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Sample records for agents remains unclear

  1. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    PubMed Central

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stéphane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Thérèse; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stéphanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothée; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, François; Deleuze, Jean-François; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14±5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect. PMID:26908133

  2. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; Meldi, Kristen; Yoshida, Kenichi; Morabito, Margot; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Fenaux, Pierre; Braun, Thorsten; Itzykson, Raphael; de Botton, Stephane; Quesnel, Bruno; Commes, Therese; Jourdan, Eric; Vainchenker, William; Bernard, Olivier; Pata-Merci, Noemie; Solier, Stephanie; Gayevskiy, Velimir; Dinger, Marcel E.; Cowley, Mark J.; Selimoglu-Buet, Dorothee; Meyer, Vincent; Artiguenave, Francois; Deleuze, Jean -Francois; Preudhomme, Claude; Stratton, Michael R.; Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Padron, Eric; Ogawa, Seishi; Koscielny, Serge; Figueroa, Maria; Solary, Eric

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents is associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.

  3. Mutation allele burden remains unchanged in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia responding to hypomethylating agents

    DOE PAGES

    Merlevede, Jane; Droin, Nathalie; Qin, Tingting; ...

    2016-02-24

    The cytidine analogues azacytidine and 5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine (decitabine) are commonly used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes, with or without a myeloproliferative component. It remains unclear whether the response to these hypomethylating agents results from a cytotoxic or an epigenetic effect. In this study, we address this question in chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. We describe a comprehensive analysis of the mutational landscape of these tumours, combining whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing. We identify an average of 14 ± 5 somatic mutations in coding sequences of sorted monocyte DNA and the signatures of three mutational processes. Serial sequencing demonstrates that the response to hypomethylating agents ismore » associated with changes in DNA methylation and gene expression, without any decrease in the mutation allele burden, nor prevention of new genetic alteration occurence. Lastly, our findings indicate that cytosine analogues restore a balanced haematopoiesis without decreasing the size of the mutated clone, arguing for a predominantly epigenetic effect.« less

  4. 49 CFR 551.52 - How long will a foreign manufacturer's designation of agent remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How long will a foreign manufacturer's designation of agent remain in effect? 551.52 Section 551.52 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES Service of Process on...

  5. Invasive Swallow-worts: An allelopathic role for -(-) antofine remains unclear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pale swallow-wort (Vincetoxicum rossicum) and black swallow-wort (V. nigrum) are two invasive plant species in the northeastern United States and eastern Canada that have undergone rapidly expanding ranges over the past 30 years. Both species possess a highly bioactive phytotoxin -(-) antofine in r...

  6. Obamacare 2012: prognosis unclear for interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), informally referred to as ObamaCare, is a United States federal statute signed into law by President Barack Obama on March 23, 2010. ACA has substantially changed the landscape of medical practice in the United States and continues to influence all sectors, in particular evolving specialties such as interventional pain management. ObamaCare has been signed into law amidst major political fallouts, has sustained a Supreme Court challenge and emerged bruised, but still very much alive. While proponents argue that ObamaCare will provide insurance for almost everyone, with an improvement in the quality of and reduction in the cost of health care,, opponents criticize it as being a massive bureaucracy laden with penalties and taxes, that will ultimately eliminate personal medicine and individual practices. Based on the 2 years since the passage of ACA in 2010, the prognosis for interventional pain management is unclear. The damage sustained to interventional pain management and the majority of medicine practices is irreparable. ObamaCare may provide insurance for all, but with cuts in Medicare to fund Obamacare, a limited expansion of Medicaid, the inadequate funding of exchanges, declining employer health insurance coverage and skyrocketing disability claims, the coverage will be practically nonexistent. ObamaCare is composed of numerous organizations and bureaucracies charged with controlling the practice of medicine through the extension of regulations. Apart from cutting reimbursements and reducing access to interventional pain management, administration officials are determined to increase the role of midlevel practitioners and reduce the role of individual physicians by liberalizing the scope of practice regulations and introducing proposals to reduce medical education and training.

  7. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  8. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  9. 75 FR 75432 - Protection of Collateral of Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Counterparties to Uncleared Swaps; Treatment of Securities in a Portfolio Margining Account in a Commodity Broker... portfolio margining account that is a futures account constitute ``customer property''; and owners of such...) ] securities in a portfolio margining account held as a futures account, and (ii) an owner of such account....

  10. White-Tailed Deer Response to Vehicle Approach: Evidence of Unclear and Present Danger

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Bradley F.; Seamans, Thomas W.; DeVault, Travis L.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  11. White-tailed deer response to vehicle approach: evidence of unclear and present danger.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Bradley F; Seamans, Thomas W; DeVault, Travis L

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental causes of animal-vehicle collisions are unclear, particularly at the level of animal detection of approaching vehicles and decision-making. Deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) are especially costly in terms of animal mortality, property damage, and safety. Over one year, we exposed free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach under low ambient light conditions, from varying start distances, and vehicle speeds from 20 km/h to approximately 90 km/h. We modeled flight response by deer to an approaching vehicle and tested four hypotheses: 1) flight-initiation distance (FID) would correlate positively with start distance (indicating a spatial margin of safety); 2) deer would react to vehicle speed using a temporal margin of safety; 3) individuals reacting at greater FIDs would be more likely to cross the path of the vehicle; and 4) crossings would correlate positively with start distance, approach speed, and distance to concealing/refuge cover. We examined deer responses by quantiles. Median FID was 40% of start distance, irrespective of start distance or approach speed. Converting FID to time-to-collision (TTC), median TTC was 4.6 s, but uncorrelated with start distance or approach speed. The likelihood of deer crossing in front of the vehicle was not associated with greater FIDs or other explanatory variables. Because deer flight response to vehicle approach was highly variable, DVCs should be more likely with increasing vehicle speeds because of lower TTCs for a given distance. For road sections characterized by frequent DVCs, we recommend estimating TTC relative to vehicle speed and candidate line-of-sight distances adjusted downward by (1-P), where P represents our findings for the proportion of start distance by which >75% of deer had initiated flight. Where road design or conservation goals limit effectiveness of line-of-sight maintenance, we suggest incorporation of roadway obstacles that force drivers to slow vehicles

  12. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  13. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  14. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  15. Functional testing strategy for coding genetic variants of unclear significance in MLH1 in Lynch syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Inga; Schäfer, Dieter; Langer, Deborah; Köger, Nicole; Wittmann, Margarethe; Aretz, Stefan; Steinke, Verena; Holzapfel, Stefanie; Trojan, Jörg; König, Rainer; Zeuzem, Stefan; Brieger, Angela; Plotz, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Lynch syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations in the MLH1 gene, but genetic variants of unclear significance frequently preclude diagnosis. Functional testing can reveal variant-conferred defects in gene or protein function. Based on functional defect frequencies and clinical applicability of test systems, we developed a functional testing strategy aimed at efficiently detecting pathogenic defects in coding MLH1 variants. In this strategy, tests of repair activity and expression are prioritized over analyses of subcellular protein localization and messenger RNA (mRNA) formation. This strategy was used for four unclear coding MLH1 variants (p.Asp41His, p.Leu507Phe, p.Gln689Arg, p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met). Expression was analyzed using a transfection system, mismatch repair (MMR) activity by complementation in vitro, mRNA formation by reverse transcriptase-PCR in carrier lymphocyte mRNA, and subcellular localization with dye-labeled fusion constructs. All tests included clinically meaningful controls. The strategy enabled efficient identification of defects in two unclear variants: the p.Asp41His variant showed loss of MMR activity, whereas the compound variant p.Glu605del + p.Val716Met had a defect of expression. This expression defect was significantly stronger than the pathogenic expression reference variant analyzed in parallel, therefore the defect of the compound variant is also pathogenic. Interestingly, the expression defect was caused additively by both of the compound variants, at least one of which is non-pathogenic when occurring by itself. Tests were neutral for p.Leu507Phe and p.Gln689Arg, and the results were consistent with available clinical data. We finally discuss the improved sensitivity and efficiency of the applied strategy and its limitations in analyzing unclear coding MLH1 variants.

  16. The invisible basal cell carcinoma: how reflectance confocal microscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of clinically unclear facial macules and papules.

    PubMed

    Ruini, C; Hartmann, D; Saral, S; Krammer, S; Ruzicka, T; von Braunmühl, T

    2016-11-01

    Difficult to diagnose and early non-melanoma skin cancer lesions are frequently seen in daily clinical practice. Besides precancerous lesions such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) score the highest frequency in skin tumors. While infiltrative and nodular BCCs require a surgical treatment with a significant impact on the patients' quality of life, early and superficial BCCs might benefit from numerous conservative treatments, such as topical immune-modulators or photodynamic therapy. Dermoscopy has shown a high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of early BCCs, and non-invasive imaging techniques like reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) have proven to be helpful. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of RCM in the diagnosis of BCCs with indistinct clinical and dermoscopic features. We retrospectively examined 27 histologically proven BCCs in which diagnosis was not possible based on naked eye examination; we separately reviewed clinical, dermoscopic, and confocal microscopy features and evaluated the lesions meeting the common diagnostic criteria for BCCs, and our diagnostic confidence. All lesions were clinically unclear, with no characteristic features suggestive for BCC; dermoscopy showed in most cases unspecific teleangiectasias (74 %) and micro-erosions (52 %). Confocal microscopy revealed in most of the cases the presence of specific criteria: peripheral palisading of the nuclei (89 %), clefting (70 %), stromal reaction (70 %), dark silhouettes (70 %), inflammatory particles (70 %), and tumor islands (67 %). In the absence of significant diagnostic clinical signs and with unclear dermoscopic features, specific confocal patterns were present in most of the lesions and enabled a correct diagnosis. In the absence of significant clinical features of BCC and in the case of uncertain dermoscopy, striking confocal features are detectable and easy to recognize in most cases. Confocal microscopy can therefore be

  17. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  18. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  19. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  20. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  1. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Odes, Shmuel; Greenberg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined. PMID:25336980

  2. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  3. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  4. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  5. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  6. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, R; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The specific duration of the QT interval at which the risk of an adverse cardiac event is greatest, is not established. There is not only significant variation in the applied definition of an abnormal interval, but the maximal QT interval in healthy volunteers is greater than the currently accepted standards. The QT interval is influenced by normal physiological and pathologic factors, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Using recombinant technology, haloperidol and sertindole have been demonstrated to be high-affinity antagonists of a human cardiac potassium channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene. Pimozide, however, has been shown to act principally through calcium channel antagonism, and chlorpromazine may affect sodium channels. Nevertheless, it is possible that these effects are significant only in the presence of predisposing factors, either genetic or acquired. Despite proven efficacy in clinical trials and subsequent supervised use in Europe, a number of recently developed antipsychotic medications are not available to patients in North America. Yet, conventional antipsychotic medications that would not be approved by current safety standards continue to be widely used. PMID:10740988

  7. Acute administration of high doses of taurine does not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and the effect on maximal accumulated oxygen deficit is unclear.

    PubMed

    Milioni, Fabio; Malta, Elvis de Souza; Rocha, Leandro George Spinola do Amaral; Mesquita, Camila Angélica Asahi; de Freitas, Ellen Cristini; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute administration of taurine overload on time to exhaustion (TTE) of high-intensity running performance and alternative maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAODALT). The study design was a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Seventeen healthy male volunteers (age: 25 ± 6 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 50.5 ± 7.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed an incremental treadmill-running test until voluntary exhaustion to determine maximal oxygen uptake and exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake. Subsequently, participants completed randomly 2 bouts of supramaximal treadmill-running at 110% exercise intensity at maximal oxygen uptake until exhaustion (placebo (6 g dextrose) or taurine (6 g) supplementation), separated by 1 week. MAODALT was determined using a single supramaximal effort by summating the contribution of the phosphagen and glycolytic pathways. When comparing the results of the supramaximal trials (i.e., placebo and taurine conditions) no differences were observed for high-intensity running TTE (237.70 ± 66.00 and 277.30 ± 40.64 s; p = 0.44) and MAODALT (55.77 ± 8.22 and 55.06 ± 7.89 mL·kg(-1); p = 0.61), which seem to indicate trivial and unclear differences using the magnitude-based inferences approach, respectively. In conclusion, acute 6 g taurine supplementation before exercise did not substantially improve high-intensity running performance and showed an unclear effect on MAODALT.

  8. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  9. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  10. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  11. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  12. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  13. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  14. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  15. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  16. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  17. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  18. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  19. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  20. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  1. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  2. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  3. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  4. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  5. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  6. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  7. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  8. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  9. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  10. The role of prostanoids in the urinary bladder function and a potential use of prostanoid-targeting pharmacological agents in bladder overactivity treatment.

    PubMed

    Dobrek, Łukasz; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a syndrome involving urinary urgency with accompanying increased daytime urinary frequency and nocturia, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, in the absence of an urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. The detailed OAB pathophysiology remains unclear. There is evidence that OAB pathogenesis also includes abnormal bladder paracrine activity, associated with release of local prostanoids. Those agents contribute to disturbances of peripheral neuronal bladder control resulting in detrusor instability. Thus, pharmacological agents abolishing prostanoid-induced bladder overactivity seem to be a potential, future OAB therapeutical option. This paper shortly describes the rationale for nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and EP-1 receptor antagonists administration in future OAB pharmacotherapy.

  11. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  12. Knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of Toxocara: the enigma remains.

    PubMed

    Holland, C V

    2017-01-01

    Toxocara species infect a wide range of companion, domestic and wild animals as definitive and paratenic hosts, via multiple routes of transmission, producing long-lived tissue-inhabiting larvae and resistant eggs that can survive in the external environment. Therefore Toxocara and the disease it causes in humans, toxocariasis, represents an ideal aetiological agent for the development of the one health approach. However, despite increasing awareness of the public health significance of toxocariasis, gaps in our understanding of certain key aspects of the parasite's biology and epidemiology remain. These gaps hinder our ability to integrate research effort within the veterinary, medical and environmental disciplines. This review will highlight key deficits in our understanding of nine dimensions of Toxocara epidemiology and discuss a potential scenario to develop a more integrated, one health approach to improve our understanding of the prevention and control of this complex and cryptic zoonosis.

  13. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  14. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  15. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  16. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  17. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  18. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  19. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  20. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  1. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  2. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  8. Quantum Dots for Cancer Research: Current Status, Remaining Issues, and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Min; Peng, Chun-wei; Pang, Dai-Wen; Li, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a major threat to public health in the 21st century because it is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The mechanisms of carcinogenesis, cancer invasion, and metastasis remain unclear. Thus, the development of a novel approach for cancer detection is urgent, and real-time monitoring is crucial in revealing its underlying biological mechanisms. With the optical and chemical advantages of quantum dots (QDs), QD-based nanotechnology is helpful in constructing a biomedical imaging platform for cancer behavior study. This review mainly focuses on the application of QD-based nanotechnology in cancer cell imaging and tumor microenvironment studies both in vivo and in vitro, as well as the remaining issues and future perspectives. PMID:23691472

  9. Decontamination and Management of Human Remains Following Incidents of Hazardous Chemical Release

    SciTech Connect

    Hauschild, Veronique; Watson, Annetta Paule; Bock, Robert Eldon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To provide specific procedural guidance and resources for identification, assessment, control, and mitigation of compounds that may contaminate human remains resulting from chemical attack or release. Design: A detailed technical, policy, and regulatory review is summarized. Setting: Guidance is suitable for civilian or military settings where human remains potentially contaminated with hazardous chemicals may be present. Settings would include sites of transportation accidents, natural disasters, terrorist or military operations, mortuary affairs or medical examiner processing and decontamination points, and similar. Patients, Participants: While recommended procedures have not been validated with actual human remains, guidance has been developed from data characterizing controlled experiments with fabrics, materiel, and laboratory animals. Main Outcome Measure(s): Presentation of logic and specific procedures for remains management, protection and decontamination of mortuary affairs personnel, as well as decision criteria for determining when remains are sufficiently decontaminated so as to pose no chemical health hazard. Results: Established procedures and existing equipment/materiel available for decontamination and verification provide appropriate and reasonable means to mitigate chemical hazards from remains. Extensive characterization of issues related to remains decontamination indicates that supra-lethal concentrations of liquid chemical warfare agent VX may prove difficult to decontaminate and verify in a timely fashion. Specialized personnel can and should be called upon to assist with monitoring necessary to clear decontaminated remains for transport and processing. Conclusions: Once appropriate decontamination and verification have been accomplished, normal procedures for remains processing and transport to the decedent s family and the continental United States can be followed.

  10. Are Aβ and Its Derivatives Causative Agents or Innocent Bystanders in AD?

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Nikolaos K.

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by neurodegeneration in neocortical regions of the brain. Currently, Aβ-based theories, including amyloid depositions and soluble Aβ, form the basis of most therapeutic approaches to AD. It remains unclear, however, whether Aβ and its derivatives are the primary causative agents of neuronal loss in AD. Reported studies show no significant correlations between brain amyloid depositions and either degree of dementia or loss of neurons, and brain amyloid loads similar to AD are often found in normal individuals. Furthermore, behavioral abnormalities in animal models overexpressing amyloid precursor protein seem independent of amyloid depositions. Soluble Aβ theories propose toxic Aβ42 or its oligomers as the agents that promote cell death in AD. Aβ peptides, however, are normal components of human serum and CSF, and it is unclear under what conditions these peptides become toxic. Presently, there is little evidence of disease-associated abnormalities in soluble Aβ and no toxic oligomers specific to AD have been found. That familial AD mutations of amyloid precursor protein, PS1 and PS2 promote neurodegeneration suggests the biological functions of these proteins play critical roles in neuronal survival. Evidence shows that the PS/γ-secretase system promotes production of peptides involved in cell surface-to-nucleus signaling and gene expression, providing support for the hypothesis that familial AD mutations may contribute to neurodegeneration by inhibiting PS-dependent signaling pathways. PMID:20160455

  11. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  12. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  13. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  14. The Role of Social Context and Agent in the Development of Abstract Rights Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helwig, Charles C.

    Research suggests that adolescents as young as 13 years old reason about such abstract rights as freedom of speech and religion. It is unclear whether such reasoning develops earlier. Also unclear is the role of adults as agents in inculating in children the adults' views on such rights. A study examined 184 Canadian students in the first, third,…

  15. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  16. Surface Decontamination of Blister Agents Lewisite, Sulfur ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use. Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials coupons (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3 % solution; and EasyDECON® DF200).

  17. Occurrence and expression of gene transfer agent genes in marine bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Biers, Erin J; Wang, Kui; Pennington, Catherine; Belas, Robert; Chen, Feng; Moran, Mary Ann

    2008-05-01

    Genes with homology to the transduction-like gene transfer agent (GTA) were observed in genome sequences of three cultured members of the marine Roseobacter clade. A broader search for homologs for this host-controlled virus-like gene transfer system identified likely GTA systems in cultured Alphaproteobacteria, and particularly in marine bacterioplankton representatives. Expression of GTA genes and extracellular release of GTA particles ( approximately 50 to 70 nm) was demonstrated experimentally for the Roseobacter clade member Silicibacter pomeroyi DSS-3, and intraspecific gene transfer was documented. GTA homologs are surprisingly infrequent in marine metagenomic sequence data, however, and the role of this lateral gene transfer mechanism in ocean bacterioplankton communities remains unclear.

  18. The dynamic observation of plasma concentration of antimicrobial agents during balanced ultrafiltration in vitro.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yinghui; Guan, Yulong; Wan, Caihong; Fu, Zhida; Jiang, Juanjuan; Wu, Chunfu; Zhao, Ju; Sun, Peng; Long, Cun

    2014-01-01

    Routine perioperative intravenous antimicrobial agents are administered as surgical prophylaxis. However, whether balanced ultrafiltration during extracorporeal circulation has substantial effect on the concentration of antimicrobial agents remains unclear. The concentrations of antimicrobial agents in plasma and ultrafiltrate samples were measured in this pseudo-extracorporeal circulation model. Extracorporeal circulation consisted of cardiotomy reservoir, membrane oxygenator, and pediatric arterial line filter. A hemoconcentrator was placed between the arterial purge line and oxygenator venous reservoir. Fresh donor human whole blood was added into the circuit and mixed with Ringer's solution to obtain a final hematocrit of 24-28%. Two kinds of antimicrobial agents, cefotiam (320 mg) and cefmetazole (160 mg), were bolus added into the circuit. After 30 min of extracorporeal circulation, zero-balanced ultrafiltration was initiated and arterial line pressure was maintained at approximately 100 mm Hg with a Hoffman clamp. The rate of ultrafiltration (12 mL/min) was controlled by ultrafiltrate outlet pressure. An identical volume of Plasmalyte A was dripped into the circuit to maintain stable hematocrit during 45 min of experiment. Plasma and ultrafiltrate samples were drawn every 5 min, and concentrations of antimicrobial agents (including cefotiam and cefmetazole) were measured with high performance liquid chromatography. Both antimicrobial agents were detected in ultrafiltrate, demonstrating hemoconcentration may remove antimicrobial agents. The concentrations of plasma antimicrobial agents decreased linearly with the increase of ultrafiltrate volume. At end of balanced ultrafiltration, the concentration of plasma cefotiam was 104.96 ± 44.36 mg/L, which is about 44.38% ± 7.42% of the initial concentration (238.95 ± 101.12 mg/L) (P < 0.001); the concentration of plasma cefmetazole decreased linearly to 25.76 ± 14.78

  19. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  20. Cleaning agents and asthma.

    PubMed

    Quirce, S; Barranco, P

    2010-01-01

    Although cleaners represent a significant part of the working population worldwide, they remain a relatively understudied occupational group. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between cleaning work and asthma, but the risk factors are uncertain. Cleaning workers are exposed to a large variety of cleaning products containing both irritants and sensitizers, as well as to common indoor allergens and pollutants. Thus, the onset or aggravation of asthma in this group could be related to an irritant-induced mechanism or to specific sensitization. The main sensitizers contained in cleaning products are disinfectants, quaternary ammonium compounds (such as benzalkonium chloride), amine compounds, and fragrances.The strongest airway irritants in cleaning products are bleach (sodium hypochlorite), hydrochloric acid, and alkaline agents (ammonia and sodium hydroxide), which are commonly mixed together. Exposure to the ingredients of cleaning products may give rise to both new-onset asthma, with or without a latency period, and work-exacerbated asthma. High-level exposure to irritants may induce reactive airways dysfunction syndrome. Cleaning workers may also have a greater relative risk of developing asthma due to prolonged low-to-moderate exposure to respiratory irritants. In addition, asthma-like symptoms without confirmed asthma are also common after exposure to cleaning agents. In many cleaners, airway symptoms induced by chemicals and odors cannot be explained by allergic or asthmatic reactions. These patients may have increased sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin, which is known to reflect sensory reactivity, and this condition is termed airway sensory hyperreactivity.

  1. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  2. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  3. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  6. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  7. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  8. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  9. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  11. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  13. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  14. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  15. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  17. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  18. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  19. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  5. The Slopes Remain the Same: Reply to Wolfe (2016)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains. PMID:27872743

  6. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  8. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  9. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  10. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  11. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  12. Polyaminergic agents modulate contextual fear extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Guilherme Monteiro; Mello, Carlos Fernando; da Rosa, Michelle Melgarejo; Bochi, Guilherme Vargas; Ferreira, Juliano; Barron, Susan; Rubin, Maribel Antonello

    2010-05-01

    Polyamines, such as spermidine and spermine, have been reported to improve memory retention through the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAr). However whether polyamine agonists and antagonists alter extinction remains unclear. In the current study, we investigated whether spermidine and polyamine antagonists that selectively block the NR2B subunit at the NMDAr alter the extinction of contextual conditioned fear in male Wistar rats. The bilateral intra-hippocampal administration of exogenous spermidine (2 nmol/site) immediately after, but not 6h after extinction training, facilitated the extinction of fear conditioning. The injection of the NMDAr antagonists arcaine (0.2 nmol/site), ifenprodil (20 nmol/site) and traxoprodil (0.2 nmol/site), disrupted fear extinction and, at doses that had no effect per se, reversed the facilitatory effect of spermidine on fear extinction. These results suggest that exogenous and endogenous polyamines facilitate the extinction of contextual conditioned fear through activation of NR2B subunit-containing NMDAr in the hippocampus. Since extinction-based exposure therapy is widely used as treatment for a number of anxiety-related disorders, including phobias and post-traumatic stress, the currently reported facilitation of extinction by polyaminergic agents suggest these compounds as putative candidates for drug development.

  13. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  14. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  15. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents.

  16. Opinion evolution influenced by informed agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kangqi; Pedrycz, Witold

    2016-11-01

    Guiding public opinions toward a pre-set target by informed agents can be a strategy adopted in some practical applications. The informed agents are common agents who are employed or chosen to spread the pre-set opinion. In this work, we propose a social judgment based opinion (SJBO) dynamics model to explore the opinion evolution under the influence of informed agents. The SJBO model distinguishes between inner opinions and observable choices, and incorporates both the compromise between similar opinions and the repulsion between dissimilar opinions. Three choices (support, opposition, and remaining undecided) are considered in the SJBO model. Using the SJBO model, both the inner opinions and the observable choices can be tracked during the opinion evolution process. The simulation results indicate that if the exchanges of inner opinions among agents are not available, the effect of informed agents is mainly dependent on the characteristics of regular agents, including the assimilation threshold, decay threshold, and initial opinions. Increasing the assimilation threshold and decay threshold can improve the guiding effectiveness of informed agents. Moreover, if the initial opinions of regular agents are close to null, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion can be realized, indicating that, to maximize the influence of informed agents, the guidance should be started when regular agents have little knowledge about a subject under consideration. If the regular agents have had clear opinions, the full and unanimous consensus at the pre-set opinion cannot be achieved. However, the introduction of informed agents can make the majority of agents choose the pre-set opinion.

  17. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  18. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  19. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  20. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  1. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  2. Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain About SPR Drawdown and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    and to the ARCO ter- minal in Texas City , Texas. These terminals provide connections to two marine terminals and nine refineries in Texas. 0 Texoma...RCED-91-16 Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain Chater 2 DOE’s Egbleatis of Crient Drawdown Capabllity Appear Reamnable, but Tankeir MAmilability Col

  3. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  4. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  7. 1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) end and clerestory monitor of Machine Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Machine Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  9. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  11. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. Remaining True to the Vision: Promoting Research in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann P.; Burgess, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for family and consumer sciences professionals to generate new knowledge through research and then share findings with diverse groups. Specific Action Steps describe methods to incorporate research into university curricula to promote this role. The ultimate goal is to inspire new professionals to remain true to the…

  13. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  14. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  15. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  16. 6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL BUILDING AND UTILITY BRIDGE TO BUILDING ACROSS NINTH STREET HABS No. IA-160-AR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Klauer Manufacturing Company Factory, 301 Ninth Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  17. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  19. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  20. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  1. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  2. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  4. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  5. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  6. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  7. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  8. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  10. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Kuca, Kamil; Pohanka, Miroslav

    2010-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents are compounds of different chemical structures. Simple molecules such as chlorine as well as complex structures such as ricin belong to this group. Nerve agents, vesicants, incapacitating agents, blood agents, lung-damaging agents, riot-control agents and several toxins are among chemical warfare agents. Although the use of these compounds is strictly prohibited, the possible misuse by terrorist groups is a reality nowadays. Owing to this fact, knowledge of the basic properties of these substances is of a high importance. This chapter briefly introduces the separate groups of chemical warfare agents together with their members and the potential therapy that should be applied in case someone is intoxicated by these agents.

  11. Oncolytic viruses as immunotherapy: progress and remaining challenges

    PubMed Central

    Aurelian, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses (OVs) comprise an emerging cancer therapeutic modality whose activity involves both direct tumor cell lysis and the induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD). Cellular proteins released from the OV-lysed tumor cells, known as damage-associated molecular patterns and tumor-associated antigens, activate dendritic cells and elicit adaptive antitumor immunity. Interaction with the innate immune system and the development of long-lasting immune memory also contribute to OV-induced cell death. The degree to which the ICD component contributes to the clinical efficacy of OV therapy is still unclear. Modulation of a range of immune interactions may be beneficial or detrimental in nature and the interactions depend on the specific tumor, the site and extent of the disease, the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, the OV platform, the dose, time, and delivery conditions, as well as individual patient responses. To enhance the contribution of ICD, OVs have been engineered to express immunostimulatory genes and strategies have been developed to combine OV therapy with chemo- and immune-based therapeutic regimens. However, these approaches carry the risk that they may also be tolerogenic depending on their levels and the presence of other cytokines, their direct antiviral effects, and the timing and conditions of their expression. The contribution of autophagy to adaptive immunity, the ability of the OVs to kill cancer stem cells, and the patient’s baseline immune status are additional considerations. This review focuses on the complex and as yet poorly understood balancing act that dictates the outcome of OV therapy. We summarize current understanding of the OVs’ function in eliciting antitumor immunity and its relationship to therapeutic efficacy. Also discussed are the criteria involved in restraining antiviral immune responses and minimizing pathology while promoting antitumor immunity to override immune tolerance. PMID:27226725

  12. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  13. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  14. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  15. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  16. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  17. Remaining useful life prediction based on known usage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.

    2003-08-01

    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has developed a novel statistical approach to estimating the remaining useful life of aircraft components based on known usage monitoring data. The analysis technique is known as the Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) methodology. The basic premise of RULE is to determine conservative predictions for the component loads and fatigue life values from Monte Carlo simulations based on a desired component reliability. Then, as the aircraft's usage is monitored, the component life can be calculated with a known reliability based on the conservative predictions generated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The RULE methodology, which has been successfully tested on small-scale analytical problems, is ideally suited to be integrated into both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, modifications to the technology may prove to be applicable to wide variety of health and prognostic problems.

  18. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages.

  19. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  20. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  1. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  2. Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran: 1952-1986 collection.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Baba, Hisao

    2005-11-01

    Eight hominid mandibular and associated dental remains discovered between 1952-1986 from the Early Pleistocene deposits of Sangiran, Central Java, are described. Although the specimens are surface finds, their original stratigraphic positions can be reasonably inferred on the basis of coincidental sources of information. These specimens significantly increase the dento-gnathic sample available for intensive morphological investigation of the earliest Javanese hominids [Kaifu et al., 2005].

  3. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  4. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  5. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310.

  6. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  7. Hospital nurses' intentions to remain: exploring a northern context.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Rick; Bruning, Nealia S

    2005-01-01

    Retaining nurses is of significant concern to all hospitals but even more of a concern to northern and rural hospital managers. This study provides insights into factors related to nurses' intentions to remain. A sample of 122 nurses from 13 northern hospitals in Western Canada participated in the study. The nurses completed questionnaires and participated in structured interviews. A model was proposed which suggested that work experiences (job and decision latitude, feedback, perceptions of how viewed and treated by others, fairness of policies, and safety of the job environment) would be related to job satisfaction and then affective commitment. Age and tenure, and ties to the community were proposed as predictors of continuance commitment. Both affective and continuance commitments were expected to be related to intention to remain in the hospital. The model was partially supported by regression analyses. Work experiences predicted job satisfaction and affective commitment. Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and ties to the community are related to nurses' intentions to remain. Supplemental analyses indicated that the strongest relationships were found for management's views and treatment of nurses, knowledge and ability utilization, safe environment, and fairness of organizational policies.

  8. [Lithium and chronic kidney disease: a pathology which remains relevant].

    PubMed

    Félix, Paula; Stoermann-Chopard, Catherine; Martin, Pierre-Yves

    2010-03-03

    Lithium continues to be the standard for acute and maintenance treatment of bipolar mood disorders despite the availability of alternative agents. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index and can result in considerable toxicity. Acute renal intoxication is well-known but chronic kidney disease should be in each doctor's mind. The main manifestations are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and tubulointerstitial nephritis. For NDI, the potassium sparing diuretic amiloride or a thiazide diuretic can improve polyuria. Lithium-induced ESRD in chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis is not uncommon and more prevalent (> 1% among long-term lithium patients) than previously thought. The risk of renal failure may persist even after lithium discontinuation. Additional kidney manifestations of lithium exposure include renal tubular acidosis and hypercalcemia.

  9. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000216.htm Delta agent (Hepatitis D) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delta agent is a type of virus called hepatitis ...

  10. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  11. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  12. Intelligent Agents: A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Edmund; Feldman, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Provides an in-depth introduction to the various technologies that are bringing intelligent agents into the forefront of information technology, explaining how such agents work, the standards involved, and how agent-based applications can be developed. (Author/AEF)

  13. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  14. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  15. Global health inequity: scientific challenges remain but can be solved

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Carol A.; Yamada, Tadataka

    2008-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have transformed the health of the populations of the developed world, with substantial increases in life expectancy and reductions in morbidity. These advances have not, however, touched the lives of the poorest people of the world — the billions living in developing countries. This Review Series on global health highlights the key factors contributing to inequity in health across the globe and the scientific questions that remain unanswered but are critical to creating effective and appropriate health solutions. The gaps in knowledge identified in this series point the way for scientists to contribute to a changed world. PMID:18382736

  16. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  17. [Identification of the cadaveric remains of Josef Mengele].

    PubMed

    Helmer, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined in order to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently in all details to the exhumed skull.

  18. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull.

  19. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  20. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  1. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  2. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  3. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  4. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  5. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies. PMID:26617524

  6. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  7. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  8. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  9. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  10. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  11. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  12. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  13. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  14. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  15. Procedural performance following sleep deprivation remains impaired despite extended practice and an afternoon nap

    PubMed Central

    Kurniawan, Irma Triasih; Cousins, James Nicholas; Chong, Pearlynne L. H.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2016-01-01

    The negative impact of sleep loss on procedural memory is well established, yet it remains unclear how extended practice opportunities or daytime naps can modulate the effect of a night of sleep deprivation. Here, participants underwent three training and test conditions on a sequential finger tapping task (SFTT) separated by at least one week. In the first condition they were trained in the evening followed by a night of sleep. Two further conditions took place where evening training was followed by a night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). One of the TSD conditions included a one-hour nap opportunity (15:00). Compared to the condition in which sleep was permitted, a night of TSD resulted in poorer performance across 4 practices the following day (10:00–19:00). The deleterious effect of a single night of TSD on procedural performance, was neither clearly alleviated by an afternoon nap nor by multiple practice opportunities. Interestingly, significant gains in performance were observed in all conditions after a one-week delay. Recovery sleep on subsequent nights thus appeared to nullify the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation, underscoring the importance of offline consolidation on the acquisition of procedural skill. PMID:27782172

  16. Parietal Bone Thickness and Vascular Diameters in Adult Modern Humans: A Survey on Cranial Remains.

    PubMed

    Eisová, Stanislava; Rangel de Lázaro, Gizéh; Píšová, Hana; Pereira-Pedro, Sofia; Bruner, Emiliano

    2016-07-01

    Cranial bone thickness varies among modern humans, and many factors influencing this variability remain unclear. Growth hormones and physical activity are thought to influence the vault thickness. Considering that both systemic factors and energy supply influence the vascular system, and taking into account the structural and biomechanical interaction between endocranial vessels and vault bones, in this study we evaluate the correlation between vascular and bone diameters. In particular, we tested the relationship between the thickness of the parietal bone (which is characterized, in modern humans, by a complex vascular network) and the lumen size of the middle meningeal and diploic vessels, in adult modern humans. Our results show no patent correlation between the thickness of parietal bone and the size of the main vascular channels. Values and distributions of the branching patterns, as well as anatomical relationships between vessels and bones, are also described in order to provide information concerning the arrangement of the endocranial vascular morphology. This information is relevant in both evolutionary and medical contexts. Anat Rec, 299:888-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Storm-Related Postmortem Damage to Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Maijanen, Heli; Wilson-Taylor, Rebecca J; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-05-01

    In April 2011, human skeletons were exposed to heavy storms at the outdoor Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Of the approximate 125 skeletons at the ARF in April 2011, 30 donations exhibited postmortem damage that could be attributed to the storms. At least 20 of the affected donations exhibit postmortem damage clearly associated with hailstones due to the oval shape and similar small size of the defects observed. The irregular shape and larger size of other defects may be a product of other falling objects (e.g., tree branches) associated with the storms. Storm-related damage was observed throughout the skeleton, with the most commonly damaged skeletal elements being the scapula and ilium, but more robust elements (i.e., femora and tibiae) also displayed characteristic features of hailstone damage. Thus, hailstone damage should be considered when forensic practitioners observe unusual postmortem damage in skeletal remains recovered from the outdoor context.

  18. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners.

  19. Hydrogen effect on remaining life of hydroprocessing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwadate, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, J.

    1988-02-01

    Old vintage 2.25Cr-1Mo steels used for high-temperature/pressure hydroprocessing reactors have a high potential for temper embrittlement. The cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have been experienced in a stainless steel overlay and base metal of hydroprocessing reactors. In this paper, the temper embrittlement behavior during long-term service is discussed using the results of isothermal temper embrittlement tests up to 30,000 h of exposure. HE susceptibility of base metals, i.e., the threshold stress intensity factor K/sub IH/ and hydrogen-assisted crack growth rate behavior are also discussed. Based on the experimental data obtained, the remaining life assessment of a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel hydroprocessing reactor is analyzed from knowledge of HE.

  20. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  1. Spinal diastematomyelia: a means of identification of charred remains.

    PubMed

    Beggan, Caitlin; Towers, Mark; Farrell, Michael; Jaber, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of medico legal autopsy examination is the positive identification of the deceased in addition to the determination of the cause of death in most jurisdictions and additionally the manner of death in many jurisdictions. Notwithstanding the established and recognised value of DNA analysis in human identification, in the case of significant and extensive thermal injury in victims of fire, DNA analysis may prove difficult. Fire fatality identification can be assisted by alternative methods in this situation, including correlation between ante mortem and post mortem radiological investigations, identification of rare medical disease and or dental record examinations, where available. We describe a case where identification of charred human remains from a car fire was securely determined by demonstration of the presence of a rare congenital abnormality of the spinal cord, Diastematomyelia.

  2. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  3. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  4. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  5. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  6. Microtubule-destabilizing agents induce focal adhesion structure disorganization and anoikis in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Deschesnes, Réna G; Patenaude, Alexandre; Rousseau, Jean L C; Fortin, Jessica S; Ricard, Christine; Côté, Marie-France; Huot, Jacques; C-Gaudreault, René; Petitclerc, Eric

    2007-02-01

    Microtubule disruption provokes cytoskeleton and cell adhesion changes whose importance for apoptosis induction remains unclear. The present study focuses on the functional and the molecular adhesion kinetics that are induced by microtubule disruption-mediated apoptosis. We showed that antimicrotubules induce a biphasic sequence of adhesion response that precedes the onset of apoptosis and focal adhesion kinase hydrolysis. Antimicrotubules first induced an increase of the cellular adhesion paralleled by the raise of focal adhesion sites and actin contractility, which was followed by a sharp decrease of cell adhesion and disorganization of focal adhesion and actin stress fibers. The latter sequence of events ends by cell rounding, detachment from the extracellular matrix, and cell death. Microtubule-disrupting agents induced a sustained paxillin phosphorylation, before the activation of apoptosis, that requires the prior activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 but not c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase. Interestingly, integrin-linked kinase overexpression rescued the antimicrotubule-mediated loss of cell viability. Altogether, these results propound that antimicrotubule agents induce anoikis through the loss of focal adhesion structure integrity.

  7. Dairy farm age and resistance to antimicrobial agents in Escherichia coli isolated from dairy topsoil.

    PubMed

    Jones, Suzanna E; Burgos, Jonathan M; Lutnesky, Marvin M F; Sena, Johnny A; Kumar, Sanath; Jones, Lindsay M; Varela, Manuel F

    2011-04-01

    Antimicrobial agent usage is common in animal agriculture for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes. Selective pressure exerted by these antimicrobials on soil bacteria could result in the selection of strains that are resistant due to chromosomal- or plasmid-derived genetic components. Multiple antimicrobial resistances in Escherichia coli and the direct relationship between antimicrobial agent use over time has been extensively studied, yet the relationship between the age of an animal agriculture environment such as a dairy farm and antibiotic resistance remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that antimicrobial-resistance profiles of E. coli isolated from dairy farm topsoil correlate with dairy farm age. E. coli isolated from eleven dairy farms of varying ages within Roosevelt County, NM were used for MIC determinations to chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, tetracycline, ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, cefotaxime, and ciprofloxacin. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of four antibiotics ranged 0.75 to >256 μg/ml, 1 to >256 μg/ml, 12 to >256 μg/ml, and 0.75 to >256 μg/ml for chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, and tetracycline, respectively. The study did not show a direct relationship between antibiotic resistance and the age of dairy farms.

  8. Axinellamines as Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Agents: Scalable Synthesis and Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present an ongoing challenge to both chemists and biologists as they seek novel compounds and modes of action to out-maneuver continually evolving resistance pathways, especially against Gram-negative strains. The dimeric pyrrole–imidazole alkaloids represent a unique marine natural product class with diverse primary biological activity and chemical architecture. This full account traces the strategy used to develop a second-generation route to key spirocycle 9, culminating in a practical synthesis of the axinellamines and enabling their discovery as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, with promising activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. While their detailed mode of antibacterial action remains unclear, the axinellamines appear to cause secondary membrane destabilization and impart an aberrant cellular morphology consistent with the inhibition of normal septum formation. This study serves as a rare example of a natural product initially reported to be devoid of biological activity surfacing as an active antibacterial agent with an intriguing mode of action. PMID:25328977

  9. Axinellamines as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents: scalable synthesis and biology.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Rodrigo A; Barrios Steed, Danielle; Kawamata, Yu; Su, Shun; Smith, Peter A; Steed, Tyler C; Romesberg, Floyd E; Baran, Phil S

    2014-10-29

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present an ongoing challenge to both chemists and biologists as they seek novel compounds and modes of action to out-maneuver continually evolving resistance pathways, especially against Gram-negative strains. The dimeric pyrrole-imidazole alkaloids represent a unique marine natural product class with diverse primary biological activity and chemical architecture. This full account traces the strategy used to develop a second-generation route to key spirocycle 9, culminating in a practical synthesis of the axinellamines and enabling their discovery as broad-spectrum antibacterial agents, with promising activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. While their detailed mode of antibacterial action remains unclear, the axinellamines appear to cause secondary membrane destabilization and impart an aberrant cellular morphology consistent with the inhibition of normal septum formation. This study serves as a rare example of a natural product initially reported to be devoid of biological activity surfacing as an active antibacterial agent with an intriguing mode of action.

  10. Repurposing an antidandruff agent to treating cancer: zinc pyrithione inhibits tumor growth via targeting proteasome-associated deubiquitinases.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chong; Chen, Xin; Yang, Changshan; Zang, Dan; Lan, Xiaoying; Liao, Siyan; Zhang, Peiquan; Wu, Jinjie; Li, Xiaofen; Liu, Ningning; Liao, Yuning; Huang, Hongbiao; Shi, Xianping; Jiang, Lili; Liu, Xiuhua; Dou, Q Ping; Wang, Xuejun; Liu, Jinbao

    2017-01-10

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) plays a central role in various cellular processes through selectively degrading proteins involved in critical cellular functions. Targeting UPS has been validated as a novel strategy for treating human cancer, as inhibitors of the 20S proteasome catalytic activity are currently in clinical use for treatment of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and the deubiquitinase activity associated with the proteasome is also a valid target for anticancer agents. Recent studies suggested that zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved antidandruff agent, may have antitumor activity, but the detailed molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) targets the proteasome-associated DUBs (USP14 and UCHL5) and inhibits their activities, resulting in a rapid accumulation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates, but without inhibiting the proteolytic activities of 20S proteasomes. Furthermore, ZnPT exhibits cytotoxic effects against various cancer cell lines in vitro, selectively kills bone marrow cells from leukemia patients ex vivo, and efficiently inhibits the growth of lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell xenografts in nude mice. This study has identified zinc pyrithione, an FDA-approved pharmacological agent with potential antitumor properties as a proteasomal DUB inhibitor.

  11. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    PubMed

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  12. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  13. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  14. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  15. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A.; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  16. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-02-17

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd) c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1(st) c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  17. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  18. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  19. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B. Gary; Fisher, Daniel C.; Borns, Harold W.; Churchill-Dickson, Lisa L.; Dorion, Christopher C.; Weddle, Thomas K.

    2004-05-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) dated at 12,200 ± 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ± 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea.

  20. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  1. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  2. Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

  3. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  4. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  5. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  6. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  7. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  8. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  9. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  10. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  11. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  12. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  13. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  14. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  15. The Respiratory Toxicity of Chemical Warefare Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation is one of the most important routes of exposure for chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and thus, the lung remains a critical target of injury. Depending on the mode of action by which the CWAs cause injury, the nature of injury, the location being impacted within the respi...

  16. Designing Agents to Support Learning by Explaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Although prior research has shown that generating explanations encourages students to learn new content with deeper understanding and to monitor their own comprehension more effectively, helping students learn how to explain properly remains a significant challenge. This study investigated the use of software agents as learning partners in an…

  17. Hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Castells, M C

    2008-01-01

    The need to offer first line therapy for primary and recurrent cancers has spurred the clinical development of rapid desensitizations for chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. Rapid desensitizations allow patients to be treated with medications to which they have presented with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), including anaphylaxis. Rapid desensitization achieves temporary tolerization to full therapeutic doses by slow administration of incremental doses of the drug inducing the HSR. Protocols are available for most chemotherapy agents, including taxanes, platins, doxorubicin, monoclonal antibodies, and others. Candidate patients include those who present with type I HSRs, mast cell/IgE dependent, including anaphylaxis, and non-IgE mediated HSRs, during the chemotherapy infusion or shortly after. Idiosyncratic reactions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are not amenable to rapid desensitization. The recommendation for rapid desensitization can only be made by allergy and immunology specialists and can only be performed in settings with one-to-one nurse-patient care and where resuscitation personnel and resources are readily available. Repeated desensitizations can be safely performed in outpatient settings with similar conditions, which allow cancer patients to remain in clinical studies. We have generated a universal 12-step protocol that was applied to 413 cases of intravenous and intraperitoneal rapid desensitizations using taxanes, platins, liposomal doxorubicin, doxorubicin, rituximab, and other chemotherapy drugs. Under this protocol all patients were able to complete their target dose, and 94% of the patients had limited or no reactions. No deaths or codes were reported, indicating that the procedure was safe and effective in delivering first line chemotherapy drugs.

  18. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  19. Skeletal manifestations of tuberculosis in modern human remains.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Maryna; Buskes, Jenifer

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathologists study the presence of diseases in the past and as such have a vast knowledge of skeletal changes associated with different conditions. Tuberculosis is one of the most studied diseases and still remains a major health problem today. Its manifestations in past populations have been extensively described, but less is known about its bony involvement in the post-antibiotic era. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and manifestations of skeletal lesions in the post-antibiotic era in a South African sample and compare it to that found before the introduction of antibiotics. Skeletons of 205 individuals from modern skeletal collections and who are known to have died from TB were assessed. It was found that 39.2% of all individuals dying in the post-antibiotic era showed skeletal changes that could be associated with TB, while another 27.5% showed nonspecific changes. The highest incidences were found in individuals who died after 1985, when co-infection with HIV and drug resistance became common. While, as expected, vertebral and rib changes were the most common, the number of individuals who showed changes to the skull, and specifically intracranially, was surprising. These could most probably be associated with TB meningitis, although this specific cause of death was noted in only a few individuals. It seems that individuals may be living longer as a result of long-term antibiotic use, leaving more time for lesions to develop. Clin. Anat. 29:854-861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Remaining Life Expectancy Measurement and PSA Screening of Older Men.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend informed decision-making regarding prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for men with at least 10 years of remaining life expectancy (RLE). Comorbidity measures have been used to judge RLE in previous studies, but assessments based on other common RLE measures are unknown. We assessed whether screening rates varied based on four clinically relevant RLE measures, including comorbidities, in a nationally-representative, community-based sample. METHODS: Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), we selected men over 65 without prostate cancer (n=709). They were stratified into three RLE categories (0-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13+ years) based on validated measures of comorbidities, self-rated health status, functional status, and physical performance. The independent relationship of each RLE measure and a combined measure to screening was determined using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Self-rated health (OR = 6.82; p < 0.01) most closely correlated with RLE-based screening, while the comorbidity index correlated the least (OR = 1.50; p = 0.09). The relationship of RLE to PSA screening significantly strengthened when controlling for the number of doctor visits, particularly for comorbidities (OR= 43.6; p < 0.001). Men who had consistent estimates of less than 7 years RLE by all four measures had an adjusted PSA screening rate of 43.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the RLE measure used, men who were estimated to have limited RLE had significant PSA screening rates. However, different RLE measures have different correlations with PSA screening. Specific estimates of over-screening should therefore carefully consider the RLE measure used.

  1. New agents in HSC mobilization.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Nilsson, Susan K; Cao, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Mobilized peripheral blood (PB) is the most common source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) for autologous transplantation. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is the most commonly used mobilization agent, yet despite its widespread use, a considerable number of patients still fail to mobilize. Recently, a greater understanding of the interactions that regulate HSC homeostasis in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has enabled the development of new molecules that mobilize HSC through specific inhibition, modulation or perturbation of these interactions. AMD3100 (plerixafor), a small molecule that selectively inhibits the chemokine receptor CXCR4 is approved for mobilization in combination with G-CSF in patients with Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, identifying mobilization strategies that not only enhance HSC number, but are rapid and generate an optimal "mobilized product" for improved transplant outcomes remains an area of clinical importance. In recent times, new agents based on recombinant proteins, peptides and small molecules have been identified as potential candidates for therapeutic HSC mobilization. In this review, we describe the most recent developments in HSC mobilization agents and their potential impact in HSC transplantation.

  2. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  3. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  4. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  5. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  6. Detecting Biological Warfare Agents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array. PMID:16318712

  7. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  8. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  9. "Campus" - An Agent-Based Platform for Distance Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westhoff, Dirk; Unger, Claus

    This paper presents "Campus," an environment that allows University of Hagen (Germany) students to connect briefly to the Internet but remain represented by personalized, autonomous agents that can fulfill a variety of information, communication, planning, and cooperation tasks. A brief survey is presented of existing mobile agent system…

  10. A partial skeleton of Proteopithecus sylviae (Primates, Anthropoidea): first associated dental and postcranial remains of an Eocene anthropoidean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Elwyn L.; Seiffert, Erik R.

    1999-12-01

    Recent excavation in the Late Eocene quarry L-41 (Fayum Depression, Egypt) revealed two tibiae and a femur in direct association with a mandible of Proteopithecus sylviae, arguably the most generalized African anthropoidean known from cranial remains. This discovery represents the first association of dental and postcranial material belonging to an Eocene anthropoidean, and provides new insights into the functional anatomy and phylogenetic position of Proteopithecus. The hindlimb morphology of Proteopithecus is most similar to small-bodied platyrrhines among living and extinct primates and is consistent with a locomotor repertoire that included a considerable amount of running and pronograde leaping. In certain dental and postcranial features, Proteopithecus differs from the other Fayum anthropoideansand shows a greater resemblance to living and extinct platyrrhines, but it is unclear whether these features are of particular phylogenetic significance.

  11. Claudin-4 binder C-CPE 194 enhances effects of anticancer agents on pancreatic cancer cell lines via a MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tsuyoshi; Kondoh, Masuo; Kyuno, Daisuke; Ito, Tatsuya; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Imamura, Masafumi; Kohno, Takayuki; Konno, Takumi; Furuhata, Tomohisa; Sawada, Norimasa; Hirata, Koichi; Kojima, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    The C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE) modulates the tight junction protein claudin and disrupts the tight junctional barrier. It also can enhance the effectiveness of anticancer agents. However, the detailed mechanisms of the effects of C-CPE remain unclear in both normal and cancerous cells. The C-CPE mutant called C-CPE 194 binds only to claudin-4, but the C-CPE 194 mutant called C-CPE m19 binds not only to claudin-4 but also to claudin-1. In the present study, to investigate the mechanisms of the effects of C-CPE on claudin expression, the tight junctional functions and the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents, human pancreatic cancer cells, and normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells (HPDEs) were treated with C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19. In well-differentiated cells of the pancreatic cancer cell line HPAC, C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19 disrupted both the barrier and fence functions without changes in expression of claudin-1 and -4, together with an increase of MAPK phosphorylation. C-CPE 194, but not C-CPE m19, enhanced the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agents gemcitabine and S-1. In poorly differentiated pancreatic cancer cell line PANC-1, C-CPE 194, but not C-CPE m19, decreased claudin-4 expression and enhanced MAPK activity and the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agents. In normal HPDEs, C-CPE 194 and C-CPE m19 decreased claudin-4 expression and enhanced the MAPK activity, whereas they did not affect the cytotoxicity of the anticancer agents. Our findings suggest that the claudin-4 binder C-CPE 194 enhances effects of anticancer agents on pancreatic cancer cell lines via a MAPK pathway.

  12. Topical hemostatic agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Palm, Melanie D; Altman, Jeffrey S

    2008-04-01

    Topical hemostatic agents play an important role in both common and specialized dermatologic procedures. These agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action and include physical or mechanical agents, caustic agents, biologic physical agents, and physiologic agents. Some agents induce protein coagulation and precipitation resulting in occlusion of small cutaneous vessels, while others take advantage of latter stages in the coagulation cascade, activating biologic responses to bleeding. Traditional and newer topical hemostatic agents are discussed in this review, and the benefits and costs of each agent will be provided.

  13. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  14. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  15. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  16. Agility: Agent - Ility Architecture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    Figure 2: Overview of eGents 9 Specific scientific and engineering subgoals were: • develop a lightweight agent system that uses email- based ...applets makes them hard to operate over corporate firewalls. eGents e - mail based ACL bus imposes fewer requirements on agents that use it, and firewalls...do not pose a problem for an e - mail based ACL bus. While applets limit 35 JATLites range of applications, they also make JATlite easy to deploy

  17. CHI: A General Agent Communication Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, S.Y.; Phillips, L.R.; Spires, S.V.

    1998-12-17

    We have completed and exercised a communication framework called CHI (CLOS to HTML Interface) by which agents can communicate with humans. CHI follows HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and produces HTML (HyperText Markup Language) for use by WWW (World-Wide Web) browsers. CHI enables the rapid and dynamic construction of interface mechanisms. The essence of CHI is automatic registration of dynamically generated interface elements to named objects in the agent's internal environment. The agent can access information in these objects at will. State is preserved, so an agent can pursue branching interaction sequences, activate failure recovery behaviors, and otherwise act opportunistically to maintain a conversation. The CHI mechanism remains transparent in multi-agent, multi-user environments because of automatically generated unique identifiers built into the CHI mechanism. In this paper we discuss design, language, implementation, and extension issues, and, by way of illustration, examine the use of the general CHI/HCHI mechanism in a specific international electronic commerce system. We conclude that the CHI mechanism is an effective, efficient, and extensible means of the agent/human communication.

  18. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    PubMed Central

    Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Wahab, Mohd S. Ab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise) of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects. PMID:22811614

  19. Construct Maps: Do They Make the Unclear Clear?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Becker, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In his article "Construct Maps for Standard Setting," Adam E. Wyse provides a detailed review on the current use of construct maps in standard setting, including how they may be operationalized within a variety of standard-setting methods. The premise of the argument is that construct maps can serve as a useful tool for conducting a…

  20. Giant scrotal lymphedema of unclear etiology: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Scrotal lymphedema is common in the tropics and subtropics. The giant variants can cause a lot of physical disability and psychological disturbances. Case presentation We present a 25-year-old Nigerian male with giant scrotal lymphedema with severe debilitating symptoms, immobility and emotional disturbance. He benefited from a modified Charles' procedure and reconstruction of the penile shaft using a split-thickness skin graft. Conclusion Giant scrotal lymphedema related to poverty, ignorance and neglect, is amenable to surgery. Surgery provides a cosmetically acceptable and functionally satisfying outcome. PMID:19830170

  1. Balkanization Makes It Unclear Just What the Doctor Ordered.

    PubMed

    Kirkner, Richard Mark

    2016-09-01

    Physicians are a disparate lot. At last count, there were more than 300 member organizations of the American Association of Medical Societies. These organizations tread common ground on a host of issues in play in this upcoming election cycle. They also part ways on some important issues, including their stance on the Affordable Care Act.

  2. The Effectiveness of Physical Agents for Lower-Limb Soft Tissue Injuries: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hainan; Randhawa, Kristi; Côté, Pierre; Optima Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    physical agents for the management of lower-limb soft tissue injuries had a high risk of bias. High-quality RCTs are still needed to assess the effectiveness of physical agents for managing the broad range of lower-limb soft tissue injuries. The effectiveness of most interventions remains unclear. Level of Evidence Therapy, 1a. Protocol registered July 10, 2014 with PROSPERO (CRD42014010621). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):523-554. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6521.

  3. Inhalational Anesthetics as Preconditioning Agents in Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan; Traystman, Richard J.; Murphy, Stephanie J.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY While many pharmacological agents have been shown to protect the brain from cerebral ischemia in animal models, none have translated successfully to human patients. One potential clinical neuroprotective strategy in humans may involve increasing the brain’s tolerance to ischemia by pre-ischemic conditioning (preconditioning). There are many methods to induce tolerance via preconditioning such as: ischemia itself, pharmacological, hypoxia, endotoxin, and others. Inhalational anesthetic agents have also been shown to result in brain preconditioning. Mechanisms responsible for brain preconditioning are many, complex, and unclear and may involve Akt activation, ATP-sensitive potassium channels, and nitric oxide, amongst many others. Anesthetics, however, may play an important and unique role as preconditioning agents, particularly during the perioperative period. PMID:17962069

  4. Magnesium sulphate as a new desensitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, G H; Morimoto, M

    1991-07-01

    Various desensitizing agents have been used in clinics to solve the problem of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH), but none of them has been shown to be consistently effective. We here introduce a new type of desensitizing agent, i.e. 4% magnesium sulphate with iontophoresis at 2mA for 3 min. These optimal conditions were determined by animal experiments, while only a minor effect on dentinal issues was observed within 4 weeks after the treatment. When this desensitizing agent was used to treat DH, the cure rate of 62.4% remained steady within the 25-week observation period, while some effect was achieved in all the subjects who participated in the study.

  5. Sunscreening agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Latha, M S; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

  6. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  7. [Preparation of antineoplastic agents].

    PubMed

    Descoutures, J-M

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifteen years, the preparation of antineoplastic agents has tended to be centralized in the hospital pharmacy for two main reasons: to enable better protection for the staff, to enable better safety for the patient. The consequences of this organization have led to standardization of techniques, implementation of a quality system and also a better use of antineoplastic agents. After protocols have been standardized by the physician and validated by the pharmacist, four main steps are necessary: phamaceutical validation of the prescription, preparation of IV admixtures according to a production file, control of the final product, dispatching of the preparation to the patient. Computer-controlled processes guarantee the safety of these different steps. The centralized preparations are made either with a vertical laminar flow hood or with an isolator. With the implementation of the National Cancer Plan, antineoplastic agents for patients on home treatments will also be prepared in centralized hospital pharmacies.

  8. Polyphenols as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Daglia, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Polyphenols are secondary metabolites produced by higher plants, which play multiple essential roles in plant physiology and have potential healthy properties on human organism, mainly as antioxidants, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial agents. In the present review the antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activities of the most active polyphenol classes are reported, highlighting, where investigated, the mechanisms of action and the structure-activity relationship. Moreover, considering that the microbial resistance has become an increasing global problem, and there is a compulsory need to find out new potent antimicrobial agents as accessories to antibiotic therapy, the synergistic effect of polyphenols in combination with conventional antimicrobial agents against clinical multidrug-resistant microorganisms is discussed.

  9. Sensory Stimulation-Based Complete Protection from Ischemic Stroke Remains Stable at 4 Months Post-Occlusion of MCA

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Aneeka M; Lay, Christopher C; Davis, Melissa F; Frostig, Ron D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research from our lab has shown that when using a rodent model of ischemic stroke (permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion), mild sensory stimulation, when delivered within two hours of ischemic onset, completely protects the cortex from impending ischemic stroke damage when assessed 24 hours post-occlusion. However, the long-term stability of this protection remains unclear. Using intrinsic signal optical imaging for assessment of cortical function, laser speckle imaging for assessment of blood flow, a battery of behavioral tests and cresyl violet for histological assessment, the present study examined whether this protection was long-lasting. When assessed 4 months post-occlusion (this length of time being equivalent to 10–15 years in humans), rats receiving sensory stimulation treatment immediately after ischemic onset exhibit normal neuronal and vascular function, and they are behaviorally and histologically equivalent to healthy controls (surgical shams). Thus, the complete neuroprotection due to cortical activation via sensory stimulation remains stable with time. These findings add support to the translational potential of this sensory stimulation-based treatment. PMID:24634892

  10. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  11. Model Checking Normative Agent Organisations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Louise; Tinnemeier, Nick; Meyer, John-Jules

    We present the integration of a normative programming language in the MCAPL framework for model checking multi-agent systems. The result is a framework facilitating the implementation and verification of multi-agent systems coordinated via a normative organisation. The organisation can be programmed in the normative language while the constituent agents may be implemented in a number of (BDI) agent programming languages.

  12. [Decontamination of chemical and biological warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Seto, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    Chemical and biological warfare agents (CBWA's) are diverse in nature; volatile acute low-molecular-weight toxic compounds, chemical warfare agents (CWA's, gaseous choking and blood agents, volatile nerve gases and blister agents, nonvolatile vomit agents and lacrymators), biological toxins (nonvolatile low-molecular-weight toxins, proteinous toxins) and microbes (bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae). In the consequence management against chemical and biological terrorism, speedy decontamination of victims, facilities and equipment is required for the minimization of the damage. In the present situation, washing victims and contaminated materials with large volumes of water is the basic way, and additionally hypochlorite salt solution is used for decomposition of CWA's. However, it still remains unsolved how to dispose large volumes of waste water, and the decontamination reagents have serious limitation of high toxicity, despoiling nature against the environments, long finishing time and non-durability in effective decontamination. Namely, the existing decontamination system is not effective, nonspecifically affecting the surrounding non-target materials. Therefore, it is the urgent matter to build up the usable decontamination system surpassing the present technologies. The symposiast presents the on-going joint project of research and development of the novel decontamination system against CBWA's, in the purpose of realizing nontoxic, fast, specific, effective and economical terrorism on-site decontamination. The projects consists of (1) establishment of the decontamination evaluation methods and verification of the existing technologies and adaptation of bacterial organophosphorus hydrolase, (2) development of adsorptive elimination technologies using molecular recognition tools, and (4) development of deactivation technologies using photocatalysis.

  13. Rescuing chemotaxis of the anticancer agent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium VNP20009.

    PubMed

    Broadway, Katherine M; Denson, Elizabeth A P; Jensen, Roderick V; Scharf, Birgit E

    2015-10-10

    The role of chemotaxis and motility in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium tumor colonization remains unclear. We determined through swim plate assays that the well-established anticancer agent S. Typhimurium VNP20009 is deficient in chemotaxis, and that this phenotype is suppressible. Through genome sequencing, we revealed that VNP20009 and four selected suppressor mutants had a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in cheY causing a mutation in the conserved proline residue at position 110. CheY is the response regulator that interacts with the flagellar motor-switch complex and modulates rotational bias. The four suppressor mutants additionally carried non-synonymous SNPs in fliM encoding a flagellar switch protein. The CheY-P110S mutation in VNP20009 likely rendered the protein unable to interact with FliM, a phenotype that could be suppressed by mutations in FliM. We replaced the mutated cheY in VNP20009 with the wild-type copy and chemotaxis was partially restored. The swim ring of the rescued strain, VNP20009 cheY(+), was 46% the size of the parental strain 14028 swim ring. When tested in capillary assays, VNP20009 cheY(+) was 69% efficient in chemotaxis towards the attractant aspartate as compared to 14028. Potential reasons for the lack of complete restoration and implications for bacterial tumor colonization will be discussed.

  14. Cyclooxygenase‐2 facilitates dengue virus replication and serves as a potential target for developing antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Kuang; Tseng, Chin-Kai; Wu, Yu-Hsuan; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Huang, Chung-Hao; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Lee, Jin-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is one of the important mediators of inflammation in response to viral infection, and it contributes to viral replication, for example, cytomegalovirus or hepatitis C virus replication. The role of COX-2 in dengue virus (DENV) replication remains unclear. In the present study, we observed an increased level of COX-2 in patients with dengue fever compared with healthy donors. Consistent with the clinical data, an elevated level of COX-2 expression was also observed in DENV-infected ICR suckling mice. Using cell-based experiments, we revealed that DENV-2 infection significantly induced COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in human hepatoma Huh-7 cells. The exogenous expression of COX-2 or PGE2 treatment dose-dependently enhanced DENV-2 replication. In contrast, COX-2 gene silencing and catalytic inhibition sufficiently suppressed DENV-2 replication. In an ICR suckling mouse model, we identified that the COX-2 inhibitor NS398 protected mice from succumbing to life-threatening DENV-2 infection. By using COX-2 promoter-based analysis and specific inhibitors against signaling molecules, we identified that NF-κB and MAPK/JNK are critical factors for DENV-2-induced COX-2 expression and viral replication. Altogether, our results reveal that COX-2 is an important factor for DENV replication and can serve as a potential target for developing therapeutic agents against DENV infection. PMID:28317866

  15. A Novel Role of Serotonin Receptor 2B Agonist as an Anti-Melanogenesis Agent

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eun Ju; Park, Jong Il; Lee, Ji Eun; Myung, Cheol Hwan; Kim, Su Yeon; Chang, Sung Eun; Hwang, Jae Sung

    2016-01-01

    BW723C86, a serotonin receptor 2B agonist, has been investigated as a potential therapeutic for various conditions such as anxiety, hyperphagia and hypertension. However, the functional role of BW723C86 against melanogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the effect of serotonin receptor 2B (5-HTR2B) agonist on melanogenesis and elucidate the mechanism involved. BW723C86 reduced melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase activity in melan-A cells and normal human melanocytes. The expression of melanogenesis-related proteins (tyrosinase, TRP-1 and TRP-2) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) in melan-A cells decreased after BW723C86 treatment. The promoter activity of MITF was also reduced by BW723C86 treatment. The reduced level of MITF was associated with inhibition of protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) activation by BW723C86 treatment. These results suggest that the serotonin agonist BW723C86 could be a potential therapeutic agent for skin hyperpigmentation disorders. PMID:27077852

  16. Vascular Disrupting Agent Drug Classes Differ in Effects on the Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujeong; Peshkin, Leonid; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    Vascular disrupting agents (VDAs), anti-cancer drugs that target established tumor blood vessels, fall into two main classes: microtubule targeting drugs, exemplified by combretastatin A4 (CA4), and flavonoids, exemplified by 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA). Both classes increase permeability of tumor vasculature in mouse models, and DMXAA in particular can cause massive tumor necrosis. The molecular target of CA4 is clearly microtubules. The molecular target(s) of DMXAA remains unclear. It is thought to promote inflammatory signaling in leukocytes, and has been assumed to not target microtubules, though it is not clear from the literature how carefully this assumption has been tested. An earlier flavone analog, flavone acetic acid, was reported to promote mitotic arrest suggesting flavones might possess anti-microtubule activity, and endothelial cells are sensitive to even mild disruption of microtubules. We carefully investigated whether DMXAA directly affects the microtubule or actin cytoskeletons of endothelial cells by comparing effects of CA4 and DMXAA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using time-lapse imaging and assays for cytoskeleton integrity. CA4 caused retraction of the cell margin, mitotic arrest and microtubule depolymerization, while DMXAA, up to 500 µM, showed none of these effects. DMXAA also had no effect on pure tubulin nucleation and polymerization, unlike CA4. We conclude that DMXAA exhibits no direct anti-microtubule action and thus cleanly differs from CA4 in its mechanism of action at the molecular level. PMID:22848372

  17. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  18. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  19. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  20. Current topics in ultrasound contrast agent application and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Kruse, Dustin E.; May, Donovan J.

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are bubbles, 1-10 microns in radius, encapsulated by a lipid, protein, polymer or fluid shell. The agents have been used to distinguish the acoustic scattering signatures of blood from those of the surrounding tissue. This is possible due to the nonlinear response of the agent, which is similar to that of a free gas bubble. Upon sufficient forcing the agents will oscillate nonlinearly about their equilibrium radius, and for specific conditions, produce nonlinear resonance responses which are integer multiples of the primary resonance. Ultrasound tissue perfusion studies have been developed which are based on the destruction of contract agents coupled to the measurement of blood flow. Nevertheless, many outstanding issues remain in contrast agent design especially with respect to emerging applications. Even with the use of higher order harmonics there is a lack of an acoustic signature or destruction mechanism at frequencies above approximately 5.0 MHz with conventional agents. The design and use of a high frequency contrast agent is addressed by exploiting the multiple scattering response of agents modled as spherical elastic shells. Also considered is the nonlinear response of elastic-shelled agents. The considerations of shells modeled as linear and nonlinear elastic materials are discussed. The use of contrast agents for targeted drug delivery has recently received much attention. More specifically, the ImaRx Corporation (Tucson, Arizona) has developed thick fluid shelled agents, which release suspended taxol-based drugs from their shells upon destruction. Shape instabilities and surface waves correspond with the fragmentation and destruction of the agents. Finally, the interaction of multiple contrast agents has received little attention with respect to these emerging applications.

  1. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  2. Pharmacology of antiplatelet agents.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Kiran; Franzese, Christopher J; Gesheff, Martin G; Lev, Eli I; Pandya, Shachi; Bliden, Kevin P; Tantry, Udaya S; Gurbel, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Pharmacotherapies with agents that inhibit platelet function have proven to be effective in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, and in the prevention of complications during and after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because of multiple synergetic pathways of platelet activation and their close interplay with coagulation, current treatment strategies are based not only on platelet inhibition, but also on the attenuation of procoagulant activity, inhibition of thrombin generation, and enhancement of clot dissolution. Current strategies can be broadly categorized as anticoagulants, antiplatelet agents, and fibrinolytics. This review focuses on the pharmacology of current antiplatelet therapy primarily targeting the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase 1, the P2Y12 receptor, the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1.

  3. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    PubMed

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  4. Intelligent Agent Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    and Manipulation Language (KQML) specification under the DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative and the developing of a scaleable and an... Shared Communication Ontology ’$" 10.3 IMPLEMENTATION 151 10.3.1 Intelligent Resource Agent Architecture ^ 10.3.2 Application to K-12 Education 153...DARPA-sponsored Knowledge Sharing Initiative, the developing a scaleable and an efficient implementation of information system components for

  5. Pathophysiology of Anticholinesterase Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-07

    PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE AGENTS Annual and Final Report DTIC ! ELECTEI aohn E. Rash, Ph. D. ALCTRf Julie K. Elmund, Ph.D. July 7 , 1988...Ph.D. ..-,. July 7 , 1988 Dis t Supported by A __ U. S. ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21701-5012...samples for electron microscopic analysis from diaphragm, soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles at J hour and 1, 7 , 14, 21, and 56 days

  6. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  7. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  8. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  9. Vaporizing Fire Extinguishing Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1950-08-18

    the pro- ject under contract included: Dr. Earl T. McBee, Head, Chemistry Department; Dr. Zara D. Welch, Researbh Supervisor; and Dr’s T. R. Santelli...Aeronautics Authority kxperimental Station, Indianapolis, Indiana, which has supplied test data for inclusion in this report. The Medical Division of the...Development of sources of supply for agent anAL con- tainers. f. Service testing. This report oovers technical phases a, b, and a to 1 April 1950, and

  10. Agent Based Computing Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-09

    coordinates as in cellular automata systems. But using biology as a model suggests that the most general systems must provide for partial, but constrained...17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 118. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRA REPORT THIS PAGE ABSTRACT...system called an "agent based computing" machine (ABC Machine). The ABC Machine is motivated by cellular biochemistry and it is based upon a concept

  11. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  12. Agents Technology Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    62702F 6. AUTHOR(S) Robert Wright, Jeffrey Hudack, Nathaniel Gemelli, Steven Loscalzo, and Tsu Kong Lue 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 558S 5e. TASK...NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Robert Wright a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) N/A...avoided by the other agents removing the incentive to lie or free-load. This phenomenon is termed as the shadow of the future and was shown in Robert

  13. Respiratory and Allergic Health Effects of Dampness, Mold, and Dampness-Related Agents: A Review of the Epidemiologic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Mendell, Mark J.; Mirer, Anna G.; Cheung, Kerry; Tong, My; Douwes, Jeroen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Many studies have shown consistent associations between evident indoor dampness or mold and respiratory or allergic health effects, but causal links remain unclear. Findings on measured microbiologic factors have received little review. We conducted an updated, comprehensive review on these topics. Data sources We reviewed eligible peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies or quantitative meta-analyses, up to late 2009, on dampness, mold, or other microbiologic agents and respiratory or allergic effects. Data extraction We evaluated evidence for causation or association between qualitative/subjective assessments of dampness or mold (considered together) and specific health outcomes. We separately considered evidence for associations between specific quantitative measurements of microbiologic factors and each health outcome. Data synthesis Evidence from epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses showed indoor dampness or mold to be associated consistently with increased asthma development and exacerbation, current and ever diagnosis of asthma, dyspnea, wheeze, cough, respiratory infections, bronchitis, allergic rhinitis, eczema, and upper respiratory tract symptoms. Associations were found in allergic and nonallergic individuals. Evidence strongly suggested causation of asthma exacerbation in children. Suggestive evidence was available for only a few specific measured microbiologic factors and was in part equivocal, suggesting both adverse and protective associations with health. Conclusions Evident dampness or mold had consistent positive associations with multiple allergic and respiratory effects. Measured microbiologic agents in dust had limited suggestive associations, including both positive and negative associations for some agents. Thus, prevention and remediation of indoor dampness and mold are likely to reduce health risks, but current evidence does not support measuring specific indoor microbiologic factors to guide health-protective actions. PMID

  14. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials.

  15. Advanced scale conditioning agents

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jeff; Battaglia, Philip J.

    2004-06-01

    A technical description of Advanced Scale Conditioning Agents (ASCA) technology was published in the May-June 2003 edition of the Nuclear Plant Journal. That article described the development of programs of advanced scale conditioning agents and specific types to maintain the secondary side of steam generators within a pressurized water reactor free of deposited corrosion products and corrosion-inducing contaminants to ensure their long-term operation. This article describes the first two plant applications of advanced scale conditioning agents implemented at Southern Nuclear Operating Company's Vogtle Units 1 and 2 during their 2002 scheduled outages to minimize tube degradation and maintain full power operation using the most effective techniques while minimizing outage costs. The goal was to remove three to four fuel cycles of deposits from each steam generator so that after future chemical cleaning activities, ASCAs could be used to maintain the cleanliness of the steam generators without the need for additional chemical cleaning efforts. The goal was achieved as well as several other benefits that resulted in cost savings to the plant.

  16. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  17. Agent based modeling of the coevolution of hostility and pacifism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalmagro, Fermin; Jimenez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model based on a population of agents whose states represent either hostile or peaceful behavior. Randomly selected pairs of agents interact according to a variation of the Prisoners Dilemma game, and the probabilities that the agents behave aggressively or not are constantly updated by the model so that the agents that remain in the game are those with the highest fitness. We show that the population of agents oscillate between generalized conflict and global peace, without either reaching a stable state. We then use this model to explain some of the emergent behaviors in collective conflicts, by comparing the simulated results with empirical data obtained from social systems. In particular, using public data reports we show how the model precisely reproduces interesting quantitative characteristics of diverse types of armed conflicts, public protests, riots and strikes.

  18. Current and Emerging Azole Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Sheehan, Daniel J.; Hitchcock, Christopher A.; Sibley, Carol M.

    1999-01-01

    Major developments in research into the azole class of antifungal agents during the 1990s have provided expanded options for the treatment of many opportunistic and endemic fungal infections. Fluconazole and itraconazole have proved to be safer than both amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Despite these advances, serious fungal infections remain difficult to treat, and resistance to the available drugs is emerging. This review describes present and future uses of the currently available azole antifungal agents in the treatment of systemic and superficial fungal infections and provides a brief overview of the current status of in vitro susceptibility testing and the growing problem of clinical resistance to the azoles. Use of the currently available azoles in combination with other antifungal agents with different mechanisms of action is likely to provide enhanced efficacy. Detailed information on some of the second-generation triazoles being developed to provide extended coverage of opportunistic, endemic, and emerging fungal pathogens, as well as those in which resistance to older agents is becoming problematic, is provided. PMID:9880474

  19. Incidental Reflector Comparison of Containerized Dry Fire Extinguishing Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Bryan Scott; Wysong, Andrew Russell

    2016-12-14

    This document addresses the incidental reflector reactivity worth of containerized fire extinguishing agents authorized for use in PF-4 at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The intent of the document is to analyze dry fire extinguishing agent that remains in a container and is not actively being used in a fire emergency. The incidental reflector reactivity worth is determined by comparison to various thicknesses of close fitting water reflection which is commonly used to bound incidental reflectors in criticality safety evaluations. The conclusion is that even in unlimited quantities, when containerized the authorized dry fire extinguishing agents are bound by 0.4 inches of close fitting water.

  20. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  1. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  2. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  3. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial... financial markets to determine those factors that will minimize or reduce the cost of funding Debentures...) Agents. SBA may appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... will appoint or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service... Fiscal Agent to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the...

  5. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  6. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Jennifer A.; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E.; Beckett, Alison J.; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S.; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A.; Prior, Ian A.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.—Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. PMID:27601439

  7. Memorial familiarity remains intact for pictures but not for words in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Embree, Lindsay M; Budson, Andrew E; Ally, Brandon A

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how memory breaks down in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) process has significant implications, both clinically and with respect to intervention development. Previous work has highlighted a robust picture superiority effect in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). However, it remains unclear as to how pictures improve memory compared to words in this patient population. In the current study, we utilized receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to obtain estimates of familiarity and recollection for pictures and words in patients with aMCI and healthy older controls. Analysis of accuracy shows that even when performance is matched between pictures and words in the healthy control group, patients with aMCI continue to show a significant picture superiority effect. The results of the ROC analysis showed that patients demonstrated significantly impaired recollection and familiarity for words compared controls. In contrast, patients with aMCI demonstrated impaired recollection, but intact familiarity for pictures, compared to controls. Based on previous work from our lab, we speculate that patients can utilize the rich conceptual information provided by pictures to enhance familiarity, and perceptual information may allow for post-retrieval monitoring or verification of the enhanced sense of familiarity. Alternatively, the combination of enhanced conceptual and perceptual fluency of the test item might drive a stronger or more robust sense of familiarity that can be accurately attributed to a studied item.

  8. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  9. Pharmacologic agents targeting autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg, Helin; Xia, Hong-guang; Yuan, Junying

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an important intracellular catabolic mechanism critically involved in regulating tissue homeostasis. The implication of autophagy in human diseases and the need to understand its regulatory mechanisms in mammalian cells have stimulated research efforts that led to the development of high-throughput screening protocols and small-molecule modulators that can activate or inhibit autophagy. Herein we review the current landscape in the development of screening technology as well as the molecules and pharmacologic agents targeting the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy. We also evaluate the potential therapeutic application of these compounds in different human pathologies. PMID:25654545

  10. Glutamatergic agents for OCD and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy remains inadequate for many patients with OCD; there is an urgent need for alternative pharmacological strategies. Convergent evidence suggests imbalance in glutamate, the brain's primary excitatory neurotransmitter, in some patients. This has motivated interest in glutamate modulators in patients who are unresponsive to standard pharmacotherapeutic approaches. While no glutamate modulator can be considered proven as an efficacious treatment of OCD, promising suggestions of benefit have been reported for memantine and riluzole. The evidence is thinner for N-acetylcysteine, but this agent's low cost and benign side effect profile make it a reasonable consideration in certain patients. Intriguing research on D-cycloserine and ketamine suggest potential benefit as well. It is notable that these agents all work by different, and in some cases opposite, mechanisms; this suggests that we have much to learn about the role of glutamate dysregulation in the etiology of OCD, and of glutamate modulators in its treatment. PMID:26301176

  11. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Stride, E; Saffari, N

    2003-01-01

    The superior scattering properties of gas bubbles compared with blood cells have made microbubble ultrasound contrast agents important tools in ultrasound diagnosis. Over the past 2 years they have become the focus of a wide and rapidly expanding field of research, with their benefits being repeatedly demonstrated, both in ultrasound image enhancement, and more recently in drug and gene delivery applications. However, despite considerable investigation, their behaviour is by no means fully understood and, while no definite evidence of harmful effects has been obtained, there remain some concerns as to their safety. In this review the existing theoretical and experimental evidence is examined in order to clarify the extent to which contrast agents are currently understood and to identify areas for future research. In particular the disparity between the conditions considered in theoretical models and those encountered both in vitro, and more importantly in vivo is discussed, together with the controversy regarding the risk of harmful bio-effects.

  12. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  13. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  14. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage.

  15. Model Checking Agent Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentahar, J.; Meyer, J.-J. Ch.; Wan, W.

    Model checking is a formal and automatic technique used to verify computational systems (e.g. communication protocols) against given properties. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a model checking algorithm to verify communication protocols used by autonomous agents interacting using dialogue games, which are governed by a set of logical rules. We use a variant of Extended Computation Tree Logic CTL* for specifying these dialogue games and the properties to be checked. This logic, called ACTL*, extends CTL* by allowing formulae to constrain actions as well as states. The verification method uses an on-the-fly efficient algorithm. It is based on translating formulae into a variant of alternating tree automata called Alternating Büchi Tableau Automata (ABTA). We present a tableau-based version of this algorithm and provide the soundness, completeness, termination and complexity results. Two case studies are discussed along with their respective implementations to illustrate the proposed approach. The first one is about an agent-based negotiation protocol and the second one considers a modified version of the NetBill protocol.

  16. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  17. Agent-Based Automated Algorithm Generator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-12

    Detection and Isolation Agent (FDIA), Prognostic Agent (PA), Fusion Agent (FA), and Maintenance Mining Agent (MMA). FDI agents perform diagnostics...manner and loosely coupled). The library of D/P algorithms will be hosted in server-side agents, consisting of four types of major agents: Fault

  18. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository... notice. A detailed assessment of the human remains was made by University of Wyoming,...

  19. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  20. Learning models of intelligent agents

    SciTech Connect

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S.

    1996-12-31

    Agents that operate in a multi-agent system need an efficient strategy to handle their encounters with other agents involved. Searching for an optimal interactive strategy is a hard problem because it depends mostly on the behavior of the others. In this work, interaction among agents is represented as a repeated two-player game, where the agents` objective is to look for a strategy that maximizes their expected sum of rewards in the game. We assume that agents` strategies can be modeled as finite automata. A model-based approach is presented as a possible method for learning an effective interactive strategy. First, we describe how an agent should find an optimal strategy against a given model. Second, we present an unsupervised algorithm that infers a model of the opponent`s automaton from its input/output behavior. A set of experiments that show the potential merit of the algorithm is reported as well.

  1. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  2. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  3. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  4. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  5. 77 FR 59659 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated....S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects in the control of San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA. The ] human remains were removed...

  6. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  7. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human remains. 10.11 Section 10.11 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or... unidentifiable human remains. (a) General. This section implements section 8(c)(5) of the Act and applies...

  8. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  9. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  10. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirement to remain in good standing with... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities. (a) Requirement to remain in good standing with state...

  11. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  12. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous

  13. Peptide Antimicrobial Agents

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Håvard; Hamill, Pamela; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2006-01-01

    Antimicrobial host defense peptides are produced by all complex organisms as well as some microbes and have diverse and complex antimicrobial activities. Collectively these peptides demonstrate a broad range of antiviral and antibacterial activities and modes of action, and it is important to distinguish between direct microbicidal and indirect activities against such pathogens. The structural requirements of peptides for antiviral and antibacterial activities are evaluated in light of the diverse set of primary and secondary structures described for host defense peptides. Peptides with antifungal and antiparasitic activities are discussed in less detail, although the broad-spectrum activities of such peptides indicate that they are important host defense molecules. Knowledge regarding the relationship between peptide structure and function as well as their mechanism of action is being applied in the design of antimicrobial peptide variants as potential novel therapeutic agents. PMID:16847082

  14. [Chemotherapeutic agents under study].

    PubMed

    Kawahara, S

    1998-12-01

    The development of new drugs with strong antituberculous activity and fewer side effects which are not cross-resistant to conventional antituberculosis drugs is urgently desired now. The chemotherapeutic agents under study which are considered a candidate for a new antituberculosis drug are listed below. 1) Rifamycin derivatives: rifabutin, rifapentin, KRM-1648, FCE-22250, 22807, CGP-7040, 27557, 29035, 29861, P-DEA, SPA-S-565, R-76-1. 2) New quinolones: ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, sparfloxacin, gatifloxacin, CS-940, Du-6859a. 3) Phenazines: clofazimine, B746, B4101, B4154, B4157. 4) Pyrazinamide derivatives: N-hydroxy pyrazinamide, N-hydroxy pyrazinamide-4-oxide. 5) Nitroimidazole derivatives: metronidazole et al.

  15. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  16. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  17. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  18. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1999-05-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. Their enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; intelligently locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of their effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses their planned future work.

  19. Turning an Extension Aide into an Extension Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda; Dormody, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    For any organization to remain sustainable, a renewable source of faculty and staff needs to be available. The Extension Internship Program for Juniors and Seniors in High School is a new tool for recruiting and developing new Extension agents. Students get "hands on" experience working in an Extension office and earn college credit…

  20. Polymeric gastrointestinal MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Tilcock, C; Unger, E C; Ahkong, Q F; Fritz, T; Koenig, S H; Brown, R D

    1991-01-01

    Combining either paramagnetic (gadolinium chelates) or superparamagnetic (ferrite) contrast agents with polymers such as polyethylene glycol or cellulose, or with simple sugars such as dextrose, results in mixtures that exhibit improved T1 and/or T2 relaxivity compared with that of the contrast agent alone. It is suggested that the addition of such inexpensive and nontoxic polymers or saccharides may improve the effectiveness and decrease the cost of enteric contrast agents.

  1. Antithrombotic agents: implications in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Little, James W; Miller, Craig S; Henry, Robert G; McIntosh, Bruce A

    2002-05-01

    Thrombosis and the complicating emboli that can result are important causes of illness and death. Thrombosis is of greater overall clinical importance in terms of morbidity and mortality than all of the hemorrhagic disorders combined. Agents such as heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, warfarin, aspirin, ticlopidine, clopidogrel, and tirofiban are used to prevent venous or arterial thrombosis. Patients taking these antithrombotic agents may be at risk for excessive bleeding after invasive dental procedures. The current antithrombotic agents used in medicine are reviewed, and the dental management of patients taking these agents is discussed.

  2. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  3. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A.; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M.; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G.; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Olszewski, Neil E.; Sun, Tai-ping

    2016-01-01

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein–protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors—PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)—that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. PMID:26773002

  4. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zentella, Rodolfo; Hu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Wen-Ping; Matsumoto, Peter A; Dawdy, Andrew; Barnhill, Benjamin; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Hartweck, Lynn M; Maitra, Sushmit; Thomas, Stephen G; Cockrell, Shelley; Boyce, Michael; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F; Olszewski, Neil E; Sun, Tai-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The DELLA family of transcription regulators functions as master growth repressors in plants by inhibiting phytohormone gibberellin (GA) signaling in response to developmental and environmental cues. DELLAs also play a central role in mediating cross-talk between GA and other signaling pathways via antagonistic direct interactions with key transcription factors. However, how these crucial protein-protein interactions can be dynamically regulated during plant development remains unclear. Here, we show that DELLAs are modified by the O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) SECRET AGENT (SEC) in Arabidopsis. O-GlcNAcylation of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) inhibits RGA binding to four of its interactors-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3), PIF4, JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN1, and BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)-that are key regulators in light, jasmonate, and brassinosteroid signaling pathways, respectively. Consistent with this, the sec-null mutant displayed reduced responses to GA and brassinosteroid and showed decreased expression of several common target genes of DELLAs, BZR1, and PIFs. Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development.

  5. The Agent of Change: The Agent of Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, C. R., Jr.

    This speech examines the role of change agents in third world societies and indicates that the change agent must, to some extent, manipulate the social situation, even if his view of society is a more optimistic one than he finds in reality. If he considers strains and stresses to be the lubricants of change, then his focus on conflict as a…

  6. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  7. Contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-12-01

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible.

  8. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  9. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ω-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization.

  10. Trust as a determinant of entrepreneurs' preference to remain tenants in Turkish business incubators.

    PubMed

    Aşcigil, Semra F; Magner, Nace R; Temel, Elif Karabulut

    2011-08-01

    Relations of two types of trust by entrepreneurs with the entrepreneurs' preference to remain an incubator tenant were examined using questionnaire data from 67 owners of companies in 6 Turkish incubators. As hypothesized, trust in incubator management had a positive and unique relation with preference to remain an incubator tenant. However, trust in other incubator tenants did not show the hypothesized positive and unique relation with preference to remain a tenant; the results indicated the relation is negative.

  11. The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Luke, David P.; Terhune, Devin B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the general consensus that synaesthesia emerges at an early developmental stage and is only rarely acquired during adulthood, the transient induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents has been frequently reported in research on different psychoactive substances. Nevertheless, these effects remain poorly understood and have not been systematically incorporated. Here we review the known published studies in which chemical agents were observed to elicit synaesthesia. Across studies there is consistent evidence that serotonin agonists elicit transient experiences of synaesthesia. Despite convergent results across studies, studies investigating the induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents have numerous methodological limitations and little experimental research has been conducted. Cumulatively, these studies implicate the serotonergic system in synaesthesia and have implications for the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon but methodological limitations in this research area preclude making firm conclusions regarding whether chemical agents can induce genuine synaesthesia. PMID:24146659

  12. Novel therapeutic agents in clinical development for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Conventional immunosuppressive therapies have radically transformed patient survival in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their use is associated with considerable toxicity and a substantial proportion of patients remain refractory to treatment. A more comprehensive understanding of the complexity of SLE immunopathogenesis has evolved over the past decade and has led to the testing of several biologic agents in clinical trials. There is a clear need for new therapeutic agents that overcome these issues, and biologic agents offer exciting prospects as future SLE therapies. An array of promising new therapies are currently emerging or are under development including B-cell depletion therapies, agents targeting B-cell survival factors, blockade of T-cell co-stimulation and anti-cytokine therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies against interleukin-6 and interferon-α. PMID:23642011

  13. Current regimens and novel agents for mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiming; Wang, Michael; Romaguera, Jorge

    2014-10-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Conventional treatment with immunochemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation or intensive immunochemotherapy alone has improved outcomes, but the disease remains incurable. Recent advances in basic and translational research have significantly enhanced our understanding of disease pathogenesis and have sparked the development of novel therapies. Novel agents include the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide, the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase pathway inhibitor idelalisib and the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. Preliminary results from clinical trials, especially from studies of ibrutinib, have proven these agents to be effective. In ongoing studies, these agents are being integrated into conventional immunochemotherapy regimens to hopefully improve patient outcomes.

  14. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  15. Remaining time and opportunities at work: Relationships between age, work characteristics, and occupational future time perspective.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Frese, Michael

    2009-06-01

    The authors adapted the concept of future time perspective (FTP) to the work context and examined its relationships with age and work characteristics (job complexity and control). Structural equation modeling of data from 176 employees of various occupations showed that age is negatively related to 2 distinct dimensions of occupational FTP: remaining time and remaining opportunities. Work characteristics (job complexity and control) were positively related to remaining opportunities and moderated the relationship between age and remaining opportunities, such that the relationship became weaker with increasing levels of job complexity and control.

  16. Taphonomic alterations by the rodent species woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T

    2015-12-01

    This forensic case report describes the taphonomic effects of woodland vole (Microtus pinetorum) upon a set of skeletonized human remains recovered in Massachusetts, USA. Remains of an individual of this rodent species were discovered where it had been nesting inside the human cranium. Fine, parallel grooves indicative of small rodent gnawing were noted on multiple postcranial elements, and all isolated grooves were consistent in size with the incisors of this species. Other taphonomic alterations to these remains include some gnawing damage and dispersal by large carnivores. This case represents the first report of this rodent species affecting human remains.

  17. Software agents and the route to the information economy

    PubMed Central

    Kephart, Jeffrey O.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are on the verge of losing their status as the sole economic species on the planet. In private laboratories and in the Internet laboratory, researchers and developers are creating a variety of autonomous economically motivated software agents endowed with algorithms for maximizing profit or utility. Many economic software agents will function as miniature businesses, purchasing information inputs from other agents, combining and refining them into information goods and services, and selling them to humans or other agents. Their mutual interactions will form the information economy: a complex economic web of information goods and services that will adapt to the ever-changing needs of people and agents. The information economy will be the largest multiagent system ever conceived and an integral part of the world's economy. I discuss a possible route toward this vision, beginning with present-day Internet trends suggesting that agents will charge one another for information goods and services. Then, to establish that agents can be competent price setters, I describe some laboratory experiments pitting software bidding agents against human bidders. The agents' superior performance suggests they will be used on a broad scale, which in turn suggests that interactions among agents will become frequent and significant. How will this affect macroscopic economic behavior? I describe some interesting phenomena that my colleagues and I have observed in simulations of large populations of automated buyers and sellers, such as price war cycles. I conclude by discussing fundamental scientific challenges that remain to be addressed as we journey toward the information economy. PMID:12011399

  18. A communication network within the cytoplasmic domain of toll-like receptors has remained conserved during evolution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shikha; Pandey, Kalpana; Rathore, Yogendra S; Sagar, Amin; Pattnaik, U Bharat K; Ashish

    2014-01-01

    Toll/IL-1R (TIR) domain, that is, the cytoplasmic domain, in toll-like receptors (TLRs) from different species showed high sequence conservation in stretches spread across the surface as well as the core of the domain. To probe the structure-function significance of these residues, especially those coming from the core of TIR domains, we analyzed molecular dynamics trajectories of sequence similarity based models of human TIR domains. This study brought forth that N-terminal of the TIR domain simultaneously interacts with the flanking residues of the BB loop and central β-sheets. At the same time, residues of the central β-strands form favorable contacts with the DD loop and C-terminal, thus forming a two-way circuit between the N- and C-termini. In this work, the array of intradomain interactions is termed as communication network. Importantly, the "hubs" of this communication network were found to be conserved in all human TLRs. Earlier mutagenesis-function correlation work brought forth that certain mutations in the "core" of the TIR domain of TLR4 (e.g. in IFI767-769AAA and L815A) led to almost complete abrogation of signaling and reasoning for this dramatic loss-of-function has remained unclear, since these sites are not surface exposed. Using MD studies, we show here that this communication network gets disrupted in mutants of human TLR4 which were earlier reported to be functionally compromised. Extension of MD studies to heterodimer of TLR1/2 suggested that this evolutionarily conserved communication network senses the interactions formed upon dimerization and relays it to surfaces which are not involved in direct interdomain contacts.

  19. 13 CFR 103.3 - May SBA suspend or revoke an Agent's privilege?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrator of SBA or designee may, for good cause, suspend or revoke the privilege of any Agent to conduct... revoke the privilege. The suspension or revocation remains in effect during the pendency of...

  20. 13 CFR 103.3 - May SBA suspend or revoke an Agent's privilege?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator of SBA or designee may, for good cause, suspend or revoke the privilege of any Agent to conduct... revoke the privilege. The suspension or revocation remains in effect during the pendency of...

  1. Oral contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Shearman, R P

    1986-02-17

    The history of the development of oral contraceptives (OCs) has been a progressive reduction in dosage to what is now probably the lowest does that is compatible with the desired therapeutic effect -- to inhibit ovluation. Yet, controversy and argument continue. A table lists the OCs that are available in Australia. Many of these preparations, although having different trade names, have an identical composition. Since the withdrawal of sequential OCs from the Australian market, there are only 2 generic types. These are the progestogen only (mini) OCs, which consist of either 30 mcg of levonorgestrel or 350 mcg of norethisterone given at the same time every day; and the combined OCs, which contain an estrogen and a progestogen. In the last 12 months, some of the older high-dose OCs have been withdrawn, and it seems likely that further withdrawals will follow. Only 2 estrogens are used in the formulation of the OC, but there is a greater variety of progestogens. Ethinyl estradiol is used in most preparations. A small minority of OCs contain mestranol, the 3-methyl ether of ethinyl estradiol. Currently, there are only 4 OC agents that are available in Australia that contain mestranol and 2 of these contain the high doses of 100 mcg. Fundamentally, there are 2 types of progestogens -- those that contain, or are metabolized to, norethisterone and those that contain norgestrel or its close relative, desogestrel. With the exception of the norgestrel group and desogestrel, all other progestins, including norethisterone itself, are effective in vivo after they have been metablized to norethisterone. Mestranol is effective in humans after demethylation to ethinyl estradiol. In the norgesterel group, since d-norgestrel is inert endocrinologically, 250 mcg of levonorgestrel and 500 mcg of dl-norgestrel are equivalent. Levonorgestrel and desogestrel are of approximately equal potency. With the combined OC agents, the overwhelming mechanism of action is by the inhibition of the

  2. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  3. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial markets..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs... or cause to be appointed agent(s) to perform functions necessary to market and service Debentures...

  4. Gelled Anti-icing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

  5. Field Agent Activities: Level 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gussett, James

    One of a series of monographs providing information about the Delaware Model: A Systems Approach to Science Education (Del Mod System), this monograph describes the role of field agents. These agents are responsible for individual teachers who express a desire for involvement in improving teacher effectiveness and to be involved in the teaching of…

  6. 14 CFR 121.393 - Crewmember requirements at stops where passengers remain on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ensure that a person who is qualified in the emergency evacuation procedures for the airplane, as... are shut down; and (ii) At least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning of... are shut down; (ii) At least one floor level exit remains open to provide for the deplaning...

  7. Career Motivation in Newly Licensed Registered Nurses: What Makes Them Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Zarata Mann; Bailey, Jessica H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite vast research on newly licensed registered nurses (RNs), we don't know why some newly licensed registered nurses remain in their current jobs and others leave the nursing profession early in their career. Job satisfaction, the most significant factor emerging from the literature, plays a significant role in nurses' decisions to remain in…

  8. 22 CFR 72.30 - Provisions in a will or advanced directive regarding disposition of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... WELFARE OF AMERICANS, THEIR PROPERTY AND ESTATES DEATHS AND ESTATES Real Property Overseas Belonging to A... disposition of remains. United States state law regarding advance directives, deaths and estates include provisions regarding a person's right to direct disposition of remains. Host country law may or may...

  9. 76 FR 58037 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Funerary Objects in the Possession of the Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO... Society (History Colorado) completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, and... cultural affiliation with the human remains should contact the Colorado Historical Society at the...

  10. 78 FR 25470 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated... Parkway has corrected an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, published in a Notice of Inventory Completion Correction in the Federal Register on April 1, 2005. This notice corrects...

  11. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  12. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  13. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  14. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  15. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  16. "SINCE I MUST PLEASE THOSE BELOW": HUMAN SKELETAL REMAINS RESEARCH AND THE LAW.

    PubMed

    Holland, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The ethics of non-invasive scientific research on human skeletal remains are poorly articulated and lack a single, definitive analogue in western law. Laws governing invasive research on human fleshed remains, as well as bio-ethical principles established for research on living subjects, provide effective models for the establishment of ethical guidelines for non-invasive research on human skeletal remains. Specifically, non-invasive analysis of human remains is permissible provided that the analysis and collection of resulting data (1) are accomplished with respect for the dignity of the individual, (2) do not violate the last-known desire of the deceased, (3) do not adversely impact the right of the next of kin to perform a ceremonious and decent disposal of the remains, and (4) do not unduly or maliciously violate the privacy interests of the next of kin.

  17. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  18. After rotator cuff tears, the remaining (intact) tendons are mechanically altered.

    PubMed

    Perry, Stephanie M; Getz, Charles L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2009-01-01

    Although presumed, damage in the remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons in the presence of an isolated supraspinatus tendon tear or multiple tendon tear has not been well studied. This study used an animal model of multiple rotator cuff tendon tears to investigate alterations in the remaining (intact) tendon mechanical properties at 4 and 8 weeks after injury. Twenty-four rats served as uninjured controls, whereas 72 were divided among 3 tendon detachment groups: supraspinatus tendon detachment, supraspinatus + infraspinatus tendon detachment, and supraspinatus + subscapularis tendon detachment. The remaining (intact) rotator cuff tendons had decreased mechanical properties in the presence of rotator cuff tears. The remaining (intact) subscapularis and infraspinatus tendon cross-sectional areas increased, whereas tendon modulus decreased after tears of both 1 and 2 tendons. The remaining (intact) tendon cross-sectional areas continued to increase with time after injury. These alterations could potentially lead to further tendon damage and tear progression.

  19. Adaptive muscle plasticity of a remaining agonist following denervation of its close synergists in a model of complete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dambreville, Charline; Charest, Jérémie; Thibaudier, Yann; Hurteau, Marie-France; Kuczynski, Victoria; Grenier, Guillaume; Frigon, Alain

    2016-09-01

    Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear whether the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion after spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 wk after denervation. Muscle histology was performed on LG and medial gastrocnemius (MG) bilaterally in four spinal and four intact cats. In spinal cats, cycle duration for the hindlimb ipsilateral or contralateral to the denervation could be significantly increased or decreased compared with predenervation values. Stance duration was generally increased and decreased for the contralateral and ipsilateral hindlimbs, respectively. The EMG amplitude of MG was significantly increased bilaterally after denervation and remained elevated 8 wk after denervation. In spinal cats the ipsilateral LG was significantly smaller than the contralateral LG, whereas the ipsilateral MG weighed significantly more than the contralateral MG. Histological characterizations revealed significantly larger fiber areas for type IIa fibers of the ipsilateral MG in three of four spinal cats. Microvascular density in the ipsilateral MG was significantly higher than in the contralateral MG. In intact cats, no differences were found for muscle weight, fiber area, or microvascular density between homologous muscles. Therefore, the remaining motor system after complete SCI retains the ability to produce adaptive muscle plasticity.

  20. Departments as Agents of Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1996-07-01

    the principal agents for recasting American higher education might appear to some like putting a fox in charge of the chicken coop. For many observers, departments epitomize everything that is wrong with higher education. Departments have come to be viewed as the agents of a discipline that draw faculty attention away from their home institution, and seek to sustain individual privilege at the expense of initiatives designed to enhance learning and teaching. Departments have been portrayed as clans of arrogant experts accountable only to their own personal agendas and to their disciplines. From this rather harsh point of view, departments have become privatized as they and their institutions strive to enhance their reputations through the faculty they hire, often at the expense of undergraduate teaching. Faculty define their interests in increasingly narrow terms, which in turn is often reflected in the courses they teach. As individual courses come to represent the increasingly specialized views of their faculty-owners, the curriculum begins to lose focus and coherence. Thus, the privatization of faculty effort has far-reaching effects on an institution's educational mission. In spite of its apparent flaws, the department, more than any other unit, stands the best chance of providing the basis of change that can renew higher education. Although individual faculty members may find their greatest rewards elsewhere, a department can only be rewarded on the basis of the combined efforts and accomplishments of its collective faculty. This fact alone makes departments an obvious vehicle for change. Furthermore, institutional support for a discipline is focused in the department, as is the institution's responsibility for teaching undergraduates. For a department to compete effectively in the new marketplace, it must ensure that its members remain active scholars who are not only expert in their primary fields, but also open to inter- and cross-disciplinary opportunities

  1. Usefulness of selective COX-2 inhibitors as therapeutic agents against canine mammary tumors.

    PubMed

    Saito, Teruyoshi; Tamura, Dai; Asano, Ryuji

    2014-04-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme for converting arachidonic acids to prostanoids, which are known to be induced during inflammation and cancer initiation. Previously, it has been reported that COX inhibitors, such as aspirin, reduce the incidence of human colorectal cancer; therefore, it is widely believed that COX-2 is a potential therapeutic and chemoprevention target for several types of human cancer. However, whether selective COX-2 inhibitors have antitumor effects against canine mammary tumor cells remains unclear. In the present study, to elucidate the antitumor effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors against canine mammary tumors, we investigated the antitumor effects of meloxicam, etodolac and celecoxib using COX-2-expressing canine mammary tumor (CF33) cells. We analyzed the effects of selective COX-2 inhibitors on COX-2 protein expression levels in CF33 cells. Celecoxib (100 µM) was found to induce downregulation of COX-2 protein expression. We examined the effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on CF33 cell proliferation. All the selective COX-2 inhibitors suppressed CF33 cell growth. Specifically, etodolac and celecoxib inhibited cell proliferation via a decrease in S-phase cells and an increase in G0/G1 arrest. We examined the apoptotic effect of selective COX-2 inhibitors on CF33 cells. Our data suggested that etodolac and celecoxib induced apoptosis in CF33 cells. In particular, celecoxib led to apoptosis mediated by the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, including the upregulation of BAX expression, downregulation of Bcl-2 expression and activation of caspase-3/7. Furthermore, celecoxib increased the percentages of cells in both early apoptosis and late apoptosis. Our results revealed that celecoxib induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in CF33 cells. The data suggested that celecoxib is the most viable candidate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of canine mammary tumors. Furthermore, our findings provide the first

  2. Mass classification in mammography with multi-agent based fusion of human and machine intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Dongdong; Fan, Ming; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Shan, Yanna; Dai, Gang; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system can be applied for classifying the breast masses, the effects of this method on improvement of the radiologist' accuracy for distinguishing malignant from benign lesions still remain unclear. This study provided a novel method to classify breast masses by integrating the intelligence of human and machine. In this research, 224 breast masses were selected in mammography from database of DDSM with Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories. Three observers (a senior and a junior radiologist, as well as a radiology resident) were employed to independently read and classify these masses utilizing the Positive Predictive Values (PPV) for each BI-RADS category. Meanwhile, a CAD system was also implemented for classification of these breast masses between malignant and benign. To combine the decisions from the radiologists and CAD, the fusion method of the Multi-Agent was provided. Significant improvements are observed for the fusion system over solely radiologist or CAD. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the fusion system increased by 9.6%, 10.3% and 21% compared to that of radiologists with senior, junior and resident level, respectively. In addition, the AUC of this method based on the fusion of each radiologist and CAD are 3.5%, 3.6% and 3.3% higher than that of CAD alone. Finally, the fusion of the three radiologists with CAD achieved AUC value of 0.957, which was 5.6% larger compared to CAD. Our results indicated that the proposed fusion method has better performance than radiologist or CAD alone.

  3. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  4. The presence of the gadolinium-based contrast agent depositions in the brain and symptoms of gadolinium neurotoxicity - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Olchowy, Cyprian; Cebulski, Kamil; Łasecki, Mateusz; Chaber, Radosław; Olchowy, Anna; Kałwak, Krzysztof; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCAs) are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, but recently, high signal intensity in the cerebellum structures was reported after repeated administrations of contrast- enhanced magnetic resonance images. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the association between increased signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus in the brain and repeated administrations of GBCAs. Additionally, we focused on possible short- and long-term consequences of gadolinium use in those patients. Methods Systematic review of retrospective investigations in PubMed and Medline was performed in July 2016. Primary outcomes included the presence of increased signal intensity within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images in patients following administrations of GBCAs. Two independent reviewers were responsible for search and data extraction. Results 25 publications satisfied inclusion criteria (19 magnetic resonance images analyses, 3 case reports; 3 autopsy studies). Magnetic resonance images of 1247 patients with increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images were analyzed as well as tissue specimens from 27 patients. Signal intensity correlated positively with the exposure to GBCAs and was greater after serial administrations of linear nonionic than cyclic contrast agents. Gadolinium was detected in all tissue examinations. Conclusions High signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus on unenhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were associated with previous administration of GBCAs. Signal intensity correlated negatively with stability of contrast agents. Clinical significance of gadolinium deposition in the brain remains unclear. There is a strong need for further research to identify type of gadolinium deposited in the brain as well as to gather knowledge about long-term consequences. PMID:28187173

  5. Rapid Screening of Novel Agents for Combination Therapy in Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Cubitt, Christopher L.; Menth, Jiliana; Martinez, Gary V.; Foroutan, Parastou; Morse, David L.; Bui, Marilyn M.; Letson, G. Douglas; Sullivan, Daniel M.; Reed, Damon R.

    2013-01-01

    For patients with sarcoma, metastatic disease remains very difficult to cure, and outcomes remain less than optimal. Treatment options have not largely changed, although some promising gains have been made with single agents in specific subtypes with the use of targeted agents. Here, we developed a system to investigate synergy of combinations of targeted and cytotoxic agents in a panel of sarcoma cell lines. Agents were investigated alone and in combination with varying dose ratios. Dose-response curves were analyzed for synergy using methods derived from Chou and Talalay (1984). A promising combination, dasatinib and triciribine, was explored in a murine model using the A673 cell line, and tumors were evaluated by MRI and histology for therapy effect. We found that histone deacetylase inhibitors were synergistic with etoposide, dasatinib, and Akt inhibitors across cell lines. Sorafenib and topotecan demonstrated a mixed response. Our systematic drug screening method allowed us to screen a large number of combinations of sarcoma agents. This method can be easily modified to accommodate other cell line models, and confirmatory assays, such as animal experiments, can provide excellent preclinical data to inform clinical trials for these rare malignancies. PMID:24282374

  6. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk.

  7. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  8. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  9. Properties and effects of remaining carbon from waste plastics gasifying on iron scale reduction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2011-06-01

    The carbonous activities of three kinds of carbon-bearing materials gasified from plastics were tested with coal coke as reference. The results showed that the carbonous activities of these remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. Besides, the fractal analyses showed that the porosities of remaining carbon-bearing materials were higher than that of coal-coke. It revealed that these kinds of remaining carbon-bearing materials are conducive to improve the kinetics conditions of gas-solid phase reaction in iron scale reduction.

  10. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  11. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  13. North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North façade, entrance. The square tower has the remains of a sign, Kaiser Foundation Hospital. Horizontal ribbon windows continue on this façade. - Richmond Field Hospital, 1330 Cutting Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  14. IET control building (TAN620). remains of periscope connections and control ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET control building (TAN-620). remains of periscope connections and control console at far west wall of control room. facing westerly. INEEL negative no. HD-21-2-2 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Simple and highly effective DNA extraction methods from old skeletal remains using silica columns.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Sim, Jeong Eun; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2010-10-01

    The recovery of DNA data from old skeletal remains is often difficult due to degraded and very low yield of extracted DNA and the presence of PCR inhibitors. Herein, we compared several silica-based DNA extraction methods from artificially degraded DNA, DNA with PCR inhibitors and DNA from old skeletal remains using quantitative real-time PCR. We present a modified large-scale silica-based extraction combined with complete demineralization, that enables maximum DNA recovery and efficient elimination of PCR inhibitors. This is performed with high concentration of EDTA solution for demineralization of bone powder followed by QIAamp spin columns and buffers from the QIAquick PCR purification kit. We have successfully used this modified technique to perform STR analysis for 55-year-old skeletal remains. The results of this study will contribute to solve the forensic cases dealing with skeletal remains.

  16. Isolation of PCR ready-human DNA using copper nanoparticles from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Anand; Ansari, Niha; Shah, Shahil; Rao, M V; Menon, Shobhana K

    2017-01-01

    Present study represents a novel approach of PCR ready-human DNA extraction method from skeletal remains using copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) for personnel identification. To achieve rapid, cost effective, sensitive and non-hazardous method for DNA extraction we utilized CuNPs synthesized using microwave. The applicability of this approach was first tested in blood samples and afterwards, this system was extended to skeletal remains' samples also. This method yields good quality DNA that are ready for PCR reactions from small quantities of blood and skeletal remains. Consequently, even small quantities of nanoparticles could be potentially utilized for a highly efficient isolation of DNA from skeletal remains as well as from ancient archaeological samples. The present method has the advantages that it is quick with high yield, inexpensive, robust, environment friendly and does not require use of hazardous organic solvents.

  17. Determining postmortem interval using glycoproteinous adhesion deposits by Balanus improvisus on human skeletal and dental remains.

    PubMed

    Bytheway, Joan A; Pustilnik, Stephen M

    2013-01-01

    An anthropological analysis was conducted on skeletal and dental remains brought to the Galveston County Medical Examiner's office. The skeletal remains were dry, fragmented, and absent of typical fluvial characteristics. During microscopic examination, semitransparent, circular objects were discovered on the dentition, the mandible, tibial plateau, and distal femur. The objects were glycoproteinous adhesions deposited by the acorn barnacle, Balanus improvisus. B. improvisus is an intertidal barnacle found in estuaries in Galveston Bay. Basal diameter of the adhesions on the dentition were significantly smaller than those found on the postcranial bones (p = 0.010), indicating two consecutive cohorts adhered to the bone and dentition. As settlement typically occurs once a year, this would indicate that the remains were in the fluvial environment for at least 375-410 days. It is important in geographic areas that have prevalent fluvial environments that human remains, particularly dentition, are microscopically examined for marine life evidence.

  18. Italy makes U-turn on nuclear power, but hurdles remain

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-15

    A consortium consisting of ENEL and EDF in partnership with others including Edison, a major generator, and possibly a number of heavy industrial electricity users could invest in nuclear plants. But many technical, political, regulatory, and financial hurdles remain.

  19. View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 2, the remains of the Geology/Change Room, view to the southeast - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. Enzymes and other agents that enhance cell wall extensibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    Polysaccharides and proteins are secreted to the inner surface of the growing cell wall, where they assemble into a network that is mechanically strong, yet remains extensible until the cells cease growth. This review focuses on the agents that directly or indirectly enhance the extensibility properties of growing walls. The properties of expansins, endoglucanases, and xyloglucan transglycosylases are reviewed and their postulated roles in modulating wall extensibility are evaluated. A summary model for wall extension is presented, in which expansin is a primary agent of wall extension, whereas endoglucanases, xyloglucan endotransglycosylase, and other enzymes that alter wall structure act secondarily to modulate expansin action.

  1. Improving Access To Novel Agents For Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weili; Gaynon, Paul S.; Sposto, Richard; Wayne, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer. Despite great progress in the development of curative therapy, leukemia remains a leading cause of death from disease in childhood and survivors are at life-long risk of complications of treatment. New agents are needed to further increase cure rates and decrease treatment-associated toxicities. The complex biology and aggressive nature of childhood leukemia, coupled with the relatively small patient population available for study, pose specific challenges to the development of new therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies and initiatives designed to improve access to new agents in the treatment of pediatric leukemia. PMID:25678105

  2. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  3. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  4. Uncertainty Quantification in Remaining Useful Life of Aerospace Components using State Space Models and Inverse FORM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of the inverse first-order reliability method (inverse- FORM) to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life (RUL) of aerospace components. The prediction of remaining useful life is an integral part of system health prognosis, and directly helps in online health monitoring and decision-making. However, the prediction of remaining useful life is affected by several sources of uncertainty, and therefore it is necessary to quantify the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. While system parameter uncertainty and physical variability can be easily included in inverse-FORM, this paper extends the methodology to include: (1) future loading uncertainty, (2) process noise; and (3) uncertainty in the state estimate. The inverse-FORM method has been used in this paper to (1) quickly obtain probability bounds on the remaining useful life prediction; and (2) calculate the entire probability distribution of remaining useful life prediction, and the results are verified against Monte Carlo sampling. The proposed methodology is illustrated using a numerical example.

  5. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  6. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  7. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  8. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rio; Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2015-02-01

    Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal-distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal-distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure.

  9. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Jiao, Yu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Potok, Thomas E.; Lusk, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  10. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange VA presumes Veterans' early-onset ... percent disabling by VA's rating regulations. About peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy is a condition of the peripheral ...

  11. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  12. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  13. Tissue Penetration of Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Felton, Timothy; Troke, Peter F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Understanding the tissue penetration of systemically administered antifungal agents is critical for a proper appreciation of their antifungal efficacy in animals and humans. Both the time course of an antifungal drug and its absolute concentrations within tissues may differ significantly from those observed in the bloodstream. In addition, tissue concentrations must also be interpreted within the context of the pathogenesis of the various invasive fungal infections, which differ significantly. There are major technical obstacles to the estimation of concentrations of antifungal agents in various tissue subcompartments, yet these agents, even those within the same class, may exhibit markedly different tissue distributions. This review explores these issues and provides a summary of tissue concentrations of 11 currently licensed systemic antifungal agents. It also explores the therapeutic implications of their distribution at various sites of infection. PMID:24396137

  14. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  15. Peripheral Neuropathy and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Research on peripheral neuropathy and herbicides The Health ...

  16. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible for a free Agent Orange registry health exam . Surviving spouses, dependent children and dependent parents of ...

  17. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Recent Advances and Remaining Gaps in the Exposure Assessment Methods.

    PubMed

    Khreis, Haneen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2017-03-17

    Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research. Methods: We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published up until 8 September 2016 and available in Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and "Transport database". We included studies which examined the association between children's exposure to TRAP metrics and their risk of "asthma" incidence or lifetime prevalence, from birth to the age of 18 years old. Results: We found 42 studies which examined the associations between TRAP and subsequent childhood asthma incidence or lifetime prevalence, published since 1999. Land-use regression modelling was the most commonly used method and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) was the most commonly used pollutant in the exposure assessments. Most studies estimated TRAP exposure at the residential address and only a few considered the participants' mobility. TRAP exposure was mostly assessed at the birth year and only a few studies considered different and/or multiple exposure time windows. We recommend that further work is needed including e.g., the use of new exposure metrics such as the composition of particulate matter, oxidative potential and ultra-fine particles, improved modelling e.g., by combining different exposure assessment models, including mobility of the participants, and systematically investigating different exposure time windows. Conclusions: Although our previous meta-analysis found statistically significant associations for various TRAP exposures and

  19. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Childhood Asthma: Recent Advances and Remaining Gaps in the Exposure Assessment Methods

    PubMed Central

    Khreis, Haneen; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current levels of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) are associated with the development of childhood asthma, although some inconsistencies and heterogeneity remain. An important part of the uncertainty in studies of TRAP-associated asthma originates from uncertainties in the TRAP exposure assessment and assignment methods. In this work, we aim to systematically review the exposure assessment methods used in the epidemiology of TRAP and childhood asthma, highlight recent advances, remaining research gaps and make suggestions for further research. Methods: We systematically reviewed epidemiological studies published up until 8 September 2016 and available in Embase, Ovid MEDLINE (R), and “Transport database”. We included studies which examined the association between children’s exposure to TRAP metrics and their risk of “asthma” incidence or lifetime prevalence, from birth to the age of 18 years old. Results: We found 42 studies which examined the associations between TRAP and subsequent childhood asthma incidence or lifetime prevalence, published since 1999. Land-use regression modelling was the most commonly used method and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was the most commonly used pollutant in the exposure assessments. Most studies estimated TRAP exposure at the residential address and only a few considered the participants’ mobility. TRAP exposure was mostly assessed at the birth year and only a few studies considered different and/or multiple exposure time windows. We recommend that further work is needed including e.g., the use of new exposure metrics such as the composition of particulate matter, oxidative potential and ultra-fine particles, improved modelling e.g., by combining different exposure assessment models, including mobility of the participants, and systematically investigating different exposure time windows. Conclusions: Although our previous meta-analysis found statistically significant associations for various TRAP exposures and

  20. Molecular targeting agents in cancer therapy: science and society.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Asim Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The inception of targeted agents has revolutionized the cancer therapy paradigm, both for physicians and patients. A large number of molecular targeted agents for cancer therapy are currently available for clinical use today. Many more are in making, but there are issues that remain to be resolved for the scientific as well as social community before the recommendation of their widespread use in may clinical scenarios can be done, one such issue being cost and cost effectiveness, others being resistance and lack of sustained efficacy. With the current knowledge about available targeted agents, the growing knowledge of intricate molecular pathways and unfolding of wider spectrum of molecular targets that can really matter in the disease control, calls for only the just use of the agents available now, drug companies need to make a serious attempt to reduce the cost of the agents. Research should focus on agents that show sustained responses in preclinical data. More needs to be done in laboratories and by the pharmaceutical industries, before we can truly claim to have entered a new era of targeted therapy in cancer care.

  1. What makes virtual agents believable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  2. Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening our understanding

    PubMed Central

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Cummings, Greta; Cranley, Lisa A; Ferron, Era Mae; Harvey, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Title Determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed: broadening ourunderstanding. Aim This paper is a report of a study to identify nurse reported determinants of intention to remain employed and to develop a model explaining determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed. Background A worsening shortage of nurses globally suggests that efforts must be made to promote retention of nurses. However, effective retention promotion strategies depend on understanding the factors influencing nurse retention. Methods A descriptive study using focus group methodology was implemented. Thirteen focus groups including 78 nurses were carried out in two Canadian provinces in 2007. Thematic analysis strategies were incorporated to analyse the data. Findings Eight thematic categories reflecting factors nurses described as influencing their intentions to remain employed emerged from focus groups: (1) relationships with co-workers, (2) condition of the work environment, (3) relationship with and support from one’s manager, (4) work rewards, (5) organizational support and practices, (6) physical and psychological responses to work, (7) patient relationships and other job content, and (8) external factors. A model of determinants of hospital nurse intention to remain employed is hypothesized. Conclusion Findings were both similar to and different from previous research. The overriding concept of job satisfaction was not found. Rather, nurse assessments of satisfaction within eight thematic categories were found to influence intentions to remain employed. Further testing of the hypothesized model is required to determine its global utility. Understanding determinants of intention to remain employed can lead to development of strategies that strengthen nurse retention. Incorporation of this knowledge in nurse education programmes is essential. PMID:20423434

  3. Permeability of dentin to adhesive agents.

    PubMed

    Pashley, D H; Ciucchi, B; Sano, H; Horner, J A

    1993-09-01

    The permeability of dentin to adhesive agents is of crucial importance in obtaining good dentinal bonding. In those systems that remove the smear layer, the opportunity exists for resin to infiltrate both tubules and intertubular dentin. Resin penetration into tubules can effectively seal the tubules and can contribute to bond strength if the resin bonds to the tubule wall. Resin infiltration into intertubular dentin can only occur if the mineral phase of dentin is removed by acidic conditioners or chelators. This is more easily accomplished in fractured dentin than in smear layer-covered dentin because of the residual collagen debris that remains on the surface following acid etching of smear layers. The channels for resin infiltration are the perifibrillar spaces created around the collagen fibers of dentin following removal of apatite mineral by acids. The diffusion of adhesive resins through these narrow, tortuous, long channels in 1 to 2 minutes offers a number of challenges that require further research.

  4. Nicotine: abused substance and therapeutic agent.

    PubMed Central

    Le Houezec, J

    1998-01-01

    Tobacco dependence is a complex phenomenon that is not fully understood. Nicotine is the main alkaloid in tobacco and the addictive compound of tobacco. It can improve both mood and cognitive functioning; these positive effects are strong reinforcements for smokers and contribute to their addiction. Opposite results also have been reported, however, and the effects of nicotine remain controversial. Recent epidemiological and empirical studies have indicated that smoking or nicotine or both may have protective effects against certain diseases. These findings have suggested that nicotine may be used as a therapeutic agent. However, because a variety of nicotinic cholinergic receptors are present in the brain, new agonist compounds may prove to be more effective than nicotine for therapeutic purposes. Studies are reviewed and the suggestion made that nicotine may prove useful as a tool to help us understand normal and pathological brain functioning. PMID:9549250

  5. Transmission of flea-borne zoonotic agents.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Flea-borne zoonoses such as plague (Yersinia pestis) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) caused significant numbers of human cases in the past and remain a public health concern. Other flea-borne human pathogens have emerged recently (e.g., Bartonella henselae, Rickettsia felis), and their mechanisms of transmission and impact on human health are not fully understood. Our review focuses on the ecology and epidemiology of the flea-borne bacterial zoonoses mentioned above with an emphasis on recent advancements in our understanding of how these organisms are transmitted by fleas, maintained in zoonotic cycles, and transmitted to humans. Emphasis is given to plague because of the considerable number of studies generated during the first decade of the twenty-first century that arose, in part, because of renewed interest in potential agents of bioterrorism, including Y. pestis.

  6. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  7. Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

  8. A novel approach of remaining discharge energy prediction for large format lithium-ion battery pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yujie; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai

    2017-03-01

    Accurate estimation of battery pack remaining discharge energy is a crucial challenge to the battery energy storage systems. In this paper, a new method of battery pack remaining discharge energy estimation is proposed using the recursive least square-unscented Kalman filter. To predict the remaining discharge energy precisely, the inconsistency of the battery pack caused by different working temperatures is taken into consideration and the degree of battery inconsistency is quantified based on mathematical methods of statistics. In addition, the recursive least square is applied to identify the parameters of the battery pack model on-line and the unscented Kalman filter is employed in battery pack remaining discharge energy and energy utilization ratio estimation. The experimental results in terms of battery states estimation under the new European driving cycle and real driven profiles, with the root mean square error less than 0.01, further verify that the proposed method can estimate the battery pack remaining discharge energy with high accuracy. What's more, the relationship between the pack energy utilization ratio and the degree of battery inconsistency is summarized in the paper.

  9. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  10. Comparative efficacy of handwashing agents against cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Faix, R G

    1987-04-01

    Conscientious handwashing is often recommended as an important method for limiting transmission of cytomegalovirus (CMV) from infected individuals to health, education, and child care professionals. To assess the efficacy of handwashing, fingertips of radiation-sterilized latex gloves were inoculated with 0.2 mL of ten different CMV strains. Virus in each inoculum was quantitated by plaque assay. After five minutes, viral inocula were allowed to remain (control), or were washed away by dropwise application of 10 mL of distilled water (DI), 5 mL of 0.08% soap followed by 5 mL of DI, 5 mL of 0.01% chlorhexidine gluconate followed by 5 mL of DI, or 5 mL of 0.025% povidone-iodine solution followed by 5 mL of DI. Separate glove fingertips were sampled 5, 15, 30, 60, 120 and 240 minutes after washing and cultured in duplicate for CMV. Similar studies were performed using human cadaver skin. Ordinary soap was as effective at preventing CMV recovery as other more expensive agents. For inocula with less than 5 log10 pfu CMV/mL, washing with water alone was as effective as other agents. This was confirmed in similar studies with human hands using five CMV stains. Handwashing is probably an effective method for removing CMV from contaminated hands.

  11. Lipid-based antifungal agents: current status.

    PubMed

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients are well known to be predisposed to developing invasive fungal infections. These infections are usually difficult to diagnose and more importantly, the resulting mortality rate is high. The limited number of antifungal agents available and their high rate of toxicity are the major factors complicating the issue. However, the development of lipid-based formulations of existing antifungal agents has opened a new era in antifungal therapy. The best examples are the lipid-based amphotericin B preparations, amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC; Abelcet), amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD; Amphotec or Amphocil), and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome). These formulations have shown that antifungal activity is maintained while toxicity is reduced. This progress is followed by the incorporation of nystatin into liposomes. Liposomal nystatin formulation is under development and studies of it have provided encouraging data. Finally, lipid-based formulations of hamycin, miconazole, and ketoconazole have been developed but remain experimental. Advances in technology of liposomes and other lipid formulations have provided promising new tools for management of fungal infections.

  12. Targeting tumor glycolysis by a mitotropic agent.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy-Kanniappan, Shanmugasundaram

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of cancer. Altered metabolism in cancer cells is exemplified by enhanced glucose utilization, a biochemical signature that is clinically exploited for cancer diagnosis using positron-emission tomography and computed tomography imaging. Accordingly, disrupting the glucose metabolism of cancer cells has been contemplated as a potential therapeutic strategy against cancer. Experimental evidences indicate that targeting glucose metabolism by inhibition of glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation promotes anticancer effects. Yet, successful clinical translation of antimetabolites or energy blockers to treat cancer remains a challenge, primarily due to lack of efficacy and/or systemic toxicity. Recently, using nanotechnology, Marrache and Dhar have documented the feasibility of delivering a glycolytic inhibitor through triphenylphosphonium (TPP), a mitotropic agent that selectively targets mitochondria based on membrane potential. Furthermore, by utilizing gold nanoparticles the investigators also demonstrated the potential for simultaneous induction of photothermal therapy, thus facilitating an additional line of attack on cancer cells. The report establishes that specific inhibition of tumor glycolysis is achievable through TPP-dependent selective targeting of cancer cells. This nanotechnological approach involving TPP-guided selective delivery of an antiglycolytic agent complemented with photothermal therapy provides a new window of opportunity for effective and specific targeting of tumor glycolysis.

  13. Use of progestational agents in endometrial adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rozier, J C; Underwood, P B

    1974-07-01

    Since 1963 there have been 266 patients with cancer of the uterine fundus at the Medical University of South Carolina. Progestational agents were used to treat 54 but 10 received the drugs for less than 1 month. This report relates to the remaining 44. 34 were treated with Depo-Provera (medroxyprogesterone acetate), 9 with Colprone (megestrone acetate), and 1 with Megace (megestrol acetate). Of the 34 patients treated with Depo-Provera 13 showed regression of the tumor; 3 of the 9 treated with Colprone showed regression. In an additional 11 (25%) of cases growth of the tumors was arrested. 7 of these were later found to have abdominal metastases; however, 3 were free of symptoms for over 43 months. A patient on Depo-Provera with lung metastases had recurrence after 62 months when treatment was reduced to every other week but when Colprone was then given, regression again occurred and has continued for almost 10 years. Another patient not responding to Depo-Provera did respond to Colprone. Average duration of regression was 27.7 months, of survival 31.1 months. Arrest of growth was 25 months in some; survival averaged 23.4 months. (The 1 Megace case was in this group.)y Those having progression of tumors lived an average of 9 months with the longest survival 24 months. Of the responders 8 lived from 44 to 111 months and 5 remain alive, 4 now showing no evidence of the cancer. Tumors with well-differentiated, slow-growing lesions were most likely to respond. Site of recurrence did not seem to influence the response. No contraindications were found to use of progestational agents in this type of cancer. Local reactions to the injections were few. Subjective response was frequent even though progression was taking place.

  14. Learning in multi-agent systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, C.V.

    1996-12-31

    Learning agents acting in a multi agent environment can improve their performance. These agents might decide upon their course of action by learning about other agents with whom they interact. The learning agents can learn about the others information and rules of behavior. The agents will not need to plan their actions beforehand, each time they are asked to solve the same problem they have already solved or when dealing with similar problems.

  15. Impact of CRAB Symptoms in Survival of Patients with Symptomatic Myeloma in Novel Agent Era

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Aya; Fujita, Shinya; Satake, Atsushi; Nakanishi, Takahisa; Azuma, Yoshiko; Tsubokura, Yukie; Hotta, Masaaki; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Tomoki; Nomura, Shosaku

    2017-01-01

    The acronym CRAB summarizes the most typical clinical manifestations of multiple myeloma, these being hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone disease. CRAB can be used to distinguish between active, symptomatic multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undermined significance or smoldering myeloma. The distinction is relevant not only for classification and diagnosis but also for therapy. CRAB factors influence the prognosis of multiple myeloma. However, it is unclear whether the presence of CRAB factors has an influence on the prognosis of myeloma treated with novel agents. In the current study, patients with hypercalcemia and bone disease showed a significantly worse prognosis, whereas anemia and renal failure showed no difference in survival. Novel agents used for treatment of patients with renal failure suggested a favorable outcome compared with conventional therapy. Bone disease was the most common factor and may have the strongest prognostic value in symptomatic myeloma patients using novel agents. PMID:28286629

  16. Remaining activity determination of the resid desulfurization catalyst in a commerical plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yung-Ji Tarng; Sheng-Yang Ju

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this paper is to present a method to determine the remaining catalyst activity of the resid desulfurization plant. Using the daily available operating data, we can establish a performance curve which is a temperature versus days on stream curve. By the use of the performance curve, we can in situ predict how much the catalyst life remains. With the knowledge of the catalyst life remaining, plant engineers are able to control the operating conditions to meet the specified run length of the catalyst suggested by the catalyst venders and refinery planning department. There are five heavy oil desulfurization (RDS) plants in Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) to produce the low sulfur fuel oil and low metal content feed stocks for the downstream processes. In general four or five reactors are connected in series for the reacting system and catalysts of various types are loaded in each reactor. 3 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  17. Pesticide pollution remains severe after cleanup of a stockpile of obsolete pesticides at Vikuge, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Elfvendahl, Sara; Mihale, Matobola; Kishimba, Michael A; Kylin, Henrik

    2004-12-01

    High levels of DDT residues and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were found in soil, well water, and surface water around a collapsed pesticide storage shed at Vikuge Farm, Tanzania. Residues of DDT and HCHs were found at three soil depths down to 50 cm. Surface soil samples contained up to 28% total DDT and 6% total HCH residues. Water samples had concentrations of up to 30 microg L(-1) of organochlorine pesticides. Other compounds detected were aldrin, azinphos-methyl, carbosulfan, gamma-chlordane, chlorprofam, heptachlor, hexazinone, metamitron, metazachlor, pendimethalin, and thiabendazole. Although the visible remains of pesticides have been removed, the remaining soil is itself hazardous waste and poses a risk to the environment and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages. These findings show the necessity to follow up the environmental situation at former storage sites of obsolete stocks of pesticides, and that the environmental problems are not necessarily solved by removing the visible remains.

  18. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex ("Genderplex") gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples.

  19. Neandertal postcranial remains from the Sima de las Palomas del Cabezo Gordo, Murcia, southeastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Walker, Michael J; Ortega, Jon; López, Mariano V; Parmová, Klára; Trinkaus, Erik

    2011-04-01

    The Sima de las Palomas, southeastern Spain, has yielded a series of Neandertal postcranial remains, including immature and mature isolated elements and the fragmentary partial skeleton of a young adult (Palomas 92). The remains largely conform to the general late archaic/Neandertal morphological pattern in terms of humeral diaphyseal shape, pectoralis major tuberosity size and pillar thickness, ulnar coronoid process height, manual middle phalangeal epiphyseal breadth, manual distal phalangeal tuberosity shape and breadth, femoral diaphyseal shape, and probably body proportions. Palomas 92 contrasts with the Neandertals in having variably gracile hand remains, a more sellar trapezial metacarpal 1 facet, more anteroposteriorly expanded mid-proximal femoral diaphysis, and less robust pedal proximal phalanges. The Palomas Neandertals contrast with more northern European Neandertals particularly in various reflections of overall body size.

  20. Comparison of decomposition rates between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains.

    PubMed

    Bates, Lennon N; Wescott, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Penetrating trauma has been cited as a significant factor in the rate of decomposition. Therefore, penetrating trauma may have an effect on estimations of time-since-death in medicolegal investigations and on research examining decomposition rates and processes when autopsied human bodies are used. The goal of this study was to determine if there are differences in the rate of decomposition between autopsied and non-autopsied human remains in the same environment. The purpose is to shed light on how large incisions, such as those from a thorocoabdominal autopsy, effect time-since-death estimations and research on the rate of decomposition that use both autopsied and non-autopsied human remains. In this study, 59 non-autopsied and 24 autopsied bodies were studied. The number of accumulated degree days required to reach each decomposition stage was then compared between autopsied and non-autopsied remains. Additionally, both types of bodies were examined for seasonal differences in decomposition rates. As temperature affects the rate of decomposition, this study also compared the internal body temperatures of autopsied and non-autopsied remains to see if differences between the two may be leading to differential decomposition. For this portion of this study, eight non-autopsied and five autopsied bodies were investigated. Internal temperature was collected once a day for two weeks. The results showed that differences in the decomposition rate between autopsied and non-autopsied remains was not statistically significant, though the average ADD needed to reach each stage of decomposition was slightly lower for autopsied bodies than non-autopsied bodies. There was also no significant difference between autopsied and non-autopsied bodies in the rate of decomposition by season or in internal temperature. Therefore, this study suggests that it is unnecessary to separate autopsied and non-autopsied remains when studying gross stages of human decomposition in Central Texas

  1. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of antemortem surgical records for identification of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Scott, Audrey L; Congram, Derek; Sweet, David; Fonseca, Stephen; Skinner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This case review illustrates the important contributions of forensic archeological methods and forensic anthropological analysis to the identification of found skeletal remains. After reassociation of skeletal remains found in two locations, anthropological analysis provided the basis for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem medical records. Partial DNA profiles were supportive but not conclusive and antemortem dental records were not available. Comparison of antemortem traumas, skeletal morphology, and surgical artifacts with antemortem radiographs and surgical records led to positive identification of an individual missing for almost a decade.

  2. Material Aging and Degradation Detection and Remaining Life Assessment for Plant Life Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Henager, Charles H.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Pitman, Stan G.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2012-12-31

    One of the major factors that may impact long term operations is structural material degradation, Detecting materials degradation, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of the component, and determining approaches to mitigating the degradation are important from the perspective of long term operations. In this study, multiple nondestructive measurement and monitoring methods were evaluated for their ability to assess the material degradation state. Metrics quantifying the level of damage from these measurements were defined, and evaluated for their ability to provide estimates of remaining life of the component. An example of estimating the RUL from nondestructive measurements of material degradation condition is provided.

  3. Identification and analysis of human remains recovered from wells from the 1991 War in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Pećina-Slaus, Nives; Brkić, Hrvoje; Balicević, Drinko; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Pećina, Tatjana Cicvara

    2007-08-24

    From 1996 to the present, the remains of 61 individuals killed during the 1991 War in Croatia were recovered from both dried out and functioning wells. Positive identification was established in 60.7% or 37/61 cases. Remains recovered from the same geographical region but from non-well settings were identified in 77.4% or 1256/1623 cases. The purpose of this paper is to report on the taphonomic, demographic and trauma characteristics of remains recovered from wells and identify factors responsible for the discrepancy in the identification ratios. The age and sex distributions in the well and non-well series were similar, as were the frequencies of recovered personal documents, jewelry and other artifacts. The taphonomic features of the remains were, however, significantly different. Preservation of remains was considerably better in non-well settings (1400/1623 or 86.3% compared to 40/61 or 65.5% in wells). Congruently, commingling of remains was more frequent in wells (26/61 or 42.6% compared to 77/1623 or 4.7% in non-well settings). In bodies recovered from non-well settings the preservation, state and commingling of the remains were strongly correlated with positive identification. None of these features were correlated with the identification of bodies from wells. Instead, identification of remains from wells was significantly affected by the presence or absence of water in the well. As both series have similar frequencies, and identical rankings of identification factors, the reason for the discrepancy in the identification ratios lies in the fact that by themselves, these factors were rarely sufficient for positive identification. In both series the majority of identifications (51.4% in the well, and 58.1% in the non-well series) were established through a combination of biological and non-biological features. The significantly lower identification ratio in the well series resulted from the difficult recovery conditions in wells with significant amounts of

  4. Middle Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta da Oliveira (Torres Novas), Portugal.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Maki, Julia; Zilhão, João

    2007-10-01

    Ongoing excavations in the Middle Paleolithic levels at the Gruta da Oliveira, Portugal have yielded four fragmentary human remains, a manual phalanx and an ulna from levels 9 and 10, and a humerus and a tibia from levels 18 and 19. The first two remains date to approximately 39 ka 14C BP ( approximately 43.5 ka cal BP), whereas the latter two derive from earlier in oxygen isotope stage 3. The preserved portions of the phalanx, humerus, and tibia align them morphologically with the Neandertals. In addition, the Oliveira 4 tibial diaphysis shows evidence of carnivore (probably canid) gnawing.

  5. Influence of oral health behavior and sociodemographic factors on remaining teeth in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Song, In-Seok; Han, Kyungdo; Choi, Yeon-Jo; Ryu, Jae-Jun; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this study, the number and location of remaining teeth were analyzed according to sociodemographic variables, anthropometric measurements, and oral health behavior patterns. The hypothesis was that the number and location of remaining teeth would be affected by oral health behavior and by sociodemographic factors, such as education levels, household income, and urban/rural residency. This nationwide cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 36,026 representative Korean adults aged 19 and older. The data were taken from the 2012–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Men had, on average, significantly more remaining teeth than women did. Women brushed their teeth more often than men per day and were more likely to brush their teeth after meals. The participants with higher education levels or household income had significantly more remaining teeth; the number of daily tooth brushing was positively associated with the number of remaining teeth; urban residents had significantly more remaining teeth than rural residents; and elderly adults had fewer remaining teeth than younger adults had (all with P < 0.05). The participants were more likely to retain their incisors (especially their canines) for their entire lifetimes than do so for their molars. From the incisors to the second premolars, they had more mandibular teeth than maxillary teeth, but among molars, they had more maxillary teeth than mandibular teeth. Elementary graduates with low household income had fewer remaining teeth than did university graduates with high household income (P < 0.0001). Finally, participants with high socioeconomic status were more likely to lose their molar teeth than anterior teeth compared to those with low socioeconomic status. The participants who brushed their teeth fewer times per day, those with low household incomes and/or education levels, and those who lived in rural districts had significantly higher prevalence of tooth

  6. Theranostic agents for intracellular gene delivery with spatiotemporal imaging

    PubMed Central

    Knipe, Jennifer M.; Peters, Jonathan T.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2013-01-01

    Gene therapy is the modification of gene expression to treat a disease. However, efficient intracellular delivery and monitoring of gene therapeutic agents is an ongoing challenge. Use of theranostic agents with suitable targeted, controlled delivery and imaging modalities has the potential to greatly advance gene therapy. Inorganic nanoparticles including magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, and quantum dots have been shown to be effective theranostic agents for the delivery and spatiotemporal tracking of oligonucleotides in vitro and even a few cases in vivo. Major concerns remain to be addressed including cytotoxicity, particularly of quantum dots; effective dosage of nanoparticles for optimal theranostic effect; development of real-time in vivo imaging; and further improvement of gene therapy efficacy. PMID:23606894

  7. [Incorporation of controlling dengue by community health agent].

    PubMed

    Cazola, Luiza Helena de Oliveira; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify self-perceived differences in the work processes of community health agents (CHA) in two counties of Mato Grosso do Sul, regarding dengue control and Family Health Strategy (FHS) activities. Structured interviews were applied to 57 CHA. The subjects had similar sociodemographic characteristics. Agents in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, who performed only FHS tasks, failed to complete essential data of the Form A. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA currently perform tasks pertaining to dengue fever control, previously conducted by Endemic Disease Control Agents (now abolished), while in Rio Verde de Mato Grosso county, dengue control remained assigned to the latter group. In São Gabriel do Oeste county, CHA did not view the double workload of two programs as affecting their professional productivity. The pooling of tasks from the two programs proved to be feasible, with no detrimental effects on performance.

  8. Efficacy of ATR inhibitors as single agents in Ewing sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lecona, Emilio; Murga, Matilde; Callen, Elsa; Azorin, Daniel; Alonso, Javier; Lopez, Andres J.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are pediatric bone tumors that arise from a driver translocation, most frequently EWS/FLI1. Current ES treatment involves DNA damaging agents, yet the basis for the sensitivity to these therapies remains unknown. Oncogene-induced replication stress (RS) is a known source of endogenous DNA damage in cancer, which is suppressed by ATR and CHK1 kinases. We here show that ES suffer from high endogenous levels of RS, rendering them particularly dependent on the ATR pathway. Accordingly, two independent ATR inhibitors show in vitro toxicity in ES cell lines as well as in vivo efficacy in ES xenografts as single agents. Expression of EWS/FLI1 or EWS/ERG oncogenic translocations sensitizes non-ES cells to ATR inhibitors. Our data shed light onto the sensitivity of ES to genotoxic agents, and identify ATR inhibitors as a potential therapy for Ewing Sarcomas. PMID:27577084

  9. Collective behavior of predictive agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kephart, Jeffrey O.; Hogg, Tad; Huberman, Bernardo A.

    1990-06-01

    We investigate the effect of predictions upon a model of coevolutionary systems which was originally inspired by computational ecosystems. The model incorporates many of the features of distributed resource allocation in systems comprised of many individual agents, including asynchrony, resource contention, and decision-making based upon incomplete knowledge and delayed information. Previous analyses of a similar model of non-predictive agents have demonstrated that periodic or chaotic oscillations in resource allocation can occur under certain conditions, and that these oscillations can affect the performance of the system adversely. In this work, we show that the system performance can be improved if the agents do an adequate job of predicting the current state of the system. We explore two plausible methods for prediction - technical analysis and system analysis. Technical analysts are responsive to the behavior of the system, but suffer from an inability to take their own behavior into account. System analysts perform extremely well when they have very accurate information about the other agents in the system, but can perform very poorly when their information is even slightly inaccurate. By combining the strengths of both methods, we obtain a successful hybrid of the two prediction methods which adapts its model of other agents in response to the observed behavior of the system.

  10. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  11. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  12. Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, Donald L.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Using a probabilistic geology-based methodology, a team of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists recently assessed the remaining recoverable oil in 10 oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin in southern California. The results of the assessment suggest that between 1.4 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil could be recovered from those fields with existing technology.

  13. 17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW TO SOUTH, ENGINE/PUMP HOUSE EXTENSION, REMAINS OF THE ELECTRIC GENERATOR DRIVEN BY A SMALL STEAM ENGINE LOCATED EAST OF PUMP NO. 4; THIS UNIT REPLACED AN EARLIER GENERATOR INSTALLED IN 1909 - Deer Island Pumping Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  14. 38 CFR Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. - Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Burial of a veteran whose...' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Burial Benefits Burial Benefits: Allowances & Expenses Paid by Va A08se3. Pt. 3, Subpt. B, Nt. Burial of a veteran whose remains are unclaimed. (a)...

  15. Intertextual Evaluation, Conflicting Evaluative Criteria, and the Controversy over Native American Burial Remains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Emery M.

    1992-01-01

    The intertextual model of evaluation proposed by M. Riffaterre is explored and applied to two problems, the general problem of what to do when there are multiple but conflicting criteria for evaluating a policy, and the specific issues of disposition of native American burial remains. (SLD)

  16. Dementia and Friendship: The Quality and Nature of the Relationships That Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Phyllis Braudy

    2013-01-01

    Friendships are an integral part of the human experience. Yet, dementia often takes a toll on social relationships, and many friends withdraw. This research, however, focuses on friendships that remain, despite a diagnosis of dementia. It examines the quality of the friendships of people with dementia and long-term friendships. Data were collected…

  17. 1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW EAST/SOUTHEAST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT REMAINS OF POWER PLANT TEST STAND INCLUDING SUPPORT BUILDING (BACKGROUND), FLAME TRENCH (FOREGROUND) RECENT ADDITION (O-RING FACILITY) OVER OTHER FLAME TRENCH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, East Test Area, Power Plant Test Stand, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. Stratigraphy and chronology of the WLH 50 human remains, Willandra Lakes World Heritage Area, Australia.

    PubMed

    Grün, Rainer; Spooner, Nigel; Magee, John; Thorne, Alan; Simpson, John; Yan, Ge; Mortimer, Graham

    2011-05-01

    We present a detailed description of the geological setting of the burial site of the WLH 50 human remains along with attempts to constrain the age of this important human fossil. Freshwater shells collected at the surface of Unit 3, which is most closely associated with the human remains, and a carbonate sample that encrusted the human bone were analysed. Gamma spectrometry was carried out on the WLH 50 calvaria and TIMS U-series analysis on a small post-cranial bone fragment. OSL dating was applied to a sample from Unit 3 at a level from which the WLH 50 remains may have eroded, as well as from the underlying sediments. Considering the geochemistry of the samples analysed, as well as the possibility of reworking or burial from younger layers, the age of the WLH 50 remains lies between 12.2 ± 1.8 and 32.8 ± 4.6 ka (2-σ errors).

  19. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in 2012: Optimal management of T2DM remains elusive.

    PubMed

    Holman, Rury R

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide, >366 million people with type 2 diabetes mellitus remain at excess risk of cardiovascular disease and face a lifetime of treatment escalation for this progressive disorder. Studies in 2012 have re-affirmed the safety of early insulin treatment, metformin use in renal impairment, and shown β-cell function preservation over several years.

  20. 32 CFR 776.71 - Requirement to remain in good standing with licensing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUPERVISION OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL Rules of Professional Conduct § 776.71 Requirement to remain in good... officer of the Marine Corps designated a judge advocate, and each civil service and contracted civilian attorney who practices law under the cognizance and supervision of the JAG shall maintain a...

  1. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  2. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  3. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  4. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  5. 42 CFR 84.83 - Timers; elapsed time indicators; remaining service life indicators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.83 Timers; elapsed time...) Liquefied breathing gas apparatus equipped with gages visible to the wearer which indicate the remaining... breathing apparatus, except apparatus used for escape only, and shall operate automatically...

  6. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  7. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  8. A Bayesian Prognostic Algorithm for Assessing Remaining Useful Life of Nuclear Power Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dixit, Mukul; Henager, Charles H.

    2010-12-01

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need nondestructive measurement methods that are suitable for on-line, continuous, in-plant monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is then, based on a condition assessment or degradation trend, to have the ability to estimate the remaining useful life based of components, structures and systems based on the available materials degradation information. Such measurement and modeling methods form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches. Prognostic methods that predict remaining life based on large crack growth, and phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics, have been reported by several researchers. The challenge of predicting remaining life for earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel and enhanced sensors and data integration techniques. A recent review has considered the stages of degradation and sensing methods that can potentially be employed to detect and monitor early degradation for nuclear power plant applications. An experimental assessment of selected diagnostic techniques was also reported recently. However, the estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) determined from nondestructive diagnostic measurements for early degradation is still an unsolved problem. This present paper will discuss the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms applied to the early degradation- life problem.

  9. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  10. "Game Remains": A Platform Design Grounded in Indigenous Knowledge Systems for Dialogue and Composition Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Cristobal M.; Ingram-Goble, Adam; Twist, Kade L.; Chacon, Raven

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the design and implementation of a game as an instrument for dialogue, both as a social tool and a shared interface for music performance. Beyond describing the design of "Game Remains," the article shares the details of an impact story of how an installation in Guelph's Musagetes Boarding House Arts in Canada has…

  11. Wide Complex Tachycardia – Ventricular Tachycardia or Not Ventricular Tachycardia, That Remains the Question

    PubMed Central

    B Garner, John; M Miller, John

    2013-01-01

    Arriving at the correct diagnosis in cases of wide complex tachycardia remains problematic for many clinicians. In this paper, we review the historical development of criteria used to differentiate among the major diagnostic possibilities and compare the strengths and weaknesses of various differentiating algorithms. PMID:26835036

  12. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  13. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... unidentifiable human remains and associated funerary objects. (1) A museum or Federal agency that is unable to... that none of them has objected to the proposed transfer of control. (4) A museum or Federal agency...

  14. 43 CFR 10.11 - Disposition of culturally unidentifiable human remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.11 Disposition of culturally... control. (4) A museum or Federal agency may also transfer control of funerary objects that are...

  15. Role of mobile IPv6 for mobile networks and its remaining issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jian; Kan, Zhigang

    2001-10-01

    Mobile IPv6 has received tremendous attention from the cellular telephony industry for use in the next generation networks. This paper starts with recent development of Mobile IPv6 technologies and its standards, and explores remaining issues such as fast handover, smooth handover, mobility managements, AAA, QoS, security and scenarios in its deployment, with particular attention to IPv6.

  16. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... individual were recovered from the Emerald Mound site during legally authorized excavation projects. No known.... In 1972, human remains representing 24 individuals were recovered from the Emerald Mound site during... funerary objects recovered from the Boyd site, Gordon Mounds site, and Emerald Mound site, and the...

  17. Why Japanese workers remain in the labor force so long: lessons for the United States?

    PubMed

    Williamson, John B; Higo, Masa

    2009-12-01

    As part of the search for ways to increase labor force participation rates among older workers in the United States, it makes sense to take a close look at evidence from Japan, one of the few industrial countries with a substantially higher labor force participation rate among older workers, particularly men, than the United States. Based mainly on prior studies and original interview data, we first discuss five potential factors which help explain why Japanese workers remain in the labor force as long as they do: (1) perceived economic necessity; (2) the large fraction of workers who are self-employed; (3) a culture that puts a high value on remaining in the labor force throughout the life course; (4) the long healthy life expectancy; and (5) the government's role in facilitating the labor force participation of older workers. We suggest that the Japanese national cultural value on remaining economically productive well into old age clearly underlies the development of the government's legislative initiatives aiming to extend the working lives of older workers. We then outline three policy suggestions for those seeking to increase labor force participation rates among older U.S. workers: (1) increase the financial incentive to workers who remain in the labor force; (2) improve public programs designed to foster efforts by older workers to become self-employed; and (3) increase the extent of government efforts to link older workers to prospective employers.

  18. Evaluation of remaining life of the double-shell tank waste systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenk, E.B.

    1995-05-04

    A remaining life assessment of the DSTs (double-shell tanks) and their associated waste transfer lines, for continued operation over the next 10 years, was favorable. The DST assessment was based on definition of significant loads, evaluation of data for possible material degradation and geometric changes and evaluation of structural analyses. The piping assessment was based primarily on service experience.

  19. 49. Taken from highline; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Taken from high-line; "McKinley hat" remains on "B" furnace; no longer used, "McKinley hat was open receptacle with bell below. Hat carried charge to furnace top, dumping it to bell; bell locked onto furnace top, dropping charge into furnace. Looking east - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  20. Influences of the Heart: Novice and Experienced Teachers Remaining in the Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Susan V.; Brown, John J., Jr.; Kirby-Smith, Antionette; Severson, Beth

    2013-01-01

    The authors conducted a phenomenological inquiry that described factors that influenced two novice and two experienced teachers' decisions to remain in the teaching field. These teachers taught in both Title I and non-Title I elementary schools, and their teaching experiences ranged from four months to 38 years. Data for this research…

  1. Female College Presidents: Characteristics to Become and Remain Chief Executive Officer of a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balram, Arlette

    2012-01-01

    Through an ethnographic approach, the perceptions of female college presidents from the northeastern region of the United States regarding leadership styles and the characteristics to become and remain the chief executive officer of a college were investigated. Six presidents from various types of four-year colleges were interviewed. Themes,…

  2. Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. View looking north northwest (346°) with remains of skeet range shooting stations (posts) in foreground. This was one of North Base's few recreational features. In the distance is a debris field of spent clay pigeons - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Skeet Range, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  4. The Thornless Rose: A Phenomenological Look at Decisions Career Teachers Make to Remain in the Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Mindi S.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.; Brown, Nicholas R.

    2014-01-01

    Attrition among the agricultural education profession is concerning as approximately 50% of agriculture teachers leave within the first six years of teaching. Therefore, the purpose of the phenomenological study, conducted from an emic perspective, was to explore and describe secondary agriculture teachers' experiences related to remaining in the…

  5. Teacher Perceptions Regarding the Instrumental Factors That Impact Their Decisions to Remain in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Tiffany Pointer

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that impact teachers' decisions to remain teaching in an urban school district. The researcher analyzed survey data provided by the Office of Planning and Accountability for an urban school district in Tennessee. The findings of the study are also discussed as well as any implication for…

  6. Showing up, Remaining Engaged, and Partaking as Students: Resilience among Students of Mexican Descent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the ways in which 12 high school students of Mexican descent remain resilient amid difficult and stressful realities. Through an examination of students' interview responses, a case is made that students' ability to engage in school and figure out everyday ways to partake as students are signs of resilience. This work suggests…

  7. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  8. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  9. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  10. 19 CFR 123.28 - Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mexico. 123.28 Section 123.28 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Shipments in Transit Through Canada or Mexico § 123.28 Merchandise remaining in or exported to Canada or Mexico. (a) In-transit...

  11. Analysis of solids remaining following chemical cleaning in tank 6F

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, Michael R.; Fondeur, Fernando F.; Missimer, David M.; Summer, Michael E.; Fink, Samuel D.

    2010-02-05

    Following chemical cleaning, a solid sample was collected and submitted to Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for analysis. SRNL analyzed this sample by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the composition of the solids remaining in Tank 6F and to assess the effectiveness of the chemical cleaning process.

  12. 48 CFR 837.7005 - Unclaimed remains-all other cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unclaimed remains-all other cases. 837.7005 Section 837.7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Mortuary Services 837.7005 Unclaimed remains—all other cases. Requests for information...

  13. Taming Disruptive Technologies, or How To Remain Relevant in the Digital Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Discusses electronic books as a disruptive technology, that is, a technology that has appeal to its users but upsets the traditional models. Highlights include a history of print technology; types of electronic books; reader devices; stakeholders, including users, librarians, and publishers; and how vendors can remain relevant. (LRW)

  14. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  15. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  16. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  17. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  18. 20 CFR 408.330 - How long will your application remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will your application remain in effect? 408.330 Section 408.330 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL BENEFITS FOR CERTAIN WORLD WAR II VETERANS Filing Applications Filing Your Application § 408.330 How long will...

  19. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...

  20. 29 CFR 520.507 - How long does my certificate remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How long does my certificate remain in effect? 520.507 Section 520.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING...