-01

    Background: Magnetic Nanoparticles (MNP) have been used for contrast enhancement in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In recent years, research on the use of ferrite nanoparticles in T2 contrast agents has shown a great potential application in MR imaging. In this work, Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Co0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4-DMSA magnetic nanoparticles, CZF-MNPs and CZF-MNPs-DMSA, were investigated as MR imaging contrast agents. Methods: Cobalt zinc ferrite nanoparticles and their suitable coating, DMSA, were investigated under in vitro condition. Human prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3) with bare (uncoated) and coated magnetic nanoparticles were investigated as nano-contrast MR imaging agents. Results: Using T2-weighted MR images identified that signal intensity of bare and coated MNPs was enhanced with increasing concentration of MNPs in water. The values of 1/T2 relaxivity (r2) for bare and coated MNPs were found to be 88.46 and 28.80 (mM−1 s−1), respectively. Conclusion: The results show that bare and coated MNPs are suitable as T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agents. Also, the obtained r2/r1 values (59.3 and 50) for bare and coated MNPs were in agreement with the results of other previous relevant works. PMID:26140183

  12. Statin adherence and risk of acute cardiovascular events among women: a cohort study accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence

    PubMed Central

    Lavikainen, Piia; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Eerola, Mervi; Fang, Gang; Hartikainen, Juha; Huupponen, Risto; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies on the effect of statin adherence on cardiovascular events in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have adjusted for time-dependent confounding, but potentially introduced bias into their estimates as adherence and confounders were measured simultaneously. We aimed to evaluate the effect when accounting for time-dependent confounding affected by previous adherence as well as time sequence between factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Finnish healthcare registers. Participants Women aged 45–64 years initiating statin use for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in 2001–2004 (n=42 807). Outcomes Acute cardiovascular event defined as a composite of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke was our primary outcome. Low-energy fractures were used as a negative control outcome to evaluate the healthy-adherer effect. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 474 women experienced the primary outcome event and 557 suffered a low-energy fracture. The causal HR estimated with marginal structural model for acute cardiovascular events for all the women who remained adherent (proportion of days covered ≥80%) to statin therapy during the previous adherence assessment year was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.65 to 0.94) when compared with everybody remaining non-adherent (proportion of days covered <80%). The result was robust against alternative model specifications. Statin adherers had a potentially reduced risk of experiencing low-energy fractures compared with non-adherers (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.07). Conclusions Our study, which took into account the time dependence of adherence and confounders, as well as temporal order between these factors, is support for the concept that adherence to statins in women in primary prevention decreases the risk of acute cardiovascular events by about one-fifth in comparison to non-adherence. However, part of the observed effect of statin adherence on acute cardiovascular events

  13. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    In most economics--driven approaches to optimizing water use at the river basin scale, the system is modelled deterministically with the goal of maximizing overall benefits. However, actual operation and allocation decisions must be made under hydrologic and economic uncertainty. In addition, river basins often cross political boundaries, and different states may not be motivated to cooperate so as to maximize basin- scale benefits. Even within states, competing agents such as irrigation districts, municipal water agencies, and large industrial users may not have incentives to cooperate to realize efficiency gains identified in basin- level studies. More traditional simulation--optimization approaches assume pre-commitment by individual agents and stakeholders and unconditional compliance on each side. While this can help determine attainable gains and tradeoffs from efficient management, such hardwired policies do not account for dynamic feedback between agents themselves or between agents and their environments (e.g. due to climate change etc.). In reality however, we are dealing with an out-of-equilibrium multi-agent system, where there is neither global knowledge nor global control, but rather continuous strategic interaction between decision making agents. Based on the theory of stochastic games, we present a computational framework that allows for studying the dynamic feedback between decision--making agents themselves and an inherently uncertain environment in a spatially and temporally distributed manner. Agents with decision-making control over water allocation such as countries, irrigation districts, and municipalities are represented by reinforcement learning agents and coupled to a detailed hydrologic--economic model. This approach emphasizes learning by agents from their continuous interaction with other agents and the environment. It provides a convenient framework for the solution of the problem of dynamic decision-making in a mixed cooperative / non

  14. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity. PMID:26667529

  15. Cariostatic effect of green tea in comparison with common anticariogenic agents: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jazaeri, Mina; Pakdek, Farzaneh; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rafieian, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1) normal saline; 2) a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3) 0.05% fluoride; 4) 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5) fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the experimental groups) with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light microscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in µm) of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P<0.001). Tukey test showed that although there was no significant difference in the depth of caries in groups 1 and 2 (P>0.001), they were significantlyless than those in groups 3 to 5 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between decay depth of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P>0.001). Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent. PMID:25973154

  16. Cariostatic Effect of Green Tea in Comparison with Common Anticariogenic Agents: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Jazaeri, Mina; Pakdek, Farzaneh; Rezaei-Soufi, Loghman; Abdolsamadi, Hamidreza; Rafieian, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Anticariogenic effects of different mouthrinses have been shown previously. In this in vitro study the anticariogenic effects of polyphenol extract of green tea with 0.05% fluoride, 0.2% chlorhexidine and fluoride-chlorhexidine were compared. Materials and methods. This in vitro study was performed on 50 maxillary premolars in 5 groups: 1) normal saline; 2) a 10% solution of green tea polyphenol extract; 3) 0.05% fluoride; 4) 0.2% chlorhexidine; and 5) fluoride-chlorhexidine. Each tooth was placed in a tube which contained a cariogenic solution. Every day the teeth were washed (depending on the experimental groups) with 5 mL of mouthrinse solution. The depth of the caries was measured under a polarized light microscope. Data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Results. The mean and standard deviation (in µm) of caries depth were 194±16.43, 175±17.94, 142±9.34, 155±13.27, and 144±8.57 in groups 1 to 5, respectively, with significant differences between the groups (P<0.001). Tukey test showed that although there was no significant difference in the depth of caries in groups 1 and 2 (P>0.001), they were significantlyless than those in groups 3 to 5 (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between decay depth of groups 3, 4 and 5 (P>0.001). Conclusion. The anticariogenic effect of fluoride-chlorhexidine was the highest among the groups. Although green tea showed higher cariostatic effects than normal saline, in comparison with other mouthrinses, it is less effective. More re-search is strongly recommended for clinical use of green tea as an anticariogenic agent. PMID:25973154

  17. Retrospective cohort study of anti-tumor necrosis factor agent use in a veteran population

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Nermeen; Kazerooni, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents are effective for several immunologic conditions (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn’s disease (CD), and psoriasis). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents via chart review. Methods. Single-site, retrospective cohort study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF agents in veterans initiated between 2010 and 2011. Primary aim evaluated response at 12 months post-index date. Secondary aims evaluated initial response prior to 12 months post-index date and infection events. Results. A majority of patients were prescribed anti-TNF agents for CD (27%) and RA (24%). Patients were initiated on etanercept (41%), adalimumab (40%), and infliximab (18%) between 2010 and 2011. No differences in patient demographics were reported. Response rates were high overall. Sixty-five percent of etanercept patients, 82% of adalimumab patients, and 59% of infliximab patients were either partial or full responders, respectively. Approximately 16%, 11%, and 12% of etanercept, adalimumab, and infliximab were non-responders, respectively. Infections between the groups were non-significant. Etanercept and adalimumab patients had higher but non-significant odds of being a responder relative to infliximab. Conclusions. Most patients initiated with anti-TNF agent were responders at 12 months follow-up for all indications in a veteran population. PMID:24883246

  18. Lumbar instrumented fusion compared with cognitive intervention and exercises in patients with chronic back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation: a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Brox, Jens Ivar; Reikerås, Olav; Nygaard, Øystein; Sørensen, Roger; Indahl, Aage; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Ingebrigtsen, Tor; Grundnes, Oliver; Lange, Johan Emil; Friis, Astrid

    2006-05-01

    The effectiveness of lumbar fusion for chronic low back pain after surgery for disc herniation has not been evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of lumbar fusion with posterior transpedicular screws and cognitive intervention and exercises. Sixty patients aged 25-60 years with low back pain lasting longer than 1 year after previous surgery for disc herniation were randomly allocated to the two treatment groups. Experienced back surgeons performed transpedicular fusion. Cognitive intervention consisted of a lecture intended to give the patient an understanding that ordinary physical activity would not harm the disc and a recommendation to use the back and bend it. This was reinforced by three daily physical exercise sessions for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Outcome data were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Ninety-seven percent of the patients, including seven of eight patients who had either not attended treatment (n=5) or changed groups (n=2), completed 1-year follow-up. ODI was significantly improved from 47 to 38 after fusion and from 45 to 32 after cognitive intervention and exercises. The mean difference between treatments after adjustment for gender was -7.3 (95% CI -17.3 to 2.7, p=0.15). The success rate was 50% in the fusion group and 48% in the cognitive intervention/exercise group. For patients with chronic low back pain after previous surgery for disc herniation, lumbar fusion failed to show any benefit over cognitive intervention and exercises. PMID:16545523

  19. Vinflunine – an active chemotherapy for treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer previously treated with a platinum-based regimen: results of a phase II study

    PubMed Central

    Bennouna, J; Breton, J-L; Tourani, J-M; Ottensmeier, C; O'Brien, M; Kosmidis, P; Huat, T E; Pinel, M-C; Colin, C; Douillard, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    A multicentre, single-arm, phase II trial designed to determine the efficacy of single-agent vinflunine in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with a platinum-based regimen. The objectives were to assess efficacy in terms of tumour response rate (primary end point), duration of response, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), and to evaluate the toxicity associated with this treatment. Patients with advanced NSCLC with progressive disease having failed prior platinum-based first-line treatment for advanced disease. Five responses out of the 63 treated patients were documented by WHO criteria and validated by an independent panel review (IRP), yielding a response rate of 7.9% (95% CI: 2.6–17.6) in the intent-to-treat analysis and 8.3% (95% CI: 2.8–18.4) in the evaluable population. Disease control was achieved in 35 out of 60 evaluable patients (58.3%). The median duration of response (complete response+partial response), according to modified WHO criteria was 7.8 months (95% CI: 4.6–NR). Median PFS was 2.6 months (95% CI: 1.4–3.8), and the median survival was 7.0 months (95% CI: 5.8–9.2). Grades 3–4 neutropenia was reported in 50% of patients; febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients (3.2%); grades 3–4 myalgia and grade 3 constipation were experienced by 10 (15.9%) and six (9.5%) of patients, respectively. Constipation was manageable, noncumulative and could be prevented with laxative prophylaxis. The encouraging results from this phase II study with vinflunine warrant further investigations in phase III trials as second- or first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma, as a single agent or in combination with other active drugs. PMID:16641911

  20. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  1. Food intake during the previous 24 h as a percentage of usual intake: a marker of hypoxia in infants with bronchiolitis: an observational, prospective, multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia associated with bronchiolitis is not always easy to assess on clinical grounds alone. The aim of this study was to determine the value of food intake during the previous 24 hours (bottle and spoon feeding), as a percentage of usual intake (24h FI), as a marker of hypoxia, and to compare its diagnostic value with that of usual clinical signs. Methods In this observational, prospective, multicenter study, 18 community pediatricians, enrolled 171 infants, aged from 0 to 6 months, with bronchiolitis (rhinorrhea + dyspnea + cough + expiratory sounds). Infants with risk factors (history of prematurity, chronic heart or lung disorders), breast-fed infants, and infants having previously been treated for bronchial disorders were excluded. The 24h FI, subcostal, intercostal, supracostal retractions, nasal flaring, respiratory rate, pauses, cyanosis, rectal temperature and respiratory syncytial virus test results were noted. The highest stable value of transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) was recorded. Hypoxia was noted if SpO2 was below 95% and verified. Results 24h FI ≥ 50% was associated with a 96% likelihood of SpO2 ≥ 95% [95% CI, 91–99]. In univariate analysis, 24h FI < 50% had the highest odds ratio (13.8) for SpO2 < 95%, compared to other 24h FI values and other clinical signs, as well as providing one of the best compromises between specificity (90%) and sensitivity (60%) for identifying infants with hypoxia. In multivariate analysis with adjustment for age, SpO2 < 95% was related to the presence of intercostal retractions (OR = 9.1 [95% CI, 2.4-33.8%]) and 24h FI < 50% (OR = 10.9 [95% CI, 3.0-39.1%]). Hospitalization (17 infants) was strongly related to younger age, 24h FI and intercostal retractions. Conclusion In practice, the measure of 24 h FI may be useful in identifying hypoxia and deserves further study. PMID:23311899

  2. Comparative Study of Pineapple Juice as a Negative Oral Contrast Agent in Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the image quality of magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) using Pineapple Juice (PJ) or ranitidine as negative oral contrast agents and no agent. Materials and Methods: MRCP images of patients administered PJ (n = 117) or Ranitidine (n = 110) at random, and patients without an agent (n = 50) were evaluated. The subjective image quality of the overall, extra hepatic bile duct and pancreatic duct and the degree of elimination of gastrointestinal fluid were scored by two blinded radiologists. Results were compared using Mann-Whitney’s U-test. Results: The degrees of elimination of gastro duodenal fluid of PJ and ranitidine were significantly better than those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01, respectively). The subjective image quality of PJ of the overall and extra hepatic bile duct were significantly better, although no significant differences for ranitidine were observed compared with those without an agent (p < 0.01 and p =0.23, p = 0.025 and p = 0.18). There were no significant differences for the pancreatic duct (p = 0.13 and p = 0.20), nor were there any significant differences in the evaluations between PJ and ranitidine (p = 0.21 and p = 0.96). Conclusion: PJ showed better performance compared to that of conventional ranitidine in terms of pancreatic and biliary depiction and safety. PMID:25738055

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-01

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. PMID:22863660

  4. Agent neutralization studies III. Detoxification of VX in aqueous persulfate. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanec, J.W.; Albizo, J.M.; Henderson, V.D.; Szafraniec, L.L.; Beaudry, W.T.

    1994-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of persulfate salts are frequently used to mineralize organic substrates in the course of total organic carbon analyses. A study has been conducted at the U.S. Army Edgewood Research, Development and Engineering Center to determine whether this approach may be useful to neutralize the nerve agent VX. VX was reacted with aqueous ammonium persulfate at 90 deg C and 70 deg C. The concentration of agent and the acidity of the mixture were varied. 31P-NMR was used to monitor the destruction of VX as well as the formation and degradation of the phosphorus-containing products. A titration procedure using ferrous sulfate and ceric ammonium nitrate was used to monitor the consumption of persulfate. The products formed and their stabilities were found to vary significantly with the acidity of the solution. Nuclear magnetic resonance, Oxidation, VX, Ammonium persulfate, Mineralization, Temperature effects, Chemical agent disposal.

  5. [Clinical and experimental studies on membranous pulp-capping agent with Chinese medicinal herbs].

    PubMed

    Wang, Z P; Li, Z R; Li, S L

    1993-06-01

    A membranous pulp-capping agent of Chinese medicinal herbs was made by ourselves prescription, and was filled in capsules for medication. Direct pulp-capping and pulpotomy were performed on 102 permanent teeth. During the observation period of more than one year, the successful rate was 82.4%. Under light microscope, the artificial exposed sites of normal sheep teeth were fully sealed after capping for 45 days. There were calcification under the exposed sites. The inner lines were preparative dentins. Experiments on dogs' teeth revealed that the pulps were normal after two month's direct pulp-capping, and the new dentins appeared. The bacteria culture test was made before and after the pulp-capping agent was used on ten deep carious teeth. It revealed that the bacteria all converted negative after medication of two weeks. Clinical and experimental studies indicated that the pulp-capping agent is valuable in clinical treatment. PMID:8257838

  6. Study by fluorescence microscopy of the effect of fluorescent whitening agents on the skin of mice.

    PubMed

    Luckhaus, G; Löser, E

    1975-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopic studies of the skin of hairless mice showed that a fluorescent whitening agent (FWA) of the bis(phenyltriazolyl)stilbenedisulfonate type did not penetrate into the subepithelial layers (dermis and subcutaneous tissue) of the skin after cutaneous application. PMID:1064538

  7. Alternative Strategies for Proof-of-Principle Studies of Antibacterial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, Andrej; Nord, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    The proof that a new antibacterial agent is not only active in vitro but also effective in vivo under clinically relevant conditions is currently provided (i) by using appropriate nonclinical models of infection and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) analysis providing evidence of the likelihood of clinical efficacy and (ii) by examining the study drug in exploratory clinical trials, as well as dose and schedule finding during phase II of clinical development. This approach is both time-consuming and costly. Furthermore, PK-PD targets for any novel antibacterial agent cannot be derived from studies with experimental animals. Therefore, alternative strategies have to be identified to prove the principle that a novel antibacterial agent is active under clinically relevant conditions. This review summarizes evidence that the quantitative analysis of shifts in the viable counts of pathogens in infected patients or the evaluation of the PD effect of an investigational agent on indicator organisms of the human resident microflora or colonizers of healthy volunteers, if paralleled with PK monitoring of serum and the target site, provides an alternative to a classical proof-of-principle study in the course of a phase II study program. PMID:24867989

  8. Studies of the action of chemical agents on the heart. Annual report, February 1985-February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Hassler, G.R.; Moutvic, R.R.

    1986-03-01

    This report describes initial studies to determine the subchronic effect of Soman and Sarin, on the electrical, mechanical, and neurochemical properties of the heart. Two different animal models are under development. The electrophysiologic and hemodynamic aspects of survival doses of chemical agent are begin studied in the dog. Two chronically instrumented dog models have been developed. The first is a hemodynamic dog model in which long-term measurements of left and right heart pressures, aortic flow, coronary flow as well as epicardial electrocardiograms, are monitored. The animals will be monitored at baseline and for one month following exposure in survival of a chemical-warfare-agent insult. These animals are stressed via treadmill exercise. The electrophysiology dog model consists of chronically implanted electrodes for performance of repetitive ventricular response stimulation, His bundle recording, and ECG analysis. Measurements are made prior to, and for one month following, exposure to survivable doses of CW agent. This dog model is further probed by sequential administration of various pharmacologic agents designed to study the autonomic status of the heart. All dogs and a limited number of the guinea pigs will be continuously monitored for occurrence of arrhythmic events utilizing Holter monitoring technology. The guinea pig neurochemical studies will include acetylcholines, choline acetyltransferase activity, QNB binding, choline uptake, norepinephrine levels and turnover, and norepinephrine uptake experiments.

  9. Mechanistic studies of Gd3+-based MRI contrast agents for Zn2+ detection: towards rational design.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Célia S; Caillé, Fabien; Pallier, Agnès; Morfin, Jean-François; Petoud, Stéphane; Suzenet, Franck; Tóth, Éva

    2014-08-25

    A series of novel pyridine-based Gd(3+) complexes have been prepared and studied as potential MRI contrast agents for Zn(2+) detection. By independent assessment of molecular parameters affecting relaxivity, we could interpret the relaxivity changes observed upon Zn(2+) binding in terms of variations of the rotational motion. PMID:25116889

  10. A Study of Some Effects of Early Change Agent Behavior on a Group Client System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darden, Douglas Wylie

    A study was conducted to explore some of the relationships existing between the early behavior of a change agent with a group client system and its subsequent effects on the helping relationship established between them. A review of related literature was made. The model of helping relationship which formed the basis for the design of the study…

  11. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  12. VIRAL GASTROENTERITIS AGENTS AND WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of electron microscopic techniques in the study of human gastroenteritis led in the 1970's to the identification of new viral agents that had previously escaped detection by routine cell culture procedures. These agents have been the focus of study by researchers ...

  13. Efficacy of confrontational counselling for smoking cessation in smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kotz, Daniel; Wesseling, Geertjan; Huibers, Marcus JH; van Schayck, Onno CP

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of spirometry for early detection of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still an issue of debate, particularly because of a lack of convincing evidence that spirometry has an added positive effect on smoking cessation. We hypothesise that early detection of COPD and confrontation with spirometry for smoking cessation may be effective when applying an approach we have termed "confrontational counselling"; a patient-centred approach which involves specific communication skills and elements of cognitive therapy. An important aspect is to confront the smoker with his/her airflow limitation during the counselling sessions. The primary objective of this study is to test the efficacy of confrontational counselling in comparison to regular health education and promotion for smoking cessation delivered by specialized respiratory nurses in current smokers with previously undiagnosed mild to moderate airflow limitation. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized controlled trial comparing confrontational counselling delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (experimental group), health education and promotion delivered by a respiratory nurse combined with nortriptyline for smoking cessation (control group 1), and "care as usual" delivered by the GP (control group 2). Early detection of smokers with mild to moderate airflow limitation is achieved by means of a telephone interview in combination with spirometry. Due to a comparable baseline risk of airflow limitation and motivation to quit smoking, and because of the standardization of number, duration, and scheduling of counselling sessions between the experimental group and control group 1, the study enables to assess the "net" effect of confrontational counselling. The study has been ethically approved and registered. Discussion Ethical as well as methodological considerations of the study are discussed in this protocol. A significant and relevant

  14. Plantar Pressure in Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy Patients with Active Foot Ulceration, Previous Ulceration and No History of Ulceration: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Aims Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Methods Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Results Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290–0.811, p<0.001; and 0.762, 95% CI 0.303–1.221, p = 0.001, respectively). Sub-group analyses demonstrated no significant difference in MPP for those with neuropathy with active ulceration compared to those without ulcers. A significant difference in MPP was found for those with neuropathy with a past history of ulceration compared to those without ulcers; (0.467, 95% CI 0.181– 0.753, p = 0.001). Statistical heterogeneity between studies was moderate. Conclusions Plantar pressures appear to be significantly higher in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy

  15. Efficacy and safety of subcutaneous vivaglobin® replacement therapy in previously untreated patients with primary immunodeficiency: a prospective, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Borte, Michael; Quinti, Isabella; Soresina, Annarosa; Fernández-Cruz, Eduardo; Ritchie, Bruce; Schmidt, Dirk S; McCusker, Christine

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of primary immunodeficiency (PI) is typically initiated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) loading and then continued with IVIG or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). This prospective, open-label, multicenter, 6-month study evaluated a new regimen of initiating IgG therapy with SCIG in 18 previously untreated patients. In the loading phase, SCIG 100 mg/kg was administered for five consecutive days (total loading dose 500 mg/kg). During the maintenance phase, patients self-infused SCIG 100 mg/kg/week at home. The primary efficacy endpoint of IgG levels ≥5 g/L on day 12 was achieved in 17 patients (94.4%; 95% CI 0.727, 0.999). The rate of infections was 3.95 episodes/patient/year. Improvement was found in many subscales of the health-related quality of life questionnaires. SCIG treatment was well tolerated, with no related serious adverse events (AEs). Nine (50%) patients experienced related AEs, including local reactions (rate 0.105 events/infusion). The results suggest that therapy of newly diagnosed patients with PI can be initiated directly with SCIG. PMID:21932110

  16. Molecular Modeling Approaches to Study the Binding Mode on Tubulin of Microtubule Destabilizing and Stabilizing Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Maurizio; Forli, Stefano; Magnani, Matteo; Manetti, Fabrizio

    Tubulin targeting agents constitute an important class of anticancer drugs. By acting either as microtubule stabilizers or destabilizers, they disrupt microtubule dynamics, thus inducing mitotic arrest and, ultimately, cell death by apoptosis. Three different binding sites, whose exact location on tubulin has been experimentally detected, have been identified so far for antimitotic compound targeting microtubules, namely the taxoid, the colchicine and the vinka alkaloid binding site. A number of ligand- and structure-based molecular modeling studies in this field has been reported over the years, aimed at elucidating the binding modes of both stabilizing and destabilizing agent, as well as the molecular features responsible for their efficacious interaction with tubulin. Such studies are described in this review, focusing on information provided by different modeling approaches on the structural determinants of antitubulin agents and the interactions with the binding pockets on tubulin emerged as fundamental for antitumor activity.To describe molecular modeling approaches applied to date to molecules known to bind microtubules, this paper has been divided into two main parts: microtubule destabilizing (Part 1) and stabilizing (Part 2) agents. The first part includes structure-based and ligand-based approaches to study molecules targeting colchicine (1.1) and vinca alkaloid (1.2) binding sites, respectively. In the second part, the studies performed on microtubule-stabilizing antimitotic agents (MSAA) are described. Starting from the first representative compound of this class, paclitaxel, molecular modeling studies (quantitative structure-activity relationships - QSAR - and structure-based approaches), performed on natural compounds acting with the same mechanism of action and temptative common pharmacophoric hypotheses for all of these compounds, are reported.

  17. Suppressor Mutations in the Study of Photosystem I Biogenesis: sll0088 Is a Previously Unidentified Gene Involved in Reaction Center Accumulation in Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jianping; Shen, Gaozhong; Wang, Tao; Bryant, Donald A.; Golbeck, John H.; McIntosh, Lee

    2003-01-01

    In previous work, some members of our group isolated mutant strains of Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 in which point mutations had been inserted into the psaC gene to alter the cysteine residues to the FA and FB iron-sulfur clusters in the PsaC subunit of photosystem I (J. P. Yu, I. R. Vassiliev, Y. S. Jung, J. H. Golbeck, and L. McIntosh, J. Biol. Chem. 272:8032-8039, 1997). These mutant strains did not grow photoautotrophically due to suppressed levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I. In the results described here, we show that suppressor mutations produced strains that are capable of photoautotrophic growth at moderate light intensity (20 μmol m−2 s−1). Two separate suppressor strains of C14SPsaC, termed C14SPsaC-R62 and C14SPsaC-R18, were studied and found to have mutations in a previously uncharacterized open reading frame of the Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 genome named sll0088. C14SPsaC-R62 was found to substitute Pro for Arg at residue 161 as the result of a G482→C change in sll0088, and C14SPsaC-R18 was found to have a three-amino-acid insertion of Gly-Tyr-Phe following Cys231 as the result of a TGGTTATTT duplication at T690 in sll0088. These suppressor strains showed near-wild-type levels of chlorophyll a and photosystem I, yet the serine oxygen ligand to FB was retained as shown by the retention of the S ≥ 3/2 spin state of the [4Fe-4S] cluster. The inactivation of sll0088 by insertion of a kanamycin resistance cartridge in the primary C14SPsaC mutant produced an engineered suppressor strain capable of photoautotrophic growth. There was no difference in psaC gene expression or in the amount of PsaC protein assembled in thylakoids between the wild type and an sll0088 deletion mutant. The sll0088 gene encodes a protein predicted to be a transcriptional regulator with sequence similarities to transcription factors in other prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, including Arabidopsis thaliana. The protein contains a typical helix

  18. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  19. Recent Advances in Agent-Based Tsunami Evacuation Simulations: Case Studies in Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mas, Erick; Koshimura, Shunichi; Imamura, Fumihiko; Suppasri, Anawat; Muhari, Abdul; Adriano, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    As confirmed by the extreme tsunami events over the last decade (the 2004 Indian Ocean, 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunami events), mitigation measures and effective evacuation planning are needed to reduce disaster risks. Modeling tsunami evacuations is an alternative means to analyze evacuation plans and possible scenarios of evacuees' behaviors. In this paper, practical applications of an agent-based tsunami evacuation model are presented to demonstrate the contributions that agent-based modeling has added to tsunami evacuation simulations and tsunami mitigation efforts. A brief review of previous agent-based evacuation models in the literature is given to highlight recent progress in agent-based methods. Finally, challenges are noted for bridging gaps between geoscience and social science within the agent-based approach for modeling tsunami evacuations.

  20. A Pilot Study: The Efficacy of Virgin Coconut Oil as Ocular Rewetting Agent on Rabbit Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Mutalib, Haliza Abdul; Kaur, Sharanjeet; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Chinn Hooi, Ng; Safie, Nor Hasanah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. An open-label pilot study of virgin coconut oil (VCO) was conducted to determine the safety of the agent as ocular rewetting eye drops on rabbits. Methods. Efficacy of the VCO was assessed by measuring NIBUT, anterior eye assessment, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value before instillation and at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks after instillation. Friedman test was used to analyse any changes in all the measurable variables over the period of time. Results. Only conjunctival redness with instillation of saline agent showed significant difference over the period of time (P < 0.05). However, further statistical analysis had shown no significant difference at 30 min, 60 min, and two weeks compared to initial measurement (P > 0.05). There were no changes in the NIBUT, limbal redness, palpebral conjunctiva redness, corneal staining, pH, and Schirmer value over the period of time for each agent (P > 0.05). Conclusion. VCO acts as safe rewetting eye drops as it has shown no significant difference in the measurable parameter compared to commercial brand eye drops and saline. These study data suggest that VCO is safe to be used as ocular rewetting agent on human being. PMID:25802534

  1. Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prostheses: a preliminary in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Gupta, Gaurav; Prithviraj, D R; Pujari, Malesh

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary in vitro study was to compare the retentiveness of a luting agent designed for use with dental implants to luting agents designed for use with tooth-retained restorations. The following luting agents were tested: (1) implant cement, (2) resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass-ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using a universal testing machine, and the loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. The mean cement failure loads (N) were 333.86 ± 18.91 for implant cement, 394.62 ± 9.76 for resin-bonded zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 629.30 ± 20.65 for zinc phosphate cement, 810.08 ± 11.52 for zinc polycarboxylate cement, and 750.17 ± 13.78 for glass-ionomer cement. The retention provided by polycarboxylate cement was significantly greater than that of all other luting agents; the implant cement showed the lowest retention values. These preliminary in vitro observations need to be confirmed under conditions that more closely approximate the clinical environment. PMID:23342339

  2. X-ray diffraction study of the binding of the antisickling agent 12C79 to human hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Wireko, R.C.; Abraham, D.J. )

    1991-03-15

    The hemoglobin binding site of the antisickling agent 12C79 has been determined by x-ray crystallography. 12C79 is recognized as one of the first molecules to reach clinical trials that was designed, de novo, from x-ray-determined atomic coordinates of a protein. Several previous attempts to verify the proposed Hb binding sites via crystallographic studies have failed. Using revised experimental procedures, the authors obtained 12C79-deoxhemoglobin crystals grown after reaction with oxyhemoglobin and cyanoborohydride reduction to stabilize the Schiff base linkage. The difference electron-density Fourier maps show that two 12C79 molecules bind covalently to both symmetry-related N-terminal amino groups of the hemoglobin {alpha} chains. This is in contrast to the original design that proposed the binding of one drug molecule that spans the molecular dyad to interact with both N-terminal {alpha}-amino groups.

  3. Design, Synthesis, and SAR Studies of 4-Substituted Methoxylbenzoyl-aryl-thiazoles Analogues as Potent and Orally Bioavailable Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yan; Li, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhao; Chen, Jianjun; Mohler, Michael L.; Li, Wei; Dalton, James T.; Miller, Duane D.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to improve upon the previously published 4-substituted methoxybenzoyl-arylthiazole (SMART) template, we explored chemodiverse “B” rings and “B” to “C” ring linkage. Further, to overcome the poor aqueous solubility of this series of agents, we introduced polar and ionizable hydrophilic groups to obtain water-soluble compounds. For instance, based on in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies, an orally bioavailable phenyl-aminothiazole (PAT) template was designed and synthesized in which an amino linkage was inserted between “A” and “B” rings of compound 1. The PAT template maintained nanomolar (nM) range potency against cancer cell lines via inhibiting tubulin polymerization and was not susceptible to P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance in vitro, and markedly improved solubility and bioavailability compared with the SMART template (45a–c (PAT) vs 1 (SMART)). PMID:21557538

  4. Integrated Agent-Based and Production Cost Modeling Framework for Renewable Energy Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Giulia

    2015-10-07

    The agent-based framework for renewable energy studies (ARES) is an integrated approach that adds an agent-based model of industry actors to PLEXOS and combines the strengths of the two to overcome their individual shortcomings. It can examine existing and novel wholesale electricity markets under high penetrations of renewables. ARES is demonstrated by studying how increasing levels of wind will impact the operations and the exercise of market power of generation companies that exploit an economic withholding strategy. The analysis is carried out on a test system that represents the Electric Reliability Council of Texas energy-only market in the year 2020. The results more realistically reproduce the operations of an energy market under different and increasing penetrations of wind, and ARES can be extended to address pressing issues in current and future wholesale electricity markets.

  5. Agent-Based vs. Equation-based Epidemiological Models:A Model Selection Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2012-01-01

    This paper is motivated by the need to design model validation strategies for epidemiological disease-spread models. We consider both agent-based and equation-based models of pandemic disease spread and study the nuances and complexities one has to consider from the perspective of model validation. For this purpose, we instantiate an equation based model and an agent based model of the 1918 Spanish flu and we leverage data published in the literature for our case- study. We present our observations from the perspective of each implementation and discuss the application of model-selection criteria to compare the risk in choosing one modeling paradigm to another. We conclude with a discussion of our experience and document future ideas for a model validation framework.

  6. Studies on the chemical synthesis and characterization of lead oxide nanoparticles with different organic capping agents

    SciTech Connect

    Arulmozhi, K. T.; Mythili, N.

    2013-12-15

    Lead oxide (PbO) nanoparticles were chemically synthesized using Lead (II) acetate as precursor. The effects of organic capping agents such as Oleic acid, Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) and Cetryl Tri Methyl Butoxide (CTAB) on the size and morphology of the nanoparticles were studied. Characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Photoluminescence (PL) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used to analyse the prepared nanoparticles for their physical, structural and optical properties. The characterization studies reveal that the synthesized PbO nanoparticles had well defined crystalline structure and sizes in the range of 25 nm to 36 nm for capping agents used and 40 nm for pure PbO nanoparticles.

  7. Studies on Hdpe-Coconut Flour Composites: Effect of Coupling Agents and Surface Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albano, C.; González, J.; Hernández, M.; Ichazo, M. N.; Alvarado, Sinai; Ziegler, Dulce Maria

    2008-08-01

    This study investigates the mechanical, thermal and morphological behavior of coconut flour/polyethylene composites, with special interest on the influence of the surface modification of coconut flour and the presence of different coupling agents on the interfacial bonding. The different treatments of the composites with an EAA copolymer, with titanate, with 5 and 18 wt% of NaOH and acetylating, confirm the better tensile behavior of these composites.

  8. Agent Based Study of Surprise Attacks:. Roles of Surveillance, Prompt Reaction and Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanahan, Linda; Sen, Surajit

    Defending a confined territory from a surprise attack is seldom possible. We use molecular dynamics and statistical physics inspired agent-based simulations to explore the evolution and outcome of such attacks. The study suggests robust emergent behavior, which emphasizes the importance of accurate surveillance, automated and powerful attack response, building layout, and sheds light on the role of communication restrictions in defending such territories.

  9. Treatability study report for remediation of chemical warfare agent contaminated soils using peroxysulfate ex-situ treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, J.R.; Grinstead, J.H.; Farley, J.A.; Enlow, P.D.; Kelly, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    This laboratory scale study examines the feasibility of using peroxysulfate based oxidants to remediate soils contaminated with GB, Hi, and VX. The project was conducted with chemical warfare agent simulants. The study concludes that peroxysulfates, and particularly peroxydisulfate, can degrade chemical warfare agent simulants in soil and recommends continuing research.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  11. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  12. Study of the attractor structure of an agent-based sociological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Sznajd model is a sociophysics model that is based in the Potts model, and used for describing opinion propagation in a society. It employs an agent-based approach and interaction rules favouring pairs of agreeing agents. It has been successfully employed in modeling some properties and scale features of both proportional and majority elections (see for instance the works of A. T. Bernardes and R. N. Costa Filho), but its stationary states are always consensus states. In order to explain more complicated behaviours, we have modified the bounded confidence idea (introduced before in other opinion models, like the Deffuant model), with the introduction of prejudices and biases (we called this modification confidence rules), and have adapted it to the discrete Sznajd model. This generalized Sznajd model is able to reproduce almost all of the previous versions of the Sznajd model, by using appropriate choices of parameters. We solved the attractor structure of the resulting model in a mean-field approach and made Monte Carlo simulations in a Barabási-Albert network. These simulations show great similarities with the mean-field, for the tested cases of 3 and 4 opinions. The dynamical systems approach that we devised allows for a deeper understanding of the potential of the Sznajd model as an opinion propagation model and can be easily extended to other models, like the voter model. Our modification of the bounded confidence rule can also be readily applied to other opinion propagation models.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Non-Platinum-Based Halogenated Compounds as Potent Antitumor Agents for Natural Targeted Chemotherapy of Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Qin-Rong; Ou, Ning; Wang, Chun-Rong; Warrington, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Based on a molecular-mechanism-based anticancer drug discovery program enabled by an innovative femtomedicine approach, we have found a previously unknown class of non-platinum-based halogenated molecules (called FMD compounds) as potent antitumor agents for effective treatment of cancers. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo studies of the compounds for targeted chemotherapy of cervical, breast, ovarian, and lung cancers. Our results show that these FMD agents led to DNA damage, cell cycle arrest in the S phase, and apoptosis in cancer cells. We also observed that such a FMD compound caused an increase of reduced glutathione (GSH, an endogenous antioxidant) levels in human normal cells, while it largely depleted GSH in cancer cells. We correspondingly found that these FMD agents exhibited no or little toxicity toward normal cells/tissues, while causing significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells, as well as suppression and delay in tumor growth in mouse xenograft models of cervical, ovarian, breast and lung cancers. These compounds are therefore a previously undiscovered class of potent antitumor agents that can be translated into clinical trials for natural targeted chemotherapy of multiple cancers. PMID:26351651

  14. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  15. Study and implementation of the network management agent of telecommunication application server in NGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kun; He, Hui; Ni, Yuhua

    2013-03-01

    The telecommunication application server (AS) is an important part of the value-added service network in the next generation network(NGN) as the support platform. Remote, unified and secure management to a variety of services is implemented after the remote network management of the telecommunications application server. The network management system based on Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is decided to utilized to analyse and study the network managed objects in AS because of the integration of telecommunications networks and computer networks on the network management and convenient, economical and flexible features of SNMP protocol. The network management agent module of AS is designed and an example is illustrated the details of the model. Results indicate the good performance of the network management agent.

  16. Synthesis of nanoparticle CT contrast agents: in vitro and in vivo studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung June; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Park, Ji Ae; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-10-01

    Water-soluble and biocompatible D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles were synthesized for the first time to be used as x-ray computed tomography (CT) contrast agents. Their average particle diameters were 3.2 ± 0.1 and 2.8 ± 0.1 nm for D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 and BaCO3 nanoparticles, respectively. All the nanoparticles exhibited a strong x-ray attenuation. In vivo CT images were obtained after intravenous injection of an aqueous sample suspension of D-glucuronic acid coated Na2WO4 nanoparticles, and positive contrast enhancements in the kidney were clearly shown. These findings indicate that the nanoparticles reported in this study may be promising CT contrast agents.

  17. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Graham, Stuart J.; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  18. Pre-validation study for testing of avian viral vaccines for extraneous agents by PCR.

    PubMed

    Bruckner, L; Ottiger, H P

    2007-12-01

    The biological nature of vaccines imposes a permanent risk for contamination with extraneous agents. Therefore, testing of vaccines for freedom from extraneous agents is essential in the manufacturing process and quality control. Relevant methods for testing for extraneous agents of avian viral vaccines are specified in the monographs of the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). Currently, most of these methods involve the use of embryonated eggs or chickens. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a widely used and suitable tool for the amplification and detection of extraneous nucleic acids. Different PCR assays have been developed for the application in routine testing of veterinary vaccines. However, before introduction of new methods in monographs of the Ph. Eur., they must undergo validation. Here we report about a pre-validation study performed in Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs). Diluted samples of avian infectious laryngotracheitis, avian infectious bronchitis and avian infectious bursal disease viruses have been analysed using standardised procedures and reagents. The study demonstrated that PCR methods can be transferred to other laboratories. The results also show that further work is warranted for full validation of the method. PMID:18413134

  19. Qualitative, quantitative and temporal study of cutting agents for cocaine and heroin over 9 years.

    PubMed

    Broséus, Julian; Gentile, Natacha; Bonadio Pont, Federica; Garcia Gongora, Juan Manuel; Gasté, Laëtitia; Esseiva, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Forensic laboratories mainly focus on the qualification and the quantitation of the illicit drug under analysis as both aspects are used for judiciary purposes. Therefore, information related to cutting agents (adulterants and diluents) detected in illicit drugs is limited in the forensic literature. This article discusses the type and frequency of adulterants and diluents detected in more than 6000 cocaine specimens and 3000 heroin specimens, confiscated in western Switzerland from 2006 to 2014. The results show a homogeneous and quite unchanging adulteration for heroin, while for cocaine it could be characterised as heterogeneous and relatively dynamic. Furthermore, the results indicate that dilution affects more cocaine than heroin. Therefore, the results provided by this study tend to reveal differences between the respective structures of production or distribution of cocaine and heroin. This research seeks to promote the systematic analysis of cutting agents by forensic laboratories. Collecting and processing data related to the presence of cutting agents in illicit drug specimens produces relevant information to understand and to compare the structure of illicit drug markets. PMID:26448535

  20. Electrophysiological studies of penticainide (CM 7857), a new antiarrhythmic agent, in mammalian myocardium.

    PubMed

    Gautier, P; Guiraudou, P; Pezziardi, F; Bertrand, J P; Gagnol, J P

    1987-05-01

    The intracellular electrophysiologic properties of a new antiarrhythmic substance, penticainide, were studied in isolated rabbit, dog, and guinea pig myocardial preparations superfused or perfused with oxygenated Tyrode's solution. "Therapeutic" concentrations of penticainide (1.5 to 3 X 10(-5) M) had little effect on sinus node automaticity; sinoatrial conduction was slightly delayed. In atrial, Purkinje and ventricular fibers, amplitude, and maximal rate of rise of phase O (dV/dtmax) were decreased by penticainide; Purkinje-ventricle conduction velocity was depressed. Penticainide did not significantly modify action potential duration (APD) of rabbit atria and dog ventricle and reduced APD and effective refractory period (ERP) of dog Purkinje and guinea pig ventricular fibers. Penticainide reduced APD heterogeneity of Purkinje-ventricle junction with a preferential effect at the gate and decreased tension amplitude of perfused papillary muscle in dog heart. The effect of penticainide on dV/dtmax was voltage and rate dependent; the resting block was weak. Thus, penticainide is a class 1 antiarrhythmic agent with properties of class 1B agents such as APD reduction and properties of class 1C agents such as slow recovery kinetic of rate-dependent block. PMID:2439843

  1. Inner conflict in patients receiving oral anticancer agents: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of patients receiving oral anticancer agents. Design A qualitative study using semistructured interviews with a grounded theory approach. Setting A university hospital in Japan. Participants 14 patients with gastric cancer who managed their cancer with oral anticancer agents. Results Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict between rational belief and emotional resistance to taking medication due to confrontation with cancer, doubt regarding efficacy and concerns over potential harm attached to use of the agent. Although they perceived themselves as being adherent to medication, they reported partial non-adherent behaviours. The patients reassessed their lives through the experience of inner conflict and, ultimately, they recognised their role in medication therapy. Conclusions Patients with cancer experienced inner conflict, in which considerable emotional resistance to taking their medication affected their occasional non-adherent behaviours. In patient-centred care, it is imperative that healthcare providers understand patients’ inner conflict and inconsistency between their subjective view and behaviour to support patient adherence. PMID:25872938

  2. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    SciTech Connect

    Timpanaro, Andre M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-24

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2](where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: {eta}{sub {sigma}} = {Sigma}{sub {sigma}}'{sup M} = 1{eta}{sub {sigma}}{eta}{sigma}'({eta}{sub {sigma}}{rho}{sigma}'{yields}{sigma}-{sigma}'{rho}{sigma}{yields}{sigma}').Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin){sigma}', M is the number of opinions and {sigma}'{yields}{sigma}' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion {sigma} being convinced by another agent with opinion {sigma}'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabasi-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  3. Dynamical systems approach to the study of a sociophysics agent-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timpanaro, André M.; Prado, Carmen P. C.

    2011-03-01

    The Sznajd model is a Potts-like model that has been studied in the context of sociophysics [1,2] (where spins are interpreted as opinions). In a recent work [3], we generalized the Sznajd model to include assymetric interactions between the spins (interpreted as biases towards opinions) and used dynamical systems techniques to tackle its mean-field version, given by the flow: ησ = ∑ σ' = 1Mησησ'(ησρσ'→σ-σ'ρσ→σ'). Where hs is the proportion of agents with opinion (spin) σ', M is the number of opinions and σ'→σ' is the probability weight for an agent with opinion σ being convinced by another agent with opinion σ'. We made Monte Carlo simulations of the model in a complex network (using Barabási-Albert networks [4]) and they displayed the same attractors than the mean-field. Using linear stability analysis, we were able to determine the mean-field attractor structure analytically and to show that it has connections with well known graph theory problems (maximal independent sets and positive fluxes in directed graphs). Our dynamical systems approach is quite simple and can be used also in other models, like the voter model.

  4. Feasibility study for the manufacture of zero gravity pharmaceuticles, immunological, and viral agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of extracting, isolating, purifying, separating, or preparing medical and biological products of high socio-economic value in space was studied. In particular, the study was designed to concentrate on the isolation or purification of virals, pharmaceutical and immunological agents by means of electrophoresis, as the Apollo 16 flight demonstrated that a mixed population of latex spheres (.2 and .8 microns) could be successfully separated by electrophoresis in space and without sedimentation with minimal convection. This prompted NASA scientists to look into the possibility of carrying out types of biochemical experiments that would utilize space for medical purposes.

  5. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052. PMID:19643007

  6. Value of postmarketing surveillance studies in achieving a complete picture of antimigraine agents: using almotriptan as an example.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Massiou, Hélène

    2006-02-01

    Randomised controlled trials cannot collect all the data relevant for use in everyday clinical practice because drug exposure is limited, endpoints are restricted and some patient populations are excluded. Postmarketing surveillance (PS) studies can add important information for real-world clinical practice. Acute migraine therapy with almotriptan 12.5 mg was evaluated in 4 PS studies, 2 conducted in Spain, 1 in Germany and 1 in France. Almotriptan was associated with a high rate of treatment response and was well tolerated in all 4 studies. In the Spanish and German studies, 2-hour pain-relief, 2-hour pain-free, and sustained painfree rates were enhanced when patients treated mild pain. Patient satisfaction with almotriptan, assessed in the German and French studies, was high and the majority of patients preferred almotriptan to their previous acute migraine therapy. In conclusion, PS studies augment our knowledge of antimigraine therapy, giving a more complete picture of how such agents work in the general population. PMID:16440139

  7. An agent-based simulation model to study accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pai; Wu, Shinyi

    2016-03-01

    Creating accountable care organizations (ACOs) has been widely discussed as a strategy to control rapidly rising healthcare costs and improve quality of care; however, building an effective ACO is a complex process involving multiple stakeholders (payers, providers, patients) with their own interests. Also, implementation of an ACO is costly in terms of time and money. Immature design could cause safety hazards. Therefore, there is a need for analytical model-based decision-support tools that can predict the outcomes of different strategies to facilitate ACO design and implementation. In this study, an agent-based simulation model was developed to study ACOs that considers payers, healthcare providers, and patients as agents under the shared saving payment model of care for congestive heart failure (CHF), one of the most expensive causes of sometimes preventable hospitalizations. The agent-based simulation model has identified the critical determinants for the payment model design that can motivate provider behavior changes to achieve maximum financial and quality outcomes of an ACO. The results show nonlinear provider behavior change patterns corresponding to changes in payment model designs. The outcomes vary by providers with different quality or financial priorities, and are most sensitive to the cost-effectiveness of CHF interventions that an ACO implements. This study demonstrates an increasingly important method to construct a healthcare system analytics model that can help inform health policy and healthcare management decisions. The study also points out that the likely success of an ACO is interdependent with payment model design, provider characteristics, and cost and effectiveness of healthcare interventions. PMID:24715674

  8. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future. PMID:26555161

  9. Phase I study of the anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody milatuzumab (hLL1) in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Peter; Furman, Richard R.; Rutherford, Sarah; Ruan, Jia; Ely, Scott; Greenberg, June; Coleman, Morton; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Leonard, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Milatuzumab (hLL1), a humanized anti-CD74 monoclonal antibody, has activity in preclinical NHL models. We conducted a phase 1 trial in previously treated B-cell malignancies. Dose escalation included 4 planned dose levels (1.5, 4, 6, and 8 mg/kg) with milatuzumab given twice weekly for 6 weeks. After dose level 1, the schedule was changed to daily (Monday-Friday) for 10 days. Twenty-two patients were treated. The most common possibly-related toxicities were infusion reaction, anemia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Three patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity (neutropenia, neutropenia, rash) at dose levels 1, 2, and 4 respectively. Eight patients had stable disease, with no objective responses. The serum half-life of milatuzumab was ~2 hours. In 7 patients, In-111-imaging showed no clear evidence of tumor targeting. The short half-life may reflect CD74 rapid internalization and presence on extratumoral tissues; this antigen sink must be overcome to capitalize on the promising preclinical activity of the drug. PMID:25754579

  10. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage. PMID:2585023

  11. Botanical studies in the vicinity of Cumberland Steam Plant: results of surveys conducted in 1978 and a review of surveys conducted in previous years. [Trees, shrubs, weeds, grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; Cunningham, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    No foliar effects attributable to SO/sub 2/ emissions from Cumberland Steam Plant were observed in 1978. Foliar injury was observed on vegetation during only one of the five growing seasons that surveys have been conducted in the Cumberland area. In 1974, effects were observed on one weed species, giant ragweed, in one 50-acre area. During the 1978 growing season, the sulfur content of coal fired was the lowest since the plant became operational (3.5 vs 3.7 to 3.8 percent); however, average daily SO/sub 2/ emissions were the highest since the plant became operational (due to the steam plant's operational level). After the steam plant is in compliance, December 1982, the SO/sub 2/ emission rate will be almost one-third less than during the 1978 growing season. The level of the National Secondary Ambient Air Quality Standard (3-h avg of 0.50 ppM) has never been exceeded at any SO/sub 2/ monitor in the Cumberland area during daylight hours of a growing season (time period when most vegetation is sensitive to SO/sub 2/ exposure). Previous operational and SO/sub 2/ monitoring data, botanical survey results, and projected SO/sub 2/ emission rates indicate that it is unlikely that emissions from the steam plant will injure vegetation as long as the emission rate does not exceed the interim or final compliance level.

  12. Potential of Microbispora sp. V2 as biocontrol agent against Sclerotium rolfsii, the causative agent of southern blight of Zea mays L (Baby corn)--in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Patil, N N; Waghmode, M S; Gaikwad, P S; Gajbhiye, M H; Gunjal, A B; Nawani, N N; Kapadnis, B P

    2014-11-01

    The study was undertaken with the aim of exploring novel and beneficial agro activities of rare actinomycetes like Microbispora sp. V2. The antagonistic activity of Microbispora sp. V2 was evaluated as a biocontrol agents against Sclerotium rolfsii, a soil-borne fungal plant pathogen. The methodology performed for evaluation of biocontrol agent was in vitro evaluation assay which comprised of three tests viz., cellophane overlay technique, seed germination test and Thiram (fungicide) tolerance of Microbispora sp. V2. The isolate was found to inhibit the fungal pathogen Sclerotium rolfsii to 91.43% in cellophane assay. In seed germination assay, Microbispora sp. V2 treated seeds resulted in 25.75% increased germination efficiency, as compared to seeds infected by Sclerotium rolfsii. The isolate Microbispora sp. V2 could tolerate 1000 microg mL(-1) of Thiram (fungicide). The in vitro assay studies proved that Microbispora sp. V2 can be used as antifungal antagonist and thus posses' great potential as biocontrol agent against southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii in Zea mays L (Baby corn) which causes large economical losses. PMID:25434111

  13. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methods presented.

  14. Design, diversity-oriented synthesis and structure activity relationship studies of quinolinyl heterocycles as antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Rachakonda, Venkatesham; Alla, Manjula; Kotipalli, Sudha Sravanti; Ummani, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The current study reports design and diversity oriented synthesis of novel bis heterocycles with a common 2-methyl, C-4 unsubstituted quinoline moiety as the central key heterocycle. Employing reagent based skeletal diversity approach; a facile synthesis of bis heterocycles with different heterocyclic rings at C-3 position of the quinoline moiety has been accomplished. A broad range of heterocyclic frameworks thus obtained were evaluated for their antimycobacterial activity. The active scaffolds were further explored by a parallel library generation in order to establish SAR. Further, low cytotoxicity against A549 cell line enhances the potential of the synthesized molecules as promising antimycobacterial agents. PMID:24189497

  15. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  16. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Luciano Tavares Angelo; Benetti, Francine; Ferreira, Luciana Lousada; Rahal, Vanessa; Ervolino, Edilson; Jacinto, Rogério de Castilho; Gomes, João Eduardo; Briso, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials, in general, are tested in different animal models prior to their clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals (control) were untreated. The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell counting in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. The counting of fibroblasts was also performed. Scores were attributed to the odontoblastic layer and to vascular changes. The tertiary dentin area and the pulp chamber central area were histomorphometrically measured. Data were compared by the analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the occlusal third of the coronal pulp until the time of 15 min for both concentrations of bleaching gels. In 30 and 45 min groups of each concentration, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, a reduction in the pulp chamber central area and an enlargement of tertiary dentin area were observed without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extra coronal bleaching showed to be adequate for bleaching protocols studies, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and in the tooth structure caused by different concentrations and periods of application of bleaching agents. PMID:27008262

  17. Evaluation of an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents

    PubMed Central

    CINTRA, Luciano Tavares Angelo; BENETTI, Francine; FERREIRA, Luciana Louzada; RAHAL, Vanessa; ERVOLINO, Edilson; JACINTO, Rogério de Castilho; GOMES, João Eduardo; BRISO, André Luiz Fraga

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dental materials in general are tested in different animal models prior to the clinical use in humans, except for bleaching agents. Objectives To evaluate an experimental rat model for comparative studies of bleaching agents, by investigating the influence of different concentrations and application times of H2O2 gel in the pulp tissue during in-office bleaching of rats’ vital teeth. Material and Methods The right and left maxillary molars of 50 Wistar rats were bleached with 20% and 35% H2O2 gels, respectively, for 5, 10, 15, 30, or 45 min (n=10 rats/group). Ten animals were untreated (control). The rats were killed after 2 or 30 days, and the maxillae were examined by light microscopy. Inflammation was evaluated through histomorphometric analysis with inflammatory cell count in the coronal and radicular thirds of the pulp. Fibroblasts were also counted. Scores were attributed to odontoblastic layer and vascular changes. Tertiary dentin area and pulp chamber central area were measured histomorphometrically. Data were compared by analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.05). Results After 2 days, the amount of inflammatory cells increased in the coronal pulp occlusal third up to the 15-min application groups of each bleaching gel. In the groups exposed to each concentration for 30 and 45 min, the number of inflammatory cells decreased along with the appearance of necrotic areas. After 30 days, reduction on the pulp chamber central area and enlargement of the tertiary dentin area were observed, without the detection of inflammation areas. Conclusion The rat model of extracoronal bleaching showed to be adequate for studies of bleaching protocols, as it was possible to observe alterations in the pulp tissues and tooth structure caused by different concentrations and application periods of bleaching agents. PMID:27119766

  18. Embodied Agents in E-Learning Environments: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, A. Kamil; Ferneley, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in embodied agents (or avatars) and the effects on human cognition and motivation. Specifically there is an increasing interest in the use of embodied agents in e-learning environments. However, empirical investigations into the use of embodied agents in online education are limited. Our aim is to provide a framework…

  19. Comparison of Contrast Volume, Radiation Dose, Fluoroscopy Time, and Procedure Time in Previously Published Studies of Rotational Versus Conventional Coronary Angiography.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Rios, Rodrigo; Buelow, Matthew; Eagam, Mamata; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Arora, Rohit R

    2015-07-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CA) with static imaging is limited by the ability to properly select the optimal acquisition angle, vessel foreshortening, and significant radiation exposure. Rotational coronary angiography (RA) acquires coronary images in a multitude of viewing angles during a single injection by means of a moving gantry that rapidly completes a predefined arc. This study compares procedural characteristics of CA and RA. Electronic search of databases such as OVID, Medline, and PubMed was conducted to identify studies comparing procedural characteristics of CA and RA. End points for analysis included contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, radiation dose by air kerma, fluoroscopy time, and procedure time. Studies were assessed for quality and bias and were included if they compared coronary imaging of both the right and left coronary systems with CA and RA, included one of the end points of interest, and were in English. A total of 11 studies consisting of 940 patients who underwent RA and 976 who underwent CA were included in the final analysis. Contrast volume, radiation dose by dose area product, and radiation dose by air kerma were all found to be significantly lower with RA compared with CA. There was a statistically significant increase in fluoroscopy time, although this was not clinically significant, and there was no difference in procedure time. RA angiography is a feasible alternative to CA and offers reductions in contrast used and radiation exposure. PMID:25983128

  20. [Study on thermal decompositon properties of hexafluoropropane clean gaseous fire-extinguishing agent].

    PubMed

    Tan, Ling-hua; Li, Qin-hua; Gao, Fei; Pan, Ren-ming; Li, Feng-sheng; Wang, Jun-de

    2010-07-01

    The thermal decomposition properties of hexafluoropropane clean gaseous fire-extinguishing agent were studied in tubular reactor from 500 to 750 degrees C and the decomposed gas was characterized by gas chromatography(GC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hydrogen fluoride was detected after the decomposed gas was analyzed by pH testing, while pentafluoropropylene was found by GC-MS. The results showed that hydrogen fluoride eliminated from hexafluoropropane was the main reaction, while pentafluoropropylene was the primary product during hexafluoropropane decomposition under high temperature. GC and FTIR results indicated that the reaction temperatures had significant effects on the thermal decomposition of hexafluoropropane. Haxafluropropane was steady at 500 degrees C, whereas started to decompose weakly at 600 degrees C. The degree of the thermal decomposition of hexafluoropropane was enhanced with the temperature increase. And hexafluoropropane underwent intense decompositon at 750 degrees C. FTIR can be used as a new method to study extinguishing mechanism of fluorine-containing fire extinguishing agent online. PMID:20828001

  1. Mass spectrometric study of selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Papousková, Barbora; Bednár, Petr; Frysová, Iveta; Stýskala, Jakub; Hlavác, Jan; Barták, Petr; Ulrichová, Jitka; Jirkovský, Jaromír; Lemr, Karel

    2007-12-01

    Selected precursors and degradation products of chemical warfare agents namely N,N-dialkylaminoethane-2-ols, N,N-dialkylaminoethyl-2-chlorides and some of related N-quaternary salts were studied by means of electrospray ionization-multiple tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). Proposed structures were confirmed with accurate mass measurement. General fragmentation patterns of these compounds are discussed in detail and suggested processes are confirmed using deuterated standards. The typical processes are elimination of alkene, hydrogen chloride, or water, respectively. Besides, elimination of ethene from propyl chain under specific conditions was observed and unambiguously confirmed using exact mass measurement and labelled standard. The potential of mass spectrometry to distinguish the positional isomers occurring among the studied compounds is reviewed in detail using two different MS instruments (i.e. ion trap and hybrid quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) analyzer). A new microcolumn liquid chromatography (microLC)/MS(n) method was designed for the cases where the resolution based solely on differences in fragmentation is not sufficient. Low retention of the derivatives on reversed phase (RP) was overcome by using addition of less typical ion pairing agent (1 mM/l, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid) to the mobile phase (mixture water : acetonitrile). PMID:18085550

  2. Functionality study of santalin as tyrosinase inhibitor: A potential depigmentation agent.

    PubMed

    Hridya, Hemachandran; Amrita, Anantharaman; Mohan, Sankari; Gopalakrishnan, Mohan; Dakshinamurthy, Thirumal Kumar; Doss, George Priya; Siva, Ramamoorthy

    2016-05-01

    Excessive melanin production leads to hyperpigmentation disorders which results in distressing aesthetic values. Though there are some synthetic depigmentation agents available it has been reported to possess cytotoxic and mutagenic effects. Hence there is a need for the development of safe and non toxic natural tyrosinase inhibitors. Here we report the role of santalin, the chief constituent of Pterocarpus santalinus in inhibition of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Santalin inhibited tyrosinase activity dose dependently. Inhibitory kinetic studies revealed mixed type of inhibition with reversible mechanism. Santalin was found to interact with the fluorophore amino acid residue of tyrosinase. Analysis of circular dichroism spectra showed the binding of santalin to tyrosinase which induced the loss of secondary helical structure. Molecular docking result suggested that santalin interact with the catalytic core of tyrosinase through strong hydrogen and hydrophobic bonding. The results of in vitro studies showed santalin inhibited melanogenesis through down regulation of MITF, tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2 without any cytotoxic effects towards B16F0 melanoma cells. Therefore, our results suggested that santalin possesses anti-tyrosinase activity, which could be utilized as a safe depigmentation agent in the cosmetic field for the treatment of hyperpigmentation disorder. PMID:26828288

  3. The use of artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of economic markets

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, V.; Slagle, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The concepts of {open_quote}knowledge{close_quote} and {open_quote}rationality{close_quote} are of central importance to fields of science that are interested in human behavior and learning, such as artificial intelligence, economics, and psychology. The similarity between artificial intelligence and economics - both are concerned with intelligent thought, rational behavior, and the use and acquisition of knowledge - has led to the use of economic models as a paradigm for solving problems in distributed artificial intelligence (DAI) and multi agent systems (MAS). What we propose is the opposite; the use of artificial intelligence in the study of economic markets. Over the centuries various theories of market behavior have been advanced. The prevailing theory holds that an asset`s current price converges to the risk adjusted value of the rationally expected dividend stream. While this rational expectations model holds in equilibrium or near-equilibrium conditions, it does not sufficiently explain conditions of market disequilibrium. An example of market disequilibrium is the phenomenon of a speculative bubble. We present an example of using artificially intelligent agents with bounded rationality in the study of speculative bubbles.

  4. Transdermal Drug Delivery Aided by an Ultrasound Contrast Agent: An In Vitro Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghee; Yoon, Jinhee; Park, Jingam; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Seo, Jongbum

    2010-01-01

    Sonophoresis temporarily increases skin permeability such that medicine can be delivered transdermally. Cavitation is believed to be the predominant mechanism in sonophoresis. In this study, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) strategy was adopted instead of low frequency ultrasound to assure that cavitation occurred, and the efficacy of sonophoresis with UCA was quantitatively analyzed by optical measurements. The target drug used in this study was 0.1 % Definity® in 70% glycerol, which was delivered into porcine skin samples. Glycerol was used because it is an optical clearing agent, and the efficiency of glycerol delivery could be analyzed with optical measurements. The applied acoustic pressure was approximately 600 kPa at 1 MHz ultrasound with a 10% duty cycle for 60 minutes. Experimental results indicated that the measured relative contrast (RC) after sonophoresis with UCA was approximately 80% higher than RC after sonophoresis without UCA. In addition, the variance of RC was also reduced by more than 50% with the addition of a UCA. The use of a UCA appeared to increase cavitation, demonstrating that the use of a UCA can be effective in transdermal drug delivery (TDD). PMID:20448793

  5. Correction: Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Correction for `Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents' by Roxanne Hachani et al., Nanoscale, 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03867g.

  6. Natural history studies for the preliminary evaluation of a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted studies on the life history, behavior and ecology of Larinus filiformis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to determine if it is worthy of further evaluation as a classical biological control agent of yellow starthistle, Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae: Cardueae). Larinus filiformis occurs ...

  7. Effects of sealant, viscosity, and bonding agents on microleakage of fissure sealants: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabkhani, Maryam; Mazhari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Samaneh; Ebrahimi, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of enamel or dentin bonding agent (DBA) and sealant viscosity on sealant microleakage. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were randomly divided into two equal groups (based on sealant viscosity) and each group was divided into three subgroups of 10 teeth. Group 1 (low viscosity sealant, Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, USA with 7.7% filler): Prophylaxis, enameloplasty, etching of occlusal surfaces with 38% of phosphoric acid gel, rinsing and drying, followed by (1) enamel bonding agent (EBA) (Margin Bond, Coltène/Whaledent AG) or (2) DBA (Excite, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Liechtenstein) or (3) no bonding (NB) prior to sealant application. In Group 2, similar procedures were performed except for applying a high viscosity sealant (Seal-Rite, Pulpdent, The USA with 34.4% filler). Specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 0.5% basic fuchsine solution for 24 h next, buccolingual slices of samples were scored under a stereomicroscope. The Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U-tests were used for data analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between DBA, EBA, and NB subgroups in the microleakage scores in both groups. Low viscosity sealant had a lower microleakage than the high viscosity sealant in both DBA (P = 0.002) and NB (P = 0.041) subgroups. Conclusion: The results indicated that the use of low viscosity sealant reduced the microleakage of pit and fissure sealants. However, the use of a bonding agent before sealant placement didn’t affect the microleakage. PMID:26929696

  8. Detrimental influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on surrounding tissues and peripheral nerves: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Masahide; Kurita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Mine; Kawakami, Hayato; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The minimally-invasive nature of sclerotherapy makes it one of the first treatment options for venous malformations, although treatment-related complications, such as peripheral nerve paralysis, have been reported in some clinical cases. However, no studies of the aetiology of the detrimental effects of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the surrounding tissues, including the peripheral nerves, have yet been published. This study therefore investigated the influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the tissues surrounding the injection site using a newly-developed rat femoral vein model. Using this model, the effects of absolute ethanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate, and 1% polidocanol were compared histologically with those of normal saline controls. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated agents were administered and the leakage of sclerotic agents through the venous wall was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Damage to the adjacent femoral nerve was quantitatively evaluated by counting the numbers of axons in cross-sections. All the sclerotic agents caused vascular wall injuries and leakage into the surrounding tissues. The number of axons in the femoral nerve was significantly reduced following administration of absolute ethanol or 5% ethanolamine oleate, compared with normal saline. The results of this study suggest that sclerotic agents commonly leak out the vascular lumen, and some agents can cause adjacent nerve injury. It is important to be aware of this type of complication of sclerotherapy for venous malformations when selecting appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:22686430

  9. [Recommendations for selecting antimicrobial agents for in vitro susceptibility studies using automatic and semiautomatic systems].

    PubMed

    Cantón, Rafael; Alós, Juan Ignacio; Baquero, Fernando; Calvo, Jorge; Campos, José; Castillo, Javier; Cercenado, Emilia; Domínguez, M Angeles; Liñares, Josefina; López-Cerezo, Lorena; Marco, Francesc; Mirelis, Beatriz; Morosini, María-Isabel; Navarro, Ferran; Oliver, Antonio; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Torres, Carmen; Martínez-Martínez, Luis

    2007-01-01

    The number of clinical microbiology laboratories that have incorporated automatic susceptibility testing devices has increased in recent years. The majority of these systems determine MIC values using microdilution panels or specific cards, with grouping into clinical categories (susceptible, intermediate or resistant) and incorporate expert systems to infer resistance mechanisms. This document presents the recommendations of a group of experts designated by Grupo de Estudio de los Mecanismos de Acción y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (GEMARA, Study group on mechanisms of action and resistance to antimicrobial agents) and Mesa Española de Normalización de la Sensibilidad y Resistencia a los Antimicrobianos (MENSURA, Spanish Group for Normalizing Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Antimicrobial Resistance), with the aim of including antimicrobial agents and selecting concentrations for the susceptibility testing panels of automatic systems. The following have been defined: various antimicrobial categories (A: must be included in the study panel; B: inclusion is recommended; and C: inclusion is secondary, but may facilitate interpretative reading of the antibiogram) and groups (0: not used in therapeutics but may facilitate the detection of resistance mechanisms; 1: must be studied and always reported; 2: must be studied and selectively reported; 3: must be studied and reported at a second level; and 4: should be studied in urinary tract pathogens isolated in urine and other specimens). Recommended antimicrobial concentrations are adapted from the breakpoints established by EUCAST, CLSI and MENSURA. This approach will lead to more accurate susceptibility testing results with better detection of resistance mechanisms, and allowing to reach the clinical goal of the antibiogram. PMID:17583653

  10. Antitumor Agents 295. E-ring Hydroxylated Antofine and Cryptopleurine Analogs as Antiproliferative Agents: Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoming; Shi, Qian; Lai, Chin Yu; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Ohkoshi, Emika; Yang, Shuenn-Chen; Wang, Chih-Ya; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Wu, Tian-Shung; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Teng, Che-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    Various E-ring hydroxylated antofine and cryptopleurine analogs were designed, synthesized, and tested against five human cancer cell lines. Interesting structure-activity relationship (SAR) correlations were found among these new compounds. The most potent compound 13b was further tested against a series of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, in which it showed impressive antiproliferative activity. Mechanistic studies revealed that 13b is able to down-regulate HSP90 and β-catenin in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a potential use for treating Hedgehog pathway-driven tumorigenesis. PMID:22823514

  11. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic studies of carbon fiber surfaces. 22. Comparison between surface treatment of untreated and previously surface-treated fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.Q.; Viswanathan, H.; Audi, A.A.; Sherwood, P.M.A.

    2000-04-01

    IM7 PAN-based carbon fibers, with a proprietary surface treatment applied by the manufacturer, were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface treatment applied by the manufacturer was removed by heating in a vacuum. The fibers detreated in this manner were then subjected to electrochemical treatment. The electrochemical behavior of the as-received fibers and detreated fibers were measured and analyzed. When the same electrochemical treatment was applied to the as-received fibers with their commercial surface treatment intact, a different surface chemistry was observed for the detreated fibers. This study shows that the surface chemistry of treated fibers depends closely on the initial surface chemistry of the fibers and its detreatment. This work shows the importance of using untreated or detreated fibers as precursors for applying reproducible surface treatment so that one can understand and control the surface chemistry of fibers and their interfacial interaction in composites.

  12. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  13. A randomised, phase II study of nintedanib or sunitinib in previously untreated patients with advanced renal cell cancer: 3-year results

    PubMed Central

    Eisen, T; Loembé, A-B; Shparyk, Y; MacLeod, N; Jones, R J; Mazurkiewicz, M; Temple, G; Dressler, H; Bondarenko, I

    2015-01-01

    Background: This exploratory study evaluated the safety/efficacy of nintedanib or sunitinib as first-line therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Methods: Ninety-six patients were randomised (2:1) to either nintedanib (200 mg twice daily) or sunitinib (50 mg kg−1 once daily (4 weeks on treatment; 2 weeks off)). Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 9 months. P-values reported are descriptive only; the study was not powered for such comparisons. Results: Progression-free survival at 9 months was comparable between nintedanib and sunitinib (43.1% vs 45.2%, respectively; P=0.85). Median PFS was 8.4 months in each group (hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70–1.80; P=0.64). Median overall survival was 20.4 and 21.2 months for nintedanib and sunitinib, respectively (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54–1.56; P=0.76). Overall incidence of any grade adverse events (AEs) was comparable (90.6% vs 93.8%); AEs grade ⩾3 were lower with nintedanib than sunitinib (48.4% vs 59.4%). Nintedanib was associated with lower incidences of some AEs typical of antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs): hypertension, hypothyroidism, hand–foot syndrome, cardiac disorders and haematological abnormalities. Conclusions: In patients with advanced RCC, nintedanib has promising efficacy and similar tolerability to sunitinib, and a manageable safety profile with fewer TKI-associated AEs. PMID:26448178

  14. Molecular Dynamics Guided Receptor Independent 4D QSAR Studies of Substituted Coumarins as Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rajesh; Sawant, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The search for newer cytotoxic agents has taken many paths in the recent years and in fact some of these efforts led to the discovery of some potent cytotoxic agents. Though the vast number of targets of tumor progression has been identified recently, kinases remained key targets in drug design. It is well established that inhibition of JNK1, a serine/threonine protein kinase delays tumor formation. Poly hydroxylated chromenone analog, quescetagetin, inhibits JNK1. As a part of design of coumarin based JNK1 inhibitors, docking studies and 4D QSAR studies were carried out. 3- pyrazolyl substituted coumarin derivatives were chosen for these studies. Docking studies revealed that 3-pyrazolyl substituted coumarins make key interactions with residues at active site of JNK1. In order to investigate the structural features required in these inhibitors, 4D QSAR studies using LQTAgrid module were carried out. The 4D QSAR model built with PLS regression on the matrix of variables specific for interaction energies at each grid point around the molecular dynamics generated conformations of individual compounds shows good predictive abilities. The squared correlation coefficient, R(2) for the model is 0.785, R(2) cross-validated (Q(2)) is 0.698, R(2) predicted is 0.701. Most of the descriptors contributing to 4D QSAR model are Coulombic potential energy based descriptors which highlight the importance of specific atoms in coumarin derivatives in generating these electrostatic potential at specific grid points with the -NH3 probe. We rationalize that solvent accessible van der Waals surface area around such compounds is good measure of this Coulombic potential energy and can be exploited in designing more active compounds. PMID:26081557

  15. Adrenal medulla imaging agents: a structure-distribution relationship study of radiolabeled aralkylguanidines

    SciTech Connect

    Wieland, D.M.; Mangner, T.J.; Inbasekaran, M.N.; Brown, L.E.; Wu, J.L.

    1984-02-01

    Fourteen /sup 125/I-labeled aralkylguanidines were synthesized and evaluated as potential imaging agents for the adrenal medullae and tumors of adrenomedullary origin. These guanidines are radiotracer analogues of guanethidine, an antihypertensive agent thought to mediate neuron blockade by uptake into adrenergic nerves. Dog adrenal medullae were used as a model to test radiotracer affinity for catecholamine storage tissue. Tissue distribution studies revealed that a number of radioiodinated guanidines showed pronounced localization in the adrenal medullae following intravenous injection, in certain cases exceeding that of either (-)-(/sup 3/H)norepinephrine or (/sup 14/C)guanethidine. (m-(/sup 125/I)Iodobenzyl)guanidine (m-IBG, 2b) gave the best combination of high concentration and selectivity. The low adrenomedullary affinity observed with (/sup 14/C)guanidine and m-(/sup 125/I)iodobenzylamine demonstrates the uniqueness of the aralkylguanidine structure. Preliminary evidence suggests that 2b is a storage analogue of norepinephrine. (/sup 125/I)2a is now being used clinically in imaging and radiotherapy of catecholamine tumors, such as pheochromocytoma.

  16. Copper-64 Dichloride as Theranostic Agent for Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Cristina; Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Villano, Carlo; Giacobbi, Beatrice; Coccetti, Daniela; Panichelli, Paola; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival time less than one year. To date, there are only a limited number of effective agents available for GBM therapy and this does not seem to add much survival advantage over the conventional approach based on surgery and radiotherapy. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic approaches to GBM is essential and those based on radionuclide therapy could be of significant clinical impact. Experimental evidence has clearly demonstrated that cancer cells have a particularly high fractional content of copper inside the nucleus compared to normal cells. This behavior can be conveniently exploited both for diagnosis and for delivering therapeutic payloads (theranostic) of the radionuclide copper-64 into the nucleus of cancerous cells by intravenous administration of its simplest chemical form as dichloride salt [64Cu]CuCl2. To evaluate the potential theranostic role of [64Cu]CuCl2 in GBM, the present work reports results from a preclinical study carried out in a xenografted GBM tumor mouse model. Biodistribution data of this new agent were collected using a small-animal PET tomograph. Subsequently, groups of tumor implanted nude mice were treated with [64Cu]CuCl2 to simulate single- and multiple-dose therapy protocols, and results were analyzed to estimate therapeutic efficacy. PMID:26649294

  17. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Duvic, Madeleine; Pinter-Brown, Lauren C; Foss, Francine M; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H

    2015-03-19

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  18. Phase 1/2 study of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated anti-CCR4 antibody, in previously treated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pinter-Brown, Lauren C.; Foss, Francine M.; Sokol, Lubomir; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.; Challagundla, Pramoda; Dwyer, Karen M.; Zhang, Xiaoping; Kurman, Michael R.; Ballerini, Rocco; Liu, Li; Kim, Youn H.

    2015-01-01

    This phase 1/2 study evaluated the efficacy of mogamulizumab, a defucosylated, humanized, anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 monoclonal antibody, in 41 pretreated patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in phase 1 after IV infusion of mogamulizumab (0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 mg/kg) once weekly for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week observation. In phase 2, patients were dosed with 1.0 mg/kg mogamulizumab according to the same schedule for the first course followed by infusion every 2 weeks during subsequent courses until disease progression. The most frequent treatment-emergent adverse events were nausea (31.0%), chills (23.8%), headache (21.4%), and infusion-related reaction (21.4%); the majority of events were grade 1/2. There were no significant hematologic effects. Among 38 evaluable patients, the overall response rate was 36.8%: 47.1% in Sézary syndrome (n = 17) and 28.6% in mycosis fungoides (n = 21). Eighteen of 19 (94.7%) patients with ≥B1 blood involvement had a response in blood, including 11 complete responses. Given the safety and efficacy of mogamulizumab, phase 3 investigation of mogamulizumab is warranted in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00888927. PMID:25605368

  19. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL. PMID:25697894

  20. Pharmacokinetic Study of a Novel Antihyperlipidemic Agent LM-13765- A Prodrug

    PubMed Central

    Shah, T. M.; Savle, S. S.; Chhabria, M. T.; Rathod, I. S.; Shishoo, C. J.; Brahmkshatriya, P. S.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive and specific high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for estimation of a novel antihyperlipidemic agent LM 13765 in rabbit plasma and its use for pharmacokinetic study has been evaluated. The proposed method was employed to study pharmacokinetics of LM 13765 in rabbits. It was observed that LM 13765 metabolized immediately after oral administration. The metabolite of LM 13765 was identified and characterized as LM 13765-C. A sensitive and specific HPTLC method was developed for estimation of LM 13765-C in plasma after oral administration of LM 13765 and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Biological screening of LM 13765-C on hyperlipidemic rats indicated that it is less potent than the parent compound which is indicative of biotransformation of LM 13765 to active form LM 13765-C. PMID:20376217

  1. Effects of dopaminergic replacement therapy on motor speech disorders in Parkinson's disease: longitudinal follow-up study on previously untreated patients.

    PubMed

    Rusz, Jan; Tykalová, Tereza; Klempíř, Jiří; Čmejla, Roman; Růžička, Evžen

    2016-04-01

    Although speech disorders represent an early and common manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about their progression and relationship to dopaminergic replacement therapy. The aim of the current study was to examine longitudinal motor speech changes after the initiation of pharmacotherapy in PD. Fifteen newly-diagnosed, untreated PD patients and ten healthy controls of comparable age were investigated. PD patients were tested before the introduction of antiparkinsonian therapy and then twice within the following 6 years. Quantitative acoustic analyses of seven key speech dimensions of hypokinetic dysarthria were performed. At baseline, PD patients showed significantly altered speech including imprecise consonants, monopitch, inappropriate silences, decreased quality of voice, slow alternating motion rates, imprecise vowels and monoloudness. At follow-up assessment, preservation or slight improvement of speech performance was objectively observed in two-thirds of PD patients within the first 3-6 years of dopaminergic treatment, primarily associated with the improvement of stop consonant articulation. The extent of speech improvement correlated with L-dopa equivalent dose (r = 0.66, p = 0.008) as well as with reduction in principal motor manifestations based on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (r = -0.61, p = 0.02), particularly reflecting treatment-related changes in bradykinesia but not in rigidity, tremor, or axial motor manifestations. While speech disorders are frequently present in drug-naive PD patients, they tend to improve or remain relatively stable after the initiation of dopaminergic treatment and appear to be related to the dopaminergic responsiveness of bradykinesia. PMID:26843071

  2. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Damien C; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib; Miralbell, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Background A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Methods Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (DMax) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, DMax was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal DMedian was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI90) parameters. Results Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V95%85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm3 *105 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. Conclusion RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk. PMID:19740429

  3. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  4. Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents, extremely small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these agents provide a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast agents in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, providing useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast agents. PMID:26567968

  5. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. ); Jones, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  6. An XPS study of gold deposition at low temperatures on sulfide minerals: Reducing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hyland, M.M.; Bancroft, G.M. )

    1989-02-01

    The reduction of KAuCl{sub 4} to metallic gold by pyrite, high iron content sphalerite and galena was studied using surface analytical and solution techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (A.A.). High resolution XPS of the reacted mineral showed that the mineral surface is the Au reducing agent. On galena and high iron sphalerite, a corroded layer forms rapidly as S{sup 2 minus} is oxidized to polysulfides, S{sup 2{minus}}{sub x}, and the metals are leached from the surface. Although Au is also reduced on pyrite, the formation of surface polysulfide is not concurrent with Au reduction. Solution analysis for the pyrite and high iron sphalerite reactions shows, however, that considerable sulfate is produced due to the oxidation of S{sup 2{minus}}, S{sup 2{minus}}{sub 2} or the intermediate polysulphide.

  7. Agent-Based Simulation for Interconnection-Scale Renewable Integration and Demand Response Studies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chassin, David P.; Behboodi, Sahand; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2015-12-23

    This paper collects and synthesizes the technical requirements, implementation, and validation methods for quasi-steady agent-based simulations of interconnectionscale models with particular attention to the integration of renewable generation and controllable loads. Approaches for modeling aggregated controllable loads are presented and placed in the same control and economic modeling framework as generation resources for interconnection planning studies. Model performance is examined with system parameters that are typical for an interconnection approximately the size of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) and a control area about 1/100 the size of the system. These results are used to demonstrate and validate the methodsmore » presented.« less

  8. Selection of an averaging technique by simulation study of a DIAL system for toxic agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeja, Jai Paul; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Veerabuthiran, S.

    2007-10-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a very effective technique for standoff detection of various toxic agents in the atmosphere. The Lidar backscattered signal received usually has poor signal to noise (SNR) ratio. In order to improve the SNR, statistical averaging over a number of laser pulses is employed. The aim of the present work is to select a particular statistical averaging technique, which is most suitable in removing the noise in Lidar return signals. The DIAL system considered here uses laser transmitters based on OPO based (2-5 μm) and TEA CO2 (9-11μm) lasers. Eight commonly used chemical warfare agents including five nerve agents and three blister agents have been considered here as examples of toxic agents. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in LabVIEW to simulate return signals mixed with the expected noise levels. A toxic agent cloud with a given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges up to 5 Km. Data for 200 pulses per agent was stored in the computer memory. Various known statistical averaging techniques were used and number concentrations of particular agent have been computed and compared with ideal Lidar return signal values. This exercise was repeated for all the eight agents and based on the results obtained; the most suitable averaging technique has been selected.

  9. Degree of conversion of two dentin bonding agents with and without a desensitizing agent using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Poornima; Sakhamuri, Srinivasulu; Sampath, Vidhya; Sanjeev, Kavitha; Sekar, Mahalaxmi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This in vitro study investigated the effect of a desensitizer on the degree of conversion of two bonding resins using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: An etch-and-rise bonding resin and a self-etching adhesive resin were selected for the study. Vivasens (Ivoclar Vivadent) was used as a desensitizing agent. Grouping was done as follows: Group I: Adper Single Bond (n=10), Group II: Adper Single Bond + Vivasens (n=10), Group III: AdheSE One (n=10), Group IV: AdheSE One + Vivasens (n=10). The bonding resin alone was light cured for 20 seconds in groups I and III. For groups II and IV, 1 ml each of the bonding resin and the desensitizer was mixed in a vial and light cured for 20 seconds. The specimens were analysed using FTIR spectroscopy. Results: Group II (Adper Single Bond + Vivasens) showed a significantly higher degree of conversion compared to Group I (Adper Single Bond). Comparing Groups III and IV, Group IV (AdheSE One + Vivasens) showed a significantly higher degree of conversion compared to Group III (AdheSE One). Conclusions: The degree of conversion is increased when a dentin bonding agent is used along with a desensitizer. Hence, this combination can be recommended to effectively control postoperative sensitivity. PMID:22025838

  10. Experimental evaluation of a hyperspectral imager for near-infrared fluorescent contrast agent studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luthman, A. S.; Bohndiek, Sarah E.

    2015-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) systems have the potential to combine morphological and spectral information to provide detailed and high sensitivity readouts in biological and medical applications. As HSI enables simultaneous detection in several spectral bands, the technology has significant potential for use in real-time multiplexed contrast agent studies. Examples include tumor detection in intraoperative and endoscopic imaging as well as histopathology. A multiplexed readout from multiple disease targets, such as cell surface receptors overexpressed in cancer cells, could improve both sensitivity and specificity of tumor identification. Here, we evaluate a commercial, compact, near-infrared HSI sensor that has the potential to enable low cost, video rate HSI for multiplexed fluorescent contrast agent studies in biomedical applications. The hyperspectral imager, based on a monolithically integrated Fabry-Perot etalon, has 70 spectral bands between 600-900 nm, making it ideal for this application. Initial calibration of the imager was performed to determine wavelength band response, quantum efficiency and the effect of F-number on the spectral response. A platform for wide-field fluorescence imaging in reflectance using fluorophore specific LED excitation was then developed. The applicability of the imaging platform for simultaneous readout of multiple fluorophore signals was demonstrated using a dilution series of Alexa Fluor 594 and Alexa Fluor 647, showing that nanomolar fluorophore concentrations can be detected. Our results show that the HSI system can clearly resolve the emission spectra of the two fluorophores in mixtures of concentrations across several orders of magnitude, indicating a high dynamic range performance. We therefore conclude that the HSI sensor tested here is suitable for detecting fluorescence in biomedical imaging applications.

  11. An Exploratory Study on How Children Interact with Pedagogic Conversational Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Marín, Diana; Pascual-Nieto, Ismael

    2013-01-01

    A pedagogic conversational agent (PCA) can be defined as a computer system that interacts with the student in natural language assuming the role of the instructor, a student or a companion. It can have a personality and can generate different sentences according to the agent or the student mood. Empathy with the students' feelings seems to…

  12. An Introduction to the Indiana University Social Studies Field Agent Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Gerald W.

    In this conference speech the author offers a rationale for the training of field agents and, moreover, analyzes how field agents can carry out planned educational change. Offering three brief descriptions on theoretical models illustrating how change occurs, the author portrays: 1) The Social Interaction Model; 2) The Problem-Solver Model; and 3)…

  13. The Use of Animated Agents in E-Learning Environments: An Exploratory, Interpretive Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmood, A. Kamil; Ferneley, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of animated agents in e-learning environments. However, empirical investigations of their use in online education are limited. Our aim is to provide an empirically based framework for the development and evaluation of animated agents in e-learning environments. Findings suggest a number of challenges,…

  14. Novel Penicillin Analogues as Potential Antimicrobial Agents; Design, Synthesis and Docking Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Zaman; Bais, Abdul; Manir, Md. Maniruzzaman; Niazi, Umar

    2015-01-01

    A number of penicillin derivatives (4a-h) were synthesized by the condensation of 6-amino penicillinic acid (6-APA) with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as antimicrobial agents. In silico docking study of these analogues was performed against Penicillin Binding Protein (PDBID 1CEF) using AutoDock Tools 1.5.6 in order to investigate the antimicrobial data on structural basis. Penicillin binding proteins function as either transpeptidases or carboxypeptidases and in few cases demonstrate transglycosylase activity in bacteria. The excellent antibacterial potential was depicted by compounds 4c and 4e against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidus and Staphylococcus aureus compared to the standard amoxicillin. The most potent penicillin derivative 4e exhibited same activity as standard amoxicillin against S. aureus. In the enzyme inhibitory assay the compound 4e inhibited E. coli MurC with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. The docking scores of these compounds 4c and 4e also verified their greater antibacterial potential. The results verified the importance of side chain functionalities along with the presence of central penam nucleus. The binding affinities calculated from docking results expressed in the form of binding energies ranges from -7.8 to -9.2kcal/mol. The carboxylic group of penam nucleus in all these compounds is responsible for strong binding with receptor protein with the bond length ranges from 3.4 to 4.4 Ǻ. The results of present work ratify that derivatives 4c and 4e may serve as a structural template for the design and development of potent antimicrobial agents. PMID:26267242

  15. Antibody-profiling technologies for studying humoral responses to infectious agents

    PubMed Central

    Burbelo, Peter D; Ching, Kathryn H; Bush, Emily R; Han, Brian L; Iadarola, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of humoral responses against different infectious agents are critical for infectious disease diagnostics, understanding pathogenic mechanisms, and the development and monitoring of vaccines. While ELISAs are often used to measure antibody responses to one or several targets, new antibody-profiling technologies, such as protein microarrays, can now evaluate antibody responses to hundreds, or even thousands, of recombinant antigens at one time. These large-scale studies have uncovered new antigenic targets, provided new insights into vaccine research and yielded an overview of immunoreactivity against almost the entire proteome of certain pathogens. However, solid-phase antigen arrays also have drawbacks that limit the type of information obtained, including suboptimal detection of conformational epitopes, high backgrounds due to impure antigens and a narrow dynamic range of detection. We have developed a solution-phase antibody-profiling technology, luciferase immunoprecipitation systems (LIPS), which harnesses light-emitting recombinant antigen fusion proteins to quantitatively measure patient antibody titers. Owing to the highly linear light output of the luciferase reporter, some antibodies can be detected without serum dilution in a dynamic range of detection often spanning seven orders of magnitude. When LIPS is applied iteratively with multiple target antigens, a high-definition antibody profile is obtained. Here, we discuss the application of these different antibody-profiling technologies and their associated limitations with particular emphasis on protein microarrays. We also describe LIPS in detail and discuss several clinically relevant uses of the technology. Together, these new technologies offer new tools for understanding humoral responses to known and emerging infectious agents. PMID:20518713

  16. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  17. Physicochemical and microbiological stability of azathioprine in InOrpha suspending agent studied under various conditions.

    PubMed

    Amin, Alexandre; Bourget, Philippe; Vidal, Fabrice; Cartier, François; Beauvais, Raphaëlle; Afonso, Veronica Do Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Azathioprine is an antineoplastic antimetabolite drug currently used as an immunosuppressive agent after organ transplantation and for several dysimmunitary diseases. The usual daily dose ranges from 1 to 5 mg/kg orally. Azathioprine is marketed in France under the trade name Imurel in tablet form for oral administration that contains either 25 mg or 50 mg of the active ingredient. This Galenic formulation is not suitable for pediatric use and often requires a grinding operation or a dose fractionation to facilitate administration. In addition to a potential risk of imprecision in the administered dose, tablet grinding might unnecessarily expose nurses and families to a toxic compound. To overcome this problem, the objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stabilities of azathioprine in a sugar-free, alcohol-free, and paraben-free InOrpha suspending agent. The studied samples were formulated into a 10-mg/mL suspension and stored in 24 plastic bottles of 60 mL at two different temperature conditions (between 2 degrees C to 8 degrees C and room temperature). Two series of 12 samples were tested for physicochemical stability using high-performance liquid chromatography as well as for a microbiological status for 35 days (daily opening of the bottles from day 0 of compounding) and for 56 days, upon daily flask opening (first opening at day 28 from compounding and daily opening for 28 consecutive days). The high-performance liquid chromatography method developed is linear, accurate, precise, and robust. In addition, a forced degradation study validated the selectivity and the specificity requirements of the method validated as stability indicating. At room temperature storage, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that tested samples had concentrations ranging from 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Microbiological status remained stable during the 56 days of

  18. Study on the E-commerce platform based on the agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ruixue; Qin, Lishuan; Gao, Yinmin

    2011-10-01

    To solve problem of dynamic integration in e-commerce, the Multi-Agent architecture of electronic commerce platform system based on Agent and Ontology has been introduced, which includes three major types of agent, Ontology and rule collection. In this architecture, service agent and rule are used to realize the business process reengineering, the reuse of software component, and agility of the electronic commerce platform. To illustrate the architecture, a simulation work has been done and the results imply that the architecture provides a very efficient method to design and implement the flexible, distributed, open and intelligent electronic commerce platform system to solve problem of dynamic integration in ecommerce. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the architecture of electronic commerce platform system, and the approach how Agent and Ontology support the electronic commerce platform system.

  19. Effects of some pharmacological agents on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Askar, I; Saray, A; Gurlek, A; Sevin, K; Sabuncuoglu, B T

    2001-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies have been conducted to improve the survival of venous flaps. As a result of these studies, although various survival mechanisms were raised, none obtained satisfactory information. Venous stasis, and the resultant venous thrombosis, is a factor that decreases the survival of venous flaps. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two antiinflammatory agents, etodolac and etofenamate, on the survival of unipedicled venous flaps. In this study, 35 male New Zealand white rabbits (3,500-4,000 g) (70 ears) were used. Perichondrocutaneous flaps, 3 x 4.5 cm in size, were designed and raised, keeping the central veins intact in the middle of venous flap. Central arteries and nerves were ligated and transected both proximally and distally, to prepare unipedicled venous flaps. A silicone sheet was placed between the cartilage tissue and flap, to prevent blood flow and revascularization beneath. The subjects were divided into seven groups, consisting of five rabbits (10 ears). In the negative control group (group I), the single vascular pedicle of venous flaps, central veins were ligated and flaps sutured into their own place as the composite graft. In the positive control group (group II), after venous flaps were prepared, normal saline, 0.2 mL, was given subcutaneously. In the first of five experimental groups (group III), unfractionated heparin (100 U/day) was given subcutaneously. In the second experimental group (group IV), etodolac (5 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the third experimental group (group V), etophenamate (5 mg/kg/day) was given orally through a feeding tube. In the fourth experimental group (group VI), parnaparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously. In the fifth experimental group (group VII), nadroparin (5 anti-Xa U/kg/day) was given subcutaneously, about 7 days postoperatively. At the eighth postoperative day, surviving areas of venous flaps were measured, and the results were evaluated by Kruskal

  20. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguy&Ecirtil; N. Thi&Cmb. B. Dot; Kim

    2016-02-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g-1). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM-1 s-1 and 185.58 mM-1 s-1 respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed.Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high

  1. [Leather dust and sensitizing agents. A study on occupational indoor allergenic pollution in shoes].

    PubMed

    Cirla, Angelo Mario; Del Frate, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed to ascertain a possible pollution by allergenic Mites in 15 samples of leather dust belonging to occupational environments of 4 Italian shoes factories. All dosages were both performed by a quantitative immunologic and ELISA method (Indoor Biotechnology Lmd) and a semi-quantitative colorimetric method (Aclotest Lofarma) and the results were compared according to a five steps risk-evaluation. In all factories allergenic components of Mites were documented. The highest concentration of Der p1 and Der f 1 in dust was 15,4 mcg/g, while allergens prevailed around the working-places, where discards of leather usually were collected. Moulds were studied in 29 samples of 9 shoes factories, adopting specific cultures. In all but one occupational environment moulds were present and taxa of Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium were prevalent, spores of them have known allergenic propert. Besides the identification, quantitative levels were not planned in this study. Dermatophytes were absent, while four taxa of Keratinophylic non allergenic moulds were observe. When leather dust are disperded in occupational environments a risk due to allergenic agents as secondary contamination must be carefully considered. Such a risk, according to our results, may be classified as "intermediate for allergenic Mites" and temptatively "light for allergenic moulds". Such a risk might be carefully considered for legal and preventive purposes and also monitored by occupational healthcare professionals. PMID:22697032

  2. Feasibility Study of Passive Aerosol Sampler for Bio-Agent Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, G

    2003-03-05

    We propose to establish the feasibility of a passive aerosol sampler for bio-agent collection through laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. The passive sampler, unlike the typical active sampler, does not require pumps and complex fixtures, and thereby allows for large-scale field monitoring not possible with current active samplers. We plan to conduct experiments using model (both biological and non-biological) aerosols generated in an instrumented test chamber and compare the particles collected on various passive samplers to conventional filter samplers, commercial aerosol measuring instruments and to conventional surface swipes. Theoretical analysis will be used to design prototype passive samplers and to compare experimental results with theory. A successful feasibility study will be used to seek outside funding for applications that will greatly enhance current LLNL programs such as NARAC's atmospheric dispersal modeling, NAI's programs in bioagent monitoring in public locations and fixed sampling stations, and EPD's environmental monitoring and decontamination research. In addition, the feasibility study will position us favorably for responding to new calls for proposals by NIH and EPA for large scale environmental studies.

  3. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  4. Comparative biodistribution studies of technetium-99 m radiolabeled amphiphilic nanoparticles using three different reducing agents during the labeling procedure.

    PubMed

    Geskovski, Nikola; Kuzmanovska, Sonja; Simonoska Crcarevska, Maja; Calis, Sema; Dimchevska, Simona; Petrusevska, Marija; Zdravkovski, Pance; Goracinova, Katerina

    2013-12-01

    Considering the confusing biodistribution data through the literature and few reported alerts as well as our preliminary biodistribution results, we decided to evaluate the interaction and interference of the commonly present (99m) Tc (technetium-99m)-stannic oxide colloid during the direct stannous chloride (99m) Tc-labeling procedure and to assess its influence on the biodistribution pattern of amphiphilic poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. In order to confirm our thesis, beside stannous chloride, we employed two different reducing agents that don't form colloidal particles. The use of sodium borohydride was previously reported in the literature, whereas sodium dithionite was adapted for the first time in the (99m) Tc direct labeling procedure for nanoparticles. The results in our paper clearly differentiate among samples with and without colloidal impurities originating from the labeling procedure with a logical follow up of the radiochemical, physicochemical evaluation, and biodistribution studies clarifying previously reported data on stannic oxide colloidal interference. (99m) Tc-nanoparticle complex labeled with sodium dithionite as reducing agent illustrated appropriate labeling efficacy, stability, and potential for further use in biodistribution studies thus providing solution for the problem of low-complex stability when sodium borohydride is used and colloidal stannic oxide interference for stannous chloride procedure. PMID:24339006

  5. Reinforcement of Unsupported Enamel by Restorative Materials and Dentin Bonding Agents: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, M.; Ghavam, M.; Rostamzadeh, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Preservation of unsupported occlusal enamel after removal of underlying carious dentin may result in maintenance of aesthetics as well as wear resistance against the opposing enamel. This study investigates the influence of different restorative materials and bonding agents on reinforcement of unsupported enamel in molars and compares it with sound dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, forty- five extracted human molars were selected and randomly divided into five groups of nine. All lingual cusps were cut off. The dentin underlying the buccal cusps was removed in all groups except the positive control. The negative control group received no restorations. After application of varnish and Panavia F, spherical amalgam (Sina) and after application of Single-Bond (3M), composite resin (Tetric Ceram) was used to replace missing dentin. All specimens were thermocycled, then mounted in acrylic resin using a surveyor. Lingual inclination of facial cusps was positioned horizontally. Load was applied by an Instron machine at a crosshead speed of 10 mm/min until fracture. Data were subjected to ANOVA (one way) and Post hoc Test (Duncan). Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the five groups (P<0.001); however, no significant difference was revealed between bonded amalgam and the positive control groups (P=0.762). Composite and amalgam had the same effect (P=0.642), while the composite and negative group had no significant difference (P=0.056). Conclusion: Bonded amalgam systems (Panavia F) could reinforce the undermined occlusal enamel effectively. PMID:21998780

  6. An in vitro scanning electron microscope study to evaluate the efficacy of various root conditioning agents

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Jaishree; Maurya, Rajkumar; Gupta, Ankur; Tandon, Pradeep; Gupta, Krishna Kumar; Srivastava, Amitabh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of present study was to investigate the scanning electron microscopic alterations produced on scaled and root planed dentin surfaces after application of different etching modalities namely citric acid, tetracycline hydrochloride and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens of teeth were collected and categorized into four groups. In group 1, control group specimens were treated with normal saline for 3 min, group 2 specimens were treated with citric acid, group 3 specimens were treated with tetracycline hydrochloride for 3 min and group 4 specimens were treated with 15% EDTA. Results: Opening of dentinal tubules was seen in all specimens except for control group that was treated with normal saline. The total number of tubules seen was highest in citric acid group as compared to tetracycline hydrochloride and EDTA Group. The total number of patent tubule opening was highest in citric acid as compared to EDTA and tetracycline. The diameter of patent dentinal tubules in citric acid group was more than EDTA and tetracycline. Conclusion: The study showed that all the three agents were effective in removing the smear layer however number of patent and wider diameter dentinal tubules was seen in vitro best in citric acid than EDTA and then in tetracycline hydrochloride. Hence, citric acid group is more efficient than EDTA and tetracycline HCl group in removing the smear layer and in opening of number of patent dentinal tubules. PMID:26644718

  7. Reflective and Agentive Functions of Narrative Writing: a Qualitative Study on the Narratives of University Students.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Giovanna; Freda, Maria Francesca

    2016-06-01

    There is a lively debate in the literature on reflective processes and on the necessity to view them as consisting with differing levels of complexity. Within a semiotic and psychodynamic perspective, we present a conceptualization on reflective processes which distinguishes between reflection and reflectivity and articulates their relationship with narrative devices.The study analyzes 224 narratives of critical events written by 77 underachieving university students that took part in group training courses during the INSTALL European project.The corpus was subjected to a qualitative analysis of narrative function, with the aim of detecting narrative functions of reflection, reflectivity and agency, the latter being considered as an interconnected construct to the reflective process.The functions were discussed both on the basis of how the narrators reacted to the discontinuity in their self-image caused by the critical event, and based upon different types of narrative coherence (chronological, causal, thematic, autobiographical).The results highlighted that narratives with a reflection function, attribute the discontinuity generated by the event to the self, and show a causal coherence; those whose function is reflectivity interpret the discontinuity attributing it to the self in relation to others and present a thematic coherence; those of agency ascribe the discontinuity to a potential selves in action, and are characterized by an autobiographical coherence.The implications of the study will be discussed with reference to the value of narrative writing in promoting reflective-agentive processes. PMID:26264763

  8. Polyol synthesis, functionalisation, and biocompatibility studies of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as potential MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Hachani, Roxanne; Lowdell, Mark; Birchall, Martin; Hervault, Aziliz; Mertz, Damien; Begin-Colin, Sylvie; Thanh, Nguyen Thi Kim

    2016-02-14

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) of low polydispersity were obtained through a simple polyol synthesis in high pressure and high temperature conditions. The control of the size and morphology of the nanoparticles was studied by varying the solvent used, the amount of iron precursor and the reaction time. Compared with conventional synthesis methods such as thermal decomposition or co-precipitation, this process yields nanoparticles with a narrow particle size distribution in a simple, reproducible and cost effective manner without the need for an inert atmosphere. For example, IONPs with a diameter of ca. 8 nm could be made in a reproducible manner and with good crystallinity as evidenced by X-ray diffraction analysis and high saturation magnetization value (84.5 emu g(-1)). The surface of the IONPs could be tailored post synthesis with two different ligands which provided functionality and stability in water and phosphate buffer saline (PBS). Their potential as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent was confirmed as they exhibited high r1 and r2 relaxivities of 7.95 mM(-1) s(-1) and 185.58 mM(-1) s(-1) respectively at 1.4 T. Biocompatibility and viability of IONPs in primary human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) was studied and confirmed. PMID:26460932

  9. Costs of managing anemia with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents during hemodialysis: a time and motion study.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Brigitte; Doss, Sheila; DE Cock, Erwin; Del Aguila, Michael A; Nissenson, Allen R

    2008-10-01

    Use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) presents a significant time and cost burden in the management of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We conducted a prospective, observational, activity-based costing study to estimate the health care personnel time and resulting direct medical costs associated with administering epoetin 3 times weekly to patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis. The study was conducted at 5 US hemodialysis centers. The personnel time and costs were derived from time and motion observations. Predicted time and cost savings were modeled for switching patients to once-monthly ESA therapy. Patients also completed a survey questionnaire to assess their level of CKD knowledge and information needs. Total per-patient-per-year (PPPY) time expended on anemia management with epoetin averaged 608 minutes (range 512-915 minutes), with an average PPPY cost of $548 (range $342-$651). Use of a once-monthly ESA, compared with epoetin, could decrease average PPPY time expenditure by 79% (127 minutes [range 96-173 minutes]) and reduce PPPY costs by 81% ($104 [range $79-$136]). The patient questionnaire reported insufficient education on CKD. Use of a once-monthly ESA to correct anemia in dialysis patients may provide substantial time, resource, and cost savings compared with current treatment practices. PMID:19090867

  10. Studies on the role of goat heart galectin-1 as an erythrocyte membrane perturbing agent

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Perveen, Asma; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; Tabrez, Shams; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Banu, Naheed

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are β-galactoside binding lectins with a potential hemolytic role on erythrocyte membrane integrity and permeability. In the present study, goat heart galectin-1 (GHG-1) was purified and investigated for its hemolytic actions on erythrocyte membrane. When exposed to various saccharides, lactose and sucrose provided maximum protection against hemolysis, while glucose and galactose provided lesser protection against hemolysis. GHG-1 agglutinated erythrocytes were found to be significantly hemolyzed in comparison with unagglutinated erythrocytes. A concentration dependent rise in the hemolysis of trypsinized rabbit erythrocytes was observed in the presence of GHG-1. Similarly, a temperature dependent gradual increase in percent hemolysis was observed in GHG-1 agglutinated erythrocytes as compared to negligible hemolysis in unagglutinated cells. The hemolysis of GHG-1 treated erythrocytes showed a sharp rise with the increasing pH up to 7.5 which became constant till pH 9.5. The extent of erythrocyte hemolysis increased with the increase in the incubation period, with maximum hemolysis after 5 h of incubation. The results of this study establish the ability of galectins as a potential hemolytic agent of erythrocyte membrane, which in turn opens an interesting avenue in the field of proteomics and glycobiology. PMID:25561893

  11. The effect of antimicrobial agents on bond strength of orthodontic adhesives: a meta-analysis of in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Altmann, A S P; Collares, F M; Leitune, V C B; Samuel, S M W

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial orthodontic adhesives aim to reduce white spot lesions' incidence in orthodontic patients, but they should not jeopardizing its properties. Systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to answer the question whether the association of antimicrobial agents with orthodontic adhesives compromises its mechanical properties and whether there is a superior antimicrobial agent. PubMed and Scopus databases. In vitro studies comparing shear bond strength of conventional photo-activated orthodontic adhesives to antimicrobial photo-activated orthodontic adhesives were considered eligible. Search terms included the following: orthodontics, orthodontic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, bactericidal, adhesive, resin, resin composite, bonding agent, bonding system, and bond strength. The searches yielded 494 citations, which turned into 467 after duplicates were discarded. Titles and abstracts were read and 13 publications were selected for full-text reading. Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis. The global analysis showed no statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. In the subgroup analysis, only the chlorhexidine subgroup showed a statistically significant difference, where the control groups had higher bond strength than the experimental groups. Many studies on in vitro orthodontic bond strength fail to report test conditions that could affect their outcomes. The pooled in vitro data suggest that adding an antimicrobial agent to an orthodontic adhesive system does not influence bond strength to enamel. It is not possible to state which antimicrobial agent is better to be associated. PMID:26257400

  12. Permission-Seeking as an Agentive Tool for Transgressive Teaching: An Ethnographic Study of Teachers Organizing for Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Doyle, Kira J.; Gustavson, Leif

    2016-01-01

    This study describes how a group of teachers in a US public school developed and used permission-seeking moves as strategic and agentic tools to change their school curriculum and challenge norms of teaching. Although the notion of asking permission is typically considered disempowering in educational contexts, this study demonstrates that certain…

  13. Use of medium without reducing agent for in vitro fermentation studies by bacteria isolated from pig intestine.

    PubMed

    Poelaert, C; Boudry, C; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Bindelle, J

    2012-12-01

    Over the past decade, several in vitro methods have been developed to study intestinal fermentation in pigs and its influence on health. In these methods, samples are fermented by a bacterial inoculum diluted in a mineral buffer solution. Generally, a reducing agent such as Na(2)S or cysteine HCl generates the required anaerobic environment by release of H(2)S inducing an imbalance among bacterial species by the production of toxic metabolites. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to study the impact of reducing agent on fermentation patterns. Protein (soybean protein and/or casein) and carbohydrate (potato starch and/or cellulose) ingredients were fermented in vitro by pig intestinal bacteria from fresh feces obtained from 3 sows fed an antibiotic-free commercial diet in 3 incubation media differing in reducing agent: (i) Na(2)S, (ii) cysteine HCl, or (iii) without reducing agent. Gas fermentation kinetics were monitored over 72 h (pressure was measured every 2 min). Short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production after 24 and 72 h were compared among ingredient and reducing agents (n = 2). Gas production was higher (P < 0.05) when fermenting carbohydrate than protein ingredients. Except for soybean protein, total SCFA production after 24 and 72 h was similar (P > 0.05) for each ingredient regardless the incubation medium. The SCFA molar ratios did not differ (P > 0.05) between Na(2)S and without reducing agent. In conclusion, saturation of incubation media with CO(2) seems sufficient to generate an anaerobic environment. So incubation media could be simplified by omitting the reducing agent without influencing the fermentation kinetics and SCFA production. PMID:23365388

  14. Decontamination studies with the agents of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie.

    PubMed

    Taylor, D M; Fraser, H; McConnell, I; Brown, D A; Brown, K L; Lamza, K A; Smith, G R

    1994-01-01

    Macerates of bovine brain infected with bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, and rodent brain infected with the 263K or ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were subjected to porous-load autoclaving at temperatures between 134 and 138 degrees C for < or = 60 min. Bioassay in rodents showed that none of the regimens produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain were exposed for < or = 120 min to solutions of sodium hypochlorite or sodium dichloroisocyanurate containing < or = 16,500 ppm available chlorine. There was no detectable survival of infectivity after the hypochlorite treatments but none of the dichloroisocyanurate solutions produced complete inactivation. Homogenates of BSE-infected bovine brain, and rodent brain infected with the 263K and ME7 strains of scrapie agent, were exposed for < or = 120 min to 1M or 2M sodium hydroxide but no procedure produced complete inactivation of all agents tested. PMID:7832638

  15. STUDIES ON THE NATURE OF THE AGENT TRANSMITTING LEUCOSIS OF FOWLS

    PubMed Central

    Furth, J.

    1932-01-01

    The filterable agent transmitting leucosis resists drying, retaining its activity for at least 54 days. The conditions of successful desiccation have not been precisely ascertained. By the addition of glycerin the agent can be preserved for at least 104 days. It is not inactivated by freezing in liquid air. At 37.5°C. it loses its activity within 14 days, but retains some of its activity for at least 14 days when kept at 4°C. PMID:19870007

  16. Surfactants as Microbicides and Contraceptive Agents: A Systematic In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Otilia V.; Oberdoerfer, Daniel; Baptista, Marta; Santos, Manuel A. S.; Almeida, Luis; Ramalho-Santos, João; Vaz, Winchil L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Background The urgent need for cheap and easy-to-use protection against both unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases has stimulated considerable interest in the use of surfactants as microbicides, anti-viral, and contraceptive agents in recent years. In the present study we report a systematic in vitro evaluation of the microbicidal, anti-viral and contraceptive potential of cationic, anionic, zwitterionic, and non-ionic surfactants. Methodology/Principal Findings Toxicity was evaluated in mammalian columnar epithelial (MDCK) cells, human sperm cells, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus faecalis. The inhibition of adenovirus and lentivirus infection of MDCK cells was also tested. A homologous series of cationic surfactants, alkyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromides (CnTAB), with varying alkyl chains were shown to be bactericidal and fungicidal at doses that were related to the surfactant critical micelle concentrations (CMC), all of them at concentrations significantly below the CMC. In general, bacteria were more susceptible to this surfactant group than C. albicans and this organism, in turn, was more susceptible than MDCK cells. This suggests that the CnTAB may be useful as vaginal disinfectants only in so far as bacterial and fungal infections are concerned. None of the surfactants examined, including those that have been used in pre-clinical studies, showed inhibition of adenovirus or lentivirus infection of MDCK cells or spermicidal activity at doses that were sub-toxic to MDCK cells. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study lead us to propose that systematic analysis of surfactant toxicity, such as we report in the present work, be made a mandatory pre-condition for the use of these substances in pre-clinical animal and/or human studies. PMID:18682796

  17. Inhibition of pyrite oxidation by surface coating agents: Batch and field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Do Gee, Eun; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Ram Lee, Woo; Park, Young-Tae

    2013-04-01

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO42-) production in the presence of KMnO4 (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased SO42- production from 200 to 13 mg L-1 and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L-1, respectively to <0.05 mg L-1 (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites.

  18. Inhibition of sulfide mineral oxidation by surface coating agents: batch and field studies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Min-Kyu; Gee, Eun-Do; Yun, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Woo-Ram; Park, Young-Tae; Khan, Moonis Ali; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Choi, Jaeyoung

    2012-08-30

    The potential of several surface coating agents to inhibit the oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from Young-Dong coal mine and the Il-Gwang gold mine was examined by conducting laboratory scale batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH(2)PO(4), MgO and KMnO(4) as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2) or NaClO). For the observed time period (8 days), Young-Dong coal mine samples exhibited the least sulfate (SO(4)(2-)) production in the presence of KMnO(4) (16%) or cement (4%) while, for Il-Gwang mine samples, the least SO(4)(2-) production was observed in presence of KH(2)PO(4) (8%) or cement (2%) compared to control. Field-scale pilot tests at the Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH(2)PO(4) decreased SO(4)(2-) production from 200 to 13 mg L(-1) and it also reduced Cu and Mn from 8 and 3 mg L(-1), respectively to <0.05 mg L(-1) (below ICP-OES detection limits). The experimental results suggested that the use of surface coating agents is a promising alternative for sulfide oxidation inhibition at acid mine drainage sites. PMID:22727481

  19. A study to define a set of requirements for cleansing agents for use in the Space Station whole body shower

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to define a set of requirements for a whole body cleansing agent to be used in the Space Station Whole Body Shower System. In addition, cleansing agent candidates are to be identified that are likely to satisfy requirements defined in the first part of the study. It is understood that the main reason for having a Whole Body Shower is to satisfy the physiological, psychological and social needs of the crew throughout the duration of duty in the Space Station. The cleansing agent must also be compatible with the vortex water/gas separator and the water reclamation system. To accomplish these goals the study was divided into six tasks.

  20. Synthesis and SAR Study of the Novel Thiadiazole-Imidazole Derivatives as a New Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Gomha, Sobhi Mohamed; Abdel-Aziz, Hassan Mohamed; Khalil, Khaled Dessouky

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a novel series of 2-(2-(3-aryl-5-substituted-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2(3H)-ylidene)hydrazinyl)-4,4-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed and prepared via the reaction of the most versatile, hitherto unreported 2-(5-oxo-4,4-diphenyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-N-phenylhydrazinecarbothioamide with the appropriate hydrazonoyl halides. In addition, some thiazole derivatives were prepared. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established based on spectroscopic evidences and their alternative syntheses. Some of the newly synthesized compounds have been evaluated for their anticancer activity against a liver carcinoma cell line HEPG2-1. Moreover, their structure-activity relationship (SAR) was explored for further development in this area. The results indicated that many of the tested compounds showed moderate to high anticancer activity with respective to doxorubicin as a reference drug. Consequently, the new synthesized series of thiadiazole-imidazole derivatives are considered as powerful anticancer agents. PMID:27581640

  1. Cerebral nuclei distribution study of dehydrodiisoeugenol as an anxiogenic agent determined by RP-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, You-Bo; Zhu, Li-Qiao; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive RP-HPLC-DAD method was established to quantify dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) in rat cerebral nuclei. The assay procedure involved one-step extraction of DDIE and daidzein, as an internal standard, from rat plasma and various cerebral nuclei with ethyl acetate. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Diamonsil™ ODS C(18) column with methanol-water (81:19, v/v) as a mobile phase. The UV absorbance of the samples was measured at the wavelength of 270nm. The analysis method was proved to be precise and accurate at linearity ranges in plasma and each cerebral nucleus with correlation coefficients of ≥0.9971. The results indicated that the method established was successfully applied to cerebral nuclei distribution study of DDIE after intravenous administration at a single dose of 40mg/kg to rat. DDIE showed high concentration in all of cerebral nuclei at 8min, which indicated that DDIE could cross the blood-brain barrier rapidly and might be one of the main bioactive substances of nutmeg. The results provide fundamental data for evaluating the effects of DDIE on the central nervous system and to be developed into an effective anxiogenic agent. PMID:23059843

  2. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a pulpotomy agent in primary molars: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Naik, S; Hegde, A H

    2005-03-01

    The retention of pulpally involved deciduous tooth in a healthy state until the time of normal exfoliation remains to be one of the challenges for Pedodontists. A scientific noise has been generated about several materials some of which have been popular pulpotomy medicaments. Concerns have been raised about the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of these materials, and alternatives have been proposed to maintain the partial pulp vitality, however to date no material has been accepted as an ideal pulpotomy agent. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) is a biocompatible material which provides a biological seal. MTA has been proposed as a potential medicament for various pulpal procedures like pulp capping with reversible pulpitis, apexification, repair of root perforations, etc. Hence the present study was done to evaluate the efficacy of MTA as a pulpotomy medicament. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was done on children where MTA was used as pulpotomy medicament in primary molars for a period of 6 months and it was found to be a successful material. PMID:15858300

  3. Ability of three desensitizing agents in dentinal tubule obliteration and durability: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Azher Banu; Bolla, Nagesh; Kavuri, Sarath Raj; Sunil, Chukka Ram; Damaraju, Bhargavi; Pattan, Sadhiq Khan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three desensitizing agents on dentinal tubule obliteration and their durability in use on the dentinal tubules. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens were obtained from 30 extracted sound human maxillary first premolars. Each tooth was mesiodistally sectioned to obtain 30 buccal and 30 lingual surfaces, and enamel was removed in order to simulate hypersensitive dentin. Specimens were divided into four groups with 15 specimens each. Group 1 samples were immersed in artificial saliva, Group 2 samples were coated with Vivasens, Group 3 samples were coated with VOCO Admira Protect, and Group 4 samples were coated with Neo Active Apatite suspension. These specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM) to find out the occluding ability of the respective products. The specimens were brushed to find out their durability for 1 week and 1 month and were examined under SEM. Statistical Analysis: The results were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test. Results: Group 1 differed significantly from the Vivasens, Admira, and Neo Active Apatite groups at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). The Vivasens group differed significantly from the Admira and Neo Active Apatite groups at 5% level of significance (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The Ormocer-based Admira Protect showed the best results. PMID:26957790

  4. Use of electrogastrography in preclinical studies of cholinergic and anticholinergic agents in experimental pigs.

    PubMed

    Květina, J; Tachecí, I; Pavlík, M; Kopáčová, M; Rejchrt, S; Douda, T; Kuneš, M; Bureš, J

    2016-01-01

    Electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive method for the assessment of gastric myoelectrical activity. Porcine EGG is comparable with human one. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of atropine and neostigmine on the EGG in experimental pigs. Adult female pigs were administrated atropine (1.5 mg i.m., n=6) and neostigmine (0.5 mg i.m., n=6) after the baseline EGG, followed by a 90-min trial recording (MMS, Enschede, the Netherlands). Running spectral analysis was used for the evaluation. The results were expressed as dominant frequency of slow waves and EGG power (areas of amplitudes). Neostigmine increased continuously the dominant frequency and decreased significantly the EGG power. Atropine did not change the dominant frequency significantly. However, atropine increased significantly the EGG power (areas of amplitudes) from basal values to the maximum at the 10-20-min interval. After that period, the areas of amplitudes decreased significantly to the lowest values at the 60-90-min interval. In conclusion, cholinergic and anticholinergic agents affect differently EGG in experimental pigs. PMID:26674291

  5. A qualitative study of a food intervention in a primary school: Pupils as agents of change.

    PubMed

    Ensaff, H; Canavon, C; Crawford, R; Barker, M E

    2015-12-01

    This study explored the impact of a school-based kitchen project at a large inner London school. Timetabled kitchen classroom sessions (90 min every fortnight) were held with all 7-9 year old pupils. Semi-structured focus group discussions (with 76 pupils, 16 parents) and interviews (with headteachers, catering managers and specialist staff) were conducted at the intervention school and a matched control school. Categories and concepts were derived using a grounded theory approach. Data analysis provided three main categories each with their related concepts: Pupil factors (enthusiasm and enjoyment of cooking, trying new foods, food knowledge and awareness, producing something tangible); School factors (learning and curriculum links, resource implications and external pressures) and Home factors (take home effects, confidence in cooking and self-esteem, parents' difficulties cooking at home with children). Children's engagement and the opportunity to cook supported increased food awareness, skills and food confidence. In the grounded theory that emerged, take home effects beyond the school gate dominate, as children act as agents of change and influence cooking and food choice at home. These short term outcomes have the potential to lead to longer term outcomes including changing eating behaviour and diet. PMID:26254277

  6. The Model Repository (MREP) of the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, Phillip C.; Roberts, D.; Bakalov, V. D.; Bikmal, S.; Cantor, S.; Costandine, T.; Ganapathi, L.; Golla, B. J.; Grubbs, G.; Hollingsworth, C.; Li, S.; Qin, Y.; Savage, B.; Simoni, D.; Solano, E.; Wagener, D.

    2009-01-01

    The model repository (MREP) is a relational database management system (RDBMS) developed under the auspices of the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study (MIDAS. The purpose of the MREP is to organize and catalog the models, results, and suggestions for using MIDAS and to store them in a way to allow users to run models from an access-controlled disease model repository. The model repository contains source and object code of disease models developed by infectious disease modelers and tested in a production environment. Different versions of models used to describe various aspects of the same disease are housed in the repository. Models are linked to their developers and different versions of the codes are tied to Subversion, a version control tool. An additional element of the MREP will be to house, manage, and control access to a disease model results warehouse, which consists of output generated by the models contained in the MREP. The results tables and files are linked to the version of the model and the input parameters that collectively generated the results. The results tables are warehoused in a relational database that permits them to be easily identified, categorized, and downloaded. PMID:18632331

  7. ECO-EPIZOOTIOLOGIC STUDY OF FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS, THE AGENT OF TULAREMIA, IN QUÉBEC WILDLIFE.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Ogden, Nicholas; Massé, Ariane; Antonation, Kym; Corbett, Cindi; Dibernardo, Antonia; Lindsay, L Robbin; Leighton, Patrick A; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-04-28

    In Canada, Francisella tularensis , the zoonotic bacterial agent of tularemia, affects mostly snowshoe hares ( Lepus americanus ), muskrats ( Ondatra zibethicus ), and beavers ( Castor canadensis ). Despite numerous studies, the ecologic cycle and natural reservoirs of F. tularensis are not clearly defined. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of F. tularensis in snowshoe hares, muskrats, and coyotes ( Canis latrans ) in four regions of Québec, Canada, and to describe the risk of infection in relation to host and environmental characteristics at three spatial scales. Between October 2012 and April 2013, trappers captured 345 snowshoe hares, 411 muskrats, and 385 coyotes. Blood samples were tested by microagglutination tests, and DNA extracts of liver, kidney, lung, and spleen of snowshoe hares and muskrats were tested by real-time PCR to detect past and active infection to F. tularensis , respectively. Individual host characteristics, including body condition, age, and sex, were evaluated as risk factors of infection, along with ecologic characteristics of the location of capture extracted from geographic databases. Prevalences of antibody to F. tularensis and 95% confidence intervals were 2.9% (1.4-5.1%) in coyotes, 0.6% (0.1-2.1%) in hares, and 0% (0.0-0.9%) in muskrats. Francisella tularensis DNA was not detected by real-time PCR in the pools of four organs from muskrats and hares, but F. tularensis type AI was detected during testing of the individual organs of two antibody-positive hares. Exact logistic regression analyses showed that age was a significant predictor of antibody detection in coyotes, as were the proportion of forest and the proportion of area considered as suitable habitat for hares in the environment around the location of capture of the coyotes. Our results suggest a terrestrial cycle of F. tularensis in the regions studied. PMID:26967133

  8. The Prevalence of Antifungal Agents Administration in Patients Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Kargar, Mona; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahmadvand, Milad; Hadjibabaie, Molouk; Gholami, Kheirollah; Khoee, Seyed Hamid; Javadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir

    2013-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are chief infectious complications in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, the diagnosis of fungal infections is difficult, and often empiric treatment initiates. Since there is no data available on the prevalence of antifungal drugs administration in allogeneic HSCT recipients in Iran, we decided to conduct this study. Methods This study was a retrospective review of records of patients who received allogeneic HSCT in the Hematology-Oncology, Bone Marrow Transplantation center at Shariati Hospital in Tehran, between August 2009 and August 2010. Results Sixty (73.1%) patients consist of 41 men (68.3%) with mean age of 26.3 (± 1.2) years received allogeneic HSCT. Patients received prophylaxis with fulconazole however; in 28 patients (46.7%) it was switched to low dose amphotericin B. Fifteen patients (25%) received treatment with antifungal agents. Amphotericin B was the empiric agent administered. In 3 patients treatment was switched to voriconazole. Neither positive culture nor direct microscopic evidence was available from the obtained specimen. Only in one patient the result of serum galactomannan assay was positive. There were no significant differences in neutropenia duration (P value: 0.54), length of hospital stay (P value: 0.27) and number of patients developed graft versus host disease (P value: 0.07) between patients received antifungal agents with those who did not receive treatment. Conclusion In this study HSCT recipients received antifungal agents for prophylaxis. Twenty five percent of patients received treatment with antifungal agents empirically. Improvement in diagnosis of these infections can be helpful and lead to targeted therapy. We suggest larger prospective trials for better assessment of antifungal agent administration. PMID:24505528

  9. Redesigning the DNA-Targeted Chromophore in Platinum–Acridine Anticancer Agents: A Structure–Activity Relationship Study

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Amanda J.; Liu, Fang; Bartenstein, Thomas F.; Haines, Laura G.; Levine, Keith E.; Kucera, Gregory L.; Bierbach, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Platinum–acridine hybrid agents show low-nanomolar potency in chemoresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but high systemic toxicity in vivo. To reduce the promiscuous genotoxicity of these agents and improve their pharmacological properties, a modular build–click–screen approach was used to evaluate a small library of twenty hybrid agents containing truncated and extended chromophores of varying basicities. Selected derivatives were resynthesized and tested in five NSCLC cell lines representing large cell, squamous cell, and adenocarcinomas. 7-Aminobenz[c]acridine was identified as a promising scaffold in a hybrid agent (P1–B1) that maintained submicromolar activity in several of the DNA-repair proficient and p53-mutant cancer models, while showing improved tolerability in mice by 32-fold compared to the parent platinum–acridine (P1–A1). The distribution and DNA/RNA adduct levels produced by the acridine- and benz[c]acridine-based analogues in NCI-H460 cells (confocal microscopy, ICP-MS), and their ability to bind G-quadruplex forming DNA sequences (CD spectroscopy, HR-ESMS) were studied. P1–B1 emerges as a less genotoxic, more tolerable, and potentially more target-selective hybrid agent than P1–A1. PMID:25302716

  10. Effects of iodinated contrast agent, xylocaine and gadolinium concentration on the signal emitted in magnetic resonance arthrography: a samples study*

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Yvana Lopes Pinheiro; Costa, Rita Zanlorensi Visneck; Pinho, Kátia Elisa Prus; Ferreira, Ricardo Rabello; Schuindt, Sueliton Miyamoto

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. PMID:25987746

  11. A Phase I Study of DMS612, a Novel Bi-functional Alkylating Agent

    PubMed Central

    Appleman, Leonard J.; Balasubramaniam, Sanjeeve; Parise, Robert A; Bryla, Christine; Redon, Christophe E.; Nakamura, Asako J.; Bonner, William M.; Wright, John J; Piekarz, Richard; Kohler, David R; Jiang, Yixing; Belani, Chandra P.; Eiseman, Julie; Chu, Edward; Beumer, Jan H.; Bates, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose DMS612 is a dimethane sulfonate analog with bifunctional alkylating activity and preferential cytotoxicity to human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in the NCI-60 cell panel. This first-in-human phase I study aimed to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of DMS612 administered by 10-min intravenous infusion on days 1, 8, and 15 of an every 28-day schedule. Experimental Design Patients with advanced solid malignancies were eligible. Enrollment followed a 3+3 design. Pharmacokinetics of DMS612 and metabolites were assessed by mass spectroscopy and pharmacodynamics by γ-H2AX immunofluorescence. Results A total of 31 patients with colorectal (11), RCC (4), cervical (2), and urothelial (1) cancers were enrolled. Six dose levels were studied, from 1.5 mg/m2 to 12 mg/m2. DLTs of grade 4 neutropenia and prolonged grade 3 thrombocytopenia were observed at 12 mg/m2. The MTD was determined to be 9 mg/m2 with a single DLT of grade 4 thrombocytopenia in 1 of 12 patients. Two patients had a confirmed partial response at the 9 mg/m2 dose level, in renal (1) and cervical (1) cancer. DMS612 was rapidly converted into active metabolites. γ-H2AX immunofluorescence revealed dose-dependent DNA damage in both peripheral blood lymphocytes and scalp hairs. Conclusions The MTD of DMS12 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days was 9 mg/m2. DMS612 appears to be an alkylating agent with unique tissue specificities. Dose-dependent pharmacodynamic signals and 2 partial responses at the MTD support further evaluation of DMS612 in phase II trials. PMID:25467180

  12. Retention of Implant Supported Metal Crowns Cemented with Different Luting Agents: A Comparative Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kavipal; Kaur, Simrat; Arora, Aman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To overcome limitations of screw-retained prostheses, cement-retained prostheses have become the restoration of choice now a days. Selection of the cement hence becomes very critical to maintain retrievability of the prostheses. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess and compare the retention of base metal crowns cemented to implant abutments with five different luting cements. Materials and Methods Ten implant analogs were secured in five epoxy resin casts perpendicular to the plane of cast in right first molar and left first molar region and implant abutments were screwed. Total of 100 metal copings were fabricated and cemented. The cements used were zinc phosphate, resin modified glass ionomer cement, resin cement, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement & non-eugenol temporary resin cement implant cement. Samples were subjected to a pull-out test using an Instron universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min. The load required to de-cement each coping was recorded and mean values for each group calculated and put to statistical analysis. Results The results showed that resin cement has the highest retention value 581.075N followed by zinc phosphate luting cement 529.48N, resin modified glass ionomer cement 338.095 N, non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement 249.045 N and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement 140.49N. Conclusion Within the limitations of study, it was concluded that non-eugenol acrylic based temporary implant cement and non-eugenol temporary resin implant cement allow for easy retrievability of the prosthesis in case of any failure in future. These are suitable for cement retained implant restorations. The results provide a possible preliminary ranking of luting agents based on their ability to retain an implant-supported prosthesis and facilitate easy retrieval. PMID:27190954

  13. How Can a Radiologist Reveal More Practical Information Using Dynamic Study of Cavernosal Artery After Injection of Vasoactive Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri, Seyyed Morteza; Gharib, Mohammad Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Erection is a dynamic multi-stage neurovascular phenomenon consisting of 4 phases. Conventional protocol of color Doppler study can easily overlook these ongoing dynamic events. Objectives: Here, we tried to designate patterns for these dynamic spectral waveform changes of cavernosal arteries in patients with erectile dysfunction and subsequently better describe the extent of their underlying problem. Patients and Methods: We evaluated 59 men who were referred for post-intracavernosal injection (ICI) color Doppler investigation of suspected erectile dysfunction (ED). The demographic data and medical history were recorded. Afterwards, first scan injection was done. Then scanning of cavernosal arteries was started about one minute after the injection and was continued thereafter. For better description of temporal changes in the waveform of cavernosal arteries, new patterns were defined and used. Patients were also classified based on previously known etiologic categories (i.e. arterial insufficiency, venous leak, mixed type, and normal response). Results: The mean age was 45.6 ± 13.1 (24 to 74 ) years. Twenty-two were normal responders [considered as non-organic causes (37.3% of all patients)], 27 were classified as venous leakage, eight had arterial insufficiency and two were mixed type. Maximum PSV occurred before the fifth minute in 47 patients (92.2%). Eight patients completed all phases of erection in the first 5 minutes. We defined 8 patterns for the temporal changes in cavernosal arterial waveform. Pattern 5 was the most common pattern of venous leak; while, patterns 3 and 4 were considered as the uncommon group. Six patients demonstrated the uncommon patterns of venous leak (22.2%). Hypertension was more prevalent in the uncommon pattern of venous leak. Conclusions: We highlight the considerable role of continuous evaluation starting one minute after intra cavernosal with ICI injection of the vasoactive agent for better description of the

  14. Acquisition of Derivational Lexical Rules: A Case Study of the Acquisition of French Agent Noun Forms by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates L2 learners' use of French derivational processes and their strategies as they form agent nouns. It also attempts to find out which of the acquisitional principles (conventionality, semantic transparency, formal simplicity, and productivity) advanced by Clark (1993, 2003) for various L1s acquisition of word formation…

  15. [An experimental study of the computer-controlled equipment for delivering volatile anesthetic agent].

    PubMed

    Sun, B; Li, W Z; Yue, Y; Jiang, C W; Xiao, L Y

    2001-11-01

    Our newly-designed computer-controlled equipment for delivering volatile anesthetic agent uses the subminiature singlechip processor as the central controlling unit. The variables, such as anesthesia method, anesthetic agent, the volume of respiratory loop, age of patient, sex, height, weight, environment temperature and the grade of ASA are all input from the keyboard. The anesthetic dosage, calculated by the singlechip processor, is converted into the signals controlling the pump to accurately deliver anesthetic agent into respiratory loop. We have designed an electrocircuit for the equipment to detect the status of the pump's operation, so we can assure of the safety and the stability of the equipment. The output precision of the equipment, with a good anti-jamming capability, is 1-2% for high flow anesthesia and 1-5% for closed-circuit anesthesia and its self-detecting working is reliable. PMID:12583263

  16. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  17. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  18. Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prosthesis: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Pujari, Malesh; Prithviraj, D R; Khare, Sumit

    2014-12-01

    Desired retrievability of cemented implant-supported fixed prosthesis makes the retentive strength of cementing agents an important consideration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the retentiveness of purposely designed implant cement and compare its retentiveness with dental cements that are commonly used with implant systems. Ten implant analogs were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks and titanium abutments were attached to them. Fifty standardized copings were waxed directly on the abutment and casted. The cements used were: (1) resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement, (2) purposely designed implant cement, (3) zinc phosphate cement, (4) zinc polycarboxylate cement, and (5) glass ionomer cement. After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using universal testing machine and loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test. The mean values (± SD) of loads at failure (n = 10) for various cements were as follows (N): resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement 394.62 (± 9.76), Premier implant cement 333.86 (± 18.91), zinc phosphate cement 629.30 (± 20.65), zinc polycarboxylate cement 810.08 (± 11.52), and glass ionomer cement 750.17 (± 13.78). The results do not suggest that one cement type is better than another, but they do provide a ranking order of the cements regarding their ability to retain the prosthesis and facilitate easy retrievability. PMID:25506659

  19. RETENTIVENESS OF VARIOUS LUTING AGENTS USED WITH IMPLANT SUPPORTED- PROSTHESIS: AN INVITRO STUDY.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pooja; Pujari, Malesh L; D R, Prithviraj; Khare, Sumit

    2014-03-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT:Purpose: Desired retrievability of cemented implant-supported fixed prosthesis makes the retentive strength of cementing agents an important consideration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the retentiveness of purposely-designed implant cement and to compare its retentiveness with dental cements that are commonly used with implant systems.Materials and method: Ten implant analogs were embedded in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks and titanium abutments were attached to them. 50 standardized copings were waxed directly on the abutment and casted. The cements used were: 1. resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement (Kalzinol, DPI), 2. purposely-designed implant cement (Premier implant cement), 3. zinc phosphate cement (DeTrey Zinc, Dentsply), 4. zinc polycarboxylate cement (Poly-F, Dentsply) and 5. glass ionomer cement (GC Gold Label, GC corporation, Japan). After cementation, each sample was subjected to a pull-out test using universal testing machine and loads required to remove the crowns were recorded. The mean values and standard deviations of cement failure loads were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni test.Results: The mean values (±SD) of loads at failure (n = 10) for various cements were as follows (N): resin-bonded zinc oxide eugenol cement 394.62 (±9.76), Premier implant cement 333.86 (±18.91), zinc phosphate cement 629.30 (±20.65), zinc polycarboxylate cement 810.08 (±11.52) and glass ionomer cement 750.17 (±13.78).Conclusions: The results do not suggest that one cement type is better than another, but they do provide a ranking order of the cements in their ability to retain the prosthesis and to facilitate its easy retrievability. PMID:24588463

  20. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Nooh, Nasser; Abdullah, Walid A; Grawish, Mohammed El-Awady; Ramalingam, Sundar; Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel) and bone wax on bone healing in goats’ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT) measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV) and bone density (BD) were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation. PMID:24932041

  1. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  2. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study sought to distinguish between conflict monitoring and congruency-based accounts of CSEs. To this end, we determined whether CSEs are driven by previous-trial reaction time (RT)—a putative measure of response conflict—or by previous-trial congruency. In two experiments using a face-word Stroop task (n = 49), we found that current-trial congruency effects did not vary with previous-trial RT independent of previous-trial congruency. In contrast, current-trial congruency effects were influenced by previous-trial congruency independent of previous-trial RT. These findings appear more consistent with theories that attribute CSEs to non-conflict processes whose recruitment varies with previous-trial congruency than with theories that link CSEs to previous-trial response conflict. PMID:24027550

  3. [Measurement of mutagenesis to study the effects of chemical agents]. Final report, August 1, 1993--July 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Puck, T.T.

    1994-12-31

    This is the final report of a study conducted at the Eleanor Roosevelt Institute for Cancer Research, Inc. This study looked at mutagenesis as a measurement of the effects of chemical agents. Topics discussed in this report include: development of a new theory for the role of lipids and lipoproteins in the interactions of macromolecules; the action of caffeine in synergizing mutagenesis of agents like ionizing radiation by inhibition of cellular repair processes which was incorporated into a rapid procedure for detection of mutagenicity with high sensitivity; quantitative theoretical analysis of the mutagenesis process in cells exposed to physical and chemical mutagenic agents; theoretical analysis was developed leading to the conclusion that the visible chromosomal lesions described will also include a significant proportion of point mutations; application of this methodology for meaningful measurement of mutagenesis to study the effects of chemical agents was begun; and investigation of the cell cytoskeleton`s effect of genome exposure operating in the course of the differentiation process.

  4. A pilot study of an automated voice response system and nursing intervention to monitor adherence to oral chemotherapy agents.

    PubMed

    Decker, Veronica; Spoelstra, Sandra; Miezo, Emily; Bremer, Renee; You, Mei; Given, Charles; Given, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to develop and test a system to monitor adherence with nonhormonal oral chemotherapeutic agents using an automated voice response (AVR) system plus nursing intervention. Participants were patients diagnosed with solid tumor cancers, primarily breast, colon, and lung cancers, who received the Symptom Management Toolkit and participated in an interview for symptom severity, satisfaction, and beliefs about oral agents. Patients received weekly AVR calls, which assessed adherence to oral agents and severity of 15 symptoms. Patients who reported adherence of below 100% of the prescribed oral agents or symptoms of 4 or greater (0-10 scale) for 3 consecutive weeks were called by a nurse for assistance with symptom management and adherence to oral chemotherapy medications. After the 8 weekly AVR calls, patients participated in a follow-up interview and medical record review. Participants were 30 oncology patients who were ambulatory and treated at 2 cancer centers in Midwest United States. The results indicate 23.3% nonadherence rate to oral chemotherapy medications due to symptoms and forgetting to take the medication. An association between symptom management and adherence was found. Symptom severity and beliefs about medications were not significantly different between adherent and nonadherent patients. This pilot study demonstrated the ability to accrue patients for a longitudinal trial and informed intervention design while providing guidance for future interventions and research studies. PMID:19816160

  5. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  6. Studies on the reaction of skin when exposed to fluorescent whitening agents.

    PubMed

    Gloxhuber, C; Bloching, H; Kästner, W

    1975-01-01

    In hand washing tests with detergents containing fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs), the amounts of whitener left on both hands were determined by TLC spectrophotometry: they varied from 0.06 mg to 0.17 mg. Whiteners of different chemical constitutions behaved in a very similar manner. After 24 hours the skin of the treated hands was virtually free of whitener. PMID:1064539

  7. Empirical Studies of Interactions of Semantic Roles: The Agent and Patient in Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yue, Kun

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the interaction between form and function in Mandarin Chinese by empirically examining the interactions of core semantic roles (Agent and Patient) and the syntactic representation of those interactions in semantically transitive events. First, I demonstrate that syntactic structures and functions are intertwined with…

  8. Studies of Opinion Stability for Small Dynamic Networks with Opportunistic Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    There are numerous examples of societies with extremely stable mix of contrasting opinions. We argue that this stability is a result of an interplay between society network topology adjustment and opinion changing processes. To support this position we present a computer model of opinion formation based on some novel assumptions, designed to bring the model closer to social reality. In our model, the agents, in addition to changing their opinions due to influence of the rest of society and external propaganda, have the ability to modify their social network, forming links with agents sharing the same opinions and cutting the links with those they disagree with. To improve the model further we divide the agents into "fanatics" and "opportunists," depending on how easy it is to change their opinions. The simulations show significant differences compared to traditional models, where network links are static. In particular, for the dynamical model where inter-agent links are adjustable, the final network structure and opinion distribution is shown to resemble real world observations, such as social structures and persistence of minority groups even when most of the society is against them and the propaganda is strong.

  9. In vitro and In vivo Studies on Stilbene Analogs as Potential Treatment Agents for Colon Cancer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based upon the potential of resveratrol as a cancer chemopreventive agent, 27 stilbenes analogs were synthesized and tested against colon cancer cell line HT-29. Among these compounds, amino derivative (Z)-4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) aniline (4), (Z)-methyl 4-(3,5-dimethoxystyryl) benzoate (6) and (Z)-1...

  10. CASE STUDIES FOR EVALUATING A FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RISK TO CHILDREN FROM EXPOSURE TO ENVIRONMENTAL AGENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in the recognition and public health concern for children as a potentially susceptible population for exposure to environmental agents. The recently convened workshop to develop a framework for assessing the risks to childr...

  11. An impedance study of two types of stainless steel in Ringer physiological solution containing complexing agents.

    PubMed

    Slemnik, Mojca; Milosev, Ingrid

    2006-10-01

    The effect of complexing agents EDTA and citric acid on the electrochemical behaviour of AISI 304 and orthopaedic stainless steels in Ringer physiological solution was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization method and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The content of Mo has a pronounced effect on the corrosion resistance, as evident by the broader passive range of the orthopaedic stainless steel containing Mo. The addition of complexing agents induces significant changes in polarization and impedance characteristics, i.e., the shift of corrosion and breakdown potentials in a more negative direction, an increase in current density, and a significant decrease in charge transfer resistance. The results were interpreted by the formation of soluble complexes of metal ions with chelating agents, especially EDTA, which suppressed the formation of the outer Fe(III) layer of the passive film. The impact of complexing agent on the electrochemical parameters was found to be related to its concentration in electrolyte and the stability constant of the complex formed with the related metal ion. PMID:16977388

  12. Risk assessment and stakeholder perceptions in novel biological control agent release: YST as a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of risk assessment are to learn about whether a candidate agent would be safe to use in the environment where release is planned, and to present such information in a clear, understandable format to regulators, stakeholders, and the public. Plant pathogens evaluated for biological co...

  13. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Davis, Erin Durke; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Morris, John R.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  14. Multifunctional ultra-high vacuum apparatus for studies of the interactions of chemical warfare agents on complex surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmsmeyer, Amanda R.; Morris, John R.; Gordon, Wesley O.; Mantooth, Brent A.; Lalain, Teri A.; Davis, Erin Durke

    2014-01-15

    A fundamental understanding of the surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents is needed to fully predict the interaction of these toxic molecules with militarily relevant materials, catalysts, and environmental surfaces. For example, rules for predicting the surface chemistry of agents can be applied to the creation of next generation decontaminants, reactive coatings, and protective materials for the warfighter. Here, we describe a multifunctional ultra-high vacuum instrument for conducting comprehensive studies of the adsorption, desorption, and surface chemistry of chemical warfare agents on model and militarily relevant surfaces. The system applies reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry to study adsorption and surface reactions of chemical warfare agents. Several novel components have been developed to address the unique safety and sample exposure challenges that accompany the research of these toxic, often very low vapor pressure, compounds. While results of vacuum-based surface science techniques may not necessarily translate directly to environmental processes, learning about the fundamental chemistry will begin to inform scientists about the critical aspects that impact real-world applications.

  15. Retrospective Study of Etiologic Agents Associated with Nonsuppurative Meningoencephalitis in Stranded Cetaceans in the Canary Islands

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T.; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  16. Retrospective study of etiologic agents associated with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis in stranded cetaceans in the canary islands.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Eva; Sánchez, Susan; Saliki, Jeremiah T; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Arbelo, Manuel; Zucca, Daniele; Fernández, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    Nineteen natural cases of etiologically undetermined encephalitides in free-ranging cetaceans were studied retrospectively. Histological examination of the brains revealed variable degrees of nonsuppurative encephalitis or meningoencephalitis, characterized predominantly by perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates. A PCR assay was used on brain and other available tissues to detect the presence of morbillivirus, herpesvirus, West Nile virus, Toxoplasma gondii, and Brucella spp. In addition, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining was performed on selected tissues to determine the presence of morbilliviral antigens. Six animals (5 striped dolphins and 1 common dolphin) showed IHC and/or molecular evidence of morbilliviral antigens and/or genomes, mainly in brain tissue. Conventional nested PCR detected herpesviral DNA in brain tissue samples from two striped dolphins. There was no evidence of West Nile virus, T. gondii, or Brucella spp. in any of the brain tissue samples examined. The information presented here increases the number of confirmed morbillivirus-positive cases within the Canarian archipelago from two previously reported cases to eight. Furthermore, a new nested-PCR method for the detection of morbillivirus is described here. Regarding herpesvirus, the phylogenetic analysis performed in the current study provides valuable information about a possible pathogenic branch of cetacean alphaherpesviruses that might be responsible for some fatal cases worldwide. PMID:24759718

  17. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  18. Seropositivity rates for agents of canine vector-borne diseases in Spain: a multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Controlling canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) is a major concern, since some of these diseases are serious zoonoses. This study was designed to determine seropositivity rates in Spain for agents causing the following five CVBD: leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum: Li), heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis: Di), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis: Ec), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum/Anaplasma platys: An) and Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi: Bb). Methods Anti-An, -Bb, and -Ec antibodies and the Di antigen were determined using the 4DX SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) and anti-L. infantum (Li) antibodies using the Leishmania SNAP® Test (IDEXX Laboratories) in blood and/or serum samples. Results Among 1100 dogs examined, overall seropositivity rates were: Li (15.7%), Ec (5%), An (3.1%), Di (1.25%) and Bb (0.4%). While seropositivity towards Bb and Di was similar in all geographic regions, rates were significantly higher in the east of Spain (8.3%) for An, significantly higher in the north (20%) for Ec, and significantly higher in the Southeast (46.6%) and South (27.4%), and significantly lower in the north (0%) for Li. No statistical associations were observed between sex and the CVBD analyzed (p ≥ 0.05) while the following associations with other variables were detected: a higher seropositivity to Ec (40%) and Bb (6.7%) in dogs under one year of age compared with adults (p < 0.05); and a higher seropositivity to An and Li in dogs that lived outdoors versus indoors (p = 0.01; p < 0.001, respectively). Seropositivity rates of 2.1%, 0%, 1.7%, 0.5% and 4.2% were recorded respectively for An, Bb, Ec, Di and Li in dogs with no clinical signs (n = 556) versus 3.8%, 0.6%, 7.5%, 1.8% and 25.9% for those with signs (n = 507) suggestive of a CVBD. Conclusion The data obtained indicate a risk for dogs in Spain of acquiring any of the five CVBD examined. Veterinarians in the different regions should include these diseases in their

  19. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Two-Generation Reproduction Study of Lewisite in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Mellick, P. W.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-07-15

    Occupational health standards have not been established for Lewisite [bis(2-chlorethyl)arsine], a potent toxic vesicant which reacts with the sulfhydryl groups of proteins through its arsenic group. The purposes of this study were to determine the reproductive consequences and dose~response of continuing Lewisite exposure of parental males and females and their offspring in a 42-week two-generation study. Solutions of Lewisite were prepared for administration by diluting the neat agent with sesame oil. Rats were administered Lewisite (0, 0.10, 0.25 or 0.60 mg/kg/day for 5 days a week) via intragastric intubation prior to mating, during mating and after mating until the birth of their offspring. The dams continued to receive Lewisite during lactation. At weaning, male and female offspring of each group were selected to continue on the study; rece1v1ng Lewisite during adolescence, mating and throughout gestation. Again, the dams continued to receive Lewisite until weaning of the offspring. Lewisite had no adverse effect on reproduction performance, fertility or reproductive organ weights of male or female rats through two consecutive generations. No adverse effect to offspring were attributed to Lewisite exposure. Minor changes in growth was the only maternal effect observed. Lewisite exposure of parental rats caused no gross or microscopic lesions in testes, epididymis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, ovaries, uterus or vagina. Severe inflammation of the lung was observed at necropsy in cases in which Lewisite gained access to the respiratory system from accidental dosing or reflux and aspiration; this usually caused early death of the animal. The NOEL for reproductive effects in this study was greater than 0.60 mg/kg/day.

  20. Cutaneous challenge with chemical warfare agents in the SKH-1 hairless mouse. (I) Development of a model for screening studies in skin decontamination and protection.

    PubMed

    Dorandeu, F; Taysse, L; Boudry, I; Foquin, A; Hérodin, F; Mathieu, J; Daulon, S; Cruz, C; Lallement, G

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to lethal chemical warfare agents (CWAs) is no longer only a military issue due to the terrorist threat. Among the CWAs of concern are the organophosphorus nerve agent O-ethyl-S-(2[di-isopropylamino]ethyl)methyl-phosphonothioate (VX) and the vesicant sulfur mustard (SM). Although efficient means of decontamination are available, most of them lose their efficacy when decontamination is delayed after exposure of the bare skin. Alternatively, CWA skin penetration can be prevented by topical skin protectants. Active research in skin protection and decontamination is thus paramount. In vivo screening of decontaminants or skin protectants is usually time consuming and may be expensive depending on the animal species used. We were thus looking for a suitable, scientifically sound and cost-effective model, which is easy to handle. The euthymic hairless mouse Crl: SKH-1 (hr/hr) BR is widely used in some skin studies and has previously been described to be suitable for some experiments involving SM or SM analogs. To evaluate the response of this species, we studied the consequences of exposing male anaesthetized SKH-1 mice to either liquid VX or to SM, the latter being used in liquid form or as saturated vapours. Long-term effects of SM burn were also evaluated. The model was then used in the companion paper (Taysse et al.(1)). PMID:20547654

  1. Ruthenium-97 hepatobiliary agents for delayed studies of the bilary tract I: Ru-97 PIPIDA: concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Schachner, E.R.; Gil, M.C.; Atkins, H.L.; Som, P.; Srivastava, S.C.; Badia, J.; Sacker, D.F.; Fairchild, R.G.; Richards, P.

    1981-04-01

    Failure of early diagnosis of biliary atresia results in the development of cirrhosis and death. Commonly used hepatobiliary agents are not ideal for follow-up studies because of their unfavorable physical properties or short half-life. The excellent physical properties of Ru-97 should overcome these limitations. Therefore, Ru-97 PIPIDA (N,..cap alpha..-(p-isopropyl acetanilide) iminoacetic acid) is being investigated as a potential hepatobiliary agent that would allow an improved diagnosis of the disease. Ruthenium-97 PIPIDA and Tc-99m PIPIDA showed similar blood clearance rates in dogs. Ru-97 PIPIDA scintigrams in dogs showed early uptake in liver and gallbladder and slow excretion through the gastrointestinal tract. Biodistribution studies were performed in normal rats and rats with biliary obstruction. The findings suggest that Ru-97 PIPIDA should be useful for delayed studies ( 1 to 3 days) of the biliary tract.

  2. Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies of novel triazole as antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Chai, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Cao, Yongbing; Zou, Yan; Wu, Qiuye; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying; Sun, Qingyan

    2011-07-01

    In order to meet the urgent need for novel antifungal agents with improved activity and broader spectrum, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-[(4-substituted trifluoromethyl phenyl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propan-2-ols were designed, synthesized and evaluated as antifungal agents. The MIC(80) values indicate that the compounds 7a-7q, 8a-8d showed higher antifungal activities against Candida albicans than 5a-5i, 6a-6j. Moreover, the molecular model for the binding between compound 5a, 7a and the active site of CACYP51 was provided based on the computational docking results, and the structure-activity relationship was analyzed. PMID:21531485

  3. Dynamic scheduling study on engineering machinery of clusters using multi-agent system ant algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiang; Wang, Hongli; Guo, Long; Xiang, Jianping

    2005-12-01

    In the process of road surface construction, dispatchers' scheduling was experiential and blindfold in some degree and static scheduling restricted the continuity of the construction. Serious problems such as labor holdup, material awaiting and scheduling delay could occur when the old scheduling technique was used. This paper presents ant colony algorithm based on MAS that has the abilities of intelligentized modeling and dynamic scheduling. MAS model deals with single agent's communication and corresponding in engineering machinery of clusters firstly, next we apply ant colony algorithm to solve dynamic scheduling in the plant. Ant colony algorithm can optimize the match of agents and make the system dynamic balance. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated with MATLAB simulations.

  4. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  5. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  6. Risk of Parkinson's Disease in the Users of Antihypertensive Agents: An Evidence from the Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Mullapudi, Amarnath; Gudala, Kapil; Boya, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antihypertensive agents have been shown to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammatory response and thus neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease (PD). Epidemiological evidence suggests inconsistency between use of antihypertensives and risk of PD. This study is aimed to examine the association between antihypertensive use and risk of PD. Methods. Literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO database was undertaken through February 2012 looking for observational studies evaluating the association between antihypertensive drug use and risk of PD. Before meta-analysis, the studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results. Seven relevant studies including a total of 28,32,991 subjects were included. Pooled RR of overall use of antihypertensive agents was found to be 0.95 (95% CI 0.84–1.05). A significant reduction in the risk of PD was observed among users of calcium channel blockers (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.71–0.93). Significant heterogeneity (I2 = 76.2%) but no publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Overall use of antihypertensive agents showed no significant association with the risk of PD. CCBs provided significant protective role. However, studies with large sample size and dose relationships are required to strengthen our hypothesis. PMID:27516917

  7. Effect of previous locoweed (Astragalus and Oxytropis species) intoxication on conditioned taste aversions in horses and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis spp.) are a serious toxic plant problem for grazing livestock. Horses and sheep have been conditioned to avoid grazing locoweed using the aversive agent LiCl. The objective of this study was to determine if previous locoweed intoxication affects food aversi...

  8. Uptake of perfusion imaging agents by transplanted hearts: an experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Feldman, M.J.; Kung, H.; Wright, J.R.

    1989-02-01

    There is a need for a reliable noninvasive marker of rejection in transplanted hearts. Endomyocardial biopsy is now the universally accepted diagnostic method of choice, but the invasiveness of the procedure and the limited size of the sample obtained makes this method far from ideal. As coronary blood flow may be expected to decrease during acute rejection, there has been interest in thallium-201 chloride (T1), a perfusion marker, as an imaging agent for diagnosing cardiac rejection. Hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium (Tc-TBI) is a representative of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals proposed as perfusion markers. We have compared the uptake of these imaging agents in a rat model of cardiac transplantation. Uptake of Tc-TBI as well as of T1 was significantly lower in rejecting than in nonrejecting hearts. This change was found in both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Allografts in animals treated with cyclosporine (CyA) showed less severe rejection and higher uptakes of both imaging agents as compared to unmodified rejection. Our results suggest that perfusion imaging with these radionuclides is a potentially useful approach to the problem of detecting allograft rejection.

  9. Exploratory study on the effects of novel diamine curing agents and isocyanate precursors on the properties on new epoxy and urethane adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, D. G.; Garthwait, C.

    1977-01-01

    Aromatic diamines based on diphenyl sulfone and benzophenone were studied as epoxy adhesive curing agents. Previously found differences in adhesive strengths for meta vs para orientation were not found in these series. The use of aluminum and alumina as fillers in a m,m prime-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy adhesive was not found to be beneficial to adhesive strength. Alumina filled adhesives had much lower strength than unfilled adhesives. The unfilled m,m prime-methylene dianiline-based epoxy adhesive had excellent resistance to moisture relative to a p,p prime-methylene dianiline-based adhesive and maintained good strengths up to 250 F. A glass fiber composite based on a m,m prime-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy appeared to be equivalent to the p,p prime-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy as judged by short beam shear tests.

  10. Effects of Citric Acid and Desensitizing Agent Application on Nonfluorosed and Fluorosed Dentin: An In Vitro Sem Study

    PubMed Central

    Neha, Mahajan; Vandana, Laxman K

    2015-01-01

    Fluorosis is one of the factors which bring about mineralisation changes in a dentinal structure leading to dentin. The purpose of the present study was to compare and evaluate the dentinal tubular changes in fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth subsequent to the application of citric acid,strontium acetate based sodium fluoride (SAF) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dentin specimens from healthy fluorosed and nonfluorosed teeth were included in the study. Each of them was grouped into acid treated and SAF treatment groups. Using SEM, the photomicrographs (3500x) of dentin specimens were evaluated. Results showed while there was a significant difference in tubular width of partial occlusion ≤ 25%, being more in fluorosed group compared to nonfluorosed group after application SAF. Application of desensitising agents demonstrated higher number of dentinal tubular occlusion and diameter reduction in nonfluorosed dentin compared to fluorosed dentin. Summary: Root biomodification and desensitising agent procedure brings in definite difference between fluorosed and non-fluorosed dentin specimens. PMID:25870716

  11. IMPROVED ANTIFOAM AGENT STUDY END OF YEAR REPORT, EM PROJECT 3.2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.; Koopman, D.; Newell, J.

    2011-09-30

    issues above is that DWPF had three antifoam needs in FY2011: (1) Determine the cause of the poor Antifoam 747 performance during caustic boiling; (2) Determine the decomposition products of Antifoam 747 during CPC processing; and (3) Improve the effectiveness of Antifoam 747, in order to minimize the amount used. Testing was completed by Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) researchers to address these questions. The testing results reported were funded by both DWPF and DOE/EM 31. Both sets of results are reported in this document for completeness. The results of this research are summarized: (1) The cause for the poor Antifoam 747 performance during caustic boiling was the high hydrolysis rate, cleaving the antifoam molecule in two, leading to poor antifoam performance. In testing with pH solutions from 1 to 13, the antifoam degraded quickly at a pH < 4 and pH > 10. As the antifoam decomposed it lost its spreading ability (wetting agent performance), which is crucial to its antifoaming performance. During testing of a caustic sludge simulants, there was more foam in tests with added Antifoam 747 than in tests without added antifoam. (2) Analyses were completed to determine the composition of the two antifoam components and Antifoam 747. In addition, the decomposition products of Antifoam 747 were determined during CPC processing of sludge simulants. The main decomposition products were identified primarily as Long Chain Siloxanes, boiling point > 400 C. Total antifoam recovery was 33% by mass. In a subsequent study, various compounds potentially related to antifoam were found using semi-volatile organic analysis and volatile organic analysis on the hexane extractions and hexane rinses. These included siloxanes, trimethyl silanol, methoxy trimethyl silane, hexamethyl disiloxane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, dioctyl phthalate, and emulsifiers. Cumulatively, these species amounted to less than 3% of the antifoam mass. The

  12. Some Electrophysiological Methods for Studying the Action of Narcotic Agents in Animals, with special reference to Industrial Solvents: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mikisková, Hana; Mikiska, Aloš

    1968-01-01

    Four electrophysiological methods, two based on stimulation (measurement of spinal reflex excitability and of direct excitability of the cerebral motor cortex) and two based on bioelectric recording (electro-encephalography and electrocardiography), were used in intact guinea-pigs and rabbits for studying the action of narcotic and anaesthetic agents, especially of industrial solvents. The authors' results have been reviewed and compared with those of other investigators in an attempt to work out experimental procedures for routine toxicity testing. PMID:4296739

  13. A Collective Case Study of Secondary Students' Model-Based Inquiry on Natural Selection through Programming in an Agent-Based Modeling Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiang, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This is a collective case study seeking to develop detailed descriptions of how programming an agent-based simulation influences a group of 8th grade students' model-based inquiry (MBI) by examining students' agent-based programmable modeling (ABPM) processes and the learning outcomes. The context of the present study was a biology unit on…

  14. Microbiological aspects of an in situ model to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology.

    PubMed

    Giertsen, E; Guggenheim, B; Thurnheer, T; Gmür, R

    2000-10-01

    This study validates an in situ model for ecological studies of dental plaque exposed to various antimicrobial agents with different modes of action on plaque bacteria. Eleven subjects wore two acrylic appliances, each containing two bovine enamel discs, during two 1-wk test periods. Using a split-mouth crossover design, the appliances were dipped twice daily for 1 min into water (control; treatment A), fluoride (26.3 mM NaF; B), zinc acetate (20.0 mM; C), or fluoride plus zinc acetate (D). Four of the subjects used also chlorhexidine diacetate (2.2 mM; E) and chlorhexidine plus fluoride (F). At the end of each period, plaque was collected from the discs, after which the microbiota were analyzed by culture, automated quantitative immunofluorescence, and a viability fluorescence stain. As compared to control, treatments B, C, and D resulted in a significant reduction of individual taxa as detected by immunofluorescence, whereas similar bacterial viability and total bacterial numbers were observed. In contrast, chlorhexidine significantly reduced bacterial viability, total cell numbers, and the abundance of most of the enumerated taxa. We conclude that this in situ model is well suited to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology. Combined with viability testing, immunofluorescence is obviously superior to culture in detecting taxa-specific shifts caused by antimicrobial agents. PMID:11037756

  15. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigen-ously Developed Agent (Carie Care (TM) Gel) In Children.

    PubMed

    Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Kush, Anil; Lakshminarayana, Cs; Diwakar, Latha; Ravikumar, Puja; Patil, Shankargouda; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-08-01

    The invention and application of engine driven or rotary instruments in operative treatment of carious lesions has resulted in removal of considerable toothe structure. However, with the introduction of adhesive materials for restorations, and the advent of minimal cavity design this principle has been challenged and is now considered to be too destructive to the tooth structure during caries removal. A number of techniques are available for cutting tooth tissue. The chemo mechanical method of caries removal/treatment is considered to be less painful when compared to the traditional treatment method (use of drill). The present study was carried to study the effect of an indigenously developed caries removal agent viz. Carie Care (TM) & its effectiveness as a chemo mechanical caries removal agent. How to cite this article: Venkataraghavan K, Kush A, Lakshminarayana CS, Diwakar L, Ravikumar P, Patil S, Karthik S. Chemomechanical Caries Removal: A Review & Study of an Indigenously Developed Agent (Carie Care (TM) Gel) In Children. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):84-90. PMID:24155626

  16. Establishment of procedures for studying mPR-interacting agents and physiological roles of mPR.

    PubMed

    Tokumoto, Toshinobu; Hossain, Md Babul; Wang, Jun

    2016-07-01

    More than 10years have passed since the discovery of membrane progestin receptors (mPRs). Although the identification of mPR genes in various organisms and mPR expression patterns have been described since then, the precise physiological roles of mPRs are still unclear, except their function as a receptor for maturation-inducing steroid in fish. The wide distribution of mPRs suggests variable actions for progestins through mPRs in the tissues. Information about the physiological roles of mPRs, such as roles in the progression of breast cancer and T-cell proliferation, has gradually accumulated recently. These results suggest that mPRs are possible targets for new pharmaceuticals. We established a cell line that was transformed with cDNAs for mPRα and a recombinant luciferase gene named GloSensor. The cells can be used for monitoring the effects of ligands on mPRα based on intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Studies using these cell lines indicated that the cAMP concentration is decreased by ligands for mPRα. The results provide support for previous results suggesting that mPRα is coupled to inhibitory G protein (Gi). We also established screening methods that make it possible to screen ligands for mPR. Recently, we succeeded in expressing and purifying recombinant mPR protein in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Relatively large amounts of mPR protein with hormonal binding activity can be purified by our method. The recombinant protein will be applicable to establishing a molecular probe to detect mPR-interacting agents. To obtain decisive evidence for the roles of mPRs, we are establishing strains of medaka fish that are deficient in mPRs. In medaka, four subtypes of mPR genes (α, β, γ, and α2) have been identified. By reverse genetic screening, we have selected three to four strains in which a point mutation has been induced in the coding sequence of the mPR subtypes. However, homozygous mutants of each mPR gene showed no phenotype. The

  17. Biosynthetic Study on Antihypercholesterolemic Agent Phomoidride: General Biogenesis of Fungal Dimeric Anhydrides.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Ryuya; Matsu, Yusuke; Minami, Atsushi; Nagamine, Shota; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Gomi, Katsuya; Oikawa, Hideaki

    2015-11-20

    To elucidate the general biosynthetic pathway of fungal dimeric anhydrides, a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antihy-percholesterolemic agent phomoidride was identified by heterologous expression of candidate genes encoding the highly reducing polyketide synthase, alkylcitrate synthase (ACS), and alkylcitrate dehydratase (ACDH). An in vitro analysis of ACS and ACDH revealed that they give rise to anhydride monomers. Based on the established monomer biosynthesis, we propose a general biogenesis of dimeric anhydrides involving a single donor unit and four acceptor units. PMID:26558485

  18. Spectrophotometric Study of the Effect of Luting Agents on the Resultant Shade of Ceramic Veneers: An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Yogesh; Pustake, Swati; Bijjaragi, Shobha; Pustake, Bhushan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Dentistry has found practically the best available aesthetic answer, is ceramic restoration. There are various factors that contribute to the success of ceramic veneers, like colour of underlying tooth, thickness if ceramics and the type of underlying luting cement. Shade selection and matching remains still challenge, however the shade of luting agent used for cementation of veneers produces a change in resultant shade of veneers. Aim To compare and analyze the spectrophotometric effect of opaque and transparent luting agent on resultant shade of ceramic veneers made of 2L1.5 shade (Vitapan 3D-Masters) and B2 shade (Vitapan Classic). Materials and Methods Out of 15 ceramic veneers of 2L1.5 shade (VITAPAN 3D- Master), seven teeth cemented with opaque cement and eight teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Out of 10 ceramic veneers of B2 shade (VITAPAN Classic), five teeth were cemented with opaque cement and other five teeth with transparent cement shade of dual cure resin cement (Variolink IITM). Spectrophotometric (Macbeth U.S.A.) analysis of all ceramic veneer crowns done with optiview software and readings were recorded in Commission Internationale de I’ Eclairge {CIELAB} system and dE value was calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using Paired t-test. Results Spectrophotometric analysis of all the veneers cemented with opaque luting agent were lighter in shade due to significant change in dL value. Veneers cemented with transparent luting agent were darker in shade due to significant change in the dL value. Conclusion Opaque luting agent gives lighter shade and transparent luting agent gives darker shade to ceramic veneers fabricated with 2L1.5 and B2 shades. PMID:26501014

  19. Efficiency of goal-oriented communicating agents in different graph topologies: A study with Internet crawlers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lőrincz, András; Lázár, Katalin A.; Palotai, Zsolt

    2007-05-01

    To what extent does the communication make a goal-oriented community efficient in different topologies? In order to gain insight into this problem, we study the influence of learning method as well as that of the topology of the environment on the communication efficiency of crawlers in quest of novel information in different topics on the Internet. Individual crawlers employ selective learning, function approximation-based reinforcement learning (RL), and their combination. Selective learning, in effect, modifies the starting URL lists of the crawlers, whilst RL alters the URL orderings. Real data have been collected from the web and scale-free worlds, scale-free small world (SFSW), and random world environments (RWEs) have been created by link reorganization. In our previous experiments [ Zs. Palotai, Cs. Farkas, A. Lőrincz, Is selection optimal in scale-free small worlds?, ComPlexUs 3 (2006) 158-168], the crawlers searched for novel, genuine documents and direct communication was not possible. Herein, our finding is reproduced: selective learning performs the best and RL the worst in SFSW, whereas the combined, i.e., selective learning coupled with RL is the best-by a slight margin-in scale-free worlds. This effect is demonstrated to be more pronounced when the crawlers search for different topic-specific documents: the relative performance of the combined learning algorithm improves in all worlds, i.e., in SFSW, in SFW, and in RWE. If the tasks are more complex and the work sharing is enforced by the environment then the combined learning algorithm becomes at least equal, even superior to both the selective and the RL algorithms in most cases, irrespective of the efficiency of communication. Furthermore, communication improves the performance by a large margin and adaptive communication is advantageous in the majority of the cases.

  20. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Methods Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. Results From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9–6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1–7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). Conclusions In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354 PMID:26599904

  1. The effect of two bleaching agents on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Sokkalingam Mothilal; Narayan, Gopal Shankar; Ramachandran, Anil Kumar; Indira, Rajamani

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this ex vivo study was to evaluate the effect of in-office bleaching agents,–35% and 38% hydrogen peroxide containing bleaching agents, on the phosphate concentration of the enamel evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Forty noncarious, craze-free human maxillary incisors, extracted for periodontal reasons, were used in this study. Baseline Raman spectra from each specimen were obtained before the application of the bleaching agent to assess the phosphate content present in the teeth. The teeth were divided into two groups: Group A – bleached with pola office bleach (35% hydrogen peroxide, potassium nitrate) (light activated). Group B – bleached with opalescence Xtra bleach (38% hydrogen peroxide potassium nitrate and fluoride) (chemical activated). After the bleaching procedure, the treated specimens were taken to obtain Raman spectra to assess the phosphate loss after bleaching treatment. Results: The results showed that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed less phosphate loss when compared with the light activated bleaching agent. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the chemically activated bleaching agent showed minimal phosphate loss when compared to light activated bleaching agent. The chemically activated bleaching agent was better than the light activated bleaching agent when values were evaluated statistically. PMID:23230356

  2. In vitro studies of activities of some antifungal agents against Candida albicans ATCC 10231 by the turbidimetric method.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, M T; Pérez-Giraldo, C; Blanco, J; Morán, F J; Hurtado, C; Gómez-García, A C

    1992-01-01

    Different criteria (the drug concentration which inhibited 50% of growth [IC1/2], the lowest drug concentration at which growth was just less than 30% of that in a positive control well [IC30], the visual inhibitory concentration [ICv], and the minimum fungicidal concentration [MFC]) were applied to study the effects of some antifungal agents against Candida albicans. Amphotericin B, flucytosine, and bifonazole produced total growth inhibition. Clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and miconazole produced partial growth inhibition. The values of IC1/2 and IC30 were similar for all agents and avoided the problems of partial inhibition; the values of ICv and MFC were higher than those of IC1/2 and IC30. PMID:1503456

  3. Study of anti-angiogenic drugs by fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of a contrast agent in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, G.; D'Andrea, C.; Ferrari, R.; Pifferi, A.; Cubeddu, R.; Caronia, D.; Martinelli, M.; Giavazzi, R.

    2007-07-01

    We used two fluorescence techniques based on the Indocyanine Green contrast agent to study the effectiveness of antiangionenic drugs in mice. To this purpose, the volume of the active vasculature in different tumor models implanted in mice was assessed by means of a low noise fluorescence imaging setup and by a photon counting system working in transmittance geometry. Using a first tumor model (carcinoma MDA-MB-435) we observed that mice treated with a Vascular Disrupting Agent (ZD6126) showed a reduction in fluorescence emission of the contrast agent with respect to control mice. This was a clear indication of the vascular shutdown that took place in tumors. The effectiveness of the treatment was also confirmed by histological sections. Then, in a second experiment we considered a second tumor model (carcinoma 1A9-VS1) overexpressing the Vascular Endotelial Growth Factor (VEGF121), which is used by tumor cells to promote angiogenesis. We measured the Indocyanine Green fluorescence in mice treated with an antioangiogenic drug (Avastin TM) and in control mice. In tumors of treated mice we observed an ICG emission lower than the one detected in control mice. This demonstrated that VEGF activity was effectively blocked by the treatment with Avastin. In conclusion, ICG fluorescence provides a simple and reliable way to assess the effectiveness of vascular targeting therapies. Measurements of the fluorescence signal can be repeated every 24 hours, thus allowing oncologists to perform longitudinal studies on the same animals.

  4. A QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF STRUCTURAL AND ELECTRONIC DILUTION EFFECTS IN PARAMAGNETIC CHEMICAL EXCHANGE SATURATION TRANSFER AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Whelton A.; Moore, Preston B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a computational study of the effect of chemical modifications of the meta and para substituents in the coordinating pendant arm of a modified 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N, N’, N″, N‴-tetraamide (DOTAM) ligand on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) signal. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently one of the most widely used techniques available. MRI has led to a new class of pharmaceuticals termed “imagining” or “contrast” agents. These agents usually work by incorporating lanthanide metals such as Gadolinium (Gd) and Europium (Eu). This allows the contrast agents to take advantage of the paramagnetic properties of the metals, which in turn enhances the signal detectable by MRI. The effect of simple electron-withdrawing (e.g., nitro) and electron-donating (e.g., methyl) substituents chemically attached to a modified chelate arm (pendant arm) is quantified by charge transfer interactions in the coordinated water-chelate system computed from quantum mechanics. This study attempts to reveal the origin of the substituent effect on the CEST signal and the electronic structure of the complex. We find that the extent of Charge Transfer (CT) depends on orbital orientations and overlaps. However, CT interactions occur simultaneously from all arms, which causes a dilution effect with respect to the pendant arm. PMID:25485283

  5. A central composite rotatable design (CCRD) approach to study the combined effect of antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, Fernanda Godoy; Mendonça, Layanne Andrade; Mantovani, Hilário Cuquetto

    2015-09-01

    The combination of antimicrobial agents has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to control bacterial diseases and to reduce the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains in clinical environments. In this study, the interaction between the lantibiotic bovicin HC5 with chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nisin, lysostaphin and hydrogen peroxide against Staphylococcus aureus O46 was evaluated by MIC assays. The central composite rotatable design (CCRD), a robust and economic statistical design, was used to combine concentration levels of different antimicrobials agents with distinct mechanisms of action and the presence of significant interactions among the antimicrobials was determined by regression analysis. According to the adjusted model, there were no significant interactions between bovicin HC5 and gentamicin, lysostaphin, nisin or hydrogen peroxide. However, bovicin HC5 showed a significant interaction (P < 0.02) with chloramphenicol. This is the first study applying the CCRD approach to evaluate the combined effect of antimicrobials against S. aureus. Based on our results, this approach is an effective strategy to determine synergistic interactions between antimicrobial agents applied in human and veterinary medicine against bacterial pathogens. PMID:26081601

  6. Surface studies of aminoferrocene derivatives on gold: electrochemical sensors for chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammad A K; Long, Yi-Tao; Schatte, Gabriele; Kraatz, Heinz-Bernhard

    2007-04-01

    The cystamine conjugate [(BocNH)Fc(CO)CSA]2 was prepared by coupling cystamine with the N-protected ferrocene amino acid derivative BocHN-Fc-COOH and was fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The cystamine conjugate forms films on gold substrates, which upon deprotection of the amino group, react with chemical warfare agent (CWA) mimics, upon which the redox properties of the Fc group are affected significantly. Cyclic voltammetry shows 50(5) mV anodic shifts of the Fc redox potentials after exposure to EtSCH2CH2Cl, a simulant for sulfur mustard HD (MA), and (NC)(EtO)2P(O), a simulant for nerve agent Tabun (NA). Exposure to MA and NA causes an increase in 2.3 and 4.5 ng mass, respectively, in QCM which indicates ca. 70% efficiency in Boc-deprotection. Ellipsometry measured a film thickness increase from 6(+/-1) A for the deprotected film to 10(+/-4) A for the film modified with MA and to 7(+/-2) A for the film modified with NA. AFM measurements show changes in the thickness and morphology of the film after reaction with MA and NA. The surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and clearly show the attachment of the cystamine conjugate on the surface and its reaction with CWA mimics. PMID:17319647

  7. A Comparative Study of Probability Collectives Based Multi-agent Systems and Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chien-Feng; Wolpert, David H.; Bieniawski, Stefan; Strauss, Charles E. M.

    2005-01-01

    We compare Genetic Algorithms (GA's) with Probability Collectives (PC), a new framework for distributed optimization and control. In contrast to GA's, PC-based methods do not update populations of solutions. Instead they update an explicitly parameterized probability distribution p over the space of solutions. That updating of p arises as the optimization of a functional of p. The functional is chosen so that any p that optimizes it should be p peaked about good solutions. The PC approach works in both continuous and discrete problems. It does not suffer from the resolution limitation of the finite bit length encoding of parameters into GA alleles. It also has deep connections with both game theory and statistical physics. We review the PC approach using its motivation as the information theoretic formulation of bounded rationality for multi-agent systems. It is then compared with GA's on a diverse set of problems. To handle high dimensional surfaces, in the PC method investigated here p is restricted to a product distribution. Each distribution in that product is controlled by a separate agent. The test functions were selected for their difficulty using either traditional gradient descent or genetic algorithms. On those functions the PC-based approach significantly outperforms traditional GA's in both rate of descent, trapping in false minima, and long term optimization.

  8. [Investigation of the agents and risk factors of dermatophytosis: a hospital-based study].

    PubMed

    Gürcan, Saban; Tikveşli, Melek; Eskiocak, Muzaffer; Kiliç, Haluk; Otkun, Metin

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were the detection of distribution of dermatophyte species isolated from the clinical samples of patients with dermatophytosis and the evaluation of risk factors for the development of dermatophytosis. A total of 441 skin, nail and scalp/hair specimens obtained from 301 patients (151 were male; age range 2 months-80 years, median 42 years) and 884 foot and hand skin and nail specimens obtained from 221 control subjects (110 were male; age range 5-75 years, median 36 years) were included to the study between the period of January to December 2005. All the samples have been evaluated by direct microscopic (DM) examination and by culture. A total of 121 (40.2%) patients yielded positivity for dermatophytes, of them 63 were positive by both DM and culture methods, seven were only culture positive, and 51 were only DM positive. Nine (9.8%) of 92 culture positive samples from 70 patients were found negative in DM, while 85 (50.6%) of 168 DM positive samples from 114 patients were negative in culture. 23.5% (12/51) of DM positive but culture negative patients were given antifungal therapy previously. The most prominent species isolated from the cultures were Trichophyton rubrum with a rate of 68.4% (63/92), followed by T. mentagrophytes (18.4%); T. violaceum (3.3%); T. verrucosum, T. tonsurans and Epidermophyton floccosum (2.2% for each); T. schoenleini, Microsporum canis and Trichophyton sp. (1.1% for each). Of the patient samples whose cultures were positive, 45% were from the foot skin. The presence rate of dermatophytes in controls was found as 3.2% (7/221); T. rubrum was isolated from the foot skin of five and T. mentagrophytes was isolated in toenail of two control subjects. About 42% of the samples belonged to the patients who admitted to hospital between December to February period. The evaluation of the risk factors revealed that presence of trauma, pet contact, ritual cleansing and diabetes mellitus had no effect on the development of

  9. A STUDY OF NORTH CAROLINA AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE ROLE OF FERTILIZER DEALERS IN EXTENSION PROGRAMMING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WOODARD, BRUCE H.

    A QUESTIONNAIRE MAILED TO 98 AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AGENTS IN NORTH CAROLINA WITH PRIMARY RESPONSIBILITY IN AGRONOMY IN THEIR COUNTIES WAS USED TO COLLECT DATA ON THE AGENTS' PERCEPTION OF THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF PERFORMANCE BY DEALERS IN SOIL FERTILITY PROGRAMS, AGENTS' FEELINGS ABOUT DEALER PARTICIPATION, AND THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN AGENTS'…

  10. Inuloxins A-D and derivatives as antileishmanial agents: structure-activity relationship study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inuloxins A-D (1-4) and a-costic acid (5), the phytotoxic compounds previously isolated from Inula viscosa, as well as synthetic derivatives of inuloxin A (compounds 6-10), inuloxin C (compound 11) and inuloxin D (compound 12) were tested in vitro for their activity against Leishmania donovani, the ...

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies of hydrolysis of nerve agent sarin by binuclear zinc biomimetic catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Nan; Zhong, Jin-Yi; Chen, Shi-Lu; Liu, Jing-Quan; Min, Qi; Shi, Rui-Xue

    2015-08-01

    A complex (ZnL1) of 2,2-(2-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(methylene)bis ((pyridin-2-ylmethyl)azanediyl)diethanol (this ligand is named by L1) functionalized with two Zn(II) centers, has been previously suggested to be a structural model for binuclear zinc phosphotriesterases (PTEs) and proven to be an effective catalyst for the hydrolysis of bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)phosphate (BDNPP). In this paper, ZnL1 was further found to have a high catalytic activity for the hydrolysis of isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin, GB) with kcat/Km = 0.051 s-1 M-1 at 303 K, examined by on-site NMR analysis. The subsequent density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that a terminal alkoxide (Ot) bound by Zn may work as a general base to activate a water molecule and then a hydroxide derived from the latter performs the initial nucleophilic attack on the phosphor in GB. Inspired by this mechanism, a new biomimetic catalyst was designed and synthesized by replacing the two pyridines of ZnL1 by hydroxyls, i.e. a complex of two Zn(II) with 2,6-bis((bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino)methyl)-4-methylphenol (the ligand is named by L2). This replacement was expected to increase the Ot basicity, thereby facilitating the nucleophilic attack and the overall hydrolysis of GB. It was shown that ZnL2 had a very high catalytic efficiency for the hydrolysis of GB, with kcat/Km = 0.11 s-1 M-1 at 303 K and about 90% conversion in 30 min. The following DFT calculations proposed a detailed reaction mechanism of ZnL2 and gave an energy barrier (5.8 kcal M-1) very close to the experimental activation energy (5.6 kcal M-1). In this study, a mechanism-inspired design strategy has been demonstrated to be successful in developing biomimetic catalyst.

  12. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Modified Dominant Lethal Study of Sulfur Mustard in Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Cushing, J. A.; Kalkwarf, D. R.; Buschbom, R. L.

    1989-05-01

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard (HD) [bis{2-chloroethyl)-sulfide) ' a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Little, however, is known about the mutagenic activity of HD in mammalian species and data regarding the dominant lethal effects of HD are ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine the dominant lethal effect in male and female rats orally exposed to HD. The study was conducted in two phases; a female dominant lethal phase and a male dominant lethal phase. Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex were administered 0.08, 0.20, or 0.50 mg/kg HD in sesame oil 5 days/week for 10 weeks. For the female phase, treated or untreated males were mated with treated females and their fetuses were evaluated at approximately 14 days after copulation. For the male dominant lethal phase, treated males cohabited with untreated femal (during 5 days of each week for 10 weeks) and females were sacrificed for fetal evaluation 14 days after the midweek of cohabitation during each of the 10 weeks. The appearance and behavior of the rats were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no treatment-related deaths. Growth rates were reduced in both female and male rats treated with 0.50 mg/kg HD. Indicators of reproductive performance did not demonstrate significant female dominant lethal effects, although significant male dominant lethal effects were observed at 2 and 3 week post-exposure. These effects included increases of early fetal resorptions and preimplantation losses and decreases of total live embryo implants. These effects were most consistently observed at a dose of 0.50 mg/kg, but frequently occurred at the lower doses. Although no treatment-related effects on male reproductive organ weights or sperm motility were found, a significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm was detected in males exposed to 0. 50 mg/kg HD. The timing of these effects is consistent with an effect during the

  13. Investigation of three home-applied bleaching agents on enamel structure and mechanical properties: an in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Yue; Wang, Zhejun; Ma, Xiao; Lei, Chang; Liang, Shanshan; Sun, Lili; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining

    2012-03-01

    The safety of at-home tooth bleaching, based upon carbamide peroxide (CP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) as the active agent, has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of three differently concentrated home-applied bleaching agents on human enamel under in situ conditions. Sixty specimens were divided randomly into four groups and treated with 10% CP, 15% CP, 20% CP, and distilled water, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), microhardness, and fracture toughness (FT) measurements were conducted to determine variations on enamel structure and mechanical properties before and after the bleaching process. Raman revealed little variation of Raman relative intensity after treatment with CP, which was consistent with the results of ATR-IR, AFM, and microhardness analyses. In addition, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity, and FT showed significant decreases on CP-treated specimens. These findings suggested there were minimal demineralization effects of the three at-home bleaching agents on enamel in situ. However, the decrease of LIF intensity and FT on enamel seemed to be inevitable.

  14. Controlled release study of an anti-carcinogenic agent, gallate from the surface of magnetite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghotbi, Mohammad Yeganeh; bin Hussein, Mohd Zobir

    2012-07-01

    Immobilization of gallate anion, an anti-carcinogenic, anti-mutagenic, and anti-microbial agent on the surface of magnetite nanoparticles was accomplished by adsorption technique for the formation of a core-shell nanocomposite. A simple co-precipitation technique in the presence of poly vinyl pyrrolidone was successfully applied for the preparation of magnetite nanoparticles as core beads with narrow size distribution. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size analysis, magnetic measurements, atomic force microscope and also infrared spectroscopy. FTIR and CHNS results indicated that the gallate anion was actually adsorbed onto the surface of the magnetite nanoparticles. The release of the anion from the surface of the nanocomposite was found to be controllable by the selection of the release media.

  15. Case study on the use of agent technology for the management of networked multimedia systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Paula; Alves, Artu P.

    2000-10-01

    The evolution of Television towards the digital domain is opening new opportunities but also new challenges both to users and system managers. Audiovisual television archives will be an essential component of the whole digital television operators systems, as archived information needs to be available to a wide range of users. This paper presents the work developed at INESC Porto within the VIDION project and the experiments on merging television, computer and telecommunications concepts and technologies by the use of software agents and CORBA to assist in solving problems of information and system configuration and management in a TV archive. Aspects such as definition of the problem, architecture proposed and current state of the work will be the focus of the paper.

  16. The study of N-isopropylacrylamide gel dosimeter doped iodinated contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y. J.; Hsieh, L. L.; Liu, M. H.; Liu, J. S.; Hsieh, B. T.

    2013-06-01

    Low toxicity of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) dosimeter was doped with clinical iodinated contrast medium agents(Iobitridol (Xenetix® 350) and organically bound iodine (Conray® 60) as radiation sensitizers; The suitable gel dosimeter preparation formula in this research was 5 w/w% gelatin, 5 w/w% N-isopropylacrylamide, 3 w/w% N,N-methylene-bis-acrylamide, and 5 mM Tetrakis phosphonium chloride. The spiral CT was irradiator, and 120 kVp was the operating tube voltage. The maximum radiation dose was 0.6 Gy, and optical CT was the gel measurement device used. The results showed SERs with the addition of radiosensitizers were 10.70 (Xenetix® 350) and 9.67 (Conray® 60), respectively. Thus, the polymerized gel dosimeter could be used in the efficacy evaluation of low-energy and low-radiation dose.

  17. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun. PMID:19245460

  18. Tyrosinase-Catalyzed Hydroxylation of 4-Hexylresorcinol, an Antibrowning and Depigmenting Agent: A Kinetic Study.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Ruiz, Carmen Vanessa; Berna, Jose; Rodriguez-Lopez, Jose Neptuno; Tomas, Virginia; Garcia-Canovas, Francisco

    2015-08-12

    4-Hexylresorcinol (HR) is a compound used in the food and cosmetic industries as an antibrowning and lightening agent. Its use is mainly attributed to its inhibitory effect on the enzyme tyrosinase. However, the enzyme hydroxylates HR to an o-diphenol, which it then oxidizes to an o-quinone, which rapidly isomerizes to p-quinone. For tyrosinase to act in this way, the Eox form (oxy-tyrosinase) must be present in the reaction medium, which can be brought about by (a) hydrogen peroxide, (b) ascorbic acid, or (c) catalytic concentrations of o-diphenol and a reductant (NADH) to maintain it constant. This work demonstrates that HR is a substrate of tyrosinase and proposes a mechanism for its action. Its kinetic characterization provides a catalytic constant of 0.85 ± 0.04 s(-1) and a Michaelis constant of 60.31 ± 6.73 μM. PMID:26176355

  19. AN AGENT-BASED SIMULATION STUDY OF A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE COLLABORATION NETWORK

    SciTech Connect

    Ozmen, Ozgur; Smith, Jeffrey; Yilmaz, Levent

    2013-01-01

    One of the most significant problems in organizational scholarship is to discern how social collectives govern, organize, and coordinate the actions of individuals to achieve collective outcomes. The collectives are usually interpreted as complex adaptive systems (CAS). The understanding of CAS is more likely to arise with the help of computer-based simulations. In this tutorial, using agent-based modeling approach, a complex adaptive social communication network model is introduced. The objective is to present the underlying dynamics of the system in a form of computer simulation that enables analyzing the impacts of various mechanisms on network topologies and emergent behaviors. The ultimate goal is to further our understanding of the dynamics in the system and facilitate developing informed policies for decision-makers.

  20. Effects of monofunctional platinum agents on bacterial growth: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Timothy C; Alexander, Sarah M; Lin, Wei; Lippard, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of the novel and potent monofunctional platinum(II) agent phenanthriplatin on Escherichia coli and bacteriophage λ lysogens is reported. E. coli filamentation was observed by light microscopy when cells were grown in the presence of phenanthriplatin, cis-[Pt(NH3)2(Am)Cl](+) where Am is phenanthridine. Treatment of lysogenic bacteria with this compound resulted in lysis and the production of viral particles, as indicated by plaque formation in a bacterial lawn. The results obtained with phenanthriplatin are contextualized by comparison with those obtained using cisplatin as well as other, less active, monofunctional compounds such as [Pt(NH3)3Cl](+) and cis-[Pt(NH3)2(py)Cl](+), where py is pyridine. The ability of phenanthriplatin to induce bacterial filamentation and initiate lysis in lysogenic bacteria corroborates the hypothesis that the biological activity of this complex is mediated by its interaction with DNA. PMID:24364388

  1. Rebellion on Sugarscape: Case Studies for Greed and Grievance Theory of Civil Conflicts Using Agent-Based Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Rong

    Public policy making has direct and indirect impacts on social behaviors. However, using system dynamics model alone to assess these impacts fails to consider the interactions among social elements, thus may produce doubtful conclusions. In this study, we examine the political science theory of greed and grievance in modeling civil conflicts. An agent-based model is built based on an existing rebellion model in Netlogo. The modifications and improvements in our model are elaborated. Several case studies are used to demonstrate the use of our model for investigating emergent phenomena and implications of governmental policies.

  2. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  3. Use of a 12 months' self-referral reminder to facilitate uptake of bowel scope (flexible sigmoidoscopy) screening in previous non-responders: a London-based feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Kerrison, Robert S; McGregor, Lesley M; Marshall, Sarah; Isitt, John; Counsell, Nicholas; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Background: In March 2013, NHS England extended its national Bowel Cancer Screening Programme to include ‘one-off' Flexible Sigmoidoscopy screening (NHS Bowel Scope Screening, BSS) for men and women aged 55. With less than one in two people currently taking up the screening test offer, there is a strong public health mandate to develop system-friendly interventions to increase uptake while the programme is rolling out. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of sending a reminder to previous BSS non-responders, 12 months after the initial invitation, with consideration for its potential impact on uptake. Method: This study was conducted in the ethnically diverse London Boroughs of Brent and Harrow, where uptake is below the national average. Between September and November 2014, 160 previous non-responders were randomly selected to receive a reminder of the opportunity to self-refer 12 months after their initial invitation. The reminder included instructions on how to book an appointment, and provided options for the time and day of the appointment and the gender of the endoscopist performing the test. To address barriers to screening, the reminder was sent with a brief locally tailored information leaflet designed specifically for this study. Participants not responding within 4 weeks were sent a follow-up reminder, after which there was no further intervention. Self-referral rates were measured 8 weeks after the delivery of the follow-up reminder and accepted as final. Results: Of the 155 participants who received the 12 months' reminder (returned to sender, n=5), 30 (19.4%) self-referred for an appointment, of which 24 (15.5%) attended and were successfully screened. Attendance rates differed by gender, with significantly more women attending an appointment than men (20.7% vs 8.8%, respectively; OR=2.73, 95% CI=1.02–7.35, P=0.05), but not by area (Brent vs Harrow) or area-level deprivation. Of the 30 people who self-referred for an appointment, 27 (90

  4. A novel method for reducing the number of agents to be studied in an occupational epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jennifer S; Esmen, Nurtan A

    2011-04-01

    A novel screening tool method to select chemicals for exposure reconstruction was developed and validated using data generated for a hypothetical work force consisting of 10 job classes (ranging from 10,000 to 55,000 person-years). To achieve the required efficiency in the reconstruction of exposures, this method treats each product (defined as a part or process) as an "exposure." Exposure to 10 products was assigned to each job class at random using a computer program. The expected rate of a given disease was assumed to be constant throughout the job classes (tested at five levels), and the observed numbers of cases in the job classes were generated based on neutral deviations from background with error rates of ± 1% to 16%. One job class was assigned to be the "excess-class" and the number of cases in that class was increased by a factor of Q, which was set at levels that ranged from 1.25 to 5. All of the experimental conditions were replicated 10,000 times in a Monte Carlo scheme for scenarios in which each job class had been designated as the excess-class. Following each run, significant excesses (if any) were determined using a modified version of Daniel's method, and the percentages of false positive and false negative identifications were tabulated. We found that the sensitivity of the method is largely dependent on the relative risk (Q) associated with the exposure. Specifically, the results indicate that as the relative risk increases, the percentage of false negative identifications of the excesses is reduced to nearly 0% and the percentage of false positive identifications is approximately 13%. When applied to real data, should an association be detected between any product and a health outcome, this preliminary analysis will yield a reduced "product" set that can then be investigated in detail and the agents involved considered further for quantitative reconstruction. The proposed method is highly efficient and has the potential to benefit future

  5. The Cyclophosphamide Equivalent Dose as an Approach for Quantifying Alkylating Agent Exposure. A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Green, Daniel M.; Nolan, Vikki G.; Goodman, Pamela J.; Whitton, John A.; Srivastava, DeoKumar; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Sklar, Charles A.; Kaste, Sue C.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Stovall, Marilyn; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Robison, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Estimation of the risk of adverse long-term outcomes such as second malignant neoplasms and infertility often requires reproducible quantification of exposures. The method for quantification should be easily utilized and valid across different study populations. The widely used Alkylating Agent Dose (AAD) score is derived from the drug dose distribution of the study population and thus cannot be used for comparisons across populations as each will have a unique distribution of drug doses. METHODS We compared the performance of the Cyclophosphamide Equivalent Dose (CED), a unit for quantifying alkylating agent exposure independent of study population, to the AAD. Comparisons included associations from three Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS)outcome analyses, receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves and goodness of fit based on the Akaike’s Information Criterion (AIC). RESULTS The CED and AAD performed essentially identically in analyses of risk for pregnancy among the partners of male CCSS participants, risk for adverse dental outcomes among all CCSS participants and risk for premature menopause among female CCSS participants, based on similar associations, lack of statistically significant differences between the areas under the ROC curves and similar model fit values for the AIC between models including the two measures of exposure. CONCLUSION The CED is easily calculated, facilitating its use for patient counseling. It is independent of the drug dose distribution of a particular patient population, a characteristic that will allow direct comparisons of outcomes among epidemiological cohorts. We recommend the use of the CED in future research assessing cumulative alkylating agent exposure. PMID:23940101

  6. Rheumatic pains of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Q; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, S; Rajala, U; Uusimäki, A; Kivelä, S L

    1995-01-01

    To identify the early diabetic musculoskeletal symptoms of previously undiagnosed diabetic subjects, a case-control study was carried out. The cases and controls were recruited from a population aged 55 years. Questions concerning the symptoms were asked before the 2-h oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). The results show that pain in the right hand was the most prominent symptom among the diabetic women. Pains in the left hand and the shoulders in the diabetic women and pains in the right knee and the right hip joint in the diabetic men tended to be more prevalent than the corresponding symptoms in the controls. The highest prevalence of most musculoskeletal pains occurred in the highest tertile of 2-h OGTT values among women. The conclusion is that the hand pain is closely associated with the development of diabetes and may give clues to an early diagnosis of diabetes in a middle-aged population. PMID:7481588

  7. Efficacy of Different Precooling Agents and Topical Anesthetics on the Pain Perception during Intraoral Injection: A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Lathwal, Garima; Pandit, Inder Kumar; Gugnani, Neeraj; Gupta, Monika

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topical anesthesia is widely advocated in pediatric dentistry practice to reduce pain and anxiety produced by administration of local anesthesia. Cryoanesthesia to lessen the injection pain has also been reported to be promising. However, sparse literature reports exist regarding clinical efficacy of these agents. Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the refrigerant (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane/1,1,1,2-tetrafluo-roethane), benzocaine and ice on the pain perception during intraoral injection using visual analog scale (VAS) and sound, eye, motor (SEM) scale. Study design: In this Spit-mouth design study, a total of 160 patients between the age group of 5 and 8 years were selected and were randomly divided into two equal groups having 80 patients in each group. Results: Ice cone has shown lower mean scores (p < 0.001) as compared to benzocaine and refrigerant whereas no significant difference was observed between refrigerant and benzocaine (p > 0.05) on both the scales. Conclusion: Ice cone had shown significantly higher efficacy as compared to benzocaine and refrigerant. How to cite this article: Lathwal G, Pandit IK, Gugnani N, Gupta M. Efficacy of Different Precooling Agents and Topical Anesthetics on the Pain Perception during Intraoral Injection: A Comparative Clinical Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):119-122. PMID:26379379

  8. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study)

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Saldivar, Maria Luisa; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel Carlos; Fajardo-Gutierrez, Arturo; Bernaldez-Rios, Roberto; del Campo-Martinez, Maria de los Angeles; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Palomo-Colli, Miguel Angel; Paredes-Aguilera, Rogelio; Martínez-Avalos, Armando; Borja-Aburto, Victor Hugo; Rodriguez-Rivera, Maria de Jesus; Vargas-Garcia, Victor Manuel; Zarco-Contreras, Jesus; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Mejia-Arangure, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL) in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR) of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s). In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI) was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an expert's opinion. Results The

  9. An Exploratory Study of the Butterfly Effect Using Agent-Based Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khasawneh, Mahmoud T.; Zhang, Jun; Shearer, Nevan E. N.; Rodriquez-Velasquez, Elkin; Bowling, Shannon R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides insights about the behavior of chaotic complex systems, and the sensitive dependence of the system on the initial starting conditions. How much does a small change in the initial conditions of a complex system affect it in the long term? Do complex systems exhibit what is called the "Butterfly Effect"? This paper uses an agent-based modeling approach to address these questions. An existing model from NetLogo library was extended in order to compare chaotic complex systems with near-identical initial conditions. Results show that small changes in initial starting conditions can have a huge impact on the behavior of chaotic complex systems. The term the "butterfly effect" is attributed to the work of Edward Lorenz [1]. It is used to describe the sensitive dependence of the behavior of chaotic complex systems on the initial conditions of these systems. The metaphor refers to the notion that a butterfly flapping its wings somewhere may cause extreme changes in the ecological system's behavior in the future, such as a hurricane.

  10. Effects of reactor decontamination complexing agents on soil adsorption-column studies

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Owen, Antionette T.

    1999-12-01

    The effects of picolinate, an organic ligand used to decontaminate nuclear reactor cooling systems, in leachates generated from shallow-land burial (SLB) of low-level nuclear wastes (LLW) on soil adsorption was determined. Using batch adsorption tests and varying the concentration of picolinate, the adsorption tendencies of two metals [Ni(II) and U(VI)] and the ligand were measured as a function of solution pH. We found that when total metal concentrations were fixed at 10^-5 M, picolinate at ligand-to-metal [L:M] ratios $10 did significantly reduce adsorption of Ni but even at a L:M ratio of 100 there was no effect on U(VI) adsorption. These results are compared with data on other metals in the presence of picolinate and for metal adsorption in the presence of EDTA. We conclude that picolinic acid is less of a threat than EDTA in waste leachates to reduce metal adsorption (increase mobility) and that picolinate concentrations must reach or exceed 10^-4 M for the most impacted metals (i.e., those that form the very strongest complexes with picolinate). There are no leachate data on these decontamination agents for the common burial technique (disposal of de-watered resins in high integrity containers) that can be used to evaluate potential hazards of these organo-radionuclide complexes.

  11. DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Sharma, Girish Chandra; Arjmand, Farukh; Azam, Ameer

    2010-05-01

    A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the phenyl glycine chloride ligand located at the equatorial sites and the coordinated chloride ion occupying an apical position. 119Sn NMR spectral data showed a hexa-coordinated environment around the Sn(IV) metal ion. TEM, AFM and XRD measurements illustrate that the complex could induce the condensation of CT-DNA to a particulate nanostructure. The interaction of the Cu-Sn complex with CT-DNA was investigated by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetric measurements. The results indicated that the complex interacts with DNA through an electrostatic mode of binding with an intrinsic binding constant Kb = 8.42 × 104 M - 1. The Cu-Sn complex exhibits effective cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by an oxidative cleavage mechanism, monitored at different concentrations both in the absence and in the presence of reducing agents.

  12. Electrochemical studies of capping agent adsorption provide insight into the formation of anisotropic gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Danger, Brook R; Fan, Donna; Vivek, J P; Burgess, Ian J

    2012-12-21

    The ability of the 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) to stabilize and control the formation of anisotropic gold nanocrystals produced via the borohydride reduction of gold(III) salts is reported here. Electrochemical measurements of DMAP electrosorption on different low-index single crystal and polycrystalline electrodes is provided and shows a propensity for DMAP to preferentially adsorb on {100} facets. Measuring the electrochemical potential during nanocrystal formation shows that experimental conditions can easily be manipulated so that the growth of nanoseeds occurs at potentials that support preferential DMAP adsorption on {100} surfaces giving rise to highly anisotropic nanocrystals (nanorods, bipyramids, and nanopods). Nanopods with nearly 50 nm arm lengths are shown to form and produce a surface plasmon mode that extends well into the near IR (λ(max) ≈ 1350 nm). Evidence is provided of the slow, partial reduction of tetrachloroaurate to a DMAP stabilized Au(I) species. Shape control is achieved simply by varying the length of time, τ, that DMAP is allowed to partially reduce the Au(III) ions prior to the addition of the strong reducing agent, NaBH(4). Thus the role of DMAP in producing anisotropic particle shapes is shown to be multifunctional. A mechanism accounting for the dependence of particle shape on τ is provided. PMID:23186041

  13. Entrainment and Control of Bacterial Populations: An in Silico Study over a Spatially Extended Agent Based Model.

    PubMed

    Mina, Petros; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Bernardo, Mario di

    2016-07-15

    We extend a spatially explicit agent based model (ABM) developed previously to investigate entrainment and control of the emergent behavior of a population of synchronized oscillating cells in a microfluidic chamber. Unlike most of the work in models of control of cellular systems which focus on temporal changes, we model individual cells with spatial dependencies which may contribute to certain behavioral responses. We use the model to investigate the response of both open loop and closed loop strategies, such as proportional control (P-control), proportional-integral control (PI-control) and proportional-integral-derivative control (PID-control), to heterogeinities and growth in the cell population, variations of the control parameters and spatial effects such as diffusion in the spatially explicit setting of a microfluidic chamber setup. We show that, as expected from the theory of phase locking in dynamical systems, open loop control can only entrain the cell population in a subset of forcing periods, with a wide variety of dynamical behaviors obtained outside these regions of entrainment. Closed-loop control is shown instead to guarantee entrainment in a much wider region of control parameter space although presenting limitations when the population size increases over a certain threshold. In silico tracking experiments are also performed to validate the ability of classical control approaches to achieve other reference behaviors such as a desired constant output or a linearly varying one. All simulations are carried out in BSim, an advanced agent-based simulator of microbial population which is here extended ad hoc to include the effects of control strategies acting onto the population. PMID:27110835

  14. Exploring clotrimazole-based pharmacophore: 3D-QSAR studies and synthesis of novel antiplasmodial agents.

    PubMed

    Brogi, Simone; Brindisi, Margherita; Joshi, Bhupendra P; Sanna Coccone, Salvatore; Parapini, Silvia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra; Butini, Stefania

    2015-11-15

    We report herein the generation and validation of a 3D-QSAR model based on a set of antimalarials previously described by us and characterized by a clotrimazole-based pharmacophore. A novel series of derivatives was synthesized and showed activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (CQ-S) and chloroquine-resistant (CQ-R) strains. Gratifyingly, compounds 35a-c showed interesting activity against P. falciparum CQ-R strains with improved predicted physico-chemical properties. PMID:26428874

  15. Dissociation of reticuloendothelial cell and hepatocyte functions in alcoholic liver disease: a clinical study with a new Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, B.K.; Weir, G.J. Jr.; Lieberman, L.M.

    1981-07-01

    Tc-99m-sulfur colloid scintigrams were abnormal in four patients with hepatic dysfunction due to chronic alcohol abuse. Minimal uptake of radiocolloid in the liver suggested local reticuloendothelial (RE) cell failure. Imaging with a new hepatobiliary agent, Tc-99m-PIPIDA, revealed rapid hepatic accumulation and excretion of radiotracer with adequate visualization of the organ. Scintigraphic findings in these patients indicated a dissociation of hepatocyte and RE cell functions. Demonstration of adequate hepatocyte function with severe RE failure in alcoholic liver disease using a Tc-99m-labeled hepatobiliary agent has not been previously reported.

  16. In vitro studies on the evaluation of mycotoxin detoxifying agents for their efficacy on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Döll, S; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Flachowsky, G

    2004-08-01

    A simple in vitro system was developed to study the efficacy of commercially available mycotoxin detoxifying agents and adsorbing substances as feed additives to detoxify deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in situ. The in vitro model simulates the conditions (pH, temperature and transit time) of the porcine gastrointestinal tract, as pigs react most sensitively to these mycotoxins. The commercially available products were not effective in detoxifying DON and ZON under the applied conditions, while activated carbon was able to bind both toxins and cholestyramine, and a modified aluminosilicate showed good adsorption abilities for ZON. Data obtained in dose dependency studies showed an estimated adsorption capacity of cholestyramine and the modified aluminosilicate of 11.7 and 5.7 g ZON/kg detoxifying agent. The in vitro system deployed in the present study was demonstrated to be a simple, helpful tool in screening substances for their ability to detoxify DON and ZON under the simulated conditions of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Nonetheless in vivo experiments are indispensable to proof the efficacy. PMID:15570745

  17. Efficacy of antimicrobial property of two commercially available chemomechanical caries removal agents (Carisolv and Papacarie): An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Maram Vinay Chand; Shankar, A.J. Sai; Pentakota, Venkata Girish; Kolli, Harika; Ganta, Haritha; Katari, Pavan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of Carisolv and Papacarie. There are only a few studies comparing the primary teeth. The objective of this study is to assess the effects of Carisolv and Papacarie on cariogenic flora and to compare them. Materials and Methods: Fifteen children aged 4–8 years who had at least two primary molars with broad occlusal cavitated lesions showing brown and softened dentin samples were selected. The selected 30 teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 15 teeth each for Carisolv and Papacarie. Dentin samples of both groups were taken prior to and following caries removal. The total viable count and lactobacilli count were determined and expressed as colony forming units per milliliter. The two methods of caries removal were then compared and the data were statistically analyzed. Results: The data of both agents (groups) were analyzed by Wilcoxon signed-rank test before and after application and showed statistical significance. Inter-comparison of data of both groups was analyzed by Mann–Whitney U test for total viable count and total Lactobacillus count which showed no statistical significance. Conclusion: Carisolv and Papacarie have similar antibacterial efficacy against cariogenic flora as chemomechanical caries removal agents. PMID:26236677

  18. Pediatric Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal agents in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal agents are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal agents in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal agents are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these agents, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525

  19. Enhancing Middle School Students' Scientific Learning and Motivation through Agent-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-H.; Chou, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Facing students' decreasing motivation to pursue scientific study, schools and educators need to coordinate new technologies with pedagogical agents to effectively sustain or promote students' scientific learning and motivation to learn. Although the provision of pedagogical agents in student learning has been studied previously, it is not clear…

  20. Tyrosinase-catalyzed hydroxylation of hydroquinone, a depigmenting agent, to hydroxyhydroquinone: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    García-Molina, María del Mar; Muñoz Muñoz, Jose Luis; Martinez-Ortiz, Francisco; Martinez, José Rodriguez; García-Ruiz, Pedro Antonio; Rodriguez-López, José Neptuno; García-Cánovas, Francisco

    2014-07-01

    Hydroquinone (HQ) is used as a depigmenting agent. In this work we demonstrate that tyrosinase hydroxylates HQ to 2-hydroxyhydroquinone (HHQ). Oxy-tyrosinase hydroxylates HQ to HHQ forming the complex met-tyrosinase-HHQ, which can evolve in two different ways, forming deoxy-tyrosinase and p-hydroxy-o-quinone, which rapidly isomerizes to 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone or on the other way generating met-tyrosinase and HHQ. In the latter case, HHQ is rapidly oxidized by oxygen to generate 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone, and therefore, it cannot close the enzyme catalytic cycle for the lack of reductant (HHQ). However, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, met-tyrosinase (inactive on hydroquinone) is transformed into oxy-tyrosinase, which is active on HQ. Similarly, in the presence of ascorbic acid, HQ is transformed into 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone by the action of tyrosinase; however, in this case, ascorbic acid reduces met-tyrosinase to deoxy-tyrosinase, which after binding to oxygen, originates oxy-tyrosinase. This enzymatic form is now capable of reacting with HQ to generate p-hydroxy-o-quinone, which rapidly isomerizes to 2-hydroxy-p-benzoquinone. The formation of HHQ during the action of tyrosinase on HQ is demonstrated by means of high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) by using hydrogen peroxide and high ascorbic acid concentrations. We propose a kinetic mechanism for the tyrosinase oxidation of HQ which allows us the kinetic characterization of the process. A possible explanation of the cytotoxic effect of HQ is discussed. PMID:24842617

  1. Do Macromolecular Crowding Agents Exert Only an Excluded Volume Effect? A Protein Solvation Study.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sanjib K; Gautam, Saurabh; Biswas, Saikat; Kundu, Jayanta; Chowdhury, Pramit K

    2015-11-01

    The effect of macromolecular crowding on protein structure and dynamics has mostly been explained on the basis of the excluded volume effect, its origin being entropic. In recent times a progressive shift in this view has been taking place with increasing emphasis on soft interactions that are enthalpic by nature. Using very low concentrations (1-10 g/L) of both synthetic (dextran- and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based) and protein (α-synuclein and myoglobin)-based crowders, we have shown that the solvation of probe molecule ANS (1-anilinonapthalene-8-sulfonate) bound to serum proteins bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) is significantly modulated in both a protein- and crowder-dependent fashion. Since under such conditions the effect of excluded volume is appreciably low, we propose that our observations are direct evidence of soft interactions between the macromolecular crowding agents used and the serum proteins. Moreover, our data reveal, that since at these low crowder concentrations major perturbations to the protein structure are unlikely to take place while minor perturbations might not be readily visible, protein solvation provides a unique spectral signature for capturing such local dynamics, thereby allowing one to decouple hard-sphere interactions from soft sphere ones. Furthermore, since fast fluctuations are known to play a major role in determining the functional characteristics of proteins and enzymes, our results suggest that such motions are prone to be modulated even when the cellular crowding conditions are quite relaxed. In other words, by the time the excluded volume effects come into the picture in the physiological milieu, modulations of functionally important protein motions that need a relatively lower activation energy have already taken place as a result of the aforementioned enthalpic (soft) interactions. PMID:26452170

  2. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in...

  3. The Effect of Disinfectants and a Surface Wetting Agent on the Wettability of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Lad, Pritam P; Gurjar, Minal; Gunda, Sachin; Gurjar, Vivek; Rao, Nandan K

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of two commercially available chemical disinfectants namely sodium hypochlorite and glutaraldehyde and a surface wetting agent on the wettability of three high precision elastomeric impression materials, addition silicone, condensation silicone and polyether. Materials and Methods: Three different types of elastomeric impression materials commonly used in prosthodontic practice were selected. The glutaraldehyde and sodium hypochloride solutions were employed to disinfect the impressions made with the above-mentioned elastomeric impression materials. True Blue surface wetting agent was selected. GBX contact angle analyzer was used to measure advancing and receding contact angle. Results: The results of this study have demonstrated that the polyether impression material was the most hydrophilic of all the materials, followed by hydrophilic addition silicone. Condensation silicone was least hydrophilic. All materials showed improvement in the wettability when a topical surfactant was used. Conclusion: The short term disinfection of the three elastomeric impression materials does not affect the wettability of these impression materials. PMID:26124605

  4. Coumarin carboxylic acids as monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitors: In vitro and in vivo studies as potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gurrapu, Shirisha; Jonnalagadda, Sravan K; Alam, Mohammad A; Ronayne, Conor T; Nelson, Grady L; Solano, Lucas N; Lueth, Erica A; Drewes, Lester R; Mereddy, Venkatram R

    2016-07-15

    Novel N,N-dialkyl carboxy coumarins have been synthesized as potential anticancer agents via inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1). These coumarin carboxylic acids have been evaluated for their in vitro MCT1 inhibition, MTT cancer cell viability, bidirectional Caco-2 cell permeability, and stability in human and liver microsomes. These results indicate that one of the lead candidate compounds 4a has good absorption, metabolic stability, and a low drug efflux ratio. Systemic toxicity studies with lead compound 4a in healthy mice demonstrate that this inhibitor is well tolerated based on zero animal mortality and normal body weight gains compared to the control group. In vivo tumor growth inhibition studies in mice show that the candidate compound 4a exhibits significant single agent activity in MCT1 expressing GL261-luc2 syngraft model but doesn't show significant activity in MCT4 expressing MDA-MB-231 xenograft model, indicating the selectivity of 4a for MCT1 expressing tumors. PMID:27241692

  5. Asthma, chronic bronchitis, and exposure to irritant agents in occupational domestic cleaning: a nested case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Ramon, M; Zock, J; Kogevinas, M; Sunyer, J; Torralba, Y; Borrell, A; Burgos, F; Anto, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Women employed in domestic cleaning are at increased risk for symptoms of obstructive lung disease, but the agents responsible are unknown. Aims: To investigate common tasks and products in occupational domestic cleaning in relation to respiratory morbidity. Methods: Case-control study in domestic cleaning women nested within a large population based survey of women aged 30–65 years; 160 domestic cleaning women with asthma symptoms, chronic bronchitis symptoms, or both and 386 without a history of respiratory symptoms were identified. Detailed exposures were evaluated for 40 cases who reported still having symptoms at the recruitment interview, and 155 controls who reported not having symptoms. All tasks performed and products used when cleaning houses were determined in a face-to-face interview. Lung function, methacholine challenge, and serum IgE testing were performed. Personal exposure measurements of airborne chlorine and ammonia were performed in a subsample. Associations between asthma, chronic bronchitis, and cleaning exposures were evaluated using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: Airborne chlorine (median level 0–0.4 ppm) and ammonia (0.6–6.4 ppm) were detectable during occupational domestic cleaning activities. Cases used bleach more frequently than controls; adjusted odds ratio (OR) for intermediate exposure was 3.3 (95% CI 0.9 to 11) and for high exposure 4.9 (1.5 to 15). Other independent associations included accidental inhalation of vapours and gases from cleaning agents and washing dishes. These associations were more pronounced for cases with asthma symptoms than for those with symptoms of chronic bronchitis, but were not related to sensitisation to common allergens. Conclusions: Asthma symptoms in domestic cleaning women are associated with exposure to bleach and possibly other irritant agents. The public health impact of the use of irritant cleaning products could be widespread since the use of these products is

  6. Style Shifts among Japanese Learners before and after Study Abroad in Japan: Becoming Active Social Agents in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwasaki, Noriko

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies on L2 Japanese sojourners often reported that learners overuse the plain style or haphazardly mix the plain and polite styles upon return. These styles, which are often associated with formal or informal contexts, also index complex social and situational meanings, and native speakers are reported to shift their styles to create…

  7. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  8. Prognostic factors for re-mobilization using plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma previously failing mobilization with G-CSF with or without chemotherapy: the Korean multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Seok; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Park, Seonyang; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Cho, Seok-Goo; Min, Chang-Ki; Lee, Je-Jung; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Won Seog; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Moon, Joon Ho; Lee, Jihye; Suh, Cheolwon

    2016-03-01

    Plerixafor in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been shown to improve the rates of successful peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization in patients with malignant lymphoma or multiple myeloma (MM) who experienced prior failure of PBSC mobilization. We evaluated the mobilization results of re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF in insufficiently mobilizing patients. Forty-four patients with lymphoma (n = 29) or MM (n = 15) were included in the study. The median age was 50 (range, 24-64) years. Previous mobilization regimens were chemotherapy with G-CSF (n = 28), including cyclophosphamide with G-CSF (n = 15), and G-CSF only (n = 16). All patients with lymphoma achieved at least partial response (PR) before the mobilization, including 13 complete responses (CRs). Eleven patients with MM achieved at least PR and four patients with MM were in stable disease before mobilization. The median number of apheresis was 3 (range, 1-6). The median yield of PBSC collections was 3.41 (0.13-38.11) × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. Thirty-four (77.3 %) patients had successful collections defined as at least 2 × 10(6) CD34(+) cells/kg. The rate of successful collections was not different between the two underlying diseases (79.3 % in lymphoma and 73.3 % in MM). Of the entire cohort, 38 (86.4 %) of patients went on to receive an autologous transplant. Previous long-term use of high-risk drugs (>4 cycles use of alkylating agents, platinum-containing agents, or thalidomide) (HR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-110.0, P = 0.043) and low platelet count (<100 × 10(9)/L) 1 day before the first apheresis (HR 27.9, 95 % CI 2.9-273.7, P = 0.004) were independent prognostic factors for predicting failure of PBSC re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF. In conclusion, re-mobilization using plerixafor and G-CSF showed a success rate of 77.3 % in patients with lymphoma or MM who experienced prior failure of PBSC

  9. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  10. Sebacinales everywhere: previously overlooked ubiquitous fungal endophytes.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as 'endophytes' have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  11. Absorption studies with the anti-diarrhoeal agent ethacridine lactate in laboratory animals and man.

    PubMed

    Rising, T J; Fromson, J M; McEwen, J; Johnson, P

    1977-01-01

    Tritiated 2-ethoxy-6,9-diaminoacridine (ethacridine lactate, Rivanol) has been orally administered to rat, dog, rabbit and man, and the distribution of radioactivity between urine and faeces determined. Complete recoveries of radioactivity were obtained from rat, rabbit and man. From direct measurement of levels of radioactivity, the maximum percentage of the dose excreted via the urine varied from 1.7% (man) to 6.1% (dog). Tritiated water accounted for nearly 50% of this amount. The low levels of radioactivity in plasma of dog and man and in the bile of rats following administration of 3H-ethacridine lactate suggested that there was only a low degree of oral absorption and substantiated previous reports that the drug is essentially unabsorbed in man. From fluorimetric measurements and the determination of levels of radioactivity in ether extracts of urine, it could be concluded that for all species less than 0.1% of the dose appeared in the urine as acridine-like material. PMID:577467

  12. The importance of expressing antimicrobial agents on water basis in growth/no growth interface models: a case study for Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Dang, T D T; Vermeulen, A; Mertens, L; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Devlieghere, F

    2011-01-31

    In a previous study on Zygosaccharomyces bailii, three growth/no growth models have been developed, predicting growth probability of the yeast at different conditions typical for acidified foods (Dang, T.D.T., Mertens, L., Vermeulen, A., Geeraerd, A.H., Van Impe, J.F., Debevere, J., Devlieghere, F., 2010. Modeling the growth/no growth boundary of Z. bailii in acidic conditions: A contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives. International Journal of Food Microbiology 137, 1-12). In these broth-based models, the variables were pH, water activity and acetic acid, with acetic acid concentration expressed in volume % on the total culture medium (i.e., broth). To continue the previous study, validation experiments were performed for 15 selected combinations of intrinsic factors to assess the performance of the model at 22°C (60days) in a real food product (ketchup). Although the majority of experimental results were consistent, some remarkable deviations between prediction and validation were observed, e.g., Z. bailii growth occurred in conditions where almost no growth had been predicted. A thorough investigation revealed that the difference between two ways of expressing acetic acid concentration (i.e., on broth basis and on water basis) is rather significant, particularly for media containing high amounts of dry matter. Consequently, the use of broth-based concentrations in the models was not appropriate. Three models with acetic acid concentration expressed on water basis were established and it was observed that predictions by these models well matched the validation results; therefore a "systematic error" in broth-based models was recognized. In practice, quantities of antimicrobial agents are often calculated based on the water content of food products. Hence, to assure reliable predictions and facilitate the application of models (developed from lab media with high dry matter contents), it is important to express

  13. Study of non-covalent interactions between MRI contrast agents and human serum albumin by NMR diffusometry.

    PubMed

    Henoumont, C; Vander Elst, L; Laurent, S; Muller, Robert N

    2009-06-01

    The NMR diffusometry technique, based on the measurement of the diffusion coefficient of a ligand in the absence and in the presence of its macromolecular partner, was used to study the affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) of four gadolinium complexes, potential or already used magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. Diamagnetic lanthanum(III) ion or europium(III) ion, which has the advantage of shifting the NMR signals far away from those of the macromolecule, was used to avoid the excessive broadening of the NMR signals induced by the gadolinium(III) ion. Titration experiments, in which the HSA concentration was kept constant and the concentration of the europium or lanthanum chelate was varied, were performed to evaluate the association constant and the number of binding sites. Some additional information about the kinetics of the exchange between the free and the bound chelate was also obtained. Competition experiments with ibuprofen and salicylate, which are ligands with a known affinity for the macromolecule and for which the binding site is known, were also performed to get information about the binding site of the contrast agents. PMID:19241095

  14. Numerical simulation to study the feasibility of using CO2 as a stimulation agent for enhanced geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Zhang, W.; Pruess, K.

    2009-11-15

    A major concern in the development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is achieving and maintaining adequate injectivity, while avoiding the development of preferential short-circuiting flow paths such as those caused by thermally-induced stress cracking. Past researches have tended to focus primarily on thermal and hydraulic stimulation. Recent studies suggest that chemical stimulation may improve the performance of EGS reservoirs. Geothermal injection wells are often drilled into formations containing reactive minerals such as calcite. Injecting aqueous chemical agents such as mineral acids, could be effective for mineral dissolution and porosity enhancement at distances of several meters around a well. An alternative to treatment with strong acids is the use of supercritical (SC) CO{sub 2} as stimulation agent for an aqueous-based EGS. Reactive transport modeling is used to investigate the effectiveness of this method. We used the thermal condition and mineralogical composition from a well of Desert Peak EGS site, to examine ways in which mixtures of water and CO{sub 2} can be injected to enhance porosity.

  15. Antihypertensive Agents and Risk of Parkinson's Disease, Essential Tremor and Dementia: A Population-Based Prospective Study (NEDICES)

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julián; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent interest in antihypertensive agents, especially calcium channel blockers, has been sparked by the notion that these medications may be neuroprotective. A modest literature, with mixed results, has examined whether these medications might lower the odds or risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia. There are no data for essential tremor (ET). Objective To examine the association between antihypertensive use (defined broadly and by individual subclasses) and ET, PD and dementia. For each disorder, we used cross-sectional data (association with prevalent disease) and prospective data (association with incident disease). Methods Prospective population-based study in Spain enrolling 5,278 participants at baseline. Results Use of antihypertensive medications (aside from β-blockers) was similar in prevalent ET cases and controls. Baseline use of antihypertensive agents was not associated with reduced risk of incident ET. Antihypertensive medication use was not associated with prevalent or incident PD. Calcium channel blocker use was marginally reduced in prevalent dementia cases (ORadjusted = 0.63, p = 0.06) but was not associated with reduced risk of incident dementia (RRadjusted = 1.02, p = 0.95). Conclusions We did not find evidence of a protective effect of antihypertensive medications in these three neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:19696520

  16. The study of photoacoustic imaging without nanoparticles as a contrast agent for anti-body drug monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Hee; Kang, Jeeun; Wilson, Brian; Song, Tai-Kyong; Kim, Young Il

    2015-03-01

    As an emerging hybrid Imaging, Photoacoustic became a powerful tool that can scan disease at the deeper site in tissue and monitor of drug delivery in vivo. PAI system used nano-particle as contrast agent to enhance the PA signal in deeper site in tissue. So this makes that PAI's application have some limitation for monitoring of all kinds of anti-body drug, because of various anti-body's absorption excitation. In this study, we designed a PAI system with a tunable pulse OPO laser (from 450~700nm excitation wavelength) to show the optimal wavelength for monitoring of the antibody drug; doxorubicin having peak absorption at near 500nm excitation without any nano-particle combine. We made a gelatin phantoms having 4 different concentration doxorubicin as an anti-body drug; Doxorubicin concentration were in- 0mg/ml, 0.5mg/ml, 1mg/ml, and 2mg/ml. We found that 500nm is optimization wavelength to produce PA peak signal and PAI can be tool to monitor of anti-body drug without contrast agent.

  17. Borate complexes of x-ray iodinated contrast agents: characterization and sorption studies for their removal from aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Rustighi, Isabella; Donati, Ivan; Ferluga, Matteo; Campa, Cristiana; Pasqua, Adele E; Rossi, Marco; Paoletti, Sergio

    2012-02-29

    Iodinated contrast media (ICM) are persistent and ubiquitous water pollutants. Because of their high water solubility and biochemical stability, their phase-separation and recovery from the aquatic environment is very difficult. Here, borate was chosen as a complexing agent of the two diagnostic aids iomeprol and iopamidol in order to provide them with a negative charge and to fix the resulting adducts on Dowex 1X4 ion exchangers. A systematic characterization study of the complex by means of capillary zone electrophoresis and 11B NMR revealed that iomeprol and iopamidol interact with borate anions in aqueous solutions giving a 1:1 single-charged adduct and that the association constant at 25 °C for both contrast agents is highest at pH 10.5. These findings allowed the proper calibration of experimental parameters for further batch adsorption-desorption trials, where the two ICM were shown to be almost completely removed from the water phase and released from the solid sorbents in mild conditions, enabling the recovery of functional resin. PMID:22245510

  18. NIR and visible investigation of some potential SERS-active substrates for studying antitumour agent all- trans retinoic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beljebbar, A.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Morjani, H.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    1997-01-01

    Red and near-infrared excited Fourier transform surface-enhanced Raman spectra of an anticancer agent, all- trans retinoic acid (ATRA), adsorbed on gold island films are reported. Best results have been obtained with plates 80 Å and 40 Å thick respectively in the red and near-infrared and at concentrations of 10 -5 and 5 × 10 -6 M with a spinning system. The use of near-infrared laser excitation with low photon energy, allows us to overcome the problems of isomerisation when the sample is exposed for a long time to the laser radiation. Comparison between the Raman and SERS spectra in the visible shows that the adsorption on the surface does not perturb the structure of ATRA and confirms the long range enhancement of the island films with this type of molecule. Spectral data show that while gold island films and colloids are appropriate substrates for use with red excitation, silver and gold colloids as well as gold island films exhibit satisfactory enhancement levels in the near-infrared. This study will in the future allow us to choose the appropriate system that will serve to investigate the interaction of ATRA with its target in vitro and the effect of this differentiating agent in human leukaemia cell lines such as K562 and HL60.

  19. The behavior of stainless steels in physiological solution containing complexing agent studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Milosev, I; Strehblow, H H

    2000-11-01

    The passive film formed by electrochemical oxidation on two different stainless steels differing in molybdenum (Mo) content in physiological solution with and without the addition of complexing agent, i.e., citrate, was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The alloys were polarized at different oxidation potentials in the electrochemical chamber attached to the spectrometer. Thus, the composition of the film formed by oxidation was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy without prior exposure to air (quasi in situ). The passive film formed in physiological solution consists of two predominant oxides, i.e., chromium and iron oxides. Oxides of alloying elements nickel and Mo are also detected in the film. It seems that the strong enrichment of oxidized chromium and Mo in the passive layer, and strong enrichment of Mo and depletion of iron at the metal surface underneath the passive layer, are responsible for the outstanding corrosion resistance of orthopedic stainless steel in physiological solution. Commercial AISI 304 is not suitable for orthopedic applications. The addition of complexing agent affects significantly the passivation behavior of orthopedic stainless steel, because it changes the distribution of the elements within the passive layer and at the metal surface underneath. PMID:10951382

  20. Feprazone, a new anti-inflammatory agent. Studies of potency and gastrointestinal tolerance.

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, M R; Loebl, W; Scott, J T

    1975-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a double-blind cross-over trial of feprazone 600 mg daily and aspirin 3.6 g daily in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, and an uncontrolled open study of gastrointestinal tolerance in twenty rheumatoid arthritis patients with known intolerance to other drugs. The first study showed that feprazone was significantly superior to aspirin in all the parameters tested. In the second study all twenty patients showed an improvement of their gastrointestinal symptoms, nineteen reporting no symptoms at all when taking the new preparation. PMID:1094965

  1. Effect of Co doping, capping agent and optical-structural studies of ZnO:Co2+ nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taheri Otaqsara, S. M.

    2011-08-01

    Co2+ doped ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) using PEG as a capping agent were prepared by colloidal wet-chemical method. The structure, morphology and characteristics of as-prepared samples were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns studies revealed wurtzite crystal phase. STM-TEM micrographs show a spherical shape and nearly well distribution with an average particle size of ~15-20 nm. UV-VIS spectra show the presence of exciton peak at 349 nm which can be effectively tuned versus cobalt doping and PEG concentration. PL studies were done under the excitation of 347 nm, which exhibited a UV (~386 nm) and visible (blue-orange) emission peak because of free-exciton recombination and oxygen vacancy.

  2. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  3. A Study of Teacher Specialists as Change Agents to Facilitate Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazaleski, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    School systems must undertake change to facilitate student achievement. Teachers who serve as resources for teachers and administrators, the teacher specialists, are being used by some school systems to implement change despite a deficit of professional studies exploring their effectiveness for this purpose. This mixed methods case study utilized…

  4. Comparative study of choleretic agents in anesthetized rats as well as in restrained and and unrestrained rats, with or without compensation for biliary loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrid, C.; Dureng, G.; Tachon, J.; Duchene-Marullaz, P.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted on Wistar rats by using 3 control choleretic agents: 1-phenyl-1-hydroxy n-pentane, dehydrocholic acid, and phenyl-dimethylacetic acid. The effects of these agents were compared in different experimental conditions. The comparative study of choleretic agents in anesthetized rats, in restrained and unrestrained rats, with or without compensation for biliary loss by the biliary secretion of restrained or unrestrained rats does not show, in systematic pharmecodynamic investigations, an obvious superiority over the methods based on the simple technique.

  5. Exploratory Study on the Effects of Novel Diamine Curing Agents and Isocyanate Precursors on the Properties of New Epoxy and Urethane Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, D. Gerald; Garthwait, Clayborn

    1977-01-01

    This report covers the results of investigations directed toward studying the effects of novel aromatic diamine structures on epoxy adhesive properties and includes work done under a modification to the original contract. Three aromatic diamines based on diphenylsulfone and benzophenone were studied as epoxy adhesive curing agents. Previously found differences in adhesive strengths for meta vs para orientation were not found in these series. The use of aluminum and alumina as fillers in a m,m'-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy adhesive was not found to be beneficial to adhesive strength. Alumina filled adhesives had much lower strength than unfilled adhesives. The unfilled m,m'-methylene dianiline-based epoxy adhesive had excellent resistance to moisture relative to a p,p'-methylene dianiline-based adhesive and maintained good strengths up to 250 F. A glass fiber composite based on a m,m'-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy appeared to be equivalent to the p,p'-methylene dianiline-cured epoxy as judged by short beam shear tests.

  6. Low density lipoprotein for delivery of a water-insoluble alkylating agent to malignant cells. In vitro and in vivo studies of a drug-lipoprotein complex.

    PubMed Central

    Vitols, S.; Söderberg-Reid, K.; Masquelier, M.; Sjöström, B.; Peterson, C.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that human leukaemic cells and certain tumour tissues have a higher receptor-mediated uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) than the corresponding normal cells or tissues. LDL has therefore been proposed as a carrier for anti-cancer agents. In the current study, a water-insoluble mitoclomine derivative (WB 4291) was incorporated into LDL. The WB 4291-LDL complex contained about 1,500 drug molecules per LDL particle and showed receptor-mediated toxicity in vitro as judged from the difference in growth inhibitory effect on normal and mutant (LDL-receptor-negative) cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells. However, cellular drug uptake did not exclusively occur by the receptor pathway since mutant cells were also affected to some extent. The LDL part of the complex had the same plasma clearance and organ distribution as native LDL after i.v. injection in mice and rabbits. Therapeutic effects were observed when Balb-C mice with experimental leukaemia were treated with the complex. After i.p. administration to mice with i.p. leukaemia median survival time was prolonged 2.5-fold and 40% became long time survivors. The effect was weaker (42% increase in life span) after i.v. injections of the complex to mice with i.v. leukaemia. Images Figure 3 PMID:2245164

  7. Novel mineral contrast agent for magnetic resonance studies of bone implants grown on a chick chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Chesnick, Ingrid E; Fowler, Carol B; Mason, Jeffrey T; Potter, Kimberlee

    2011-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of tissue engineered constructs prior to implantation clearly demonstrate the utility of the MRI technique for studying the bone formation process. To test the utility of our MRI protocols for explant studies, we present a novel test platform in which osteoblast-seeded scaffolds were implanted on the chorioallantoic membrane of a chick embryo. Scaffolds from the following experimental groups were examined by high-resolution MRI: (a) cell-seeded implanted scaffolds (CIM), (b) unseeded implanted scaffolds (UCIM), (c) cell-seeded scaffolds in static culture (CIV) and (d) unseeded scaffolds in static culture (UCIV). The reduction in water proton transverse relaxation times and the concomitant increase in water proton magnetization transfer ratios for CIM and CIV scaffolds, compared to UCIV scaffolds, were consistent with the formation of a bone-like tissue within the polymer scaffold, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence microscopy. However, the presence of angiogenic vessels and fibrotic adhesions around UCIM scaffolds can confound MRI findings of bone deposition. Consequently, to improve the specificity of the MRI technique for detecting mineralized deposits within explanted tissue engineered bone constructs, we introduce a novel contrast agent that uses alendronate to target a Food and Drug Administration-approved MRI contrast agent (Gd-DOTA) to bone mineral. Our contrast agent termed GdALN was used to uniquely identify mineralized deposits in representative samples from our four experimental groups. After GdALN treatment, both CIM and CIV scaffolds, containing mineralized deposits, showed marked signal enhancement on longitudinal relaxation time-weighted (T1W) images compared to UCIV scaffolds. Relative to UCIV scaffolds, some enhancement was observed in T1W images of GdALN-treated UCIM scaffolds, subjacent to the dark adhesions at the scaffold surface, possibly from dystrophic mineral formed in the

  8. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  9. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Sushrut Varun; Datta, Supratim; Upreti, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Materials and Methods: Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013–May 2014), were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. Results: A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8%) followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%). Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1%) was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%). The use of biguanides (P < 0.0001) and sulfonylureas (P = 0.02) in combination was significant as compared to their use as monotherapy. A total of 48% of all antidiabetic combinations used, comprised metformin and sulfonylureas (n = 96). Insulin use was significantly higher as monotherapy and in inpatients (P < 0.0001). The utilization of drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines was 51.2%, while 11% of antidiabetics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusion: The pattern of utilization largely conforms to the current standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement. PMID:27413351

  10. The binding of vinca domain agents to tubulin: structural and biochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Anthony; Knossow, Marcel; Wang, Chunguang; Gigant, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Vinca domain ligands are small molecules that interfere with the binding of vinblastine to tubulin and inhibit microtubule assembly. Many such compounds cause isodesmic association which results in difficulties in biochemical or structural studies of their interaction with tubulin. The complex of two tubulins with the stathmin-like domain of the RB3 protein (T(2)R) is a protofilament-like short assembly that does not assemble further. This has allowed structural studies of the binding of several vinca domain ligands by X-ray crystallography as crystals of the corresponding complexes diffract to near atomic resolution. This proved that their sites are located at the interface of two tubulin molecules arranged as in a curved protofilament. These sites overlap with that of vinblastine. Structural data are generally consistent with the results of available structure-function studies, though subtle differences exist. Binding in solution to the vinca domain displayed in T(2)R is conveniently studied by fluorescence spectroscopy or by monitoring inhibition of the T(2)R GTPase activity. In addition, inhibition of nucleotide exchange allows characterization of the binding to the vinca domain moiety displayed by the beta-subunit of an isolated tubulin molecule. T(2)R is therefore a useful tool to characterize and dissect the binding of vinca domain ligands to tubulin. In addition, these studies have provided new information on the interaction of tubulin with guanine nucleotides, namely on the mechanisms of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis. PMID:20466145

  11. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  12. A previously undescribed pathway for pyrimidine catabolism

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Kevin D.; Gyaneshwar, Prasad; Markenscoff Papadimitriou, Eirene; Fong, Rebecca; Kim, Kwang-Seo; Parales, Rebecca; Zhou, Zhongrui; Inwood, William; Kustu, Sydney

    2006-01-01

    The b1012 operon of Escherichia coli K-12, which is composed of seven unidentified ORFs, is one of the most highly expressed operons under control of nitrogen regulatory protein C. Examination of strains with lesions in this operon on Biolog Phenotype MicroArray (PM3) plates and subsequent growth tests indicated that they failed to use uridine or uracil as the sole nitrogen source and that the parental strain could use them at room temperature but not at 37°C. A strain carrying an ntrB(Con) mutation, which elevates transcription of genes under nitrogen regulatory protein C control, could also grow on thymidine as the sole nitrogen source, whereas strains with lesions in the b1012 operon could not. Growth-yield experiments indicated that both nitrogens of uridine and thymidine were available. Studies with [14C]uridine indicated that a three-carbon waste product from the pyrimidine ring was excreted. After trimethylsilylation and gas chromatography, the waste product was identified by mass spectrometry as 3-hydroxypropionic acid. In agreement with this finding, 2-methyl-3-hydroxypropionic acid was released from thymidine. Both the number of available nitrogens and the waste products distinguished the pathway encoded by the b1012 operon from pyrimidine catabolic pathways described previously. We propose that the genes of this operon be named rutA–G for pyrimidine utilization. The product of the divergently transcribed gene, b1013, is a tetracycline repressor family regulator that controls transcription of the b1012 operon negatively. PMID:16540542

  13. Curcumin as a Therapeutic Agent in Dementia: A Mini Systematic Review of Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Boldrini, Annalisa; Cuccomarino, Antonella; Lanati, Niccolò; Barale, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a leading health problem worldwide, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) representing up to 60% of all dementia cases. A growing interest has recently risen on the potential use of natural molecules in this condition. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound traditionally used in Indian medicine. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have found a protective effect of curcumin in AD. In the present systematic review we aimed to evaluate the state-of-the-art of clinical trials of curcumin in AD. We retrieved three published studies, while there are several ongoing clinical trials. To date there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of curcumin in dementia patients. Of note, short-term use of curcumin appears to be safe. Several reasons could be responsible for the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo findings and human trials, such as low bioavailability and poor study design. PMID:24578620

  14. Curcumin as a therapeutic agent in dementia: a mini systematic review of human studies.

    PubMed

    Brondino, Natascia; Re, Simona; Boldrini, Annalisa; Cuccomarino, Antonella; Lanati, Niccolò; Barale, Francesco; Politi, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Dementia is a leading health problem worldwide, with Alzheimer's disease (AD) representing up to 60% of all dementia cases. A growing interest has recently risen on the potential use of natural molecules in this condition. Curcumin is a polyphenolic compound traditionally used in Indian medicine. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have found a protective effect of curcumin in AD. In the present systematic review we aimed to evaluate the state-of-the-art of clinical trials of curcumin in AD. We retrieved three published studies, while there are several ongoing clinical trials. To date there is insufficient evidence to suggest the use of curcumin in dementia patients. Of note, short-term use of curcumin appears to be safe. Several reasons could be responsible for the discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo findings and human trials, such as low bioavailability and poor study design. PMID:24578620

  15. Biodistribution and Stability Studies of [18F]Fluoroethylrhodamine B, a Potential PET Myocardial Perfusion Agent

    PubMed Central

    Gottumukkala, Vijay; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Baker, Amanda; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederick H; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Fluorine-18-labeled rhodamine B was developed as a potential PET tracer for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, but preliminary studies in mice showed no accumulation in the heart suggesting that it was rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo in mice. A study was, therefore, undertaken to further evaluate this hypothesis. Methods [18F]Fluoroethylrhodamine B was equilibrated for 2 h at 37 °C in human, rat and mouse serum and in PBS. Samples were removed periodically and assayed by HPLC. Based on the results of the stability study, microPET imaging and a biodistribution study were carried out in rats. Results In vitro stability studies demonstrated that [18F]fluoroethylrhodamine B much more stable in rat and human sera than in mouse serum. After 2 h, the compound was >80% intact in rat serum but <30% intact in mouse serum. The microPET imaging and biodistribution studies in rats confirmed this result showing high and persistent tracer accumulation in the myocardium compared with the absence of uptake by the myocardium in mice thereby validating our original hypothesis that 18F-labeled rhodamines should accumulate in the heart. Conclusions [18F]Fluoroethyl rhodamine B is more stable in rat and human sera than it is in mouse serum. This improved stability is demonstrated by the high uptake of the tracer in the rat heart in comparison to the absence of visible uptake in the mouse heart. These observations suggest that 18F-labeled rhodamines are promising candidates for more extensive evaluation as PET tracers for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion. PMID:20346876

  16. Effectiveness of Subacromial Anti-Adhesive Agent Injection after Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: Prospective Randomized Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chung Hee; Oh, Joo Han; Kim, Sae Hoon; Cho, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Jong Pil

    2011-01-01

    Background Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair generally has a good clinical outcome but shoulder stiffness after surgery due to subacromial adhesion is one of the most common and clinically important complications. Sodium hyaluronate (HA) has been reported to be an anti-adhesive agent in a range of surgical procedures. However, there are few reports of the outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair of the shoulder. This study examined whether a subacromial injection of HA/carboxymethylated cellulose (CMC) affected the postoperative shoulder stiffness and healing of rotator cuff repair, as well as the safety of an injection. Methods Between January 2008 and May 2008, 80 consecutive patients with arthroscopic rotator cuff repair were enrolled. The patients were assigned randomly to the HA/CMC injection group (n = 40) or control group (n = 40). All patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, passive range of motion at 2, 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12 months after surgery, and the functional scores at 6, 12 months postoperatively. Cuff healing was also evaluated using CT arthrography or ultrasonography at 6 or 12 months after surgery. Results The HA/CMC injection group showed faster recovery of forward flexion at 2 weeks postoperatively than the control group but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). There were no significant difference in pain VAS, internal rotation, external rotation and functional scores between two groups at each follow-up period. The functional scores improved 6 months after surgery in both groups but there were no differences between the two groups. The incidence of unhealed rotator cuff was similar in the two groups. There were no complications related to an injection of anti-adhesive agents including wound problems or infections. Conclusions A subacromial injection of an anti-adhesive agent after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair tended to produce faster recovery in forward flexion with no adverse effects on

  17. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry. PMID:22697030

  18. Case Study of Three Rural Texas Superintendents as Equity Oriented Change Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Gerri Marie; Locke, Leslie Ann; Scheurich, James Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For this qualitative case study (Patton, 2003), we used narrative inquiry (Erlandson, Harris, Skipper, & Allen, 1993) and sought to analyze extended interviews and field notes based on interactions with three rural superintendents working in high-needs, public PK-12 school districts in Texas. We collected data with regard to these superintendents'…

  19. Constructing Self as Leader: Case Studies of Women Who Are Change Agents in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogadime, Dolana; Mentz, P. J.; Armstrong, Denise E.; Holtam, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    The present article draws from the biographical narratives of three South African high school female principals which are part of a larger research study in which 26 aspiring and practicing women school leaders were interviewed. Narratives were constructed from in-depth interviews with each participant and analyzed for themes that provided…

  20. FEASIBILITY STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF DRILLING MUD AS A PLUGGING AGENT IN ABANDONED WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The main objective of this feasibility study was to test the hypothesis that properly plugged wells are effectively sealed by drilling mud. hile achieving such an objective, knowledge of the dynamics of building mud cake on the wellbore-face is obtained, as well as comprehension ...

  1. When Do We Simulate Non-Human Agents? Dissociating Communicative and Non-Communicative Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepelt, Roman; Prinz, Wolfgang; Brass, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence that we automatically simulate observed behavior in our motor system. Previous research suggests that this simulation process depends on whether we observe a human or a non-human agent. Measuring a motor priming effect, this study investigated the question of whether agent-sensitivity of motor simulation depends on the…

  2. Ultraviolet Raman scattering from persistent chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullander, Fredrik; Wästerby, Pär.; Landström, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Laser induced Raman scattering at excitation wavelengths in the middle ultraviolet was examined using a pulsed tunable laser based spectrometer system. Droplets of chemical warfare agents, with a volume of 2 μl, were placed on a silicon surface and irradiated with sequences of laser pulses. The Raman scattering from V-series nerve agents, Tabun (GA) and Mustard gas (HD) was studied with the aim of finding the optimum parameters and the requirements for a detection system. A particular emphasis was put on V-agents that have been previously shown to yield relatively weak Raman scattering in this excitation band.

  3. Learning to manipulate and categorize in human and artificial agents.

    PubMed

    Morlino, Giuseppe; Gianelli, Claudia; Borghi, Anna M; Nolfi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the acquisition of integrated object manipulation and categorization abilities through a series of experiments in which human adults and artificial agents were asked to learn to manipulate two-dimensional objects that varied in shape, color, weight, and color intensity. The analysis of the obtained results and the comparison of the behavior displayed by human and artificial agents allowed us to identify the key role played by features affecting the agent/environment interaction, the relation between category and action development, and the role of cognitive biases originating from previous knowledge. PMID:25041751

  4. Stability of angiogenic agents, ginsenoside Rg1 and Re, isolated from Panax ginseng: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Chien; Chen, Sung-Ching; Chang, Wei-Chun; Huang, Ya-Chun; Lin, Kurt M; Lai, Po-Hong; Sung, Hsing-Wen

    2007-01-10

    The study was designed to investigate the stability of ginsenoside Rg(1) (Rg(1)) and Re (Re), two natural herbal compounds isolated from Panax ginseng, based on their activity to promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. After being treated at different temperatures, pHs, and solvent species for distinct durations, the remaining activities of Rg(1) and Re on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, migration, and tube formation were examined in vitro. Additionally, the remaining activity of each treated test agent, mixed in a growth factor-reduced Matrigel, in stimulating angiogenesis was evaluated subcutaneously in a mouse model. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was used as a control. It was found in vitro that HUVEC proliferation, migration in a Transwell plate, and tube formation on Matrigel were all significantly enhanced in the presence of bFGF, Rg(1), or Re. However, after being treated at different temperatures, pHs, or solvent species, the remaining activity of bFGF on HUVEC behaviors reduced significantly. This observation was more significant with increasing the duration of treatment. In contrast, the activities of Rg(1) and Re remained unchanged throughout the entire course of the study. The in vivo results observed on day 7 after implantation showed that the blank control (Matrigel alone) was slightly vascularized. In contrast, the density of neo-vessels in the Matrigel plug mixed with bFGF, Rg(1), or Re was significantly enhanced. However, after being treated, the density of neo-vessels was significantly reduced in the Matrigel plug mixed with bFGF, while those of Rg(1) and Re remained unchanged. The aforementioned results suggested that Rg(1) and Re could be a novel group of nonpeptide angiogenic agents with a superior stability and may be used for the management of tissue regeneration. PMID:16962729

  5. In Vitro, In Silico and In Vivo Studies of Ursolic Acid as an Anti-Filarial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Kalani, Komal; Kushwaha, Vikas; Sharma, Pooja; Verma, Richa; Srivastava, Mukesh; Khan, Feroz; Murthy, P. K.; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2014-01-01

    As part of our drug discovery program for anti-filarial agents from Indian medicinal plants, leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis were chemically investigated, which resulted in the isolation and characterization of an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid (UA) as a major constituent. Antifilarial activity of UA against the human lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi using in vitro and in vivo assays, and in silico docking search on glutathione-s-transferase (GST) parasitic enzyme were carried out. The UA was lethal to microfilariae (mf; LC100: 50; IC50: 8.84 µM) and female adult worms (LC100: 100; IC50: 35.36 µM) as observed by motility assay; it exerted 86% inhibition in MTT reduction potential of the adult parasites. The selectivity index (SI) of UA for the parasites was found safe. This was supported by the molecular docking studies, which showed adequate docking (LibDock) scores for UA (−8.6) with respect to the standard antifilarial drugs, ivermectin (IVM −8.4) and diethylcarbamazine (DEC-C −4.6) on glutathione-s-transferase enzyme. Further, in silico pharmacokinetic and drug-likeness studies showed that UA possesses drug-like properties. Furthermore, UA was evaluated in vivo in B. malayi-M. coucha model (natural infection), which showed 54% macrofilaricidal activity, 56% female worm sterility and almost unchanged microfilaraemia maintained throughout observation period with no adverse effect on the host. Thus, in conclusion in vitro, in silico and in vivo results indicate that UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, which can be designed and developed into a macrofilaricidal drug. To the best of our knowledge this is the first ever report on the anti-filarial potential of UA from E. tereticornis, which is in full agreement with the Thomson Reuter's ‘Metadrug’ tool screening predictions. PMID:25375886

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Structure–Activity Relationship Studies of Fluorescent Inhibitors of Cycloxygenase-2 as Targeted Optical Imaging Agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an attractive target for molecular imaging because it is an inducible enzyme that is expressed in response to inflammatory and proliferative stimuli. Recently, we reported that conjugation of indomethacin with carboxy-X-rhodamine dyes results in the formation of effective, targeted, optical imaging agents able to detect COX-2 in inflammatory tissues and premalignant and malignant tumors (Uddin et al. Cancer Res. 2010, 70, 3618–3627). The present paper summarizes the details of the structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies performed for lead optimization of these dyes. A wide range of fluorescent conjugates were designed and synthesized, and each of them was tested for the ability to selectively inhibit COX-2 as the purified protein and in human cancer cells. The SAR study revealed that indomethacin conjugates are the best COX-2-targeted agents compared to the other carboxylic acid-containing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or COX-2-selective inhibitors (COXIBs). An n-butyldiamide linker is optimal for tethering bulky fluorescent functionalities onto the NSAID or COXIB cores. The activity of conjugates also depends on the size, shape, and electronic properties of the organic fluorophores. These reagents are taken up by COX-2-expressing cells in culture, and the uptake is blocked by pretreatment with a COX inhibitor. In in vivo settings, these reagents become highly enriched in COX-2-expressing tumors compared to surrounding normal tissue, and they accumulate selectively in COX-2-expressing tumors as compared with COX-2-negative tumors grown in mice. Thus, COX-2-targeted fluorescent inhibitors are useful for preclinical and clinical detection of lesions containing elevated levels of COX-2. PMID:23488616

  7. Novel agents and new combination treatments on phase I studies on solid tumors and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Strimpakos, Alexios S; Syrigos, Kostas N; Saif, Muhammad W

    2012-07-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a relatively rare malignancy with a very aggressive natural course, not restrained by the existing current treatments. At the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the results of few phase I clinical studies on solid tumors and pancreatic cancer were presented. In particular, in the field of immunotherapy, a pilot phase I study tested for first time a carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-based vaccine (Abstract #2561) on patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and another one the optimal dose and efficacy of trabedersen, an inhibitor of tissue growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) aiming to enhance antitumor immune responses (Abstract #4034). Other phase I studies explored the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of an oral gemcitabine pro-drug (LY2334737; Abstract #2554), or of the combination of gemcitabine with sirolimus (Abstract #3096) or the combination of gemcitabine with an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) (MEK 1/2; Abstract #4034). PMID:22797386

  8. Molecular interaction studies of amorphous solid dispersions of the antimelanoma agent betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meiki; Ocando, Joseph E; Trombetta, Louis; Chatterjee, Parnali

    2015-04-01

    Betulinic acid (BA), a novel natural product with antimelanoma activity, has poor aqueous solubility (<0.1 μg/mL) and therefore exhibits poor bioavailability. The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of preparing BA solid dispersions (BA-SDs) with hydrophilic polymers to enhance the aqueous solubility of BA. Melt-quenched solid dispersions (MQ-SDs) of BA were prepared at various ratios with the hydrophilic polymers including Soluplus, HPMCAS-HF, Kollidon VA64, Kollidon K90, and Eudragit RLPO. BA was found to be miscible in all polymers at a 1:4 (w/w) ratio by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). BA/Soluplus MQ-SD exhibited the highest solubility in simulated body fluids followed by BA/Kollidon VA64 MQ-SD. The MQ-SDs of BA/Soluplus, BA/HPMCAS-HF, and BA/Kollidon VA64 were found to be amorphous as indicated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) studies. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) studies indicated molecular interactions between BA and Soluplus. Our preliminary screening of polymers indicates that Soluplus and Kollidon VA64 exhibit the greatest potential to form BA-SDs. PMID:25331193

  9. Agent-Based Simulations of Malaria Transmissions with Applications to a Study Site in Thailand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard K.; Adimi, Farida; Zollner, Gabriela E.; Coleman, Russell E.

    2006-01-01

    The dynamics of malaria transmission are driven by environmental, biotic and socioeconomic factors. Because of the geographic dependency of these factors and the complex interactions among them, it is difficult to generalize the key factors that perpetuate or intensify malaria transmission. Methods: Discrete event simulations were used for modeling the detailed interactions among the vector life cycle, sporogonic cycle and human infection cycle, under the explicit influences of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Meteorological and environmental parameters may be derived from satellite data. The output of the model includes the individual infection status and the quantities normally observed in field studies, such as mosquito biting rates, sporozoite infection rates, gametocyte prevalence and incidence. Results were compared with mosquito vector and human malaria data acquired over 4.5 years (June 1999 - January 2004) in Kong Mong Tha, a remote village in Kanchanaburi Province, western Thailand. Results: Three years of transmissions of vivax and falciparum malaria were simulated for a hypothetical hamlet with approximately 1/7 of the study site population. The model generated results for a number of scenarios, including applications of larvicide and insecticide, asymptomatic cases receiving or not receiving treatment, blocking malaria transmission in mosquito vectors, and increasing the density of farm (host) animals in the hamlet. Transmission characteristics and trends in the simulated results are comparable to actual data collected at the study site.

  10. Isatin based thiosemicarbazone derivatives as potential bioactive agents: Anti-oxidant and molecular docking studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haribabu, J.; Subhashree, G. R.; Saranya, S.; Gomathi, K.; Karvembu, R.; Gayathri, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new series of isatin based thiosemicarbazones has been synthesized from benzylisatin and unsubstituted/substituted thiosemicarbazides (1-5). The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, and UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1H &13C NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques. Three dimensional molecular structure of three compounds (1, 3 and 4) was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Anti-oxidant activity of the thiosemicarbazone derivatives showed their excellent scavenging effect against free radicals. In addition, all the compounds showed good anti-haemolytic activity. In silico molecular docking studies were performed to screen the anti-inflammatory and anti-tuberculosis properties of thiosemicarbazone derivatives.

  11. Diamidines versus Monoamidines as Anti-Pneumocystis Agents: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Stanicki, Dimitri; Pottier, Muriel; Gantois, Nausicaa; Pinçon, Claire; Forge, Delphine; Mahieu, Isabelle; Boutry, Sébastien; Vanden Eynde, Jean Jacques; Martinez, Anna; Dei-Cas, Eduardo; Aliouat, El-Moukhtar

    2013-01-01

    Some compounds articulated around a piperazine or an ethylenediamine linker have been evaluated in vitro to determine their activity in the presence of a 3T6 fibroblast cell line and an axenic culture of Pneumocystis carinii, respectively. The most efficient antifungal derivatives, namely N,N′-bis(benzamidine-4-yl)ethane-1,2-diamine (compound 6, a diamidine) and N-(benzamidine-4-yl)-N′-phenylethane-1,2-diamine (compound 7, a monoamidine), exhibited no cytotoxicity and were evaluated in vivo in a rat model. Only the diamidine 6 emerged as a promising hit for further studies. PMID:24276317

  12. Biocompatible superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles used for contrast agents: a structural and magnetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamarra, L. F.; Brito, G. E. S.; Pontuschka, W. M.; Amaro, E.; Parma, A. H. C.; Goya, G. F.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic properties of different biocompatible magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MION) are presented. Dextran-coated, magnetite (Fe 3O 4) MIONs were studied as supplied and after lyophilization, to disentangle the effects of particle interactions. All samples showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, with blocking transitions at TB˜40-56 K (at 100 Oe), depending on the particle interactions. The dynamics of the thermally activated blocking process reveals that the effect of dipolar interactions is to increase the energy barriers of the individual particles.

  13. Synthesis, Crystal Study, and Anti-Proliferative Activity of Some 2-Benzimidazolylthioacetophenones towards Triple-Negative Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 Cells as Apoptosis-Inducing Agents

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A.; Eldehna, Wagdy M.; Ghabbour, Hazem; Al-Ansary, Ghada H.; Assaf, Areej M.; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    On account of its poor prognosis and deficiency of therapeutic stratifications, triple negative breast cancer continues to form the causative platform of an incommensurate number of breast cancer deaths. Aiming at the development of potent anticancer agents as a continuum of our previous efforts, a novel series of 2-((benzimidazol-2-yl)thio)-1-arylethan-1-ones 5a–w was synthesized and evaluated for its anti-proliferative activity towards triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-468 cells. Compound 5k was the most active analog against MDA-MB-468 (IC50 = 19.90 ± 1.37 µM), with 2.1-fold increased activity compared to 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 41.26 ± 3.77 µM). Compound 5k was able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-468, as evidenced by the marked boosting in the percentage of florecsein isothiocyanate annexin V (Annexin V–FITC)-positive apoptotic cells (upper right (UR) + lower right (LR)) by 2.8-fold in comparison to control accompanied by significant increase in the proportion of cells at pre-G1 (the first gap phase) by 8.13-fold in the cell-cycle analysis. Moreover, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was established to investigate the structural requirements orchestrating the anti-proliferative activity. Finally, we established a theoretical kinetic study. PMID:27483243

  14. Synthesis, Crystal Study, and Anti-Proliferative Activity of Some 2-Benzimidazolylthioacetophenones towards Triple-Negative Breast Cancer MDA-MB-468 Cells as Apoptosis-Inducing Agents.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Eldehna, Wagdy M; Ghabbour, Hazem; Al-Ansary, Ghada H; Assaf, Areej M; Al-Dhfyan, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    On account of its poor prognosis and deficiency of therapeutic stratifications, triple negative breast cancer continues to form the causative platform of an incommensurate number of breast cancer deaths. Aiming at the development of potent anticancer agents as a continuum of our previous efforts, a novel series of 2-((benzimidazol-2-yl)thio)-1-arylethan-1-ones 5a-w was synthesized and evaluated for its anti-proliferative activity towards triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-468 cells. Compound 5k was the most active analog against MDA-MB-468 (IC50 = 19.90 ± 1.37 µM), with 2.1-fold increased activity compared to 5-fluorouracil (IC50 = 41.26 ± 3.77 µM). Compound 5k was able to induce apoptosis in MDA-MB-468, as evidenced by the marked boosting in the percentage of florecsein isothiocyanate annexin V (Annexin V-FITC)-positive apoptotic cells (upper right (UR) + lower right (LR)) by 2.8-fold in comparison to control accompanied by significant increase in the proportion of cells at pre-G1 (the first gap phase) by 8.13-fold in the cell-cycle analysis. Moreover, a quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model was established to investigate the structural requirements orchestrating the anti-proliferative activity. Finally, we established a theoretical kinetic study. PMID:27483243

  15. Human Hair as a Natural Sun Protection Agent: A Quantitative Study.

    PubMed

    de Gálvez, María Victoria; Aguilera, José; Bernabó, Jean-Luc; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancers attributable to excessive sun exposure has become a major health concern worldwide. While numerous studies have analyzed the sun protective effect of sunscreens, clothing and antioxidants, none to date have measured the photoprotective effect of hair, despite clinical evidence that individuals with balding or thinning hair are at greater risk of skin lesions that can progress to cancer, hence the recommendation to use hats or umbrellas. We analyzed the level of protection offered by hair according to hair density, thickness and color using the spectral transmittance and corrected for relative erythema effectiveness. Our results show that hair provides a barrier against both UVB and UVA radiation which is significantly increased with respect to the hair density, thickness and the presence of melanins. This is the first study to quantify sun protection factor offered by hair, namely hair ultraviolet protection factor (HUPF). We believe that hair should be recognized as an important natural sun barrier in the prevention of UV-induced skin cancers. PMID:25682789

  16. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues. PMID:23421028

  17. Phenylpropiophenone derivatives as potential anticancer agents: synthesis, biological evaluation and quantitative structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Ivković, Branka M; Nikolic, Katarina; Ilić, Bojana B; Žižak, Željko S; Novaković, Radmila B; Čudina, Olivera A; Vladimirov, Sote M

    2013-05-01

    Series of twelve chalcone and propafenone derivatives has been synthesized and evaluated for anticancer activities against HeLa, Fem-X, PC-3, MCF-7, LS174 and K562 cell lines. The 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR studies were performed for all compounds with cytotoxic activities against each cancer cell line. Partial least squares (PLS) regression has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and QSAR models building. Predictive potentials of the created 2D-QSAR and 3D-QSAR models for each cell line were compared, by use of leave-one-out cross-validation and external validation, and optimal QSAR models for each cancer cell line were selected. The QSAR studies have selected the most significant molecular descriptors and pharmacophores of the chalcone and propafenone derivatives and proposed structures of novel chalcone and propafenone derivatives with enhanced anticancer activity on the HeLa, Fem-X, PC-3, MCF-7, LS174 and K562 cells. PMID:23501110

  18. Studying the effects of nucleating agents on texture modification of puffed corn-fish snack.

    PubMed

    Shahmohammadi, Hamid Reza; Bakar, Jamilah; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Adzhan, Noranizan Mohd

    2014-02-01

    To improve textural attributes of puffed corn-fish snack, the effects of 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of calcium carbonate, magnesium silicate (talc), sodium bicarbonate as well as 5% and 10% of wheat bran (as the nucleating materials) on textural attributes were studied. Sensory evaluation, bulk density, expansion ratio, maximum force, and count peaks were measured using the Kramer test. The results showed that all of the additives except bran significantly enhanced the texture. Among them, talc at 0.5% was the best to enhance the density and expansion ratio. Effects of using 0.5% talc on puffed corn-fish snack microstructure were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The average cell diameter of 109 ± 48 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 67.4 for talc-treated products were obtained, while for nontalc-treated extrudates, average cell diameter of 798 ± 361 μm and cell numbers per square centimeter of 13.9 were found. Incorporation of 0.5% w/w of magnesium silicate reduced (7-fold) the average cell diameter while increased (4-fold) the cell number. PMID:24410375

  19. Study of fluorescence characteristics of the charge-transfer reaction of quinolone agents with bromanil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wen-Ying; Chen, Xiao-Fang; Xuan, Chun-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method was discussed for the determination of three antibacterial quinolone derivatives, ofloxacin (OFL), norfloxacin (NOR) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) through charge-transfer complexation (CTC) with 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-1,4-benzoquinone (bromanil, TBBQ). The method was based on the reaction of these drugs as n-electron donors with the π-acceptor TBBQ. TBBQ was found to react with these drugs to produce a kind of yellow complexes and the fluorescence intensities of the complexes were enhanced by 29-36 times more than those of the corresponding monomers. UV-vis, 1H NMR and XPS techniques were used to study the complexes formed. The various experimental parameters affecting the fluorescence intensity were studied and optimized. Under optimal reaction conditions, the rectilinear calibration graphs were obtained in the concentration range of 0.021-2.42 μg mL -1, 0.017-2.63 μg mL -1 and 0.019-2.14 μg mL -1 for OFL, NOR and CIP, respectively. The methods developed were applied successfully to the determination of the subject drugs in their pharmaceutical dosage forms with good precision and accuracy compared to official and reported methods as revealed by t- and F-tests.

  20. Agent neutralization study. II: Detoxification of HD with aqueous bleach. Final report, May-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, J.B.; Beaudry, W.T.; Rohrbaugh, D.K.; Szafraniec, L.L.; Butrow, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    A series of neutralization studies was conducted by reacting varying amounts of HD with aqueous hydrochlorite (OCL-) solution to evaluate the use of bleach as an alternate means of destroying stockpiles of HD. A small vacuum jacketed glass reactor was used to react CASARM grade HD and one ton container HD sample. One mid-scale reaction with ton container HD was also conducted. Exotherms were observed in each reaction, and the heat of reaction was estimated. Analyses of selected products by NMR and GC/MS are reported. Sodium hydroxide as a stabilizer for the bleach was studied. Reaction products were titrated for active chlorine. Thiodiglycol was reacted with OCL- for comparison. The stability versus time for bleach solutions at 75 C is reported. A large variety of compounds are formed during the oxidation of HD, which proceeds by a complex and inexact stoichiometry. At least 5 moles of OCL- are required to destroy all of the HD, and significant heat is produced during the reaction. however, the reaction is more controlled and more efficient when caustic is used as a bleach stabilizer. Ton container HD required more OCL- due to the oxidation of the extra sulfides.

  1. Coumarins as Potential Antioxidant Agents Complemented with Suggested Mechanisms and Approved by Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Al-Majedy, Yasameen K; Al-Duhaidahawi, Dunya L; Al-Azawi, Khalida F; Al-Amiery, Ahmed A; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H; Mohamad, Abu Bakar

    2016-01-01

    Syntheses of coumarins, which are a structurally interesting antioxidant activity, was done in this article. The modification of 7-hydroxycoumarin by different reaction steps was done to yield target compounds. Molecular structures were characterized by different spectroscopical techniques (Fourier transformation infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance). Antioxidant activities were performed by using various in vitro spectrophometric assays against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). All compounds exhibited high efficiency as antioxidants compared to ascorbic acid. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 3 (91.0 ± 5.0), followed by compounds 2 and 4 (88.0 ± 2.00; and 87.0 ± 3.00). Ascorbic acid C was used as a standard drug with a percentage inhibition of 91.00 ± 1.5. The mechanism of the synthesized compounds as antioxidants was also studied. Hartree-Fock-based quantum chemical studies have been carried out with the basis set to 3-21G, in order to obtain information about the three-dimensional (3D) geometries, electronic structure, molecular modeling, and electronic levels, namely HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital), to understand the antioxidant activity for the synthesized compounds. PMID:26805811

  2. Chalcone based azacarboline analogues as novel antitubulin agents: design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular modelling studies.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sahil; Kaur, Charanjit; Budhiraja, Abhishek; Nepali, Kunal; Gupta, Manish K; Saxena, A K; Bedi, P M S

    2014-10-01

    The present study involves the design of a series of 3-aryl-9-acetyl-pyridazino[3,4-b]indoles as constrained chalcone analogues. A retrosynthetic route was proposed for the synthesis of target compounds. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for in-vitro cytotoxicity against THP-1, COLO-205, HCT-116 and A-549 human cancer cell lines. The results indicated that 2a, 3a, 5a and 6a possessed significant cytotoxic potential with an IC50 value ranging from 1.13 to 5.76 μM. Structure activity relationship revealed that the nature of both Ring A and Ring B influences the activity. Substitution of methoxy groups on the phenyl ring (Ring A) and unsubstituted phenyl ring (Ring B) were found to be the preferred structural features. The most potent compound 2a was further tested for tubulin inhibition. Compound 2a was found to significantly inhibit the tubulin polymerization (IC50 value - 2.41 μM against THP-1). Compound 2a also caused disruption of microtubule assembly as evidenced by Immunoflourescence technique. The significant cytotoxicity and tubulin inhibition by 2a was rationalized by molecular modelling studies. The most potent structure was docked at colchicine binding site (PDB ID-1SA0) and was found to be stabilized in the cavity via various hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions. PMID:25128667

  3. An Alternative Gelling Agent for Culture and Studies of Nematodes, Bacteria, Fungi, and Plant Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ko, M. P.; Van Gundy, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Pluronic F127 polyol, a block copolymer of propylene oxide and ethylene oxide, was studied as an alternative to agar in culture media for nematodes, bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and plant tissues or seedlings, At a polyol concentration of 20% w/v, the culture media, semi-solid at room temperature (22 C) but liquid at lower temperatures, had minimal effects on the test organisms. Most of the fungi and bacteria grew as well in 20% polyol as in 1.5% agar media; however, various species of nematodes and plant seedlings or tissues exhibited differential sensitivities to different concentrations of the polyol. In cases where the organisms were unaffected, the polyol media had certain advantages over agar, including greater transparency and less contamination under nonaseptic conditions. Polyol media have potentially greater ease for recovery of embedded organisms or tissues inside the media by merely shifting to lower temperatures. PMID:19290241

  4. A study on temperature dependent vestibular potential: effect of long lasting thermal stimulus and aminoglycoside agent.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Kadir, A; Takamoto, M; Hayashi, N; Harada, Y

    1997-03-01

    Effect of temperature changes on the vestibular receptor was studied using isolated posterior semicircular canals (PSC) of bull frogs. Cupula was removed from the crista. PSC was placed in the inner compartment of the double chamber. Warm or cool water was filled in the outer compartment to change the temperature of the inner compartment. Changes of the spontaneous discharge were recorded from the ampullary nerve. When cooled, the discharge temporarily increased, followed by a gradual decrease. When warmed, it temporarily decreased and then increased, forming response curves of a mirror image. After addition of streptomycin, the temperature dependent response disappeared. These results suggest that the semicircular canal receptor is activated by direct temperature effects. PMID:9105453

  5. 2-Aminothiazole derivatives as antimycobacterial agents: Synthesis, characterization, in vitro and in silico studies.

    PubMed

    Makam, Parameshwar; Kannan, Tharanikkarasu

    2014-11-24

    A series of 2-aminothiazole derivatives with a wide range of substitutions at 2-, 4- and 5-positions were designed and synthesized using Hantzsch thiazole synthesis. These compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), H37Rv. The compound, 7n showed high antimycobacterial activity with MIC value of 6.25 μM and the succeeding compounds, 7b, 7e and 7f also exhibited antimycobacterial activity with MIC value of 12.50 μM. Docking studies of these molecules with β-Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase (KasA) protein of Mtb have been carried out to understand the mechanism of antimycobacterial action. The compound, 7n showed good interaction with KasA protein with the Ki value of 0.44 μM. PMID:25305331

  6. Theoretical and experimental studies on the internal mobility of two sulfonylurea agents: glibenclamide and glimepiride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlodarczyk, P.; Paluch, M.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Hawelek, L.; Kaminski, K.; Pilch, J.

    2011-10-01

    Molecular dynamics of glibenclamide and glimepiride in their glassy state were studied by means of broadband dielectric spectroscopy. In both compounds we found a γ-relaxation process, with nearly the same value of activation energy. Further, we were able to identify the origin of γ relaxation by performing calculations within the framework of density functional theory. It was found that rotation of the chain end included cyclohexyl and neighboring carbonyl group is related to the observed mode in dielectric spectra. The calculated activation energy was only a few kJ per mole lower than the energies obtained from experiment. It is demonstrated that this fast γ process is insensitive to pressure. Finally, another secondary mode in glibenclamide, predicted by computations, was confirmed from dielectric measurements at elevated pressure. Our calculations indicate that this mode should be pressure-sensitive.

  7. A study of the effects of enhanced oil recovery agents on the quality of Strategic Petroleum Reserves crude oil. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The project was initiated on September 1, 1990. The objective of the project was to carry out a literature search to estimate the types and extents of long time interactions of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) agents, such as surfactants, caustics and polymers, with crude oil. This information is necessary to make recommendations about mixing EOR crude oil with crude oils from primary and secondary recovery processes in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Data were sought on both adverse and beneficial effects of EOR agents that would impact handling, transportation and refining of crude oil. An extensive literature search has been completed, and the following informations has been compiled: (1) a listing of existing EOR test and field projects; (2) a listing of currently used EOR agents; and (3) evidence of short and long term physical and chemical interactions of these EOR-agents with hydrocarbons, and their effects on the quality of crude oil at long times. This information is presented in this report. Finally some conclusions are derived and recommendations are made. Although the conclusions are based mostly on extrapolations because of lack of specific data, it is recommended that the enhancement of the rates of biodegradation of oil catalyzed by the EOR agents needs to be further studied. There is no evidence of substantial long term effects on crude oil because of other interactions. Some recommendations are also made regarding the types of studies that would be necessary to determine the effect of certain EOR agents on the rates of biodegradation of crude oil.

  8. Photochemical energy storage: studies of inorganic photoassistance agents. Progress report, December 17, 1979-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wrighton, M. S.

    1980-12-01

    Research progress has been made in the study of p-type semiconductor (photocathode) electrode materials. A number of small band gap (E/sub g/ approximately equal to 1.1 to 1.4 eV) p-type semiconductors have been demonstrated to have poor H/sub 2/ evolution kinetics despite the fact that a reasonable output photovoltage (E/sub V/) compared to E/sub g/ could be expected. Special emphasis has been on p-type Si (E/sub g/ = 1.1 eV) and p-type InP (E/sub g/ = 1.35 eV). Both of these materials give poor kinetics for H/sub 2/ evolution from H/sub 2/O, while the kinetics for N,N'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium, MV/sup 2 +/, reduction to MV/sup +/ are good at a pH where E/sup 0/(H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/) is the same as E/sup 0/(MV/sup 2+/+/). A surface derivatizing reagent from diquarternizing 4,4'-bipyridine with 1-bromo-3-trimethyloxysilylpropane can be used to functionalize p-type Si with polymeric quantities of redox reagent. The surface-confined bipyridinium reagent, (PQ/sup 2 +/)/sub surf./, can be photoreduced to (PQ/sup +/)/sub surf./ and this reduced species can be used to effect H/sub 2/ evolution if a Pt catalyst is incorporated into the polymer. Efficiency for conversion of monochromatic 632.8 nm light to H/sub 2/ exceeds 6%, compared to much less than 1% for the naked p-type Si without the surface catalyst system. Studies of n-type semiconductor (photoanode) electrode materials modified with biferrocene-based redox mediators for I/sup -/ ..-->.. I/sub 3//sup -/ oxidation have been undertaken for comparison to ferrocene-based reagents for the same reaction; a five- to ten-fold overall improvement in heterogeneous I/sup -/ ..-->.. I/sub 3//sup -/ rate can be achieved using the two-electron mediator compared to the one-electron transfer system.

  9. Studies of fundamental properties of rutherfordium (element 104) using organic complexing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical properties of rutherfordium (Rf) have been investigated with the organic ligands triisooctylamine (TIOA), tributylphosphate (TBP), and thenoyltrigluoroacetone (TTA). The TIOA studies showed that Rf behaves differently from Th and Eu and most similarly to Zr; only Zr and Rf extract from 12 M HCl. This result is further evidence that Rf is a Group 4 element. Studies with TBP showed that Rf chemical behavior differed from the other Group 4 elements. The extraction by TBP at different chloride concentrations showed that Rf at times behaves more like Pu[sup 4+] than Zr or Hf. At high chloride concentrations, Rf and Pu extraction decreased. Under the same conditions, Zr, Hf and Th extraction increased. In addition, Rf extraction by TBP was affected by hydrogen ion concentration, while Zr and Hf extraction was not. TTA extractions were used to determine the K[sub eq], K[sub hyd], and the ionic radius of Rf. The log K[sub eq] for Rf with TTA was calculated to be 3.18 [plus minus] 0.90. The first four log K[sub hyd]'s for Rf are calculated to be -2.6 [plus minus] 0.7, -5.9 [plus minus] 1.7, -10.2 [plus minus] 2.9, and -14.5 [plus minus] 4.1. These hydrolysis constants indicate that Rf will not hydrolyze at conditions under which Zr, Hf, and Pu will. Calculations of the ionic radius were made with the log K[sub eq] for Rf derived with TTA. The ionic radius of Rf was calculated to be 9.1 [plus minus] 0.4 nm for the 6-coordinate species and 10.2 [plus minus] 0.4 nm for the 8-coordinate species. A search for the isotope [sup 263]Rf was conducted using TTA chemistry. In 300 experiments, seven SF events and no alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. The observed SF events were attributed to [sup 263]Rf and had a half-life of 500 [plus minus][sup 300[sub 200

  10. Studies of fundamental properties of rutherfordium (Element 104) using organic complexing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, K.R.

    1992-04-01

    Chemical properties of rutherfordium (Rf) have been investigated with the organic ligands triisooctylamine (TIOA), tributylphosphate (TBP), and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). The TIOA studies showed that Rf behaves differently than Th and Eu and most similarly to Zr, only Zr and Rf extract from 12 M HCI. This result is further evidence that Rf is a Group 4 element. Studies with TBP showed that Rf chemical behavior differed from the other Group 4 elements. The extraction by TBP at different chloride concentrations showed that Rf at times behaves more like Pu{sup 4+} than Zr or Hf. At high chloride concentrations, Rf and Pu extraction decreased. Under the same conditions, Zr, Hf and Th extraction increased. In addition, Rf extraction by TBP was affected by hydrogen ion concentration, while Zr and Hf extraction was not. TTA extractions were used to determine the K{sub eq}, K{sub hyd}, and the ionic radius of Rf. The of K{sub eq} for Rf with TTA was calculated to be 3.18 {plus_minus} 0.90. The first four log K{sub hyd`s} for Rf are calculated to be {minus}2.6 {plus_minus} 0.7, {minus}5.9 {plus_minus} 1.7, {minus}10.2 {plus_minus} 2.9, and {minus}14.5 {plus_minus} 4.1. These hydrolysis constants indicate that Rf will not hydrolyze at conditions under which Zr, Hf, and Pu will. Calculations of the ionic radius were made with the log K{sub eq} for Rf derived with TTA. The ionic radius of Rf was calculated to be 91 {plus_minus} 4 pm for the 6-coordinate species and 102 {plus_minus} 4 pm for the 8-coordinate species. A search for the isotope {sup 263}Rf was conducted using TTA chemistry. In 300 experiments, seven SF events and no alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. The observed SF events attributed to {sup 263}Rf and had a half-life of 500 {plus_minus}{sub 200}{sup 300} seconds and a production cross section of 140 {plus_minus} 50 pb.

  11. Studies of fundamental properties of rutherfordium (Element 104) using organic complexing agents

    SciTech Connect

    Czerwinski, K.R.

    1992-04-01

    Chemical properties of rutherfordium (Rf) have been investigated with the organic ligands triisooctylamine (TIOA), tributylphosphate (TBP), and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA). The TIOA studies showed that Rf behaves differently than Th and Eu and most similarly to Zr, only Zr and Rf extract from 12 M HCI. This result is further evidence that Rf is a Group 4 element. Studies with TBP showed that Rf chemical behavior differed from the other Group 4 elements. The extraction by TBP at different chloride concentrations showed that Rf at times behaves more like Pu{sup 4+} than Zr or Hf. At high chloride concentrations, Rf and Pu extraction decreased. Under the same conditions, Zr, Hf and Th extraction increased. In addition, Rf extraction by TBP was affected by hydrogen ion concentration, while Zr and Hf extraction was not. TTA extractions were used to determine the K{sub eq}, K{sub hyd}, and the ionic radius of Rf. The of K{sub eq} for Rf with TTA was calculated to be 3.18 {plus minus} 0.90. The first four log K{sub hyd's} for Rf are calculated to be {minus}2.6 {plus minus} 0.7, {minus}5.9 {plus minus} 1.7, {minus}10.2 {plus minus} 2.9, and {minus}14.5 {plus minus} 4.1. These hydrolysis constants indicate that Rf will not hydrolyze at conditions under which Zr, Hf, and Pu will. Calculations of the ionic radius were made with the log K{sub eq} for Rf derived with TTA. The ionic radius of Rf was calculated to be 91 {plus minus} 4 pm for the 6-coordinate species and 102 {plus minus} 4 pm for the 8-coordinate species. A search for the isotope {sup 263}Rf was conducted using TTA chemistry. In 300 experiments, seven SF events and no alpha events were observed in the Rf chemical fraction. The observed SF events attributed to {sup 263}Rf and had a half-life of 500 {plus minus}{sub 200}{sup 300} seconds and a production cross section of 140 {plus minus} 50 pb.

  12. Honey – a potential agent against Porphyromonas gingivalis: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Honey has been discussed as a therapeutic option in wound healing since ancient time. It might be also an alternative to the commonly used antimicrobials in periodontitis treatment. The in-vitro study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial efficacy against Porphyromonas gingivalis as a major periodontopathogen. Methods One Manuka and one domestic beekeeper honey have been selected for the study. As a screening, MICs of the honeys against 20 P. gingivalis strains were determined. Contents of methylglyoxal and hydrogen peroxide as the potential antimicrobial compounds were determined. These components (up to 100 mg/l), propolis (up to 200 mg/l) as well as the two honeys (up to 10% w/v) were tested against four P. gingivalis strains in planktonic growth and in a single-species biofilm. Results 2% of Manuka honey inhibited the growth of 50% of the planktonic P. gingivalis, the respective MIC50 of the German beekeeper honey was 5%. Manuka honey contained 1.87 mg/kg hydrogen peroxide and the domestic honey 3.74 mg/kg. The amount of methylglyoxal was found to be 2 mg/kg in the domestic honey and 982 mg/kg in the Manuka honey. MICs for hydrogen peroxide were 10 mg/l - 100 mg/l, for methylglyoxal 5 – 20 mg/l, and for propolis 20 mg/l – 200 mg/l. 10% of both types of honey inhibited the formation of P. gingivalis biofilms and reduced the numbers of viable bacteria within 42 h-old biofilms. Neither a total prevention of biofilm formation nor a complete eradication of a 42 h-old biofilm by any of the tested compounds and the honeys were found. Conclusions Honey acts antibacterial against P. gingivalis. The observed pronounced effects of Manuka honey against planktonic bacteria but not within biofilm can be attributed to methylglyoxal as the characteristic antimicrobial component. PMID:24666777

  13. Designing an Agent-Based Learning Environment--A Preliminary Study on a Pre-Service Teacher Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Huay Lit; Wang, Qiyun

    2005-01-01

    Background: Many of the agent-based products available to education today have been largely confined to games and instructional media that are often produced commercially by non-instructional professionals. Most of them lack customizability and are difficult to integrate into individual subject curriculum. With more agent authoring tools available…

  14. Selection of fluxing agent for coal ash and investigation of fusion mechanism: a first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Li; Mei-Fang Du; Zhong-Xiao Zhang; Rong-Qing Guan; Yu-Shuang Chen; Ting-Yu Liu

    2009-01-15

    An approach based on the ab initio quantum chemical modeling (CASTEP, generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and density functional theory (DFT)) was first employed to guide the selection of the appropriate fluxing agent to reduce the coal ash melting temperature. Two kinds of typical Chinese coal ash A and B with a high-melting temperature were chosen as the investigated subjects. Result of the calculation shows that mullite mineral, which is the main component of coal ash, is easier to combine with an electron acceptor than with an electron donor. Because the cations of borax (Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}10H{sub 2}O) and limestone can act as electron acceptors, borax and limestone were selected as the fluxing agents in our experiment. Results of the experiment show that the melting temperatures of coal ash A and B are both decreased by borax and limestone, respectively. Moreover, borax has a better fluxing effect than limestone under the same conditions. The further numerical study on the coal ash fusing mechanism indicates that the Na{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} cations, as acceptors, can enter into the crystal lattice of mullite mainly through O(7) and O(8) and then cause the Al(6)-O(8) and Al(5)-O(7) bonds to rupture in the (AlO{sub 6})-octahedron. From this, mullite is forced to transform to feldspar and corundum minerals that have a low binding energy. Because of the phase change of minerals in the coal ash, the coal ash melting temperature is decreased by adding borax and limestone. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Indications and Types of Antibiotic Agents Used in 6 Acute Care Hospitals, 2009-2010: A Pragmatic Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kelesidis, Theodoros; Braykov, Nikolay; Uslan, Daniel Z; Morgan, Daniel J; Gandra, Sumanth; Johannsson, Birgir; Schweizer, Marin L; Weisenberg, Scott A; Young, Heather; Cantey, Joseph; Perencevich, Eli; Septimus, Edward; Srinivasan, Arjun; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND To design better antimicrobial stewardship programs, detailed data on the primary drivers and patterns of antibiotic use are needed. OBJECTIVE To characterize the indications for antibiotic therapy, agents used, duration, combinations, and microbiological justification in 6 acute-care US facilities with varied location, size, and type of antimicrobial stewardship programs. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING Retrospective medical chart review was performed on a random cross-sectional sample of 1,200 adult inpatients, hospitalized (>24 hrs) in 6 hospitals, and receiving at least 1 antibiotic dose on 4 index dates chosen at equal intervals through a 1-year study period (October 1, 2009-September 30, 2010). METHODS Infectious disease specialists recorded patient demographic characteristics, comorbidities, microbiological and radiological testing, and agents used, dose, duration, and indication for antibiotic prescriptions. RESULTS On the index dates 4,119 (60.5%) of 6,812 inpatients were receiving antibiotics. The random sample of 1,200 case patients was receiving 2,527 antibiotics (average: 2.1 per patient); 540 (21.4%) were prophylactic and 1,987 (78.6%) were therapeutic, of which 372 (18.7%) were pathogen-directed at start. Of the 1,615 empirical starts, 382 (23.7%) were subsequently pathogen-directed and 1,231 (76.2%) remained empirical. Use was primarily for respiratory (27.6% of prescriptions) followed by gastrointestinal (13.1%) infections. Fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and antipseudomonal penicillins together accounted for 47.1% of therapy-days. CONCLUSIONS Use of broad-spectrum empirical therapy was prevalent in 6 US acute care facilities and in most instances was not subsequently pathogen directed. Fluoroquinolones, vancomycin, and antipseudomonal penicillins were the most frequently used antibiotics, particularly for respiratory indications. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):70-79. PMID:26456803

  16. Caries-removal effectiveness of a papain-based chemo-mechanical agent: A quantitative micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Neves, Aline A; Lourenço, Roseane A; Alves, Haimon D; Lopes, Ricardo T; Primo, Laura G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to access the effectiveness and specificity of a papain-based chemo-mechanical caries-removal agent in providing minimum residual caries after cavity preparation. In order to do it, extracted carious molars were selected and scanned in a micro-CT before and after caries-removal procedures with the papain-based gel. Similar parameters for acquisition and reconstruction of the image stacks were used between the scans. After classification of the dentin substrate based on mineral density intervals and establishment of a carious tissue threshold, volumetric parameters related to effectiveness (mineral density of removed dentin volume and residual dentin tissue) and specificity (relation between carious dentin in removed volume and initial caries) of this caries-removal agent were obtained. In general, removed dentin volume was similar or higher than the initial carious volume, indicating that the method was able to effectively remove dentin tissue. Samples with an almost perfect accuracy in carious dentin removal also showed an increased removal of caries-affected tissue. On the contrary, less or no affected dentin was removed in samples where some carious tissue was left in residual dentin. Mineral density values in residual dentin were always higher or similar to the threshold for mineral density values in carious dentin. In conclusion, the papain-based gel was effective in removing carious dentin up to a conservative in vitro threshold. Lesion characteristics, such as activity and morphology of enamel lesion, may also influence caries-removal properties of the method. PMID:25809787

  17. The Basic Immune Simulator: An agent-based model to study the interactions between innate and adaptive immunity

    PubMed Central

    Folcik, Virginia A; An, Gary C; Orosz, Charles G

    2007-01-01

    Background We introduce the Basic Immune Simulator (BIS), an agent-based model created to study the interactions between the cells of the innate and adaptive immune system. Innate immunity, the initial host response to a pathogen, generally precedes adaptive immunity, which generates immune memory for an antigen. The BIS simulates basic cell types, mediators and antibodies, and consists of three virtual spaces representing parenchymal tissue, secondary lymphoid tissue and the lymphatic/humoral circulation. The BIS includes a Graphical User Interface (GUI) to facilitate its use as an educational and research tool. Results The BIS was used to qualitatively examine the innate and adaptive interactions of the immune response to a viral infection. Calibration was accomplished via a parameter sweep of initial agent population size, and comparison of simulation patterns to those reported in the basic science literature. The BIS demonstrated that the degree of the initial innate response was a crucial determinant for an appropriate adaptive response. Deficiency or excess in innate immunity resulted in excessive proliferation of adaptive immune cells. Deficiency in any of the immune system components increased the probability of failure to clear the simulated viral infection. Conclusion The behavior of the BIS matches both normal and pathological behavior patterns in a generic viral infection scenario. Thus, the BIS effectively translates mechanistic cellular and molecular knowledge regarding the innate and adaptive immune response and reproduces the immune system's complex behavioral patterns. The BIS can be used both as an educational tool to demonstrate the emergence of these patterns and as a research tool to systematically identify potential targets for more effective treatment strategies for diseases processes including hypersensitivity reactions (allergies, asthma), autoimmunity and cancer. We believe that the BIS can be a useful addition to the growing suite of in

  18. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S. Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    2008-11-15

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice, rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.

  19. Nanoemulsion formulations for anti-cancer agent piplartine--Characterization, toxicological, pharmacokinetics and efficacy studies.

    PubMed

    Fofaria, Neel M; Qhattal, Hussaini Syed Sha; Liu, Xinli; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2016-02-10

    Piplartine (PL) is an alkaloid found in black-pepper and known for its anticancer activity, however, due to poor solubility and lack of proper formulation, its use for oral administration is a challenge. The objective of this study was to formulate PL into nanoemulsion drug delivery system for oral delivery and thereafter evaluate toxicity, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy. Optimized nanoemulsions were formulated by self-emulsification as well as by homogenization-sonication method. Two nanoemulsions enhanced the solubility of PL with low polydispersity index and high stability. Both PL loaded nanoemulsions exhibited enhanced dissolution, cellular permeability and cytotoxic effects as compared to pure PL. Formulation of PL into nanoemulsions did not obstruct its cellular uptake in cancer cells. Blank or PL loaded nanoemulsions did not exhibited toxicity in mice upon daily oral administration for 60 days. Pharmacokinetics of PL followed a two-compartment model after intravenous administration. PL loaded nanoemulsions showed 1.5-fold increase in oral bioavailability as compared to free PL. Finally, PL loaded nanoemulsions showed marked anti-tumor activity at a dose of 10mg/kg in melanoma tumor bearing mice. In conclusion, for the first time we have developed a stable nanoemulsion delivery system for oral administration of PL, which enhanced its solubility, oral bioavailability and anti-tumor efficacy. PMID:26642946

  20. Synthesis, biological evaluation and modeling studies of terphenyl topoisomerase IIα inhibitors as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jin; Zhao, Baobing; Zhong, Wanxia; Shen, Yuemao; Lin, Houwen

    2015-04-13

    We report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel terphenyls. Compound 17 had the most potent anticancer activity, indicating that the phenolic hydroxyl was a key group. A DNA relaxation test showed that compound 17 had a strong inhibitory effect on TOP2α, but not on TOP1, which was consistent with the docking analysis results. We performed a 3D-QSAR study using CoMFA and CoMSIA to determine, for the first time, the chemical-biological relationship in the inhibition of TOP by terphenyls. The CoMFA and CoMSIA model had good modeling statistics: leave-one-out q(2) of 0.605 and 0.622, r(2) of 0.998 and 0.994, and r(2)pred (test set) of 0.742 and 0.660. These results suggest that the ortho-phenolic hydroxyl on ring A is important for producing terphenyls with more efficacious activity. PMID:25800514

  1. Azole-carbodithioate hybrids as vaginal anti-Candida contraceptive agents: design, synthesis and docking studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Lal, Nand; Kumar, Vikash; Sarswat, Amit; Jangir, Santosh; Bala, Veenu; Kumar, Lokesh; Kushwaha, Bhavana; Pandey, Atindra K; Siddiqi, Mohammad I; Shukla, Praveen K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Gupta, Gopal; Sharma, Vishnu L

    2013-01-01

    Azole and carbodithioate hybrids were synthesized as alkyl 1H-azole-1-carbodithioates (7-27) and evaluated for spermicidal/microbicidal activities against human sperm, Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida species. Seventeen compounds (7-14, 16-18 and 20-25) showed spermicidal activity at MEC 1.0% (w/v) and permanently immobilized 100% normal human spermatozoa within ∼30 s. Seventeen compounds (7-11, 13-18 and 20-25) exhibited anti-Candida activity (IC50 1.26-47.69 μg/mL). All compounds were devoid of bactericidal activity against four bacterial strains (50.00 μg/mL) and antiprotozoal activity against Trichomonas vaginalis (200.00 μg/mL). Four promising compounds (10, 17, 20 and 22) have better safety profile as compared to Nonoxynol-9 (N-9). Docking study was done to visualize the possible interaction of designed scaffold with prospective receptor (Cyp51) of Candida albicans. PMID:24140949

  2. Further absorption studies with the anti-diarrhoeal agent ethacridine lactate in the dog.

    PubMed

    Rising, T J; Fromson, J M; Johnson, P

    1978-01-01

    2-Ethoxy-6,9-diaminoacridine lactate (ethacridine lactate, Rivanol, Metifex) has been administered orally to the dog once daily for 14 days, tritium labelled matterial having been given on days 1 and 14. The extent and rates of urinary excretion of radioactivity and the peak plasma levels and total radioactivity half-lives following the radiolabelled doses on days 1 and 14 were essentially the same. There was no significant change following multiple dosing in the level of urinary acridine-like material as determined fluorimetrically, which compared to approximately 0.01% of the dose found in the 0--24 h urine. It was concluded that, following oral administration of 3H-ethacridine lactate (5 mg/kg), less than 0.1% of the dose is absorbed as acridine-like material. Multiple dosing for 14 days does not alter this very low degree of oral absorption. In a separate study tritiated ethacridine lactate (30 microgram/kg) was administered i.v. to the dog. Approximately 84% of the radioactivity was eliminated in the 0--72 h post dose period, the majority of it being excreted via the faeces. There was a rapid loss of radioactivity from the plasma, followed by a long terminal phase in which acridine-like material was estimated to have a half-life of about 15 h. PMID:581939

  3. Design, Synthesis, and Molecular Docking Studies of a Conjugated Thiadiazole-Thiourea Scaffold as Antituberculosis Agents.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Esra; Karakuş, Sevgi; Küçükgüzel, Şükriye Güniz; Öktem Okullu, Sinem; Ünübol, Nihan; Kocagöz, Tanıl; De Clercq, Erik; Andrei, Graciela; Snoeck, Robert; Pannecouque, Christophe; Kalaycı, Sadık; Şahin, Fikrettin; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Yogeeswari, Perumal; Küçükgüzel, İlkay

    2016-01-01

    In view of the emergence and frequency of multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis and consequences of acquired resistance to clinically used drugs, we undertook the design and synthesis of novel prototypes that possess the advantage of the two pharmacophores of thiourea and 1,3,4-thiadiazole in a single molecular backbone. Three compounds from our series were distinguished from the others by their promising activity profiles against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv. Compounds 11 and 19 were the most active representatives with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 10.96 and 11.48 µM, respectively. Compound 15 was shown to inhibit M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv with an MIC value of 17.81 µM. Cytotoxicity results in the Vero cell line showed that these three derivatives had selectivity indices between 1.8 and 8.7. In order to rationalize the biological results of our compounds, molecular docking studies with the enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase (InhA) of M. tuberculosis were performed and compounds 11, 15, and 19 were found to have good docking scores in the range of -7.12 to -7.83 kcal/mol. PMID:27040623

  4. A new chitosan biopolymer derivative as metal-complexing agent: synthesis, characterization, and metal(II) ion adsorption studies.

    PubMed

    Krishnapriya, K R; Kandaswamy, M

    2010-09-23

    In this study, a new chitosan biopolymer derivative (CTSL) has been synthesized by anchoring a new vanillin-based complexing agent or ligand, namely 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-[(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)methyl] benzaldehyde, (L) with chitosan (CTS) by means of condensation. The new material was characterized by elemental (CHN), spectral (FTIR and solid state (13)C NMR), thermal (TG-DTA and DSC), structural (powder XRD), and morphological (SEM) analyses. The CTSL was employed to study the equilibrium adsorption of various metal ions, namely, Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II), as functions of pH of the solutions. Its kinetics of adsorption was evaluated utilizing the pseudo first order and pseudo second order equation models and the equilibrium data were analyzed by Langmuir isotherm model. The CTSL shows good adsorption capacity for metal ions studied in the order Cu(II)>Ni(II)>Cd(II)> or =Co> or =Mn(II)>Fe(II)>Pb(II) in all studied pH ranges due to the presence of many coordinating moieties present in it. PMID:20708730

  5. Corrosion in Haas expanders with and without use of an antimicrobial agent: an in situ study

    PubMed Central

    BAGATIN, Cristhiane Ristum; ITO, Izabel Yoko; ANDRUCIOLI, Marcela Cristina Damião; NELSON-FILHO, Paulo; FERREIRA, José Tarcísio Lima

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate in situ the occurrence of corrosion in the soldering point areas between the wire, silver brazing and band in Haas expanders. Material and Methods Thirty-four 7-12-year-old patients who needed maxillary expansion with a Haas expander were randomly assigned to two groups of 17 individuals each, according to the oral hygiene protocol adopted during the orthodontic treatment: Group I (control), toothbrushing with a fluoride dentifrice and Group II (experimental), toothbrushing with the same dentifrice plus 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate (Periogard®) mouthrinses twice a week. The appliances were removed after approximately 4 months. Fragments of the appliances containing a metallic band with a soldered wire were sectioned at random for examination by stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Data were analyzed statistically by Fisher's test at 5% significance level. Results The analysis by optical microscopy revealed areas with color change suggestive of corrosion in the soldering point areas joining the band and the wire in all specimens of both groups, with no statistically significant difference between the groups (p=1). The peaks of chemical elements (Ni, Fe, Cr, O, C and P) revealed by EDS were also similar in both groups. Conclusion: Color changes and peaks of chemical elements suggestive of corrosion were observed in the soldering point areas between the wire, silver brazing and band in both control and experimental groups, which indicate that the 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinses did not influence the occurrence of corrosion in situ. PMID:22231004

  6. Randomized Phase II Study of Docetaxel plus Personalized Peptide Vaccination versus Docetaxel plus Placebo for Patients with Previously Treated Advanced Wild Type EGFR Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koichi; Sugawara, Shunichi; Saijo, Yasuo; Maemondo, Makoto; Sato, Atsushi; Takamori, Shinzo; Harada, Taishi; Sasada, Tetsuro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yamada, Akira; Noguchi, Masanori; Itoh, Kyogo; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of personalized peptide vaccination (PPV) combined with chemotherapy for patients with previously treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods. Previously treated PS0-1 patients with IIIB/IV EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) wild genotype NSCLC were randomly assigned to docetaxel (60 mg/m2 on Day 1) plus PPV based on preexisting host immunity or docetaxel plus placebo. Docetaxel administration was repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Personalized peptides or placebo was injected subcutaneously weekly in the first 8 weeks and biweekly in subsequent 16 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Results. PPV related toxicity was grade 2 or less skin reaction. The median PFS for placebo arm and PPV arm was 52 days and 59 days, respectively. There was no significant difference between two arms by log-rank test (p = 0.42). Interestingly, PFS and overall survival (OS) in humoral immunological responder were significantly longer than those in nonresponder. Conclusion. PPV did not improve the survival in combination with docetaxel for previously treated advanced NSCLC. However, PPV may be efficacious for the humoral immunological responders and a further clinical investigation is needed. PMID:27274999

  7. Single-agent erlotinib versus oral etoposide in patients with recurrent or refractory pediatric ependymoma: a randomized open-label study.

    PubMed

    Jakacki, Regina I; Foley, Margaret A; Horan, Julie; Wang, Jiuzhou; Kieran, Mark W; Bowers, Daniel C; Bouffet, Eric; Zacharoulis, Stergios; Gill, Stan C

    2016-08-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER/EGFR) is associated with various tumors, including ependymomas. To investigate whether EGFR inhibition was of benefit in pediatric patients with recurrent ependymoma, a multi-center, randomized, open-label, phase 2 study of oral erlotinib versus oral etoposide was undertaken. Twenty-five patients were randomized to receive erlotinib 85 mg/m(2) daily or etoposide 50 mg/m(2)/day for 21 consecutive days followed by a 7-day rest period. Courses were repeated every 28 days. In the erlotinib arm, no patient achieved a complete, partial, or minor response, and only 2 (15.4 %) patients showed stable disease as their best response. In the etoposide arm, 2 patients (16.7 %) demonstrated partial responses, 1 (8.3 %) patient demonstrated a minor response, and 2 (16.7 %) showed prolonged stable disease, for a prolonged disease control rate of 41.7 %. Three patients received at least nine cycles of etoposide (range 9-24 cycles) before discontinuing at the request of the physician and/or family. Four patients who failed etoposide in this study received erlotinib in a companion single arm study; none had a response. The futility criteria were met at the second interim analysis, and both studies were discontinued. Pharmacokinetics of erlotinib were similar to previous observations in pediatric patients. Overall, erlotinib was well tolerated and safety was consistent with its established profile in adults. The overall risk-benefit profile does not support the use of erlotinib in pediatric patients with recurrent ependymoma, whereas single-agent etoposide appears to have efficacy in a subset of patients. PMID:27287856

  8. A preliminary study of extraction solvents for CW-agents and their decomposition products [3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) vs. methylene chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Alcaraz, A.; Ward, R.L.; Hulsey, S.S.; Andresen, B.D.

    1994-09-15

    The major focus of this study was to explore the possibility of using different extraction solvents (or solvent combinations) to isolate CW agents and their degradation products from environmental and industrial samples. The general approach for extracting, e.g. water samples, required the use of a 3:1 (methylene chloride:isopropanol) extraction solvent. Although the 3:1 solvent extraction work-up methods provided excellent results in several Inter-laboratory Comparison Tests, the implementation of these methods for CW on-site analysis exercises was difficult (the methods require cumbersome equipment and are labor intensive). However, due to the time, power, and size restraints set forth by the Chemical Warfare Convention (CWC) for a CW on-site inspection, LLNL developed new sample work-up methods. The approach selected by LLNL incorporated solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques. It is evident from this preliminary study that new or previously used extraction solvents should be re-investigated. It was determined that care must be taken in handling the samples prior to NMR measurements. Also, it was determined that the four target compounds used in this study were extracted on average 18% higher with 3:1 (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}: IPA) vs. CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. However, additional target compounds need to be investigated using this extraction solvent to determine which classes of compounds are better extracted by the use of a 3:1 solvent system. This preliminary study clearly reveals that a mixed solvent system can yield better extraction efficiencies for mixture of compounds in aqueous samples.

  9. Back pain in a previously healthy teenager.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Felicity; Howard, Julia; Bailey, Fiona; Soleimanian, Sorrush

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 14-year-old previously healthy boy who presented to his general practitioner with back pain and fever after rugby training. He was initially treated for suspected discitis but during the course of his admission he rapidly deteriorated and developed severe necrotising pneumonia. He was intubated, ventilated and transferred to a paediatric intensive care unit. Panton-Valentine leukocidin Staphylococcus aureus was suspected and subsequently identified in blood cultures. PMID:23867883

  10. Fifty-two-week oral toxicity study of the new cognition-enhancing agent nefiracetam in rats.

    PubMed

    Hooks, W N; Colman, K A; Gopinath, C; Inage, F; Kato, M; Takayama, S

    1994-02-01

    A 52-week toxicity study by oral gavage administration was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with nefiracetam (N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384, CAS 77191-36-7), a new cognition-enhancing agent, as a part of a safety evaluation program. Dosages of 0 (control), 10, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/d were selected for this study. Treatment-related findings were confined to the 300 mg/kg/d level and, to a lesser extent, the 100 and 30 mg/kg/d levels, with the investigations indicating the kidney as the main target organ for toxicity. The microscopic pathology examination of this organ showed papillary epithelial hyperplasia and/or collecting duct epithelial hyperplasia, with cortical scarring and occasional mineralisation in the papilla. Histopathological changes in the liver, centrilobullar hepatocyte enlargement (accompanied by fine vacuolation) and foci/areas of eosinophilic hepatocytes were considered to reflect the induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in the liver. Other tissues showing treatment-related findings included the salivary glands, urinary bladder, spleen, pancreas and adrenals. Additionally, other notable findings included (in the high dosage males only) a decline in body weight (from week 34), lower erythrocytic characteristics and slightly higher plasma urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase values. The results in this study, therefore, indicated that the non-toxic effect level was 10 mg/kg/d of nefiracetam. PMID:8018094

  11. Absolute perfusion measurements and associated iodinated contrast agent time course in brain metastasis: a study for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Obeid, Layal; Deman, Pierre; Tessier, Alexandre; Balosso, Jacques; Estève, François; Adam, Jean- François

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced radiotherapy is an innovative treatment that combines the selective accumulation of heavy elements in tumors with stereotactic irradiations using medium energy X-rays. The radiation dose enhancement depends on the absolute amount of iodine reached in the tumor and its time course. Quantitative, postinfusion iodine biodistribution and associated brain perfusion parameters were studied in human brain metastasis as key parameters for treatment feasibility and quality. Twelve patients received an intravenous bolus of iodinated contrast agent (CA) (40 mL, 4 mL/s), followed by a steady-state infusion (160 mL, 0.5 mL/s) to ensure stable intratumoral amounts of iodine during the treatment. Absolute iodine concentrations and quantitative perfusion maps were derived from 40 multislice dynamic computed tomography (CT) images of the brain. The postinfusion mean intratumoral iodine concentration (over 30 minutes) reached 1.94±0.12 mg/mL. Reasonable correlations were obtained between these concentrations and the permeability surface area product and the cerebral blood volume. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative study of CA biodistribution versus time in brain metastasis. The study shows that suitable and stable amounts of iodine can be reached for contrast-enhanced radiotherapy. Moreover, the associated perfusion measurements provide useful information for the patient recruitment and management processes. PMID:24447951

  12. Evaluation of Shear Bond Strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM Ceramic with Dentin using 2 Bonding Agents and 2 Surface Treatments- An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Chidambaranathan, Ahila Singaravel; Srinivasan, Suganya

    2015-01-01

    Background All ceramics are the material of choice for aesthetic tooth replacements. The success of all ceramic restoration depends on the bond between the ceramic and the tooth surface hence this study was done to evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with <5% hydrofluoric acid and hydrofluoric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Aim To evaluate the shear bond strength of Feldspathic CAD/CAM ceramic with Dentin using bonding agents Prime & Bond NT, XenoIII and surface treatments <5% hydrofluric acid, hydrofluric acid combined with silane coupling agent. Materials and Methods Forty cylinders with 6mm diameter and 5mm height were milled from CEREC Blocs through CAD/CAM technology. Cerec blocks were bonded to etch freshly extracted tooth surface using a self etch and total etch bonding agent. The samples were divided into 4 groups. Group A1-Ceramic cylinders were treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Prime & Bond NT and Variolink II. Group A2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent and bonded same as group A1. Group B1- treated with < 5% HF and bonded using Xeno III and Variolink II. Group B2- treated with < 5% HF and silane coupling agent, and bonded same as Group A3. The shear bond strength was evaluated after 24 hours by Storing in distilled water in Instron 3385 universal testing machine with 10-KN force. Results Statistical analysis was done using student’s t-test and Lavene’s test. The p-value <0.05 shows significant difference in bond strength between A1 and A2 & B1and B2. Conclusion The application of a silane coupling agent to the ceramic surface after etching with hydrofluoric acid increased the adhesion strength with both bonding agents. Student’s t-test revealed a significant effect of silanization. PMID:26674522

  13. Phase I Study of CKD-516, a Novel Vascular Disrupting Agent, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Do-Youn; Kim, Tae-Min; Han, Sae-Won; Shin, Dong-Yeop; Lee, Yun Gyoo; Lee, Keun-Wook; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You; Jang, In-Jin; Lee, Jong-Seok; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CKD-516 is a newly developed vascular disrupting agent. This phase I dose-escalation study of CKD-516 was conducted to determine maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor efficacy in patients with advanced solid tumors. Materials and Methods Patients received CKD-516 intravenously on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks, in a standard 3+3 design. Safety was evaluated by National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events ver. 4.02 and response was assessed by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumor ver. 1.1. Results Twenty-three patients were treated with CKD-516 at seven dosing levels: 1 mg/m2/day (n=3), 2 mg/m2/day (n=3), 3.3 mg/m2/day (n=3), 5 mg/m2/day (n=3), 7 mg/m2/day (n=3), 9 mg/m2/day (n=6), and 12 mg/m2/day (n=2). Mean age was 54 and 56.5% of patients were male. Two dose-limiting toxicities, which were both grade 3 hypertension, were observed in two patients at 12 mg/m2/day. The MTD was determined as 12 mg/m2/day. Most common adverse events were gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea, 34.8% [30.4% grade 1/2, 13.0% grade 3]; nausea, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]; vomiting, 21.7% [all grade 1/2]), myalgia (17.4%, all grade 1/2), and abdominal pain (21.7% [21.7% grade 1/2, 4.3% grade 3]). The pharmacokinetic study showed the dose-linearity of all dosing levels. Among 23 patients, six patients (26.1%) showed stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 39 days (95% confidence interval, 37 to 41 days). Conclusion This study demonstrates feasibility of CKD-516, novel vascular disrupting agent, in patients with advanced solid tumor. MTD of CKD-516 was defined as 12 mg/m2/day on D1 and D8 every 3 weeks. PMID:25715767

  14. A polyphasic approach for studying the interaction between Ralstonia solanacearum and potential control agents in the tomato phytosphere.

    PubMed

    van Overbeek, Leo S; Cassidy, Mike; Kozdroj, Jacek; Trevors, Jack T; van Elsas, Jan D

    2002-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, has been responsible for large crop losses in Northwest Europe during the last decade. Knowledge on the ecological behaviour of R. solanacearum and its antagonists is required to develop sound procedures for its control and eradication in infested fields.A polyphasic approach was used to study the invasion of plants by a selected R. solanacearum biovar 2 strain, denoted 1609, either or not in combination with the antagonistic strains Pseudomonas corrugata IDV1 and P. fluorescens UA5-40. Thus, this study combined plating (spread and drop plate methods), reporter gene technology (gfp mutants) and serological (imunofluorescence colony staining [IFC]) and molecular techniques (fluorescent in situ hybridization [FISH], PCR with R. solanacearum specific primers and PCR-DGGE on plant DNA extracts). The behaviour of R. solanacearum 1609 and the two control strains was studied in bulk and (tomato) rhizosphere soil and the rhizoplane and stems of tomato plants. The results showed that an interaction between the pathogen and the control strains at the root surface was likely. In particular, R. solanacearum 1609 CFU numbers were significantly reduced on tomato roots treated with P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1) cells as compared to those on untreated roots. Concomitant with the presence of P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1), plant invasion by the pathogen was hampered, but not abolished.PCR-DGGE analyses of the tomato rhizoplane supported the evidence for antagonistic activity against the pathogen; as only weak R. solanacearum 1609 specific bands were detected in profiles derived from mixed systems versus strong bands in profiles from systems containing only the pathogen. Using FISH, a difference in root colonization was demonstrated between the pathogen and one of the two antagonists, i.e. P. corrugata IDV1(chr:gfp1); R. solanacearum strain 1609 was clearly detected in the vascular cylinder of tomato plants

  15. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  16. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  17. 5-N-Substituted-2-(substituted benzenesulphonyl) glutamines as antitumor agents. Part II: synthesis, biological activity and QSAR study.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Soma; Srikanth, K; Banerjee, Suchandra; Debnath, Bikash; Gayen, Shovanlal; Jha, Tarun

    2004-03-15

    Cancer is a major killer disease throughout human history. Thus, cancer becomes a major point of interest in life science. It was proved that cancer is a nitrogen trap and tumor cells are avid glutamine consumers. The non-essential amino acid glutamine, which is a glutamic acid derivative, supplies its amide nitrogen to tumor cells in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids as well as takes part in protein synthesis. Based on these and in continuation of our composite programme of development of new potential anticancer agents through rational drug design, 17 new 5-N-Substituted-2-(substituted benzenesulphonyl) glutamines were selected for synthesis. These compounds as well as 36 earlier synthesized glutamine analogues were screened for antitumor activity using percentage inhibition of tumor cell count as the activity parameter. QSAR study was performed with 53 compounds in order to design leads with increased effectiveness for antitumor activity using both physicochemical and topological parameters. QSAR study showed that steric effect on the aromatic ring is conducive to the activity. n-butyl substitution on aliphatic side chain and atom no 12 is important for antitumor activity of glutamine analogues. PMID:15018914

  18. Shear bond strength of seventh generation bonding agents on dentin of primary teeth--an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Geoffrey; Rich, Alfred P; Finkelman, Matthew D; Defuria, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This controlled, randomized, in vitro study evaluated the shear bond strength of several seventh generation bonding agents on the dentin of primary teeth. Six different adhesives were used: Xeno IV, Clearfil S3 Bond, Adper Prompt-L-Pop, AdheSE One, Bond Force, and Optibond (control). Ninety primary teeth were prepared by wet grinding with a 320-grit silicon carbide paper on a polishing wheel running at 110 RPM. After 24 hours of storage in water, shear bond strengths of each group were determined. The mean shear bond strength of the tested adhesive systems to primary dentin was 12.27 MPa. One-way ANOVA testing showed a statistically significant difference between adhesive products (P < 0.001). Tukey HSD post hoc tests were used to assess which means were significantly different from one another. There was no statistically significant difference between the fifth generation adhesive system (Optibond) and the two seventh generation systems (Xeno IV and Bond Force), with Optibond exhibiting a lower mean shear bond strength compared to Bond Force. Within the limitations of this study, there is a significant difference between seventh generation bonding materials. Bond Force and Optibond appear to exhibit higher shear bond strengths than the other products. PMID:22313979

  19. Amifostine, a radioprotectant agent, protects rat brain tissue lipids against ionizing radiation induced damage: An FTIR microspectroscopic imaging study

    SciTech Connect

    Cakmak G.; Miller L.; Zorlu, F.; Severcan, F.

    2012-03-03

    Amifostine is the only approved radioprotective agent by FDA for reducing the damaging effects of radiation on healthy tissues. In this study, the protective effect of amifostine against the damaging effects of ionizing radiation on the white matter (WM) and grey matter (GM) regions of the rat brain were investigated at molecular level. Sprague-Dawley rats, which were administered amifostine or not, were whole-body irradiated at a single dose of 800 cGy, decapitated after 24 h and the brain tissues of these rats were analyzed using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM). The results revealed that the total lipid content and CH{sub 2} groups of lipids decreased significantly and the carbonyl esters, olefinic=CH and CH{sub 3} groups of lipids increased significantly in the WM and GM after exposure to ionizing radiation, which could be interpreted as a result of lipid peroxidation. These changes were more prominent in the WM of the brain. The administration of amifostine before ionizing radiation inhibited the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in the brain. In addition, this study indicated that FTIRM provides a novel approach for monitoring ionizing radiation induced-lipid peroxidation and obtaining different molecular ratio images can be used as biomarkers to detect lipid peroxidation in biological systems.

  20. An accurate homogenized tissue phantom for broad spectrum autofluorescence studies: a tool for optimizing quantum dot-based contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Mathieu; Wilson, Brian C.

    2008-02-01

    We are investigating the use of ZnS-capped CdSe quantum dot (QD) bioconjugates combined with fluorescence endoscopy for improved early cancer detection in the esophagus, colon and lung. A major challenge in using fluorescent contrast agents in vivo is to extract the relevant signal from the tissue autofluorescence (AF). The present studies are aimed at maximizing the QD signal to AF background ratio (SBR) to facilitate detection. These contrast optimization studies require optical phantoms that simulate tissue autofluorescence, absorption and scattering over the entire visible spectrum, while allowing us to control the optical thickness. We present an optical phantom made of fresh homogenized tissue diluted in water. The homogenized tissue is poured into a clear polymer tank designed to hold a QD-loaded silica capillary in its center. Because of the non-linear effects of absorption and scattering on measured autofluorescence, direct comparison between results obtained using tissue phantoms of different concentration is not possible. We introduce mathematical models that make it possible to perform measurements on diluted tissue homogenates and subsequently extrapolate the results to intact (non-diluted) tissue. Finally, we present preliminary QD contrast data showing that the 380-420 nm spectral window is optimal for surface QD imaging.

  1. The effect of different chemical agents on human enamel: an atomic force and scanning electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominu, Roxana O.; Rominu, Mihai; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Sinescu, Cosmin; Pop, Daniela; Petrescu, Emanuela

    2010-12-01

    PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to investigate the changes in enamel surface roughess induced by the application of different chemical substances by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. METHOD: Five sound human first upper premolar teeth were chosen for the study. The buccal surface of each tooth was treated with a different chemical agent as follows: Sample 1 - 38% phosphoric acid etching (30s) , sample 2 - no surface treatment (control sample), 3 - bleaching with 37.5 % hydrogen peroxide (according to the manufacturer's instructions), 4 - conditioning with a self-etching primer (15 s), 5 - 9.6 % hydrofluoric acid etching (30s). All samples were investigated by atomic force microscopy in a non-contact mode and by scanning electron microscopy. Several images were obtained for each sample, showing evident differences regarding enamel surface morphology. The mean surface roughness and the mean square roughness were calculated and compared. RESULTS: All chemical substances led to an increased surface roughness. Phosphoric acid led to the highest roughness while the control sample showed the lowest. Hydrofluoric acid also led to an increase in surface roughness but its effects have yet to be investigated due to its potential toxicity. CONCLUSIONS: By treating the human enamel with the above mentioned chemical compounds a negative microretentive surface is obtained, with a morphology depending on the applied substance.

  2. Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular docking studies of novel benzofuran-pyrazole derivatives as anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Karim, Somaia S; Anwar, Manal M; Mohamed, Neama A; Nasr, Tamer; Elseginy, Samia A

    2015-12-01

    This study deals with design and synthesis of novel benzofuran-pyrazole hybrids as anticancer agents. Eight compounds were chosen by National Cancer Institute (NCI), USA to evaluate their in vitro antiproliferative activity at 10(-5)M in full NCI 60 cell panel. The preliminary screening of the tested compounds showed promising broad-spectrum anticancer activity. Compound 4c was further assayed for five dose molar ranges in full NCI 60 cell panel and exhibited remarkable growth inhibitory activity pattern against Leukemia CCRF-CEM, MOLT-4, Lung Cancer HOP-92, Colon Cancer HCC-2998, CNS Cancer SNB-75, Melanoma SK-MEL-2, Ovarian Cancer IGROV1, Renal Cancer 786-0, RXF 393, Breast Cancer HS 578T and T-47D (GI50: 1.00-2.71μM). Moreover, enzyme assays were carried out to investigate the possible antiproliferative mechanism of action of compound 4c. The results revealed that compound 4c has good c-Src inhibitory activity at 10μM. In addition, molecular docking studies showed that 4c could bind to the ATP Src pocket sites. Fulfilling the Lipinskiís rule of five in addition to its ADME profile and the biological results, all strongly suggest that 4c is a promising Src kinase inhibitor. PMID:26368040

  3. Previous Open Rotor Research in the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Previous Open Rotor noise experience in the United States, current Open Rotor noise research in the United States and current NASA prediction methods activities were presented at a European Union (EU) X-Noise seminar. The invited attendees from EU industries, research establishments and universities discussed prospects for reducing Open Rotor noise and reviewed all technology programs, past and present, dedicated to Open Rotor engine concepts. This workshop was particularly timely because the Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP) plans to involve Independent Experts in late 2011 in assessing the noise of future low-carbon technologies including the open rotor.

  4. Feasibility Study of Using Short Wave Infrared Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy (SWIR-CRDS) for Biological Agent Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Aker, Pam M.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Richard M.; Valentine, Nancy B.

    2007-10-01

    This project focused on determining the feasibility of using short wave infrared (SWIR) cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) as a means for real-time detection of biological aerosols. The first part of the project involved identifying biological agent signatures that could be detected with SWIR CRDS. After an exhaustive search of the open literature it was determined that whole biological spores and/or cells would not be good candidates for direct SWIR CRDS probing because they have no unique SWIR signatures. It was postulated that while whole cells or spores are not good candidates for SWIR CRDS detection, their pyrolysis break-down products might be. A literature search was then conducted to find biological pyrolysis products with low molecular weights and high symmetry since these species most likely would have overtone and combination vibrational bands that can be detected in the SWIR. It was determined that pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide were good candidates for evaluation. These molecules are formed when proteins and porphyrins, proteins and dipicolinic acid, and dipicolinic acid are pyrolyzed, respectively. The second part of the project involved measuring quantitative SWIR spectra of pyrrole, pyridine and picolinamide in PNNL’s FTIR Spectroscopy Laboratory. Spectral information about these molecules, in the vapor phase is sparse – there were only a few prior studies that measured line positions and no information on absorption cross sections. Absorption cross sections are needed in order to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity, and line position determines what type of laser will be needed for the sensor. The results of the spectroscopy studies allowed us to estimate the SWIR CRDS detection sensitivity for pyrrole to be 3 x 1012 molec cm-3 or 0.1 ppmv, and for pyridine it was 1.5 x 1015 molec cm-3 or 0.6 ppmv. These detection sensitivity limits are close what we have measured for ammonia. Given these detection limits we then estimated the

  5. An energy budget agent-based model of earthworm populations and its application to study the effects of pesticides

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, A.S.A.; Hodson, M.E.; Thorbek, P.; Alvarez, T.; Sibly, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important organisms in soil communities and so are used as model organisms in environmental risk assessments of chemicals. However current risk assessments of soil invertebrates are based on short-term laboratory studies, of limited ecological relevance, supplemented if necessary by site-specific field trials, which sometimes are challenging to apply across the whole agricultural landscape. Here, we investigate whether population responses to environmental stressors and pesticide exposure can be accurately predicted by combining energy budget and agent-based models (ABMs), based on knowledge of how individuals respond to their local circumstances. A simple energy budget model was implemented within each earthworm Eisenia fetida in the ABM, based on a priori parameter estimates. From broadly accepted physiological principles, simple algorithms specify how energy acquisition and expenditure drive life cycle processes. Each individual allocates energy between maintenance, growth and/or reproduction under varying conditions of food density, soil temperature and soil moisture. When simulating published experiments, good model fits were obtained to experimental data on individual growth, reproduction and starvation. Using the energy budget model as a platform we developed methods to identify which of the physiological parameters in the energy budget model (rates of ingestion, maintenance, growth or reproduction) are primarily affected by pesticide applications, producing four hypotheses about how toxicity acts. We tested these hypotheses by comparing model outputs with published toxicity data on the effects of copper oxychloride and chlorpyrifos on E. fetida. Both growth and reproduction were directly affected in experiments in which sufficient food was provided, whilst maintenance was targeted under food limitation. Although we only incorporate toxic effects at the individual level we show how ABMs can readily extrapolate to larger scales by providing

  6. Genetic toxicology and preliminary in vivo studies of nitric oxide donor tocopherol analogs as potential new class of antiatherogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Mauricio; López, Gloria V; Gómez, Luis E; Breijo, Martín; Pintos, Cristina; Botti, Horacio; Raymondo, Stella; Vettorazzi, Ariane; Ceráin, Adela López de; Monge, Antonio; Rubbo, Homero; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2011-07-01

    Nitric oxide donor tocopherol analogs were found to be incorporated in low-density lipoprotein to release nitric oxide into the hydrophobic core of the lipoprotein, thus inhibiting lipid oxidation processes associated with atheroma plaque formation. Previously, we studied their cytotoxicity against human and murine macrophages as first selection for in vivo studies. Herein, we examined both the in vitro mutagenic and DNA-damage effects of selected compounds to further evaluate drug potential. While the compounds of interest were nongenotoxics in both experimental tests (Ames and alkaline comet), one of the potential blood metabolites exhibited genotoxicity (alkaline comet test), and the furazan derivative was mutagenic (Ames test). Two selected (nitrooxy and furoxan) compounds were studied in long- and short-term in vivo treatment, and in these conditions, animal toxicity was not evidenced, suggesting the possibility of these compounds as potential antiatherogenic drugs. PMID:21649483

  7. Emulating a System Dynamics Model with Agent-Based Models: A Methodological Case Study in Simulation of Diabetes Progression

    SciTech Connect

    Schryver, Jack; Nutaro, James; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-10-30

    An agent-based simulation model hierarchy emulating disease states and behaviors critical to progression of diabetes type 2 was designed and implemented in the DEVS framework. The models are translations of basic elements of an established system dynamics model of diabetes. In this model hierarchy, which mimics diabetes progression over an aggregated U.S. population, was dis-aggregated and reconstructed bottom-up at the individual (agent) level. Four levels of model complexity were defined in order to systematically evaluate which parameters are needed to mimic outputs of the system dynamics model. Moreover, the four estimated models attempted to replicate stock counts representing disease states in the system dynamics model, while estimating impacts of an elderliness factor, obesity factor and health-related behavioral parameters. Health-related behavior was modeled as a simple realization of the Theory of Planned Behavior, a joint function of individual attitude and diffusion of social norms that spread over each agent s social network. Although the most complex agent-based simulation model contained 31 adjustable parameters, all models were considerably less complex than the system dynamics model which required numerous time series inputs to make its predictions. In all three elaborations of the baseline model provided significantly improved fits to the output of the system dynamics model. The performances of the baseline agent-based model and its extensions illustrate a promising approach to translate complex system dynamics models into agent-based model alternatives that are both conceptually simpler and capable of capturing main effects of complex local agent-agent interactions.

  8. Emulating a System Dynamics Model with Agent-Based Models: A Methodological Case Study in Simulation of Diabetes Progression

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schryver, Jack; Nutaro, James; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2015-10-30

    An agent-based simulation model hierarchy emulating disease states and behaviors critical to progression of diabetes type 2 was designed and implemented in the DEVS framework. The models are translations of basic elements of an established system dynamics model of diabetes. In this model hierarchy, which mimics diabetes progression over an aggregated U.S. population, was dis-aggregated and reconstructed bottom-up at the individual (agent) level. Four levels of model complexity were defined in order to systematically evaluate which parameters are needed to mimic outputs of the system dynamics model. Moreover, the four estimated models attempted to replicate stock counts representing disease statesmore » in the system dynamics model, while estimating impacts of an elderliness factor, obesity factor and health-related behavioral parameters. Health-related behavior was modeled as a simple realization of the Theory of Planned Behavior, a joint function of individual attitude and diffusion of social norms that spread over each agent s social network. Although the most complex agent-based simulation model contained 31 adjustable parameters, all models were considerably less complex than the system dynamics model which required numerous time series inputs to make its predictions. In all three elaborations of the baseline model provided significantly improved fits to the output of the system dynamics model. The performances of the baseline agent-based model and its extensions illustrate a promising approach to translate complex system dynamics models into agent-based model alternatives that are both conceptually simpler and capable of capturing main effects of complex local agent-agent interactions.« less

  9. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis study of the TiH{sub 2} foaming agent

    SciTech Connect

    Mandrino, Djordje; Paulin, Irena; Skapin, Sreco D.

    2012-10-15

    The decomposition of commercially available TiH{sub 2} was investigated while performing different thermal treatments. TiH{sub 2} powder, which is widely used as a foaming agent, was heat treated at 450 Degree-Sign C for various times, from 15 min to 120 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the surfaces at different magnifications were obtained and interpreted. A Bragg-Brentano X-ray diffractometer was used to measure the X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra on all five samples. A close examination of the diffraction spectra showed that for an as-received sample and samples undergoing the longest thermal treatment (1 and 2 h) these spectra can be explained as deriving from cubic TiH{sub 1.924}, while for the other two samples they can be explained as deriving from tetragonal TiH{sub 1.924}. A constant-unit-cell-volume phase transition between the cubic and tetragonal phases in TiH{sub 2-y}-type compounds had been described in the literature. The unit-cell parameters obtained from measured spectra confirm that within the measurement uncertainty the unit-cell volume is indeed constant in all five samples. Thermo-gravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) measurements were performed on all the samples, showing that the intensity of the dehydrogenation depends on the previous treatment of the TiH{sub 2}. After the thermal analysis XRD of the samples was performed again and the material was found to exhibit a Ti-like unit cell, but slightly enlarged due to the unreleased hydrogen. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiH{sub 2} samples were cubic or tetragonal TiH{sub 1.924} Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Onset of the hydrogen release temperature increases with the pre-treatment time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal dehydrogenation for the as-prepared TiH{sub 2} is a three-step process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer After thermal analysis 2 residual hydrogen TiH{sub x} phases, close to {alpha}Ti, appeared.

  10. Combined use of two biocontrol agents with different biocontrol mechanisms most likely results in less than expected efficacy in controlling foliar pathogens under fluctuating conditions: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X-M; Jeger, M J

    2013-02-01

    Effective use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) is a potentially important component of sustainable agriculture; recently, there has been a trend for combined use of several BCAs, with an expectation of synergistic interactions among them. A previous numerical study suggested that, under homogenous conditions in which two BCAs occupied the same host tissue as the pathogen, combined use of two BCAs with different biocontrol mechanisms resulted, in most cases, in efficacies similar to using the more efficacious one alone; this result is consistent with published experimental results. The present study investigates whether combined use of a mycoparasitic and a competitive BCA leads to greater efficacy than that expected when the model is modified to allow for fluctuating temperature regimes and the effects of temperature on the pathogen and BCAs. Within the range of parameter values considered, combined use of two BCAs is shown to be less effective than that expected under the assumption of Bliss independence, and to result in a level of efficacy similar to that achieved by the more efficacious component used alone, indicating antagonistic interactions between the two BCAs. Nevertheless, combined use of two BCAs resulted in a slightly longer delay in epidemic development than did individual use of BCAs. Stochastic variability in simulated hourly temperatures did not result in a high level of variability in efficacy among replicates; nevertheless, the among-replicate variability appeared to be greater for the combined use of BCAs than for individual BCAs used alone. In contrast, there were greater effects of varying BCA-temperature relationships and application time (reflected in the temperature profile) on efficacy, suggesting the importance of characterizing the relationship between BCA activity and environmental conditions in future research. PMID:23095466

  11. A new ex vivo method to evaluate the performance of candidate MRI contrast agents: a proof-of-concept study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in tumor detection/diagnosis. The use of exogenous contrast agents (CAs) helps to improve the discrimination between lesion and neighbouring tissue, but most of the currently available CAs are non-specific. Assessing the performance of new, selective CAs requires exhaustive assays and large amounts of material. Accordingly, in a preliminary screening of new CAs, it is important to choose candidate compounds with good potential for in vivo efficiency. This screening method should reproduce as close as possible the in vivo environment. In this sense, a fast and reliable method to select the best candidate CAs for in vivo studies would minimize time and investment cost, and would benefit the development of better CAs. Results The post-mortem ex vivo relative contrast enhancement (RCE) was evaluated as a method to screen different types of CAs, including paramagnetic and superparamagnetic agents. In detail, sugar/gadolinium-loaded gold nanoparticles (Gd-GNPs) and iron nanoparticles (SPIONs) were tested. Our results indicate that the post-mortem ex vivo RCE of evaluated CAs, did not correlate well with their respective in vitro relaxivities. The results obtained with different Gd-GNPs suggest that the linker length of the sugar conjugate could modulate the interactions with cellular receptors and therefore the relaxivity value. A paramagnetic CA (GNP (E_2)), which performed best among a series of Gd-GNPs, was evaluated both ex vivo and in vivo. The ex vivo RCE was slightly worst than gadoterate meglumine (201.9 ± 9.3% versus 237 ± 14%, respectively), while the in vivo RCE, measured at the time-to-maximum enhancement for both compounds, pointed to GNP E_2 being a better CA in vivo than gadoterate meglumine. This is suggested to be related to the nanoparticule characteristics of the evaluated GNP. Conclusion We have developed a simple, cost-effective relatively high-throughput method for

  12. Curcumin-I Knoevenagel's condensates and their Schiff's bases as anticancer agents: synthesis, pharmacological and simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Haque, Ashanul; Saleem, Kishwar; Hsieh, Ming Fa

    2013-07-01

    Pyrazolealdehydes (4a-d), Knoevenagel's condensates (5a-d) and Schiff's bases (6a-d) of curcumin-I were synthesized, purified and characterized. Hemolysis assays, cell line activities, DNA bindings and docking studies were carried out. These compounds were lesser hemolytic than standard drug doxorubicin. Minimum cell viability (MCF-7; wild) observed was 59% (1.0 μg/mL) whereas the DNA binding constants ranged from 1.4×10(3) to 8.1×10(5) M(-1). The docking energies varied from -7.30 to -13.4 kcal/mol. It has been observed that DNA-compound adducts were stabilized by three governing forces (Van der Wall's, H-bonding and electrostatic attractions). It has also been observed that compounds 4a-d preferred to enter minor groove while 5a-d and 6a-d interacted with major grooves of DNA. The anticancer activities of the reported compounds might be due to their interactions with DNA. These results indicated the bright future of the reported compounds as anticancer agents. PMID:23643901

  13. Arylhydrazone derivatives of naproxen as new analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents: Design, synthesis and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Homa; Mousavi, Zahra; Faraji, Hamidreza; Tajik, Mohammad; Bagherzadeh, Kowsar; Bayat, Peyman; Shafiee, Abbas; Almasirad, Ali

    2016-06-01

    A series of new arylidenehydrazone derivatives of naproxen were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Some of the synthesized analogues showed comparable activities when compared against naproxen for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. 2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-N'-[(pyridine-4-yl)methylene]propanoic acid hydrazide 4j was found to be the most active analgesic agent. 2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-N'-[4-nitrobenzylidene]propanoic acid hydrazide 4g showed highest anti-inflammatory activity in comparison to the naproxen. Molecular modeling study of the synthesized compounds suggested that the designed molecules were well located and bound to the COX-1 and COX-2 active sites. Compound 4g showed the highest selectivity for COX-2 (RCOX-2/COX-1=1.94) and higher affinity rather than naproxen in COX-2 active site (RCOX-2/naproxen=1.28). Moreover, the structural analyses confirmed that the E-ap rotamer is the preferred structure for the arylidenehydrazone derivatives. PMID:27311100

  14. FOST 2 Upgrade with Hollow-Fiber CTA FO Module and Generation of Osmotic Agent for Microorganism Growth Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parodi, Jurek; Mangado, Jaione Romero; Stefanson, Ofir; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Beeler, David

    2016-01-01

    FOST 2 is an integrated membrane system that incorporates a forward osmosis subsystem and a reverse osmosis subsystem working in series. It has been designed as a post treatment system to process the effluent from the Membrane Aerated Biological Reactor developed at NASA Johnson Space Center and Texas Tech University. Its function is to remove dissolved solids residual such as ammonia and suspended solids, as well as to provide a physical barrier to microbial and viral contamination. A tubular CTA membrane module from HTI and a flat-sheet lipid-base membrane module from Porifera were integrated and tested on FOST 2 in the past, using both a bioreactor's effluent and greywater as the feed solution. This paper documents the performance of FOST 2 after its upgrade with a hollow-fiber CTA membrane module from Toyobo, treating real black-water to generate the osmotic agent solution necessary to conduct growth studies of genetically engineered microorganism for the Synthetic Biological Membrane project.

  15. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Chandra, Jagadish

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: To analyze the efficacy of three different concentrations of Ocimum sanctum extract against various microorganisms, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and methods: Ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum was prepared by the hot extraction method. The extract was diluted with an inert solvent, dimethyl sulfoxide to obtain 3 different concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10%) of the extract. 0.2% chlorhexidine was used as a positive control and dimethyl sul-foxide was used as a negative control. The extract, along with the controls, was then subjected to microbiological investigation to determine which concentration among the 3 different concentrations of extract gave a wider inhibition zone against S. mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguis, L. acidophilus. The zones of inhibition were measured in millimeters. Results: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract demonstrated maximum antimicrobial activity against microorganisms responsible for dental caries at the 10% concentration level although 5 and 2.5% were also effective. Maximum activity was seen against S. mutans and S. sanguis with 10% extract. Conclusion: Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was effective against all the microorganisms. How to cite this article: Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Chandra J. Use of an Extract of Indian Sacred Plant Ocimum Sanctum as an Anticariogenic Agent: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(2):99-101. PMID:26379375

  16. Model Systems of Motor Neuron Diseases As a Platform for Studying Pathogenic Mechanisms and Searching for Therapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Valetdinova, K. R.; Medvedev, S. P.; Zakian, S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, many molecular genetic mechanisms underlying motor neuron diseases (MNDs) have been discovered and studied. Among these diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which causes the progressive degeneration and death of central and peripheral motor neurons, and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), which is one of the inherited diseases that prevail among hereditary diseases in the pattern of child mortality, hold a special place. These diseases, like most nerve, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric diseases, cannot be treated appropriately at present. Artificial model systems, especially those that are based on the use of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), are of paramount importance in searching for adequate therapeutic agents, as well as for a deep understanding of the MND pathogenesis. This review is mainly focused on the recent advance in the development of and research into cell and animal models of ALS and SMA. The main issues concerning the use of cellular technologies in biomedical applications are also described. PMID:25926999

  17. Subchronic exposure to low-doses of the nerve agent VX: physiological, behavioral, histopathological and neurochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Raveh, Lily; Allon, Nahum; Grauer, Ettie; Gilat, Eran; Weissman, Ben Avi

    2008-08-15

    The highly toxic organophosphorous compound VX [O-ethyl-S-(isoporopylaminoethyl) methyl phosphonothiolate] undergoes an incomplete decontamination by conventional chemicals and thus evaporates from urban surfaces, e.g., pavement, long after the initial insult. As a consequence to these characteristics of VX, even the expected low levels should be examined for their potential to induce functional impairments including those associated with neuronal changes. In the present study, we developed an animal model for subchronic, low-dose VX exposure and evaluated its effects in rats. Animals were exposed to VX (2.25 microg/kg/day, 0.05 LD(50)) for three months via implanted mini osmotic pumps. The rapidly attained continuous and marked whole-blood cholinesterase inhibition (approximately 60%), fully recovered 96 h post pump removal. Under these conditions, body weight, blood count and chemistry, water maze acquisition task, sensitivity to the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, peripheral benzodiazepine receptors density and brain morphology as demonstrated by routine histopathology, remained unchanged. However, animals treated with VX showed abnormal initial response in an Open Field test and a reduction (approximately 30%) in the expression of the exocytotic synaptobrevin/vesicle associate membrane protein (VAMP) in hippocampal neurons. These changes could not be detected one month following termination of exposure. Our findings indicate that following a subchronic, low-level exposure to the chemical warfare agent VX some important processes might be considerably impaired. Further research should be addressed towards better understanding of its potential health ramifications and in search of optimal countermeasures. PMID:18485435

  18. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    PubMed

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  19. Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159

  20. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  1. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider.

    PubMed

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female. PMID:16075265

  2. Quality-of-life and performance status results from the phase III RAINBOW study of ramucirumab plus paclitaxel versus placebo plus paclitaxel in patients with previously treated gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma†

    PubMed Central

    Al-Batran, S.-E.; Van Cutsem, E.; Oh, S. C.; Bodoky, G.; Shimada, Y.; Hironaka, S.; Sugimoto, N.; Lipatov, O. N.; Kim, T.-Y.; Cunningham, D.; Rougier, P.; Muro, K.; Liepa, A. M.; Chandrawansa, K.; Emig, M.; Ohtsu, A.; Wilke, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The phase III RAINBOW trial demonstrated that the addition of ramucirumab to paclitaxel improved overall survival, progression-free survival, and tumor response rate in fluoropyrimidine–platinum previously treated patients with advanced gastric/gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Here, we present results from quality-of-life (QoL) and performance status (PS) analyses. Patients and methods Patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group PS of 0/1 were randomized to receive ramucirumab (8 mg/kg i.v.) or placebo on days 1 and 15 of a 4-week cycle, with both arms receiving paclitaxel (80 mg/m2) on days 1, 8, and 15. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed with the QoL/health status questionnaires EORTC QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D at baseline and 6-week intervals. PS was assessed at baseline and day 1 of every cycle. Time to deterioration (TtD) in each QLQ-C30 scale was defined as randomization to first worsening of ≥10 points (on 100-point scale) and TtD in PS was defined as first worsening to ≥2. Hazard ratios (HRs) for treatment effect were estimated using stratified Cox proportional hazards models. Results Of the 665 patients randomized, 650 (98%) provided baseline QLQ-C30 and EQ-5D data, and 560 (84%) also provided data from ≥1 postbaseline time point. Baseline scores for both instruments were similar between arms. Of the 15 QLQ-C30 scales, 14 had HR < 1, indicating similar or longer TtD in QoL for ramucirumab + paclitaxel. Treatment with ramucirumab + paclitaxel was also associated with a delay in TtD in PS to ≥2 (HR = 0.798, P = 0.0941). Alternate definitions of PS deterioration yielded similar results: PS ≥ 3 (HR = 0.656, P = 0.0508), deterioration by ≥1 PS level (HR = 0.802, P = 0.0444), and deterioration by ≥2 PS levels (HR = 0.608, P = 0.0063). EQ-5D scores were comparable between treatment arms, stable during treatment, and worsened at discontinuation. Conclusion In patients with previously treated advanced gastric

  3. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer Treated With Bisphosphonates and Targeted Agents: Results of an Italian Multicenter Study and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Vittorio; Porta, Camillo; Saia, Giorgia; Paglino, Chiara; Bettini, Giordana; Scoletta, Matteo; Bonacina, Riccardo; Vescovi, Paolo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Lo Re, Giovanni; Guglielmini, Pamela; Di Fede, Olga; Campisi, Giuseppina; Bedogni, Alberto

    2015-08-01

    Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) associated with the use of bisphosphonates has been rarely reported in metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC) patients. Since the introduction of combined therapies consisting of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs) and targeted agents, an increasing number of RCC patients were reported to develop ONJ, suggesting that therapeutic angiogenesis suppression might increase the risk of ONJ in NBPs users. We performed a multicenter retrospective study and reviewed literature data to assess the occurrence and to investigate the nature of ONJ in RCC patients taking NBPs and targeted agents. Nine Italian Centers contributed to the data collection. Patients with exposed and nonexposed ONJ were eligible for the study if they had been taking NBPs and were receiving targeted agents at the time of ONJ diagnosis. Forty-four RCC patients were studied. Patients were mostly male (82%), with a median age of 63 years (range, 45-85 years). Zoledronic acid (93%) and sunitinib (80%) were the most frequently used NBP and antiangiogenic agent, respectively. Other agents included Pamidronate, ibandronate, sorafenib, bevacizumab, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Forty-nine sites of ONJ were encountered, with the mandible being the preferred site of ONJ (52%); both jaws were affected in 5 cases (12%). The most common precipitating event was dental/periodontal infection (34%), followed by tooth extraction (30%). Oral triggers of ONJ were missing in 10 cases (23%). This unexpectedly high number of ONJ cases, in comparison with literature data, suggests that frequency of ONJ in RCC patients might be largely underestimated and suggests a potential role for targeted agents in the incremental risk of ONJ. PMID:25586958

  4. The effect of bulking agents on the chemical stability of acid-sensitive compounds in freeze-dried formulations: sucrose inversion study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Enxian; Ewing, Susan; Gatlin, Larry; Suryanarayanan, Raj; Shalaev, Evgenyi

    2009-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate the impact of amorphous bulking agents on the chemical stability of freeze-dried materials. Polyvinylpyrrolidone and dextran of different molecular weights and lactose were used as bulking agents, and sucrose was used as an example of an acid-sensitive compound. Lyophiles containing bulking agent and sucrose at 10:1 (w/w) ratio, citrate buffer, and optionally bromophenol blue (pH indicator) were tested by X-ray powder diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and Karl Fischer titrimetry. Diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectroscopy was used to obtain the concentration ratio of the deprotonated (In(2-)) to the protonated (HIn(-)) indicator species, from which the Hammett acidity function (H(2-)) was calculated. The extent of sucrose inversion in lyophiles stored at 60 degrees C was quantified by HPLC. The bulking agent had a major impact on both the apparent solid-state acidity (H(2-)) and the degradation rate, with the degradation rate constants value highest for dextran lyophiles (most "acidic", lower H(2-)) followed by lactose and polyvinylpyrrolidone lyophile (least "acidic", higher H(2-)). The Hammett acidity function can be used as an empirical solid-state acidity scale, to predict the rank-order stability of acid-sensitive compounds in lyophiles prepared with different bulking agents. PMID:19544366

  5. Cancer morbidity in British military veterans included in chemical warfare agent experiments at Porton Down: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Linsell, L; Brooks, C; Keegan, T J; Langdon, T; Doyle, P; Maconochie, N E S; Fletcher, T; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J; Beral, V

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989. Design Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004. Data source Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records. Participants All veterans included in the cohort study of mortality, excluding those known to have died or been lost to follow-up before 1 January 1971 when the UK cancer registration system commenced: 17 013 male members of the UK armed forces who took part in tests (Porton Down veterans) and a similar group of 16 520 men who did not (non-Porton Down veterans). Main outcome measures Cancer morbidity in each group of veterans; rate ratios, with 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for age group and calendar period. Results 3457 cancers were reported in the Porton Down veterans compared with 3380 cancers in the non-Porton Down veterans. While overall cancer morbidity was the same in both groups (rate ratio 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 1.05), Porton Down veterans had higher rates of ill defined malignant neoplasms (1.12, 1.02 to 1.22), in situ neoplasms (1.45, 1.06 to 2.00), and those of uncertain or unknown behaviour (1.32, 1.01 to 1.73). Conclusion Overall cancer morbidity in Porton Down veterans was no different from that in non-Porton Down veterans. PMID:19318700

  6. Studies of plant colonisation by closely related Bacillus amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents using strain specific quantitative PCR assays.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna H; Bejai, Sarosh; Niazi, Adnan; Manzoor, Shahid; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Meijer, Johan

    2014-12-01

    Certain strains of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize plants and improve growth and stress management. In order to study these effects, bacterial growth dynamics on plants and in the rhizosphere are of interest calling for specific analytical tools. For that purpose, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays were developed in order to differentiate among three closely related B. amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum strains (UCMB5033, UCMB5036, UCMB5113) and to determine their levels with high accuracy. Oligonucleotide primers were designed for strain unique gene sequences and used for SYBR green based qPCR analysis. Standard curves covered a wide linear range (10(6)) of DNA amounts with the lowest detection level at 50 fg. Post-reaction melting curve analysis showed only a single product. Accurate threshold cycles were obtained, even in the presence of high excess of related Bacillus strains and total bacterial DNA from soil. Analysis of Bacillus colonisation after seed treatment of two oilseed rape cultivars (Oase and Ritz) grown on agar support showed a time dependent effect but that the bacteria mostly were found on root tissues and little on green tissues. The colonisation on plants grown in soil varied among the Bacillus strains where Oase seemed to house more bacteria than Ritz. Applied as a mixture, all three Bacillus strains co-existed on the roots of plants grown in soil. The qPCR assay in combination with other techniques will be a powerful tool to study plant interactions of these B. amyloliquefaciens biocontrol agents to further understand the requirements for successful interactions and improvement of plant properties. PMID:25294724

  7. MIC and time-kill studies of antipneumococcal activity of GV 118819X (sanfetrinem) compared with those of other agents.

    PubMed

    Spangler, S K; Jacobs, M R; Appelbaum, P C

    1997-01-01

    antipneumococcal agent in this study. PMID:8980771

  8. Exploratory study on the effects of novel diamine curing agents and isocyanate precursors on the properties of new epoxy and urethane adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, D. G.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of novel aromatic diamine structures on the adhesive properties of epoxy and polyurethane adhesives were studied. Aromatic diamines based on benzophenone and diphenyl-methane isomers were evaluated as curing agents for epoxy resins and benzophenone and diphenyl-methane based diamine isomers were evaluated as curing agents for polyurethane adhesives. Polyurethane adhesives were prepared based on m, m prime-diisocyanato-diphenyl-methane and m, m prime-diisocyanato-benzophenone. The m, m prime-diisocayanato-diphenyl-methane based adhesive had properties comparable to state-of-the-art adhesives. The m, m prime-diisocyanato-benzophenone based adhesive was extremely reactive.

  9. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    PubMed

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available. PMID:25799862

  10. Previous gastric bypass surgery complicating total thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Bianca; Jacobson, Adam S; Alon, Eran E; Via, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well-known complication of total thyroidectomy. Patients who have previously undergone gastric bypass surgery may be at increased risk of hypocalcemia due to gastrointestinal malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and an underlying vitamin D deficiency. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman who underwent a total thyroidectomy for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Her history included Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Following the thyroid surgery, she developed postoperative hypocalcemia that required large doses of oral calcium carbonate (7.5 g/day), oral calcitriol (up to 4 μg/day), intravenous calcium gluconate (2.0 g/day), calcium citrate (2.0 g/day), and ergocalciferol (50,000 IU/day). Her serum calcium levels remained normal on this regimen after hospital discharge despite persistent hypoparathyroidism. Bariatric surgery patients who undergo thyroid surgery require aggressive supplementation to maintain normal serum calcium levels. Preoperative supplementation with calcium and vitamin D is strongly recommended. PMID:25738720

  11. CAMS confirmation of previously reported meteor showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Nénon, Q.; Gural, P. S.; Albers, J.; Haberman, B.; Johnson, B.; Holman, D.; Morales, R.; Grigsby, B. J.; Samuels, D.; Johannink, C.

    2016-03-01

    Leading up to the 2015 IAU General Assembly, the International Astronomical Union's Working List of Meteor Showers included 486 unconfirmed showers, showers that are not certain to exist. If confirmed, each shower would provide a record of past comet or asteroid activity. Now, we report that 41 of these are detected in the Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) video-based meteor shower survey. They manifest as meteoroids arriving at Earth from a similar direction and orbit, after removing the daily radiant drift due to Earth's motion around the Sun. These showers do exist and, therefore, can be moved to the IAU List of Established Meteor Showers. This adds to 31 previously confirmed showers from CAMS data. For each shower, finding charts are presented based on 230,000 meteors observed up to March of 2015, calculated by re-projecting the drift-corrected Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates into more familiar equatorial coordinates. Showers that are not detected, but should have, and duplicate showers that project to the same Sun-centered ecliptic coordinates, are recommended for removal from the Working List.

  12. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  13. Development of tag-free photoprobes for studies aimed at identifying the target of novel Group A Streptococcus antivirulence agents

    PubMed Central

    Yestrepsky, Bryan D.; Kretz, Colin A.; Xu, Yuanxi; Holmes, Autumn; Sun, Hongmin; Ginsburg, David; Larsen, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the identification and development of novel inhibitors of streptokinase (SK) expression by Group A Streptococcus (GAS), originating from a high throughput cell-based phenotypic screen. Although phenotypic screening is well-suited to identifying compounds that exert desired biological effects in potentially novel ways, it requires follow-up experiments to determine the macromolecular target(s) of active compounds. We therefore designed and synthesized several classes of chemical probes for target identification studies, guided by previously established structure-activity relationships. The probes were designed to first irreversibly photolabel target proteins in the intact bacteria, followed by cell lysis and click ligation with fluorescent tags to allow for visualization on SDS-PAGE gels. This stepwise, “tag-free” approach allows for a significant reduction in molecular weight and polar surface area compared to full-length fluorescent or biotinylated probes, potentially enhancing membrane permeability and the maintenance of activity. Of the seven probes produced, the three most biologically active were employed in preliminary target identification trials. Despite the potent activity of these probes, specific labeling events were not conclusively observed due to a considerable degree of nonspecific protein binding. Nevertheless, the successful synthesis of potent biologically active probe molecules will serve as a starting point for initiating more sensitive methods of probe-based target identification. PMID:24559768

  14. Peri-implant Biofilm Formation on Luting Agents Used for Cementing Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations: A Preliminary In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Papavasileiou, Dimitrios; Behr, Michael; Gosau, Martin; Gerlach, Till; Buergers, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated subgingival peri-implant biofilm formation on four luting agents (Kerr TempBond, Harvard Dental Harvard Cement, 3M ESPE RelyX Unicem, and Kuraray Panavia F 2.0) under realistic in situ conditions. Samples of the luting agents were positioned in the subgingival area of healing abutments, and the biofilm accumulation on the samples at the interface between luting agent and titanium and on the smooth titanium surface was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. In comparison to plane titanium surfaces, interfaces between implant abutment, cement, and suprastructure showed an increased bacterial accumulation and should therefore be regarded as predisposing substrates for peri-implant biofilm formation. PMID:26218019

  15. [Replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament by a PET prosthesis (Trevira extra-strength) as a salvage procedure in chronically unstable previously operated knee joints. Intermediate to long-term results of a clinical study].

    PubMed

    Letsch, R; Stürmer, K M; Kock, H J; Wissing, H; Schmit-Neuerburg, K P

    1994-12-01

    Thirty-one salvage cases of chronically unstable previously operated knees were stabilized by an anterior cruciate ligament prosthesis of polyethyleneterephthalate (Trevira hochfest) and additional repair of concomitant lesions. The patients were followed up at yearly intervals. For the final follow-up after 4.4 years 27 patients could be evaluated clinically, radiologically and by several scores. The pre-operative Lysholm score was 59.8 (+/- 16.7). It was raised significantly by the operation to 75.4 (+/- 18.9) after 1 year, but then gradually decreased to 71.4 (+/- 19.6) at the final examination. Similar values were reached for the other scores (OAK, IKDC, VAS). The degree of activity (as estimated by the Tegner activity scale) increased from 2.0 (+/- 2.1) to 3.1 (+/- 1.9). Pre-operative anterior translation revealed a side-to-side difference of 7.5 (+/- 3.4) mm. The stability, which was restored by the operation, gave way a little in the first 2 years up to a side-to-side difference of 2.1 (+/- 2.5) mm, but then remained constant and was measured 2.3 (+/- 2.9) mm after 4.4 years. On the whole, the patients gained a significant improvement from the operation in all investigated parameters. Major complications included 5 ruptures of the synthetic ligament (1 by material fatigue), 1 avulsion of a staple, 1 supracondylar fracture due to 3 closely located staples, 4 cases of arthrofibrosis and 1 case of chronic knee irritation. The gradual deterioration of the operated knees within the follow-up period is mainly caused by the pre-existing chronic degenerative changes, which progress in spite of a sufficient stabilization of the central pivot. PMID:7871606

  16. Repeat Targeted Prostate Biopsy under Guidance of Multiparametric MRI-Correlated Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Patients with Previous Negative Biopsy and Elevated Prostate-Specific Antigen: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Dong Ryul; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyunghwa; Kim, Kiwook; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively determine whether multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) - contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) correlated, imaging-guided target biopsy (TB) method could improve the detection of prostate cancer in re-biopsy setting of patients with prior negative biopsy. Methods From 2012 to 2014, a total of 42 Korean men with a negative result from previous systematic biopsy (SB) and elevated prostate-specific antigen underwent 3T mpMRI and real-time CEUS guided TB. Target lesions were determined by fusion of mpMRI and CEUS. Subsequently, 12-core SB was performed by a different radiologist. We compared core-based cancer detection rates (CaDR) using the generalized linear mixed model (GLIMMIX) for each biopsy method. Results Core-based CaDR was higher in TB (17.92%, 38 of 212 cores) than in SB (6.15%, 31 of 504 cores) (p < 0.0001; GLIMMIX). In the cancer-positive TB cores, CaDR with suspicious lesions by mpMRI was higher than that by CEUS (86.8% vs. 60.5%, p= 0.02; paired t-test) and concordant rate between mpMRI and CEUS was significantly different with discordant rate (48% vs. 52%, p=0.04; McNemar’s test). Conclusion The mpMRI-CEUS correlated TB technique for the repeat prostate biopsy of patients with prior negative biopsy can improve CaDR based on the number of cores taken. PMID:26083348

  17. Primary angioplasty vs. fibrinolysis in very old patients with acute myocardial infarction: TRIANA (TRatamiento del Infarto Agudo de miocardio eN Ancianos) randomized trial and pooled analysis with previous studies

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Héctor; Betriu, Amadeo; Heras, Magda; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Bueno, Héctor; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Alonso, Joaquín J.; Betriu, Amadeo; Cequier, Angel; García, Eulogio J.; Heras, Magda; López-Sendón, José L.; Macaya, Carlos; Azpitarte, José; Sanz, Ginés; Chamorro, Angel; López-Palop, Ramón; Sionis, Alex; Arós, Fernando; García-Fernández, Eulogio; Rubio, Rafael; Hernández, Felipe; Tascón, Juan Carlos; Moreu, José; Betriu, Amadeu; Heras, Magda; Hernández-Antolín, Rosana; Fernández-Ortiz, Antonio; Morís, César; de Posada, Ignacio Sánchez; Cequier, Ángel; Esplugas, Enrique; Melgares, Rafael; Bosa, Francisco; García-González, Martín Jesús; Lezáun, Román; Carmona, José Ramón; Vázquez, José Manuel; Castro-Beiras, Alfonso; Picart, Joan García; de Rozas, José Domínguez; Fernández, José Díaz; Vázquez, Felipe Fernández; Alonso, Norberto; Zueco, José Javier; San José, José María; San Román, Alberto; Hernández, Carolina; García, José María Hernández; Alcántara, Ángel García; Bethencourt, Armando; Fiol, Miquel; Mancisidor, Xabier; Mancisidor, Xabier; Ruiz, Rafael; Hidalgo, Rafael; Sobrino, Nicolás; Maqueda, Isidoro González; Torres, Alfonso; Arós, Fernando; Amaro, Antonio; Jaquet, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Aims To compare primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) and fibrinolysis in very old patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), in whom head-to-head comparisons between both strategies are scarce. Methods and results Patients ≥75 years old with STEMI <6 h were randomized to pPCI or fibrinolysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, re-infarction, or disabling stroke at 30 days. The trial was prematurely stopped due to slow recruitment after enroling 266 patients (134 allocated to pPCI and 132 to fibrinolysis). Both groups were well balanced in baseline characteristics. Mean age was 81 years. The primary endpoint was reached in 25 patients in the pPCI group (18.9%) and 34 (25.4%) in the fibrinolysis arm [odds ratio (OR), 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38–1.23; P = 0.21]. Similarly, non-significant reductions were found in death (13.6 vs. 17.2%, P = 0.43), re-infarction (5.3 vs. 8.2%, P = 0.35), or disabling stroke (0.8 vs. 3.0%, P = 0.18). Recurrent ischaemia was less common in pPCI-treated patients (0.8 vs. 9.7%, P< 0.001). No differences were found in major bleeds. A pooled analysis with the two previous reperfusion trials performed in older patients showed an advantage of pPCI over fibrinolysis in reducing death, re-infarction, or stroke at 30 days (OR, 0.64; 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Conclusion Primary PCI seems to be the best reperfusion therapy for STEMI even for the oldest patients. Early contemporary fibrinolytic therapy may be a safe alternative to pPCI in the elderly when this is not available. Clinicaltrials.gov # NCT00257309. PMID:20971744

  18. Continuing Professional Education of Insurance and Risk Management Practitioners: A Comparative Case Study of Customer Service Representatives, Insurance Agents and Risk Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, George E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how selected insurance practitioners learn and developed in their practices setting. The selected insurance practitioners (collectively customer service representatives, insurance agents, and risk managers) are responsible for the counseling and placement of insurance products and the implementation of…

  19. The Role of Students' Previous Understandings in Reasoning Across Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, Janet Marie

    Learning is typically thought of as a change in a student's understanding within a single context. The term context is used here to describe a domain or subdomain of knowledge. Students' previous understandings of the context are known to play a considerable role in such learning. Another important kind of learning is reasoning across contexts. Through reasoning across contexts, students' understanding of one context influences understanding of another context. This dissertation investigated the role of students' previous understandings in this reasoning process. Psychology research has employed one type of experimental design to investigate reasoning across contexts. This has resulted in focus on a particular way of reasoning across contexts, called analogical transfer, in which participants' previous understandings play a minimal role. In contrast, this dissertation employed a case study design for the purpose of investigating the role of participants' previous understandings in reasoning across contexts. Participants' previous understandings of contexts were discovered to play a considerable role in their reasoning across contexts. Three categories of ways of reasoning across contexts in which students' previous understandings play a role were identified. In the first of these, a participant's new understanding of a context is a combination of ideas used previously to understand the same context and ideas used to understand another context. In the second, an idea from either the participant's previous understanding or from the participant's understanding of another context is modified to contribute to a new understanding. In the third, an idea from the participant's previous understanding is brought into different focus through comparison with a corresponding idea from another context. These three are termed combining, modifying, and refocusing interactions, respectively. Understanding of these different possible roles for students' previous understandings in

  20. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  1. INTEROCC case–control study: lack of association between glioma tumors and occupational exposure to selected combustion products, dusts and other chemical agents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim was to investigate possible associations between glioma (an aggressive type of brain cancer) and occupational exposure to selected agents: combustion products (diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions, benzo(a)pyrene), dusts (animal dust, asbestos, crystalline silica, wood dust) and some other chemical agents (formaldehyde, oil mist, sulphur dioxide). Methods The INTEROCC study included cases diagnosed with glioma during 2000–2004 in sub-regions of seven countries. Population controls, selected from various sampling frames in different centers, were frequency or individually matched to cases by sex, age and center. Face-to-face interviews with the subject or a proxy respondent were conducted by trained interviewers. Detailed information was collected on socio-economic and lifestyle characteristics, medical history and work history. Occupational exposure to the 10 selected agents was assessed by a job exposure matrix (JEM) which provides estimates of the probability and level of exposure for different occupations. Using a 25% probability of exposure in a given occupation in the JEM as the threshold for considering a worker exposed, the lifetime prevalence of exposure varied from about 1% to about 15% for the different agents. Associations between glioma and each of the 10 agents were estimated by conditional logistic regression, and using three separate exposure indices: i) ever vs. never; ii) lifetime cumulative exposure; iii) total duration of exposure. Results The study sample consisted of 1,800 glioma cases and 5,160 controls. Most odds ratio estimates were close to the null value. None of the ten agents displayed a significantly increased odds ratio nor any indication of dose–response relationships with cumulative exposure or with duration of exposure. Conclusion Thus, there was no evidence that these exposures influence risk of glioma. PMID:23587105

  2. [Comparative distribution study of 14C labeled amino acids, glucose-analogue and precursor of nuclei acid, as tumor seeking agents].

    PubMed

    Shiba, K; Mori, H; Hisada, K

    1984-08-01

    As tumor-seeking agents, glucose analogues, natural amino acids, synthetic nonmetabolized amino acids, and precursor of nucleic acids, etc., labeled with positron emitter, such as 11C and 18F have been recently investigated. However, there are very few reports concerning comparative study of tumor uptake and tissue distribution of these agents. This preliminary paper describes comparative distribution and whole-body autoradiography of these agents. 14C labeled deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG), L-, DL-leucine, 1-aminocyclopentane carboxylic acid (ACPC), alpha-amino isobutyric acid (alpha-AIB), and thymidine were intravenously injected through tail vein into separate groups of the experimental animals. As the experimental animals, the mice with Ehrlich tumor and the rats with Hepatoma AH109A were used. Within 30 min after injection, FDG had the highest tumor uptake and tumor to tissue ratios, although FDG was inferior to ACPC and thymidine in related to tumor to heart, lung and brain ratios. However, the time course study indicated that tumor uptake of ACPC, alpha-AIB and D-leucine increased with time, whereas those of other agents decreased with time or reached a plateau. Thus, at 120 min after injection, ACPC had the highest tumor uptake and tumor to tissue ratios, although ACPC was inferior to FDG in related to tumor to blood, liver and pancreas ratios. Autoradiogram of ACPC showed very clear tumor image as well as that of FDG. The above data suggest that synthetic nonmetabolized amino acids, such as ACPC may be promising as tumor-seeking agents, when used with a single photon emission computed tomography, while glucose analogue such as FDG, are the best tumor-seeking agent, when used with a positron emission computed tomography. PMID:6505304

  3. Study of market model describing the contrary behaviors of informed and uninformed agents: Being minority and being majority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xia; Liao, Hao; Medo, Matus; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the contrary behaviors of the informed investors and uniformed investors, and then construct a competition model with two groups of agents, namely agents who intend to stay in minority and those who intend to stay in majority. We find two kinds of competitions, inter- and intra-groups. The model shows periodic fluctuation feature. The average distribution of strategies illustrates a prominent central peak which is relevant to the peak-fat-tail character of price change distribution in stock markets. Furthermore, in the modified model the tolerance time parameter makes the agents diversified. Finally, we compare the strategies distribution with the price change distribution in real stock market, and we conclude that contrary behavior rules and tolerance time parameter are indeed valid in the description of market model.

  4. Mycobacterium microti: More diverse than previously thought.

    PubMed

    Smith, N H; Crawshaw, T; Parry, J; Birtles, R J

    2009-08-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1(mic). We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1(mic) but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  5. Mycobacterium microti: More Diverse than Previously Thought▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, N. H.; Crawshaw, T.; Parry, J.; Birtles, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mycobacterium microti is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex of bacteria. This species was originally identified as a pathogen of small rodents and shrews and was associated with limited diversity and a much reduced spoligotype pattern. More recently, specific deletions of chromosomal DNA have been shown to define this group of organisms, which can be identified by the absence of chromosomal region RD1mic. We describe here the molecular characteristics of 141 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated in Great Britain over a 14-year period. All strains have characteristic loss of some spoligotype spacers and characteristic alleles at the ETR-E and ETR-F variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci, and a sample of these strains was deleted for regions RD7, RD9, and RD1mic but intact for regions RD4 and RD12. We therefore identified these strains as M. microti and show that they have much more diverse spoligotype patterns and VNTR types than previously thought. The most common source of these strains was domestic cats, and we show that the molecular types of M. microti are geographically localized in the same way that molecular types of Mycobacterium bovis are geographically localized in cattle in the United Kingdom. We describe the pathology of M. microti infection in cats and suggest that the feline disease is a spillover from a disease maintained in an unknown wild mammal, probably field voles. The location of the cats with M. microti infection suggests that they do not overlap geographically with the strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Great Britain. PMID:19535520

  6. Toxicity studies on agents Gb and Gd (Phase 2): Delayed neuropathy study of soman in SPF white leghorn chickens. Final technical report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    A dose rangefinding study, a delayed neuropathy study, and a neurotoxic esterase study, were performed in White Leghorn chickens using the organophosphate ester Soman. The hens used for the Rangefinding study were dosed once orally with 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, or 0 microns g/Kg GD, on Day 1. They were pretreated and protected daily through Day 7 with atropine. Surviving hens were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital on Day 21. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be used in the Delayed Neuropathy Study was chosen based upon the rangefinding data. Fifty hens were assigned to a Single Dose Delayed Neuropathy study. Groups of ten hens were given 14.2 (MTD), 7.1 (MTD/2), 3.5 (MTD/4), 0 (negative control) microns/Kg GD or 51 0 mg/Kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) (positive control). Rangefinding study. They were evaluated for signs of neurologic toxicity/ataxia. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Sections of cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), both sciatic nerves and their tibial branch were examined microscopically.... Delayed neuropathy; Agents; Soman; Chickens.

  7. Comparative Study of Activities of a Diverse Set of Antimycobacterial Agents against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Nicole; Pluschke, Gerd; Panda, Manoranjan

    2016-05-01

    A library of compounds covering a broad chemical space was selected from a tuberculosis drug development program and was screened in a whole-cell assay against Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of the necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer. While a number of potent antitubercular agents were only weakly active or inactive against M. ulcerans, five compounds showed high activity (90% inhibitory concentration [IC90], ≤1 μM), making screening of focused antitubercular libraries a good starting point for lead generation against M. ulcerans. PMID:26883701

  8. Isatin Derived Spirocyclic Analogues with α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactone as Anticancer Agents: A Structure-Activity Relationship Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Sandeep; Blowers, Elizabeth C; Tebbe, Calvin; Contreras, Jacob I; Radhakrishnan, Prakash; Kizhake, Smitha; Zhou, Tian; Rajule, Rajkumar N; Arnst, Jamie L; Munkarah, Adnan R; Rattan, Ramandeep; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2016-05-26

    Design, synthesis, and evaluation of α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone analogues and their evaluation as anticancer agents is described. SAR identified a spirocyclic analogue 19 that inhibited TNFα-induced NF-κB activity, cancer cell growth and tumor growth in an ovarian cancer model. A second iteration of synthesis and screening identified 29 which inhibited cancer cell growth with low-μM potency. Our data suggest that an isatin-derived spirocyclic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone is a suitable core for optimization to identify novel anticancer agents. PMID:27077228

  9. Infants' preference for individual agents within chasing interactions.

    PubMed

    Galazka, Martyna; Nyström, Pär

    2016-07-01

    Infants, like adults, are able to discriminate between chasing and non-chasing interactions when watching animations with simple geometric shapes. But where infants derive the necessary information for discrimination and how chasing detection influences later visual attention has been previously unexplored. Here, using eye tracking, we investigated how 5- and 12-month-old infants (N=94) distribute their visual attention among individual members within different interactions depending on a type of interaction. Infant gaze was examined when observing animations depicting chasing and following interactions compared with animations displaying randomly moving shapes. Results demonstrate that when observing chasing and following interactions, all infants strongly preferred to attend to the agent that initiates an interaction and trails behind another. Low-level features, such as changes in agent-specific velocity profiles, could not account for this preference (Study 2). Rather, the strong preference for the agent going behind seems to be dependent on the initial goal-directed or "heat-seeking" motion of one agent toward another (Study 3). The current set of experiments suggests that, similar to adults, 5-months-olds' visual attention depends on the motion features of an individual agent within the interaction and is fine-tuned to agents that display goal-directed motion toward other agents. PMID:27017143

  10. Perioperative use of anti-rheumatic agents does not increase early postoperative infection risks: a Veteran Affairs' administrative database study.

    PubMed

    Abou Zahr, Zaki; Spiegelman, Andrew; Cantu, Maria; Ng, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a novel technique that predicts stopping of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologic agents (BA) from the Veterans Affairs (VA) database and compare infection risks of rheumatoid arthritis patients who stopped versus continued DMARDs/BA perioperatively. We identified 6,024 patients on 1 DMARD or BA in the perioperative period between 1999 and 2009. Time gap between medication stop date and the next start date predicted drug stoppage (X). Time gap between surgery date and stop date predicted whether stoppage was before surgery (Y). Chart review from Houston VA was used for validation. ROC analyses were performed on chart review data to obtain X and Y cutoffs. The primary endpoints were wound infections and other infections within 30 days. ROC analyses found X ≥ 33 (AUC = 0.954) and Y ≥ -11 (AUC = 0.846). Risk of postoperative infections was not different when stopping and continuing DMARDs/BA preoperatively. Stopping BA after surgery was associated with higher odds