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Sample records for agents provide extremely

  1. Nerve agents: implications for anesthesia providers.

    PubMed

    Hrobak, Paula Kay

    2008-04-01

    Anesthesia providers may be called to treat injuries from chemical weapons or spills, for which prompt treatment is vital. It is therefore important to understand the mechanism of action of nerve agents and the resultant pathophysiology and to be able to quickly recognize the signs and symptoms of nerve agent exposure. This review article addresses the different types of nerve agents that are currently being manufactured as well as the symptomatic and definitive treatment of the patient who presents with acute nerve agent toxicity. This article also reviews the physiology of the neuromuscular junction and the autonomic nervous system receptors that nerve agent toxicity affects. PMID:18478812

  2. Extreme high-head portables provide more pumping options

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2006-10-15

    Three years ago, Godwin Pumps, one of the largest manufacturers of portable pumps, introduced its Extreme Duty High Lift (HL) series of pumps and more mines are finding unique applications for these pumps. The Extreme HL series is a range single-stage Dri-Prime pumps with heads up to 600 feet and flows up to 5,000 gallons per minute. The American Coal Co.'s Galatia mine, an underground longwall mine in southern Illinois, used an HL 160 to replace a multiple-staged centrifugal pump. It provided Galatia with 1,500 gpm at 465 ft. 3 photos.

  3. Extreme Events and Energy Providers: Science and Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiou, P.; Vautard, R.

    2012-04-01

    Most socio-economic regulations related to the resilience to climate extremes, from infrastructure or network design to insurance premiums, are based on a present-day climate with an assumption of stationarity. Climate extremes (heat waves, cold spells, droughts, storms and wind stilling) affect in particular energy production, supply, demand and security in several ways. While national, European or international projects have generated vast amounts of climate projections for the 21st century, their practical use in long-term planning remains limited. Estimating probabilistic diagnostics of energy user relevant variables from those multi-model projections will help the energy sector to elaborate medium to long-term plans, and will allow the assessment of climate risks associated to those plans. The project "Extreme Events for Energy Providers" (E3P) aims at filling a gap between climate science and its practical use in the energy sector and creating in turn favourable conditions for new business opportunities. The value chain ranges from addressing research questions directly related to energy-significant climate extremes to providing innovative tools of information and decision making (including methodologies, best practices and software) and climate science training for the energy sector, with a focus on extreme events. Those tools will integrate the scientific knowledge that is developed by scientific communities, and translate it into a usable probabilistic framework. The project will deliver projection tools assessing the probabilities of future energy-relevant climate extremes at a range of spatial scales varying from pan-European to local scales. The E3P project is funded by the Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC Climate). We will present the mechanisms of interactions between academic partners, SMEs and industrial partners for this project. Those mechanisms are elementary bricks of a climate service.

  4. Agents for change: nonphysician medical providers and health care quality.

    PubMed

    Boucher, Nathan A; Mcmillen, Marvin A; Gould, James S

    2015-01-01

    Quality medical care is a clinical and public health imperative, but defining quality and achieving improved, measureable outcomes are extremely complex challenges. Adherence to best practice invariably improves outcomes. Nonphysician medical providers (NPMPs), such as physician assistants and advanced practice nurses (eg, nurse practitioners, advanced practice registered nurses, certified registered nurse anesthetists, and certified nurse midwives), may be the first caregivers to encounter the patient and can act as agents for change for an organization's quality-improvement mandate. NPMPs are well positioned to both initiate and ensure optimal adherence to best practices and care processes from the moment of initial contact because they have robust clinical training and are integral to trainee/staff education and the timely delivery of care. The health care quality aspects that the practicing NPMP can affect are objective, appreciative, and perceptive. As bedside practitioners and participants in the administrative and team process, NPMPs can fine-tune care delivery, avoiding the problem areas defined by the Institute of Medicine: misuse, overuse, and underuse of care. This commentary explores how NPMPs can affect quality by 1) supporting best practices through the promotion of guidelines and protocols, and 2) playing active, if not leadership, roles in patient engagement and organizational quality-improvement efforts. PMID:25663213

  5. Kit for providing a technetium medical radioimaging agent

    DOEpatents

    Wildung, Raymond E.; Garland, Thomas R.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a kit for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanella putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  6. Reinforcement learning agents providing advice in complex video games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew E.; Carboni, Nicholas; Fachantidis, Anestis; Vlahavas, Ioannis; Torrey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a teacher-student framework for reinforcement learning, synthesising and extending material that appeared in conference proceedings [Torrey, L., & Taylor, M. E. (2013)]. Teaching on a budget: Agents advising agents in reinforcement learning. {Proceedings of the international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems}] and in a non-archival workshop paper [Carboni, N., &Taylor, M. E. (2013, May)]. Preliminary results for 1 vs. 1 tactics in StarCraft. {Proceedings of the adaptive and learning agents workshop (at AAMAS-13)}]. In this framework, a teacher agent instructs a student agent by suggesting actions the student should take as it learns. However, the teacher may only give such advice a limited number of times. We present several novel algorithms that teachers can use to budget their advice effectively, and we evaluate them in two complex video games: StarCraft and Pac-Man. Our results show that the same amount of advice, given at different moments, can have different effects on student learning, and that teachers can significantly affect student learning even when students use different learning methods and state representations.

  7. Reaction to Extreme Events in a Minimal Agent Based Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccaria, Andrea; Cristelli, Matthieu; Pietronero, Luciano

    We consider the issue of the overreaction of financial markets to a sudden price change. In particular, we focus on the price and the population dynamics which follows a large fluctuation. In order to investigate these aspects from different perspectives we discuss the known results for empirical data, the Lux-Marchesi model and a minimal agent based model which we have recently proposed. We show that, in this framework, the presence of a overreaction is deeply linked to the population dynamics. In particular, the presence of a destabilizing strategy in the market is a necessary condition to have an overshoot with respect to the exogenously induced price fluctuation. Finally, we analyze how the memory of the agents can quantitatively affect this behavior.

  8. An abundant biological control agent does not provide a significant predator subsidy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical weed biological control agents, regardless of their effectiveness, may provide subsidies to predators and parasites. The chemically defended weevil Oxyops vitiosa Pascoe is a successful agent that was introduced to control the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia. Two consecutive small ...

  9. Providing the Larger Climate Context During Extreme Weather - Lessons from Local Television News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, M.; Cullen, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    Local television weathercasters, in their role as Station Scientists, are often called upon to educate viewers about the science and impacts of climate change. Climate Central supports these efforts through its Climate Matters program. Launched in 2010 with support from the National Science Foundation, the program has grown into a network that includes more than 245 weathercasters from across the country and provides localized information on climate and ready-to-use, broadcast quality graphics and analyses in both English and Spanish. This presentation will focus on discussing best practices for integrating climate science into the local weather forecast as well as advances in the science of extreme event attribution. The Chief Meteorologist at News10 (Sacramento, CA) will discuss local news coverage of the ongoing California drought, extreme weather and climate literacy.

  10. An agent-based approach to modelling the effects of extreme events on global food prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, Jacob; Otto, Christian; Frieler, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Extreme climate events such as droughts or heat waves affect agricultural production in major food producing regions and therefore can influence the price of staple foods on the world market. There is evidence that recent dramatic spikes in grain prices were at least partly triggered by actual and/or expected supply shortages. The reaction of the market to supply changes is however highly nonlinear and depends on complex and interlinked processes such as warehousing, speculation, and export restrictions. Here we present for the first time an agent-based modelling framework that accounts, in simplified terms, for these processes and allows to estimate the reaction of world food prices to supply shocks on a short (monthly) timescale. We test the basic model using observed historical supply, demand, and price data of wheat as a major food grain. Further, we illustrate how the model can be used in conjunction with biophysical crop models to assess the effect of future changes in extreme event regimes on the volatility of food prices. In particular, the explicit representation of storage dynamics makes it possible to investigate the potentially nonlinear interaction between simultaneous extreme events in different food producing regions, or between several consecutive events in the same region, which may both occur more frequently under future global warming.

  11. Generalised extreme value distributions provide a natural hypothesis for the shape of seed mass distributions.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Will; Moles, Angela T; Chong, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Among co-occurring species, values for functionally important plant traits span orders of magnitude, are uni-modal, and generally positively skewed. Such data are usually log-transformed "for normality" but no convincing mechanistic explanation for a log-normal expectation exists. Here we propose a hypothesis for the distribution of seed masses based on generalised extreme value distributions (GEVs), a class of probability distributions used in climatology to characterise the impact of event magnitudes and frequencies; events that impose strong directional selection on biological traits. In tests involving datasets from 34 locations across the globe, GEVs described log10 seed mass distributions as well or better than conventional normalising statistics in 79% of cases, and revealed a systematic tendency for an overabundance of small seed sizes associated with low latitudes. GEVs characterise disturbance events experienced in a location to which individual species' life histories could respond, providing a natural, biological explanation for trait expression that is lacking from all previous hypotheses attempting to describe trait distributions in multispecies assemblages. We suggest that GEVs could provide a mechanistic explanation for plant trait distributions and potentially link biology and climatology under a single paradigm. PMID:25830773

  12. 42 CFR 455.104 - Disclosure by providers and fiscal agents: Information on ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure by providers and fiscal agents: Information on ownership and control. 455.104 Section 455.104 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM...

  13. Hydrologic Extremes in a changing climate: how much information can regional climate models provide?

    SciTech Connect

    Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2012-08-14

    We proposed to identify a set of about 10 urban areas across the western U.S., and hourly precipitation data within each of these areas, which were extracted from the NCDC TD 3240. We also proposed to analyze the annual maximum series of precipitation extremes simulated for NARCCAP (using Reanalysis boundary forcing) for the grid cells close to station data, and to compare the distributions of annual maximum precipitation for accumulation intervals ranging from one to 28 hours. Recognizing that there may inevitably be differences between the station data and RCM grid cell values, we proposed to examine the scale dependence in the distributions of extremes.

  14. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: implications for health care providers and community emergency planning.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Watson, A P; Ambrose, K R; Griffin, G D

    1990-01-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the U.S. atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanolol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers. PMID:2088748

  15. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: implications for health care providers and community emergency planning.

    PubMed

    Munro, N B; Watson, A P; Ambrose, K R; Griffin, G D

    1990-11-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the U.S. atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanolol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers. PMID:2088748

  16. Treating exposure to chemical warfare agents: Implications for health care providers and community emergency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Watson, A.P.; Ambrose, K.R.; Griffin, G.D. )

    1990-11-01

    Current treatment protocols for exposure to nerve and vesicant agents found in the US stockpile of unitary chemical weapons are summarized, and the toxicities of available antidotes are evaluated. The status of the most promising of the new nerve agent antidotes is reviewed. In the US, atropine and pralidoxime compose the only approved antidote regimen for organophosphate nerve agent poisoning. Diazepam may also be used if necessary to control convulsions. To avoid death, administration must occur within minutes of substantial exposure together with immediate decontamination. Continuous observation and repeated administration of antidotes are necessary as symptoms warrant. Available antidotes do not necessarily prevent respiratory failure or incapacitation. The toxicity of the antidotes themselves and the individualized nature of medical care preclude recommending that autoinjectors be distributed to the general public. In addition, precautionary administration of protective drugs to the general population would not be feasible or desirable. No antidote exists for poisoning by the vesicant sulfur mustard (H, HD, HT); effective intervention can only be accomplished by rapid decontamination followed by palliative treatment of symptoms. British anti-Lewisite (BAL) (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is the antidote of choice for treatment of exposure to Lewisite, another potent vesicant. Experimental water-soluble BAL analogues have been developed that are less toxic than BAL. Treatment protocols for each antidote are summarized in tabular form for use by health care providers.

  17. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides continuous monitoring of compromised lower extremity perfusion during cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Prkic, Ivana; Stuth, Eckehard A E

    2016-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is more frequently used to monitor regional oxygenation/perfusion of the cerebral and somatorenal vascular bed during congenital heart surgery. However, NIRS probes can be placed elsewhere to assess regional perfusion. We report the intraoperative use of NIRS probes on both calves of an infant to continuously monitor changes in the regional oxygenation/perfusion of a lower extremity whose perfusion was compromised after femoral arterial line placement. The NIRS trend of the compromised limb was compared with the contralateral limb throughout congenital heart surgery including the period on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Our case report illustrates that NIRS technology can be used to monitor ongoing lower extremity vascular compromise during congenital heart surgery when it is not practical to directly access and continuously assess the limb. Transient vascular compromise after invasive femoral arterial line or sheath placement for cardiac catheterization in small infants is not infrequent. NIRS technology in such circumstances may help to decide whether watchful waiting is acceptable or immediate interventions are indicated. Continuous NIRS monitoring showed that limb regional oxygenation remained depressed during CPB but dramatically increased in the post-CPB period. PMID:27185674

  18. Extreme Heat and Health: Perspectives from Health Service Providers in Rural and Remote Communities in South Australia

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-01-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  19. Extreme heat and health: perspectives from health service providers in rural and remote communities in South Australia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan; Bi, Peng; Newbury, Jonathan; Robinson, Guy; Pisaniello, Dino; Saniotis, Arthur; Hansen, Alana

    2013-11-01

    Among the challenges for rural communities and health services in Australia, climate change and increasing extreme heat are emerging as additional stressors. Effective public health responses to extreme heat require an understanding of the impact on health and well-being, and the risk or protective factors within communities. This study draws on lived experiences to explore these issues in eleven rural and remote communities across South Australia, framing these within a socio-ecological model. Semi-structured interviews with health service providers (n = 13), and a thematic analysis of these data, has identified particular challenges for rural communities and their health services during extreme heat. The findings draw attention to the social impacts of extreme heat in rural communities, the protective factors (independence, social support, education, community safety), and challenges for adaptation (vulnerabilities, infrastructure, community demographics, housing and local industries). With temperatures increasing across South Australia, there is a need for local planning and low-cost strategies to address heat-exacerbating factors in rural communities, to minimise the impact of extreme heat in the future. PMID:24173140

  20. Electrochemical studies of capping agent adsorption provide insight into the formation of anisotropic gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Danger, Brook R; Fan, Donna; Vivek, J P; Burgess, Ian J

    2012-12-21

    The ability of the 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) to stabilize and control the formation of anisotropic gold nanocrystals produced via the borohydride reduction of gold(III) salts is reported here. Electrochemical measurements of DMAP electrosorption on different low-index single crystal and polycrystalline electrodes is provided and shows a propensity for DMAP to preferentially adsorb on {100} facets. Measuring the electrochemical potential during nanocrystal formation shows that experimental conditions can easily be manipulated so that the growth of nanoseeds occurs at potentials that support preferential DMAP adsorption on {100} surfaces giving rise to highly anisotropic nanocrystals (nanorods, bipyramids, and nanopods). Nanopods with nearly 50 nm arm lengths are shown to form and produce a surface plasmon mode that extends well into the near IR (λ(max) ≈ 1350 nm). Evidence is provided of the slow, partial reduction of tetrachloroaurate to a DMAP stabilized Au(I) species. Shape control is achieved simply by varying the length of time, τ, that DMAP is allowed to partially reduce the Au(III) ions prior to the addition of the strong reducing agent, NaBH(4). Thus the role of DMAP in producing anisotropic particle shapes is shown to be multifunctional. A mechanism accounting for the dependence of particle shape on τ is provided. PMID:23186041

  1. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  2. Phytantriol based liquid crystal provide sustained release of anticancer drug as a novel embolic agent.

    PubMed

    Qin, Lingzhen; Mei, Liling; Shan, Ziyun; Huang, Ying; Pan, Xin; Li, Ge; Gu, Yukun; Wu, Chuanbin

    2016-01-01

    Phytantriol has received increasing amount of attention in drug delivery system, however, the ability of the phytantriol based liquid crystal as a novel embolic agent to provide a sustained release delivery system is yet to be comprehensively demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to prepare a phytantriol-based cubic phase precursor solution loaded with anticancer drug hydroxycamptothecine (HCPT) and evaluate its embolization properties, in vitro drug release and cytotoxicity. Phase behavior of the phytantriol-solvent-water system was investigated by visual inspection and polarized light microscopy, and no phase transition was observed in the presence of HCPT within the studied dose range. Water uptake by the phytantriol matrices was determined gravimetrically, suggesting that the swelling complied with the second order kinetics. In vitro evaluation of embolic efficacy indicated that the isotropic solution displayed a satisfactory embolization effect. In vitro drug release results showed a sustained-release up to 30 days and the release behavior was affected by the initial composition and drug loading. Moreover, the in vitro cytotoxicity and anticancer activity were evaluated by MTT assay. No appreciable mortality was observed for NIH 3T3 cells after 48 h exposure to blank formulations, and the anticancer activity of HCPT-loaded formulations to HepG2 and SMMC7721 cells was strongly dependent on the drug loading and treatment time. Taken together, these results indicate that phytantriol-based cubic phase embolic gelling solution is a promising potential carrier for HCPT delivery to achieve a sustained drug release by vascular embolization, and this technology may be potential for clinical applications. PMID:26035332

  3. Are pollinators the agents of selection for the extreme large size and dark color in Oncocyclus irises?

    PubMed

    Lavi, Renana; Sapir, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    Pollinator-mediated selection is a major evolutionary driver of floral traits; yet, such selection has rarely been tested for floral extreme traits. The Oncocyclus irises have exceptionally large, dark-colored flowers, associated with night-sheltering pollination and heat reward by the dark flowers. We quantified phenotypic selection on stem length, floral size and color in two species of iris (Iris atropurpurea and I. haynei), using an experimental approach. We estimated selection gradients for both flowers open to natural pollination and for flowers receiving supplementary hand pollination, assuming that open-pollinated flowers are affected by all factors that could influence fitness, whereas supplementary pollination removes the possible influence of pollinators. We found evidence for pollinator-mediated selection to increase floral size and stem length in I. atropurpurea, but floral color in this species was not under pollinator-mediated selection. In I. haynei, no pollinator-mediated selection on any of the traits was detected. We conclude that the extreme floral size of I. atropurpurea has probably evolved as a result of pollinator behavior. Lack of such evidence for I. haynei and for the dark floral color in both species suggests that other non-pollinator agents are selecting for these prominent traits, or that phenotypic color variation in these irises is neutral. PMID:25157604

  4. Phenolic melanin precursors provide a rational approach to the design of antitumor agents for melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbow, K.; Miura, T.; Ito, S.; Ishikawa, K.

    1989-01-01

    A unique biological property of the melanocyte, melanin synthesis may permit a rational approach to design agents for better management of malignant melanoma. This in vivo and in vitro study examined the selective melanocytotoxicity and antimelanoma effects of phenolic compounds, cysteinylphenol (CP), cysteaminylphenol (CAP), and related compounds, and found (1) that both 4-S-CP and 4-S-CAP are melanin precursors, (2) that 4-S-CAP possesses a marked depigmenting potency with selective destruction of melanocytes in black follicles, and (3) a significant inhibition in the protein synthesis and tumor growth of B16 melanoma. Importantly, a whole body autoradiography indicated that these phenolic melanin precursors are selectively incorporated into melanoma tissues after i.p. administration.

  5. The genome sequence of the metal-mobilizing, extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula provides insights into bioleaching-associated metabolism.

    PubMed

    Auernik, Kathryne S; Maezato, Yukari; Blum, Paul H; Kelly, Robert M

    2008-02-01

    Despite their taxonomic description, not all members of the order Sulfolobales are capable of oxidizing reduced sulfur species, which, in addition to iron oxidation, is a desirable trait of biomining microorganisms. However, the complete genome sequence of the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera sedula DSM 5348 (2.2 Mb, approximately 2,300 open reading frames [ORFs]) provides insights into biologically catalyzed metal sulfide oxidation. Comparative genomics was used to identify pathways and proteins involved (directly or indirectly) with bioleaching. As expected, the M. sedula genome contains genes related to autotrophic carbon fixation, metal tolerance, and adhesion. Also, terminal oxidase cluster organization indicates the presence of hybrid quinol-cytochrome oxidase complexes. Comparisons with the mesophilic biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans ATCC 23270 indicate that the M. sedula genome encodes at least one putative rusticyanin, involved in iron oxidation, and a putative tetrathionate hydrolase, implicated in sulfur oxidation. The fox gene cluster, involved in iron oxidation in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus, was also identified. These iron- and sulfur-oxidizing components are missing from genomes of nonleaching members of the Sulfolobales, such as Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius DSM 639. Whole-genome transcriptional response analysis showed that 88 ORFs were up-regulated twofold or more in M. sedula upon addition of ferrous sulfate to yeast extract-based medium; these included genes for components of terminal oxidase clusters predicted to be involved with iron oxidation, as well as genes predicted to be involved with sulfur metabolism. Many hypothetical proteins were also differentially transcribed, indicating that aspects of the iron and sulfur metabolism of M. sedula remain to be identified and characterized. PMID:18083856

  6. Burkholderia terrae BS001 migrates proficiently with diverse fungal hosts through soil and provides protection from antifungal agents

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Rashid; Tazetdinova, Diana I.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Soil bacteria can benefit from co-occurring soil fungi in respect of the acquisition of carbonaceous nutrients released by fungal hyphae and the access to novel territories in soil. Here, we investigated the capacity of the mycosphere-isolated bacterium Burkholderia terrae BS001 to comigrate through soil along with hyphae of the soil fungi Trichoderma asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, F. oxysporum pv lini, Coniochaeta ligniaria, Phanerochaete velutina, and Phallus impudicus. We used Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten as the reference migration-inciting fungus. Bacterial migration through presterilized soil on the extending fungal hyphae was detected with six of the seven test fungi, with only Phallus impudicus not showing any bacterial transport. Much like with Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten, intermediate (106–108 CFU g-1 dry soil) to high (>108 CFU g-1 dry soil) strain BS001 cell population sizes were found at the hyphal migration fronts of four fungi, i.e., T. asperellum, Rhizoctonia solani, F. oxysporum and F. oxysporum pv lini, whereas for two fungi, Coniochaeta ligniaria and Phanerochaete velutina, the migration responses were retarded and population sizes were lower (103–106 CFU g-1 dry soil). Consistent with previous data obtained with the reference fungus, migration with the migration-inciting fungi occurred only in the direction of the hyphal growth front. Remarkably, Burkholderia terrae BS001 provided protection from several antifungal agents to the canonical host Lyophyllum sp. strain Karsten. Specifically, this host was protected from Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 metabolites, as well as from the anti-fungal agent cycloheximide. Similar protection by strain BS001was observed for T. asperellum, and, to a lower extent, F. oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani. The protective effect may be related to the consistent occurrence of biofilm-like cell layers or agglomerates at the surfaces of the protected fungi. The current study represents

  7. Uncertainty and extreme events in future climate and hydrologic projections for the Pacific Northwest: providing a basis for vulnerability and core/corridor assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littell, Jeremy S.; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Salathe, Eric P.; Hamlet, Alan F.; Lee, Se-Yeun; Stumbaugh, Matt R.; Elsner, Marketa; Norheim, Robert; Lutz, Eric R.; Mantua, Nathan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to (1) provide an internally-consistent set of downscaled projections across the Western U.S., (2) include information about projection uncertainty, and (3) assess projected changes of hydrologic extremes. These objectives were designed to address decision support needs for climate adaptation and resource management actions. Specifically, understanding of uncertainty in climate projections – in particular for extreme events – is currently a key scientific and management barrier to adaptation planning and vulnerability assessment. The new dataset fills in the Northwest domain to cover a key gap in the previous dataset, adds additional projections (both from other global climate models and a comparison with dynamical downscaling) and includes an assessment of changes to flow and soil moisture extremes. This new information can be used to assess variations in impacts across the landscape, uncertainty in projections, and how these differ as a function of region, variable, and time period. In this project, existing University of Washington Climate Impacts Group (UW CIG) products were extended to develop a comprehensive data archive that accounts (in a reigorous and physically based way) for climate model uncertainty in future climate and hydrologic scenarios. These products can be used to determine likely impacts on vegetation and aquatic habitat in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region, including WA, OR, ID, northwest MT to the continental divide, northern CA, NV, UT, and the Columbia Basin portion of western WY New data series and summaries produced for this project include: 1) extreme statistics for surface hydrology (e.g. frequency of soil moisture and summer water deficit) and streamflow (e.g. the 100-year flood, extreme 7-day low flows with a 10-year recurrence interval); 2) snowpack vulnerability as indicated by the ratio of April 1 snow water to cool-season precipitation; and, 3) uncertainty analyses for multiple climate

  8. Design of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography: do large bioconjugates provide an opportunity for in vivo brain imaging?

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, Ralf; Bernard-Gauthier, Vadim; Reader, Andrew; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Schirrmacher, Esther; Wängler, Björn; Wängler, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The development of brain imaging agents for positron emission tomography and other in vivo imaging modalities mostly relies on small compounds of low MW as a result of the restricted transport of larger molecules, such as peptides and proteins, across the blood-brain barrier. Besides passive transport, only a few active carrier mechanisms, such as glucose transporters and amino acid transporters, have so far been exploited to mediate the accumulation of imaging probes in the brain. An important question for the future is whether some of the abundant active carrier systems located at the blood-brain barrier can be used to shuttle potential, but non-crossing, imaging agents into the brain. What are the biological and chemical constrictions toward such bioconjugates and is it worthwhile to persue such a delivery strategy? PMID:24047268

  9. CMCTS stabilized Fe3O4 particles with extremely low toxicity as highly efficient near-infrared photothermal agents for in vivo tumor ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Song; Kong, Fenfen; Guo, Xiaomeng; Wu, Lin; Shen, Haijun; Xie, Meng; Wang, Xinshi; Jin, Yi; Ge, Yanru

    2013-08-01

    With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low toxicity was proposed. This hyperthermia agent showed rapid heat generation under NIR irradiation. After modification with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS), the obtained Fe3O4@CMCTS particles could disperse stably in PBS and serum without any aggregation. The modification of CMCTS could decrease the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the cellular uptake. In a comparative study with hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS), Fe3O4@CMCTS particles exhibited a comparable photothermal effect and fairly low cytotoxicity. The in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images of mice revealed that by attaching a magnet to the tumor, Fe3O4@CMCTS particles accumulated in the tumor after intravenous injection and showed a low distribution in the liver. After being exposed to a 808 nm laser for 5 min at a low power density of 1.5 W cm-2, the tumors on Fe3O4@CMCTS-injected mice reached a temperature of ~52 °C and were completely destroyed. Thus, a kind of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticle with extremely low toxicity and a simple structure for simultaneous MR imaging, targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy can be easily fabricated.With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low

  10. Aminodisilanes as silylating agents for dry-developed positive-tone resists for extreme ultraviolet (13.5) microlithography

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D.; Kubiak, G.; Henderson, C.; Ray-Chadhuri, A.

    1996-02-01

    We recently described a near-surface imaging scheme that employs disilanes and a bilayer resist scheme which together dramatically improve silicon contrast. A relatively thin 0.25 to 0.1 {mu}m imaging layer of a chemically amplified photo-crosslinking resist (Shipley XP-8844 or XP-9472) is spin coated on top of a thicker (0.25-0.5 {mu}m) layer of hard-baked resist (such as Shipley MP-1807). This bilayer scheme improves silicon contrast and provides additional advantages such as providing a planarizing layer and a processing layer.

  11. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  12. Draft genome sequence of the extremely acidophilic biomining bacterium Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans ATCC 19377 provides insights into the evolution of the Acidithiobacillus genus.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Jorge; Ossandon, Francisco; Quatrini, Raquel; Dopson, Mark; Holmes, David S

    2011-12-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans is a mesophilic, extremely acidophilic, chemolithoautotrophic gammaproteobacterium that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur and inorganic sulfur compounds. Here we present the draft genome sequence of A. thiooxidans ATCC 19377, which has allowed the identification of genes for survival and colonization of extremely acidic environments. PMID:22123759

  13. Assessing protection against OP pesticides and nerve agents provided by wild-type HuPON1 purified from Trichoplusia ni larvae or induced via adenoviral infection.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, Sean M; Kasten, Shane A; Harrison, Joshua; Otto, Tamara C; Oliver, Zeke P; Rezk, Peter; Reeves, Tony E; Chilukuri, Nageswararao; Cerasoli, Douglas M

    2013-03-25

    Human paraoxonase-1 (HuPON1) has been proposed as a catalytic bioscavenger of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents. We assessed the potential of this enzyme to protect against OP poisoning using two different paradigms. First, recombinant HuPON1 purified from cabbage loopers (iPON1; Trichoplusia ni) was administered to guinea pigs, followed by exposure to at least 2 times the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of the OP nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF), or chlorpyrifos oxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide chlorpyrifos. In the second model, mice were infected with an adenovirus that induced expression of HuPON1 and then exposed to sequential doses of GD, VX, or (as reported previously) diazoxon, the toxic metabolite of the OP pesticide diazinon. In both animal models, the exogenously added HuPON1 protected animals against otherwise lethal doses of the OP pesticides but not against the nerve agents. Together, the results support prior modeling and in vitro activity data which suggest that wild-type HuPON1 does not have sufficient catalytic activity to provide in vivo protection against nerve agents. PMID:23123254

  14. Adenoviral Expression of a Bispecific VHH-Based Neutralizing Agent That Targets Protective Antigen Provides Prophylactic Protection from Anthrax in Mice.

    PubMed

    Moayeri, Mahtab; Tremblay, Jacqueline M; Debatis, Michelle; Dmitriev, Igor P; Kashentseva, Elena A; Yeh, Anthony J; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Curiel, David T; Leppla, Stephen; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2016-03-01

    Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, secretes three polypeptides, which form the bipartite lethal and edema toxins (LT and ET, respectively). The common component in these toxins, protective antigen (PA), is responsible for binding to cellular receptors and translocating the lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF) enzymatic moieties to the cytosol. Antibodies against PA protect against anthrax. We previously isolated toxin-neutralizing variable domains of camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (VHHs) and demonstrated their in vivo efficacy. In this work, gene therapy with an adenoviral (Ad) vector (Ad/VNA2-PA) (VNA, VHH-based neutralizing agents) promoting the expression of a bispecific VHH-based neutralizing agent (VNA2-PA), consisting of two linked VHHs targeting different PA-neutralizing epitopes, was tested in two inbred mouse strains, BALB/cJ and C57BL/6J, and found to protect mice against anthrax toxin challenge and anthrax spore infection. Two weeks after a single treatment with Ad/VNA2-PA, serum VNA2-PA levels remained above 1 μg/ml, with some as high as 10 mg/ml. The levels were 10- to 100-fold higher and persisted longer in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ mice. Mice were challenged with a lethal dose of LT or spores at various times after Ad/VNA2-PA administration. The majority of BALB/cJ mice having serum VNA2-PA levels of >0.1 μg/ml survived LT challenge, and 9 of 10 C57BL/6J mice with serum levels of >1 μg/ml survived spore challenge. Our findings demonstrate the potential for genetic delivery of VNAs as an effective method for providing prophylactic protection from anthrax. We also extend prior findings of mouse strain-based differences in transgene expression and persistence by adenoviral vectors. PMID:26740390

  15. How extreme are extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, Marco; Petitta, Marcello; Calmanti, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    High temperatures have an impact on the energy balance of any living organism and on the operational capabilities of critical infrastructures. Heat-wave indicators have been mainly developed with the aim of capturing the potential impacts on specific sectors (agriculture, health, wildfires, transport, power generation and distribution). However, the ability to capture the occurrence of extreme temperature events is an essential property of a multi-hazard extreme climate indicator. Aim of this study is to develop a standardized heat-wave indicator, that can be combined with other indices in order to describe multiple hazards in a single indicator. The proposed approach can be used in order to have a quantified indicator of the strenght of a certain extreme. As a matter of fact, extremes are usually distributed in exponential or exponential-exponential functions and it is difficult to quickly asses how strong was an extreme events considering only its magnitude. The proposed approach simplify the quantitative and qualitative communication of extreme magnitude

  16. Topical Treatment With an Agent Disruptive to P. acnes Biofilm Provides Positive Therapeutic Response: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Michael J; Myntti, Matthew F

    2016-06-01

    The traditional disease model of acne has been one of follicular plugging due to 'sticky epithelial cells' associated with increased sebum production with deep follicular anaerobic conditions favoring P. acnes- generated inflammation. P. acnes biofilms have been found more frequently in patients with acne than controls. Biofilms are genetically coded to create adhesion to the pilosebaceous unit followed by production of a mucopolysaccharide coating capable of binding to lipid surfaces. Traditional therapies for acne have involved mixtures of oral and topical antibiotics admixed with topical keratolytics and retinoids, which are aimed at traditional bacterial reduction as well as downregulating the inflammatory cascade. These approaches are limited by side effect and compliance/tolerability issues. As the P. acnes biofilm may, in fact, be the instigator of this process, we studied the use of a topical agent designed to reduce the P. acnes biofilm to see if reducing the biofilm would be therapeutically efficacious. We present data of a proprietary topical non-prescription agent with a novel pharmaco mechanism designed to attack the biofilm produced by P. acnes. Our data shows a decrease of inflammatory lesions by 44% and non-inflammatory lesions by 32% after 12 weeks and also provided for a meaningful improvement in the quality of life of the patients in the study. These improvements were achieved with a product that was not associated with burning, chafing, irritation, or erythema, which can be seen with topical treatments. It is apparent from this study that by addressing the biofilm which protects the P. acnes bacteria through the use of the Acne Gel, the incidence of acne symptoms can be greatly reduced, while having no negative impacts on the patients' skin (ClinicalTrials.gov registry number NCT02404285).

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):677-683. PMID:27272073

  17. Speed-accuracy testing on the Apple iPad provides a quantitative test of upper extremity motor performance in children with dystonia.

    PubMed

    Bertucco, Matteo; Sanger, Terence D

    2014-11-01

    The currently available scales for quantitative measurement of the severity of childhood dystonia require human observer ratings and provide poor granularity in the scores for individual limbs. We evaluated the use of new-generation high-quality touchscreens (an iPad) according with the Fitts law, which is a mathematical model that takes into account the relation between movement time and the task accuracy. We compared the abilities of healthy subjects and children with dystonia. The linear relation described by Fitts law held for all the groups. The movement time and the information transmitted were age and severity related. Our results provide evidence for the usability and validity of using Fitts law as a quantitative diagnostic tool in children with dystonia. Furthermore, testing on touchscreen tablets may help to guide the design of user interfaces to maximize the communication rate for children who depend upon assistive communication devices. PMID:23965400

  18. Comparison of Topical Hemostatic Agents in a Swine Model of Extremity Arterial Hemorrhage: BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix vs. QuikClot Combat Gauze.

    PubMed

    Li, Huixi; Wang, Lin; Alwaal, Amjad; Lee, Yung-Chin; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Spangler, Taylor A; Banie, Lia; O'Hara, Reginald B; Lin, Guiting

    2016-01-01

    BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix (BM) and QuikClot Combat Gauze (CG) have both been used to treat traumatic bleeding. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and initial safety of both products in a swine extremity arterial hemorrhage model, which mimics combat injury. Swine (37.13 ± 0.56 kg, NBM = 11, NCG = 9) were anesthetized and splenectomized. We then isolated the femoral arteries and performed a 6 mm arteriotomy. After 45 s of free bleeding, either BM or CG was applied. Fluid resuscitation was provided to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. Animals were observed for three hours or until death. Fluoroscopic angiography and wound stability challenge tests were performed on survivors. Tissue samples were collected for histologic examination. Stable hemostasis was achieved in 11/11 BM and 5/9 CG subjects, with recovery of mean arterial pressure and animal survival for three hours (p < 0.05, Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.82 (0.85-415.3)). Time to stable hemostasis was shorter for the BM-treated group (4.8 ± 2.5 min vs. 58 ± 20.1 min; Median = 2, Interquartile Range (IQR) = 0 min vs. Median = 60, IQR = 120 min; p < 0.05) and experienced longer total stable hemostasis (175.2 ± 2.5 min vs. 92.4 ± 29.9 min; Median = 178, IQR = 0 min vs. Median = 120, IQR = 178 min; p < 0.05). Post-treatment blood loss was lower with BM (9.5 ± 2.4 mL/kg, Median = 10.52, IQR = 13.63 mL/kg) compared to CG (29.9 ± 9.9 mL/kg, Median = 29.38, IQR = 62.44 mL/kg) (p = 0.2875). Standard BM products weighed less compared to CG (6.9 ± 0.03 g vs. 20.2 ± 0.4 g) (p < 0.05) and absorbed less blood (3.4 ± 0.8 g vs. 41.9 ± 12.3 g) (p < 0.05). Fluoroscopic angiography showed recanalization in 5/11 (BM) and 0/5 (CG) surviving animals (p = 0.07, OR = 9.3 (0.41-208.8)). The wound stability challenge test resulted in wound re-bleeding in 1/11 (BM) and 5/5 (CG) surviving animals (p < 0.05, OR = 0.013 (0.00045-0.375)). Histologic evidence indicated no wound site, distal limb or major

  19. Comparison of Topical Hemostatic Agents in a Swine Model of Extremity Arterial Hemorrhage: BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix vs. QuikClot Combat Gauze

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huixi; Wang, Lin; Alwaal, Amjad; Lee, Yung-Chin; Reed-Maldonado, Amanda; Spangler, Taylor A.; Banie, Lia; O’Hara, Reginald B.; Lin, Guiting

    2016-01-01

    BloodSTOP iX Battle Matrix (BM) and QuikClot Combat Gauze (CG) have both been used to treat traumatic bleeding. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and initial safety of both products in a swine extremity arterial hemorrhage model, which mimics combat injury. Swine (37.13 ± 0.56 kg, NBM = 11, NCG = 9) were anesthetized and splenectomized. We then isolated the femoral arteries and performed a 6 mm arteriotomy. After 45 s of free bleeding, either BM or CG was applied. Fluid resuscitation was provided to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 65 mmHg. Animals were observed for three hours or until death. Fluoroscopic angiography and wound stability challenge tests were performed on survivors. Tissue samples were collected for histologic examination. Stable hemostasis was achieved in 11/11 BM and 5/9 CG subjects, with recovery of mean arterial pressure and animal survival for three hours (p < 0.05, Odds Ratio (OR) = 18.82 (0.85–415.3)). Time to stable hemostasis was shorter for the BM-treated group (4.8 ± 2.5 min vs. 58 ± 20.1 min; Median = 2, Interquartile Range (IQR) = 0 min vs. Median = 60, IQR = 120 min; p < 0.05) and experienced longer total stable hemostasis (175.2 ± 2.5 min vs. 92.4 ± 29.9 min; Median = 178, IQR = 0 min vs. Median = 120, IQR = 178 min; p < 0.05). Post-treatment blood loss was lower with BM (9.5 ± 2.4 mL/kg, Median = 10.52, IQR = 13.63 mL/kg) compared to CG (29.9 ± 9.9 mL/kg, Median = 29.38, IQR = 62.44 mL/kg) (p = 0.2875). Standard BM products weighed less compared to CG (6.9 ± 0.03 g vs. 20.2 ± 0.4 g) (p < 0.05) and absorbed less blood (3.4 ± 0.8 g vs. 41.9 ± 12.3 g) (p < 0.05). Fluoroscopic angiography showed recanalization in 5/11 (BM) and 0/5 (CG) surviving animals (p = 0.07, OR = 9.3 (0.41–208.8)). The wound stability challenge test resulted in wound re-bleeding in 1/11 (BM) and 5/5 (CG) surviving animals (p < 0.05, OR = 0.013 (0.00045–0.375)). Histologic evidence indicated no wound site, distal limb or

  20. Agent Building Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    AgentBuilder is a software component developed under an SBIR contract between Reticular Systems, Inc., and Goddard Space Flight Center. AgentBuilder allows software developers without experience in intelligent agent technologies to easily build software applications using intelligent agents. Agents are components of software that will perform tasks automatically, with no intervention or command from a user. AgentBuilder reduces the time and cost of developing agent systems and provides a simple mechanism for implementing high-performance agent systems.

  1. A hollow tetrahedral cage of hexadecagold dianion provides a robust backbone for a tuneable sub-nanometer oxidation and reduction agent via endohedral doping.

    PubMed

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu

    2006-12-14

    We show, via density functional theory calculations, that dianionic Au16(2-) cluster has a stable, hollow, Td symmetric cage structure, stabilized by 18 delocalized valence electrons. The cage maintains its robust geometry, with a minor Jahn-Teller deformation, over several charge states (q = -1,0,+1), forming spin doublet, triplet and quadruplet states according to the Hund's rules. Endohedral doping of the Au16 cage by Al or Si yields a geometrically robust, tuneable oxidation and reduction agent. Si@Au16 is a magic species with 20 delocalized electrons. We calculate a significant binding energy for the anionic Si@Au16/O2- complex and show that the adsorbed O2 is activated to a superoxo-species, a result which is at variance with the experimentally well-documented inertness of Au16- anion towards oxygen uptake. PMID:17119647

  2. Promoting Socio-Economic Development: How Mobile Telephony Is an Agent for Creating High-Paying Jobs in Ghana from the Service Providers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boateng, Ofori

    2011-01-01

    This exploration study examined solely, mobile telephony (which is an important aspect of ICTs) and how it promotes the creation of high-paying jobs that positively impact socio-economic development in Ghana from the service providers. perspective. This academic study focusing solely on Ghana mobile telephony service providers is the first of its…

  3. Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, Jeff; Larsen, Jon

    2013-11-01

    Acknowledgements; 1. Extreme environments: what, where, how; 2. Properties of dense and classical plasmas; 3. Laser energy absorption in matter; 4. Hydrodynamic motion; 5. Shocks; 6. Equation of state; 7. Ionization; 8. Thermal energy transport; 9. Radiation energy transport; 10. Magnetohydrodynamics; 11. Considerations for constructing radiation-hydrodynamics computer codes; 12. Numerical simulations; Appendix: units and constants, glossary of symbols; References; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  5. Designing Agent Utilities for Coordinated, Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Coordinating the behavior of a large number of agents to achieve a system level goal poses unique design challenges. In particular, problems of scaling (number of agents in the thousands to tens of thousands), observability (agents have limited sensing capabilities), and robustness (the agents are unreliable) make it impossible to simply apply methods developed for small multi-agent systems composed of reliable agents. To address these problems, we present an approach based on deriving agent goals that are aligned with the overall system goal, and can be computed using information readily available to the agents. Then, each agent uses a simple reinforcement learning algorithm to pursue its own goals. Because of the way in which those goals are derived, there is no need to use difficult to scale external mechanisms to force collaboration or coordination among the agents, or to ensure that agents actively attempt to appropriate the tasks of agents that suffered failures. To present these results in a concrete setting, we focus on the problem of finding the sub-set of a set of imperfect devices that results in the best aggregate device. This is a large distributed agent coordination problem where each agent (e.g., device) needs to determine whether to be part of the aggregate device. Our results show that the approach proposed in this work provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional search methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents failed midway through the simulation) the system's performance degrades gracefully and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized search algorithm. The results also show that the gains increase as the size of the system (e.g., number of agents) increases. This latter result is particularly encouraging and suggests that this method is ideally suited for domains where the number of agents is currently in the

  6. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  7. Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan

    2006-04-01

    The assessment of risks posed by natural hazards such as floods, droughts, earthquakes, tsunamis or cyclones, is often based on short-term historical records that may not reflect the full range or magnitude of events possible. As human populations grow, especially in hazard-prone areas, methods for accurately assessing natural hazard risks are becoming increasingly important. In Extreme Events Jonathan Nott describes the many methods used to reconstruct such hazards from natural long-term records. He demonstrates how long-term (multi-century to millennial) records are essential in gaining a realistic understanding of the variability of natural hazards, and how short-term historical records can often misrepresent the likely risks associated with natural hazards. This book will form a useful resource for students taking courses covering natural hazards and risk assessment. It will also be valuable for urban planners, policy makers and non-specialists as a guide to understanding and reconstructing long-term records of natural hazards. Explains mechanisms that cause extreme events and discusses their prehistoric records Describes how to reconstruct long-term records of natural hazards in order to make accurate risk assessments Demonstrates that natural hazards can follow cycles over time and do not occur randomly

  8. Extreme Programming: Maestro Style

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang; Powell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    "Extreme Programming: Maestro Style" is the name of a computer programming methodology that has evolved as a custom version of a methodology, called extreme programming that has been practiced in the software industry since the late 1990s. The name of this version reflects its origin in the work of the Maestro team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory that develops software for Mars exploration missions. Extreme programming is oriented toward agile development of software resting on values of simplicity, communication, testing, and aggressiveness. Extreme programming involves use of methods of rapidly building and disseminating institutional knowledge among members of a computer-programming team to give all the members a shared view that matches the view of the customers for whom the software system is to be developed. Extreme programming includes frequent planning by programmers in collaboration with customers, continually examining and rewriting code in striving for the simplest workable software designs, a system metaphor (basically, an abstraction of the system that provides easy-to-remember software-naming conventions and insight into the architecture of the system), programmers working in pairs, adherence to a set of coding standards, collaboration of customers and programmers, frequent verbal communication, frequent releases of software in small increments of development, repeated testing of the developmental software by both programmers and customers, and continuous interaction between the team and the customers. The environment in which the Maestro team works requires the team to quickly adapt to changing needs of its customers. In addition, the team cannot afford to accept unnecessary development risk. Extreme programming enables the Maestro team to remain agile and provide high-quality software and service to its customers. However, several factors in the Maestro environment have made it necessary to modify some of the conventional extreme

  9. Laser-based instrumentation for the detection of chemical agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, A. Jr.; Sander, R.K.; Quigley, G.P.; Radziemski, L.J.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Several laser-based techniques are being evaluated for the remote, point, and surface detection of chemical agents. Among the methods under investigation are optoacoustic spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence (SDLIF). Optoacoustic detection has already been shown to be capable of extremely sensitive point detection. Its application to remote sensing of chemical agents is currently being evaluated. Atomic emission from the region of a laser-generated plasma has been used to identify the characteristic elements contained in nerve (P and F) and blister (S and Cl) agents. Employing this LIBS approach, detection of chemical agent simulants dispersed in air and adsorbed on a variety of surfaces has been achieved. Synchronous detection of laser-induced fluorescence provides an attractive alternative to conventional LIF, in that an artificial narrowing of the fluorescence emission is obtained. The application of this technique to chemical agent simulants has been successfully demonstrated. 19 figures.

  10. Electronics for Extreme Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, J. U.; Cressler, J.; Li, Y.; Niu, G.

    2001-01-01

    Most of the NASA missions involve extreme environments comprising radiation and low or high temperatures. Current practice of providing friendly ambient operating environment to electronics costs considerable power and mass (for shielding). Immediate missions such as the Europa orbiter and lander and Mars landers require the electronics to perform reliably in extreme conditions during the most critical part of the mission. Some other missions planned in the future also involve substantial surface activity in terms of measurements, sample collection, penetration through ice and crust and the analysis of samples. Thus it is extremely critical to develop electronics that could reliably operate under extreme space environments. Silicon On Insulator (SOI) technology is an extremely attractive candidate for NASA's future low power and high speed electronic systems because it offers increased transconductance, decreased sub-threshold slope, reduced short channel effects, elimination of kink effect, enhanced low field mobility, and immunity from radiation induced latch-up. A common belief that semiconductor devices function better at low temperatures is generally true for bulk devices but it does not hold true for deep sub-micron SOI CMOS devices with microscopic device features of 0.25 micrometers and smaller. Various temperature sensitive device parameters and device characteristics have recently been reported in the literature. Behavior of state of the art technology devices under such conditions needs to be evaluated in order to determine possible modifications in the device design for better performance and survivability under extreme environments. Here, we present a unique approach of developing electronics for extreme environments to benefit future NASA missions as described above. This will also benefit other long transit/life time missions such as the solar sail and planetary outposts in which electronics is out open in the unshielded space at the ambient space

  11. Identification of the Factors That Govern the Ability of Therapeutic Antibodies to Provide Postchallenge Protection Against Botulinum Toxin: A Model for Assessing Postchallenge Efficacy of Medical Countermeasures against Agents of Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare

    PubMed Central

    Al-Saleem, Fetweh H.; Nasser, Zidoon; Olson, Rebecca M.; Cao, Linsen

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic antibodies are one of the major classes of medical countermeasures that can provide protection against potential bioweapons such as botulinum toxin. Although a broad array of antibodies are being evaluated for their ability to neutralize the toxin, there is little information that defines the circumstances under which these antibodies can be used. In the present study, an effort was made to quantify the temporal factors that govern therapeutic antibody use in a postchallenge scenario. Experiments were done involving inhalation administration of toxin to mice, intravenous administration to mice, and direct application to murine phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm preparations. As part of this study, several pharmacokinetic characteristics of botulinum toxin and neutralizing antibodies were measured. The core observation that emerged from the work was that the window of opportunity within which postchallenge administration of antibodies exerted a beneficial effect increased as the challenge dose of toxin decreased. The critical factor in establishing the window of opportunity was the amount of time needed for fractional redistribution of a neuroparalytic quantum of toxin from the extraneuronal space to the intraneuronal space. This redistribution event was a dose-dependent phenomenon. It is likely that the approach used to identify the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of antibodies against botulinum toxin can be used to assess the factors that govern postchallenge efficacy of medical countermeasures against any agent of bioterrorism or biological warfare. PMID:21586604

  12. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  13. Adapting photosynthesis to the near-infrared: non-covalent binding of phycocyanobilin provides an extreme spectral red-shift to phycobilisome core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335.

    PubMed

    Miao, Dan; Ding, Wen-Long; Zhao, Bao-Qing; Lu, Lu; Xu, Qian-Zhao; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2016-06-01

    Phycobiliproteins that bind bilins are organized as light-harvesting complexes, phycobilisomes, in cyanobacteria and red algae. The harvested light energy is funneled to reaction centers via two energy traps, allophycocyanin B and the core-membrane linker, ApcE1 (conventional ApcE). The covalently bound phycocyanobilin (PCB) of ApcE1 absorbs near 660 nm and fluoresces near 675 nm. In cyanobacteria capable of near infrared photoacclimation, such as Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, there exist even further spectrally red shifted components absorbing >700 nm and fluorescing >710 nm. We expressed the chromophore domain of the extra core-membrane linker from Synechococcus sp. PCC7335, ApcE2, in E. coli together with enzymes generating the chromophore, PCB. The resulting chromoproteins, PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and the more truncated PCB-ApcE2(24-245), absorb at 700 nm and fluoresce at 714 nm. The red shift of ~40 nm compared with canonical ApcE1 results from non-covalent binding of the chromophore by which its full conjugation length including the Δ3,3(1) double bond is preserved. The extreme spectral red-shift could not be ascribed to exciton coupling: dimeric PCB-ApcE2(1-273) and monomeric-ApcE2(24-245) absorbed and fluoresced similarly. Chromophorylation of ApcE2 with phycoerythrobilin- or phytochromobilin resulted in similar red shifts (absorption at 615 and 711 nm, fluorescence at 628 or 726 nm, respectively), compared to the covalently bound chromophores. The self-assembled non-covalent chromophorylation demonstrates a novel access to red and near-infrared emitting fluorophores. Brightly fluorescent biomarking was exemplified in E. coli by single-plasmid transformation. PMID:27045046

  14. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  15. Optimization using Extremal Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boettcher, Stefan

    2001-03-01

    We explore a new heuristic for finding high-quality solutions to NP-hard optimization problems which we have recently introduced [see ``Nature's Way of Optimizing," Artificial Intelligence 119, 275-286 (2000) and cond-mat/0010337]. The method, called extremal optimization, is inspired by self-organized criticality, a concept introduced to describe emergent complexity in physical systems. Extremal optimization successively replaces extremely undesirable elements of a single sub-optimal solution with new, random ones. Large fluctuations ensue that efficiently explore many local optima. With only one adjustable parameter, its performance has proved competitive with more elaborate methods, especially near phase transitions which are believed to contain the hardest instances. In particular, extremal optimization is superior to simulated annealing in the partitioning of sparse graphs, it finds the overlap of all ground-states at the phase transition of the 3-coloring problem, and it provides independent confirmation for the ground-state energy of spin glasses, previously obtained with elaborate genetic algorithms.

  16. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  17. Extreme negotiations.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jeff; Donigian, Aram; Hughes, Jonathan

    2010-11-01

    CEOs and other senior executives must make countless complex, high-stakes deals across functional areas and divisions, with alliance partners and critical suppliers, and with customers and regulators. The pressure of such negotiations may make them feel a lot like U.S. military officers in an Afghan village, fending off enemy fire while trying to win trust and get intelligence from the local populace. Both civilian and military leaders face what the authors call "dangerous negotiations," in which the traps are many and good advice is scarce. Although the sources of danger are quite different for executives and officers, they resort to the same kinds of behaviors. Both feel pressure to make quick progress, project strength and control (particularly when they have neither), rely on force rather than collaboration, trade resources for cooperation rather than build trust, and make unwanted compromises to minimize potential damage. The authors outline five core strategies that "in extremis" military negotiators use to resolve conflicts and influence others: maintaining a big-picture perspective; uncovering hidden agendas to improve collaboration; using facts and fairness to get buy-in; building trust; and focusing on process as well as outcomes. These strategies provide an effective framework that business executives can use to prepare for a negotiation and guide their moves at the bargaining table. PMID:21049681

  18. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  19. Extremal quantum cloning machines

    SciTech Connect

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the problem of cloning a set of states that is invariant under the action of an irreducible group representation. We then characterize the cloners that are extremal in the convex set of group covariant cloning machines, among which one can restrict the search for optimal cloners. For a set of states that is invariant under the discrete Weyl-Heisenberg group, we show that all extremal cloners can be unitarily realized using the so-called double-Bell states, whence providing a general proof of the popular ansatz used in the literature for finding optimal cloners in a variety of settings. Our result can also be generalized to continuous-variable optimal cloning in infinite dimensions, where the covariance group is the customary Weyl-Heisenberg group of displacement000.

  20. EXTREME -- Handling extreme data sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Mark

    This package provides some utilities, background documentation, and associated files for adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and software which uses it, to handle very large data sets. The principal focus of this is to move to use of 64 bits of address space on 64-bit operating systems. This document (SSN/73) is squarely aimed at the problem of adapting the Starlink Software Collection, and consequently focuses on the three operating systems (Solaris, Linux and Tru64) supported by Starlink, the compiled languages Fortran 77 and ANSI C, and Starlink's somewhat idiosyncratic build mechanisms. However, some of the discussion here may be of interest or use to people who are considering the change from 32 to 64 bits for software in other contexts.

  1. Min and Max Extreme Interval Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jance, Marsha L.; Thomopoulos, Nick T.

    2011-01-01

    The paper shows how to find the min and max extreme interval values for the exponential and triangular distributions from the min and max uniform extreme interval values. Tables are provided to show the min and max extreme interval values for the uniform, exponential, and triangular distributions for different probabilities and observation sizes.

  2. Providers issue brief: alternative providers.

    PubMed

    Rothouse, M

    1999-06-29

    Access by managed care plan enrollees, scope of practice issues and fee reimbursement by Medicaid and third parties such as insurance carriers is the engine that drives legislation recognizing alternative health care providers--chiropractors, acupuncturists, physical therapists, naturopaths, massage therapists, homeopaths, and dietitians and nutritionists. PMID:11073386

  3. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  4. Mineralogy under extreme conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Jinfu

    2012-02-07

    We have performed measurements of minerals based on the synchrotron source for single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, inelastic scattering, spectroscopy and radiography by using diamond anvil cells. We investigated the properties of iron (Fe), iron-magnesium oxides (Fe, Mg)O, silica(SiO{sub 2}), iron-magnesium silicates (Fe, Mg)SiO{sub 3} under simulated high pressure-high temperature extreme conditions of the Earth's crust, upper mantle, low mantle, core-mantle boundary, outer core, and inner core. The results provide a new window on the investigation of the mineral properties at Earth's conditions.

  5. A convenient first aid kit for chemical and biological agents and for radiation exposure.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Bhaskar, A S B; Gautam, Anshoo; Gopalan, N; Singh, A K; Singh, Beer; Flora, S J S

    2012-05-01

    The chemical and biological warfare agents are extremely toxic in nature. They act rapidly even in very small quantities and death may occur in minutes. Hence, physical and medical protection must be provided immediately to save life or avoid serious injury. A first aid kit has thus been developed for providing immediate relief from chemical and biological warfare agents (FAKCBW) with the objective of easy detection, personal decontamination, antidote for chemical warfare agents (like nerve agents, sulphur mustard, phosgene, cyanide, radiation exposure and bacterial agents), along with basic medication aid for pain, fever and inflammation. The kit box also includes a user friendly handbook with a simple standard operating procedure. In addition, the kit is rugged to withstand normal jerks, vibration and is water-proof. PMID:23029921

  6. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles as dual imaging agent in biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wenlong; Bony, Badrul Alam; Kim, Cho Rong; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2013-01-01

    There is no doubt that the molecular imaging is an extremely important technique in diagnosing diseases. Dual imaging is emerging as a step forward in molecular imaging technique because it can provide us with more information useful for diagnosing diseases than single imaging. Therefore, diverse dual imaging modalities should be developed. Molecular imaging generally relies on imaging agents. Mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles could be valuable materials for dual magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-fluorescent imaging (FI) because they have both excellent and diverse magnetic and fluorescent properties useful for dual MRI-FI, depending on lanthanide ions used. Since they are mixed nanoparticles, they are compact, robust, and stable, which is extremely useful for biomedical applications. They can be also easily synthesized with facile composition control. In this study, we explored three systems of ultrasmall mixed lanthanide (Dy/Eu, Ho/Eu, and Ho/Tb) oxide nanoparticles to demonstrate their usefulness as dual T2 MRI–FI agents. PMID:24220641

  7. First soluble M@C60 derivatives provide enhanced access to metallofullerenes and permit in vivo evaluation of Gd@C60[C(COOH)2]10 as a MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Bolskar, Robert D; Benedetto, Angelo F; Husebo, Lars O; Price, Roger E; Jackson, Edward F; Wallace, Sidney; Wilson, Lon J; Alford, J Michael

    2003-05-01

    M@C(60) and related endohedral metallofullerenes comprise a significant portion of the metallofullerene yield in the traditional arc synthesis, but their chemistry and potential applications have been largely overlooked because of their sparse solubility. In this work, procedures are described to solublize Gd@C(60) species for the first time by forming the derivative, Gd@C(60)[C(COOCH(2)CH(3))(2)](10), and its hydrolyzed water-soluble form, Gd@C(60)[C(COOH)(2)](10). Imparting water solubility to Gd@C(60) permits its evaluation as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. Relaxometry measurements for Gd@C(60)[C(COOH)(2)](10) reveal it to possess a relaxivity (4.6 mM(-1) s(-1) at 20 MHz and 40 degrees C) comparable to that of commercially available Gd(III) chelate-based MRI agents. An in vivo MRI biodistribution study in a rodent model reveals Gd@C(60)[C(COOH)(2)](10) to possess the first non-reticuloendothelial system (RES) localizing behavior for a water-soluble endohedral metallofullerene species, consistent with its lack of intermolecular aggregation in solution as determined by light-scattering measurements. This first derivatization and use of a M@C(60) species suggests new potential for metallofullerene technologies by reducing reliance on the chromatographic purification procedures normally employed for the far less abundant M@C(82) and related endohedrals. The recognition that water-soluble fullerene derivatives can be designed to avoid high levels of RES uptake is an important step toward fullerene-based pharmaceutical development. PMID:12720461

  8. Fighting nerve agent chemical weapons with enzyme technology.

    PubMed

    LeJeune, K E; Dravis, B C; Yang, F; Hetro, A D; Doctor, B P; Russell, A J

    1998-12-13

    The extreme toxicity of organophosphorous-based compounds has been known since the late 1930s. Starting in the mid-1940s, many nations throughout the world have been producing large quantities of organophosphorous (OP) nerve agents. Huge stockpiles of nerve agents have since developed. There are reportedly more than 200,000 tons of nerve agents in existence worldwide. There is an obvious need for protective clothing capable of guarding an individual from exposure to OP chemical weapons. Also, chemical processes that can effectively demilitarize and detoxify stored nerve agents are in great demand. The new and widely publicized Chemical Weapons Treaty requires such processes to soon be in place throughout the world. Biotechnology may provide the tools necessary to make such processes not only possible, but quite efficient in reducing the nerve agent dilemma. The following paper discusses some of the history in developing enzyme technology against nerve agents. Our laboratory has interest in enhancing the productivity and potential utility of these systems in both demilitarization and decontamination applications. Freeze-dried nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzyme preparations have been shown to be effective in decontaminating gaseous nerve agents. The direct incorporation of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes within cross-linked polyurethane foam matrices during polymer synthesis has been shown to dramatically enhance the productivity of two different enzyme systems. The future goal of such work lies in building a bridge between the clinical application of nerve agent-hydrolyzing enzymes and practical processing techniques that may take advantage of the initial results already achieved in the laboratory. PMID:9928090

  9. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  10. Agent Based Modeling Applications for Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, J. S.

    2004-12-01

    Agent-based modeling techniques have successfully been applied to systems in which complex behaviors or outcomes arise from varied interactions between individuals in the system. Each individual interacts with its environment, as well as with other individuals, by following a set of relatively simple rules. Traditionally this "bottom-up" modeling approach has been applied to problems in the fields of economics and sociology, but more recently has been introduced to various disciplines in the geosciences. This technique can help explain the origin of complex processes from a relatively simple set of rules, incorporate large and detailed datasets when they exist, and simulate the effects of extreme events on system-wide behavior. Some of the challenges associated with this modeling method include: significant computational requirements in order to keep track of thousands to millions of agents, methods and strategies of model validation are lacking, as is a formal methodology for evaluating model uncertainty. Challenges specific to the geosciences, include how to define agents that control water, contaminant fluxes, climate forcing and other physical processes and how to link these "geo-agents" into larger agent-based simulations that include social systems such as demographics economics and regulations. Effective management of limited natural resources (such as water, hydrocarbons, or land) requires an understanding of what factors influence the demand for these resources on a regional and temporal scale. Agent-based models can be used to simulate this demand across a variety of sectors under a range of conditions and determine effective and robust management policies and monitoring strategies. The recent focus on the role of biological processes in the geosciences is another example of an area that could benefit from agent-based applications. A typical approach to modeling the effect of biological processes in geologic media has been to represent these processes in

  11. Extreme Scale Visual Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Shen, Han-Wei; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-05-08

    Extreme-scale visual analytics (VA) is about applying VA to extreme-scale data. The articles in this special issue examine advances related to extreme-scale VA problems, their analytical and computational challenges, and their real-world applications.

  12. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  13. A Scalable and Robust Multi-Agent Approach to Distributed Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2005-01-01

    Modularizing a large optimization problem so that the solutions to the subproblems provide a good overall solution is a challenging problem. In this paper we present a multi-agent approach to this problem based on aligning the agent objectives with the system objectives, obviating the need to impose external mechanisms to achieve collaboration among the agents. This approach naturally addresses scaling and robustness issues by ensuring that the agents do not rely on the reliable operation of other agents We test this approach in the difficult distributed optimization problem of imperfect device subset selection [Challet and Johnson, 2002]. In this problem, there are n devices, each of which has a "distortion", and the task is to find the subset of those n devices that minimizes the average distortion. Our results show that in large systems (1000 agents) the proposed approach provides improvements of over an order of magnitude over both traditional optimization methods and traditional multi-agent methods. Furthermore, the results show that even in extreme cases of agent failures (i.e., half the agents fail midway through the simulation) the system remains coordinated and still outperforms a failure-free and centralized optimization algorithm.

  14. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  15. Evolutions from extremality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    We examine the evolution of extremal spherically symmetric black holes, developing both general theory as well as the specific cases of (charged) null dust and massless scalar field spacetimes. As matter accretes onto extremal marginally trapped tubes, they generically evolve to become nonextremal, with the initial extremal horizon bifurcating into inner and outer nonextremal horizons. At the start of this process arbitrarily slow matter accretion can cause a geometrically invariant measure of horizon growth to jump from zero to infinity. We also consider dynamical horizons that are extremal throughout their evolution and see that such spacetimes contain two extremal black hole horizons: an inner isolated one and an outer dynamical one. We compare these extremal dynamical horizons with the dynamical extreme event horizon spacetimes of Murata, Reall and Tanahashi.

  16. Communication path for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Betts, Bradley J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and systems for using one or more radio frequency identification devices (RFIDs), or other suitable signal transmitters and/or receivers, to provide a sensor information communication path, to provide location and/or spatial orientation information for an emergency service worker (ESW), to provide an ESW escape route, to indicate a direction from an ESW to an ES appliance, to provide updated information on a region or structure that presents an extreme environment (fire, hazardous fluid leak, underwater, nuclear, etc.) in which an ESW works, and to provide accumulated thermal load or thermal breakdown information on one or more locations in the region.

  17. A amphoteric copolymer profile modification agent

    SciTech Connect

    Wang HongGuan; Yu LianCheng; Tian HongKun

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a new gel profile modification agent prepared by an amphoteric copolymer (FT-213) and a novel crosslinking agent (BY), and introduces the preparations of the amphoteric polymer, the crosslinking agent and the profile modification agent, the action mechanism, the test conditions and the evaluations of the performance of the agent. The 45 well treatments in oilfields demonstrate that the agent can be prepared conveniently, the agent has better compatibility and application performances, and the treatment life is longer with the use of the agent. 80,000 tons incremental oil and 60,000 m{sup 3} decreasing water production have been achieved.

  18. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine.

    PubMed

    Imray, Christopher H E; Grocott, Michael P W; Wilson, Mark H; Hughes, Amy; Auerbach, Paul S

    2015-12-19

    Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine are modern and rapidly evolving specialties that address the spirit of adventure and exploration. The relevance of and interest in these specialties are changing rapidly to match the underlying activities, which include global exploration, adventure travel, and military deployments. Extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine share themes of providing best available medical care in the outdoors, especially in austere or remote settings. Early clinical and logistics decision making can often have important effects on subsequent outcomes. There are lessons to be learned from out-of-hospital care, military medicine, humanitarian medicine, and disaster medicine that can inform in-hospital medicine, and vice-versa. The future of extreme, expedition, and wilderness medicine will be defined by both recipients and practitioners, and empirical observations will be transformed by evidence-based practice. PMID:26738718

  19. Lymphatic Filariasis Disseminating to the Upper Extremity

    PubMed Central

    Maldjian, Catherine; Khanna, Vineet; Tandon, Bevan; Then, Matthew; Yassin, Mohamed; Adam, Richard; Klein, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis is the most common cause of acquired lymphedema worldwide (Szuba and Rockson, 1998). It is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions, and its effects are devastating. With over 100 million infected persons, it ranks second only to leprosy as the leading cause of permanent and long-term disability. Wuchereria bancrofti is the etiologic agent in 90% of cases. There is a dearth of published MRI findings with pathologically proven active infections, making this entity even more of a diagnostic dilemma. Imaging may provide the first clue that one is dealing with a parasite and may facilitate proper treatment and containment of this disease. This is the first report of pathologic correlation with MRI findings in the extremity in active filariasis. The magnetic resonance images demonstrate an enhancing, infiltrative, mass-like appearance with partial encasement of vasculature that has not been previously described in filariasis. Low signal strands in T2-hyperintense dilated lymphatic channels are seen and may depict live adult worms. We hypothesize that the low signal strands correspond to the collagen rich acellular cuticle. This, in combination with the surrounding hyperintense T2 signal, corresponding to a dilated lymphatic channel, may provide more specific MRI findings for active nematodal infection, which can prompt early biopsy, pathological correlation, and diagnosis. PMID:24707427

  20. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1999-11-01

    Several important developments have occurred in recent years in the chemotherapy for and prophylaxis of parasitic infections. Although mefloquine is clearly the most effective agent for prevention of chloroquine-resistant falciparum malaria, its use has been compromised by side effects, both real and imagined. Well-designed studies have shown that side effects occur no more frequently with low-dose mefloquine than with chloroquine. Use of mefloquine in pregnant women has not been associated with birth defects, but the incidence of stillbirths may be increased. Malarone is a new agent that combines atovaquone and proguanil, and it may be as effective as mefloquine; however, it is not yet available in the United States. Several newer agents have appeared in response to the development of multidrug resistant Plasmodium falciparum, especially in Southeast Asia. Halofantrine is available for the treatment of mild to moderate malaria due to P. falciparum and for P. vivax infections. Because of severe toxic effects, use of halofantrine should be restricted to only those unusual and rare situations in which other agents cannot be used. Artemisinin (an extract of the Chinese herbal remedy qinghaosu) and two derivatives, artesunate and artemether, are active against multidrug resistant P. falciparum and are widely used in Asia in oral, parenteral, and rectal forms. The antibacterial azithromycin in combination with atovaquone or quinine has now been reported to treat babesiosis effectively in experimental animals and in a few patients. Azithromycin in combination with paromomycin has also shown promise in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis (and toxoplasmosis when combined with pyrimethamine) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Albendazole is currently the only systemic agent available for treatment of microsporidiosis, an infection primarily of patients with AIDS. In addition, albendazole and ivermectin have emerged as effective broad

  1. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  2. How extreme is extreme hourly precipitation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Dialynas, Yannis G.; Pappas, Christoforos

    2016-04-01

    The importance of accurate representation of precipitation at fine time scales (e.g., hourly), directly associated with flash flood events, is crucial in hydrological design and prediction. The upper part of a probability distribution, known as the distribution tail, determines the behavior of extreme events. In general, and loosely speaking, tails can be categorized in two families: the subexponential and the hyperexponential family, with the first generating more intense and more frequent extremes compared to the latter. In past studies, the focus has been mainly on daily precipitation, with the Gamma distribution being the most popular model. Here, we investigate the behaviour of tails of hourly precipitation by comparing the upper part of empirical distributions of thousands of records with three general types of tails corresponding to the Pareto, Lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Specifically, we use thousands of hourly rainfall records from all over the USA. The analysis indicates that heavier-tailed distributions describe better the observed hourly rainfall extremes in comparison to lighter tails. Traditional representations of the marginal distribution of hourly rainfall may significantly deviate from observed behaviours of extremes, with direct implications on hydroclimatic variables modelling and engineering design.

  3. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  4. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  5. Antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  6. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  7. Extremity x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  8. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  9. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  10. Outcomes for extremely premature infants.

    PubMed

    Glass, Hannah C; Costarino, Andrew T; Stayer, Stephen A; Brett, Claire M; Cladis, Franklyn; Davis, Peter J

    2015-06-01

    developmental, learning, behavioral, and social problems is critical for children born at these early gestational ages.The striking similarities in response to extreme prematurity in the lung and brain imply that agents and techniques that benefit one organ are likely to also benefit the other. Finally, because therapy and supportive care continue to change, the outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants are ever evolving. Efforts to minimize injury, preserve growth, and identify interventions focused on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways are now being evaluated. Thus, treating and preventing long-term deficits must be developed in the context of a "moving target." PMID:25988638

  11. Stacked Extreme Learning Machines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongming; Huang, Guang-Bin; Lin, Zhiping; Wang, Han; Soh, Yeng Chai

    2015-09-01

    Extreme learning machine (ELM) has recently attracted many researchers' interest due to its very fast learning speed, good generalization ability, and ease of implementation. It provides a unified solution that can be used directly to solve regression, binary, and multiclass classification problems. In this paper, we propose a stacked ELMs (S-ELMs) that is specially designed for solving large and complex data problems. The S-ELMs divides a single large ELM network into multiple stacked small ELMs which are serially connected. The S-ELMs can approximate a very large ELM network with small memory requirement. To further improve the testing accuracy on big data problems, the ELM autoencoder can be implemented during each iteration of the S-ELMs algorithm. The simulation results show that the S-ELMs even with random hidden nodes can achieve similar testing accuracy to support vector machine (SVM) while having low memory requirements. With the help of ELM autoencoder, the S-ELMs can achieve much better testing accuracy than SVM and slightly better accuracy than deep belief network (DBN) with much faster training speed. PMID:25361517

  12. Workshop on Extreme Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundell, Carole; Sullivan, Mark

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryNever before has there been such a wealth of versatile ground- and space-based facilities with which to detect variable emission across the electromagnetic spectrum and beyond, to non-EM signals such as neutrinos and gravitational waves, to probe the most extreme phenomena in the Universe. The variable sky is already providing a wealth of new and surprising observations of phenomena such as GRBs, SNe and AGN that are pushing current theories beyond the state of the art. Multi-messenger follow-up will soon become de rigeur, and upcoming radio and optical all-sky transient surveys will revolutionise the study of the transient Universe. In addition to the technical and data challenges presented by such surveys, a major new challenge will be the interpretation of the wealth of available data and the identification of the underlying physics of new classes of variable (and potentially exotic) objects. Theoretical predictions will be vital for interpreting these future transient discoveries. The goal of this workshop was to bring together theorists and observers in order to identify unexplored synergies across three main research areas of extreme physics: gamma-ray bursts, supernovæ and, more generically, relativistic jets. It aimed to discuss key outstanding questions in these rapidly moving fields, such as the composition and acceleration of GRB and AGN jets, GRB progenitors and central engines, the origin of the wide range of observed variability time-scales in GRB prompt and after-glow light curves and related cosmological applications, the physics of the newly-discovered ultra-luminous SN-like optical transients-as well as to speculate on what we might hope to discover with future technology. The workshop absorbed two 90-minute sessions, selecting 3 main science topics (Relativistic Jets, GRBs and SNe) which it organised as structured discussions driven by a series of short but provocative questions. The final session featured a panel

  13. Quorum Sensing in Extreme Environments

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Kate; Charlesworth, James C.; LeBard, Rebecca; Visscher, Pieter T.; Burns, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial communication, particularly that of quorum sensing, plays an important role in regulating gene expression in a range of organisms. Although this phenomenon has been well studied in relation to, for example, virulence gene regulation, the focus of this article is to review our understanding of the role of microbial communication in extreme environments. Cell signaling regulates many important microbial processes and may play a pivotal role in driving microbial functional diversity and ultimately ecosystem function in extreme environments. Several recent studies have characterized cell signaling in modern analogs to early Earth communities (microbial mats), and characterization of cell signaling systems in these communities may provide unique insights in understanding the microbial interactions involved in function and survival in extreme environments. Cell signaling is a fundamental process that may have co-evolved with communities and environmental conditions on the early Earth. Without cell signaling, evolutionary pressures may have even resulted in the extinction rather than evolution of certain microbial groups. One of the biggest challenges in extremophile biology is understanding how and why some microbial functional groups are located where logically they would not be expected to survive, and tightly regulated communication may be key. Finally, quorum sensing has been recently identified for the first time in archaea, and thus communication at multiple levels (potentially even inter-domain) may be fundamental in extreme environments. PMID:25371335

  14. Applied extreme-value statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  15. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  16. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  17. Extremism without extremists: Deffuant model with emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2015-03-01

    The frequent occurrence of extremist views in many social contexts, often growing from small minorities to almost total majority, poses a significant challenge for democratic societies. The phenomenon can be described within the sociophysical paradigm. We present a modified version of the continuous bounded confidence opinion model, including a simple description of the influence of emotions on tolerances, and eventually on the evolution of opinions. Allowing for psychologically based correlation between the extreme opinions, high emotions and low tolerance for other people's views leads to quick dominance of the extreme views within the studied model, without introducing a special class of agents, as has been done in previous works. This dominance occurs even if the initial numbers of people with extreme opinions is very small. Possible suggestions related to mitigation of the process are briefly discussed.

  18. Survival of extreme opinions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Huang, Ding-wei

    2009-12-01

    We study the survival of extreme opinions in various processes of consensus formation. All the opinions are treated equally and subjected to the same rules of changing. We investigate three typical models to reach a consensus in each case: (A) personal influence, (B) influence from surroundings, and (C) influence to surroundings. Starting with uniformly distributed random opinions, our calculated results show that the extreme opinions can survive in both models (A) and (B), but not in model (C). We obtain a conclusion that both personal influence and passive adaptation to the environment are not sufficient enough to eradicate all the extreme opinions. Only the active persuasion to change the surroundings eliminates the extreme opinions completely.

  19. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  20. Extreme environments and exobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedmann, E. I.

    1993-01-01

    Ecological research on extreme environments can be applied to exobiological problems such as the question of life on Mars. If life forms (fossil or extant) are found on Mars, their study will help to solve fundamental questions about the nature of life on Earth. Extreme environments that are beyond the range of adaptability of their inhabitants are defined as "absolute extreme". Such environments can serve as terrestrial models for the last stages of life in the history of Mars, when the surface cooled down and atmosphere and water disappeared. The cryptoendolithic microbial community in porous rocks of the Ross Desert in Antarctica and the microbial mats at the bottom of frozen Antarctic lakes are such examples. The microbial communities of Siberian permafrost show that, in frozen but stable communities, long-term survival is possible. In the context of terraforming Mars, selected microorganisms isolated from absolute extreme environments are considered for use in creation of a biological carbon cycle.

  1. Hardware removal - extremity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007644.htm Hardware removal - extremity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Surgeons use hardware such as pins, plates, or screws to help ...

  2. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  3. Studies on Actinomycetal Resources under Extreme Environments in the West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.

    2005-12-01

    s: Actinomycetes play a quite important role in natural ecological system and they are also profile producers of antibiotics, antitumor agents, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors and immunomodifiers. which have been widely applied in industry, agriculture, forestry and pharmaceutical industry. In the past, the research work on actinomycetes was mainly concentrated on that of common habitats. Actinomycetes resources under extreme environments (including extreme high and low temperature, extreme high or low pH, high salt concentration etc.) have received comparatively little attention from microbiologists. Actinomycetes are regarded as one kind of sideline microorganisms and those under extreme environments are better materials for biological evolution and phylogenetic development in research. There are much more unknown species and much more worth researching for actinomycetes under extreme environments. There are many extreme environmental resources in the west of China. For example, wide range snow-mountains, basified soil and lakes, widely distributed acid and alkaline hot-springs in Yunnan provinces; more than 73.3 million hektares basified soil and salt lakes in Xinjiang Province and many unusual environments in Qinghai Province and other western Provinces. They were mostly precious natural resources and were destroyed, relatively fewer can provided us with unique conditions for study on actinomycetal resources under extreme environments. In recent years, our main work was focusing on study of extremophilic actinomycetal resources in the west of China by using conventional cultivation-methods and culture-independent methods (PCR-clone and DGGE/TGGE, etc), Results showed that large amount of unknown microbial resources (including actinomycetal resources) existed in natural extreme environments. Additionally, lots of new taxa were isolated and characterized using a polyphasic approach. Further, we got some new compounds with different bioactivities from these

  4. Rapid chemical agent identification by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yuan-Hsiang; Farquharson, Stuart

    2001-08-01

    Although the Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the development, production, stockpiling, and use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs), the use of these agents persists due to their low cost, simplicity in manufacturing and ease of deployment. These attributes make these weapons especially attractive to low technology countries and terrorists. The military and the public at large require portable, fast, sensitive, and accurate analyzers to provide early warning of the use of chemical weapons. Traditional laboratory analyzers such as the combination of gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy, although sensitive and accurate, are large and require up to an hour per analysis. New, chemical specific analyzers, such as immunoassays and molecular recognition sensors, are portable, fast, and sensitive, but are plagued by false-positives (response to interferents). To overcome these limitations, we have been investigating the potential of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to identify and quantify chemical warfare agents in either the gas or liquid phase. The approach is based on the extreme sensitivity of SERS demonstrated by single molecule detection, a new SERS material that we have developed to allow reproducible and reversible measurements, and the molecular specific information provided by Raman spectroscopy. Here we present SER spectra of chemical agent simulants in both the liquid and gas phase, as well as CWA hydrolysis phase.

  5. Extremal higher spin black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.

    2016-04-01

    The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.

  6. Climate Networks and Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurths, J.

    2014-12-01

    We analyse some climate dynamics from a complex network approach. This leads to an inverse problem: Is there a backbone-like structure underlying the climate system? For this we propose a method to reconstruct and analyze a complex network from data generated by a spatio-temporal dynamical system. This approach enables us to uncover relations to global circulation patterns in oceans and atmosphere. The global scale view on climate networks offers promising new perspectives for detecting dynamical structures based on nonlinear physical processes in the climate system. Moreover, we evaluate different regional climate models from this aspect. This concept is also applied to Monsoon data in order to characterize the regional occurrence of extreme rain events and its impact on predictability. Changing climatic conditions have led to a significant increase in magnitude and frequency of spatially extensive extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of South America. These events impose substantial natural hazards for population, economy, and ecology by floods and landslides. For example, heavy floods in Bolivia in early 2007 affected more than 133.000 households and produced estimated costs of 443 Mio. USD. Here, we develop a general framework to predict extreme events by combining a non-linear synchronization technique with complex networks. We apply our method to real-time satellite-derived rainfall data and are able to predict a large amount of extreme rainfall events. Our study reveals a linkage between polar and subtropical regimes as responsible mechanism: Extreme rainfall in the eastern Central Andes is caused by the interplay of northward migrating frontal systems and a low-level wind channel from the western Amazon to the subtropics, providing additional moisture. Frontal systems from the Antarctic thus play a key role for sub-seasonal variability of the South American Monsoon System.

  7. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  8. DIETARY AGENTS FOR PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF LUNG CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a prominent cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide. The main reason for high mortality due to lung cancer is attributable to the fact that the diagnosis is generally made when it has spread beyond a curable stage and cannot be treated surgically or with radiation therapy. Therefore, new approaches like dietary modifications could be extremely useful in reducing lung cancer incidences. Several fruits and vegetables offer a variety of bioactive compounds to afford protection against several diseases, including lung cancer. A number of research studies involving dietary agents provide strong evidence for their role in the prevention and treatment of lung cancer, and have identified their molecular mechanisms of action and potential targets. In this review article, we summarize data from in-vitro and in-vivo studies and where available, in clinical trials, on the effects of some of the most promising dietary agents against lung cancer. PMID:25644088

  9. Introducing Infectious Agents and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buonaguro, Franco M; Lewis, George K; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe

    2006-01-01

    Infectious Agents and Cancer is a new open access, peer-reviewed, online journal, which encompasses all aspects of basic, clinical and translational research that provide an insight into the association between chronic infections and cancer. PMID:23509916

  10. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test used in the successful diagnosis & treatment (with antibiotic, anti-viral agents & oriental herbal medicine) of a patient suffering from pain & weakness of an upper extremity & Barré-Liéou syndrome appearing after whiplash injury. A case report.

    PubMed

    Ayuzawa, S; Yano, H; Enomoto, T; Kobayashi, H; Nose, T

    1997-01-01

    A patient with a whiplash injury suffering from prolonged symptoms, including pain and weakness of the right upper extremity and the symptoms of Barré-Liéou syndrome, was diagnosed and treated with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test as a supplement to standard medical examinations. Radiological findings showed spondylotic canal stenosis with osteophytes and disc protrusions. The Bi-Digital O-Ring Test indicated a strong abnormal response around the right side of his neck and right shoulder, including the area of the vertebral artery and at acupuncture point GB 21, where positive resonant responses to Cytomegalovirus and Streptococcus faecalis were detected. Antibiotic and anti-viral agents, as well as Ku-Oketsu-Zai, a type of Oriental herbal medicine for overcoming blood stagnation or stasis, were administered according to the drug compatibility test using the Bi-Digital O-ring Test and the following clinical results were obtained. Infection at the site of the vertebral artery and the peri-arterial sympathetic nerve plexus was considered as a cause of the prolongation of the symptoms including Barré-Liéou syndrome, in this case. In addition we especially noted, in this clinical case, that the patient's impaired grasping force dramatically improved from 8 kg to 52 kg in a very short periods of time when the patient held suitable medicine selected with the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test drug compatibility test. We assume that the drug action was transferred electromagnetically, by which the pathological electromagnetic oscillations caused by trauma and following infections were scavenged. This effect might lead to an improvement in the coordination of the neuromuscular system. PMID:9494625

  11. On causality of extreme events

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multiple metrics have been developed to detect causality relations between data describing the elements constituting complex systems, all of them considering their evolution through time. Here we propose a metric able to detect causality within static data sets, by analysing how extreme events in one element correspond to the appearance of extreme events in a second one. The metric is able to detect non-linear causalities; to analyse both cross-sectional and longitudinal data sets; and to discriminate between real causalities and correlations caused by confounding factors. We validate the metric through synthetic data, dynamical and chaotic systems, and data representing the human brain activity in a cognitive task. We further show how the proposed metric is able to outperform classical causality metrics, provided non-linear relationships are present and large enough data sets are available. PMID:27330866

  12. Dome cities for extreme environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton

    1992-01-01

    Extreme environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in extreme environments.

  13. Dome cities for extreme environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Raymond S.; Schwartz, Milton

    Extreme environments whether they be the frigid nights of the polar regions, the burning sands of the desert, or the harsh environment of space pose interesting challenges to the architect, the engineer, and the constructor in their efforts to create habitats for mankind. In space, the goals are to provide radiation protection while also providing an aesthetic living environment for long duration missions. Because of the need to provide both radiation protection and options for expansion of base facilities, a unique structural system which separates the radiation protection systems from the pressure envelope of the habitats was created. The system uses cable networks in a tensioned structural system, which supports the lunar regolith used for shielding above the facilities. The system is modular, easily expandable, and simple to construct. Additional innovations include the use of rock melting perpetrators for piles and anchoring deadmen, and various sized craters to provide side shielding. The reflective properties of the fabric used in the membrane are utilized to provide diffuse illumination. The use of craters along with the suspended shielding allows the dome to be utilized in fashions similar to those proposed by various designers unaware of the Moon's hostile radiation environment. Additional topics addressed deal with construction techniques for large domes, i.e., on the order of 100's to 1000's of meters, thermal control, the integration of tertiary water treatment schemes with architectural design, human factors, and its implications for the design of habitats for long term use in extreme environments.

  14. Battlefield agent collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2001-09-01

    Small air and ground physical agents (robots) will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces in urban and open terrain scenarios. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA), intelligence, chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, decoy, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensors, communications, and mobility characteristics. It is anticipated that there will be many levels of individual and team collaboration between the soldier and robot, robot to robot, and robot to mother ship. This paper presents applications and infrastructure components that illustrate each of these levels. As an example, consider the application where a team of twenty small robots must rapidly explore and define a building complex. Local interactions and decisions require peer to peer collaboration. Global direction and information fusion warrant a central team control provided by a mother ship. The mother ship must effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. Any level of collaboration requires robust communications, specifically a mobile ad hoc network. The application of fixed ground sensors and mobile robots is also included in this paper. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of multi-robot collaboration. This research includes battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, sensor and information fusion, and multi-modal human computer interaction.

  15. SAF1. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y

    1997-06-01

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  16. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  17. Recent Developments in Statistical Downscaling of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertig, E.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the output of general circulation models (GCMs) regionalization techniques are usually applied to obtain fine-scale climate change information. Different types of regionalization techniques have been developed which comprise regional climate models and statistical downscaling approaches such as conditional weather generators, artificial neural networks, synoptic studies, and transfer functions. In the scope of climate variability and climate change the variations and changes of extremes are of special importance. Extreme events are not only of scientific interest but also have a profound impact on society. For the statistical downscaling of extremes, promising approaches have been introduced and/or developed further in the last few years. Aspects of recent developments in the scope of statistical downscaling of extremes will be presented. In this context, various approaches to downscale extremes, particularly those associated with extreme precipitation events, will be discussed. Key problems related to statistical downscaling of extremes will be addressed. Furthermore, information on Working Group 4 "Extremes" of the EU COST action VALUE (www.value-cost.eu) will be provided. VALUE systematically validates and develops downscaling methods for climate change research in order to improve regional climate change scenarios for use in climate impact studies.

  18. Evaluating environmental joint extremes for the offshore industry using the conditional extremes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewans, Kevin; Jonathan, Philip

    2014-02-01

    Understanding extreme ocean environments and their interaction with fixed and floating structures is critical for the design of offshore and coastal facilities. The joint effect of various ocean variables on extreme responses of offshore structures is fundamental in determining the design loads. For example, it is known that mean values of wave periods tend to increase with increasing storm intensity, and a floating system responds in a complex way to both variables. Specification of joint extremes in design criteria has often been somewhat ad hoc, being based on fairly arbitrary combinations of extremes of variables estimated independently. Such approaches are even outlined in design guidelines. Mathematically more consistent estimates of the joint occurrence of extreme environmental variables fall into two camps in the offshore industry - response-based and response-independent. Both are outlined here, with emphasis on response-independent methods, particularly those based on the conditional extremes model recently introduced by (Heffernan and Tawn, 2004), which has a solid theoretical motivation. We illustrate an application of the conditional extremes model to joint estimation of extreme storm peak significant wave height and peak period at a northern North Sea location, incorporating storm direction as a model covariate. We also discuss joint estimation of extreme current profiles with depth off the North West Shelf of Australia. Methods such as the conditional extremes model provide valuable additions to the metocean engineer's toolkit.

  19. Adventure and Extreme Sports.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Andrew Thomas; Rao, Ashwin

    2016-03-01

    Adventure and extreme sports often involve unpredictable and inhospitable environments, high velocities, and stunts. These activities vary widely and include sports like BASE jumping, snowboarding, kayaking, and surfing. Increasing interest and participation in adventure and extreme sports warrants understanding by clinicians to facilitate prevention, identification, and treatment of injuries unique to each sport. This article covers alpine skiing and snowboarding, skateboarding, surfing, bungee jumping, BASE jumping, and whitewater sports with emphasis on epidemiology, demographics, general injury mechanisms, specific injuries, chronic injuries, fatality data, and prevention. Overall, most injuries are related to overuse, trauma, and environmental or microbial exposure. PMID:26900120

  20. Extremal entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Leif Ove; Hauge, Andreas; Myrheim, Jan; Sollid, Per Øyvind

    2015-02-01

    We present a study of extremal entanglement witnesses on a bipartite composite quantum system. We define the cone of witnesses as the dual of the set of separable density matrices, thus TrΩρ≥0 when Ω is a witness and ρ is a pure product state, ρ=ψψ† with ψ=ϕ⊗χ. The set of witnesses of unit trace is a compact convex set, uniquely defined by its extremal points. The expectation value f(ϕ,χ)=TrΩρ as a function of vectors ϕ and χ is a positive semidefinite biquadratic form. Every zero of f(ϕ,χ) imposes strong real-linear constraints on f and Ω. The real and symmetric Hessian matrix at the zero must be positive semidefinite. Its eigenvectors with zero eigenvalue, if such exist, we call Hessian zeros. A zero of f(ϕ,χ) is quadratic if it has no Hessian zeros, otherwise it is quartic. We call a witness quadratic if it has only quadratic zeros, and quartic if it has at least one quartic zero. A main result we prove is that a witness is extremal if and only if no other witness has the same, or a larger, set of zeros and Hessian zeros. A quadratic extremal witness has a minimum number of isolated zeros depending on dimensions. If a witness is not extremal, then the constraints defined by its zeros and Hessian zeros determine all directions in which we may search for witnesses having more zeros or Hessian zeros. A finite number of iterated searches in random directions, by numerical methods, leads to an extremal witness which is nearly always quadratic and has the minimum number of zeros. We discuss briefly some topics related to extremal witnesses, in particular the relation between the facial structures of the dual sets of witnesses and separable states. We discuss the relation between extremality and optimality of witnesses, and a conjecture of separability of the so-called structural physical approximation (SPA) of an optimal witness. Finally, we discuss how to treat the entanglement witnesses on a complex Hilbert space as a subset of the

  1. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  2. Typologies of Extreme Longevity Myths

    PubMed Central

    Young, Robert D.; Desjardins, Bertrand; McLaughlin, Kirsten; Poulain, Michel; Perls, Thomas T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Political, national, religious, and other motivations have led the media and even scientists to errantly accept extreme longevity claims prima facie. We describe various causes of false claims of extraordinary longevity. Design and Methods. American Social Security Death Index files for the period 1980–2009 were queried for individuals with birth and death dates yielding ages 110+ years of age. Frequency was compared to a list of age-validated supercentenarians maintained by the Gerontology Research Group who died during the same time period. Age claims of 110+ years and the age validation experiences of the authors facilitated a list of typologies of false age claims. Results. Invalid age claim rates increase with age from 65% at age 110-111 to 98% by age 115 to 100% for 120+ years. Eleven typologies of false claims were: Religious Authority Myth, Village Elder Myth, Fountain of Youth Myth (substance), Shangri-La Myth (geographic), Nationalist Pride, Spiritual Practice, Familial Longevity, Individual and/or Family Notoriety, Military Service, Administrative Entry Error, and Pension-Social Entitlement Fraud. Conclusions. Understanding various causes of false extreme age claims is important for placing current, past, and future extreme longevity claims in context and for providing a necessary level of skepticism. PMID:21461047

  3. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  4. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents and synthesis thereof

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, K.N.; Scarrow, R.C.; White, D.L.

    1985-11-12

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided. 4 tabs.

  5. Hydrological extremes and security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.

    2015-04-01

    Economic losses caused by hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - have been on the rise. Hydrological extremes jeopardize human security and impact on societal livelihood and welfare. Security can be generally understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological extremes. The traditional interpretation of security, focused on the state military capabilities, has been replaced by a wider understanding, including economic, societal and environmental aspects that get increasing attention. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state that is responsible for sustaining economic development, and societal and environmental security. The latter can be regarded as the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. An important part of it is water security, which can be defined as the availability of an adequate quantity and quality of water for health, livelihoods, ecosystems and production, coupled with an acceptable level of water-related risks to people, environments and economies. Security concerns arise because, over large areas, hydrological extremes - floods and droughts - are becoming more frequent and more severe. In terms of dealing with water-related risks, climate change can increase uncertainties, which makes the state's task to deliver security more difficult and more expensive. However, changes in population size and development, and level of protection, drive exposure to hydrological hazards.

  6. Going to Extremes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coy, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project which gave students a chance to explore the idea of using "extreme" materials in a sculpture. While the process was, at times, challenging and stressful for teacher and student alike, the results proved that, with proper planning, even young students can independently demonstrate multiple solutions…

  7. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  8. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  9. Moving in extreme environments: what's extreme and who decides?

    PubMed

    Cotter, James David; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Humans work, rest and play in immensely varied extreme environments. The term 'extreme' typically refers to insufficiency or excess of one or more stressors, such as thermal energy or gravity. Individuals' behavioural and physiological capacity to endure and enjoy such environments varies immensely. Adverse effects of acute exposure to these environments are readily identifiable (e.g. heat stroke or bone fracture), whereas adverse effects of chronic exposure (e.g. stress fractures or osteoporosis) may be as important but much less discernable. Modern societies have increasingly sought to protect people from such stressors and, in that way, minimise their adverse effects. Regulations are thus established, and advice is provided on what is 'acceptable' exposure. Examples include work/rest cycles in the heat, hydration regimes, rates of ascent to and duration of stay at altitude and diving depth. While usually valuable and well intentioned, it is important to realise the breadth and importance of limitations associated with such guidelines. Regulations and advisories leave less room for self-determination, learning and perhaps adaptation. Regulations based on stress (e.g. work/rest cycles relative to WBGT) are more practical but less direct than those based on strain (e.g. core temperature), but even the latter can be substantively limited (e.g. by lack of criterion validation and allowance for behavioural regulation in the research on which they are based). Extreme Physiology & Medicine is publishing a series of reviews aimed at critically examining the issues involved with self- versus regulation-controlled human movement acutely and chronically in extreme environments. These papers, arising from a research symposium in 2013, are about the impact of people engaging in such environments and the effect of rules and guidelines on their safety, enjoyment, autonomy and productivity. The reviews will cover occupational heat stress, sporting heat stress, hydration, diving

  10. THE EXTREME HOSTS OF EXTREME SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, James D.; Quimby, Robert; Ofek, Eran; Wyder, Ted K.; Martin, D. Christopher; Barlow, Tom A.; Foster, Karl; Friedman, Peter G.; Morrissey, Patrick; Sullivan, Mark; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Howell, D. Andrew; Nugent, Peter; Seibert, Mark; Overzier, Roderik; Neff, Susan G.; Schiminovich, David; Bianchi, Luciana; Donas, Jose; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2011-01-20

    We use GALEX ultraviolet (UV) and optical integrated photometry of the hosts of 17 luminous supernovae (LSNe, having peak M{sub V} < -21) and compare them to a sample of 26, 000 galaxies from a cross-match between the SDSS DR4 spectral catalog and GALEX interim release 1.1. We place the LSN hosts on the galaxy NUV - r versus M{sub r} color-magnitude diagram (CMD) with the larger sample to illustrate how extreme they are. The LSN hosts appear to favor low-density regions of the galaxy CMD falling on the blue edge of the blue cloud toward the low-luminosity end. From the UV-optical photometry, we estimate the star formation history of the LSN hosts. The hosts have moderately low star formation rates (SFRs) and low stellar masses (M{sub *}) resulting in high specific star formation rates (sSFR). Compared with the larger sample, the LSN hosts occupy low-density regions of a diagram plotting sSFR versus M{sub *} in the area having higher sSFR and lower M{sub *}. This preference for low M{sub *}, high sSFR hosts implies that the LSNe are produced by an effect having to do with their local environment. The correlation of mass with metallicity suggests that perhaps wind-driven mass loss is the factor that prevents LSNe from arising in higher-mass, higher-metallicity hosts. The massive progenitors of the LSNe (>100 M{sub sun}), by appearing in low-SFR hosts, are potential tests for theories of the initial mass function that limit the maximum mass of a star based on the SFR.

  11. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  12. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  13. Climate extremes and the carbon cycle (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichstein, M.; Bahn, M.; Ciais, P.; Mahecha, M. D.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Zscheischler, J.

    2013-12-01

    long recovery time to re-gain the stock level previous to the extreme event impact. Given shorter regrowth times, grasslands are expected to recover more quickly from extremes than forests. Yet, degradation feedbacks come into play, where drought triggers loss of vegetation and heavy rain or wind causes subsequent erosion. Thus, an increase in the frequency of extreme events in some regions may contribute to e.g. desertification of semi-arid to arid grassland, in particular when (over-) grazing is an additional pressure. Croplands are also exposed to extremes with impacts on carbon cycling that are harder to disentangle as negative effects can be mitigated through evasive and adaptive farm management actions provided that sufficient resources are available. In most climatic zones, productivity and carbon sequestration potential of terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by droughts that are a main source of inter-annual variation in terrestrial carbon sequestration. The expected regional impact of future climate extremes depends on changes in the occurrence probability of extremes, the compounded effects and timing of different extremes, the vulnerability of each land-cover type, the current mean climate in relation to the functioning of the ecosystem under consideration, and the ability to apply adaptive management.

  14. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices). The GEV tree analysis <span class="hlt">provides</span> insight into behavior of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices represent moderately <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EPJD...55..519T"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospect for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> field science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tajima, T.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The kind of laser <span class="hlt">extreme</span> light infrastructure (ELI) <span class="hlt">provides</span> will usher in a class of experiments we have only dreamed of for years. The characteristics that ELI brings in include: the highest intensity ever, large fluence, and relatively high repetition rate. A personal view of the author on the prospect of harnessing this unprecedented opportunity for advancing science of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields is presented. The first characteristic of ELI, its intensity, will allow us to access, as many have stressed already, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fields that hover around the Schwinger field or at the very least the neighboring fields in which vacuum begins to behave as a nonlinear medium. In this sense, we are seriously probing the “material” property of vacuum and thus the property that theory of relativity itself described and will entail. We will probe both special theory and general theory of relativity in regimes that have been never tested so far. We may see a glimpse into the reach of relativity or even its breakdown in some <span class="hlt">extreme</span> regimes. We will learn Einstein and may even go beyond Einstein, if our journey is led. Laser-driven acceleration both by the laser field itself and by the wakefield that is triggered in a plasma is huge. Energies, if not luminosity, we can access, may be unprecedented going far beyond TeV. The nice thing about ELI is that it has relatively high repetition rate and average fluence as compared with other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> lasers. This high fluence can be a key element that leads to applications to high energy physics, such as gamma-gamma collider driver experiment, and some gamma ray experiments that may be relevant in the frontier of photo-nuclear physics, and atomic energy applications. Needless to say, high fluence is one of most important features that industrial and medical applications may need. If we are lucky, we may see a door opens at the frontier of novel physics that may not be available by any other means. Finally, as the last lecture of this workshop the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1114932"><span id="translatedtitle">Rehabilitation in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fractures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moskowitz, E</p> <p>1975-03-01</p> <p>General principles in the rehabilitation of a patient with an <span class="hlt">extremity</span> fracture include: treat the patient, not the x-ray; move all joints not immobilized; prevent disuse atrophy; use gravity to assist in mobilizing a joint; stabilize proximal joints to avoid reverse action of biarticular muscles; permit early protected weight bearing until adequate joint mobility is achieved; appropriately instruct the patient in a home program, and avoid all stretching. PMID:1114932</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25413177','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25413177"><span id="translatedtitle">Penetrating <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ivatury, Rao R; Anand, Rahul; Ordonez, Carlos</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Penetrating <span class="hlt">extremity</span> trauma (PET) usually becomes less important when present along with multiple truncal injuries. The middle eastern wars documented the terrible mortality and morbidity resulting from PET. Even in civilian trauma, PET can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. There are now well-established principles in the evaluation and management of vascular, bony, soft tissue, and neurologic lesions that will lead to a reduction of the poor outcomes. This review will summarize some of these recent concepts. PMID:25413177</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740021934"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (launch and transportation areas)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>Criteria are <span class="hlt">provided</span> on atmospheric <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from the surface to 150 meters for geographical locations of interest to NASA. Thermal parameters (temperature and solar radiation), humidity, precipitation, pressure, and atmospheric electricity (lightning and static) are presented. Available data are also <span class="hlt">provided</span> for the entire continental United States for use in future space programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014927','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22014927"><span id="translatedtitle">Perioperative allergy: uncommon <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caimmi, S; Caimmi, D; Cardinale, F; Indinnimeo, L; Crisafulli, G; Peroni, D G; Marseglia, G L</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Anesthesia may often be considered as a high-risk procedure and anaphylaxis remains a major cause of concern for anesthetists who routinely administer many potentially allergenic <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Neuromuscular blocking <span class="hlt">agents</span>, latex and antibiotics are the substances involved in most of the reported reactions. Besides these three <span class="hlt">agents</span>, a wide variety of substances may cause an anaphylactic reaction during anesthesia. Basically all the administered drugs or substances may be potential causes of anaphylaxis. Among them, those reported the most in literature include hypnotics, opioids, local anesthetics, colloids, dye, Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Iodinated Contrast Media (ICM), antiseptics, aprotinin, ethylene oxyde and formaldehyde, and protamine and heparins. No premedication can effectively prevent an allergic reaction and a systematic preoperative screening is not justified for all patients; nevertheless, an allergy specialist should evaluate those patients with a history of anesthesia-related allergy. Patients must be fully informed of investigation results, and advised to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a detailed report prior to future anesthesia. PMID:22014927</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JSWSC...4A..28C"><span id="translatedtitle">On <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cid, Consuelo; Palacios, Judith; Saiz, Elena; Guerrero, Antonio; Cerrato, Yolanda</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> geomagnetic storms are considered as one of the major natural hazards for technology-dependent society. Geomagnetic field disturbances can disrupt the operation of critical infrastructures relying on space-based assets, and can also result in terrestrial effects, such as the Quebec electrical disruption in 1989. Forecasting potential hazards is a matter of high priority, but considering large flares as the only criterion for early-warning systems has demonstrated to release a large amount of false alarms and misses. Moreover, the quantification of the severity of the geomagnetic disturbance at the terrestrial surface using indices as Dst cannot be considered as the best approach to give account of the damage in utilities. High temporal resolution local indices come out as a possible solution to this issue, as disturbances recorded at the terrestrial surface differ largely both in latitude and longitude. The recovery phase of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms presents also some peculiar features which make it different from other less intense storms. This paper goes through all these issues related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms by analysing a few events, highlighting the March 1989 storm, related to the Quebec blackout, and the October 2003 event, when several transformers burnt out in South Africa.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714330L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714330L"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecaster's dilemma: <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events and forecast evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lerch, Sebastian; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Gneiting, Tilmann</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In discussions of the quality of forecasts in the media and public, attention often focuses on the predictive performance in the case of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Intuitively, accurate predictions on the subset of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events seem to suggest better predictive ability. However, it can be demonstrated that restricting conventional forecast verification methods to subsets of observations might have unexpected and undesired effects and may discredit even the most skillful forecasters. Hand-picking <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is incompatible with the theoretical assumptions of established forecast verification methods, thus confronting forecasters with what we refer to as the forecaster's dilemma. For probabilistic forecasts, weighted proper scoring rules <span class="hlt">provide</span> suitable alternatives for forecast evaluation with an emphasis on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Using theoretical arguments, simulation experiments and a case study on probabilistic forecasts of wind speed over Germany, we illustrate the forecaster's dilemma and the use of weighted proper scoring rules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920446','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/920446"><span id="translatedtitle">Architectural considerations for <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based national scale policy models : LDRD final report.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Backus, George A.; Strip, David R.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>The need to anticipate the consequences of policy decisions becomes ever more important as the magnitude of the potential consequences grows. The multiplicity of connections between the components of society and the economy makes intuitive assessments <span class="hlt">extremely</span> unreliable. <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based modeling has the potential to be a powerful tool in modeling policy impacts. The direct mapping between <span class="hlt">agents</span> and elements of society and the economy simplify the mapping of real world functions into the world of computation assessment. Our modeling initiative is motivated by the desire to facilitate informed public debate on alternative policies for how we, as a nation, <span class="hlt">provide</span> healthcare to our population. We explore the implications of this motivation on the design and implementation of a model. We discuss the choice of an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based modeling approach and contrast it to micro-simulation and systems dynamics approaches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829312','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21829312"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ganesan, K; Raza, S K; Vijayaraghavan, R</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW <span class="hlt">agents</span>, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also <span class="hlt">provided</span>. PMID:21829312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148621','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3148621"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW <span class="hlt">agents</span>, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also <span class="hlt">provided</span>. PMID:21829312</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7894"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Communications using Distributed Metaobjects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.</p> <p>1999-06-10</p> <p>There are currently two proposed standards for <span class="hlt">agent</span> communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose <span class="hlt">agent</span> communications facility for new <span class="hlt">agent</span> architectures that is flexible yet <span class="hlt">provides</span> an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an <span class="hlt">agent</span> communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the <span class="hlt">agent</span> developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to <span class="hlt">agent</span> communications in the same <span class="hlt">agent</span> system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567968','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567968"><span id="translatedtitle">Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast <span class="hlt">Agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan</p> <p>2015-12-22</p> <p>Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast <span class="hlt">agent</span> (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>, <span class="hlt">extremely</span> small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provide</span> a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, <span class="hlt">providing</span> useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:26567968</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3910906','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3910906"><span id="translatedtitle">Tissue Penetration of Antifungal <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> in various tissue subcompartments, yet these <span class="hlt">agents</span>, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and <span class="hlt">provides</span> a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span>. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/950432','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/950432"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based forward analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kerekes, Ryan A.; Jiao, Yu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Potok, Thomas E.; Lusk, Rick M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>We propose software <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software <span class="hlt">agents</span> rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The <span class="hlt">agents</span> are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based forward analysis can <span class="hlt">provide</span> a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26048196"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cowan, D A; Ramond, J-B; Makhalanyane, T P; De Maayer, P</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Whether they are exposed to <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of heat or cold, or buried deep beneath the Earth's surface, microorganisms have an uncanny ability to survive under these conditions. This ability to survive has fascinated scientists for nearly a century, but the recent development of metagenomics and 'omics' tools has allowed us to make huge leaps in understanding the remarkable complexity and versatility of extremophile communities. Here, in the context of the recently developed metagenomic tools, we discuss recent research on the community composition, adaptive strategies and biological functions of extremophiles. PMID:26048196</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B24B..03G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008AGUFM.B24B..03G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Overview of the biology of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gutschick, V. P.; Bassirirad, H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events have, variously, meteorological origins as in heat waves or precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, or biological origins as in pest and disease eruptions (or tectonic, earth-orbital, or impact-body origins). Despite growing recognition that these events are changing in frequency and intensity, a universal model of ecological responses to these events is slow to emerge. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, negative and positive, contrast with normal events in terms of their effects on the physiology, ecology, and evolution of organisms, hence also on water, carbon, and nutrient cycles. They structure biogeographic ranges and biomes, almost surely more than mean values often used to define biogeography. They are challenging to study for obvious reasons of field-readiness but also because they are defined by sequences of driving variables such as temperature, not point events. As sequences, their statistics (return times, for example) are challenging to develop, as also from the involvement of multiple environmental variables. These statistics are not captured well by climate models. They are expected to change with climate and land-use change but our predictive capacity is currently limited. A number of tools for description and analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are available, if not widely applied to date. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> for organisms are defined by their fitness effects on those organisms, and are specific to genotypes, making them major <span class="hlt">agents</span> of natural selection. There is evidence that effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events may be concentrated in an extended recovery phase. We review selected events covering ranges of time and magnitude, from Snowball Earth to leaf functional loss in weather events. A number of events, such as the 2003 European heat wave, evidence effects on water and carbon cycles over large regions. Rising CO2 is the recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of note, for its climatic effects and consequences for growing seasons, transpiration, etc., but also directly in its action as a substrate of photosynthesis</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730001422','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730001422"><span id="translatedtitle">Spacecraft sanitation <span class="hlt">agent</span> development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The development of an effective sanitizing <span class="hlt">agent</span> that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation <span class="hlt">agents</span> must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one <span class="hlt">agent</span> for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the <span class="hlt">agents</span> for best results, and that consideration be given to using the <span class="hlt">agents</span> pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6290C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.6290C"><span id="translatedtitle">Future climate projections of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and temperature distributions by using an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory non-stationary model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casati, B.; Lefaivre, L.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can cause large damages and losses, and have high societal and economical impacts. Climate model integrations predict increases in both frequency and intensity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events under enhanced greenhouse conditions. Better understanding of the capabilities of climate models in representing the present climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, joint with the analysis of the future climate projections for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, can help to forewarn society from future high-impact events, and possibly better develop adaptation strategies. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (EVT) <span class="hlt">provides</span> a well established and robust framework to analyse the behaviour of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events for the present climate and future projections. In this study a non-stationary model for Generalised <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV) distributions is used to analyse the trend of the distributions of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and temperatures, in the context of a changing climate. The analysis is performed for the climate projections of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM), under a SRES A2 emission scenario, for annual, seasonal and monthly <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, for 12 regions characterised by different climatologies over the North American domain. Significant positive trends for the location of the distributions are found in most regions, indicating an expected increase in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value intensities, whereas the scale (variability) and shape (tail values) of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> distributions seem not to vary significantly. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events, such as intense convective precipitation, are often associated to small-scale features. The enhanced resolution of Regional Climate Models enables to better represent such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, with respect to Global Climate Models. However the resolution of these models is sometimes still too coarse to reproduce realistic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To address this representativeness issue, statistical downscaling of the CRCM projections is performed. The downscaling relation is obtained by comparing the GEV distributions for the CRCM</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8373E..22H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8373E..22H"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of SERS substrates for chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Hermes; Shende, Chetan; Sengupta, Atanu; Inscore, Frank; Farquharson, Stuart</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>US Military forces are dependent on indigenous water supplies, which are considered prime targets to effect a chemical or biological attack. Consequently, there is a clear need for a portable analyzer capable of evaluating water supplies prior to use. To this end we have been investigating the use of a portable Raman analyzer with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sampling systems. The superior selectivity and exceptional sensitivity of SERS has been demonstrated by the detection of single molecules. However, the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sensitivity <span class="hlt">provided</span> by SERS is attributed to "hot spot" structures, such as particle junctions that can <span class="hlt">provide</span> as much as 10 orders of magnitude enhancement. Unfortunately, hotspots are not evenly distributed across substrates, which results in enhancements that cannot be quantitatively reproduced. Here we present analysis of uniformity for a newly developed substrate and commercial sample vials using benzenethiol and bispyridylethylene, two chemicals often used to characterize SERS substrates, and methyl phosphonic acid, a major hydrolysis product of the nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016SoPh..291.1447V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Geomagnetic Storms - 1868 - 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vennerstrom, S.; Lefevre, L.; Dumbović, M.; Crosby, N.; Malandraki, O.; Patsou, I.; Clette, F.; Veronig, A.; Vršnak, B.; Leer, K.; Moretto, T.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>We present the first large statistical study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> geomagnetic storms based on historical data from the time period 1868 - 2010. This article is the first of two companion papers. Here we describe how the storms were selected and focus on their near-Earth characteristics. The second article presents our investigation of the corresponding solar events and their characteristics. The storms were selected based on their intensity in the aa index, which constitutes the longest existing continuous series of geomagnetic activity. They are analyzed statistically in the context of more well-known geomagnetic indices, such as the Kp and Dcx/Dst index. This reveals that neither Kp nor Dcx/Dst <span class="hlt">provide</span> a comprehensive geomagnetic measure of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms. We rank the storms by including long series of single magnetic observatory data. The top storms on the rank list are the New York Railroad storm occurring in May 1921 and the Quebec storm from March 1989. We identify key characteristics of the storms by combining several different available data sources, lists of storm sudden commencements (SSCs) signifying occurrence of interplanetary shocks, solar wind in-situ measurements, neutron monitor data, and associated identifications of Forbush decreases as well as satellite measurements of energetic proton fluxes in the near-Earth space environment. From this we find, among other results, that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are very strongly correlated with the occurrence of interplanetary shocks (91 - 100 %), Forbush decreases (100 %), and energetic solar proton events (70 %). A quantitative comparison of these associations relative to less intense storms is also presented. Most notably, we find that most often the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> storms are characterized by a complexity that is associated with multiple, often interacting, solar wind disturbances and that they frequently occur when the geomagnetic activity is already elevated. We also investigate the semiannual variation in storm occurrence</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810511D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1810511D"><span id="translatedtitle">What weather features produce <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation globally?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dowdy, Andrew; Catto, Jennifer</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation (defined as above the 99th percentile) has been examined previously in relation to a number of different weather events. Such events include cyclones, fronts, and thunderstorms. However, previous studies have not examined various combinations of these weather events, which highlights the potential for an improved understanding of what causes <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. Here we make use of objective cyclone and front identification methods and a global dataset of lightning strikes, to examine different combinations of cyclone, front and thunderstorm events to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a comprehensive climatological examination of observed <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events throughout the world. This method allows a number of novel concepts to be explored, with results showing that the highest risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation occurs for a type of "triple storm" event characterised by the simultaneous occurrence of a cyclone, front and thunderstorm. The physical properties of the various different combinations of weather systems are examined in relation to the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation. The results presented here are intended to lead to better preparedness for the impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation throughout the world including in relation to disaster risk reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19237847"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical homicide and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> negligence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duncanson, Emily; Richards, Virginia; Luce, Kasey M; Gill, James R</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Deaths that occur during medical care for the treatment of a disease are rarely certified as homicides. Some "medical" deaths, however, have been criminally prosecuted for manslaughter, reckless endangerment, or reckless homicide. We describe 5 deaths due to medical complications that underwent criminal prosecution. Three of the deaths were certified as homicides. Deaths certified as homicides due to the actions (or inactions) of a caregiver occur in 3 circumstances. The first is when the medical caregiver intentionally causes the death of the patient. The second is a death due to treatment by an unlicensed fraud or quack. The final circumstance is due to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence that involves a gross and wanton disregard for the well-being of the patient and is the most controversial in the medical community. The law defines reckless endangerment as the conscious disregard of a known substantial likelihood of injury to the patient. Criminal neglect typically is defined as the failure to <span class="hlt">provide</span> timely, safe, adequate, and appropriate services, treatment, and/or care to a patient. In instances of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> medical negligence, a homicide manner of death is appropriate because the fatality is due to the criminal acts (or inactions) of another. It also furthers one of the major goals of the medicolegal death investigation system, which is to safeguard the public health. PMID:19237847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25817449"><span id="translatedtitle">[New <span class="hlt">agents</span> for hypercholesterolemia].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen</p> <p>2016-02-19</p> <p>An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. <span class="hlt">Agents</span> inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also <span class="hlt">providing</span> a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We <span class="hlt">provide</span> in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic <span class="hlt">agents</span> for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage. PMID:25817449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JPhCS.632a2058H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hudson, Hugh S.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Solar flares and CMEs have a broad range of magnitudes. This review discusses the possibility of “<span class="hlt">extreme</span> events,” defined as those with magnitudes greater than have been seen in the existing historical record. For most quantitative measures, this direct information does not extend more than a century and a half into the recent past. The magnitude distributions (occurrence frequencies) of solar events (flares/CMEs) typically decrease with the parameter measured or inferred (peak flux, mass, energy etc. Flare radiation fluxes tend to follow a power law slightly flatter than S-2, where S represents a peak flux; solar particle events (SPEs) follow a still flatter power law up to a limiting magnitude, and then appear to roll over to a steeper distribution, which may take an exponential form or follow a broken power law. This inference comes from the terrestrial 14C record and from the depth dependence of various radioisotope proxies in the lunar regolith and in meteorites. Recently major new observational results have impacted our use of the relatively limited historical record in new ways: the detection of actual events in the 14C tree-ring records, and the systematic observations of flares and “superflares” by the Kepler spacecraft. I discuss how these new findings may affect our understanding of the distribution function expected for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhLB..743...87G"><span id="translatedtitle">"Triangular" <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dilatonic dyons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Khramtsov, Mikhail; Orlov, Dmitri</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Explicit dyonic solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory are known only for three particular values of the dilaton coupling constant: a = 0 , 1 ,√{ 3}. However, numerical evidence was presented on existence of dyons admitting an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> limit in theories with more general sequence of dilaton couplings a =√{ n (n + 1) / 2 } labeled by an integer n. Apart from the lower members n = 0 , 1 , 2, this family of theories does not have motivation from supergravity/string theory, and analytical origin of the above sequence remained unclear so far. We fill the gap showing that this formula follows from analyticity of the dilaton function at the AdS2 ×S2 event horizon of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dyonic black hole, with n being the leading dilaton power in the Taylor expansion. We also derive generalization of this rule for asymptotically anti-de Sitter dyonic black holes with spherical, planar and hyperbolic topology of the horizon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000084163','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000084163"><span id="translatedtitle">Next Generation Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Planner</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Planner, the Next Generation Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system <span class="hlt">provides</span> all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and <span class="hlt">providing</span> a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that <span class="hlt">provides</span> both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911245','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4911245"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast <span class="hlt">Agents</span> for Biomarker Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> have <span class="hlt">provided</span> new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of <span class="hlt">agents</span> for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* <span class="hlt">agents</span>, T2 exchange <span class="hlt">agents</span> have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C <span class="hlt">agents</span> can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provide</span> excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049630','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27049630"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast <span class="hlt">Agents</span> for Biomarker Detection.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D</p> <p>2016-06-12</p> <p>Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> have <span class="hlt">provided</span> new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of <span class="hlt">agents</span> for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* <span class="hlt">agents</span>, T2 exchange <span class="hlt">agents</span> have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> uses hyperpolarized (13)C to detect the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized (13)C <span class="hlt">agents</span> can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provide</span> excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ARAC....9...95S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ARAC....9...95S"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast <span class="hlt">Agents</span> for Biomarker Detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> have <span class="hlt">provided</span> new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of <span class="hlt">agents</span> for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* <span class="hlt">agents</span>, T2 exchange <span class="hlt">agents</span> have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C <span class="hlt">agents</span> can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provide</span> excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4207861','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4207861"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining Targeted <span class="hlt">Agents</span> With Modern Radiotherapy in Soft Tissue Sarcomas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G.; Finkelstein, Steven E.; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P.; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A.; Coleman, C. Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with <span class="hlt">extremity</span> STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing <span class="hlt">agents</span> could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with <span class="hlt">agents</span> modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery <span class="hlt">provides</span> an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted <span class="hlt">agents</span> to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25326640','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25326640"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining targeted <span class="hlt">agents</span> with modern radiotherapy in soft tissue sarcomas.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Philip; Houghton, Peter; Kirsch, David G; Finkelstein, Steven E; Monjazeb, Arta M; Xu-Welliver, Meng; Dicker, Adam P; Ahmed, Mansoor; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Teicher, Beverly A; Coleman, C Norman; Machtay, Mitchell; Curran, Walter J; Wang, Dian</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Improved understanding of soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) biology has led to better distinction and subtyping of these diseases with the hope of exploiting the molecular characteristics of each subtype to develop appropriately targeted treatment regimens. In the care of patients with <span class="hlt">extremity</span> STS, adjunctive radiation therapy (RT) is used to facilitate limb and function, preserving surgeries while maintaining five-year local control above 85%. In contrast, for STS originating from nonextremity anatomical sites, the rate of local recurrence is much higher (five-year local control is approximately 50%) and a major cause of death and morbidity in these patients. Incorporating novel technological advancements to administer accurate RT in combination with novel radiosensitizing <span class="hlt">agents</span> could potentially improve local control and overall survival. RT efficacy in STS can be increased by modulating biological pathways such as angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation, cell survival signaling, and cancer-host immune interactions. Previous experiences, advancements, ongoing research, and current clinical trials combining RT with <span class="hlt">agents</span> modulating one or more of the above pathways are reviewed. The standard clinical management of patients with STS with pretreatment biopsy, neoadjuvant treatment, and primary surgery <span class="hlt">provides</span> an opportune disease model for interrogating translational hypotheses. The purpose of this review is to outline a strategic vision for clinical translation of preclinical findings and to identify appropriate targeted <span class="hlt">agents</span> to combine with radiotherapy in the treatment of STS from different sites and/or different histology subtypes. PMID:25326640</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ConSc..28...83B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ConSc..28...83B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">What makes virtual <span class="hlt">agents</span> believable?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual <span class="hlt">agents</span> that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for <span class="hlt">agents</span> being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual <span class="hlt">agents</span> performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual <span class="hlt">agents</span> that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, <span class="hlt">agents</span> that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and <span class="hlt">provide</span> a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual <span class="hlt">agent</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012765R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACPD...1012765R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this study ideas from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We show that statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value methods are appropriate to identify ozone <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) <span class="hlt">provides</span> an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus <span class="hlt">providing</span> a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds <span class="hlt">provides</span> deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> <span class="hlt">provides</span> more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1010021R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1010021R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in total ozone over Arosa - Part 1: Application of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Peter, T.; Ribatet, M.; Davison, A. C.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>In this study ideas from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory are for the first time applied in the field of stratospheric ozone research, because statistical analysis showed that previously used concepts assuming a Gaussian distribution (e.g. fixed deviations from mean values) of total ozone data do not adequately address the structure of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We show that statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value methods are appropriate to identify ozone <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and to describe the tails of the Arosa (Switzerland) total ozone time series. In order to accommodate the seasonal cycle in total ozone, a daily moving threshold was determined and used, with tools from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory, to analyse the frequency of days with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone at Arosa. The analysis shows that the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) <span class="hlt">provides</span> an appropriate model for the frequency distribution of total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold, thus <span class="hlt">providing</span> a statistical description of ELOs and EHOs. The results show an increase in ELOs and a decrease in EHOs during the last decades. The fitted model represents the tails of the total ozone data set with high accuracy over the entire range (including absolute monthly minima and maxima), and enables a precise computation of the frequency distribution of ozone mini-holes (using constant thresholds). Analyzing the tails instead of a small fraction of days below constant thresholds <span class="hlt">provides</span> deeper insight into the time series properties. Fingerprints of dynamical (e.g. ENSO, NAO) and chemical features (e.g. strong polar vortex ozone loss), and major volcanic eruptions, can be identified in the observed frequency of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events throughout the time series. Overall the new approach to analysis of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> <span class="hlt">provides</span> more information on time series properties and variability than previous approaches that use only monthly averages and/or mini-holes and mini-highs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=132433&keyword=financial+AND+records&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63972475&CFTOKEN=55288565','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=132433&keyword=financial+AND+records&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=63972475&CFTOKEN=55288565"><span id="translatedtitle">NATIONAL HEALTH <span class="hlt">PROVIDER</span> INVENTORY</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The National Health <span class="hlt">Provider</span> Inventory <span class="hlt">provides</span> data on services, location, staff, capacity, and other characteristics of selected health care <span class="hlt">providers</span> in the United States. Information is collected via mail questionnaire with telephone follow up to all <span class="hlt">providers</span> (100% census) o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4477043','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4477043"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmentally responsive MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Davies, Gemma-Louise; Kramberger, Iris; Davis, Jason J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Biomedical imaging techniques can <span class="hlt">provide</span> a vast amount of anatomical information, enabling diagnosis and the monitoring of disease and treatment profile. MRI uniquely offers convenient, non-invasive, high resolution tomographic imaging. A considerable amount of effort has been invested, across several decades, in the design of non toxic paramagnetic contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> capable of enhancing positive MRI signal contrast. Recently, focus has shifted towards the development of <span class="hlt">agents</span> capable of specifically reporting on their local biochemical environment, where a switch in image contrast is triggered by a specific stimulus/biochemical variable. Such an ability would not only strengthen diagnosis but also <span class="hlt">provide</span> unique disease-specific biochemical insight. This feature article focuses on recent progress in the development of MRI contrast switching with molecular, macromolecular and nanoparticle-based <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:24040650</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009APS..SES.EB004S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Computational Astrophysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shoemaker, Deirdre</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We live in extraordinary times. With increasingly sophisticated observatories opening up new vistas on the universe, astrophysics is becoming more complex and data-driven. The success in understanding astrophysical systems that are inherently multi-physical, nonlinear systems demands realism in our models of the phenomena. We cannot hope to advance the realism of these models to match the expected sophistication of future observations without <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-scale computation. Just one example is the advent of gravitational wave astronomy. Detectors like LIGO are about to make the first ever detection of gravitational waves. The gravitational waves are produced during violent events such as the merger of two black holes. The detection of these waves or ripples in the fabric of spacetime is a formidable undertaking, requiring innovative engineering, powerful data analysis tools and careful theoretical modeling. I will discuss the computational and theoretical challenges ahead in our new understanding of physics and astronomy where gravity exhibits its strongest grip on our spacetime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.H43N..02W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating NARCCAP Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> via Bivariate <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Theory (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, G. B.; Cooley, D. S.; Sain, S. R.; Bukovsky, M. S.; Mearns, L. O.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We introduce methodology from statistical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory to examine the ability of reanalysis-drive regional climate models to simulate past daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Going beyond a comparison of summary statistics such as 20-year return values, we study whether the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events produced by climate model simulations exhibit correspondence to the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events seen in observational records. The extent of this correspondence is formulated via the statistical concept of tail dependence. We examine several case studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events simulated by the six models of the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) driven by NCEP reanalysis. It is found that the NARCCAP models generally reproduce daily winter precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> along the Pacific coast quite well; in contrast, simulation of past daily summer precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in a central US region is poor. Some differences in the strength of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> correspondence are seen in the central region between models which employ spectral nudging and those which do not. We demonstrate how these techniques may be used to draw a link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and large-scale atmospheric drivers, as well as to downscale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation simulated by a future run of a regional climate model. Specifically, we examine potential future changes in the nature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation along the Pacific coast produced by the pineapple express (PE) phenomenon. A link between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events and a "PE Index" derived from North Pacific sea-surface pressure fields is found. This link is used to study PE-influenced <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation produced by a future-scenario climate model run.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5881..181K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5881..181K"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge Management in Role Based <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kır, Hüseyin; Ekinci, Erdem Eser; Dikenelli, Oguz</p> <p></p> <p>In multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> system literature, the role concept is getting increasingly researched to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an abstraction to scope beliefs, norms, goals of <span class="hlt">agents</span> and to shape relationships of the <span class="hlt">agents</span> in the organization. In this research, we propose a knowledgebase architecture to increase applicability of roles in MAS domain by drawing inspiration from the self concept in the role theory of sociology. The proposed knowledgebase architecture has granulated structure that is dynamically organized according to the <span class="hlt">agent</span>'s identification in a social environment. Thanks to this dynamic structure, <span class="hlt">agents</span> are enabled to work on consistent knowledge in spite of inevitable conflicts between roles and the <span class="hlt">agent</span>. The knowledgebase architecture is also implemented and incorporated into the SEAGENT multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> system development framework.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 375.205 - May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? (a) You may have <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provided</span> you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have <span class="hlt">agents</span>, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 375.205 - May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? (a) You may have <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provided</span> you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have <span class="hlt">agents</span>, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 375.205 - May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? (a) You may have <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provided</span> you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have <span class="hlt">agents</span>, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 375.205 - May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? (a) You may have <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provided</span> you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have <span class="hlt">agents</span>, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol5-sec375-205.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 375.205 - May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? 375.205 Section 375.205... General Responsibilities § 375.205 May I have <span class="hlt">agents</span>? (a) You may have <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provided</span> you comply with... performs such services only on an emergency or temporary basis. (b) If you have <span class="hlt">agents</span>, you must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=46498&keyword=eastern+AND+crab&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76303770&CFTOKEN=78713069','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=46498&keyword=eastern+AND+crab&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76303770&CFTOKEN=78713069"><span id="translatedtitle">SURFACE TREATMENT <span class="hlt">AGENTS</span> FOR PROTECTION OF SHORELINES FROM OIL SPILLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A literature review and laboratory tests were conducted to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a basis for analyzing the results of previous tests on surface treatment <span class="hlt">agents</span>, compare <span class="hlt">agent</span> effectiveness, and recommend <span class="hlt">agents</span> for preliminary field tests. The surface treatment <span class="hlt">agents</span> evaluated during the pre...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Security&pg=2&id=EJ1091390"><span id="translatedtitle">Security, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Education: Safeguarding or Surveillance?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This article analyses how education is positioned in the current concerns about security and <span class="hlt">extremism</span>. This means firstly examining the different meanings of security (national, human and societal) and who <span class="hlt">provides</span> security for whom. Initially, a central dilemma is acknowledged: that schooling appears to be simultaneously irrelevant to the huge…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=violent&pg=6&id=EJ1009917"><span id="translatedtitle">"REsilience," Violent <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Religious Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Miller, Joyce</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article is an attempt to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an educational justification for the British Government-funded project, "REsilience," on addressing contentious issues through religious education (RE) which was carried out by the RE Council of England and Wales. A number of issues relating to the inclusion of religiously inspired violent <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23231827"><span id="translatedtitle">Management of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dysfunction in people with Parkinson disease and Huntington disease: facilitating outcomes across the disease lifespan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quinn, Lori; Busse, Monica; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Parkinson Disease (PD) and Huntington Disease (HD) are degenerative neurological diseases, which can result in impairments and activity limitations affecting the upper <span class="hlt">extremities</span> from early in the disease process. The progressive nature of these diseases poses unique challenges for therapists aiming to effectively maximize physical functioning and minimize participation restrictions in these patient groups. Research is underway in both diseases to develop effective disease-modifying <span class="hlt">agents</span> and pharmacological interventions, as well as mobility-focused rehabilitation protocols. Rehabilitation, and in particular task-specific interventions, has the potential to influence the upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> functional abilities of patients with these degenerative conditions. However to date, investigations of interventions specifically addressing upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> function have been limited in both PD, and in particular HD. In this paper, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> an update of the known pathological features of PD and HD as they relate to upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> function. We further review the available literature on the use of outcome measures, and the clinical management of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> function in both conditions. Due to the currently limited evidence base in both diseases, we recommend utilization of a clinical management framework specific for degenerative conditions that can serve as a guideline for disease management. PMID:23231827</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diesel&pg=4&id=EJ577464','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=diesel&pg=4&id=EJ577464"><span id="translatedtitle">Preparing for <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Herman, Dan</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Describes some basic maintenance and proper preparations for changing weather that can help keep school bus operations moving. <span class="hlt">Provides</span> advice on diesel engine usage that can lengthen engine life and maintain all weather performance is <span class="hlt">provided</span>. (GR)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6969E..09B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6969E..09B"><span id="translatedtitle">Optical recognition of biological <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgart, Chris W.; Linder, Kim Dalton; Trujillo, Josh J.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Differentiation between particulate biological <span class="hlt">agents</span> and non-biological <span class="hlt">agents</span> is typically performed via a time-consuming "wet chemistry" process or through the use of fluorescent and spectroscopic analysis. However, while these methods can <span class="hlt">provide</span> definitive recognition of biological <span class="hlt">agents</span>, many of them have to be performed in a laboratory environment, or are difficult to implement in the field. Optical recognition techniques offer an additional recognition approach that can <span class="hlt">provide</span> rapid analysis of a material in-situ to identify those materials that may be biological in nature. One possible application is to use these techniques to "screen" suspicious materials and to identify those that are potentially biological in nature. Suspicious materials identified by this screening process can then be analyzed in greater detail using the other, more definitive (but time consuming) analysis techniques. This presentation will describe the results of a feasibility study to determine whether optical pattern recognition techniques can be used to differentiate biological related materials from non-biological materials. As part of this study, feature extraction algorithms were developed utilizing multiple contrast and texture based features to characterize the macroscopic properties of different materials. In addition, several pattern recognition approaches using these features were tested including cluster analysis and neural networks. Test materials included biological <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulants, biological <span class="hlt">agent</span> related materials, and non-biological materials (suspicious white powders). Results of a series of feasibility tests will be presented along with a discussion of the potential field applications for these techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21D0874G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC21D0874G"><span id="translatedtitle">Ongoing climatic <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dynamics in Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper <span class="hlt">provides</span> the results of daily temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature <span class="hlt">extreme</span> distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Changes in daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873361','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873361"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleotide cleaving <span class="hlt">agents</span> and method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Que, Jr., Lawrence; Hanson, Richard S.; Schnaith, Leah M. T.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The present invention <span class="hlt">provides</span> a unique series of nucleotide cleaving <span class="hlt">agents</span> and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IBM&pg=6&id=EJ635516','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=IBM&pg=6&id=EJ635516"><span id="translatedtitle">Mobile <span class="hlt">Agents</span> Applications.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span>, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys <span class="hlt">agent</span> technology and discusses the <span class="hlt">agent</span> building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15242724','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15242724"><span id="translatedtitle">Anaphylactoid and adverse reactions to radiocontrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hagan, John B</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>Over the past 75 years, radiocontrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> have <span class="hlt">provided</span> numerous diagnostic and therapeutic advances. The benefits of these <span class="hlt">agents</span> must be weighed against the potential risks for each individual undergoing radiologic tests. This summary is intended to be a guide for the allergy and immunology specialist to direct him or her to the current literature regarding adverse reactions to traditional and less commonly used radiologic contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:15242724</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ESS.....311801T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Population Estimated from Kepler Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traub, Wesley A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of exoplanet population (0.5 to 16 Earth radii, 0.5 to 512 days period) are estimated from Kepler observations by comparing the observed numbers of planets at each radius and period against a simulation that accounts for the probability of transit and the estimated instrument sensitivity. By assuming that the population can be modeled as a function of period times a function of radius, and further assuming that these functions are broken power laws, sufficient leverage is gained such that the well-measured short-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span> of the planet distribution can effectively be used as a template for the less-well sampled long-period <span class="hlt">extreme</span>. The resulting population distribution over this full range of radius and period <span class="hlt">provides</span> a challenge to models of the origin and evolution of planetary systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CMaPh.336.1167G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Bundles on Calabi-Yau Threefolds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gao, Peng; He, Yang-Hui; Yau, Shing-Tung</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We study constructions of stable holomorphic vector bundles on Calabi-Yau threefolds, especially those with exact anomaly cancellation which we call <span class="hlt">extremal</span>. By going through the known databases we find that such examples are rare in general and can be ruled out for the spectral cover construction for all elliptic threefolds. We then introduce a general Hartshorne-Serre construction and use it to find <span class="hlt">extremal</span> bundles of general ranks and study their stability, as well as computing their Chern numbers. Based on both existing and our new constructions, we revisit the DRY conjecture for the existence of stable sheaves on Calabi-threefolds, and <span class="hlt">provide</span> theoretical and numerical evidence for its correctness. Our construction can be easily generalized to bundles with no <span class="hlt">extremal</span> conditions imposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046325','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16046325"><span id="translatedtitle">Soccer injury in the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, P; Hong, Y</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Information about soccer injuries is required to develop prevention and rehabilitation programmes. Most soccer injuries occur in the lower <span class="hlt">extremities</span>. This type of injury is reviewed here. Definitions of injury, injury rate, injury percentage, mechanism of injury, anatomical region of injury, type of injury, and severity of injury are summarised. In each section, a description and summary of the data are <span class="hlt">provided</span>. Finally, the limitations of the studies and suggestions to improve the investigation of soccer injuries are <span class="hlt">provided</span>. PMID:16046325</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1212295"><span id="translatedtitle">Detectors in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Blaj, G.; Carini, G.; Carron, S.; Haller, G.; Hart, P.; Hasi, J.; Herrmann, S.; Kenney, C.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.</p> <p>2015-08-06</p> <p>Free Electron Lasers opened a new window on imaging the motion of atoms and molecules. At SLAC, FEL experiments are performed at LCLS using 120Hz pulses with 10<sup>12</sup> - 10<sup>13</sup> photons in 10 femtoseconds (billions of times brighter than the most powerful synchrotrons). This <span class="hlt">extreme</span> detection environment raises unique challenges, from obvious to surprising. Radiation damage is a constant threat due to accidental exposure to insufficiently attenuated beam, focused beam and formation of ice crystals reflecting the beam onto the detector. Often high power optical lasers are also used (e.g., 25TW), increasing the risk of damage or impeding data acquisition through electromagnetic pulses (EMP). The sample can contaminate the detector surface or even produce shrapnel damage. Some experiments require ultra high vacuum (UHV) with strict design, surface contamination and cooling requirements - also for detectors. The setup is often changed between or during experiments with short turnaround times, risking mechanical and ESD damage, requiring work planning, training of operators and sometimes continuous participation of the LCLS Detector Group in the experiments. The detectors used most often at LCLS are CSPAD cameras for hard x-rays and pnCCDs for soft x-rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872884"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography machine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Haney, Steven J.; Sweeney, Donald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) machine or system for producing integrated circuit (IC) components, such as transistors, formed on a substrate. The EUVL machine utilizes a laser plasma point source directed via an optical arrangement onto a mask or reticle which is reflected by a multiple mirror system onto the substrate or target. The EUVL machine operates in the 10-14 nm wavelength soft x-ray photon. Basically the EUV machine includes an evacuated source chamber, an evacuated main or project chamber interconnected by a transport tube arrangement, wherein a laser beam is directed into a plasma generator which produces an illumination beam which is directed by optics from the source chamber through the connecting tube, into the projection chamber, and onto the reticle or mask, from which a patterned beam is reflected by optics in a projection optics (PO) box mounted in the main or projection chamber onto the substrate. In one embodiment of a EUVL machine, nine optical components are utilized, with four of the optical components located in the PO box. The main or projection chamber includes vibration isolators for the PO box and a vibration isolator mounting for the substrate, with the main or projection chamber being mounted on a support structure and being isolated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H43E1555L"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: from Observations to Decisions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lawford, R. G.; Unninayar, S.; Berod, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in the water cycle (droughts and floods) pose major challenges for water resource managers and emergency services. These challenges arise from observational and prediction systems, advisory services, impact reduction strategies, and cleanup and recovery operations. The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) through its Water Strategy ("GEOSS Water Strategy: from observations to decisions") is seeking to <span class="hlt">provide</span> systems that will enable its members to more effectively meet their information needs prior to and during an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. This presentation reviews the wide range of impacts that arise from <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the water cycle and the types of data and information needed to plan for and respond to these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. It identifies the capabilities and limitations of current observational and analysis systems in defining the scale, timing, intensity and impacts of water cycle <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and in directing society's response to them. This summary represents an early preliminary assessment of the global and regional information needs of water resource managers and begins to outline a strategy within GEO for using Earth Observations and ancillary information to address these needs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JPhCS..75a2074S"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> wind turbine response during operation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sørensen, John D.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response values is very important for structural design of wind turbines. Due to the influence of control system and nonlinear structural behavior the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response is usually assessed based on simulation of turbulence time series. In this paper the problem of statistical load extrapolation is considered using techniques from structural reliability theory. Different simulation techniques to estimate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response characteristics are described and compared, including crude Monte Carlo simulation, Importance Sampling, and splitting methods such as the Russian Roulette and the Double and Clump algorithm. A statistically consistent technique is described for including statistical uncertainty and assessing the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 50-year response using simulated time series and conditioned on the model parameters. The peak over threshold method together with the Maximum Likelihood Method <span class="hlt">provides</span> a tool to obtain consistent estimates incl. the statistical uncertainty. An illustrative example indicates that the statistical uncertainty is important compared to the coefficient of variation of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response when the number of 10 minutes simulations at each mean wind speed is limited to 10.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH42A..01I"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling, Forecasting and Mitigating <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Earthquakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Le Mouel, J.; Soloviev, A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Recent earthquake disasters highlighted the importance of multi- and trans-disciplinary studies of earthquake risk. A major component of earthquake disaster risk analysis is hazards research, which should cover not only a traditional assessment of ground shaking, but also studies of geodetic, paleoseismic, geomagnetic, hydrological, deep drilling and other geophysical and geological observations together with comprehensive modeling of earthquakes and forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> earthquakes (large magnitude and rare events) are manifestations of complex behavior of the lithosphere structured as a hierarchical system of blocks of different sizes. Understanding of physics and dynamics of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events comes from observations, measurements and modeling. A quantitative approach to simulate earthquakes in models of fault dynamics will be presented. The models reproduce basic features of the observed seismicity (e.g., the frequency-magnitude relationship, clustering of earthquakes, occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> seismic events). They <span class="hlt">provide</span> a link between geodynamic processes and seismicity, allow studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, influence of fault network properties on seismic patterns and seismic cycles, and assist, in a broader sense, in earthquake forecast modeling. Some aspects of predictability of large earthquakes (how well can large earthquakes be predicted today?) will be also discussed along with possibilities in mitigation of earthquake disasters (e.g., on 'inverse' forensic investigations of earthquake disasters).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EP%26S...67..153N"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet indices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nakamura, Masao; Yoneda, Asato; Oda, Mitsunobu; Tsubouchi, Ken</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities can damage electrical power grids due to large induced currents in the Earth, degrade radio communications and navigation systems due to the ionospheric disturbances and cause polar-orbiting satellite anomalies due to the enhanced auroral electron precipitation. Statistical estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> auroral electrojet activities is an important factor in space weather research. For this estimation, we utilize <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory (EVT), which focuses on the statistical behavior in the tail of a distribution. As a measure of auroral electrojet activities, auroral electrojet indices AL, AU, and AE, are used, which describe the maximum current strength of the westward and eastward auroral electrojets and the sum of the two oppositely directed in the auroral latitude ionosphere, respectively. We <span class="hlt">provide</span> statistical evidence for finite upper limits to AL and AU and estimate the annual expected number and probable intensity of their <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. We detect two different types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> AE events; therefore, application of the appropriate EVT analysis to AE is difficult.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27185560"><span id="translatedtitle">Gut Microbiota and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Longevity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Biagi, Elena; Franceschi, Claudio; Rampelli, Simone; Severgnini, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Turroni, Silvia; Consolandi, Clarissa; Quercia, Sara; Scurti, Maria; Monti, Daniela; Capri, Miriam; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The study of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> limits of human lifespan may allow a better understanding of how human beings can escape, delay, or survive the most frequent age-related causes of morbidity, a peculiarity shown by long-living individuals. Longevity is a complex trait in which genetics, environment, and stochasticity concur to determine the chance to reach 100 or more years of age [1]. Because of its impact on human metabolism and immunology, the gut microbiome has been proposed as a possible determinant of healthy aging [2, 3]. Indeed, the preservation of host-microbes homeostasis can counteract inflammaging [4], intestinal permeability [5], and decline in bone and cognitive health [6, 7]. Aiming at deepening our knowledge on the relationship between the gut microbiota and a long-living host, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> for the first time the phylogenetic microbiota analysis of semi-supercentenarians, i.e., 105-109 years old, in comparison to adults, elderly, and centenarians, thus reconstructing the longest available human microbiota trajectory along aging. We highlighted the presence of a core microbiota of highly occurring, symbiotic bacterial taxa (mostly belonging to the dominant Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Bacteroidaceae families), with a cumulative abundance decreasing along with age. Aging is characterized by an increasing abundance of subdominant species, as well as a rearrangement in their co-occurrence network. These features are maintained in longevity and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> longevity, but peculiarities emerged, especially in semi-supercentenarians, describing changes that, even accommodating opportunistic and allochthonous bacteria, might possibly support health maintenance during aging, such as an enrichment and/or higher prevalence of health-associated groups (e.g., Akkermansia, Bifidobacterium, and Christensenellaceae). PMID:27185560</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6055F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6055F"><span id="translatedtitle">Normal, rare or <span class="hlt">extreme</span>? A recurrence-based technique for the detection of genuine <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Faranda, Davide; Alvarez-Castro, Carmen; Yiou, Pascal</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We analyze several outputs of model simulations and instrumental records of temperatures at different locations by using new techniques originally developed for the analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values of dynamical systems. We show that they have the same recurrence time statistics as a chaotic dynamical system perturbed with dynamical noise and by instrument errors. The technique <span class="hlt">provides</span> a criterion to discriminate whether the recurrence of a certain temperature belongs to the normal variability or can be considered as a genuine <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event with respect to a specific timescale fixed as parameter. The method gives a self-consistent estimation of the convergence of the statistics of recurrences toward the theoretical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value laws. We focus on Millennium simulations using data from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5) and a couple of IPSL simulations with differents climate forcings in order to assess how models simulate the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in the recent past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12956208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12956208"><span id="translatedtitle">New antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gupta, Aditya K; Tomas, Elizabeth</p> <p>2003-07-01</p> <p>Currently, use of standard antifungal therapies can be limited because of toxicity, low efficacy rates, and drug resistance. New formulations are being prepared to improve absorption and efficacy of some of these standard therapies. Various new antifungals have demonstrated therapeutic potential. These new <span class="hlt">agents</span> may <span class="hlt">provide</span> additional options for the treatment of superficial fungal infections and they may help to overcome the limitations of current treatments. Liposomal formulations of AmB have a broad spectrum of activity against invasive fungi, such as Candida spp., C. neoformans, and Aspergillus spp., but not dermatophyte fungi. The liposomal AmB is associated with significantly less toxicity and good rates of efficacy, which compare or exceed that of standard AmB. These factors may <span class="hlt">provide</span> enough of an advantage to patients to overcome the increased costs of these formulations. Three new azole drugs have been developed, and may be of use in both systemic and superficial fungal infections. Voriconazole, ravuconazole, and posaconazole are triazoles, with broad-spectrum activity. Voriconazole has a high bioavailability, and has been used with success in immunocompromised patients with invasive fungal infections. Ravuconazole has shown efficacy in candidiasis in immunocompromised patients, and onychomycosis in healthy patients. Preliminary in vivo studies with posaconazole indicated potential use in a variety of invasive fungal infections including oropharyngeal candidiasis. Echinocandins and pneumocandins are a new class of antifungals, which act as fungal cell wall beta-(1,3)-D-glucan synthase enzyme complex inhibitors. Caspofungin (MK-0991) is the first of the echinocandins to receive Food and Drug Administration approval for patients with invasive aspergillosis not responding or intolerant to other antifungal therapies, and has been effective in patients with oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis. Standardization of MIC value determination has improved the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1738d0006S"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding water <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with caution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stehlík, Milan; Stehlíková, Silvia; Torres, Sebastián</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We discuss a sensitive topic, how to scientifically estimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in water quality managements. Such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are incorporating establishment of thresholds or levels of certain chemicals in the drinking water. In particular, we address the water fluoridation and quality of drinking water in Chile. Statistical approaches demonstrating the necessary background of water manager will be given in a survey exposition to establish link between statistics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317270','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317270"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Amputations and Prosthetics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ovadia, Steven A.; Askari, Morad</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputations are most frequently indicated by severe traumatic injuries. The location of the injury will determine the level of amputation. Preservation of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> length is often a goal. The amputation site will have important implications on the functional status of the patient and options for prosthetic reconstruction. Advances in amputation techniques and prosthetic reconstructions promote improved quality of life. In this article, the authors review the principles of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputation, including techniques, amputation sites, and prosthetic reconstructions. PMID:25685104</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060022168&hterms=traffic+flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtraffic%2Bflow','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060022168&hterms=traffic+flow&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dtraffic%2Bflow"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Reward Shaping for Alleviating Traffic Congestion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Traffic congestion problems <span class="hlt">provide</span> a unique environment to study how multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems promote desired system level behavior. What is particularly interesting in this class of problems is that no individual action is intrinsically "bad" for the system but that combinations of actions among <span class="hlt">agents</span> lead to undesirable outcomes, As a consequence, <span class="hlt">agents</span> need to learn how to coordinate their actions with those of other <span class="hlt">agents</span>, rather than learn a particular set of "good" actions. This problem is ubiquitous in various traffic problems, including selecting departure times for commuters, routes for airlines, and paths for data routers. In this paper we present a multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> approach to two traffic problems, where far each driver, an <span class="hlt">agent</span> selects the most suitable action using reinforcement learning. The <span class="hlt">agent</span> rewards are based on concepts from collectives and aim to <span class="hlt">provide</span> the <span class="hlt">agents</span> with rewards that are both easy to learn and that if learned, lead to good system level behavior. In the first problem, we study how <span class="hlt">agents</span> learn the best departure times of drivers in a daily commuting environment and how following those departure times alleviates congestion. In the second problem, we study how <span class="hlt">agents</span> learn to select desirable routes to improve traffic flow and minimize delays for. all drivers.. In both sets of experiments,. <span class="hlt">agents</span> using collective-based rewards produced near optimal performance (93-96% of optimal) whereas <span class="hlt">agents</span> using system rewards (63-68%) barely outperformed random action selection (62-64%) and <span class="hlt">agents</span> using local rewards (48-72%) performed worse than random in some instances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3241C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.3241C"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic conditions during wintertime temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.; Gutowski, William J.; Glisan, Justin M.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The large-scale atmospheric state associated with widespread wintertime warm and cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in southern Alaska was identified using 1989 to 2007 European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Interim Re-Analysis (ERA-I) data. <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> were defined as days with the coldest and warmest 1% of daily temperatures. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events were identified for days when at least 25 50 km grid cells in the study domain met the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature criteria. A total of 55 cold and 74 warm <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days were identified in 19 winters. Composites of the atmospheric state from 5 days before through the day of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events were analyzed to assess the large-scale atmospheric state associated with the <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The method of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was used to identify the range of sea level pressure (SLP) patterns present in the ERA-I December-February data, and these SLP patterns were then used to stratify the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days by their large-scale atmospheric circulation. Composites for all warm or cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days showed less intense features than those for specific SLP patterns. In all of the composites temperature advection, strongest at 700 hPa, and anomalous longwave radiation were the primary factors that led to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The anomalous downwelling longwave radiation was due to either reduced cloud cover, during cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, or to increased cloud cover, during warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. The SOM composites <span class="hlt">provided</span> additional insight into the temporal evolution of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days and highlighted different portions of southern Alaska most likely to experience temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> for a given SOM SLP pattern.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681255','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26681255"><span id="translatedtitle">Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast <span class="hlt">Agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted <span class="hlt">agents</span> with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will <span class="hlt">provide</span> an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging <span class="hlt">agents</span> for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MmSAI..79..375H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008MmSAI..79..375H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> horizontal branch stars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heber, U.</p> <p></p> <p>A review is presented on the properties, origin and evolutionary links of hot subluminous stars which are generally believed to be <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Horizontal Branch stars or closely related objects. They exist both in the disk and halo populations (globular clusters) of the Galaxy. Amongst the field stars a large fraction of sdBs are found to reside in close binaries. The companions are predominantly white dwarfs, but also low mass main sequence stars are quite common. Systems with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions may qualify as Supernova Ia progenitors. Recently evidence has been found that the masses of some unseen companions might exceed the Chandrasekhar mass, hence they must be neutron stars or black holes. Even a planet has recently been detected orbiting the pulsating sdB star V391 Peg. Quite to the opposite,in globular clusters, only very few sdB binaries amongst are found indicating that the dominant sdB formation processes is different in a dense environment. Binary population synthesis models identify three formation channels, (i) stable Roche lobe overflow, (ii) one or two common envelope ejection phases and (iii) the merger of two helium white dwarfs. The latter channel may explain the properties of the He-enriched subluminous O stars, the hotter sisters of the sdB stars, because their binary fraction is lower than that of the sdBs by a factor of ten or more. The rivaling ''late hot flasher'' scenario is also discussed. Pulsating subluminous B (sdB) stars play an important role for asteroseismology as this technique has already led to mass determinations for a handful of stars. A unique hyper-velocity sdO star moving so fast that it is unbound to the Galaxy has probably been ejected by the super-massive black hole in the Galactic centre.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2002AGUFM.B71B0741M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments: Why NASA?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meyer, M. A.</p> <p>2002-12-01</p> <p>Life on our planet is the only known example in the universe and so we are relegated to this planet for the study of life. However, life may be a natural consequence of planet formation, and so the study of the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life may be greatly informed by planetary exploration. Astrobiology has adopted several approaches to study life on Earth, for deducing our origins, for determining the likelihood of life elsewhere, and for enabling the search for evidence of past or present life. The first approach has been the Exobiology Program, centered around understanding the origins of life and which supports individual investigator research. Second has been the construction of consortia-type research in which researchers from different disciplines focus on a larger problem. This structure began with NASA Specialized Centers of Research and Training and has grown to include the Astrobiology Institute - a collection of competitively selected groups of researchers attacking problems in Astrobiology as individual teams and as a consolidated Institute. With the formation of an intellectual basis for exploring for life elsewhere, Astrobiology has initiated the competitive research and development program in instrument development (Astrobiology Science and Technology for Instrument Development [ASTID] Program) that would enable future mission instruments for the exploration of planetary bodies in the search for prebiotic chemistry, habitable environments (past or present), biomarkers, and possibly life itself. However, the act of exploring requires robust instrumentation, mobile robotic platforms, efficient operations, and a high level of autonomy. To this end, Astrobiology has started a new research activity that promotes scientifically-driven robotic exploration of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments on Earth that are analogous to suspected habitable environments on other planetary bodies. The program is called Astrobiology Science and Technology for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10183372','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10183372"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Provide</span>, <span class="hlt">provide</span>: the economics of aging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1998-06-26</p> <p>Most older persons face two potentially serious economic problems: (a) declining earning power and (b) declining health that can be partly offset by increased utilization of health care. The decline in earning power is largely attributable to physiological changes and to obsolescence of skills and knowledge. These adverse effects are exacerbated by public and private policies that reduce the incentives of older persons to continue work and increase the cost to employers of employing older workers. The problems of earnings replacement and health care payment are usually discussed separately, but there are several reasons why they should be considered together. First, there are often tradeoffs between the two. Money is money, and for most people there is never enough to go around. This is self-evident where private funds are concerned. Low-income elderly, for instance, frequently must choose between expensive prescription drugs and an adequate diet. For middle-income elderly, the choice may be between saving on medigap insurance or forgoing an airplane trip to a grandchild's graduation. Difficult choices are also inherent in the allocation of public funds. The same tax receipts that could be used to maintain or increase retirement benefits could be used to fund additional care, and vice versa. In discussing these tradeoffs, some analysts assert that people will gladly give up other goods and services for medical care that cures illness, relieves pain, or restores function. Others believe that some people would forgo some health insurance in order to maintain access to other goods and services. A second reason for looking at the two problems together is that they pose similar questions for public policy. How much should each generation <span class="hlt">provide</span> for its own needs in old age, and how much should be <span class="hlt">provided</span> by the generations that follow? How much provision should be voluntary, how much compulsory? How much intra-generational redistribution is appropriate after age 65</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24092856"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigational antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> of 2013.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pucci, Michael J; Bush, Karen</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>New antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review <span class="hlt">provides</span> a survey of known antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new <span class="hlt">agents</span> are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel <span class="hlt">agents</span> in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811234','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811234"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigational Antimicrobial <span class="hlt">Agents</span> of 2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pucci, Michael J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>SUMMARY New antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review <span class="hlt">provides</span> a survey of known antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new <span class="hlt">agents</span> are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel <span class="hlt">agents</span> in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4469V&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.4469V&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Probabilistic forecasting of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events based on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Van De Vyver, Hans; Van Schaeybroeck, Bert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in weather and climate such as high wind gusts, heavy precipitation or <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures are commonly associated with high impacts on both environment and society. Forecasting <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events is difficult, and very high-resolution models are needed to describe explicitly <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather phenomena. A prediction system for such events should therefore preferably be probabilistic in nature. Probabilistic forecasts and state estimations are nowadays common in the numerical weather prediction community. In this work, we develop a new probabilistic framework based on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory that aims to <span class="hlt">provide</span> early warnings up to several days in advance. We consider the combined events when an observation variable Y (for instance wind speed) exceeds a high threshold y and its corresponding deterministic forecasts X also exceeds a high forecast threshold y. More specifically two problems are addressed:} We consider pairs (X,Y) of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events where X represents a deterministic forecast, and Y the observation variable (for instance wind speed). More specifically two problems are addressed: Given a high forecast X=x_0, what is the probability that Y>y? In other words: <span class="hlt">provide</span> inference on the conditional probability: [ Pr{Y>y|X=x_0}. ] Given a probabilistic model for Problem 1, what is the impact on the verification analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. These problems can be solved with bivariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (Coles, 2001), and the verification analysis in (Ferro, 2007). We apply the Ramos and Ledford (2009) parametric model for bivariate tail estimation of the pair (X,Y). The model accommodates different types of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dependence and asymmetry within a parsimonious representation. Results are presented using the ensemble reforecast system of the European Centre of Weather Forecasts (Hagedorn, 2008). Coles, S. (2001) An Introduction to Statistical modelling of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Values. Springer-Verlag.Ferro, C.A.T. (2007) A probability model for verifying deterministic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9855972','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9855972"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergency department management of nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pfaff, B L</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> are toxic chemicals developed for use by the military, but used by terrorists against civilian populations. As threats of terrorism increase, it is possible that health care <span class="hlt">providers</span> will be confronted with multiple victims of nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> exposure. Nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> are highly toxic forms of organophosphate poisons that potentially could cause harm to anyone who comes in contact. Emergency personnel need to be familiar with the <span class="hlt">agents</span>, know how to prepare for encountering and treating victims, and know how to protect all people involved from further poisoning. PMID:9855972</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231337-oak-ridge-mobile-agent-community-ormac','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231337-oak-ridge-mobile-agent-community-ormac"><span id="translatedtitle">Oak Ridge Mobile <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Community (ORMAC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2003-06-30</p> <p>The Oak Ridge Mobile <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Community (ORMAC) framework software facilitates the execution of a collection of mobile software <span class="hlt">agents</span> across a heterogeneous collection of computer systems. ORMAC <span class="hlt">provides</span> the software <span class="hlt">agents</span> with the ability to communicate with each other in a synchronous and asynchronous manner. Also, ORMAC allows the software <span class="hlt">agents</span> to move to any computer system in the community and continue execution there. ORMAC is intended to aid programmers in solving a very generalmore » set of distributed software problems.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365850','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22365850"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonmaximality of known <span class="hlt">extremal</span> metrics on torus and Klein bottle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Karpukhin, M A</p> <p>2013-12-31</p> <p>The El Soufi-Ilias theorem establishes a connection between minimal submanifolds of spheres and <span class="hlt">extremal</span> metrics for eigenvalues of the Laplace-Beltrami operator. Recently, this connection was used to <span class="hlt">provide</span> several explicit examples of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> metrics. We investigate the properties of these metrics and prove that none of them is maximal. Bibliography: 24 titles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED242428.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED242428.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments: The Ghetto and the South Pole.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pierce, Chester M.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> environments, such as polar regions or space crafts, <span class="hlt">provide</span> an analogue for speculations concerning the needs of, educational provisions for, and environmental impacts on ghetto youth in kindergarten through the third grade. This discussion first centers on the common qualities of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environment (whether exotic or mundane): forced…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=9197&keyword=space+AND+statistics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74770655&CFTOKEN=90877833','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=9197&keyword=space+AND+statistics&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=74770655&CFTOKEN=90877833"><span id="translatedtitle">PROBABILITIES OF TEMPERATURE <span class="hlt">EXTREMES</span> IN THE U.S.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The model Temperature <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> Version 1.0 <span class="hlt">provides</span> the capability to estimate the probability, for 332 locations in the 50 U.S. states, that an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature will occur for one or more consecutive days and/or for any number of days in a given month or season, based on stat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850062617&hterms=nitrite&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dnitrite"><span id="translatedtitle">Denitrification by <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hochstein, L. I.; Tomlinson, G. A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> halophilic bacteria were isolated from widely separated sites by anaerobic enrichment in the presence of nitrate. The anaerobic growth of several of these isolates was accompanied by the production of nitrite, nitrous oxide, and dinitrogen. These results are a direct confirmation of the existence of <span class="hlt">extremely</span> halophilic denitrifying bacteria, and suggest that such bacteria may be common inhabitants of hypersaline environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=gender+AND+violence&pg=6&id=EJ813794"><span id="translatedtitle">Gender, Education, <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> and Security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This paper examines the complex relationships between gender, education, <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and security. After defining <span class="hlt">extremism</span> and fundamentalism, it looks first at the relationship of gender to violence generally, before looking specifically at how this plays out in more extremist violence and terrorism. Religious fundamentalism is also shown to have…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1284M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.1284M"><span id="translatedtitle">Long term variations in global sea level <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcos, Marta; Calafat, Francisco M.; Berihuete, Ángel; Dangendorf, Sönke</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Decadal to multi-decadal variations in sea level <span class="hlt">extremes</span> unrelated to mean sea level changes have been investigated using long tide gauge records distributed worldwide. A state space approach has been applied that <span class="hlt">provides</span> robust solutions and uncertainties of the time evolving characteristics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, allowing for data gaps and uneven sampling, both common features of historical sea level time series. Two different models have been formulated for the intensity and for the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea level events and have been applied independently to each tide gauge record. Our results reveal two key findings: first, the intensity and the frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea levels unrelated to mean sea level vary coherently on decadal scales in most of the sites examined and, second, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea level changes are regionally consistent, thus pointing towards a common large scale forcing. This variability of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> associated with climate drivers should be considered in the framework of climate change studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.8115M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.8115M"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term variations in global sea level <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marcos, Marta; Calafat, Francisco M.; Berihuete, Ángel; Dangendorf, Sönke</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Decadal to multidecadal variations in sea level <span class="hlt">extremes</span> unrelated to mean sea level changes have been investigated using long tide gauge records distributed worldwide. A state space approach has been applied that <span class="hlt">provides</span> robust solutions and uncertainties of the time evolving characteristics of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, allowing for data gaps and uneven sampling, both common features of historical sea level time series. Two different models have been formulated for the intensity and for the occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea level events and have been applied independently to each tide gauge record. Our results reveal two key findings: first, the intensity and the frequency of occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea levels unrelated to mean sea level vary coherently on decadal scales in most of the sites examined (63 out of 77) and, second, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> sea level changes are regionally consistent, thus pointing toward a common large-scale forcing. This variability of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> associated with climate drivers should be considered in the framework of climate change studies.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817845','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22817845"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">extreme</span> risks in ecology.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Burgman, Mark; Franklin, James; Hayes, Keith R; Hosack, Geoffrey R; Peters, Gareth W; Sisson, Scott A</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> risks in ecology are typified by circumstances in which data are sporadic or unavailable, understanding is poor, and decisions are urgently needed. Expert judgments are pervasive and disagreements among experts are commonplace. We outline approaches to evaluating <span class="hlt">extreme</span> risks in ecology that rely on stochastic simulation, with a particular focus on methods to evaluate the likelihood of extinction and quasi-extinction of threatened species, and the likelihood of establishment and spread of invasive pests. We evaluate the importance of assumptions in these assessments and the potential of some new approaches to account for these uncertainties, including hierarchical estimation procedures and generalized <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions. We conclude by examining the treatment of consequences in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> risk analysis in ecology and how expert judgment may better be harnessed to evaluate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> risks. PMID:22817845</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhRvE..64c5101B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> properties of random trees</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.; Majumdar, Satya N.</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>We investigate <span class="hlt">extremal</span> statistical properties such as the maximal and the minimal heights of randomly generated binary trees. By analyzing the master evolution equations we show that the cumulative distribution of <span class="hlt">extremal</span> heights approaches a traveling wave form. The wave front in the minimal case is governed by the small-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution, and conversely, the front in the maximal case is governed by the large-<span class="hlt">extremal</span>-height tail of the distribution. We determine several statistical characteristics of the <span class="hlt">extremal</span> height distribution analytically. In particular, the expected minimal and maximal heights grow logarithmically with the tree size, N, hmin~vmin ln N, and hmax~vmax ln N, with vmin=0.373365... and vmax=4.31107..., respectively. Corrections to this asymptotic behavior are of order O(ln ln N).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018280"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Agricultural Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ruane, Alex</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AgMIP and related projects are conducting several activities to understand and improve crop model response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. This involves crop model studies as well as the generation of climate datasets and scenarios more capable of capturing <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Models are typically less responsive to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events than we observe, and miss several forms of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Models also can capture interactive effects between climate change and climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Additional work is needed to understand response of markets and economic systems to food shocks. AgMIP is planning a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production and Food Security with an aim to inform the IPCC Sixth Assessment Report.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19800005607"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mean and Its Applications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swaroop, R.; Brownlow, J. D.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value statistics obtained from normally distributed data are considered. An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean is defined as the mean of p-th probability truncated normal distribution. An unbiased estimate of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean and its large sample distribution are derived. The distribution of this estimate even for very large samples is found to be nonnormal. Further, as the sample size increases, the variance of the unbiased estimate converges to the Cramer-Rao lower bound. The computer program used to obtain the density and distribution functions of the standardized unbiased estimate, and the confidence intervals of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean for any data are included for ready application. An example is included to demonstrate the usefulness of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> mean application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009LNCS.5881...68B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009LNCS.5881...68B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Architectures for Compliance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua</p> <p></p> <p>A Normative Multi-<span class="hlt">Agent</span> System consists of autonomous <span class="hlt">agents</span> who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the <span class="hlt">agents</span>. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that <span class="hlt">agents</span> can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that <span class="hlt">agents</span> can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive <span class="hlt">agent</span> architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22165585"><span id="translatedtitle">[Prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samokhvallov, I M; Reva, V A; Pronchenko, A A; Seleznev, A B</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The problem of temporary hemorrhage control is one of the most important issues of modern war surgery and surgery of trauma. It is a review of literature devoted to prehospital care in <span class="hlt">extremity</span> major vascular injuries, embraced up-to-date domestic materials as well as the modern foreign papers in this area. The most important historical landmarks of temporary hemorrhage control system are considered. We paid special attention to the most usable methods and means of hemorrhage control which are utilized at the modern time: pressure bandages, tourniquets, local haemostatic <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The comprehensive analysis of the contamporary haemostatic means concerning U.S. Army has done. The experience of foreign colleagues in development of prehospital care for the injured, creation and progress of new haemostatic methods, application of temporary hemorrhage control system is analyzed. PMID:22165585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23994877','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23994877"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection of nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> via perturbation of supramolecular gel formation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hiscock, Jennifer R; Piana, Francesca; Sambrook, Mark R; Wells, Neil J; Clark, Alistair J; Vincent, Jack C; Busschaert, Nathalie; Brown, Richard C D; Gale, Philip A</p> <p>2013-10-14</p> <p>The formation of tren-based tris-urea supramolecular gels in organic solvents is perturbed by the presence of the nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> soman <span class="hlt">providing</span> a new method of sensing the presence of organophosphorus warfare <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:23994877</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=networks+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ896825','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=networks+AND+programming&pg=5&id=EJ896825"><span id="translatedtitle">Experiences with <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sherrell, Linda; Krishna, Bhagavathy; Velaga, Natasha; Vejandla, Pavan; Satharla, Mahesh</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Agile methodologies have become increasingly popular among software developers as evidenced by industrial participation at related conferences. The popularity of agile practices over traditional techniques partly stems from the fact that these practices <span class="hlt">provide</span> for more customer involvement and better accommodate rapidly changing requirements,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658556','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658556"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical crowd control <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Menezes, Ritesh G; Hussain, Syed Ather; Rameez, Mansoor Ali Merchant; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Madadin, Mohammed; Anwar, Naureen; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Chemical crowd control <span class="hlt">agents</span> are also referred to as riot control <span class="hlt">agents</span> and are mainly used by civil authorities and government agencies to curtail civil disobedience gatherings or processions by large crowds. Common riot control <span class="hlt">agents</span> used to disperse large numbers of individuals into smaller, less destructive, and more easily controllable numbers include chloroacetophenone, chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile, dibenzoxazepine, diphenylaminearsine, and oleoresin capsicum. In this paper, we discuss the emergency medical care needed by sufferers of acute chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> contamination and raise important issues concerning toxicology, safety and health. PMID:26658556</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4047...50R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000SPIE.4047...50R"><span id="translatedtitle">Protecting software <span class="hlt">agents</span> from malicious hosts using quantum computing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reisner, John; Donkor, Eric</p> <p>2000-07-01</p> <p>We evaluate how quantum computing can be applied to security problems for software <span class="hlt">agents</span>. <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based computing, which merges technological advances in artificial intelligence and mobile computing, is a rapidly growing domain, especially in applications such as electronic commerce, network management, information retrieval, and mission planning. System security is one of the more eminent research areas in <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based computing, and the specific problem of protecting a mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> from a potentially hostile host is one of the most difficult of these challenges. In this work, we describe our <span class="hlt">agent</span> model, and discuss the capabilities and limitations of classical solutions to the malicious host problem. Quantum computing may be <span class="hlt">extremely</span> helpful in addressing the limitations of classical solutions to this problem. This paper highlights some of the areas where quantum computing could be applied to <span class="hlt">agent</span> security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080043956&hterms=Magnetism&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DMagnetism"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Swank, Jean; Kallman, Timothy R.; Jahoda, Keith M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Gas accreting ont,o black holes and neutron stars form a dynamic system generating X-rays with spectroscopic signatures and varying on time scales determined by the system. The radiation from various parts of these systems is surely polarized and compact sources have been calculated to give rise to net polarization from the unresolved sum of the radiation from the systems. Polarization has been looked to for some time as also bearing the imprint of strong gravity and <span class="hlt">providing</span> complementary information that could resolve ambiguities between the physical models that can give rise to frequencies, time delays, and spectra. In the cases of both stellar black holes and supermassive black holes the net polarizations predicted for probable disk and corona models are less than 10 needed. This sensitivity can be achieved, even for sources as faint as 1 milliCrab, in the Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission that uses foil mirrors and Time Projection Chamber detectors. Similarities have been pointed out between the timing and the spectral characteristics of low mass X-ray binaries and stellar black hole sources. Polarization measurements for these sources could play a role in determining the configuration of the disk and the neutron star.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012sptz.prop90192R"><span id="translatedtitle">Lightcurves of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Debris Disks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieke, George; Meng, Huan; Su, Kate</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We have recently discovered that some planetary debris disks with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fractional luminosities are variable on the timescale of a few years. This behavior opens a new possibility to understand planet building. Two of the known variable disks are around solar-like stars in the age range of 30 to 100+ Myr, which is the expected era of the final stages of terrestrial planet building. Such variability can be attributed to violent collisions (up to ones on the scale of the Moon-forming event between the proto-Earth and another proto-planet). The collisional cascades that are the aftermaths of these events can produce large clouds of tiny dust grains, possibly even condensed from silica vapor. A Spitzer pilot program has obtained the lightcurve of such a debris disk and caught two minor outbursts. Here we propose to continue the lightcurve monitoring with higher sampling rates and to expand it to more disks. The proposed time domain observations are a new dimension of debris disk studies that can bring unique insight to their evolution, <span class="hlt">providing</span> important constraints on the collisional and dynamical models of terrestrial planet formation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUSMSM32C..04C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Cusp Diamagnetic Cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T. A.</p> <p>2002-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. Some of the diamagnetic cavities were independent of the IMF directions, which is unexpected by the current MHD (or ISM) models, suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash, which <span class="hlt">provides</span> a challenge to the existing MHD (or ISM) models. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. During high solar wind pressure period on April 21, 1999, the POLAR spacecraft observed lower ion flux in the dayside high-latitude magnetosheath than that in the neighbouring cusp cavities. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity have significant global impacts on the geospace environment research and will be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in upstream ion events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..MARW28006K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Mechanics of Growing Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuhl, Ellen</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Growth is a distinguishing feature of all living things. Unlike standard materials, living matter can autonomously respond to alterations in its environment. As a result of a continuous ultrastructural turnover and renewal of cells and extracellular matrix, living matter can undergo <span class="hlt">extreme</span> changes in composition, size, and shape within the order of months, weeks, or days. While hard matter typically adapts by increasing its density to grow strong, soft matter adapts by increasing its volume to grow large. Here we <span class="hlt">provide</span> a state-of-the-art review of growing matter, and compare existing mathematical models for growth and remodeling of living systems. Applications are plentiful ranging from plant growth to tumor growth, from asthma in the lungs to restenosis in the vasculature, from plastic to reconstructive surgery, and from skeletal muscle adaptation to heart failure. Using these examples, we discuss current challenges and potential future directions. We hope to initiate critical discussions around the biophysical modeling of growing matter as a powerful tool to better understand biological systems in health and disease. This research has been supported by the NSF CAREER award CMMI 0952021.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1122687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1122687"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Scale Visual Analytics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Steed, Chad A; Potok, Thomas E; Pullum, Laura L; Ramanathan, Arvind; Shipman, Galen M; Thornton, Peter E</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Given the scale and complexity of today s data, visual analytics is rapidly becoming a necessity rather than an option for comprehensive exploratory analysis. In this paper, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> an overview of three applications of visual analytics for addressing the challenges of analyzing climate, text streams, and biosurveilance data. These systems feature varying levels of interaction and high performance computing technology integration to permit exploratory analysis of large and complex data of global significance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27147491"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct-acting antiviral <span class="hlt">agents</span> for hepatitis C: structural and mechanistic insights.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Götte, Matthias; Feld, Jordan J</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The treatment of HCV infection has evolved at an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> rapid pace over the past few years. The development of direct-acting antiviral <span class="hlt">agents</span>, which potently inhibit different stages in the viral life cycle, has led to the replacement of interferon with well-tolerated oral therapies with cure rates of >90% in most patient populations. Understanding the mechanisms of action of the various <span class="hlt">agents</span> as well as related issues, including the molecular basis for resistance, helps to guide drug development and clinical use. In this Review, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> a mechanistic description of NS3/4A protease inhibitors, nucleotide and non-nucleotide inhibitors of the NS5B viral polymerase and inhibitors of the NS5A protein, followed by a summary of clinical data from studies of each drug class alone and in combination. Remaining challenges in drug development efforts are also discussed. PMID:27147491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090039389"><span id="translatedtitle">Polyimide Resins Resist <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperatures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Spacecraft and aerospace engines share a common threat: high temperature. The temperatures experienced during atmospheric reentry can reach over 2,000 F, and the temperatures in rocket engines can reach well over 5,000 F. To combat the high temperatures in aerospace applications, Dr. Ruth Pater of Langley Research Center developed RP-46, a polyimide resin capable of withstanding the most brutal temperatures. The composite material can push the service temperature to the limits of organic materials. Designed as an environmentally friendly alternative to other high-temperature resins, the RP-46 polyimide resin system was awarded a 1992 "R&D 100" award, named a "2001 NASA Technology of the Year," and later, due to its success as a spinoff technology, "2004 NASA Commercial Invention of the Year." The technology s commercial success also led to its winning the Langley s "Paul F. Holloway Technology Transfer Award" as well as "Richard T. Whitcom Aerospace Technology Transfer Award" both for 2004. RP-46 is relatively inexpensive and it can be readily processed for use as an adhesive, composite, resin molding, coating, foam, or film. Its composite materials can be used in temperatures ranging from minus 150 F to 2,300 F. No other organic materials are known to be capable of such wide range and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> high-temperature applications. In addition to answering the call for environmentally conscious high-temperature materials, RP-46 <span class="hlt">provides</span> a slew of additional advantages: It is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> lightweight (less than half the weight of aluminum), chemical and moisture resistant, strong, and flexible. Pater also developed a similar technology, RP-50, using many of the same methods she used with RP-46, and very similar in composition to RP-46 in terms of its thermal capacity and chemical construction, but it has different applications, as this material is a coating as opposed to a buildable composite. A NASA license for use of this material outside of the Space Agency as well as</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51J..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Remembrance of ecohydrologic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> past</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Band, L. E.; Hwang, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Ecohydrological systems operate at time scales that span several orders of magnitude. Significant processes and feedbacks range from subdaily physiologic response to meteorological drivers, to soil forming and geomorphic processes ranging up through 10^3-10^4 years. While much attention in ecohydrology has focused on ecosystem optimization paradigms, these systems can show significant transience in structure and function, with apparent memory of hydroclimate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and regime shifts. While optimization feedbacks can be reconciled with system transience, a better understanding of the time scales and mechanisms of adjustment to increased hydroclimate variability and to specific events is required to understand and predict dynamics and vulnerability of ecosystems. Under certain circumstances of slowly varying hydroclimate, we hypothesize that ecosystems can remain adjusted to changing climate regimes, without displaying apparent system memory. Alternatively, rapid changes in hydroclimate and increased hydroclimate variability, amplified with well expressed non-linearity in the processes controlling feedbacks between water, carbon and nutrients, can move ecosystems far from adjusted states. The Coweeta Hydrological Laboratory is typical of humid, broadleaf forests in eastern North America, with a range of forest biomes from northern hardwoods at higher elevations, to oak-pine assemblages at lower elevations. The site <span class="hlt">provides</span> almost 80 years of rainfall-runoff records for a set of watersheds under different management, along with multi-decadal forest plot structural information, soil moisture conditions and stream chemistry. An initial period of multi-decadal cooling, was followed by three decades of warming and increased hydroclimate variability. While mean temperature has risen over this time period, precipitation shows no long term trends in the mean, but has had a significant rise in variability with repeated <span class="hlt">extreme</span> drought and wet periods. Over this latter</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050137713','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050137713"><span id="translatedtitle">Petri Nets as Modeling Tool for Emergent <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bergman, Marto</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span>, those <span class="hlt">agents</span> whose local interactions can cause unexpected global results, require a method of modeling that is both dynamic and structured Petri Nets, a modeling tool developed for dynamic discrete event system of mainly functional <span class="hlt">agents</span>, <span class="hlt">provide</span> this, and have the benefit of being an established tool. We present here the details of the modeling method here and discuss how to implement its use for modeling <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based systems. Petri Nets have been used extensively in the modeling of functional <span class="hlt">agents</span>, those <span class="hlt">agents</span> who have defined purposes and whose actions should result in a know outcome. However, emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span>, those <span class="hlt">agents</span> who have a defined structure but whose interaction causes outcomes that are unpredictable, have not yet found a modeling style that suits them. A problem with formally modeling emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span> that any formal modeling style usually expects to show the results of a problem and the results of problems studied using emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span> are not apparent from the initial construction. However, the study of emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span> still requires a method to analyze the <span class="hlt">agents</span> themselves, and have sensible conversation about the differences and similarities between types of emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span>. We attempt to correct this problem by applying Petri Nets to the characterization of emergent <span class="hlt">agents</span>. In doing so, the emergent properties of these <span class="hlt">agents</span> can be highlighted, and conversation about the nature and compatibility of the differing methods of <span class="hlt">agent</span> creation can begin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=asp&pg=5&id=EJ647232','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=asp&pg=5&id=EJ647232"><span id="translatedtitle">Arizona's Application Service <span class="hlt">Provider</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jordan, Darla</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Describes the U.S.'s first statewide K-12 application service <span class="hlt">provider</span> (ASP). The ASP, implemented by the Arizona School Facilities Board, <span class="hlt">provides</span> access to productivity, communications, and education software programs from any Internet-enabled device, whether in the classroom or home. (EV)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10166888','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10166888"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Provider</span> 1997 corporate profiles.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>As the long term care industry seeks out new products, new solutions, and new ways of <span class="hlt">providing</span> quality care, it is important for long term care <span class="hlt">providers</span> to know more about the companies they do business with. The following corporate profiles showcase information about leading companies in the long term health care industry. Some of the areas highlighted include: mission of company, history, product lines, support services. We hope you will find this information useful when making purchasing decisions, and we're confident you'll keep this issue of <span class="hlt">Provider</span> as a handy reference guide. The information in the following corporate profiles was supplied by the companies. Neither <span class="hlt">Provider</span> magazine nor the American Health Care Association endorses the products and services listed in this section. <span class="hlt">Provider</span> magazine and the American Health Care Association disclaim any and all liability related to or arising from the information contained in the profiles. PMID:10166888</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814308G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814308G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Convective Weather in Future Decades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will <span class="hlt">provide</span> details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..652J"><span id="translatedtitle">Future population exposure to US heat <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Bryan; O'Neill, Brian C.; McDaniel, Larry; McGinnis, Seth; Mearns, Linda O.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> heat events are likely to become more frequent in the coming decades owing to climate change. Exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat depends not only on changing climate, but also on changes in the size and spatial distribution of the human population. Here we <span class="hlt">provide</span> a new projection of population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat for the continental United States that takes into account both of these factors. Using projections from a suite of regional climate models driven by global climate models and forced with the SRES A2 scenario and a spatially explicit population projection consistent with the socioeconomic assumptions of that scenario, we project changes in exposure into the latter half of the twenty-first century. We find that US population exposure to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> heat increases four- to sixfold over observed levels in the late twentieth century, and that changes in population are as important as changes in climate in driving this outcome. Aggregate population growth, as well as redistribution of the population across larger US regions, strongly affects outcomes whereas smaller-scale spatial patterns of population change have smaller effects. The relative importance of population and climate as drivers of exposure varies across regions of the country.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24058280"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonparametric Spatial Models for <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>: Application to <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Data.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fuentes, Montserrat; Henry, John; Reich, Brian</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Estimating the probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature events is difficult because of limited records across time and the need to extrapolate the distributions of these events, as opposed to just the mean, to locations where observations are not available. Another related issue is the need to characterize the uncertainty in the estimated probability of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events at different locations. Although the tools for statistical modeling of univariate <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are well-developed, extending these tools to model spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> data is an active area of research. In this paper, in order to make inference about spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, we introduce a new nonparametric model for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. We present a Dirichlet-based copula model that is a flexible alternative to parametric copula models such as the normal and t-copula. The proposed modelling approach is fitted using a Bayesian framework that allow us to take into account different sources of uncertainty in the data and models. We apply our methods to annual maximum temperature values in the east-south-central United States. PMID:24058280</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15457022','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15457022"><span id="translatedtitle">Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> muscle perforator flaps for lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> reconstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hallock, Geoffrey G</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>A true muscle perforator flap is distinguished by the requisite intramuscular dissection of its musculocutaneous perforator to capture the same musculocutaneous territory but with total exclusion of the muscle, and thereby results in minimal functional impairment. Adhering to this definition, several lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> donor sites now are available, each with specific attributes especially useful for consideration in the treatment of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> defects. In this author's experience over the past two decades, 20 lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> muscle perforator flaps using multiple donor sites proved advantageous for lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> coverage problems as either a local pedicled flap or as a microsurgical tissue transfer. Significant complications occurred in 30 percent of flaps (six of 20) in that further intervention was required. Venous insufficiency and bulkiness were found to be the major inherent shortcomings. However, giant flaps, lengthy and large-caliber vascular pedicles, and the possibility for combined flaps were important assets. The choice of a lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> muscle perforator flap for lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> reconstruction limited the surgical intervention and morbidity to a single body region. PMID:15457022</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H23I..08A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.H23I..08A"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> and Cholera Dynamics in the 21st Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A. S.; Islam, S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Cholera, an acute water-borne diarrheal illness, has reemerged as a significant health threat across much of the developing world. Despite major advances in the ecological and the microbiological understanding of the causative <span class="hlt">agent</span>, V. cholerae, the role of the underlying climatic and environmental processes in propagating transmission is not adequately understood. Recent findings suggest a more prominent role of hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - droughts and floods - on the unique dual cholera peaks in the Bengal Delta region of South Asia, the native homeland of cholera. Increasing water scarcity and abundance, and coastal sea-level rise, influenced by changing climate patterns and large-scale climatic phenomena, is likely to adversely impact cholera transmission in South Asia. We focus on understanding how associated changes in macro-scale conditions in this region will impact micro-scale processes related to cholera in coming decades. We use the PRECIS Regional Climate Model over the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) basin region to simulate detailed high resolution projections of climate patterns for the 21st century. Precipitation outputs are analyzed for the 1980-2040 period to identify the trends and changes in hydroclimatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and potential impacts on cholera dynamics over the next three decades (2010-2040), in relation to the cholera surveillance operations over the past three decades (1980-2010). We find that an increased number of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events with prolonged dry periods in the Ganges basin region will likely adversely affect dry season cholera outbreaks. Increased monsoon precipitation volumes in the Brahmaputra basin catchments are likely to cause record floods and subsequently trigger large epidemics in downstream areas. Our results <span class="hlt">provide</span> new insight by identifying the changes in the two distinctly different, pre and post monsoon, cholera transmission mechanisms related to large-scale climatic controls that prevail in the region. A</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hair&pg=3&id=EJ914009','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hair&pg=3&id=EJ914009"><span id="translatedtitle">Change <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Survival Guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dunbar, Folwell L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS <span class="hlt">agents</span>, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change <span class="hlt">agent</span>," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=316847','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=316847"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity increases the resistance of ecosystem productivity to climate <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It remains unclear whether biodiversity buffers ecosystems against <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events, which are becoming increasingly frequent worldwide. Although early results suggested that biodiversity might <span class="hlt">provide</span> both resistance and resilience (sensu rapid recovery) of ecosystem productivity to drought, ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776826','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2776826"><span id="translatedtitle">Pediatric Antifungal <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Moran, Cassandra; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Smith, P Brian</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review In immunocompromised hosts, invasive fungal infections are common and fatal. In the past decade, the antifungal armamentarium against invasive mycoses has expanded greatly. The purpose of this report is to review the most recent literature addressing the use of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> in children. Recent findings Most studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> are limited to adults. However, important progress has been made in describing the pharmacokinetics and safety of newer antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> in children, including the echinocandins. Summary Dosage guidelines for newer antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> are currently based on adult and limited pediatric data. Because important developmental pharmacology changes occur throughout childhood impacting the pharmacokinetics of these <span class="hlt">agents</span>, antifungal studies specifically designed for children are necessary. PMID:19741525</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012utcs.book..231R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012utcs.book..231R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">How do <span class="hlt">agents</span> represent?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryan, Alex</p> <p></p> <p>Representation is inherent to the concept of an <span class="hlt">agent</span>, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some <span class="hlt">agent</span>, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes <span class="hlt">agents</span> from non-representational objects: <span class="hlt">agents</span> are objects capable of representation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/muscular/groups/lower.html"><span id="translatedtitle">Muscles of the Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Home » Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Muscular System » Muscle Groups » Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4611667"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in computational turbulence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yeung, P. K.; Zhai, X. M.; Sreenivasan, Katepalli R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We have performed direct numerical simulations of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in a periodic box with 8,1923 grid points. These are the largest simulations performed, to date, aimed at improving our understanding of turbulence small-scale structure. We present some basic statistical results and focus on “extreme” events (whose magnitudes are several tens of thousands the mean value). The structure of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is quite different from that of moderately large events (of the order of 10 times the mean value). In particular, intense vorticity occurs primarily in the form of tubes for moderately large events whereas it is much more “chunky” for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events (though probably overlaid on the traditional vortex tubes). We track the temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and find that they are generally short-lived. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> magnitudes of energy dissipation rate and enstrophy occur simultaneously in space and remain nearly colocated during their evolution. PMID:26424452</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020051113&hterms=life+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlife%2Bhistory','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020051113&hterms=life+history&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dlife%2Bhistory"><span id="translatedtitle">Life in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>McKay, Christopher P.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Although the Viking results may indicate that Mars has no life today, there is direct geomorphological evidence that, in the past, Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface - possibly due to a thicker atmosphere. From a biological perspective the existence of liquid water, by itself motivates the question of the origin of life on Mars. One of the martian meteorites dates back to this early period and may contain evidence consistent with life. From studies of the Earth's earliest biosphere we know that by 3.5 Gyr. ago, life had originated on Earth and reached a fair degree of biological sophistication. Surface activity and erosion on Earth make it difficult to trace the history of life before the 3.5 Gyr timeframe. Ecosystems in cold, dry locations on Earth - such as the Antarctic - <span class="hlt">provide</span> examples of how life on Mars might have survived and where to look for fossils.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5085...64L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5085...64L"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detector (JCAD): the future of chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laljer, Charles E.</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>The Joint Chemical <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Detector (JCAD) has continued development through 2002. The JCAD has completed Contractor Validation Testing (CVT) that included chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agent</span> testing, environmental testing, electromagnetic interferent testing, and platform integration validation. The JCAD <span class="hlt">provides</span> state of the art chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agent</span> detection capability to military and homeland security operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty countries have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of weapons of mass destruction (and the industrial capability for manufacture of these weapons) to third world nations and terrorist organizations has greatly increased the chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> threat to U.S. interests. Coupled with the potential for U.S. involvement in localized conflicts in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the military Joint Services may encounter chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span> anywhere in the world. The JCAD is a small (45 in3), lightweight (2 lb.) chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system <span class="hlt">provides</span> a common detection component across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD detects, identifies, quantifies, and warns of the presence of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span> prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span>, the detector <span class="hlt">provides</span> local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will <span class="hlt">provide</span> the vehicle crew and other personnel in the local area with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The JCAD is capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> threats. The JCAD <span class="hlt">provides</span> the operator with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agent</span> threat environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4722...41L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4722...41L"><span id="translatedtitle">Joint Chemical <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Detector (JCAD): the future of chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laljer, Charles E.; Owen, Jeffery L.</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>The Joint Chemical <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Detector (JCAD) will <span class="hlt">provide</span> state of the art chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agent</span> detection capability to ground vehicle operators. Intelligence sources estimate that over twenty counties have active chemical weapons programs. The spread of chemical weapons to third world nations, coupled with the potential for US involvement in these areas in an operational or support capacity, increases the probability that the Joint Services may encounter chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span> and toxic industrial materials anywhere in the world. Currently, fielded chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detectors are bulky, labor intensive, and subject to false readings. No legacy detector is sensitive enough to <span class="hlt">provide</span> detection and warning of the low dose hazards associated with miosis contamination. The JCAD will <span class="hlt">provide</span> a small, lightweight chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> detector for vehicle interiors, aircraft, individual personnel, shipboard, and fixed site locations. The system <span class="hlt">provides</span> a common detection components across multi-service platforms. This common detector system will allow the Joint Services to use the same operational and support concept for more efficient utilization of resources. The JCAD will detect, identify, quantify, and warn of the presence of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span> prior to onset of miosis. Upon detection of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span>, the detector will <span class="hlt">provide</span> local and remote audible and visual alarms to the operators. Advance warning will <span class="hlt">provide</span> the vehicle crew with the time necessary to protect themselves from the lethal effects of chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The JCAD will also be capable of being upgraded to protect against future chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> threats. The JCAD will <span class="hlt">provide</span> the vehicle operators with the warning necessary to survive and fight in a chemical warfare <span class="hlt">agent</span> threat environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4722...50H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4722...50H"><span id="translatedtitle">Laser interrogation of surface <span class="hlt">agents</span> (LISA) for chemical <span class="hlt">agent</span> reconnaissance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higdon, N. S.; Chyba, Thomas H.; Richter, Dale A.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Armstrong, Wayne T.; Lobb, C. T.; Kelly, Brian T.; Babnick, Robert D.; Sedlacek, Arthur J., III</p> <p>2002-06-01</p> <p>Laser Interrogation of Surface <span class="hlt">Agents</span> (LISA) is a new technique which exploits Raman scattering to <span class="hlt">provide</span> standoff detection and identification of surface-deposited chemical <span class="hlt">agents</span>. ITT Industries, Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division is developing the LISA technology under a cost-sharing arrangement with the US Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command for incorporation on the Army's future reconnaissance vehicles. A field-engineered prototype LISA-Recon system is being designed to demonstrate on-the- move measurements of chemical contaminants. In this article, we will describe the LISA technique, data form proof-of- concept measurements, the LISA-Recon design, and some of the future realizations envisioned for military sensing applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977557','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/977557"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">agent</span> based model of genotype editing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rocha, L. M.; Huang, C. F.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents our investigation on an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based model of Genotype Editing. This model is based on several characteristics that are gleaned from the RNA editing system as observed in several organisms. The incorporation of editing mechanisms in an evolutionary <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based model <span class="hlt">provides</span> a means for evolving <span class="hlt">agents</span> with heterogenous post-transcriptional processes. The study of this <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based genotype-editing model has shed some light into the evolutionary implications of RNA editing as well as established an advantageous evolutionary computation algorithm for machine learning. We expect that our proposed model may both facilitate determining the evolutionary role of RNA editing in biology, and advance the current state of research in <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based optimization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862792','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862792"><span id="translatedtitle">Method of encapsulating polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> in liposomes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rahman, Yueh Erh</p> <p>1977-11-10</p> <p>A method is <span class="hlt">provided</span> for transferring a polyaminopolycarboxylic acid chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> within liposomes, which liposomes will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> across the cellular membrane. The chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> is encapsulated within liposomes by drying a lipid mixture to form a thin film and wetting the lipid film with a solution containing the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span>. Mixing then results in the formation of a suspension of liposomes encapsulating the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span>, which liposomes can then be separated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6754023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6754023"><span id="translatedtitle">Dioxin, <span class="hlt">agent</span> orange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gough, M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; <span class="hlt">agent</span> organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about <span class="hlt">agent</span> orange and Veterans' health; <span class="hlt">agent</span> organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=right+AND+information&pg=4&id=EJ1072564','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=right+AND+information&pg=4&id=EJ1072564"><span id="translatedtitle">Testing <span class="hlt">Provides</span> Crucial Information</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morial, Marc H.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The National Urban League president and CEO Marc H. Morial weighs in on what he sees as the need for continued annual assessments of students, rejecting the course of opting out that has taken hold in some places across America. Assessment data <span class="hlt">provides</span> students with the opportunity to receive personalized supports and necessary interventions to…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED278150.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED278150.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Provident</span> Principal.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCall, John R.</p> <p></p> <p>This monograph offers leadership approaches for school principals. Discussion applies the business leadership theory of Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus to the role of the principal. Each of the booklet's three parts concludes with discussion questions. Part 1, "Visions and Values for the <span class="hlt">Provident</span> Principal," demonstrates the importance of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10138187','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10138187"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Providers</span> get their due.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morrissey, J</p> <p>1994-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Providers</span> are getting their due, but only after employing computer software programs to help sort through the complex managed-care contracts they've negotiated. More and more accounting departments are relying on contract management systems to ensure accurate billing. PMID:10138187</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH33A3890V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH33A3890V"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather <span class="hlt">Extremes</span>, Climate Change and Adaptive Governance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Veland, S.; Lynch, A. H.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Human societies have become a geologic <span class="hlt">agent</span> of change, and with this is an increasing awareness of the environment risks that confront human activities and values. More frequent and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hydroclimate events, anomalous tropical cyclone seasons, heat waves and droughts have all been documented, and many rigorously attributed to fossil fuel emissions (e.g. DeGaetano 2009; Hoyos et al. 2006). These <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, however, do not register themselves in the abstract - they occur in particular places, affecting particular populations and ecosystems (Turner et al. 2003). This can be considered to present a policy window to decrease vulnerability and enhance emergency management. However, the asymmetrical character of these events may lead some to treat remote areas or disenfranchised populations as capable of absorbing the environmental damage attributable to the collective behavior of those residing in wealthy, populous, industrialized societies (Young 1989). Sound policies for adaptation to changing <span class="hlt">extremes</span> must take into account the multiple interests and resource constraints for the populations affected and their broader contexts. Minimizing vulnerability to weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is only one of many interests in human societies, and as noted, this interest competes with the others for limited time, attention, funds and other resources. Progress in reducing vulnerability also depends on policy that integrates the best available local and scientific knowledge and experience elsewhere. This improves the chance that each policy will succeed, but there are no guarantees. Each policy must be recognized as a matter of trial and error to some extent; surprises are inevitable. Thus each policy should be designed to fail gracefully if it fails, to learn from the experience, and to leave resources sufficient to implement the lessons learned. Overall policy processes must be quasi-evolutionary, avoiding replication without modification of failed policies and building on the successes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010cosp...38..447D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitability in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Lobkowicz, Ysaline; de Crombrugghe, Guerric; Le Maire, Victor; Jago, Alban; Denies, Jonathan; van Vynckt, Delphine; Reydams, Marc; Mertens, Alexandre</p> <p></p> <p>A manned space mission could be perfectly prepared in terms of sciences and technologies, but without a good habitat, a place where the needs of the crew are respected, this isolation and confinement can turn into a nightmare. There is the limitation of engineering: it is more than important to take care about architecture, when human lives are part of the experiment. The goal of the research is the analysis of the hard life of isolation and confinement in Mars' hostile environment and how architecture is a way to improve it. The objective is to place the human in the middle of the analysis. What does a person really need? Therefore Maslow's idea, the pyramid of primary needs, gives us the hierarchy to follow: first survival, food and beverage, then sleep, and only then protection, social activities and work. [1] No more luxury. If all these aspects are respected, a human is able to survive, like it did since so many years. The idea is that each of these main activities has to be related to a different type of space, to <span class="hlt">provide</span> variability in this close environment. For example, work and relaxing areas have to be separated; a human being needs time for himself, without concentration. A workspace and a relaxing area have a different typology, different colours and lighting, dimensions, furniture. This has also to be respected in a spacecraft. For this research, different sources are used, mainly in the psychological aspect, which is the most important. [2] Therefore questionnaires, interviews, diaries of past expeditions are full of treasures. We do not have to search too far: on earth; polar expeditions, submarines, military camps, etc., give a lot of information. Some very realistic simulations, as on the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS), will also be used as material: a good analysis of the defaults and well-organized part of the station can conduct to important conclusions. [3] A found analysis and a well-designed habitat are considerable keys for the success</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/658173','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/658173"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ultraviolet interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Goldberg, K A</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0.1-micron critical dimension and smaller. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near 13-nm wavelength and 0.1 NA have system wavefront tolerances of 0.27 nm, or 0.02 waves RMS. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification. This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability. These experiments spurred the development of the superior phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI), which has been implemented for the testing of an all-reflective lithographic-quality EUV optical system. Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0.02 waves RMS. EUV imaging experiments <span class="hlt">provide</span> verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance. Complementary to the experimental research, several areas of theoretical investigation related to the novel PS/PDI system are presented. First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Investigations of the relative merits of different PS/PDI configurations accompany a general study of the most significant sources</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084095','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3084095"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yuan, Liwei; Teitelbaum, Samuel W.; Robinson, Allison; Mullin, Amy S.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We have constructed an optical centrifuge with a pulse energy that is more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than previously reported instruments. This high pulse energy enables us to create large enough number densities of molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states to perform high-resolution state-resolved transient IR absorption measurements. Here we report the first studies of energy transfer dynamics involving molecules in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rotational states. In these studies, the optical centrifuge drives CO2 molecules into states with J ∼ 220 and we use transient IR probing to monitor the subsequent rotational, translational, and vibrational energy flow dynamics. The results reported here <span class="hlt">provide</span> the first molecular insights into the relaxation of molecules with rotational energy that is comparable to that of a chemical bond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.9701F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AAS...211.9701F"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Isolated Galaxies in the Nearby Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fanelli, Michael N.; Marcum, P. M.; Fuse, C.; Aars, C.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Highly isolated systems <span class="hlt">provide</span> a framwork for exploring the role of interactions within galaxy evolution. We use the spectroscopic component of the Sloan Sky Survey to select <span class="hlt">extremely</span> isolated galaxies in the nearby universe. Redshifts derived from the Sloan spectra permit a three-dimensional assessment of the local environment surrounding candidate isolated systems. The lack of redshifts has strongly limited prior searches for isolated systems. We have constructed a searchable database for the 600K objects contained in the Sloan Survey.. Isolated systems are chosen utilizing a range of criteria, including projected physical separations, differential velocities, and luminosity limits for potential dwarf companions. We describe the morphological, photometric and star formation properties of the most isolated systems found within the SDSS footprint. Highly isolated systems are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> rare, most are blue, and exhibit ongoing star formation. One object appears to be a merging compact group. We acknowledge support from NASA's Astrophysical Data Program, grant #NNG05C53G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC44A..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Events and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> ENSO States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Perlwitz, J.; Hoerling, M. P.; Xu, T.; Hoell, A.; Cheng, L.; Wolter, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>To what extent are the risks of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events over the contiguous US, such as heavy precipitation, heat and cold waves, conditioned by the state of tropical east Pacific SSTs? Further, do <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnitudes of El Niño and La Niña events exert a unique and particularly strong controlling effect on weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>? Here, we utilize both observations and multi-model large ensemble historical simulations to characterize the behavior of 5-day maximum precipitation distributions. We focus on relations between ENSO impacts on seasonal means and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and explore the distinction between effects based on ENSO phase and intensity. For the cold season (November to April), overall ENSO impacts on mean precipitation are shown to be consistent with observations. This signal includes enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the southern part of the U.S. and central Great Plains during El Niño, and enhanced seasonal mean precipitation over the Midwest during La Nina. We further demonstrate how these signals change under the influence of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ENSO events, conditions that are difficult to verify from observations owing to small sample sizes, but are modeled via large ensemble methods. The statistics of 5-day maximum precipitation, with a focus on 20-year return levels that characterizes rare but potentially damaging events, are examined. We demonstrate substantial differences in changes in the risk of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> 5-day precipitation and the seasonal mean precipitation signal, especially in such regions as California, and the western Great Plains including the Front Range of the Rockies from Montana to New Mexico. The plausibility of such behavior is discussed via physical considerations and by examining the structural uncertainty in such outcomes across three different climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec121-267.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec121-267.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.267 - Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure relief.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure....267 Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure relief. Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> containers must be <span class="hlt">provided</span> with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive internal...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-165.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec125-165.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 125.165 - Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure relief.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure... Requirements § 125.165 Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> container pressure relief. Extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span> containers must be <span class="hlt">provided</span> with a pressure relief to prevent bursting of the container because of excessive...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anesthesia&pg=4&id=EJ332614','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Anesthesia&pg=4&id=EJ332614"><span id="translatedtitle">Neuromuscular Blockade and Reversal <span class="hlt">Agents</span>: A Primer for Postanesthesia Nurses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pesci, Barbara R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Presents a comprehensive review of neuromuscular blocking <span class="hlt">agents</span>, reversal <span class="hlt">agents</span> used in anesthesia, and factors affecting reversal. It is aimed at nurses who <span class="hlt">provide</span> care to patients recovering from anesthesia. It discusses the neuromuscular transmission system, depolarizing muscle relaxants, nondepolarizing blocking <span class="hlt">agents</span>, and criteria for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3324210','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3324210"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemotherapy <span class="hlt">Agents</span>: A Primer for the Interventional Radiologist</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mihlon, Frank; Ray, Charles E.; Messersmith, Wells</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>In this article, the authors review the basic principles of cancer chemotherapy and <span class="hlt">provide</span> an overview of each of the general classes of chemotherapeutic <span class="hlt">agents</span> with a target audience of interventional radiologists in mind. Special attention is paid to <span class="hlt">agents</span> used in regional chemotherapy as well as <span class="hlt">agents</span> commonly included in systemic chemotherapeutic regimens for patients who also require regional chemotherapy. PMID:22550380</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>...-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another <span class="hlt">agent</span> that has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span>. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>...-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another <span class="hlt">agent</span> that has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span>. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>...-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another <span class="hlt">agent</span> that has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span>. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>...-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another <span class="hlt">agent</span> that has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span>. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title14-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title14-vol3-sec121-265.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">14 CFR 121.265 - Fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>...-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another <span class="hlt">agent</span> that has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> equivalent extinguishing action may be used as a fire-extinguishing <span class="hlt">agent</span>. If methyl bromide or any other... is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system is used, the containers must...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027561','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100027561"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> autonomous system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fink, Wolfgang (Inventor); Dohm, James (Inventor); Tarbell, Mark A. (Inventor)</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> autonomous system for exploration of hazardous or inaccessible locations. The multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> autonomous system includes simple surface-based <span class="hlt">agents</span> or craft controlled by an airborne tracking and command system. The airborne tracking and command system includes an instrument suite used to image an operational area and any craft deployed within the operational area. The image data is used to identify the craft, targets for exploration, and obstacles in the operational area. The tracking and command system determines paths for the surface-based craft using the identified targets and obstacles and commands the craft using simple movement commands to move through the operational area to the targets while avoiding the obstacles. Each craft includes its own instrument suite to collect information about the operational area that is transmitted back to the tracking and command system. The tracking and command system may be further coupled to a satellite system to <span class="hlt">provide</span> additional image information about the operational area and <span class="hlt">provide</span> operational and location commands to the tracking and command system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814614B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814614B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Are hourly precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> increasing faster than daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22308435"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-14</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AIPC.1609...34B"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banerjee, Sudhee Ranjan</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Studies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> nuclear shapes have always fascinated scientists and are being pursued quite strongly over the years. Nuclei present themselves with interesting shapes and structures at different conditions of spin, excitation and also with the number of neutrons and/or protons in them. Gamma decays from the Giant dipole Resonances in nuclei can probe directly their shapes at different <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions by looking at their resonant line-shapes, e.g., Jacobi shapes and shape-transitions, super/hyper-deformation etc. Similar such studies, done for the first time, using the LAMBDA high energy gamma spectrometer developed at VECC, is discussed here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4232313"><span id="translatedtitle">Achieving <span class="hlt">Provider</span> Engagement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about <span class="hlt">provider</span> engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of <span class="hlt">provider</span> engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.6428P"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petersen, Gudrun Nina</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Iceland is a fairly windy country, due to it's location adjacent the North Atlantic storm track. The orography of the island is rugged, mountains are steep and fjords and valleys narrow, and this impacts local winds. Thus, mountain wind phenomena such as low level jets, gap winds, down-slope wind storms, mountain waves and wind wakes are common. To increase our knowledge of the behaviour of wind in Iceland an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value analysis was conducted based on observations from 61 automatic weather stations, applying the Peak Over Threshold technique on maximum daily wind speed and maximum daily wind gust at each site. The time series included at least 10 years of data and the threshold was chosen as the 0.9 quantile of maximum mean wind speed/maximum wind gust at each location. Among the results is the larger impact the local orography has on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind gusts compared to the mean wind. With <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models in place, a few significant weather events were selected from recent years and the observed wind speeds compared to the models in order to evaluate how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> the events were and how large area they impacted. Actually, in most of these events the observed wind speed only turned out to be <span class="hlt">extreme</span> at a few stations, emphasising the local effects. However, in an event from December 2007, when the observed maximum wind speed exceeded 23 m/s in most of western Iceland, the event was estimated as rare at a number of weather stations. Clearly this gives indication for further studying this particular weather event. An automatic system has been set up, running once an hour, comparing observed wind measurements to the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value models and producing maps of the return periods for all sites. This system gives us the possibility to, on a daily basis, evaluate the <span class="hlt">extremeness</span> of each situation and simultaneously increase our knowledge of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind behaviour in Iceland. This work is a foundation for studying changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds in Iceland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029553&hterms=emails&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Demails','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940029553&hterms=emails&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Demails"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> oriented programming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Shoham, Yoav</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Research topics include definition of mental state of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, design of <span class="hlt">agent</span> languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within <span class="hlt">agent</span> societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879905','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6879905"><span id="translatedtitle">Radioactive diagnostic <span class="hlt">agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.</p> <p>1984-02-07</p> <p>A radioactive diagnostic <span class="hlt">agent</span> for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/riotcontrol/factsheet.asp','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/riotcontrol/factsheet.asp"><span id="translatedtitle">Riot Control <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... <span class="hlt">agent</span> from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14533522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14533522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Provider</span> panel presentations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Buckelew, Larry C; Harvey, Deborah; Mello, Joe</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>To wrap up the three big items--attracting talent, the professional nurse role, and our structural disadvantages--I would offer the following take-away thoughts: We ought to do what we can to get our disproportionate share of RNs out of the health care system to work in dialysis. If we work together, we have a shot at making that happen. As an industry, we must exploit our strengths. We have to exploit the pride that comes in the services and the care that we <span class="hlt">provide</span>. We need to create in a very visual way that difference for nurses who are considering which area of specialty to go into and where to create their careers. We, as <span class="hlt">providers</span>, have a huge opportunity to create the right environment for our nurses. That's something we own. We have to fix it. We have to create a better place to work for nurses than any place else. We must create a more enriching place for nurses than anywhere else. That's up to us. I know a lot of us on the <span class="hlt">provider</span> side are doing tons of things to make that happen and we need to keep driving that. We need a level playing field. We've proven the fact that we can deliver clinical outcomes with the best. Now we need help from our biggest customer to make sure we can compete for the resources that are necessary to sustain and improve those clinical outcomes on an ongoing basis. PMID:14533522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055501','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26055501"><span id="translatedtitle">Why healthcare <span class="hlt">providers</span> merge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Postma, Jeroen; Roos, Anne-Fleur</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>In many OECD countries, healthcare sectors have become increasingly concentrated as a result of mergers. However, detailed empirical insight into why healthcare <span class="hlt">providers</span> merge is lacking. Also, we know little about the influence of national healthcare policies on mergers. We fill this gap in the literature by conducting a survey study on mergers among 848 Dutch healthcare executives, of which 35% responded (resulting in a study sample of 239 executives). A total of 65% of the respondents was involved in at least one merger between 2005 and 2012. During this period, Dutch healthcare <span class="hlt">providers</span> faced a number of policy changes, including increasing competition, more pressure from purchasers, growing financial risks, de-institutionalisation of long-term care and decentralisation of healthcare services to municipalities. Our empirical study shows that healthcare <span class="hlt">providers</span> predominantly merge to improve the provision of healthcare services and to strengthen their market position. Also efficiency and financial reasons are important drivers of merger activity in healthcare. We find that motives for merger are related to changes in health policies, in particular to the increasing pressure from competitors, insurers and municipalities. PMID:26055501</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4257489','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4257489"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">PROVIDING</span> WOMEN, KEPT MEN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mojola, Sanyu A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper draws on ethnographic and interview based fieldwork to explore accounts of intimate relationships between widowed women and poor young men that emerged in the wake of economic crisis and a devastating HIV epidemic among the Luo ethnic group in Western Kenya. I show how the cooptation of widow inheritance practices in the wake of an overwhelming number of widows as well as economic crisis resulted in widows becoming <span class="hlt">providing</span> women and poor young men becoming kept men. I illustrate how widows in this setting, by performing a set of practices central to what it meant to be a man in this society – pursuing and <span class="hlt">providing</span> for their partners - were effectively doing masculinity. I will also show how young men, rather than being feminized by being kept, deployed other sets of practices to prove their masculinity and live in a manner congruent with cultural ideals. I argue that ultimately, women’s practice of masculinity in large part seemed to serve patriarchal ends. It not only facilitated the fulfillment of patriarchal expectations of femininity – to being inherited – but also served, in the end, to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a material base for young men’s deployment of legitimizing and culturally valued sets of masculine practice. PMID:25489121</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7246"><span id="translatedtitle">Assurance in <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-Based Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gilliom, Laura R.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.</p> <p>1999-05-10</p> <p>Our vision of the future of information systems is one that includes engineered collectives of software <span class="hlt">agents</span> which are situated in an environment over years and which increasingly improve the performance of the overall system of which they are a part. At a minimum, the movement of <span class="hlt">agent</span> and multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> technology into National Security applications, including their use in information assurance, is apparent today. The use of deliberative, autonomous <span class="hlt">agents</span> in high-consequence/high-security applications will require a commensurate level of protection and confidence in the predictability of system-level behavior. At Sandia National Laboratories, we have defined and are addressing a research agenda that integrates the surety (safety, security, and reliability) into <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based systems at a deep level. Surety is addressed at multiple levels: The integrity of individual <span class="hlt">agents</span> must be protected by addressing potential failure modes and vulnerabilities to malevolent threats. <span class="hlt">Providing</span> for the surety of the collective requires attention to communications surety issues and mechanisms for identifying and working with trusted collaborators. At the highest level, using <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based collectives within a large-scale distributed system requires the development of principled design methods to deliver the desired emergent performance or surety characteristics. This position paper will outline the research directions underway at Sandia, will discuss relevant work being performed elsewhere, and will report progress to date toward assurance in <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CQGra..33g5015L"><span id="translatedtitle">Transverse deformations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> horizons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We consider the inverse problem of determining all <span class="hlt">extreme</span> black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMGC22D..04H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Representing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Although it is well recognized that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between temperature and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures is <span class="hlt">provided</span>. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface temperature observations in the frequency and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures on U.S. maize yield is <span class="hlt">provided</span> where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the importance of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and yield</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008729','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120008729"><span id="translatedtitle">EPE The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Physics Explorer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Garcia, Michael; Elvis, Martin; Bookbinder, Jay; Brenneman, Laura; Bulbul, Esra; Nulsen, Paul; Patnaude, Dan; Smith, Randall; Bandler, Simon; Okajima, Takashi; Ptak, Andy; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Danner, Rolf; Daily, Dean; Fraser, George; Willingale, Richard; Miller, Jon; Turner, T. J.; Risalti, Guido; Galeazzi, Massimiliano</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Physics Explorer (EPE) is a mission concept that will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics which are primary science objectives of IXO. The reach of EPE to the areas outlined in NASA RFI NNH11ZDA018L is shown as a table. The dark green indicates areas in which EPE can do the basic IXO science, and the light green areas where EPE can contribute but will not reach the full IXO capability. To address these science questions, EPE will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin in active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. EPE gives up the high resolution imaging of IXO in return for lightweight, high TRL foil mirrors which will <span class="hlt">provide</span> >20 times the effective area of ASTRO-H and similar spatial resolution, with a beam sufficient to study point sources and nearby galaxies and clusters. Advances in micro-calorimeters allow improved performance at high rates with twice the energy resolution of ASTRO-H. A lower TRL option would <span class="hlt">provide</span> 200 times the area of ASTRO-H using a micro-channel plate optic (MCPO) and a deployable optical bench. Both options are in the middle range of RFI missions at between $600M and $1000M. The EPE foil optic has direct heritage to ASTRO-H, allowing robust cost estimates. The spacecraft is entirely off the shelf and introduces no difficult requirements. The mission could be started and launched in this decade to an L2 orbit, with a three-year lifetime and consumables for 5 years. While ASTRO-H will give us the first taste of high-resolution, non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, it will be limited to small numbers of objects in many categories. EPE will give us the first statistically significant samples in each of these categories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430627','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430627"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> amplified communication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>We propose an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-<span class="hlt">agents</span> help automate this process. The <span class="hlt">agents</span> generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal <span class="hlt">agents</span>: an advanced <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4249/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1995/4249/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Documented and potential <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges and relation between potential <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges and probable maximum flood peak discharges in Texas</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Asquith, W.H.; Slade, R.M., Jr.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation, conducted a study of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood potential for Texas. Potential <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges, derived from the relation between documented <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges and their contributing drainage areas, can <span class="hlt">provide</span> valuable information concerning the maximum expected peak discharge that could occur at a stream site. Documented <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges and associated data were aggregated for 832 sites with and without streamflow-gaging stations in natural basins in Texas. A potential <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharge curve was developed for each of 11 hydrologic regions in Texas and for the State as a whole, based on documented <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges and associated contributing drainage areas. The curve envelops, for a large range of drainage areas, the largest documented <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges. Potential <span class="hlt">extreme</span> peak discharges estimated from the curves were compared to probable maximum flood peak discharges estimated from various simulation models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51E1033C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51E1033C"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">extreme</span> comparison of two downscaling approaches using Bayes factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chun, K.; Wheater, H. S.; Onof, C. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> rainfall events are the long-standing hydrological interest of flood defence and water resources management. Although traditional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value theory allows stationary <span class="hlt">extreme</span> assessment, recent development of rainfall downscaling approaches driven by projections of Global Climate models (GCMs) facilitates non-stationary <span class="hlt">extreme</span> assessments. Additionally, using stochastic downscaling, the downscaled rainfall series can be probabilistic so that the inherent uncertainty of the used approaches can be explicitly presented. However, there is little work on performance benchmarking of <span class="hlt">extremes</span> simulated by alternative downscaling approaches. In the United Kingdom (UK), two independently developed downscaling methodologies are (1) the UK climate projections (UKCP09) weather generators and (2) the Generalised linear model (GLM) approach. Both downscaling approaches can <span class="hlt">provide</span> daily rainfall series at catchment scale. As a quantitative benchmark, Bayes factors are proposed as a tool for comparing ensemble <span class="hlt">extremes</span> generated from the two UK models. Using Monte Carlo Integration and Laplace's approximation, Bayes factors for the 30th largest annual event within a 30 year period of the two methods are approximated for six catchments in the UK. Despite their similar average monthly statistics (i.e. mean, variance, autocorrelation and skewness), results show that the preferred approach for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> results is catchment specific. The implications and possible interpretations of diverse <span class="hlt">extreme</span> results from different downscaling approaches are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020052587','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020052587"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborative Information <span class="hlt">Agents</span> on the World Wide Web</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information <span class="hlt">agents</span> which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provide</span> their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal <span class="hlt">agents</span> exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information <span class="hlt">agents</span> such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25033774"><span id="translatedtitle">Biological <span class="hlt">agents</span> database in the armed forces.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Niemcewicz, Marcin; Kocik, Janusz; Bielecka, Anna; Wierciński, Michał</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Rapid detection and identification of the biological <span class="hlt">agent</span> during both, natural or deliberate outbreak is crucial for implementation of appropriate control measures and procedures in order to mitigate the spread of disease. Determination of pathogen etiology may not only support epidemiological investigation and safety of human beings, but also enhance forensic efforts in pathogen tracing, collection of evidences and correct inference. The article presents objectives of the Biological <span class="hlt">Agents</span> Database, which was developed for the purpose of the Ministry of National Defense of the Republic of Poland under the European Defence Agency frame. The Biological <span class="hlt">Agents</span> Database is an electronic catalogue of genetic markers of highly dangerous pathogens and biological <span class="hlt">agents</span> of weapon of mass destruction concern, which <span class="hlt">provides</span> full identification of biological threats emerging in Poland and in locations of activity of Polish troops. The Biological <span class="hlt">Agents</span> Database is a supportive tool used for tracing biological <span class="hlt">agents</span>' origin as well as rapid identification of <span class="hlt">agent</span> causing the disease of unknown etiology. It also <span class="hlt">provides</span> support in diagnosis, analysis, response and exchange of information between institutions that use information contained in it. Therefore, it can be used not only for military purposes, but also in a civilian environment. PMID:25033774</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040012708','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040012708"><span id="translatedtitle">Scoping Planning <span class="hlt">Agents</span> With Shared Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bedrax-Weiss, Tania; Frank, Jeremy D.; Jonsson, Ari K.; McGann, Conor</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>In this paper we <span class="hlt">provide</span> a formal framework to define the scope of planning <span class="hlt">agents</span> based on a single declarative model. Having multiple <span class="hlt">agents</span> sharing a single model <span class="hlt">provides</span> numerous advantages that lead to reduced development costs and increase reliability of the system. We formally define planning in terms of extensions of an initial partial plan, and a set of flaws that make the plan unacceptable. A Flaw Filter (FF) allows us to identify those flaws relevant to an <span class="hlt">agent</span>. Flaw filters motivate the Plan Identification Function (PIF), which specifies when an <span class="hlt">agent</span> is is ready hand control to another <span class="hlt">agent</span> for further work. PIFs define a set of plan extensions that can be generated from a model and a plan request. FFs and PIFs can be used to define the scope of <span class="hlt">agents</span> without changing the model. We describe an implementation of PIFsand FFswithin the context of EUROPA, a constraint-based planning architecture, and show how it can be used to easily design many different <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26598305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26598305"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Providing</span> Contraception to Adolescents.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Raidoo, Shandhini; Kaneshiro, Bliss</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Adolescents have high rates of unintended pregnancy and face unique reproductive health challenges. <span class="hlt">Providing</span> confidential contraceptive services to adolescents is important in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Long-acting contraception such as the intrauterine device and contraceptive implant are recommended as first-line contraceptives for adolescents because they are highly effective with few side effects. The use of barrier methods to prevent sexually transmitted infections should be encouraged. Adolescents have limited knowledge of reproductive health and contraceptive options, and their sources of information are often unreliable. Access to contraception is available through a variety of resources that continue to expand. PMID:26598305</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26901403"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional metagenomics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mirete, Salvador; Morgante, Verónica; González-Pastor, José Eduardo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The bioprospecting of enzymes that operate under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions is of particular interest for many biotechnological and industrial processes. Nevertheless, there is a considerable limitation to retrieve novel enzymes as only a small fraction of microorganisms derived from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments can be cultured under standard laboratory conditions. Functional metagenomics has the advantage of not requiring the cultivation of microorganisms or previous sequence information to known genes, thus representing a valuable approach for mining enzymes with new features. In this review, we summarize studies showing how functional metagenomics was employed to retrieve genes encoding for proteins involved not only in molecular adaptation and resistance to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental conditions but also in other enzymatic activities of biotechnological interest. PMID:26901403</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PIAHS.369..181K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> hydrological events and security</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kundzewicz, Z. W.; Matczak, P.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Economic losses caused by hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> - floods and droughts - have been on the rise, worldwide. Hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> jeopardize human security and cause serious threats to human life and welfare and societal livelihood. Floods and droughts can undermine societies' security, understood as freedom from threat and the ability of societies to maintain their independent identity and their functional integrity against forces of change. Several dimensions of security are reviewed in the context of hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Floods and droughts pose a burden and serious challenges to the state, responsible to sustain economic development, societal and environmental security - the maintenance of ecosystem services, on which a society depends. It is shown that reduction of risk of hydrological disasters improves human security.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231358','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231358"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge Acquisition Ubiquitous <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Infrastructure (KAUAI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span> are autonomous software programs that can move from one host to another during the course of execution. The KAUAI computer code is a middleware that supports the rapid development and deployment of mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> based applications. It is built on the J2ME (CLDC) technology. KAUAI handles the instantiation, execution, transportation, and disposal of mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span>. KAUAI masks the underlying hardware and communication details from application developers and <span class="hlt">provides</span> flexible functionality for distributed computing. KAUAI supports software development in systems that involve a large number of heterogeneous computing platforms ranging from workstations to handheld devices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231358-knowledge-acquisition-ubiquitous-agent-infrastructure-kauai','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231358-knowledge-acquisition-ubiquitous-agent-infrastructure-kauai"><span id="translatedtitle">Knowledge Acquisition Ubiquitous <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Infrastructure (KAUAI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-09-15</p> <p>Mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span> are autonomous software programs that can move from one host to another during the course of execution. The KAUAI computer code is a middleware that supports the rapid development and deployment of mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> based applications. It is built on the J2ME (CLDC) technology. KAUAI handles the instantiation, execution, transportation, and disposal of mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span>. KAUAI masks the underlying hardware and communication details from application developers and <span class="hlt">provides</span> flexible functionality for distributed computing.more » KAUAI supports software development in systems that involve a large number of heterogeneous computing platforms ranging from workstations to handheld devices.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988prse.book.....C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988prse.book.....C"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Provident</span> Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cushing, David H.</p> <p>1988-09-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Provident</span> Sea describes the history of fish stock management (including whales and seals). The book traces, on the basis of the original scientific material, the history of the management of "the <span class="hlt">provident</span> sea" up to recent times when problems of over-exploitation have had dramatic effects upon stocks. The need for management arose mainly from the increasing industrialization of capture. Hence the preindustrial fisheries are covered, in particular the old cod fishery on the Grand Bank and the herring fishery in the North Sea, as an essential background to current problems. The origins of fisheries and whaling science are described, as is the development up to 1965 of the science and institution in fisheries, whaling, and sealing. In the sixties and seventies, certain major fishing nations took a heavy harvest of fish stocks using sophisticated and efficient gathering methods. This in turn led to conflict and one consequence was the "Law of the Sea" conference set up to try and resolve these issues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1149224"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling Workshop Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1112317W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C.; Kniveton, D.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate <span class="hlt">provides</span> some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006103','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930006103"><span id="translatedtitle">MATE: The multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> test environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mason, Cindy L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>In this report we present the Multi-<span class="hlt">Agent</span> Test Environment, MATE. MATE is a collection of experiment management tools for assisting in the design, testing, and evaluation of distributed problem-solvers. It <span class="hlt">provides</span> the experimenter with an automated tool for executing and monitoring experiments choosing among rule bases, number of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, communication strategies, and inference engines. Using MATE the experimenter can run a series of distributed problem-solving experiments without human intervention.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31D..08B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31D..08B"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing Effective Communications about <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Risks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bruine de Bruin, W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Members of the general public often face complex decisions about the risks that they face, including those associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and climate change adaptation. Scientific experts may be asked to develop communications with the goal of improving people's understanding of weather and climate risks, and informing people's decisions about how to protect against these risks. Unfortunately, scientific experts' communication efforts may fail if they lack information about what people need or want to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people prefer use to describe relevant concepts. This presentation <span class="hlt">provides</span> general principles for developing effective risk communication materials that aim for widespread dissemination, such as brochures and websites. After a brief review of the social science evidence on how to design effective risk communication materials, examples will focus on communications about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events and climate change. Specifically, data will be presented from ongoing projects on flood risk perception, public preparedness for heat waves, and public perceptions of climate change. The presentation will end with specific recommendations about how to improve recipients' understanding about risks and inform decisions. These recommendations should be useful to scientific experts who aim to communicate about <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather, climate change, or other risks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TDR.....5...22R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014TDR.....5...22R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Facial Expressions Classification Based on Reality Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Rad, Abdolvahab Ehsani; Rehman, Amjad; Altameem, Ayman</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> expressions are really type of emotional expressions that are basically stimulated through the strong emotion. An example of those <span class="hlt">extreme</span> expression is satisfied through tears. So to be able to <span class="hlt">provide</span> these types of features; additional elements like fluid mechanism (particle system) plus some of physics techniques like (SPH) are introduced. The fusion of facile animation with SPH exhibits promising results. Accordingly, proposed fluid technique using facial animation is the real tenor for this research to get the complex expression, like laugh, smile, cry (tears emergence) or the sadness until cry strongly, as an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> expression classification that's happens on the human face in some cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568776','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3568776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Thermophiles: Moving beyond single-enzyme biocatalysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Frock, Andrew D.; Kelly, Robert M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> thermophilic microorganisms have been sources of thermostable and thermoactive enzymes for over 30 years. However, information and insights gained from genome sequences, in conjunction with new tools for molecular genetics, have opened up exciting new possibilities for biotechnological opportunities based on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> thermophiles that go beyond single-step biotransformations. Although the pace for discovering novel microorganisms has slowed over the past two decades, genome sequence data have <span class="hlt">provided</span> clues to novel biomolecules and metabolic pathways, which can be mined for a range of new applications. Furthermore, recent advances in molecular genetics for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> thermophiles have made metabolic engineering for high temperature applications a reality. PMID:23413412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020050191','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020050191"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and Manufacturing of <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Low Mass Flight Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Michael R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> small flight systems pose some unusual design and manufacturing challenges. The small size of the components that make up the system generally must be built with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> tight tolerances to maintain the functionality of the assembled item. Additionally, the total mass of the system is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> sensitive to what would be considered small perturbations in a larger flight system. The MUSES C mission, designed, built, and operated by Japan, has a small rover <span class="hlt">provided</span> by NASA that falls into this small flight system category. This NASA-<span class="hlt">provided</span> rover is used as a case study of an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> small flight system design. The issues that were encountered with the rover portion of the MUSES C program are discussed and conclusions about the recommended mass margins at different stages of a small flight system project are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537356','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4537356"><span id="translatedtitle">"Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Design"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agent</span> was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to <span class="hlt">provide</span> additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span> and, at the same time, <span class="hlt">provide</span> an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive <span class="hlt">agents</span> can <span class="hlt">provide</span>. PMID:25975847</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Fract..20..163C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Fract..20..163C"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservative Self-Organized <span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Model for Wealth Distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chakraborty, Abhijit; Mukherjee, G.; Manna, S. S.</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>We present an extensive numerical study of the modified version of a conservative self-organized <span class="hlt">extremal</span> model introduced by Pianegonda et al. (Physica A322 (2003) 667-675) in the context of wealth distribution of the people in a society. Here the trading process has been modified by the stochastic bipartite trading rule. More specifically in a trade one of the <span class="hlt">agents</span> is necessarily the one with the globally minimal value of wealth, the other one being selected randomly from the neighbors of the first <span class="hlt">agent</span>. The pair of <span class="hlt">agents</span> then randomly re-shuffle their entire amount of wealth without saving. This model has most of the characteristics similar to the self-organized critical Bak-Sneppen model of evolutionary dynamics. Numerical estimates of a number of critical exponents indicate this model is likely to belong to a new universality class different from the well known models in the literature. In addition the persistence time, which is the time interval between two successive updates of wealth of an <span class="hlt">agent</span> has been observed to have a non-trivial power law distribution. An opposite version of the model has also been studied where the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with maximal wealth is selected instead of the one with minimal wealth, which however, exhibits similar behavior as the Minimal Wealth model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3539428','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3539428"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemotherapy and Dietary Phytochemical <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sak, Katrin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Chemotherapy has been used for cancer treatment already for almost 70 years by targeting the proliferation potential and metastasising ability of tumour cells. Despite the progress made in the development of potent chemotherapy drugs, their toxicity to normal tissues and adverse side effects in multiple organ systems as well as drug resistance have remained the major obstacles for the successful clinical use. Cytotoxic <span class="hlt">agents</span> decrease considerably the quality of life of cancer patients manifesting as acute complaints and impacting the life of survivors also for years after the treatment. Toxicity often limits the usefulness of anticancer <span class="hlt">agents</span> being also the reason why many patients discontinue the treatment. The nutritional approach may be the means of helping to raise cancer therapy to a new level of success as supplementing or supporting the body with natural phytochemicals cannot only reduce adverse side effects but improve also the effectiveness of chemotherapeutics. Various plant-derived compounds improve the efficiency of cytotoxic <span class="hlt">agents</span>, decrease their resistance, lower and alleviate toxic side effects, reduce the risk of tumour lysis syndrome, and detoxify the body of chemotherapeutics. The personalised approach using various phytochemicals <span class="hlt">provides</span> thus a new dimension to the standard cancer therapy for improving its outcome in a complex and complementary way. PMID:23320169</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169659','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7169659"><span id="translatedtitle">Chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> and cadmium intoxication</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shinobu, L.A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A wide range of conventional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only <span class="hlt">provide</span> antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029152','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1029152"><span id="translatedtitle">What HERA May <span class="hlt">Provide</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jung, Hannes; De Roeck, Albert; Bartels, Jochen; Behnke, Olaf; Blumlein, Johannes; Brodsky, Stanley; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Deak, Michal; Devenish, Robin; Diehl, Markus; Gehrmann, Thomas; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gustafson, Gosta; Khoze, Valery; Knutsson, Albert; Klein, Max; Krauss, Frank; Kutak, Krzysztof; Laenen, Eric; Lonnblad, Leif; Motyka, Leszek; /Hamburg U., Inst. Theor. Phys. II /Birmingham U. /Southern Methodist U. /DESY /Piemonte Orientale U., Novara /CERN /Paris, LPTHE /Hamburg U. /Penn State U.</p> <p>2011-11-10</p> <p>More than 100 people participated in a discussion session at the DIS08 workshop on the topic What HERA may <span class="hlt">provide</span>. A summary of the discussion with a structured outlook and list of desirable measurements and theory calculations is given. The HERA accelerator and the HERA experiments H1, HERMES and ZEUS stopped running in the end of June 2007. This was after 15 years of very successful operation since the first collisions in 1992. A total luminosity of {approx} 500 pb{sup -1} has been accumulated by each of the collider experiments H1 and ZEUS. During the years the increasingly better understood and upgraded detectors and HERA accelerator have contributed significantly to this success. The physics program remains in full swing and plenty of new results were presented at DIS08 which are approaching the anticipated final precision, fulfilling and exceeding the physics plans and the previsions of the upgrade program. Most of the analyses presented at DIS08 were still based on the so called HERA I data sample, i.e. data taken until 2000, before the shutdown for the luminosity upgrade. This sample has an integrated luminosity of {approx} 100 pb{sup -1}, and the four times larger statistics sample from HERA II is still in the process of being analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047465"><span id="translatedtitle">How Cells Endure <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-<span class="hlt">extremes</span>/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..443I"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> precipitation: Increases all round</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ingram, William</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Globally, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall is expected to increase with warming, but regional changes over land have been less certain. Now research shows that this intense precipitation has increased across both the wetter and the drier parts of the continents, and will continue to do so as global warming continues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Earth+AND+Sciences+AND+Astronomy&pg=7&id=EJ963133','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Earth+AND+Sciences+AND+Astronomy&pg=7&id=EJ963133"><span id="translatedtitle">Astrobiology: Life in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kaur, Preeti</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Astrobiology is the study of the origin, evolution and distribution of life in the universe. It seeks to answer two important scientific questions: how did we get here and are we alone in the universe? Scientists begin by studying life on Earth and its limits. The discovery of extremophiles on Earth capable of surviving <span class="hlt">extremes</span> encourages the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6844819"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetrasulfide <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.</p> <p>1980-08-19</p> <p>A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714809T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714809T"><span id="translatedtitle">Can quantile mapping improve precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from regional climate models?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tani, Satyanarayana; Gobiet, Andreas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The ability of quantile mapping to accurately bias correct regard to precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is investigated in this study. We developed new methods by extending standard quantile mapping (QMα) to improve the quality of bias corrected <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events as simulated by regional climate model (RCM) output. The new QM version (QMβ) was developed by combining parametric and nonparametric bias correction methods. The new nonparametric method is tested with and without a controlling shape parameter (Qmβ1 and Qmβ0, respectively). Bias corrections are applied on hindcast simulations for a small ensemble of RCMs at six different locations over Europe. We examined the quality of the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> through split sample and cross validation approaches of these three bias correction methods. This split-sample approach mimics the application to future climate scenarios. A cross validation framework with particular focus on new <span class="hlt">extremes</span> was developed. Error characteristics, q-q plots and Mean Absolute Error (MAEx) skill scores are used for evaluation. We demonstrate the unstable behaviour of correction function at higher quantiles with QMα, whereas the correction functions with for QMβ0 and QMβ1 are smoother, with QMβ1 <span class="hlt">providing</span> the most reasonable correction values. The result from q-q plots demonstrates that, all bias correction methods are capable of producing new <span class="hlt">extremes</span> but QMβ1 reproduces new <span class="hlt">extremes</span> with low biases in all seasons compared to QMα, QMβ0. Our results clearly demonstrate the inherent limitations of empirical bias correction methods employed for <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, particularly new <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and our findings reveals that the new bias correction method (Qmß1) produces more reliable climate scenarios for new <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. These findings present a methodology that can better capture future <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events, which is necessary to improve regional climate change impact studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.7378M"><span id="translatedtitle">Recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> across conterminous United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mutiibwa, Denis; Vavrus, Steven J.; McAfee, Stephanie A.; Albright, Thomas P.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>With a warming climate, understanding the physical dynamics of hot and cold <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events has taken on increased importance for public health, infrastructure, ecosystems, food security, and other domains. Here we use a high-resolution spatial and temporal seamless gridded land surface forcing data set to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an assessment of recent spatiotemporal patterns in temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over the conterminous United States (CONUS). We asked the following: (1) How are temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> changing across the different regions of CONUS? (2) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> vary on seasonal, annual, and decadal scales? (3) How do changes in <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to changes in mean conditions? And (4) do <span class="hlt">extremes</span> relate to major modes of ocean-atmosphere variability? We derive a subset of the CLIMDEX <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices from the North American Land Data Assimilation phase 2 forcing data set. While there were warming trends in all indices, daytime temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> warmed more than nighttime. Spring warming was the strongest and most extensive across CONUS, and summer experienced the strongest and most extensive decrease in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Increase in winter warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span> appeared weakening relative to the rapid 1950-1990 increase found in previous studies. The Northeast and Midwest experienced the most warming, while the Northwest and North Great Plains saw the least. We found changes in average temperatures were more associated with changes in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span> than warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Since 2006 there have been 5 years when more than 5% of the U.S. experienced at least 90 warm days, something not observed in the previous 25 years. The unusually warm first decade of 21st century could have been associated with the warm conditions of near El Niño-Southern Oscillation-neutral phase of the decade, and possibly amplified by anthropogenic forcing. The widespread, lengthy, and severe <span class="hlt">extreme</span> hot events documented here during the past three decades underscore the need to implement thoughtful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6352251"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance testing of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Harty, R.; Reece, W.D.; Hooker, C.D.</p> <p>1987-06-01</p> <p>The Health Physics Society Standing Committee (HPSSC) Working Group on Performance Testing of <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Dosimeters has issued a draft of a proposed standard for <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters. The draft standard proposes methods to be used for testing dosimetry systems that determine occupational radiation dose to the <span class="hlt">extremities</span> and the performance criterion used to determine compliance. The draft standard has been evaluated by testing the performance of existing processors of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters against the standard's proposed criterion. The proposed performance criterion is: absolute value of B + S less than or equal to 0.35, where B is the bias (calculated as the average of the performance quotients) of 15 dosimeter measurements and S is the standard deviation of the performance quotients. Dosimeter performance was tested in seven irradiation categories: low-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), high-energy photons (general and accident dosimetry), beta particles, neutrons, and a mixture category. Twenty-one types of <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dosimeters (both finger ring and wrist/ankle dosimeters) were received from 11 processors. The dosimeters were irradiated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to specific dose levels in one or more of the seven categories as specified in the draft standard and were returned to the processors. The processors evaluated the doses and returned the results to PNL for analysis. The results were evaluated against the performance criterion specified in the draft standard. The results indicate that approximately 60% of both the finger ring and the wrist/ankle dosimeters met the performance criterion. Two-thirds of the dosimeters that did not meet the performance criterion had large biases (ranging from 0.25 to 0.80) but small standard deviations (less than 0.15). 21 refs., 3 figs., 20 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020046955&hterms=Big+bang+theory&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3D%2528%2528Big%2Bbang%2529%2Btheory%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>This talk will describe the <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> Lorentz factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833583','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/833583"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">Agent</span> 2002 Conference on Social <span class="hlt">Agents</span> : Ecology, Exchange, and Evolution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macal, C., ed.; Sallach, D., ed.</p> <p>2003-04-10</p> <p>Welcome to the ''Proceedings'' of the third in a series of <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulation conferences cosponsored by Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago. The theme of this year's conference, ''Social <span class="hlt">Agents</span>: Ecology, Exchange and Evolution'', was selected to foster the exchange of ideas on some of the most important social processes addressed by <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulation models, namely: (1) The translation of ecology and ecological constraints into social dynamics; (2) The role of exchange processes, including the peer dependencies they create; and (3) The dynamics by which, and the attractor states toward which, social processes evolve. As stated in the ''Call for Papers'', throughout the social sciences, the simulation of social <span class="hlt">agents</span> has emerged as an innovative and powerful research methodology. The promise of this approach, however, is accompanied by many challenges. First, modeling complexity in <span class="hlt">agents</span>, environments, and interactions is non-trivial, and these representations must be explored and assessed systematically. Second, strategies used to represent complexities are differentially applicable to any particular problem space. Finally, to achieve sufficient generality, the design and experimentation inherent in <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulation must be coupled with social and behavioral theory. <span class="hlt">Agent</span> 2002 <span class="hlt">provides</span> a forum for reviewing the current state of <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulation scholarship, including research designed to address such outstanding issues. This year's conference introduces an extensive range of domains, models, and issues--from pre-literacy to future projections, from ecology to oligopolistic markets, and from design to validation. Four invited speakers highlighted major themes emerging from social <span class="hlt">agent</span> simulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923127','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/923127"><span id="translatedtitle">Scaling <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Astrophysical Phenomena to the Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remington, B A</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>High-energy-density (HED) physics refers broadly to the study of macroscopic collections of matter under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions of temperature and density. The experimental facilities most widely used for these studies are high-power lasers and magnetic-pinch generators. The HED physics pursued on these facilities is still in its infancy, yet new regimes of experimental science are emerging. Examples from astrophysics include work relevant to planetary interiors, supernovae, astrophysical jets, and accreting compact objects (such as neutron stars and black holes). In this paper, we review a selection of recent results in this new field of HED laboratory astrophysics and <span class="hlt">provide</span> a brief look ahead to the coming decade.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..1ET','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9145E..1ET"><span id="translatedtitle">European <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescope: progress report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tamai, R.; Spyromilio, J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The European <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescope is a project of the European Southern Observatory to build and operate a 40-m class optical near-infrared telescope. The telescope design effort is largely concluded and construction contracts are being placed with industry and academic/research institutes for the various components. The siting of the telescope in Northern Chile close to the Paranal site allows for an integrated operation of the facility <span class="hlt">providing</span> significant economies. The progress of the project in various areas is presented in this paper and references to other papers at this SPIE meeting are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3217424"><span id="translatedtitle">Consequences and Costs of Lower <span class="hlt">Extremity</span> Injuries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dischinger, PC; Read, KM; Kufera, JA; Kerns, TJ; Burch, CA; Jawed, N; Ho, SM; Burgess, AR</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries resulting from motor vehicle crashes are common and have become relatively more important as more drivers with newer occupant restraints survive high-energy crashes. CIREN data <span class="hlt">provide</span> a greater level of clinical detail based on coding guidelines from the Orthopedic Trauma Association. These detailed data, in conjunction with long-term follow-up data obtained from patient interviews, reveal that the most costly and disabling injuries are those involving articular (joint) surfaces, especially those of the ankle/foot. Patients with such injuries exhibit residual physical and psychosocial problems, even at one year post-trauma. PMID:15319134</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuzzy&pg=3&id=EJ994746','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fuzzy&pg=3&id=EJ994746"><span id="translatedtitle">Enrichment of Peer Assessment with <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Negotiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lan, Chung Hsien; Graf, S.; Lai, K. R.; Kinshuk</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This study presents a conceptual framework for <span class="hlt">providing</span> intelligent supports through <span class="hlt">agent</span> negotiation and fuzzy constraints to enhance the effectiveness of peer assessment. By using fuzzy constraints, it not only <span class="hlt">provides</span> a flexible marking scheme to deal with the imprecision and uncertainty for the representation of assessment but also provides…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1092023','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1092023"><span id="translatedtitle">VOLTTRON: An <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Execution Platform for the Electric Power System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Ciraci, Selim; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Vlachopoulou, Maria; Tews, Cody W.</p> <p>2012-06-05</p> <p>Volttron is an <span class="hlt">agent</span> execution platform that is engineered for use in the electric power system. Volttron <span class="hlt">provides</span> resource guarantees for <span class="hlt">agents</span> and the platform including memory and processor utilization; authentication and authorization services; directory services for <span class="hlt">agent</span> and resource location; and <span class="hlt">agent</span> mobility. Unlike most other <span class="hlt">agent</span> platforms, Volttron does not depend on a single <span class="hlt">agent</span> authoring language. Instead, we chose to design and implement Volttron as a platform service and framework that is decoupled from the <span class="hlt">agent</span> execution environment. A prototype implementation of Volttron has been written in Python (using Python v2.7.2) and we have executed <span class="hlt">agents</span> written in Python and Java and as shell scripts. The intended use of Volttron is in the power distribution system for managing distributed generation, demand-response, and plug-in electric vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..797J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38..797J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor for Venus Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, Jerri; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Narine, Roop</p> <p></p> <p>After developed two types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature motors (Switched Reluctance Motor and Blushless DC Motor), Honeybee Robotics has successfully developed an <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor that can be used to commutate motors and <span class="hlt">provide</span> positional information. This paper presents an insight into the challenges of designing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> tempera-ture electro-mechanical system and <span class="hlt">provides</span> results of the experiment performed in the Venus environment. The operational temperature range for existing commutation devices, include Hall Sensors, Resolvers and Encoders is limited to temperatures less than 180C. The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Pulse Injection Position Sensor is capable of working continuously at 460C and at 92 atm. The design of this device involves a unique rotor design and an innovative phase pulsing algorithm implemented through a high speed DSP. The shape of the rotor <span class="hlt">provides</span> a unique flow-path to the lines-of-flux through the poles of the stator. The pulsing algorithm makes it possible to nullify the effects of parametric changes (wire resistance, permeability, air gap, etc.) due to increase in temperature. The algorithm relies on the relative flux density between two stator poles rather than the absolute measurement of the flux density in each pole. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> temperature position sensor, along with scalable <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature motor and gearhead allow for creation of robot arms and even mobility systems for future Venus missions to achieve their goals and objectives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/879994','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/879994"><span id="translatedtitle">Method For Detecting Biological <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Chen, Liaohai; McBranch, Duncan W.; Wang, Hsing-Lin; Whitten, David G.</p> <p>2005-12-27</p> <p>A sensor is <span class="hlt">provided</span> including a polymer capable of having an alterable measurable property from the group of luminescence and electrical conductivity, the polymer having an intermediate combination of a recognition element, a tethering element and a property-altering element bound thereto and capable of altering the measurable property, the intermediate combination adapted for subsequent separation from the polymer upon exposure to an <span class="hlt">agent</span> having an affinity for binding to the recognition element whereupon the separation of the intermediate combination from the polymer results in a detectable change in the alterable measurable property, and, detecting said detectable change in the alterable measurable property.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010accs.book..220P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010accs.book..220P"><span id="translatedtitle">Metareasoning and Social Evaluations in Cognitive <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pinyol, Isaac; Sabater-Mir, Jordi</p> <p></p> <p>Reputation mechanisms have been recognized one of the key technologies when designing multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems. They are specially relevant in complex open environments, becoming a non-centralized mechanism to control interactions among <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Cognitive <span class="hlt">agents</span> tackling such complex societies must use reputation information not only for selecting partners to interact with, but also in metareasoning processes to change reasoning rules. This is the focus of this paper. We argue about the necessity to allow, as a cognitive systems designers, certain degree of freedom in the reasoning rules of the <span class="hlt">agents</span>. We also describes cognitive approaches of agency that support this idea. Furthermore, taking as a base the computational reputation model Repage, and its integration in a BDI architecture, we use the previous ideas to specify metarules and processes to modify at run-time the reasoning paths of the <span class="hlt">agent</span>. In concrete we propose a metarule to update the link between Repage and the belief base, and a metarule and a process to update an axiom incorporated in the belief logic of the <span class="hlt">agent</span>. Regarding this last issue we also <span class="hlt">provide</span> empirical results that show the evolution of <span class="hlt">agents</span> that use it.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231804','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231804"><span id="translatedtitle">Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nutaro, James</p> <p>2013-11-29</p> <p>Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span> software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span> accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231804-mpcagent','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1231804-mpcagent"><span id="translatedtitle">Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-11-29</p> <p>Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span> software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The Mpc<span class="hlt">Agent</span> accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18373426','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18373426"><span id="translatedtitle">Gadofullerene MRI contrast <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bolskar, Robert D</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>A promising new class of MRI contrast-enhancing <span class="hlt">agents</span> with high relaxivities is based on gadolinium-containing metallofullerenes, which are also termed gadofullerenes. Detailed study of the water-proton relaxivity properties and intermolecular nanoclustering behavior of gadofullerene derivatives has revealed valuable information about their relaxivity mechanisms and given a deeper understanding of this new class of paramagnetic contrast <span class="hlt">agent</span>. Here, the latest findings on water-solubilized gadofullerene materials and how these findings relate to their future applications in MRI are reviewed and discussed. PMID:18373426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816326','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3816326"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value analysis to project <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of large-scale indicators for severe weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts (Wmax) and 0–6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently <span class="hlt">provides</span> a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having <span class="hlt">extreme</span> energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24223482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223482','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24223482"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatial <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value analysis to project <span class="hlt">extremes</span> of large-scale indicators for severe weather.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts (W max) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently <span class="hlt">provides</span> a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having <span class="hlt">extreme</span> energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24223482</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26194871"><span id="translatedtitle">Professional ethics in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circumstances: responsibilities of attending physicians and healthcare <span class="hlt">providers</span> in hunger strikes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Irmak, Nurbay</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Hunger strikes potentially present a serious challenge for attending physicians. Though rare, in certain cases, a conflict can occur between the obligations of beneficence and autonomy. On the one hand, physicians have a duty to preserve life, which entails intervening in a hunger strike before the hunger striker loses his life. On the other hand, physicians' duty to respect autonomy implies that attending physicians have to respect hunger strikers' decisions to refuse nutrition. International medical guidelines state that physicians should follow the strikers' unpressured advance directives. When physicians encounter an unconscious striker, in the absence of reliable advance directives, the guidelines advise physicians to make a decision on the basis of the patient's values, previously expressed wishes, and best interests. I argue that if there are no advance directives and the striker has already lost his competence, the physician has the responsibility to resuscitate the striker. Once the striker regains his decision-making capacity, he should be asked about his decision. If he is determined to continue fasting and refuses treatment, the physician has a moral obligation to respect this decisions and follow his advance directives. PMID:26194871</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321185','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/321185"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.</p> <p>1998-11-24</p> <p>Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> are described. The chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> comprises an organophosphorous chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span>, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including mixtures of chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Examples of chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method <span class="hlt">provides</span> an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871988','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871988"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> are described. The chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> comprises an organophosphorous chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span>, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including mixtures of chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Examples of chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method <span class="hlt">provides</span> an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an economic, efficient process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25.1648J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhPro..25.1648J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Agent</span> persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on <span class="hlt">agent</span> persuasion is illustrated, and the <span class="hlt">agent</span> persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of <span class="hlt">agent</span> persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec107-1620.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec107-1620.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including Central Registration <span class="hlt">Agent</span>, Selling <span class="hlt">Agent</span> and Fiscal <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including Central Registration <span class="hlt">Agent</span>, Selling <span class="hlt">Agent</span> and Fiscal <span class="hlt">Agent</span>. 107.1620 Section 107.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec108-1620.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title13-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title13-vol1-sec108-1620.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including Central Registration <span class="hlt">Agent</span>, Selling <span class="hlt">Agent</span> and Fiscal <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of <span class="hlt">agents</span>, including Central Registration <span class="hlt">Agent</span>, Selling <span class="hlt">Agent</span> and Fiscal <span class="hlt">Agent</span>. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1111548B"><span id="translatedtitle">The Meteorological and Fire <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of California 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, T.; Abatzoglou, J.; Snook, J.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The California wildfires beginning in June 2008 were historic in the way that four <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events synergized to cause the most geographically extensive, lengthy, and costly fire and smoke event to impact a single state to date. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> dry conditions during the spring and early summer produced plentiful dry fuels. Then beginning on 20 June, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event of over 5,500 lightning strikes occurred--rare for both the sheer number and time of year. These strikes caused more than 1000 fire starts over a two-day period, an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> number of starts for a limited geographic area and the short period of time. Because of limited suppression resources available in the face of an overwhelming number of natural caused fires, many fires became large conflagrations and produced substantial amounts of smoke. Shortly after the fires began, a persistent atmospheric circulation pattern led to long sequences of non-mixing days, which also was a rare condition for the time of year. This situation led to substantial surface smoke, and subsequent visibility and human health impacts. The importance of identifying and discussing this event in part is the nature of these <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and how they fit into the emerging global picture of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> fire and societal impacts. This presentation <span class="hlt">provides</span> details on the climate and weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> related to the California fires of 2008, and a discussion of impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvE..71f6113D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005PhRvE..71f6113D"><span id="translatedtitle">Absorbing-state phase transitions with <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dickman, Ronald; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremal</span> dynamics represents a path to self-organized criticality in which the order parameter is tuned to a value of zero. The order parameter is associated with a phase transition to an absorbing state. Given a process that exhibits a phase transition to an absorbing state, we define an “<span class="hlt">extremal</span> absorbing” process, <span class="hlt">providing</span> the link to the associated <span class="hlt">extremal</span> (nonabsorbing) process. Stationary properties of the latter correspond to those at the absorbing-state phase transition in the former. Studying the absorbing version of an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> dynamics model allows to determine certain critical exponents that are not otherwise accessible. In the case of the Bak-Sneppen (BS) model, the absorbing version is closely related to the “ f -avalanche” introduced by Paczuski, Maslov, and Bak [Phys. Rev. E 53, 414 (1996)], or, in spreading simulations to the “BS branching process” also studied by these authors. The corresponding nonextremal process belongs to the directed percolation universality class. We revisit the absorbing BS model, obtaining refined estimates for the threshold and critical exponents in one dimension. We also study an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> version of the usual contact process, using mean-field theory and simulation. The <span class="hlt">extremal</span> condition slows the spread of activity and modifies the critical behavior radically, defining an “<span class="hlt">extremal</span> directed percolation” universality class of absorbing-state phase transitions. Asymmetric updating is a relevant perturbation for this class, even though it is irrelevant for the corresponding nonextremal class.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...46.1769K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy...46.1769K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature changes during 1951-2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An attribution analysis of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results <span class="hlt">provide</span> better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517277C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...517277C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We investigate the emergence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and a state of full of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service <span class="hlt">providers</span> can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883070','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/883070"><span id="translatedtitle">CHARACTERIZING <span class="hlt">EXTREME</span> GROUND MOTIONS AT YUCCA MTN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>W. Silva, I. Wong, J. Ake, R. Quittmeyer, and C. Costantino</p> <p>2006-02-27</p> <p>Characterization of the epistemic uncertainty and aleatory variability of ground motion, as part of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository PSHA (Stepp et al., 2001), results in ground motion values that increase without bound as lower and lower annual probabilities of exceedance are considered. For probabilities of exceedance less than about 10{sup -6} (yr{sup -1}), use of these results as input to the site response model leads to ground motion values for the repository that most engineering seismologists feel are not credible. To <span class="hlt">provide</span> a defensible technical basis to develop credible emplacement level motions for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, the undeformed nature of the 12.8 million year old lithophysal tuff units at Yucca Mountain <span class="hlt">provide</span> strong constraints on the level of strain (stress) not experienced by the site since deposition of the tuff. Uniaxial unconfined compressive tests (the only tests available to the project) of the lithophysal tuff indicate axial strains of about 0.3% at fracture, which converts to approximately 0.2% shear-strain. This shear-strain limit (fracture strain), which has not occurred, is used with standard equivalent-linear (and nonlinear) point-source site response analyses to develop corresponding response spectra assuming a controlling earthquake of M 6.5 at a distance of 5 km, based on the site PSHA. In addition to the uncertainty in fracture shear-strain resulting from unconfined uniaxial tests, the analyses demonstrate that the uncertainty in nonlinear dynamic material properties of the tuff result in a factor of two uncertainty in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> response spectra, conditional on a value of 0.2% for the fracture strain. To reduce the large uncertainty in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> spectra, a high pressure ({approx} 1,000 ft), large scale ({approx} 1 ft{sup 3}) test device is needed that simulates earthquake loading conditions (cyclic shear strain). The test device would give direct measures of shear fracture strain for the lithophysal tuffs as well as reliable</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5881...49T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5881...49T"><span id="translatedtitle">Engineering <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Organisations in a Business Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traskas, Dimitris; Padget, Julian</p> <p></p> <p>Motivated by demands from the commercial world for software systems that can assist in the reorganisation of processes for the purpose of reducing business complexity, we discuss the benefits and challenges of the multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> approach. We concentrate on the engineering aspects of large scale multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems and begin our exploration by focusing on a real world example from the call centre industry. The critical call routing process seems appropriate and useful in presenting our ideas and <span class="hlt">provides</span> a good starting point for the development of <span class="hlt">agent</span> organisations capable of self-management and coordination. The main contributions of this work can be summarised as the demonstration of the value of <span class="hlt">agent</span> organisational models that do not replicate the typical hierarchical structures observed in human organisations and that a quite basic peer-to-peer structure produces very similar performance indicators to a mature simulator that uses conventional techniques, suggesting further improvements may readily be realized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3441..123B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998SPIE.3441..123B"><span id="translatedtitle">Extraordinary survival of nanobacteria under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bjorklund, Michael; Ciftcioglu, Neva; Kajander, E. Olavi</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Nanobacteria show high resistance to gamma irradiation. To further examine their survival in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions several disinfecting and sterilizing chemicals as well as autoclaving, UV light, microwaves, heating and drying treatments were carried out. The effect of antibiotics used in cell culture were also evaluated. Two forms of nanobacteria were used in the tests: nanobacteria cultured in serum containing medium, and nanobacteria cultured in serum-free medium, the latter being more mineralized. Nanobacteria, having various amounts of apatite on their surfaces, were used to analyze the degree of protection given by the mineral. The chemicals tested included ethanol, glutaraldehyde, formalin, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, detergents, and commercial disinfectants at concentrations generally used for disinfection. After chemical and physical treatments for various times, the nanobacteria were subcultered to detect their survival. The results show unique and wide resistance of nanobacteria to common <span class="hlt">agents</span> used in disinfection. It can also be seen that the mineralization of the nanobacterial surface furthermore increases the resistance. Survival of nanobacteria is unique among living bacteria, but it can be compared with that observed in spores. Interestingly, nanobacteria have metabolic rate as slow as bacterial spores. A slow metabolic rate and protective structures, like mineral, biofilm and impermeable cell wall, can thus explain the observations made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=invoice&pg=2&id=EJ327017','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=invoice&pg=2&id=EJ327017"><span id="translatedtitle">Can Subscription <span class="hlt">Agents</span> Survive?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuttle, Marcia</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription <span class="hlt">agents</span> have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116204','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20000116204"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Remote <span class="hlt">Agent</span> (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5945737','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5945737"><span id="translatedtitle">Mobility control <span class="hlt">agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.</p> <p>1983-05-17</p> <p>Polymer mobility control <span class="hlt">agents</span> useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188208','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5188208"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of soap cation on <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-pressure and antiwear properties of lubricating greases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nakonechnaya, M.B.; Khalyavka, E.P.; Lyubinin, I.A.; Mnishchenko, G.G.</p> <p>1983-11-01</p> <p>In investigating the tribological properties of greases for the purpose of selecting optimal additive packages it has been found that soap has the dual function of thickening <span class="hlt">agent</span> and an antiwear and <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-pressure component. This paper aims at establishing the relationship between the nature of the soap cation and the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-pressure and antiwear properties of the soap-based grease. It is determined by tests that soap thickening improves the tribological properties of the dispersion medium and that variations of the soap concentration have practically no effect on the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-pressure properties of the greases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873452"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, G. D.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872784"><span id="translatedtitle">Method for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Felter, T. E.; Kubiak, Glenn D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A method of producing a patterned array of features, in particular, gate apertures, in the size range 0.4-0.05 .mu.m using projection lithography and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet (EUV) radiation. A high energy laser beam is used to vaporize a target material in order to produce a plasma which in turn, produces <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet radiation of a characteristic wavelength of about 13 nm for lithographic applications. The radiation is transmitted by a series of reflective mirrors to a mask which bears the pattern to be printed. The demagnified focused mask pattern is, in turn, transmitted by means of appropriate optics and in a single exposure, to a substrate coated with photoresists designed to be transparent to EUV radiation and also satisfy conventional processing methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713888R"><span id="translatedtitle">The 2014 Silba Precipitation <span class="hlt">Extreme</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rasol, Dubravka; Ólafsson, Haraldur</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>On 30 July 2014 a 24 h precipitation record of 218 mm was set at the island of Silba in the N-Adriatic Sea. The precipitation was of convective nature and significantly less precipitation was recorded only small distances away, at the coast of mainland Croatia. The event is reproduced numerically and discussed in terms of dynamics and predictability. On a large scale, the precipitation <span class="hlt">extreme</span> was associated with a slow-moving upper tropospheric low that formed over the N-Atlantic several days earlier. At lower levels, there were humid mediterranean airmasses. On a smaller scale, there are indications that the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> convection may have been triggered by an orographic disturbance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399220','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3399220"><span id="translatedtitle">Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic <span class="hlt">Agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies <span class="hlt">provided</span> more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic <span class="hlt">agent</span> than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic <span class="hlt">agent</span>. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review <span class="hlt">provides</span> insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary <span class="hlt">agent</span>, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920034468&hterms=ultraviolet+astronomy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3D%2528ultraviolet%2Bastronomy%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer mission</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Welsh, Barry Y.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) is a NASA astronomy mission which will operate in the 70-760A spectral band. The science payload consists of three grazing incidence scanning telescopes and an EUV spectrometer/deep survey instrument. An overview of the planned mission profile is given, and the instrumentation which comprises the science payload is discussed. The EUVE is scheduled for launch in late August 1991.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25658738"><span id="translatedtitle">[Genes for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour?].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jordan, Bertrand</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A new genetic study focussing on the degree of violence in criminals and using both candidate gene and GWAS approaches finds statistically significant associations of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> violent behaviour with low activity alleles of monoamine oxydase A (MAOA) and with the CD13 gene. However, the alleles implicated are common in the general population, thus they cannot be causal, and only represent potential indicators of increased risk. PMID:25658738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11932219"><span id="translatedtitle">Paediatric personnel <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gallet, J M C; Reed, M H</p> <p>2002-03-01</p> <p>Concern has been expressed in paediatric radiology regarding the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> dose received by attending personnel during routine fluoroscopic procedures and CT. Common procedures that may be of short duration in adults can be quite the opposite in paediatric patients. The <span class="hlt">extremities</span> of attending personnel are more likely to be exposed to the primary beam and for a longer period of time owing to a variety of reasons such as assisting in the procedure or physically restraining the patient during the examination. During the period mid 1998 to mid 2000, two paediatric radiologists, four senior radiographers and two paediatric nurses were monitored using ring thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs). Each participant wore the ring TLD on either the left or right ring finger, depending on which hand the individual favoured. Left/right asymmetrical studies were not conducted, nor were records kept of whether an examination used a grid or gridless technique. Initial apprehension about higher paediatric fluoroscopic and CT <span class="hlt">extremity</span> doses was dispelled as a result of this quantitative dosimetric study. PMID:11932219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatCC...5..725T"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of climate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.; Shepherd, Theodore G.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>There is a tremendous desire to attribute causes to weather and climate events that is often challenging from a physical standpoint. Headlines attributing an event solely to either human-induced climate change or natural variability can be misleading when both are invariably in play. The conventional attribution framework struggles with dynamically driven <span class="hlt">extremes</span> because of the small signal-to-noise ratios and often uncertain nature of the forced changes. Here, we suggest that a different framing is desirable, which asks why such <span class="hlt">extremes</span> unfold the way they do. Specifically, we suggest that it is more useful to regard the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> circulation regime or weather event as being largely unaffected by climate change, and question whether known changes in the climate system's thermodynamic state affected the impact of the particular event. Some examples briefly illustrated include 'snowmaggedon' in February 2010, superstorm Sandy in October 2012 and supertyphoon Haiyan in November 2013, and, in more detail, the Boulder floods of September 2013, all of which were influenced by high sea surface temperatures that had a discernible human component.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20048492"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in golf.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bayes, Matthew C; Wadsworth, L Tyler</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Golf is an asymmetric sport with unique patterns of injury depending upon the skill level. Higher handicap players typically experience injuries that result from swing mechanics, whereas lower handicap and professional players have overuse as the major cause of their injuries. The majority of shoulder injuries affecting golfers occur in the nondominant shoulder. Common shoulder injuries include subacromial impingement, rotator cuff pathology, glenohumeral instability, and arthritis involving the acromioclavicular and/or glenohumeral joints. Lead arm elbow pain resulting from lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow) is the leading upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injury in amateur golfers. Tendon injury is the most common problem seen in the wrist and forearm of the golfer. Rehabilitation emphasizing improvement in core muscle streng is important in the treatment of golf injury. Emerging treatments for tendinopathy include topical nitrates, ultrasound-guided injection of therapeutic substances, and eccentric rehabilitation. There is evidence supporting physiotherapy, and swing modification directed by a teaching professional, for treatment of upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> golf injuries. This article focuses on upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries in golf, including a discussion of the epidemiology, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of injuries occurring in the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and hand. PMID:20048492</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH33A3889S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMNH33A3889S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Graceful Failure and Societal Resilience Analysis Via <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-Based Modeling and Simulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schopf, P. S.; Cioffi-Revilla, C.; Rogers, J. D.; Bassett, J.; Hailegiorgis, A. B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based social modeling is opening up new methodologies for the study of societal response to weather and climate hazards, and <span class="hlt">providing</span> measures of resiliency that can be studied in many contexts, particularly in coupled human and natural-technological systems (CHANTS). Since CHANTS are complex adaptive systems, societal resiliency may or may not occur, depending on dynamics that lack closed form solutions. <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based modeling has been shown to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a viable theoretical and methodological approach for analyzing and understanding disasters and societal resiliency in CHANTS. Our approach advances the science of societal resilience through computational modeling and simulation methods that complement earlier statistical and mathematical approaches. We present three case studies of social dynamics modeling that demonstrate the use of these <span class="hlt">agent</span> based models. In Central Asia, we exmaine mutltiple ensemble simulations with varying climate statistics to see how droughts and zuds affect populations, transmission of wealth across generations, and the overall structure of the social system. In Eastern Africa, we explore how successive episodes of drought events affect the adaptive capacity of rural households. Human displacement, mainly, rural to urban migration, and livelihood transition particularly from pastoral to farming are observed as rural households interacting dynamically with the biophysical environment and continually adjust their behavior to accommodate changes in climate. In the far north case we demonstrate one of the first successful attempts to model the complete climate-permafrost-infrastructure-societal interaction network as a complex adaptive system/CHANTS implemented as a ``federated'' <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based model using evolutionary computation. Analysis of population changes resulting from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather across these and other cases <span class="hlt">provides</span> evidence for the emergence of new steady states and shifting patterns of resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ems..confE.288P"><span id="translatedtitle">Credibility of statistical modeling of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind speed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pop, L.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>. Similar synoptic situation over several days 2. Families of depressions 3. Annual course 4. NAO and other climate oscillations 5. Climate change. Two types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> data are used: Block Maxima and Peak Over Threshold. Statistical <span class="hlt">extremity</span> is established in both these cases, <span class="hlt">provided</span> relevant time interval is sufficiently long, respectively chosen threshold is sufficiently high. However, both these values are limited by length of measured time series. According to published papers, good convergence to GEV distribution is not warranted even in case of maxima from sample of size 10000 independent measurement.. In the Czech Republic, we distinguish two basic types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind events - thunderstorms and front passes (mostly cold fronts in winter). Typically we select at least one <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event per year. But only tens of these events occur per year, much less than theoretically required amount. Statistical modeling assumes that wind gusts have the same physical mechanism on both, "usual” and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> front passes or thunderstorms. . It is evidently false assumption in case of thunderstorms with tornadoes. It is naive to assume that magnitude of wind gust of tornadoes can be statistically modeled on the basis of data from storm without tornadoes. Regarding the fact, that wind measurement are very unreliable and values of modeled <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind gusts with return period of 50 years could not be credibly checked, we must be very cautious in assessing magnitudes of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind gusts obtained by statistical modeling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3448M"><span id="translatedtitle">Is climate change modifying precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Montanari, Alberto; Papalexiou, Simon Michael</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The title of the present contribution is a relevant question that is frequently posed to scientists, technicians and managers of local authorities. Although several research efforts were recently dedicated to rainfall observation, analysis and modelling, the above question remains essentially unanswered. The question comes from the awareness that the frequency of floods and the related socio-economic impacts are increasing in many countries, and climate change is deemed to be the main trigger. Indeed, identifying the real reasons for the observed increase of flood risk is necessary in order to plan effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. While mitigation of climate change is an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important issue at the global level, at small spatial scales several other triggers may interact with it, therefore requiring different mitigation strategies. Similarly, the responsibilities of administrators are radically different at local and global scales. This talk aims to <span class="hlt">provide</span> insights and information to address the question expressed by its title. High resolution and long term rainfall data will be presented, as well as an analysis of the frequency of their <span class="hlt">extremes</span> and its progress in time. The results will <span class="hlt">provide</span> pragmatic indications for the sake of better planning flood risk mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27222223','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27222223"><span id="translatedtitle">Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important plant partners that <span class="hlt">provide</span> improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are <span class="hlt">extremely</span> diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:27222223</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B43C0532A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B43C0532A"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding relations between breeding bird species and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allstadt, A.; Bateman, B.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Radeloff, V.; Vavrus, S. J.; Keuler, N.; Clayton, M.; Albright, T.; Thogmartin, W.; Heglund, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events are increasing in frequency due to climate change. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events like periods of drought or cold snaps may impose hardship on many animal and plant populations. However, little is known about biotic response to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. For example, some species experience population size changes in association with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather, and some do not. However the mechanisms responsible for observed declines in avian abundance following heat waves and drought are not clear. Our goal was to characterize the population changes of North American bird species in relation to temperature and precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. We derived standardized measures of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation and air temperature based on phase 2 NASA Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), an hourly 1/8 degree resolution land surface forcing dataset, and modeled population responses, during the breeding season, of 363 bird species. Of those species in which a change was observed, many demonstrated decreases in total population size, suggesting either mortality or reproductive failure (or both) are the causative mechanisms of this decline. A greater proportion of population changes were associated with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions in the same year than in the previous year. Some species exhibited population decreases in areas of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather and increases in areas with environmental conditions more favorable to breeding while overall abundance remained relatively constant, which might indicate movement. The patterns of bird population changes in relation to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events <span class="hlt">provide</span> insight for planners as they consider modifications to our national protected area network that will limit threats posed by climate change to bird populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4468855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> multifunctional proteins identified from a human protein interaction network</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chapple, Charles E.; Robisson, Benoit; Spinelli, Lionel; Guien, Céline; Becker, Emmanuelle; Brun, Christine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Moonlighting proteins are a subclass of multifunctional proteins whose functions are unrelated. Although they may play important roles in cells, there has been no large-scale method to identify them, nor any effort to characterize them as a group. Here, we propose the first method for the identification of ‘<span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional' proteins from an interactome as a first step to characterize moonlighting proteins. By combining network topological information with protein annotations, we identify 430 <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins (3% of the human interactome). We show that the candidates form a distinct sub-group of proteins, characterized by specific features, which form a signature of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctionality. Overall, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> multifunctional proteins are enriched in linear motifs and less intrinsically disordered than network hubs. We also <span class="hlt">provide</span> MoonDB, a database containing information on all the candidates identified in the analysis and a set of manually curated human moonlighting proteins. PMID:26054620</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IREdu..55..183D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009IREdu..55..183D"><span id="translatedtitle">Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>: Towards a Critical Politicisation of Young People</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, Lynn</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>This paper is based on a recently published book, Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span> (Davies, Educating Against <span class="hlt">Extremism</span>, 2008), which explores the potential role of schools in averting the more negative and violent forms of <span class="hlt">extremism</span> in a country. It examines the nature of <span class="hlt">extremism</span>; identity formation and radicalisation; religious belief, faith schools and the myth of equal value; justice, revenge and honour; and free speech, humour and satire. The paper argues that religious fundamentalism, as well as state terrorism, needs to be addressed in schools. The argument in the book is for a greater politicisation of young people through the forging of critical (dis)respect and the use of a secular basis of human rights. Specific forms of citizenship education are needed, which <span class="hlt">provide</span> skills to analyse the media and political or religious messages, but also enable critical idealism to be fostered.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21F..04R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events and global crop production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ray, D. K.; Gerber, J. S.; West, P. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> weather events can lead to significant loss in crop production and even trigger global price spikes. However it is still not clear where exactly and what types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in sharp declines in crop production. Neither is it clear how frequently such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events have resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses. Using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event metrics with a newly developed high resolution and long time series of crop statistics database we identify the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event driven crop production losses globally at high resolutions. In this presentation we will present our results as global maps identifying the frequency and type of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events that resulted in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> crop production losses and quantify the losses. Understanding how <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events affects crop production is critical for managing risk in the global food system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1086639"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Instrumentation for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Melin, Alexander M; Kisner, Roger; Fugate, David L</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is pursuing embedded instrumentation and controls (I&C) technology for next generation nuclear power generation applications. Embedded systems encompass a wide range of configurations and technologies; we define embedding in this instance as the integration of the sensors and the control system design into the component design using a systems engineering process. Embedded I&C systems are often an essential part of developing new capabilities, improving reliability, enhancing performance, and reducing operational costs. The new intrinsically safe, more efficient, and cost effective reactor technologies (Next Generation Nuclear Plant and Small Modular Reactors) require the development and application of new I&C technologies. These new designs raise <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environmental challenges such as high temperatures (over 700 C) and material compatibility (e.g., molten salts). The desired reliability and functionality requires measurements in these <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions including high radiation environments which were not previously monitored in real time. The DOE/NE Nuclear Energy Enabling Technologies (NEET) program currently has several projects investigating I&C technologies necessary to make these reactor designs realizable. The project described in this paper has the specific goal of investigating embedded I&C with the following objectives: 1.Explore and quantify the potential gains from embedded I&C improved reliability, increased performance, and reduced cost 2.Identify practical control, sensing, and measurement techniques for the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments found in high-temperature reactors 3.Design and fabricate a functional prototype high-temperature cooling pump for molten salts represents target demonstration of improved performance, reliability, and widespread usage There are many engineering challenges in the design of a high-temperature liquid salt cooling pump. The pump and motor are in direct contact with</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767620','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3767620"><span id="translatedtitle">Genomic Phenotyping by Barcode Sequencing Broadly Distinguishes between Alkylating <span class="hlt">Agents</span>, Oxidizing <span class="hlt">Agents</span>, and Non-Genotoxic <span class="hlt">Agents</span>, and Reveals a Role for Aromatic Amino Acids in Cellular Recovery after Quinone Exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Svensson, J. Peter; Quirós Pesudo, Laia; McRee, Siobhan K.; Adeleye, Yeyejide; Carmichael, Paul; Samson, Leona D.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Toxicity screening of compounds <span class="hlt">provides</span> a means to identify compounds harmful for human health and the environment. Here, we further develop the technique of genomic phenotyping to improve throughput while maintaining specificity. We exposed cells to eight different compounds that rely on different modes of action: four genotoxic alkylating (methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), N,N′-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitroso-urea (BCNU), N-ethylnitrosourea (ENU)), two oxidizing (2-methylnaphthalene-1,4-dione (menadione, MEN), benzene-1,4-diol (hydroquinone, HYQ)), and two non-genotoxic (methyl carbamate (MC) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)) compounds. A library of S. cerevisiae 4,852 deletion strains, each identifiable by a unique genetic ‘barcode’, were grown in competition; at different time points the ratio between the strains was assessed by quantitative high throughput ‘barcode’ sequencing. The method was validated by comparison to previous genomic phenotyping studies and 90% of the strains identified as MMS-sensitive here were also identified as MMS-sensitive in a much lower throughput solid agar screen. The data <span class="hlt">provide</span> profiles of proteins and pathways needed for recovery after both genotoxic and non-genotoxic compounds. In addition, a novel role for aromatic amino acids in the recovery after treatment with oxidizing <span class="hlt">agents</span> was suggested. The role of aromatic acids was further validated; the quinone subgroup of oxidizing <span class="hlt">agents</span> were <span class="hlt">extremely</span> toxic in cells where tryptophan biosynthesis was compromised. PMID:24040048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27110357"><span id="translatedtitle">Moving in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading; carriage versus distance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lucas, Samuel J E; Helge, Jørn W; Schütz, Uwe H W; Goldman, Ralph F; Cotter, James D</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This review addresses human capacity for movement in the context of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> loading and with it the combined effects of metabolic, biomechanical and gravitational stress on the human body. This topic encompasses <span class="hlt">extreme</span> duration, as occurs in ultra-endurance competitions (e.g. adventure racing and transcontinental races) and expeditions (e.g. polar crossings), to the more gravitationally limited load carriage (e.g. in the military context). Juxtaposed to these circumstances is the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> metabolic and mechanical unloading associated with space travel, prolonged bedrest and sedentary lifestyle, which may be at least as problematic, and are therefore included as a reference, e.g. when considering exposure, dangers and (mal)adaptations. As per the other reviews in this series, we describe the nature of the stress and the associated consequences; illustrate relevant regulations, including why and how they are set; present the pros and cons for self versus prescribed acute and chronic exposure; describe humans' (mal)adaptations; and finally suggest future directions for practice and research. In summary, we describe adaptation patterns that are often U or J shaped and that over time minimal or no load carriage decreases the global load carrying capacity and eventually leads to severe adverse effects and manifest disease under minimal absolute but high relative loads. We advocate that further understanding of load carrying capacity and the inherent mechanisms leading to adverse effects may advantageously be studied in this perspective. With improved access to insightful and portable technologies, there are some exciting possibilities to explore these questions in this context. PMID:27110357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhyA..299..319R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PhyA..299..319R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based simulation of a financial market</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raberto, Marco; Cincotti, Silvano; Focardi, Sergio M.; Marchesi, Michele</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>This paper introduces an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based artificial financial market in which heterogeneous <span class="hlt">agents</span> trade one single asset through a realistic trading mechanism for price formation. <span class="hlt">Agents</span> are initially endowed with a finite amount of cash and a given finite portfolio of assets. There is no money-creation process; the total available cash is conserved in time. In each period, <span class="hlt">agents</span> make random buy and sell decisions that are constrained by available resources, subject to clustering, and dependent on the volatility of previous periods. The model proposed herein is able to reproduce the leptokurtic shape of the probability density of log price returns and the clustering of volatility. Implemented using <span class="hlt">extreme</span> programming and object-oriented technology, the simulator is a flexible computational experimental facility that can find applications in both academic and industrial research projects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AIPC..465..245G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999AIPC..465..245G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agents</span>: An approach for dynamic process modelling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grohmann, Axel; Kopetzky, Roland; Lurk, Alexander</p> <p>1999-03-01</p> <p>With the growing amount of distributed and heterogeneous information and services, conventional information systems have come to their limits. This gave rise to the development of a Multi-<span class="hlt">Agent</span> System (the "Logical Client") which can be used in complex information systems as well as in other advanced software systems. Computer <span class="hlt">agents</span> are proactive, reactive and social. They form a community of independent software components that can communicate and co-operate in order to accomplish complex tasks. Thus the <span class="hlt">agent</span>-oriented paradigm <span class="hlt">provides</span> a new and powerful approach to programming distributed systems. The communication framework developed is based on standards like CORBA, KQML and KIF. It <span class="hlt">provides</span> an embedded rule based system to find adequate reactions to incoming messages. The macro-architecture of the Logical Client consists of independent <span class="hlt">agents</span> and uses artificial intelligence to cope with complex patterns of communication and actions. A set of system <span class="hlt">agents</span> is also <span class="hlt">provided</span>, including the Strategy Service as a core component for modelling processes at runtime, the Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) Component for supporting remote co-operation between human users and the Repository for managing and hiding the file based data flow in heterogeneous networks. This architecture seems to be capable of managing complexity in information systems. It is also being implemented in a complex simulation system that monitors and simulates the environmental radioactivity in the country Baden-Württemberg.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084300','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930084300"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Action of Halogenated <span class="hlt">Agents</span> in Fire Extinguishing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Belles, Frank E.</p> <p>1955-01-01</p> <p>The action of halogenated <span class="hlt">agents</span> in preventing flame propagation in fuel-air mixtures in laboratory tests is discussed in terms of a possible chemical mechanism. The mechanism chosen is that of chain-breaking reactions between <span class="hlt">agent</span> and active particles (hydrogen and oxygen atoms and hydroxyl radicsls). Data from the literature on the flammability peaks of n-heptane <span class="hlt">agent</span>-air mixtures are treated. Ratings of <span class="hlt">agent</span> effectiveness in terms of the fuel equivalent of the <span class="hlt">agent</span>, based on both fuel and <span class="hlt">agent</span> concentrations at the peak, are proposed as preferable to ratings in terms of <span class="hlt">agent</span> concentration alone. These fuel-equivalent ratings are roughly correlated by reactivities assigned to halogen and hydrogen atoms in the <span class="hlt">agent</span> molecules. It is concluded that the presence of hydrogen in <span class="hlt">agent</span> need not reduce its fire-fighting ability, <span class="hlt">provided</span> there is enough halogen to make the <span class="hlt">agent</span> nonflammable. A method is presented for estimating from quenching-distance data a rate constant for the reaction of <span class="hlt">agent</span> with active particles. A quantitative result is obtained for methyl bromide. This rate constant predicts the observed peak concentration of methyl bromide quite well. However, more data are needed to prove the validity of the method. The assumption that hal.ogenatedagents act mainly by chain-bresking reactions with active particles is consistent with the experimental facts and should help guide the selection of <span class="hlt">agents</span> for further tests.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESASP.682E..42B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ESASP.682E..42B"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributed <span class="hlt">Agents</span> for Autonomy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blake, Rick; Amigoni, Francesco; Brambilla, Andrea; de la Rosa Steinz, Sonia; Lavagna, Michele; le Duc, Ian; Page, Jonathan; Page, Oliver; Steel, Robin; Wijnands, Quirien</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The Distributed <span class="hlt">Agents</span> for Autonomy (DAFA) Study has been performed for ESA by SciSys UK Ltd, Vega GmbH and Politecnico di Milano. An analysis of past, present and future space missions has been conducted, structured around a set of three pre-defined mission scenarios: Formation Flying, Earth Observation and Planetary Exploration. This analysis led to the definition of a framework of use cases where the application of distributed autonomy seems necessary or appropriate, and a set of metrics that may be used to assess such deployments. <span class="hlt">Agent</span> technology and architectures were extensively surveyed and the results used to elaborate each of the mission scenarios to the point where a software prototype could be constructed. Such a prototype was developed for a scenario based on the ExoMars mission and this has been used to highlight the advantages of a DAFA approach to the mission architecture.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871721','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/871721"><span id="translatedtitle">Rigid bifunctional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.</p> <p>1998-07-21</p> <p>Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872845','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872845"><span id="translatedtitle">Rigid bifunctional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.</p> <p>2000-02-08</p> <p>Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/442223','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/442223"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface polymerization <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.</p> <p>1996-12-01</p> <p>This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization <span class="hlt">agent</span> in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/672562','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/672562"><span id="translatedtitle">Rigid bifunctional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.</p> <p>1998-07-21</p> <p>Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17757689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17757689"><span id="translatedtitle">Migration of radioactive wastes: radionuclide mobilization by complexing <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Means, J L; Crerar, D A; Duguid, J O</p> <p>1978-06-30</p> <p>Ion exchange, gel filtration chromatography, and gas chromatographymass spectrometry analyses have demonstrated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> strong complexing <span class="hlt">agent</span> commonly used in decontamination operations at nuclear facilities, is causing the low-level migration of cobalt-60 from intermediate-level liquid waste disposal pits and trenches in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory burial grounds. Because it forms <span class="hlt">extremely</span> strong complexes with rare earths and actinides, EDTA or similar chelates may also be contributing to the mobilization of these radionuclides from various terrestrial radioactive waste burial sites around the country. PMID:17757689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31B0454S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC31B0454S"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Going Temperature <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> in Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Temperature trends (grows up to 0.5 °C per decade), more frequent occurrence of temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> provoked serious natural disasters (2010 heat waves in Russia, 2013 flood in Russia's Far East) led to socio-economical impact (crop damages, infrastructure failures, respectively). To get reliable knowledge on location, frequency and magnitude of observed <span class="hlt">extremes</span> we have studied daily max/min temperature trends based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data (0,25°×0,25°). This dataset is most accurately reproduces observed temperature behavior in the region. Statistical analysis of daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. Results obtained <span class="hlt">provide</span> regional decision-makers with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information required for adaptation and mitigation measures development. Calculations presented have been realized using information-computational web-GIS system "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/) which automatically generates the archive of calculated fields ready for multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS 131 and VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (№ 181).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ESS.....320204R"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Raetz, Stefanie; Schmidt, Tobias O. B.; Briceno, Cesar; Neuhäuser, Ralph</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Almost 500 planet host stars are already known to be surrounded by more than one planet. Most of them (except HR8799) are old and all planets were found with the same or similar detection method.We present an unique planetary system. For the first time, a close in transiting and a wide directly imaged planet are found to orbit a common host star which is a low mass member of a young open cluster. The inner candidate is the first possible young transiting planet orbiting a previously known weak-lined T-Tauri star and was detected in our international monitoring campaign of young stellar clusters. The transit shape is changing between different observations and the transit even disappears and reappears. This unusual transit behaviour can be explained by a precessing planet transiting a gravity-darkened star.The outer candidate was discovered in the course of our direct imaging survey with NACO at ESO/VLT. Both objects are consistent with a <5 Jupiter mass planet. With ~2.4 Myrs it is among the youngest exoplanet systems. Both planets orbit its star in very <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. The inner planet is very close to its Roche limiting orbital radius while the outer planet is far away from its host star at a distance of ~660 au. The detailed analysis will <span class="hlt">provide</span> important constraints on planet formation and migration time-scales and their relation to protoplanetary disc lifetimes. Furthermore, this system with two planets on such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> orbits gives us the opportunity to study the possible outcome of planet-planet scattering theories for the first time by observations.I will report on our monitoring and photometric follow-up observations as well as on the direct detection and the integral field spectroscopy of this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> planetary system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779283','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4779283"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality Randomized Clinical Trials of Topical Diabetic Foot Ulcer Healing <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bolton, Laura L.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Significance: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) significantly add to global economic, social, and clinical burdens. Healing a DFU fast and well limits complications that can lead to lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> amputation, morbidity, and mortality. Recent Advances: Many promising topical DFU healing <span class="hlt">agents</span> have been studied in randomized clinical trials (RCT), but only one, becaplermin, has been cleared for this use by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Critical Issues: This critical review of DFU topical healing RCTs summarizes issues identified in their design and conduct, highlighting ways to improve study quality so researchers can increase the likelihood of RCT success in propelling effective topical DFU healing <span class="hlt">agents</span> toward clinical use. Key issues include (1) inadequate sample size, (2) risk of bias, (3) irrelevant or unreported inclusion criteria, (4) substandard outcome measures, (5) unmatched group characteristics that predict nonhealing at baseline, (6) unequal or uncontrolled concurrent interventions or standard of care, (7) heterogeneous subject or DFU samples (8) unblinded allocation, treatment, or outcome measures, or (9) inadequate follow-up for clinical relevance. These can add bias or unexplained variability to RCT outcomes, limiting clinical or statistical significance and accuracy of results. Future Directions: This critical review summarizes ways to overcome these deficiencies to optimize DFU clinical trial design and conduct. It <span class="hlt">provides</span> a blueprint for future excellence in RCTs testing safety and efficacy of topical DFU healing <span class="hlt">agents</span> and smoothing the path to their clinical use. PMID:26989579</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003163&hterms=smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CBTWN%2B20000101%2B20091231%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsmith','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20120003163&hterms=smith&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAuthor-Name%26Nf%3DPublication-Date%257CBTWN%2B20000101%2B20091231%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dsmith"><span id="translatedtitle">NESTA: NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry <span class="hlt">Agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Smith, Kevin E.; Boloni, Ladislau</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed an <span class="hlt">agent</span> based tool to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the NASA Engineering Shuttle Telemetry <span class="hlt">Agent</span>, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during ground processing of the Shuttle's subsystems. The <span class="hlt">agent</span> <span class="hlt">provides</span> autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream and automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation. Sandia National Labs' Java Expert System Shell is employed as the rule engine. The shell's predicate logic lends itself well to capturing the heuristics and specifying the engineering rules of this spaceport domain. The declarative paradigm of the rule-based <span class="hlt">agent</span> yields a highly modular and scalable design spanning multiple subsystems of the Shuttle. Several hundred monitoring rules have been written thus far with corresponding notifications sent to Shuttle engineers. This paper discusses the rule-based telemetry <span class="hlt">agent</span> used for Space Shuttle ground processing and explains the problem domain, development of the <span class="hlt">agent</span> software, benefits of AT technology, and deployment and sustaining engineering of the product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=88906','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=88906"><span id="translatedtitle">Current and Emerging Azole Antifungal <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Sibley, Carol M.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Major developments in research into the azole class of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> during the 1990s have <span class="hlt">provided</span> expanded options for the treatment of many opportunistic and endemic fungal infections. Fluconazole and itraconazole have proved to be safer than both amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Despite these advances, serious fungal infections remain difficult to treat, and resistance to the available drugs is emerging. This review describes present and future uses of the currently available azole antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> in the treatment of systemic and superficial fungal infections and <span class="hlt">provides</span> a brief overview of the current status of in vitro susceptibility testing and the growing problem of clinical resistance to the azoles. Use of the currently available azoles in combination with other antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> with different mechanisms of action is likely to <span class="hlt">provide</span> enhanced efficacy. Detailed information on some of the second-generation triazoles being developed to <span class="hlt">provide</span> extended coverage of opportunistic, endemic, and emerging fungal pathogens, as well as those in which resistance to older <span class="hlt">agents</span> is becoming problematic, is <span class="hlt">provided</span>. PMID:9880474</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996HyPr...10..315G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996HyPr...10..315G"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathogenic <span class="hlt">agents</span> in freshwater resources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geldreich, Edwin E.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>Numerous pathogenic <span class="hlt">agents</span> have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These <span class="hlt">agents</span> include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic <span class="hlt">agents</span> to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination <span class="hlt">provide</span> a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16704814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16704814"><span id="translatedtitle">Animals as sentinels of bioterrorism <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rabinowitz, Peter; Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could <span class="hlt">provide</span> early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism <span class="hlt">agents</span>, pets, wildlife, or livestock could <span class="hlt">provide</span> early warning and that for other <span class="hlt">agents</span>, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism <span class="hlt">agents</span> found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3294700','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3294700"><span id="translatedtitle">Animals as Sentinels of Bioterrorism <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gordon, Zimra; Chudnov, Daniel; Wilcox, Matthew; Odofin, Lynda; Liu, Ann; Dein, Joshua</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature from 1966 to 2005 to determine whether animals could <span class="hlt">provide</span> early warning of a bioterrorism attack, serve as markers for ongoing exposure risk, and amplify or propagate a bioterrorism outbreak. We found evidence that, for certain bioterrorism <span class="hlt">agents</span>, pets, wildlife, or livestock could <span class="hlt">provide</span> early warning and that for other <span class="hlt">agents</span>, humans would likely manifest symptoms before illness could be detected in animals. After an acute attack, active surveillance of wild or domestic animal populations could help identify many ongoing exposure risks. If certain bioterrorism <span class="hlt">agents</span> found their way into animal populations, they could spread widely through animal-to-animal transmission and prove difficult to control. The public health infrastructure must look beyond passive surveillance of acute animal disease events to build capacity for active surveillance and intervention efforts to detect and control ongoing outbreaks of disease in domestic and wild animal populations. PMID:16704814</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012833','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120012833"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial Applications of <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Environment Stirling Space Power Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dyson, Rodger. W.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>NASA has been developing power systems capable of long-term operation in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> environments such as the surface of Venus. This technology can use any external heat source to efficiently <span class="hlt">provide</span> electrical power and cooling; and it is designed to be <span class="hlt">extremely</span> efficient and reliable for extended space missions. Terrestrial applications include: use in electric hybrid vehicles; distributed home co-generation/cooling; and quiet recreational vehicle power generation. This technology can reduce environmental emissions, petroleum consumption, and noise while eliminating maintenance and environmental damage from automotive fluids such as oil lubricants and air conditioning coolant. This report will <span class="hlt">provide</span> an overview of this new technology and its applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120002012"><span id="translatedtitle">Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The Gravity and <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885374"><span id="translatedtitle">Materials Response under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Remington, B A; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S; McNaney, J M</p> <p>2005-10-06</p> <p>Solid state experiments at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> pressures, 10-100 GPa (0.1-1 Mbar) and strain rates (10{sup 6}-10{sup 8} s{sup -1}) are being developed on high-energy laser facilities. The goal is an experimental capability to test constitutive models for high-pressure, solid-state strength for a variety of materials. Relevant constitutive models are discussed, and our progress in developing a quasi-isentropic, ramped-pressure, shockless drive is given. Designs to test the constitutive models with experiments measuring perturbation growth due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in solid-state samples are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUSM.U53A..06M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events: The Indian Experience</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murty, K. S.</p> <p>2008-05-01</p> <p>The geographical situation of India is such that it experiences varied types of climate in different parts of the country and invariably the natural events, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and normal, would affect such areas that are prone to them. Cyclones hit the eastern coast, while floods affect mostly northern India, while earthquakes hit any part of the country, particuarly when itbecame evident after the 1967 earthquake of Koyna that the peninsular part toois prone to seismic events. The National Commission on Floods estimated that nearly 40 millionn hectares of land is prone to flooding, which could rise to60 million soon. The cropped area thus affected annually is about 10 millionhectares. On an average 1500 lives are lost during floods annually, while the damage to property could run into billions of dollars. The total loss on account of floods damage to crops is estimated at about Rs 53,000 crores(crore= 100 lakhs), during the period 1953-1998. The other <span class="hlt">extreme</span> natural event is drought which affects large parts of the country, except the northeast. Both floods and droughts can hit different parts of the country during the same period. The 2001 earthquake that hit Gujarat is perhaps the severest and studies on that event are still in progress. The 2004 tsunami which hit large parts of southeast Asia did not spare India. Its southern coast was battered and many lives were lost. In fact some geogrphic landmarks were lost, while some of the cities have suffered a shift in their position. It was estimated that about 1.2 billion dollars were required ro meet the rehabilitation and relief measures. The seismic zone map of India thus had to be revised more often than before. Apart from these, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall has also caused floods in urban areas as in Mumbai in 2005, but this was mostly because of lack of proper drainage system and the existing system proved ineffective. Human hand in such cases is evident. There are systems working to forecast floods, cyclones, and droughts, though</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15929405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15929405"><span id="translatedtitle">Your company's secret change <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pascale, Richard Tanner; Sternin, Jerry</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p>Organizational change has traditionally come about through top-down initiatives such as hiring experts or importing best-of-breed practices. Such methods usually result in companywide rollouts of templates mandated from on high. These do little to get people excited. But within every organization, there are a few individuals who find unique ways to look at problems that seem impossible to solve. Although these change <span class="hlt">agents</span> start out with the same tools and access to resources as their peers, they are able to see solutions where others do not. They find a way to bridge the divide between what is happening and what is possible. These positive deviants are the key, the authors believe, to a better way of creating organizational change. Your company can make the most of their methods by following six steps. In Step 1, Make the group the guru, the members of the community are engaged in the process of their own evolution. Step 2, Reframe through facts, entails restating the problem in a way that opens minds to new possibilities. Step 3, Make it safe to learn, involves creating an environment that supports innovative ideas. In Step 4, Make the problem concrete, the community combats abstraction by stating uncomfortable truths. In Step 5, Leverage social proof, the community looks to the larger society for examples of solutions that have worked in parallel situations. In Step 6, Confound the immune defense response, solutions are introduced organically from within the group in a way that promotes acceptance. Throughout the steps, the leader must suspend his or her traditional role in favor of more facilitatory practices. The positive-deviance approach has unearthed solutions to such complicated and diverse problems as malnutrition in Mali and human trafficking in East Java. This methodology can help solve even the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> dilemmas. PMID:15929405</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1712647M"><span id="translatedtitle">Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mühr, Bernhard; Kunz, Michael</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Operational early warning platform for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> meteorological events Most natural disasters are related to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events (e.g. typhoons); weather conditions, however, are also highly relevant for humanitarian and disaster relief operations during and after other natural disaster like earthquakes. The internet service "Wettergefahren-Frühwarnung" (WF) <span class="hlt">provides</span> various information on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather events, especially when these events are associated with a high potential for large damage. The main focus of the platform is on Central Europe, but major events are also monitored worldwide on a daily routine. WF <span class="hlt">provides</span> high-resolution forecast maps for many weather parameters which allow detailed and reliable predictions about weather conditions during the next days in the affected areas. The WF service became operational in February 2004 and is part of the Center for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology (CEDIM) since 2007. At the end of 2011, CEDIM embarked a new type of interdisciplinary disaster research termed as forensic disaster analysis (FDA) in near real time. In case of an imminent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather event WF plays an important role in CEDIM's FDA group. It <span class="hlt">provides</span> early and precise information which are always available and updated several times during a day and gives advice and assists with articles and reports on <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=270539"><span id="translatedtitle">Will <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic events facilitate biological invasions?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events, such as intense heat waves, hurricanes, floods and droughts, can dramatically affect ecological and evolutionary processes, and more <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events are projected with ongoing climate change. However, the implications of these events for biological invasions, which themselves...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6223E..07J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6223E..07J"><span id="translatedtitle">Molecular recognition of chem/biowarfare <span class="hlt">agents</span> using micromechanical sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ji, H.-F.; Yan, X.; Lu, Y.; Du, H.; Thundat, T.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Recent terrorists events have shown that an urgent and widespread need exists for development of novel sensors for chemical and biowarfare <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The advent of inexpensive, mass-produced microcantilever sensors, promises to bring about a revolution in detection of terrorists threats. <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> sensitive chem/biosensors can be developed using microcantilever platform. Both frequency and bending of microcantilevers can be used to detect the chemical and biological species in air or solution. The specificity is achieved by immobilizing chemically-specific receptors the cantilever. This short report will give an overview of chemical/biological warfare <span class="hlt">agents</span> sensor recently developed based on microcantilevers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0328.photos.145705p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0328.photos.145705p/"><span id="translatedtitle">27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> Co., ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>27. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> County, RI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0328.photos.145706p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/ri0328.photos.145706p/"><span id="translatedtitle">28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> Co., ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>28. Yards north of Branch Avenue Bridge. <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> Co., RI. Sec. 4116, mp 186.25. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, <span class="hlt">Providence</span>, <span class="hlt">Providence</span> County, RI</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015532','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120015532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precipitation and High-Impact Landslides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirschbaum, Dalia; Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Peters-Lidard, Christa</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>It is well known that <span class="hlt">extreme</span> or prolonged rainfall is the dominant trigger of landslides; however, there remain large uncertainties in characterizing the distribution of these hazards and meteorological triggers at the global scale. Researchers have evaluated the spatiotemporal distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall and landslides at local and regional scale primarily using in situ data, yet few studies have mapped rainfall-triggered landslide distribution globally due to the dearth of landslide data and consistent precipitation information. This research uses a newly developed Global Landslide Catalog (GLC) and a 13-year satellite-based precipitation record from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data. For the first time, these two unique products <span class="hlt">provide</span> the foundation to quantitatively evaluate the co-occurence of precipitation and rainfall-triggered landslides globally. The GLC, available from 2007 to the present, contains information on reported rainfall-triggered landslide events around the world using online media reports, disaster databases, etc. When evaluating this database, we observed that 2010 had a large number of high-impact landslide events relative to previous years. This study considers how variations in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and prolonged satellite-based rainfall are related to the distribution of landslides over the same time scales for three active landslide areas: Central America, the Himalayan Arc, and central-eastern China. Several test statistics confirm that TRMM rainfall generally scales with the observed increase in landslide reports and fatal events for 2010 and previous years over each region. These findings suggest that the co-occurrence of satellite precipitation and landslide reports may serve as a valuable indicator for characterizing the spatiotemporal distribution of landslide-prone areas in order to establish a global rainfall-triggered landslide climatology. This research also considers the sources for this <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall, citing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032795&hterms=hypothesis+definition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhypothesis%2Bdefinition','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080032795&hterms=hypothesis+definition&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dhypothesis%2Bdefinition"><span id="translatedtitle">The NASA Energy and Water Cycle <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> (NEWSE) Integration Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>House, P. R.; Lapenta, W.; Schiffer, R.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Skillful predictions of water and energy cycle <span class="hlt">extremes</span> (flood and drought) are elusive. To better understand the mechanisms responsible for water and energy <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, and to make decisive progress in predicting these <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, the collaborative NASA Energy and Water cycle <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> (NEWSE) Integration Project, is studying these <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during 2006-2007, including their relationships with continental and global scale processes, and assessment of their predictability on multiple space and time scales. It is our hypothesis that an integrative analysis of observed <span class="hlt">extremes</span> which reflects the current understanding of the role of SST and soil moisture variability influences on atmospheric heating and forcing of planetary waves, incorporating recently available global and regional hydro- meteorological datasets (i.e., precipitation, water vapor, clouds, etc.) in conjunction with advances in data assimilation, can lead to new insights into the factors that lead to persistent drought and flooding. We will show initial results of this project, whose goals are to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an improved definition, attribution and prediction on sub-seasonal to interannual time scales, improved understanding of the mechanisms of decadal drought and its predictability, including the impacts of SST variability and deep soil moisture variability, and improved monitoring/attributions, with transition to applications; a bridging of the gap between hydrological forecasts and stakeholders (utilization of probabilistic forecasts, education, forecast interpretation for different sectors, assessment of uncertainties for different sectors, etc.).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U32B..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.U32B..01L"><span id="translatedtitle">Union Agency Lecture: Predicting and Managing <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lubchenco, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>From tsunamis to tornadoes to hurricanes, floods, droughts, and heat waves, 2011 has been a year of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events reminding us of the vulnerability of the nation's communities to such events and the need to enhance our ability to anticipate and mitigate impacts of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. Among its many roles, NOAA is responsible for <span class="hlt">providing</span> critical environmental intelligence to the nation. To deliver this intelligence, we observe, monitor, and forecast environmental changes, including <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events. The different time horizons for different types of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events require different observing, analytical and modeling approaches. Short-fuse events such as tornadoes, heavy rainfall, and solar storms present different challenges from those whose development can be tracked: hurricanes, droughts, heat waves, extended flooding, hypoxia, or dispersion of volcanic ash, wildfire smoke or oil following a spill. Occurrence of compound or cascading events, such as heat, drought, and poor air quality, add complexity to our ability to predict. Recent <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events not only challenge us to improve monitoring and forecasting abilities, but also to improve capabilities to deliver credible and actionable information widely. This talk discusses some of the larger scientific, technological, and social science challenges in predicting and reducing impacts from <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449.3057Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015MNRAS.449.3057Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Primordial star clusters at <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zackrisson, Erik; González, Juan; Eriksson, Simon; Asadi, Saghar; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence; Trenti, Michele; Inoue, Akio K.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Gravitationally lensed galaxies with magnification μ ≈ 10-100 are routinely detected at high redshifts, but magnifications significantly higher than this are hampered by a combination of low probability and large source sizes. Magnifications of μ ˜ 1000 may none the less be relevant in the case of intrinsically small, high-redshift objects with very high number densities. Here, we explore the prospects of detecting compact (≲10 pc), high-redshift (z ≳ 7) Population III star clusters at such <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnifications in large-area surveys with planned telescopes like Euclid, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope and Wide-field Imaging Surveyor for High-redshift (WISH). We find that the planned WISH 100 deg2 ultradeep survey may be able to detect a small number of such objects, <span class="hlt">provided</span> that the total stellar mass of these star clusters is ≳104 M⊙. If candidates for such lensed Population III star clusters are found, follow-up spectroscopy of the surrounding nebula with the James Webb Space Telescope or ground-based <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> Large Telescopes should be able to confirm the Population III nature of these objects. Multiband photometry of these objects with the James Webb Space Telescope also has the potential to confirm that the stellar initial mass function in these Population III star clusters is top-heavy, as supported by current simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CQGra..25m5005C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008CQGra..25m5005C"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiation from the non-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> fuzzball</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chowdhury, Borun D.; Mathur, Samir D.</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The fuzzball proposal says that the information of the black hole state is distributed throughout the interior of the horizon in a 'quantum fuzz'. There are special microstates where in the dual CFT we have 'many excitations in the same state'; these are described by regular classical geometries without horizons. Jejjala et al (2005 Phys. Rev. D 71 124030) constructed non-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> regular geometries of this type. Cardoso et al (2006 Phys. Rev. D 73 064031, 2007 Phys. Rev. D 76 105015) then found that these geometries had a classical instability. In this paper, we show that the energy radiated through the unstable modes is exactly the Hawking radiation for these microstates. We do this by (i) starting with the semiclassical Hawking radiation rate, (ii) using it to find the emission vertex in the CFT, (iii) replacing the Boltzman distributions of the generic CFT state with the ones describing the microstate of interest, (iv) observing that the emission now reproduces the classical instability. Because the CFT has 'many excitations in the same state' we get the physics of a Bose Einstein condensate rather than a thermal gas, and the usually slow Hawking emission increases, by Bose enhancement, to a classically radiated field. This system therefore <span class="hlt">provides</span> a complete gravity description of information-carrying radiation from a special microstate of the non-<span class="hlt">extremal</span> hole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1002825','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1002825"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Carboxylesterase 1 Stereoselectively Binds the Nerve <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Cyclosarin and Spontaneously Hydrolyzes the Nerve <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Sarin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hemmert, Andrew C.; Otto, Tamara C.; Wierdl, Monika; Edwards, Carol C.; Fleming, Christopher D.; MacDonald, Mary; Cashman, John R.; Potter, Philip M.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.; Redinbo, Matthew R.</p> <p>2010-10-28</p> <p>Organophosphorus (OP) nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> are potent toxins that inhibit cholinesterases and produce a rapid and lethal cholinergic crisis. Development of protein-based therapeutics is being pursued with the goal of preventing nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> toxicity and protecting against the long-term side effects of these <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The drug-metabolizing enzyme human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a candidate protein-based therapeutic because of its similarity in structure and function to the cholinesterase targets of nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> poisoning. However, the ability of wild-type hCE1 to process the G-type nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> sarin and cyclosarin has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of hCE1 in complex with the nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> cyclosarin. We further use stereoselective nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> analogs to establish that hCE1 exhibits a 1700- and 2900-fold preference for the P{sub R} enantiomers of analogs of soman and cyclosarin, respectively, and a 5-fold preference for the P{sub S} isomer of a sarin analog. Finally, we show that for enzyme inhibited by racemic mixtures of bona fide nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span>, hCE1 spontaneously reactivates in the presence of sarin but not soman or cyclosarin. The addition of the neutral oxime 2,3-butanedione monoxime increases the rate of reactivation of hCE1 from sarin inhibition by more than 60-fold but has no effect on reactivation with the other <span class="hlt">agents</span> examined. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hCE1 is only reactivated after inhibition with the more toxic P{sub S} isomer of sarin. These results <span class="hlt">provide</span> important insights toward the long-term goal of designing novel forms of hCE1 to act as protein-based therapeutics for nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> detoxification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2845941','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2845941"><span id="translatedtitle">Human Carboxylesterase 1 Stereoselectively Binds the Nerve <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Cyclosarin and Spontaneously Hydrolyzes the Nerve <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Sarin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hemmert, Andrew C.; Otto, Tamara C.; Wierdl, Monika; Edwards, Carol C.; Fleming, Christopher D.; MacDonald, Mary; Cashman, John R.; Potter, Philip M.; Cerasoli, Douglas M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Organophosphorus (OP) nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> are potent toxins that inhibit cholinesterases and produce a rapid and lethal cholinergic crisis. Development of protein-based therapeutics is being pursued with the goal of preventing nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> toxicity and protecting against the long-term side effects of these <span class="hlt">agents</span>. The drug-metabolizing enzyme human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) is a candidate protein-based therapeutic because of its similarity in structure and function to the cholinesterase targets of nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> poisoning. However, the ability of wild-type hCE1 to process the G-type nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span> sarin and cyclosarin has not been determined. We report the crystal structure of hCE1 in complex with the nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> cyclosarin. We further use stereoselective nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> analogs to establish that hCE1 exhibits a 1700- and 2900-fold preference for the PR enantiomers of analogs of soman and cyclosarin, respectively, and a 5-fold preference for the PS isomer of a sarin analog. Finally, we show that for enzyme inhibited by racemic mixtures of bona fide nerve <span class="hlt">agents</span>, hCE1 spontaneously reactivates in the presence of sarin but not soman or cyclosarin. The addition of the neutral oxime 2,3-butanedione monoxime increases the rate of reactivation of hCE1 from sarin inhibition by more than 60-fold but has no effect on reactivation with the other <span class="hlt">agents</span> examined. Taken together, these data demonstrate that hCE1 is only reactivated after inhibition with the more toxic PS isomer of sarin. These results <span class="hlt">provide</span> important insights toward the long-term goal of designing novel forms of hCE1 to act as protein-based therapeutics for nerve <span class="hlt">agent</span> detoxification. PMID:20051531</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25643871','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25643871"><span id="translatedtitle">Triazole: A Promising Antitubercular <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Keri, Rangappa S; Patil, Siddappa A; Budagumpi, Srinivasa; Nagaraja, Bhari Mallanna</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Tuberculosis is a contagious disease with comparatively high mortality worldwide. The statistics shows that around three million people throughout the world die annually from tuberculosis and there are around eight million new cases each year, of which developing countries showed major share. Therefore, the discovery and development of effective antituberculosis drugs with novel mechanism of action have become an insistent task for infectious diseases research programs. The literature reveals that, heterocyclic moieties have drawn attention of the chemists, pharmacologists, microbiologists, and other researchers owing to its indomitable biological potential as anti-infective <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Among heterocyclic compounds, triazole (1,2,3-triazole/1,2,4-triazole) nucleus is one of the most important and well-known heterocycles, which is a common and integral feature of a variety of natural products and medicinal <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Triazole core is considered as a privileged structure in medicinal chemistry and is widely used as 'parental' compounds to synthesize molecules with medical benefits, especially with infection-related activities. In the present review, we have collated published reports on this versatile core to <span class="hlt">provide</span> an insight so that its complete therapeutic potential can be utilized for the treatment of tuberculosis. This review also explores triazole as a potential targeted core moiety against tuberculosis and various research ongoing worldwide. It is hoped that this review will be helpful for new thoughts in the quest for rational designs of more active and less toxic triazole-based antituberculosis drugs. PMID:25643871</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679106','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26679106"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemopreventive <span class="hlt">agents</span> targeting tumor microenvironment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sharma, Sharada H; Thulasingam, Senthilkumar; Nagarajan, Sangeetha</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>Recent studies have shown that tumor development and progression depend not only on the perturbed genes that govern cell proliferation, but is also highly determined by the non-tumor cells of the stromal compartment surrounding the tumor called tumor microenvironment (TME). These findings highlight the importance of targeting the microenvironment in combination with therapies aimed at tumor cells as a valuable approach. The innate and adaptive immune cells in the TME interact among themselves and also with the endothelial cells, pericytes and mast cells of the stromal compartment through various autocrine and paracrine manner to regulate abnormal cell proliferation. Direct cytotoxic killing of cancer cells and/or reversion of the immunosuppressive TME are to be considered as better strategies for chemoprevention and chemotherapy. With a growing emphasis on a "hallmark targeting" strategy for cancer therapy, the TME now appears as a promising target for cancer prevention using natural products. Clarification on the nontumor stromal cells, the mediators involved, interactions with immune response cells, and immune-evasive mechanisms are needed in order to manipulate the characteristics of the TME by natural pharmacological <span class="hlt">agents</span> to design effective therapies. This review will <span class="hlt">provide</span> a glimpse on the roles played by various non-tumor cells in tumor progression and their intervention by pharmacological <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:26679106</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296365','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3296365"><span id="translatedtitle">A Review of Luting <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pameijer, Cornelis H.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Due to the availability of a large number of luting <span class="hlt">agents</span> (dental cements) proper selection can be a daunting task and is usually based on a practitioner's reliance on experience and preference and less on in depth knowledge of materials that are used for the restoration and luting <span class="hlt">agent</span> properties. This review aims at presenting an overview of current cements and discusses physical properties, biocompatibility and other properties that make a particular cement the preferred choice depending on the clinical indication. Tables are <span class="hlt">provided</span> that outline the different properties of the generic classification of cements. It should be noted that no recommendations are made to use a particular commercial cement for a hypothetical clinical situation. The choice is solely the responsibility of the practitioner. The appendix is intended as a guide for the practitioner towards a recommended choice under commonly encountered clinical scenarios. Again, no commercial brands are recommended although the author recognizes that some have better properties than others. Please note that this flowchart strictly presents the author's opinion and is based on research, clinical experience and the literature. PMID:22505909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430690','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430690"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamically sequencing an animated pedagogical <span class="hlt">agent</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Stone, B.A.; Lester, J.C.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p>One of the most promising opportunities introduced by rapid advances in knowledge-based learning environments and multimedia technologies is the possibility of creating animated pedagogical <span class="hlt">agents</span>. These <span class="hlt">agents</span> should exhibit three properties: timely domain coverage (they should clearly communicate fundamental concepts and relationships within the allotted time); contextuality (they should <span class="hlt">provide</span> explanations in appropriate problem-solving contexts); and continuity (their activities and utterances should be pedagogically, visually, and aurally coherent). We have developed the coherence-structured behavior space approach to creating animated pedagogical <span class="hlt">agents</span>. This is a two-step approach. First, we design a behavior space of animation and audio segments that are structured by prerequisite relationships and a continuity metric. Second, we navigate coherent paths through the space to dynamically sequence behaviors. This creates seamless global behaviors that communicate fundamental knowledge and <span class="hlt">provide</span> contextualized problem-solving advice. The coherence-structured behavior space approach has been implemented in Herman the Bug, an animated pedagogical <span class="hlt">agent</span> for Design-A-Plant, a knowledge-based learning environment for botanical anatomy and physiology. Formative evaluations of the <span class="hlt">agent</span> with middle school students are encouraging.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HEAD...1510624S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extremes</span> of Quasar Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stern, Daniel</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Variability is one of the key observational properties of quasars, and it can be used as a probe of their fueling, physics, and evolution. A new generation of synoptic sky surveys, in combination with the novel data analytics tools, offers unprecedented data sets for the studies of quasars in the time domain. I will illustrate this with examples from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS), which has an open and growing archive of 500 million light curves, including 350,000 spectroscopically confirmed quasars, with the time baselines ranging from 10 minutes to 10 years. I will discuss a new approach to discover quasars using a combination of variability and mid-IR colors from WISE, which results in a catalog of over a million quasar candidates. I will then discuss quasars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span>, anomolous light curves, including quasars that have gone through <span class="hlt">extreme</span> brightening events over the past decade with concordant large changes in their spectroscopic properties. I will also discuss a small subset of quasars with periodic light curves which we interpret as a signature of close (milliparsec scale) supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997APS..DPPhTP120M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Low Aspect Ratio Stellarators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moroz, Paul</p> <p>1997-11-01</p> <p>Recently proposed Spherical Stellarator (SS) concept [1] includes the devices with stellarator features and low aspect ratio, A <= 3.5, which is very unusual for stellarators (typical stellarators have A ≈ 7-10 or above). Strong bootstrap current and high-β equilibria are two distinguished elements of the SS concept leading to compact, steady-state, and efficient fusion reactor. Different coil configurations advantageous for the SS have been identified and analyzed [1-6]. In this report, we will present results on novel stellarator configurations which are unusual even for the SS approach. These are the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>-low-aspect-ratio-stellarators (ELARS), with the aspect ratio A ≈ 1. We succeeded in finding ELARS configurations with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> compact, modular, and simple design compatible with significant rotational transform (ι ≈ 0.1 - 0.15), large plasma volume, and good particle transport characteristics. [1] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 651 (1996); [2] P.E. Moroz, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3055 (1996); [3] P.E. Moroz, D.B. Batchelor et al., Fusion Tech. 30, 1347 (1996); [4] P.E. Moroz, Stellarator News 48, 2 (1996); [5] P.E. Moroz, Plasma Phys. Reports 23, 502 (1997); [6] P.E. Moroz, Nucl. Fusion 37, No. 8 (1997). *Supported by DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER54395.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862445','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/862445"><span id="translatedtitle">Liposome encapsulation of chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Rahman, Yueh Erh</p> <p>1976-01-13</p> <p>A method for transferring a chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> across the cellular membrane. A chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> to the interior of the cell. The released chelating <span class="hlt">agent</span> will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJSyS..47.2510J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJSyS..47.2510J"><span id="translatedtitle">Output regulation of switched linear multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems: an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-dependent average dwell time method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jia, Hongwei; Zhao, Jun</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The output regulation problem of switched linear multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems with stabilisable and unstabilisable subsystems is investigated in this paper. A sufficient condition for the solvability of the problem is given. Owing to the characteristics of switched multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems, even if each <span class="hlt">agent</span> has its own dwell time, the multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems, if viewed as an overall switched system, may not have a dwell time. To overcome this difficulty, we present a new approach, called an <span class="hlt">agent</span>-dependent average dwell time method. Due to the limited information exchange between <span class="hlt">agents</span>, a distributed dynamic observer network for <span class="hlt">agents</span> is <span class="hlt">provided</span>. Further, a distributed dynamic controller based on observer is designed. Finally, simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..1113664W"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and <span class="hlt">extremes</span> over southern Africa: Assessment of a climate model to reproduce daily <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Williams, C. J. R.; Kniveton, D. R.; Layberry, R.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>It is increasingly accepted that that any possible climate change will not only have an influence on mean climate but may also significantly alter climatic variability. A change in the distribution and magnitude of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events (associated with changing variability), such as droughts or flooding, may have a far greater impact on human and natural systems than a changing mean. This issue is of particular importance for environmentally vulnerable regions such as southern Africa. The subcontinent is considered especially vulnerable to and ill-equipped (in terms of adaptation) for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, due to a number of factors including extensive poverty, famine, disease and political instability. Rainfall variability and the identification of rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a function of scale, so high spatial and temporal resolution data are preferred to identify <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and accurately predict future variability. The majority of previous climate model verification studies have compared model output with observational data at monthly timescales. In this research, the assessment of ability of a state of the art climate model to simulate climate at daily timescales is carried out using satellite derived rainfall data from the Microwave Infra-Red Algorithm (MIRA). This dataset covers the period from 1993-2002 and the whole of southern Africa at a spatial resolution of 0.1 degree longitude/latitude. The ability of a climate model to simulate current climate <span class="hlt">provides</span> some indication of how much confidence can be applied to its future predictions. In this paper, simulations of current climate from the UK Meteorological Office Hadley Centre's climate model, in both regional and global mode, are firstly compared to the MIRA dataset at daily timescales. This concentrates primarily on the ability of the model to simulate the spatial and temporal patterns of rainfall variability over southern Africa. Secondly, the ability of the model to reproduce daily rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> will</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC13C..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">Need for Caution in Interpreting <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Weather Statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sardeshmukh, P. D.; Compo, G. P.; Penland, M. C.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Given the substantial anthropogenic contribution to 20th century global warming, it is tempting to seek an anthropogenic component in any unusual recent weather event, or more generally in any observed change in the statistics of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather. This study cautions that such detection and attribution efforts may, however, very likely lead to wrong conclusions if the non-Gaussian aspects of the probability distributions of observed daily atmospheric variations, especially their skewness and heavy tails, are not explicitly taken into account. Departures of three or more standard deviations from the mean, although rare, are far more common in such a non-Gaussian world than they are in a Gaussian world. This exacerbates the already difficult problem of establishing the significance of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value probabilities from historical climate records of limited length, using either raw histograms or Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV) distributions fitted to the sample <span class="hlt">extreme</span> values. A possible solution is suggested by the fact that the non-Gaussian aspects of the observed distributions are well captured by a general class of "Stochastically Generated Skewed distributions" (SGS distributions) recently introduced in the meteorological literature by Sardeshmukh and Sura (J. Climate 2009). These distributions arise from simple modifications to a red noise process and reduce to Gaussian distributions under appropriate limits. As such, they represent perhaps the simplest physically based non-Gaussian prototypes of the distributions of daily atmospheric variations. Fitting such SGS distributions to all (not just the <span class="hlt">extreme</span>) values in 25, 50, or 100-yr daily records also yields corresponding <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions that are much less prone to sampling uncertainty than GEV distributions. For both of the above reasons, SGS distributions <span class="hlt">provide</span> an attractive alternative for assessing the significance of changes in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> weather statistics (including changes in the</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JGRD..121.7746G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of WRF <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily precipitation over Alaska using self-organizing maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glisan, Justin M.; Gutowski, William J.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.; Seefeldt, Mark W.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>We analyze daily precipitation <span class="hlt">extremes</span> from simulations of a polar-optimized version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Simulations cover 19 years and use the Regional Arctic System Model (RASM) domain. We focus on Alaska because of its proximity to the Pacific and Arctic oceans; both <span class="hlt">provide</span> large moisture fetch inland. Alaska's topography also has important impacts on orographically forced precipitation. We use self-organizing maps (SOMs) to understand circulation characteristics conducive for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events. The SOM algorithm employs an artificial neural network that uses an unsupervised training process, which results in finding general patterns of circulation behavior. The SOM is trained with mean sea level pressure (MSLP) anomalies. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, defined as at least 25 grid points experiencing 99th percentile precipitation, are examined using SOMs. Widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days are mapped onto the SOM of MSLP anomalies, indicating circulation patterns. SOMs aid in determining high-frequency nodes, and hence, circulations are conducive to <span class="hlt">extremes</span>. Multiple circulation patterns are responsible for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> days, which are differentiated by where <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events occur in Alaska. Additionally, several meteorological fields are composited for nodes accessed by <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and nonextreme events to determine specific conditions necessary for a widespread <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event. Individual and adjacent node composites produce more physically reasonable circulations as opposed to composites of all <span class="hlt">extremes</span>, which include multiple synoptic regimes. Temporal evolution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events is also traced through SOM space. Thus, this analysis lays the groundwork for diagnosing differences in atmospheric circulations and their associated widespread, <span class="hlt">extreme</span> precipitation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=agents+AND+health&pg=6&id=EJ662054','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=agents+AND+health&pg=6&id=EJ662054"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical Education as an <span class="hlt">Agent</span> of Change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Corbin, Charles B.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Makes a case for establishing clear common objectives for physical education (PE) that can <span class="hlt">provide</span> the basis for future action, suggesting that PE has much to offer society and can be an effective change <span class="hlt">agent</span>--especially in promoting public health. The paper outlines common objectives for PE and suggestions for change in the schools, colleges and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=real+AND+estate+AND+broker&pg=2&id=ED201857','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=real+AND+estate+AND+broker&pg=2&id=ED201857"><span id="translatedtitle">Competency Based Curriculum for Real Estate <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCloy, Robert J.</p> <p></p> <p>This publication is a curriculum and teaching guide for preparing real estate <span class="hlt">agents</span> in the state of West Virginia. The guide contains 30 units, or lessons. Each lesson is designed to cover three to five hours of instruction time. Competencies <span class="hlt">provided</span> for each lesson are stated in terms of what the student should be able to do as a result of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+marketing+AND+strategy&pg=4&id=EJ312412','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=developing+AND+marketing+AND+strategy&pg=4&id=EJ312412"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond Needs Assessments: Marketing as Change <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Piland, William E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Views marketing techniques as <span class="hlt">agents</span> of change <span class="hlt">providing</span> valuable assistance to community college decision makers. Discusses the importance of a balance among the four P's of marketing (i.e., promotion, price, place, and product); and seven procedural steps in developing a sound marketing strategy. (DMM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000185','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19670000185"><span id="translatedtitle">Xenon fluorides show potential as fluorinating <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chernick, C. L.; Shieh, T. C.; Yang, N. C.</p> <p>1967-01-01</p> <p>Xenon fluorides permit the controlled addition of fluorine across an olefinic double bond. They <span class="hlt">provide</span> a series of fluorinating <span class="hlt">agents</span> that permit ready separation from the product at a high purity. The reactions may be carried out in the vapor phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=child+AND+sponsorship&pg=3&id=EJ554342','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=child+AND+sponsorship&pg=3&id=EJ554342"><span id="translatedtitle">Smart Questions To Ask Your Insurance <span class="hlt">Agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cohen, Abby J.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Provides</span> advice on insurance coverage for child care centers. Suggests that before purchasing insurance you inquire about the <span class="hlt">agent</span>'s qualifications, company's financial stability, and corporate ratings; and obtain written answers to questions about specific coverage issues such as volunteers, legal defense costs, special events, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006098','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160006098"><span id="translatedtitle">Collaborating with Autonomous <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous <span class="hlt">agent</span> must be at a level that the operator needs and the <span class="hlt">agents</span> can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous <span class="hlt">agent</span> which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4382252','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4382252"><span id="translatedtitle">Pharmacologic <span class="hlt">agents</span> targeting autophagy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic <span class="hlt">agents</span> targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/795033','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/795033"><span id="translatedtitle">E-laboratories : <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based modeling of electricity markets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>North, M.; Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Macal, C.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.</p> <p>2002-05-03</p> <p>Electricity markets are complex adaptive systems that operate under a wide range of rules that span a variety of time scales. These rules are imposed both from above by society and below by physics. Many electricity markets are undergoing or are about to undergo a transition from centrally regulated systems to decentralized markets. Furthermore, several electricity markets have recently undergone this transition with <span class="hlt">extremely</span> unsatisfactory results, most notably in California. These high stakes transitions require the introduction of largely untested regulatory structures. Suitable laboratories that can be used to test regulatory structures before they are applied to real systems are needed. <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based models can <span class="hlt">provide</span> such electronic laboratories or ''e-laboratories.'' To better understand the requirements of an electricity market e-laboratory, a live electricity market simulation was created. This experience helped to shape the development of the Electricity Market Complex Adaptive Systems (EMCAS) model. To explore EMCAS' potential as an e-laboratory, several variations of the live simulation were created. These variations probed the possible effects of changing power plant outages and price setting rules on electricity market prices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047029"><span id="translatedtitle">A Hybrid Sensitivity Analysis Approach for <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based Disease Spread Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pullum, Laura L; Cui, Xiaohui</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based models (ABM) have been widely deployed in different fields for studying the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Of particular interest lately is the application of <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based and hybrid models to epidemiology, specifically <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based Disease Spread Models (ABDSM). Validation (one aspect of the means to achieve dependability) of ABDSM simulation models is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important. It ensures that the right model has been built and lends confidence to the use of that model to inform critical decisions. In this report, we describe our preliminary efforts in ABDSM validation by using hybrid model fusion technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25960316','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25960316"><span id="translatedtitle">A signal processing application for evaluating self-monitoring blood glucose strategies in a software <span class="hlt">agent</span> model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Zhanle; Paranjape, Raman</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We propose the signal processing technique of calculating a cross-correlation function and an average deviation between the continuous blood glucose and the interpolation of limited blood glucose samples to evaluate blood glucose monitoring frequency in a self-aware patient software <span class="hlt">agent</span> model. The diabetic patient software <span class="hlt">agent</span> model [1] is a 24-h circadian, self-aware, stochastic model of a diabetic patient's blood glucose levels in a software <span class="hlt">agent</span> environment. The purpose of this work is to apply a signal processing technique to assist patients and physicians in understanding the extent of a patient's illness using a limited number of blood glucose samples. A second purpose of this work is to determine an appropriate blood glucose monitoring frequency in order to have a minimum number of samples taken that still <span class="hlt">provide</span> a good understanding of the patient's blood glucose levels. For society in general, the monitoring cost of diabetes is an <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important issue, and these costs can vary tremendously depending on monitoring approaches and monitoring frequencies. Due to the cost and discomfort associated with blood glucose monitoring, today, patients expect monitoring frequencies specific to their health profile. The proposed method quantitatively assesses various monitoring protocols (from 6 times per day to 1 time per week) in nine predefined categories of patient <span class="hlt">agents</span> in terms of risk factors of health status and age. Simulation results show that sampling 6 times per day is excessive, and not necessary for understanding the dynamics of the continuous signal in the experiments. In addition, patient <span class="hlt">agents</span> in certain conditions only need to sample their blood glucose 1 time per week to have a good understanding of the characteristics of their blood glucose. Finally, an evaluation scenario is developed to visualize this concept, in which appropriate monitoring frequencies are shown based on the particular conditions of patient <span class="hlt">agents</span>. This base line can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757173','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26757173"><span id="translatedtitle">Biotherapeutic <span class="hlt">agents</span> and vaginal health.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Al-Ghazzewi, F H; Tester, R F</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Treatment of vaginal infection requires different drugs although the recurrence rate post treatment remains high due to adverse effects on the beneficial microbiota. Thus, there are clear clinical advantages for the use of biotherapeutic <span class="hlt">agents</span> (prebiotics and/or probiotics) for treating these infections. Pre- and probiotic beneficial effects can be delivered topically or systemically. In general, both approaches have the potential to optimize, maintain and restore the ecology of the vaginal ecosystem. Specific carbohydrates <span class="hlt">provide</span> a therapeutic approach for controlling infections by stimulating the growth of the indigenous lactobacilli but inhibiting the growth and adhesion of pathogens to the vaginal epithelial cells. Overall, little evidence exists to promote the prevention or treatment of vaginal disease with prebiotic carbohydrates in formulations such as pessaries, creams or douches. However, recent reports have promoted prebiotic applications in ecosystems other than the gut and include the mouth, skin and vagina. This review focuses on the utilization of pre- and probiotics for vaginal health. PMID:26757173</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17060232','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17060232"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> arterial combat injury management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Michael A; Fox, Charles J; Adams, Eric; Rice, Rob D; Quan, Reagan; Cox, Mitchell W; Gillespie, David L</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Traumatic hemorrhage and vascular injury management have been concerns for both civilian and military physicians. During the 20th century, advances in technique allowed surgeons to focus on vascular repair, restoration of perfusion, limb salvage, and life preservation. Military surgeons such as Makins, DeBakey, Hughes, Rich, and others made significant contributions to the field of surgery in general and vascular surgery in particular. Casualties from combat in Afghanistan and Iraq confront physicians and surgeons with devastating injuries. The current generation of <span class="hlt">providers</span> is challenged with applying contemporary care while expanding upon the lessons taught by our predecessors. The objective of this report is to review the historical experience with managing military upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> arterial injuries and compare that experience with current management. PMID:17060232</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1185971','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1185971"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-scale Lustre Toolkit</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brim, Michael J; Lothian, Josh</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We discuss the design and ongoing development of the Monitoring <span class="hlt">Extreme</span>-scale Lustre Toolkit (MELT), a unified Lustre performance monitoring and analysis infrastructure that <span class="hlt">provides</span> continuous, low-overhead summary information on the health and performance of Lustre, as well as on-demand, in-depth problem diagnosis and root-cause analysis. The MELT infrastructure leverages a distributed overlay network to enable monitoring of center-wide Lustre filesystems where clients are located across many network domains. We preview interactive command-line utilities that help administrators and users to observe Lustre performance at various levels of resolution, from individual servers or clients to whole filesystems, including job-level reporting. Finally, we discuss our future plans for automating the root-cause analysis of common Lustre performance problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15336751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15336751"><span id="translatedtitle">CT angiography in complex upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> reconstruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bogdan, M A; Klein, M B; Rubin, G D; McAdams, T R; Chang, J</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>Computed tomography angiography is a new technique that <span class="hlt">provides</span> high-resolution, three-dimensional vascular imaging as well as excellent bone and soft tissue spatial relationships. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of computed tomography angiography in planning upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> reconstruction. Seventeen computed tomography angiograms were obtained in 14 patients over a 20-month period. All studies were obtained on an outpatient basis with contrast administered through a peripheral vein. All the studies demonstrated the pertinent anatomy and the intraoperative findings were as demonstrated in all cases. Information from two studies significantly altered pre-operative planning. The average charge for computed tomography angiography was 1,140 dollars, compared to 3,900 dollars for traditional angiography. PMID:15336751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/15004429"><span id="translatedtitle">Wavefront Control for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Adaptive Optics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Poyneer, L A</p> <p>2003-07-16</p> <p>Current plans for <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Adaptive Optics systems place challenging requirements on wave-front control. This paper focuses on control system dynamics, wave-front sensing and wave-front correction device characteristics. It may be necessary to run an ExAO system after a slower, low-order AO system. Running two independent systems can result in very good temporal performance, <span class="hlt">provided</span> specific design constraints are followed. The spatially-filtered wave-front sensor, which prevents aliasing and improves PSF sensitivity, is summarized. Different models of continuous and segmented deformable mirrors are studied. In a noise-free case, a piston-tip-tilt segmented MEMS device can achieve nearly equivalent performance to a continuous-sheet DM in compensating for a static phase aberration with use of spatial filtering.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25060174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25060174"><span id="translatedtitle">An enzymatic approach to bifunctional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Minazzi, Paolo; Lattuada, Luciano; Menegotto, Ivan G; Giovenzana, Giovanni B</p> <p>2014-09-21</p> <p>Bifunctional chelating <span class="hlt">agents</span> (BFCAs) combine the complexing properties of a multidentate ligand with the presence of a free reactive functional group, mainly devoted to conjugation purposes. Indeed, products obtained by conjugation of a BFCA to a biomolecule and coordination of a suitable metal ion are widely applied in medicine nowadays as diagnostic and therapeutic <span class="hlt">agents</span>. BFCAs are generally prepared through multi-step syntheses and with extensive application of protection-deprotection strategies, due to the large number of functional groups involved. Hydrolytic enzymes, with their unique chemoselectivity, <span class="hlt">provided</span> the best results in the preparation of three different BFCAs based on very useful and well known ligand platforms. PMID:25060174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1189918"><span id="translatedtitle">Skeletal fluorosis in immobilized <span class="hlt">extremities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rosenquist, J B</p> <p>1975-11-01</p> <p>The effect of immobilization on skeletal fluorosis was studied in growing rabbits. One hind leg was immobilized by an external fixation device extending below the wrist joint and above the knee joint, the <span class="hlt">extremity</span> being in a straight position after severance of the sciatic nerve. The animals, aged 7 weeks at the beginning of the experiment, were given 10 mg of fluoride per kg body weight and day during 12 weeks. In the tibiae, development of the skeletal fluorosis was more irregular than that observed in previous studies of normally active animals, being most excessive in the mobile bone. The immobilization effect was most profound in the femora as the cortical thickness and the femur score were significantly higher than those in the mobile femora. It was suggested that an altered muscular activity was the reason for the observed changes. PMID:1189918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24852546"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael; Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl4 were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl4 above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl4 using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl4+ hν → C + 2Cl2. PMID:24852546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013xmm..prop..179B"><span id="translatedtitle">Observing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> SFXTs with XMM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bozzo, Enrico</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We propose a 130 ks-long XMM-Newton observation of the most <span class="hlt">extreme</span> among the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient, IGR J17544 2619, to unveil the mechanism regulating the unique behavior of these objects in the X-ray domain. This deep observation with XMM will secure: (i) enough sensitivity to study with the required accuracy soft spectral components, which are the most reliable tracers of the donor wind structure and can be used to efficiently probe the accretion flow geometry in wind-fed systems; (ii) catch at least one bright burst and 7-10 smaller flares, permitting an accurate spectral and statistical analysis of the triggering mechanism; (iii) measure pulsations down to pulsed fractions of 4-5% and spin periods of 3-4 ks, expected for magnetars in binaries.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23101609"><span id="translatedtitle">Advances in upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prosthetics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>Until recently, upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image. PMID:23101609</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EOSTr..93..194B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Weather <span class="hlt">extremes</span> could affect agriculture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Balcerak, Ernie</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22254855"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon tetrachloride under <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pravica, Michael Sneed, Daniel; Wang, Yonggang; Smith, Quinlan; Subrahmanyam, Garimella</p> <p>2014-05-21</p> <p>We report on three experiments on carbon tetrachloride subjected to <span class="hlt">extreme</span> conditions. In the first experiment, Raman spectra of CCl{sub 4} were acquired up to 28 GPa. Evidence was observed for at least two new phases of CCl{sub 4} above 14 GPa (phase VI) and above 22 GPa (phase VII). Decompression of the sample showed no evidence of pressure-induced decomposition. In the second experiment, a synchrotron x-ray diffraction study was performed up to 30 GPa verifying phase V and potential phases above 14 (VI) and 22 GPa (VII), respectively. In the third study, we examined irradiated CCl{sub 4} using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy to reduce fluorescent contamination. Some sort of carbon allotrope appears as a byproduct suggesting the following reaction with hard x-rays: CCl{sub 4}+ hν → C + 2Cl{sub 2}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhA...49oLT01E"><span id="translatedtitle">Zipf law: an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eliazar, Iddo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> value theory (EVT) asserts that the Fréchet law emerges universally from linearly scaled maxima of collections of independent and identically distributed random variables that are positive-valued. Observations of many real-world sizes, e.g. city-sizes, give rise to the Zipf law: if we rank the sizes decreasingly, and plot the log-sizes versus the log-ranks, then an affine line emerges. In this paper we present an EVT approach to the Zipf law. Specifically, we establish that whenever the Fréchet law emerges from the EVT setting, then the Zipf law follows. The EVT generation of the Zipf law, its universality, and its associated phase transition, are analyzed and described in detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7965V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> solar energetic particle events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Properties of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20861339"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Mitchell, M. D.; Chandler, K. M.; Douglass, J. D.; McBride, R. D.; Jackson, D. P.; Hammer, D. A.</p> <p>2006-10-15</p> <p>A new configuration for a two-dimensional (2D) imaging x-ray spectrograph based on a conically bent crystal is introduced: <span class="hlt">extreme</span> luminosity imaging conical spectrograph (ELICS). The ELICS configuration has important advantages over spectrographs that are based on cylindrically and spherically bent crystals. The main advantages are that a wide variety of large-aperture crystals can be used, and any desired magnification in the spatial direction (the direction orthogonal to spectral dispersion) can be achieved by the use of different experimental arrangements. The ELICS can be set up so that the detector plane is almost perpendicular to the incident rays, a good configuration for time-resolved spectroscopy. ELICSs with mica crystals of 45x90 mm{sup 2} aperture have been successfully used for imaging on the XP and COBRA pulsed power generators, yielding spectra with spatial resolution in 2D of Z pinches and X pinches.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21313993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21313993"><span id="translatedtitle">Cleaning <span class="hlt">agents</span> and asthma.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Quirce, S; Barranco, P</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline <span class="hlt">agents</span> (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning <span class="hlt">agents</span>. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity. PMID:21313993</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2076W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JPhCS.415a2076W"><span id="translatedtitle">Holograms as Teaching <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Robin A.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching <span class="hlt">agents</span>, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as <span class="hlt">agents</span> (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3354372"><span id="translatedtitle">Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> deep vein thrombosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Saseedharan, Sanjith; Bhargava, Sunil</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>A 56-year-old female, recently (3 months) diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD), on maintenance dialysis through jugular hemodialysis lines with a preexisting nonfunctional mature AV fistula made at diagnosis of CKD, presented to the hospital for a peritoneal dialysis line. The recently inserted indwelling dialysis catheter in left internal jugular vein had no flow on hemodialysis as was the right-sided catheter which was removed a day before insertion of the left-sided line. The left-sided line was removed and a femoral hemodialysis line was cannulated for maintenance hemodialysis, and the next day, a peritoneal catheter was inserted in the operation theater. However, 3 days later, there was progressive painful swelling of the left hand and redness with minimal numbness. The radial artery pulsations were felt. There was also massive edema of forearm, arm and shoulder region on the left side. Doppler indicated a steal phenomena due to a hyperfunctioning AV fistula for which a fistula closure was done. Absence of relief of edema prompted a further computed tomography (CT) angiogram (since it was not possible to evaluate the more proximal venous segments due to edema and presence of clavicle). Ct angiogram revealed central vein thrombosis for which catheter-directed thrombolysis and venoplasty was done resulting in complete resolution of signs and symptoms. Upper <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT (UEDVT) is a very less studied topic as compared to lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> DVT and the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities still have substantial areas that need to be studied. We present a review of the present literature including incidences, diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for this entity. Data Sources: MEDLINE, MICROMEDEX, The Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews from 1950 through March 2011. PMID:22624098</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6750214','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6750214"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface treatment <span class="hlt">agents</span> for protection of shorelines from oil spills. Final report 1975-79</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Foget, C.R.; Castle, R.W.; Naughton, S.; Sartor, J.D.; Miller, M.</p> <p>1984-04-01</p> <p>A literature review and laboratory tests were conducted to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a basis for analyzing the results of previous tests on surface treatment <span class="hlt">agents</span>, compare <span class="hlt">agent</span> effectiveness, and recommend <span class="hlt">agents</span> for preliminary field tests. The surface treatment <span class="hlt">agents</span> evaluated during the preliminary tests were film-forming <span class="hlt">agents</span>, dispersing <span class="hlt">agents</span>, and a surface collecting <span class="hlt">agent</span>. From the results of these tests, two film-forming <span class="hlt">agents</span>, polyvinyl acetate and xanthan gum, a surface collecting <span class="hlt">agent</span>, and a flowing film of water were recommended and tested during full-scale field tests at Sewaren Beach, New Jersey. The results of the full-scale field tests showed that polyvinyl acetate <span class="hlt">provided</span> both beach and marsh test plots with the most effective long-term protection. The toxic effects of the various <span class="hlt">agents</span> on the Eastern Blue Crab and cord grass (Spartina foliosa) were also evaluated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IAUS..293..403S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014IAUS..293..403S"><span id="translatedtitle">Single Mode, <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Precision Doppler Spectrographs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schwab, Christian; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Betters, Christopher H.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Mahadevan, Suvrath</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The `holy grail' of exoplanet research today is the detection of an earth-like planet: a rocky planet in the habitable zone around a main-sequence star. <span class="hlt">Extremely</span> precise Doppler spectroscopy is an indispensable tool to find and characterize earth-like planets; however, to find these planets around solar-type stars, we need nearly one order of magnitude better radial velocity (RV) precision than the best current spectrographs <span class="hlt">provide</span>. Recent developments in astrophotonics (Bland-Hawthorn & Horton 2006, Bland-Hawthorn et al. 2010) and adaptive optics (AO) enable single mode fiber (SMF) fed, high resolution spectrographs, which can realize the next step in precision. SMF feeds have intrinsic advantages over multimode fiber or slit coupled spectrographs: The intensity distribution at the fiber exit is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> stable, and as a result the line spread function of a well-designed spectrograph is fully decoupled from input coupling conditions, like guiding or seeing variations (Ihle et al. 2010). Modal noise, a limiting factor in current multimode fiber fed instruments (Baudrand & Walker 2001), can be eliminated by proper design, and the diffraction limited input to the spectrograph allows for very compact instrument designs, which <span class="hlt">provide</span> excellent optomechanical stability. A SMF is the ideal interface for new, very precise wavelength calibrators, like laser frequency combs (Steinmetz et al. 2008, Osterman et al. 2012), or SMF based Fabry-Perot Etalons (Halverson et al. 2013). At near infrared wavelengths, these technologies are ready to be implemented in on-sky instruments, or already in use. We discuss a novel concept for such a spectrograph.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430635','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/430635"><span id="translatedtitle">Learning models of intelligent <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.</p> <p>1996-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Agents</span> that operate in a multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other <span class="hlt">agents</span> involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among <span class="hlt">agents</span> is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the <span class="hlt">agents</span>` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that <span class="hlt">agents</span>` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an <span class="hlt">agent</span> should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963726','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/963726"><span id="translatedtitle">Flexible, secure <span class="hlt">agent</span> development framework</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Goldsmith; Steven Y.</p> <p>2009-04-07</p> <p>While an <span class="hlt">agent</span> generator is generating an intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span>, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the <span class="hlt">agent</span> generator on the data processing platform. The <span class="hlt">agent</span> generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an <span class="hlt">agent</span> substrate, thereby creating a development <span class="hlt">agent</span> with code development capabilities. While an intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263422','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1263422"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">extremal</span> ${\\mathcal{N}}=2$ superconformal field theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Nathan; Dyer, Ethan; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kachru, Shamit</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Here, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> an example of an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> chiral ${\\mathcal{N}}$ = 2 superconformal field theory at c = 24. The construction is based on a ${{\\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$ orbifold of the theory associated to the ${A}_{1}^{24}$ Niemeier lattice. The statespace is governed by representations of the sporadic group M 23.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263422-extremal-mathcal-superconformal-field-theory','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1263422-extremal-mathcal-superconformal-field-theory"><span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">extremal</span> $${\\mathcal{N}}=2$$ superconformal field theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Benjamin, Nathan; Dyer, Ethan; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kachru, Shamit</p> <p>2015-11-16</p> <p>Here, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> an example of an <span class="hlt">extremal</span> chiralmore » $${\\mathcal{N}}$$ = 2 superconformal field theory at c = 24. The construction is based on a $${{\\mathbb{Z}}}_{2}$$ orbifold of the theory associated to the $${A}_{1}^{24}$$ Niemeier lattice. The statespace is governed by representations of the sporadic group M 23.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971937','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/971937"><span id="translatedtitle">Tutorial on <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based modeling and simulation. Part 2 : how to model with <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Macal, C. M.; North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) is a new approach to modeling systems comprised of interacting autonomous <span class="hlt">agents</span>. ABMS promises to have far-reaching effects on the way that businesses use computers to support decision-making and researchers use electronic laboratories to do research. Some have gone so far as to contend that ABMS is a new way of doing science. Computational advances make possible a growing number of <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based applications across many fields. Applications range from modeling <span class="hlt">agent</span> behavior in the stock market and supply chains, to predicting the spread of epidemics and the threat of bio-warfare, from modeling the growth and decline of ancient civilizations to modeling the complexities of the human immune system, and many more. This tutorial describes the foundations of ABMS, identifies ABMS toolkits and development methods illustrated through a supply chain example, and <span class="hlt">provides</span> thoughts on the appropriate contexts for ABMS versus conventional modeling techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhRvX...4c1002P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014PhRvX...4c1002P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum Speedup for Active Learning <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Paparo, Giuseppe Davide; Dunjko, Vedran; Makmal, Adi; Martin-Delgado, Miguel Angel; Briegel, Hans J.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>Can quantum mechanics help us build intelligent learning <span class="hlt">agents</span>? A defining signature of intelligent behavior is the capacity to learn from experience. However, a major bottleneck for <span class="hlt">agents</span> to learn in real-life situations is the size and complexity of the corresponding task environment. Even in a moderately realistic environment, it may simply take too long to rationally respond to a given situation. If the environment is impatient, allowing only a certain time for a response, an <span class="hlt">agent</span> may then be unable to cope with the situation and to learn at all. Here, we show that quantum physics can help and <span class="hlt">provide</span> a quadratic speedup for active learning as a genuine problem of artificial intelligence. This result will be particularly relevant for applications involving complex task environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230912','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230912"><span id="translatedtitle">NISAC <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Based Laboratory for Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Downes, Paula; Davis, Chris; Eidson, Eric; Ehlen, Mark; Gieseler, Charles; Harris, Richard</p> <p>2006-10-11</p> <p>The software <span class="hlt">provides</span> large-scale microeconomic simulation of complex economic and social systems (such as supply chain and market dynamics of businesses in the US economy) and their dependence on physical infrastructure systems. The system is based on <span class="hlt">Agent</span> simulation, where each entity of inteest in the system to be modeled (for example, a Bank, individual firms, Consumer households, etc.) is specified in a data-driven sense to be individually repreented by an <span class="hlt">Agent</span>. The <span class="hlt">Agents</span> interact using rules of interaction appropriate to their roles, and through those interactions complex economic and social dynamics emerge. The software is implemented in three tiers, a Java-based visualization client, a C++ control mid-tier, and a C++ computational tier.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230912-nisac-agent-based-laboratory-economics','SCIGOV-ESTSC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1230912-nisac-agent-based-laboratory-economics"><span id="translatedtitle">NISAC <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Based Laboratory for Economics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href=""></a></p> <p></p> <p>2006-10-11</p> <p>The software <span class="hlt">provides</span> large-scale microeconomic simulation of complex economic and social systems (such as supply chain and market dynamics of businesses in the US economy) and their dependence on physical infrastructure systems. The system is based on <span class="hlt">Agent</span> simulation, where each entity of inteest in the system to be modeled (for example, a Bank, individual firms, Consumer households, etc.) is specified in a data-driven sense to be individually repreented by an <span class="hlt">Agent</span>. The <span class="hlt">Agents</span> interactmore » using rules of interaction appropriate to their roles, and through those interactions complex economic and social dynamics emerge. The software is implemented in three tiers, a Java-based visualization client, a C++ control mid-tier, and a C++ computational tier.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6986439','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6986439"><span id="translatedtitle">Methodology for estimating <span class="hlt">extreme</span> winds for probabilistic risk assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ramsdell, J.V.; Elliott, D.L.; Holladay, C.G.; Hubbe, J.M.</p> <p>1986-10-01</p> <p>The US Nuclear Reguulatory Commission (NRC) assesses the risks associated with nuclear faciliies using techniques that fall under a generic name of Probabilistic Risk Assessment. In these assessments, potential accident sequences are traced from initiating event to final outcome. At each step of the sequence, a probability of occurrence is assigned to each available alternative. Ultimately, the probability of occurrence of each possible outcome is determined from the probabilities assigned to the initiating events and the alternative paths. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> winds are considered in these sequences. As a result, it is necessary to estimate <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind probabilities as low as 10/sup -7/yr/sup -1/. When the NRC staff is called on to <span class="hlt">provide</span> <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind estimates, the staff is likely to be subjected to external time and funding constraints. These constraints dictate that the estimates be based on readily available wind data. In general, readily available data will be limited to the data <span class="hlt">provided</span> by the facility applicant or licensee and the data archived at the National Climatic Data Center in Asheville, North Carolina. This report describes readily available data that can be used in estimating <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind probabilities, procedures of screening the data to eliminate erroneous values and for adjusting data to compensate for differences in data collection methods, and statistical methods for making <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind estimates. Supporting technical details are presented in several appendices. Estimation of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> wind probabilities at a given location involves many subjective decisions. The procedures described do not eliminate all of the subjectivity, but they do increase the reproducibility of the analysis. They <span class="hlt">provide</span> consistent methods for determining probabilities given a set of subjective decisions. By following these procedures, subjective decisions can be identified and documented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16267719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16267719"><span id="translatedtitle">Nonantimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> in the prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ericsson, Charles D</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Among the nonantimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> that are available and useful for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea are bismuth subsalicylate-containing preparations, which can <span class="hlt">provide</span> a rate of protection of up to 65% when taken 4 times daily. In one study, the probiotic Lactobacillus GG was found to <span class="hlt">provide</span> 49% protection against traveler's diarrhea, but results with this <span class="hlt">agent</span> and other probiotics have been highly variable and geographically inconsistent. Tannin albuminate plus ethacridine lactate <span class="hlt">provided</span> 36% protection, but it is not widely available. Among the nonantimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span> that are available and useful for the treatment of traveler's diarrhea are bismuth subsalicylate-containing preparations, which reduce the passage of loose stools by 16%-18%. The antisecretory and antimotility <span class="hlt">agent</span> loperamide reduces the passage of loose stools by approximately 50% and has been especially useful, in combination with antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span>, in reducing the total duration of posttreatment diarrhea to a matter of hours. PMID:16267719</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/976293"><span id="translatedtitle">Software <span class="hlt">agent</span> technology in the laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Staab, T. A.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The IT (Information Technology) environment in today's laboratories is characterized as being highly distributed, heterogeneous, and in some instances <span class="hlt">extremely</span> dynamic. Larger organizations have to deal with hundreds of different systems, ranging from standalone workstations and devices in laboratories to fully integrated LIMS (Laboratory Information Management System) and ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) systems. An information system operating in such an environment must handle several emerging problems, such as heterogeneous hardware and software platforms, as well as distributed information sources and capabilities. It is also expected that the IT infrastructure scales well, easily integrates with legacy systems, allows resource sharing, and supports day-to-day operations such as information retrieval, data storage, validation, tracking, replication, and archival in a fully automated fashion. By using real-world examples, this presentation will illustrate how software <span class="hlt">agent</span> technology can be used to manage the ever increasing IT complexity and user demands in the laboratory of the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=358131','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=358131"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial <span class="hlt">agents</span>, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The <span class="hlt">agents</span> are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ983643.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ983643.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effects of Animated <span class="hlt">Agents</span> on Students' Achievement and Attitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Unal-Colak, Figen; Ozan, Ozlem</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Animated <span class="hlt">agents</span> are electronic <span class="hlt">agents</span> that interact with learners through voice, visuals or text and that carry human-like characteristics such as gestures and facial expressions with the purpose of creating a social learning environment, and <span class="hlt">provide</span> information and guidance and when required feedback and motivation to students during their…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=56309&keyword=terrorism&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76675270&CFTOKEN=22231512','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=56309&keyword=terrorism&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76675270&CFTOKEN=22231512"><span id="translatedtitle">SURVIVABILITY OF BIOLOGICAL WARFARE <span class="hlt">AGENTS</span> IN MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To tests and <span class="hlt">provide</span> a comprehensive, integrated list of survival rates of biological warfare <span class="hlt">agents</span>' survival of landfill conditions.<br>Research into the permanence of the final disposal contaminated building debris of the inactivated or active <span class="hlt">agent</span> of terrorism is being exam...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title5-vol1-sec582-201.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title5-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title5-vol1-sec582-201.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">5 CFR 582.201 - <span class="hlt">Agent</span> to receive process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Agent</span> to receive process. 582.201 Section 582.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS COMMERCIAL... as <span class="hlt">provided</span> in appendix A to this part, appendix A to 5 CFR part 581 lists <span class="hlt">agents</span> designated...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dls&pg=3&id=EJ922245','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dls&pg=3&id=EJ922245"><span id="translatedtitle">The Application of Intelligent <span class="hlt">Agents</span> in Libraries: A Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liu, Guoying</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of this article is to <span class="hlt">provide</span> a comprehensive literature review on the utilisation of intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> technology in the library environment. Design/methodology/approach: Research papers since 1990 on the use of various intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> technologies in libraries are divided into two main application areas: digital library…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol4-sec434-76.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title42-vol4-sec434-76.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 434.76 - Costs under fiscal <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Costs under fiscal <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts. 434.76 Section 434.76 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts. Under each contract with a fiscal agent— (a) The amount paid to the <span class="hlt">provider</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec26-199a.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title27-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title27-vol1-sec26-199a.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">27 CFR 26.199a - Action by revenue <span class="hlt">agent</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by revenue <span class="hlt">agent</span>... Custody to Internal Revenue Bond § 26.199a Action by revenue <span class="hlt">agent</span>. (a) Gauge. Puerto Rican spirits to be withdrawn for shipment to the United States as <span class="hlt">provided</span> in this subpart shall be gauged by the revenue...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol4-sec434-76.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title42-vol4/pdf/CFR-2011-title42-vol4-sec434-76.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">42 CFR 434.76 - Costs under fiscal <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS CONTRACTS Federal Financial Participation § 434.76 Costs under fiscal <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts. Under each contract with a fiscal agent— (a) The amount paid to the <span class="hlt">provider</span> of medical... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Costs under fiscal <span class="hlt">agent</span> contracts. 434.76...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=access+AND+control&pg=3&id=EJ635517','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=access+AND+control&pg=3&id=EJ635517"><span id="translatedtitle">Access Control for <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based Computing: A Distributed Approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Antonopoulos, Nick; Koukoumpetsos, Kyriakos; Shafarenko, Alex</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the mobile software <span class="hlt">agent</span> paradigm that <span class="hlt">provides</span> a foundation for the development of high performance distributed applications and presents a simple, distributed access control architecture based on the concept of distributed, active authorization entities (lock cells), any combination of which can be referenced by an <span class="hlt">agent</span> to provide…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009aabe.book..119A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009aabe.book..119A"><span id="translatedtitle">A Methodology for Developing Environmental Information Systems with Software <span class="hlt">Agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.; Mitkas, Pericles A.</p> <p></p> <p>This article presents a unifying methodology for developing environmental information systems with software <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Based on the experience reported in recent literature, we abstract common requirements of environmental information systems into <span class="hlt">agent</span> types, combine state-of-the-art tools from computer science, service-oriented software engineering and artificial intelligence domains, as software <span class="hlt">agents</span> and machine learning, and illustrate their potential for solving real-world problems. Specifically, two generic <span class="hlt">agent</span> types are specified that behave as information carriers and decision makers, which <span class="hlt">provide</span> an appropriate abstraction for deployment of added-value services in environmental information systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJSyS..47.2869Y&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJSyS..47.2869Y&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Admissible consensus for heterogeneous descriptor multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Xin-Rong; Liu, Guo-Ping</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on the admissible consensus problem for heterogeneous descriptor multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems. Based on algebra, graph and descriptor system theory, the necessary and sufficient conditions are proposed for heterogeneous descriptor multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems achieving admissible consensus. The <span class="hlt">provided</span> conditions depend on not only the structure properties of each <span class="hlt">agent</span> dynamics but also the topologies within the descriptor multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> systems. Moreover, an algorithm is given to design the novel consensus protocol. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed design approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912170','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8912170"><span id="translatedtitle">Neutral red assay in minimum fungicidal concentrations of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fukuda, T; Naka, W; Tajima, S; Nishikawa, T</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>We assayed the fungicidal effects of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> using neutral red staining. Fungal elements of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were treated with various concentrations of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> in 96-well filtration plates and then stained with neutral red. The amount of neutral red incorporated by the surviving viable cells was determined from the automated spectrophotometric readings at 550 nm. The minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of antifungal <span class="hlt">agents</span> determined by this assay correlated well with those determined by conventional assay. This newly developed procedure should <span class="hlt">provide</span> a rapid, reproducible, quantitative, qualitative and semi-automated susceptibility test for determination of the MFCs of the fungicidal <span class="hlt">agents</span>. PMID:8912170</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......109W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006PhDT.......109W"><span id="translatedtitle">Security patterns and a weighting scheme for mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Jessie J.</p> <p></p> <p>The notion of mobility has always been a prime factor in human endeavor and achievement. This need to migrate by humans has been distilled into software entities, which are their representatives on distant environments. Software <span class="hlt">agents</span> are developed to act on behalf of a user. Mobile <span class="hlt">agents</span> were born from the understanding that many times it was much more useful to move the code (program) to where the resources are located, instead of connecting remotely. Within the mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> research community, security has traditionally been the most defining issue facing the community and preventing the paradigm from gaining wide acceptance. There are still numerous difficult problems being addressed with very few practical solutions, such as the malicious host and <span class="hlt">agent</span> problems. These problems are some of the most active areas of research within the mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> community. The major principles, facets, fundamental concepts, techniques and architectures of the field are well understood within the community. This is evident by the many mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> systems developed in the last decade that share common core components such as <span class="hlt">agent</span> management, communication facilities, and mobility services. In other words new mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> systems and frameworks do not <span class="hlt">provide</span> any new insights into <span class="hlt">agent</span> system architecture or mobility services, <span class="hlt">agent</span> coordination, communication that could be useful to the <span class="hlt">agent</span> research community, although these new mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> systems do in many instances validate, refine, demonstrate the reuse of many previously proposed and discussed mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> research elements. Since mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> research for the last decade has been defined by security and related issues, our research into security patterns are within this narrow arena of mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> research. The research presented in this thesis examines the issue of mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> security from the standpoint of security pattern documented from the universe of mobile <span class="hlt">agent</span> systems. In addition, we explore how</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26685314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26685314"><span id="translatedtitle">Hepatocytes as Immunological <span class="hlt">Agents</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Crispe, Ian N</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Hepatocytes are targeted for infection by a number of major human pathogens, including hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and malaria. However, hepatocytes are also immunological <span class="hlt">agents</span> in their own right. In systemic immunity, they are central in the acute-phase response, which floods the circulation with defensive proteins during diverse stresses, including ischemia, physical trauma, and sepsis. Hepatocytes express a variety of innate immune receptors and, when challenged with pathogen- or damage-associated molecular patterns, can deliver cell-autonomous innate immune responses that may result in host defense or in immunopathology. Important human pathogens have evolved mechanisms to subvert these responses. Finally, hepatocytes talk directly to T cells, resulting in a bias toward immune tolerance. PMID:26685314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27..864N"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Rainfall In A City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nkemdirim, Lawrence</p> <p></p> <p>Cities contain many structures and activities that are vulnerable to severe weather. Heavy precipitation cause floods which can damage structures, compromise transportation and water supply systems, and slow down economic and social activities. Rain induced flood patterns in cities must be well understood to enable effective placement of flood control and other regulatory measures. The planning goal is not to eliminate all floods but to reduce their frequency and resulting damage. Possible approaches to such planning include probability based <span class="hlt">extreme</span> event analysis. Precipitation is normally the most variable hydrologic element over a given area. This variability results from the distribution of clouds and in cloud processes in the atmosphere, the storm path, and the distribution of topographical features on the ground along path. Some studies suggest that point rainfall patterns are also affected by urban industrial effects hence some agreement that cities are wetter than the country surrounding them. However, there are still questions regarding the intra- urban distribution of precipitation. The sealed surfaces, urban structures, and the urban heat anomaly increase convection in cities which may enhance the generation of clouds. Increased dust and gaseous aerosols loads are effective condensation and sublimation nuclei which may also enhance the generation of precipitation. Based on these associations, the greatest amount of convection type rainfall should occur at city center. A study of summer rainfall in Calgary showed that frequencies of trace amounts of rainfall and events under 0.2mm are highest downtown than elsewhere. For amounts greater than than 0.2 mm, downtown sites were not favored. The most compelling evidence for urban-industrial precipitation enhancement came from the Metromex project around St. Loius, Missouri where maximum increases of between 5 to 30 per cent in summer rainfall downwind of the city was linked to urbanization and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1111215','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1111215"><span id="translatedtitle">Volttron: An <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Platform for the Smart Grid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Haack, Jereme N.; Akyol, Bora A.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Tews, Cody W.; Foglesong, Lance W.</p> <p>2013-05-06</p> <p>VOLLTRON platform enables the deployment of intelligent sensors and controllers in the smart grid and <span class="hlt">provides</span> a stable, secure and flexible framework that expands the sensing and control capabilities. VOLTTRON platform <span class="hlt">provides</span> services fulfilling the essential requirements of resource management and security for <span class="hlt">agent</span> operation in the power grid. The facilities <span class="hlt">provided</span> by the platform allow <span class="hlt">agent</span> developers to focus on the implementation of their <span class="hlt">agent</span> system and not on the necessary "plumbing' code. For example, a simple collaborative demand response application was written in less than 200 lines of Python.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9550R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....48.9550R"><span id="translatedtitle">An intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> for optimal river-reservoir system management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rieker, Jeffrey D.; Labadie, John W.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>A generalized software package is presented for developing an intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> for stochastic optimization of complex river-reservoir system management and operations. Reinforcement learning is an approach to artificial intelligence for developing a decision-making <span class="hlt">agent</span> that learns the best operational policies without the need for explicit probabilistic models of hydrologic system behavior. The <span class="hlt">agent</span> learns these strategies experientially in a Markov decision process through observational interaction with the environment and simulation of the river-reservoir system using well-calibrated models. The graphical user interface for the reinforcement learning process controller includes numerous learning method options and dynamic displays for visualizing the adaptive behavior of the <span class="hlt">agent</span>. As a case study, the generalized reinforcement learning software is applied to developing an intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> for optimal management of water stored in the Truckee river-reservoir system of California and Nevada for the purpose of streamflow augmentation for water quality enhancement. The intelligent <span class="hlt">agent</span> successfully learns long-term reservoir operational policies that specifically focus on mitigating water temperature <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during persistent drought periods that jeopardize the survival of threatened and endangered fish species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1141843','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1141843"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Model Development for Assessing Climate-Induced Geopolitical Instability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boslough, Mark B.; Backus, George A.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>We present the initial stages of development of new <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based computational methods to generate and test hypotheses about linkages between environmental change and international instability. This report summarizes the first year's effort of an originally proposed three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project. The preliminary work focused on a set of simple <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based models and benefited from lessons learned in previous related projects and case studies of human response to climate change and environmental scarcity. Our approach was to define a qualitative model using <span class="hlt">extremely</span> simple cellular <span class="hlt">agent</span> models akin to Lovelock's Daisyworld and Schelling's segregation model. Such models do not require significant computing resources, and users can modify behavior rules to gain insights. One of the difficulties in <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based modeling is finding the right balance between model simplicity and real-world representation. Our approach was to keep <span class="hlt">agent</span> behaviors as simple as possible during the development stage (described herein) and to ground them with a realistic geospatial Earth system model in subsequent years. This work is directed toward incorporating projected climate data--including various C02 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Third Assessment Report--and ultimately toward coupling a useful <span class="hlt">agent</span>-based model to a general circulation model.3</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1047028"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques and Issues in <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-Based Modeling Validation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pullum, Laura L; Cui, Xiaohui</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Validation of simulation models is <span class="hlt">extremely</span> important. It ensures that the right model has been built and lends confidence to the use of that model to inform critical decisions. <span class="hlt">Agent</span>-based models (ABM) have been widely deployed in different fields for studying the collective behavior of large numbers of interacting <span class="hlt">agents</span>. However, researchers have only recently started to consider the issues of validation. Compared to other simulation models, ABM has many differences in model development, usage and validation. An ABM is inherently easier to build than a classical simulation, but more difficult to describe formally since they are closer to human cognition. Using multi-<span class="hlt">agent</span> models to study complex systems has attracted criticisms because of the challenges involved in their validation [1]. In this report, we describe the challenge of ABM validation and present a novel approach we recently developed for an ABM system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NJPh...17b3006D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015NJPh...17b3006D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantum-enhanced deliberation of learning <span class="hlt">agents</span> using trapped ions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunjko, V.; Friis, N.; Briegel, H. J.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>A scheme that successfully employs quantum mechanics in the design of autonomous learning <span class="hlt">agents</span> has recently been reported in the context of the projective simulation (PS) model for artificial intelligence. In that approach, the key feature of a PS <span class="hlt">agent</span>, a specific type of memory which is explored via random walks, was shown to be amenable to quantization, allowing for a speed-up. In this work we propose an implementation of such classical and quantum <span class="hlt">agents</span> in systems of trapped ions. We employ a generic construction by which the classical <span class="hlt">agents</span> are ‘upgraded’ to their quantum counterparts by a nested process of adding coherent control, and we outline how this construction can be realized in ion traps. Our results <span class="hlt">provide</span> a flexible modular architecture for the design of PS <span class="hlt">agents</span>. Furthermore, we present numerical simulations of simple PS <span class="hlt">agents</span> which analyze the robustness of our proposal under certain noise models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5680..155J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009LNCS.5680..155J"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Agent</span> Assignment for Process Management: Pattern Based <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Performance Evaluation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jablonski, Stefan; Talib, Ramzan</p> <p></p> <p>In almost all workflow management system the role concept is determined once at the introduction of workflow application and is not reevaluated to observe how successfully certain processes are performed by the authorized <span class="hlt">agents</span>. This paper describes an approach which evaluates how <span class="hlt">agents</span> are working successfully and feed this information back for future <span class="hlt">agent</span> assignment to achieve maximum business benefit for the enterprise. The approach is called Pattern based <span class="hlt">Agent</span> Performance Evaluation (PAPE) and is based on machine learning technique combined with post processing technique. We report on the result of our experiments and discuss issues and improvement of our approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27069052','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27069052"><span id="translatedtitle">Embodied artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> for understanding human social cognition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span>, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, <span class="hlt">provide</span> insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial <span class="hlt">agent</span>), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied <span class="hlt">agents</span> have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> to the same extent as by natural <span class="hlt">agents</span>, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provides</span> empirical answers to the conundrum 'What is a social <span class="hlt">agent</span>?' PMID:27069052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843613','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4843613"><span id="translatedtitle">Embodied artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> for understanding human social cognition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wykowska, Agnieszka; Chaminade, Thierry; Cheng, Gordon</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we propose that experimental protocols involving artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span>, in particular the embodied humanoid robots, <span class="hlt">provide</span> insightful information regarding social cognitive mechanisms in the human brain. Using artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> allows for manipulation and control of various parameters of behaviour, appearance and expressiveness in one of the interaction partners (the artificial <span class="hlt">agent</span>), and for examining effect of these parameters on the other interaction partner (the human). At the same time, using artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> means introducing the presence of artificial, yet human-like, systems into the human social sphere. This allows for testing in a controlled, but ecologically valid, manner human fundamental mechanisms of social cognition both at the behavioural and at the neural level. This paper will review existing literature that reports studies in which artificial embodied <span class="hlt">agents</span> have been used to study social cognition and will address the question of whether various mechanisms of social cognition (ranging from lower- to higher-order cognitive processes) are evoked by artificial <span class="hlt">agents</span> to the same extent as by natural <span class="hlt">agents</span>, humans in particular. Increasing the understanding of how behavioural and neural mechanisms of social cognition respond to artificial anthropomorphic <span class="hlt">agents</span> <span class="hlt">provides</span> empirical answers to the conundrum ‘What is a social <span class="hlt">agent</span>?’ PMID:27069052</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033597','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100033597"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Flip Chips in <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Temperature Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ramesham, Rajeshuni</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The use of underfill materials is necessary with flip-chip interconnect technology to redistribute stresses due to mismatching coefficients of thermal expansion (CTEs) between dissimilar materials in the overall assembly. Underfills are formulated using organic polymers and possibly inorganic filler materials. There are a few ways to apply the underfills with flip-chip technology. Traditional capillary-flow underfill materials now possess high flow speed and reduced time to cure, but they still require additional processing steps beyond the typical surface-mount technology (SMT) assembly process. Studies were conducted using underfills in a temperature range of -190 to 85 C, which resulted in an increase of reliability by one to two orders of magnitude. Thermal shock of the flip-chip test articles was designed to induce failures at the interconnect sites (-40 to 100 C). The study on the reliability of flip chips using underfills in the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> temperature region is of significant value for space applications. This technology is considered as an enabling technology for future space missions. Flip-chip interconnect technology is an advanced electrical interconnection approach where the silicon die or chip is electrically connected, face down, to the substrate by reflowing solder bumps on area-array metallized terminals on the die to matching footprints of solder-wettable pads on the chosen substrate. This advanced flip-chip interconnect technology will significantly improve the performance of high-speed systems, productivity enhancement over manual wire bonding, self-alignment during die joining, low lead inductances, and reduced need for attachment of precious metals. The use of commercially developed no-flow fluxing underfills <span class="hlt">provides</span> a means of reducing the processing steps employed in the traditional capillary flow methods to enhance SMT compatibility. Reliability of flip chips may be significantly increased by matching/tailoring the CTEs of the substrate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4754907"><span id="translatedtitle">A universal mechanism of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, J. H.; Jia, Q.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The occurrence of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events and critical phenomena is of importance because they can have inquisitive scientific impact and profound socio-economic consequences. Here we show a universal mechanism describing <span class="hlt">extreme</span> events along with critical phenomena and derive a general expression of the probability distribution without concerning the physical details of individual events or critical properties. The general probability distribution unifies most important distributions in the field and demonstrates improved performance. The shape and symmetry of the general distribution is determined by the parameters of the fluctuations. Our work sheds judicious insights into the dynamical processes of complex systems with practical significance and <span class="hlt">provides</span> a general approach of studying <span class="hlt">extreme</span> and critical episodes in a combined and multidisciplinary scheme. PMID:26880219</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..APRQ12007L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..APRQ12007L"><span id="translatedtitle">Super-<span class="hlt">Extremal</span> Spinning Black Holes via Accretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Laguna, Pablo; Bode, Tanja; Matzner, Richard</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>A Kerr black hole with mass M and angular momentum J satisfies the <span class="hlt">extremality</span> inequality J <=M2 . In the presence of matter and/or gravitational radiation, the bound needs to be reformulated in terms of local measurements of M and J directly associated with the black hole. The isolated and dynamical horizons framework <span class="hlt">provides</span> such natural quasi-local characterization of M and J, making possible in axi-symmetry to reformulate the <span class="hlt">extremality</span> limit as J <= 2M2 , with M the irreducible mass computed from the apparent horizon area and J obtained using approximate rotational Killing vectors on the apparent horizon. This condition is also equivalent to requiring a non-negative black hole surface gravity. We present numerical experiments of an accreting black hole that temporarily violates this <span class="hlt">extremality</span> inequality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AIPC.1613..325Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AIPC.1613..325Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Probability distribution of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> share returns in Malaysia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zin, Wan Zawiah Wan; Safari, Muhammad Aslam Mohd; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Yie, Wendy Ling Shin</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to investigate the suitable probability distribution to model the <span class="hlt">extreme</span> share returns in Malaysia. To achieve this, weekly and monthly maximum daily share returns are derived from share prices data obtained from Bursa Malaysia over the period of 2000 to 2012. The study starts with summary statistics of the data which will <span class="hlt">provide</span> a clue on the likely candidates for the best fitting distribution. Next, the suitability of six <span class="hlt">extreme</span> value distributions, namely the Gumbel, Generalized <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value (GEV), Generalized Logistic (GLO) and Generalized Pareto (GPA), the Lognormal (GNO) and the Pearson (PE3) distributions are evaluated. The method of L-moments is used in parameter estimation. Based on several goodness of fit tests and L-moment diagram test, the Generalized Pareto distribution and the Pearson distribution are found to be the best fitted distribution to represent the weekly and monthly maximum share returns in Malaysia stock market during the studied period, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1710M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43.1710M"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal patterns and trends of Indian monsoonal rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Malik, Nishant; Bookhagen, Bodo; Mucha, Peter J.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>In this study, we <span class="hlt">provide</span> a comprehensive analysis of trends in the <span class="hlt">extremes</span> during the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) months (June to September) at different temporal and spatial scales. Our goal is to identify and quantify spatiotemporal patterns and trends that have emerged during the recent decades and may be associated with changing climatic conditions. Our analysis primarily relies on quantile regression that avoids making any subjective choices on spatial, temporal, or intensity pattern of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall events. Our analysis divides the Indian monsoon region into climatic compartments that show different and partly opposing trends. These include strong trends toward intensified droughts in Northwest India, parts of Peninsular India, and Myanmar; in contrast, parts of Pakistan, Northwest Himalaya, and Central India show increased <span class="hlt">extreme</span> daily rain intensity leading to higher flood vulnerability. Our analysis helps explain previously contradicting results of trends in average ISM rainfall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067349&hterms=advanced+calculus&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadvanced%2Bcalculus','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930067349&hterms=advanced+calculus&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dadvanced%2Bcalculus"><span id="translatedtitle">Robust neighboring <span class="hlt">extremal</span> guidance for the advanced launch system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Bain, John; Speyer, Jason L.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>With the availability of modern flight computers, realtime neighboring <span class="hlt">extremal</span> guidance seems feasible. To overcome sensitivity to unknown system parameters and environmental uncertainties, a robust neighboring <span class="hlt">extremal</span> guidance scheme is proposed. About the optimal trajectory, the accessory problem in the calculus of variations is formed, generating a quadratic cost criterion in the perturbed states and controls. By formulating a disturbance attenuation problem based upon the second variation cost criterion, a differential game is formulated. The game theoretic cost criterion is minimized with respect to the perturbed control but maximized with respect to the unknown parameters in the linearized dynamics. The resulting differential game problem gives rise to a two-point boundary-value problem solved using the sweep method. The sweep method solution <span class="hlt">provides</span> a linear robust neighboring <span class="hlt">extremal</span> guidance scheme that is applied to the Advanced Launch System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814349F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814349F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change impacts on hydrological <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Central Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fokko Hattermann, Fred; Huang, Shaochun; Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Hoffmann, Peter</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>An increase of hydro-climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> can be observed worldwide and is challenging national and regional risk management and adaptation plans. Our study presents and discusses possible trends in climate drivers and hydro-climatic <span class="hlt">extremes</span> in Europe observed and under future climate conditions. In a case study for Germany, impacts of different regional climate scenario ensembles are compared. To this end, a hydrological model was applied to transform the scenarios data into river runoff for more than 5000 river reaches in Germany. <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Value Distributions have been fitted to the hydrographs of the river reaches to derive the basic flood statistics. The results for each river reach have been linked to related damage functions as <span class="hlt">provided</span> by the German Insurance Association considering damages on buildings and small enterprises. The robust result is that under scenario conditions a significant increase in flood related losses can be expected in Germany, while also the number of low flow events may rise.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25353849','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25353849"><span id="translatedtitle">Stationarity of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bursts in the solar wind.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moloney, N R; Davidsen, J</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Recent results have suggested that the statistics of bursts in the solar wind vary with solar cycle. Here, we show that this variation is basically absent if one considers <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bursts. These are defined as threshold-exceeding events over the range of high thresholds for which their number decays as a power law. In particular, we find that the distribution of duration times and energies of <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bursts in the solar wind ε parameter and similar observables are independent of the solar cycle and in this sense stationary, and show robust asymptotic power laws with exponents that are independent of the specific threshold. This is consistent with what has been observed for solar flares and, thus, <span class="hlt">provides</span> evidence in favor of a link between solar flares and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> bursts in the solar wind. PMID:25353849</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18303115','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18303115"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climatic event on community assembly.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Thibault, Katherine M; Brown, James H</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> climatic events are predicted to increase in frequency and magnitude, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. Such events are large, infrequent, stochastic perturbations that can change the outcome of entrained ecological processes. Here we show how an <span class="hlt">extreme</span> flood event affected a desert rodent community that has been monitored for 30 years. The flood (i) caused catastrophic, species-specific mortality; (ii) eliminated the incumbency advantage of previously dominant species; (iii) reset long-term population and community trends; (iv) interacted with competitive and metapopulation dynamics; and (v) resulted in rapid, wholesale reorganization of the community. This and a previous <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall event were punctuational perturbations-they caused large, rapid population- and community-level changes that were superimposed on a background of more gradual trends driven by climate and vegetation change. Captured by chance through long-term monitoring, the impacts of such large, infrequent events <span class="hlt">provide</span> unique insights into the processes that structure ecological communities. PMID:18303115</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NPGD....1..193D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014NPGD....1..193D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Logit-normal mixed model for Indian Monsoon rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietz, L. R.; Chatterjee, S.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Describing the nature and variability of Indian monsoon rainfall <span class="hlt">extremes</span> is a topic of much debate in the current literature. We suggest the use of a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), specifically, the logit-normal mixed model, to describe the underlying structure of this complex climatic event. Several GLMM algorithms are described and simulations are performed to vet these algorithms before applying them to the Indian precipitation data procured from the National Climatic Data Center. The logit-normal model was applied with fixed covariates of latitude, longitude, elevation, daily minimum and maximum temperatures with a random intercept by weather station. In general, the estimation methods concurred in their suggestion of a relationship between the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and <span class="hlt">extreme</span> rainfall variability estimates. This work <span class="hlt">provides</span> a valuable starting point for extending GLMM to incorporate the intricate dependencies in <span class="hlt">extreme</span> climate events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19752681"><span id="translatedtitle">Outcomes of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> injuries sustained during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Spear, Marcia</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> war injuries are complex because of changes in weaponry and ballistics. Outcomes of a functional lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> depend on early transport, early debridement and washout, and advanced surgical techniques such as microvascular procedures. The purpose of this article is to present evidence on the outcomes of lower <span class="hlt">extremity</span> complex injuries and <span class="hlt">provide</span> evidence-based factors that contribute to these outcomes. PMID:19752681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6181"><span id="translatedtitle">Masks for <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cardinale, G; Goldsmith, J; Kearney, P A; Larson, C; Moore, C E; Prisbrey, S; Tong, W; Vernon, S P; Weber, F; Yan, P-Y</p> <p>1998-09-01</p> <p>In <span class="hlt">extreme</span> ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), the technology specific requirements on the mask are a direct consequence of the utilization of radiation in the spectral region between 10 and 15 nm. At these wavelengths, all condensed materials are highly absorbing and efficient radiation transport mandates the use of all-reflective optical systems. Reflectivity is achieved with resonant, wavelength-matched multilayer (ML) coatings on all of the optical surfaces - including the mask. The EUV mask has a unique architecture - it consists of a substrate with a highly reflective ML coating (the mask blank) that is subsequently over-coated with a patterned absorber layer (the mask). Particulate contamination on the EUVL mask surface, errors in absorber definition and defects in the ML coating all have the potential to print in the lithographic process. While highly developed technologies exist for repair of the absorber layer, no viable strategy for the repair of ML coating defects has been identified. In this paper the state-of-the-art in ML deposition technology, optical inspection of EUVL mask blank defects and candidate absorber patterning approaches are reviewed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001478"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Extreme</span> Case of Magnetars</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kouveliotou, Chryssa</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Magnetars are magnetically powered rotating neutron stars with <span class="hlt">extreme</span> magnetic fields (over 10(exp 14) Gauss). They were discovered in the X- and gamma-rays where they predominantly emit their radiation. Very few sources (roughly 18) have been found since their discovery in 1987. NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched June 11, 2009; since then the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) recorded emission from four magnetar sources. Two of these were brand new sources, SGR J0501+4516, discovered with Swift and extensively monitored with Swift and GBM, SGR J0418+5729, discovered with GBM and the Interplanetary Network (IPN). A third was SGR J1550-5418, a source originally classified as an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP 1E1547.0-5408), but exhibiting a very prolific outburst with over 400 events recorded in January 2009. In my talk I will give a short history of magnetars and describe how this, once relatively esoteric field, has emerged as a link between several astrophysical areas including Gamma-Ray Bursts. Finally, I will describe the exciting new results of Fermi in this field and the current status of our knowledge of the magnetar population properties and magnetic fields.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PhRvE..75d6110M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times for volatility processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masoliver, Jaume; Perelló, Josep</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Extreme</span> times techniques, generally applied to nonequilibrium statistical mechanical processes, are also useful for a better understanding of financial markets. We present a detailed study on the mean first-passage time for the volatility of return time series. The empirical results extracted from daily data of major indices seem to follow the same law regardless of the kind of index thus suggesting an universal pattern. The empirical mean first-passage time to a certain level L is fairly different from that of the Wiener process showing a dissimilar behavior depending on whether L is higher or lower than the average volatility. All of this indicates a more complex dynamics in which a reverting force drives volatility toward its mean value. We thus present the mean first-passage time expressions of the most common stochastic volatility models whose approach is comparable to the random diffusion description. We discuss asymptotic approximations of these models and confront them to empirical results with a good agreement with the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002cosp...34E1288C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large cusp diamagnetic cavities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, J.; Fritz, T.; Siscoe, G.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Extremely</span> large diamagnetic cavities with a size of as large as 6 Re have been observed in the dayside high-altitude cusp regions. These diamagnetic cavities are always there day by day. Some of the diamagnetic cavities have been observed in the morningside during intervals when the IMF By component was positive (duskward), suggesting that the cusp diamagnetic cavities are different from the magnetospheric sash predicted by MHD simulations. Associated with these cavities are ions with energies from 40 keV up to 8 MeV. The charge state distribution of these cusp cavity ions was indicative of their seed populations being a mixture of the ionospheric and the solar wind particles. The intensities of the cusp cavity energetic ions were observed to increase by as large as four orders of the magnitudes. These observations indicate that the dayside high-altitude cusp diamagnetic cavity is a key region for transferring the solar wind energy, mass, and momentum into the Earth's magnetosphere. These energetic particles in the cusp diamagnetic cavity together with the cusp's connectivity to the entire magnetopause may have significant global impacts on the geospace environment. They will possibly be shedding light on the long-standing unsolved fundamental issue about the origins of the energetic particles in the ring current and in the regions upstream of the subsolar magnetopause where energetic ion events frequently are observed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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