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Sample records for agents significantly decreased

  1. Ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine in rats.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsiu-Mei; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hsiu, Su-Lan; Wen, Kuo-Ching; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2006-01-01

    Ginger (roots of Zingiber officinale ROSCOE) is a popular spice and herbal medicine worldwide. Cyclosporine is clinically used as an important immunosupressant with narrow therapeutic index. This study attempted to investigate the effect of ginger juice on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine in rats. Rats were orally administered cyclosporine alone and in combination with ginger juice (5 ml/kg) concomitantly, as well as 2 hours after the ginger juice, respectively, in crossover designs. In addition, rats were intravenously administered cyclosporine with and without an oral dose of ginger juice (5 ml/kg). The blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at determined time points and cyclosporine concentrations were determined by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cyclosporine were calculated using a non-compartment model of WINNONLIN. The results indicated that concomitant intake of ginger significantly decreased C(max) and AUC(0-t) of oral cyclosporine by 70.9% and 63.1%, respectively. The intake of ginger 2 hours before cyclosporine significantly decreased C(max) and AUC(0-t) by 51.4% and 40.3%, respectively. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of intravenous cyclosporine not altered by orally in combination with ginger juice. In conclusion, ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine, and the interaction should occur at the absorption phase. Patients treated with cyclosporine should be discouraged from using ginger products to ensure the efficacy of cyclosporine. PMID:17080549

  2. Decreased stability of DNA in cells treated with alkylating agents

    SciTech Connect

    Frankfurt, O.S. )

    1990-12-01

    A modified highly sensitive procedure for the evaluation of DNA damage in individual cells treated with alkylating agents is reported. The new methodology is based on the amplification of single-strandedness in alkylated DNA by heating in the presence of Mg{sup 2+}. Human ovarian carcinoma cells A2780 were treated with nitrogen mustard (HN2), fixed in methanol, and stained with monoclonal antibody (MOAB) F7-26 generated against HN2-treated DNA. Binding of MOAB was measured by flow cytometry with indirect immunofluorescence. Intensive binding of MOAB to control and drug-treated cells was observed after heating in Tris buffer supplemented with MgCl{sub 2}. Thus, the presence of phosphates and MgCl{sub 2} during heating was necessary for the detection of HN2-induced changes in DNA stability. Fluorescence of HN2-treated cells decreased to background levels after treatment with single-strand-specific S{sub 1} nuclease. MOAB F7-26 interacted with single-stranded regions in DNA and did not bind to dsDNA or other cellular antigens. It is suggested that alkylation of guanines decreased the stability of the DNA molecule and increased the access of MOAB F7-26 to deoxycytidines on the opposite DNA strand.

  3. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  4. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia; Wikstrom, Erik A; Guderian, Sophie; Turner, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J) were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL)/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse's lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011). Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048). The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046) while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028) compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019) and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005). The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately. Key pointsA single ankle significantly decreased physical activity levels in mice across the lifespan.Decreased physical activity could significantly negatively impact overall health if not modified

  5. Association between significant decrease in barometric pressure and onset of labor.

    PubMed

    King, E A; Fleschler, R G; Cohen, S M

    1997-01-01

    To determine whether there is any correlation between sudden decrease in barometric pressure and onset of labor, a non-experimental, retrospective study at a 948-bed tertiary care hospital was done. Pregnant patients of 36 weeks gestation or more who presented with spontaneous onset of labor during the 48 hours surrounding the 12 occurrences of significant drop in barometric pressure in 1992 were included in the study. Significantly more occurrences of onset of labor were identified in the 24 hours after a drop in barometric pressure than were identified in the 24 hours prior to the drop in barometric pressure (P < 0.05). Therefore, the overall number of labor onsets increased in the 24 hours following a significant drop in barometric pressure.

  6. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  7. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V.; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Weili, Lin; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9–24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:23986703

  8. Low environmental temperatures or pharmacologic agents that produce hypothermia decrease methamphetamine neurotoxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Holson, R R; Slikker, W; Bowyer, J F

    1994-09-26

    Recently we have reported that methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity in rats depends on the environmental temperature. Here, we evaluate whether a cold environment (4 degrees C) or drugs which chloride and glutamate ion channel function block METH neurotoxicity in mice. Adult male CD mice received METH i.p. (4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C along with saline. 2.5 mg/kg (+)-MK-801, 40 mg/kg phenobarbital or 2.5 mg/kg diazepam and either 4 x 10 or 4 x 20 mg/kg METH at 4 degrees C). Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg i.p.) at room temperature (23 degrees C) produced a significant depletion of dopamine (DA) in striatum at 24, 72 h, 1 and 2 weeks. Three days post 4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C, an 80% decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) occurred while the same dose at 4 degrees C produced only a 20% DA decrease, and 4 x 20 mg/kg METH at 4 degrees C produced a 54% DA decrease. At 23 degrees C (+)MK-801 completely blocked while phenobarbital (40% decrease) and diazepam (65% decrease) partially blocked decreases in striatal DA produced by 4 x 10 mg/kg METH. Decreases in DOPAC and HVA were similar to the decreases in DA after METH and antagonists. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature also produced a significant depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in striatum at 24, 72 h, 1 and 2 weeks. This depletion of 5-HT at room temperature was blocked either by changing the environmental temperature to 4 degrees C, or by pretreatment with MK-801, diazepam and phenobarbital.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Significant decrease in peripheral regulatory B cells is an immunopathogenic feature of dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenli; Tian, Xiaolan; Lu, Xin; Peng, Qinglin; Shu, Xiaoming; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Qingyan; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are critical in maintaining self-tolerance. Their role in dermatomyositis (DM), an autoimmune disease characterized by inappropriate regulation of hyperactivated B and T cells, has not been clearly defined. In the current study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of studied CD19+ CD24highCD38high Breg subpopulations in blood samples from 30 patients with DM, 37 diseased controls and 23 healthy controls. A significant decrease was observed in the frequency of Bregs in DM patients compared to that in diseased controls (p < 0.0001) and in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). And the prevalence of Bregs deficiency (defined as Bregs/B cells < 0.50% in this study) in DM patients went as high as 73.3%. Furthermore, DM patients with positive myositis specific autoantibody often had lower Bregs levels than negative patients (p = 0.036), and lower level of Bregs was also found in DM patients with interstitial lung disease than in DM patients without (p = 0.041). In a follow-up study, seven DM patients were considered to be in remission stage, and their Breg levels were found to have significantly increased after treatment (p = 0.022). Our research revealed that Breg deficiency is an immunopathogenic feature of DM and provided insights into the design of new immunotherapy target for DM clinical interventions. PMID:27270362

  10. Significant decrease in peripheral regulatory B cells is an immunopathogenic feature of dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenli; Tian, Xiaolan; Lu, Xin; Peng, Qinglin; Shu, Xiaoming; Yang, Hanbo; Li, Yuanli; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Xuezhi; Liu, Qingyan; Wang, Guochun

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory B cells (Bregs) are critical in maintaining self-tolerance. Their role in dermatomyositis (DM), an autoimmune disease characterized by inappropriate regulation of hyperactivated B and T cells, has not been clearly defined. In the current study, we performed flow cytometry analysis of studied CD19(+) CD24(high)CD38(high) Breg subpopulations in blood samples from 30 patients with DM, 37 diseased controls and 23 healthy controls. A significant decrease was observed in the frequency of Bregs in DM patients compared to that in diseased controls (p < 0.0001) and in healthy controls (p < 0.0001). And the prevalence of Bregs deficiency (defined as Bregs/B cells < 0.50% in this study) in DM patients went as high as 73.3%. Furthermore, DM patients with positive myositis specific autoantibody often had lower Bregs levels than negative patients (p = 0.036), and lower level of Bregs was also found in DM patients with interstitial lung disease than in DM patients without (p = 0.041). In a follow-up study, seven DM patients were considered to be in remission stage, and their Breg levels were found to have significantly increased after treatment (p = 0.022). Our research revealed that Breg deficiency is an immunopathogenic feature of DM and provided insights into the design of new immunotherapy target for DM clinical interventions. PMID:27270362

  11. Psyllium decreased serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin significantly in diabetic outpatients.

    PubMed

    Ziai, Seyed Ali; Larijani, Bagher; Akhoondzadeh, Shahin; Fakhrzadeh, Hossein; Dastpak, Arezoo; Bandarian, Fatemeh; Rezai, Afsaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Emami, Tara

    2005-11-14

    Psyllium is a bulk-forming laxative and is high in both fiber and mucilage. The beneficial effect of dietary fiber in the management of type II diabetes, has not been totally demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma-lowering effects of 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium husk fiber, as an adjunct to dietary and drug therapy on lipid and glucose levels, in patients with type II diabetes. Patients were randomly selected from an outpatient clinic of primary care to participate in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which Plantago ovata Forsk., or placebo was given in combination with their anti-diabetic drugs. Forty-nine subjects were included in the study that were given diet counseling before the study and then followed for 8 weeks in the treatment period. Fasting plasma glucose (FBS) was measured every 2 weeks, and total plasma cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and insulin levels were measured every 4 weeks. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) was also measured at the beginning and ending of the study. The test products (psyllium or placebo) were supplied to subjects in identically labeled foil packets containing a 5.1g dose of product, to consume two doses per day, half an hour before breakfast and dinner. Both products were well tolerated, with no serious adverse events related to treatment was reported in either. Better gastric tolerance to metformin was recorded in the psyllium group. FBS, and HbA1c, showed a significant reduction (p<0.05), whereas HDL-C increased significantly (p<0.05) following psyllium treatment. LDL/HDL ratio was significantly decreased (p<0.05). Our results show that 5.1g b.i.d. of psyllium for persons with type II diabetes is safe, well tolerated, and improves glycemic control.

  12. Clinic significance of markedly decreased α-klothoin women with preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Cuifang; Wang, Yueqiao; Wang, Jingyi; Lei, Di; Sun, Yanmei; Lei, Sicong; Hu, Min; Tian, Yatao; Li, Rui; Wang, Suqing

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Klotho is a novel gene and the secret form, α-klotho (α-KL), is related to preeclampsia. We conducted this cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China. We used immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA to measure α-KL expression in placenta and its secretion in maternal and umbilical cord serum, and analyzed correlations between α-KL level and other parameters in normal and preeclampsia pregnancy. We found that both mRNA and protein expression of placental α-KL in women with PE was significantly lower than that in normal pregnancy. Also, expression level of α-KL in both maternal and umbilical cord was markedly decreased in PE patients. Further analyses showed that serum α-KL exhibited positive association with fetal birth weight, and reverse association with oxidative stress and renal function markers. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested α-KL might be a potential predictor for preeclampsia. PMID:27347309

  13. Deletion of the meq gene significantly decreases immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic marek's disease virus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328

  14. Imaging of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: a potential bioterrorism agent of military significance.

    PubMed

    Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Cressler, Dana K

    2011-11-01

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) is a potentially fatal infectious disease with worldwide distribution. Its etiologic agents are viruses of the genus Hantavirus of the virus family Bunyaviridae. Hypothetical ease of production and distribution of these agents, with their propensity to incapacitate victims and overwhelm health care resources, lend themselves as significant potential biological agents of terrorism. HFRS has protean clinical manifestations, which may mimic upper respiratory tract infection, nephrolithiasis, and Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and may delay proper treatment. Sequelae of HFRS, such as hemorrhage, acute renal failure, retroperitoneal edema, pancreatitis, pulmonary edema, and neurologic symptoms, can be detected by different imaging modalities. Medical providers caring for HFRS patients must be aware of its radiologic features, which may help to confirm its clinical diagnosis. In this article, the authors review the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and complications of HFRS. PMID:22165665

  15. The embrace Device Significantly Decreases Scarring following Scar Revision Surgery in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Angeline F.; Weintraub, Jennifer; Kaplan, Ernest N.; Januszyk, Michael; Cowley, Christy; McLaughlin, Peggy; Beasley, Bill; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanically offloading or shielding an incision significantly reduces scarring in both animal and first-in-human studies. Whether or not this strategy would be effective following scar revision surgery was previously unknown. In this article, the authors report that the embrace device, which uses principles of mechanomodulation, significantly improves aesthetic outcomes following scar revision surgery. Methods A prospective, open-label, randomized, single-center study was conducted to evaluate the appearance of scars following revision and embrace treatment. Revision surgery was performed on 12 patients, each acting as his or her own control, and outcomes were assessed at 6 months. A visual analogue scale was used to evaluate each scar, rated by four independent surgeons who were not involved in the study. Results Evaluation of 6-month scar images by four independent surgeons using the visual analogue scale demonstrated a highly significant improvement in scar appearance following embrace treatment (p < 0.005). Conclusion The embrace device represents a powerful new technology for significantly improving scar appearance following revision surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, II. PMID:24105084

  16. A Novel Thin Film Nitinol Covered Neurovascular Stent Significantly Decreases Intra-Aneurysmal Flow In Vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Youngjae; Hur, Soojung; Shayan, Mahdis; Kealey, Colin; Levi, Daniel; Mohanchandra, Kp; di Carlo, Dino; Carman, Gregory

    2013-11-01

    A novel thin film nitinol (TFN) stent has been developed to promote aneurysm quiescence by diminishing flow across the aneurysm's neck. Laboratory aneurysm models were used to assess the flow changes produced by stents covered with different patterns of TFN. Flow diversion stents were constructed by covering Wingspan stents (Boston Scientific, DxL:4x20mm) with TFNs (i.e., 77 and 82 percent porosity). The flow changes that occur after deployment of two different porous TFN covered stent in intracranial aneurysm models were evaluated in vitro. The 82 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced the intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity by 86.42 percent, while a 77 percent porous TFN covered stent reduced to intra-aneurysmal mean flow velocity to 93.44 percent compared to a nonstented model. Local wall shear rates were also significantly reduced in wide-neck aneurysm model (i.e., 97.52 - 98.92 percent) with TFN stent placement. The results showed that TFN covered stents significantly reduced intra-aneurysmal flow velocity magnitudes and local wall shear rates. This suggests that TFN covered stents with both 77 and 82 percent porosity have great potential to promote thrombosis in both wide-necked and fusiform aneurysm sacs.

  17. A Schelling model with switching agents: decreasing segregation via random allocation and social mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazan, Aurélien; Randon-Furling, Julien

    2013-10-01

    We study the behaviour of a Schelling-class system in which a fraction f of spatially-fixed switching agents is introduced. This new model allows for multiple interpretations, including: (i) random, non-preferential allocation (e.g. by housing associations) of given, fixed sites in an open residential system, and (ii) superimposition of social and spatial mobility in a closed residential system. We find that the presence of switching agents in a segregative Schelling-type dynamics can lead to the emergence of intermediate patterns (e.g. mixture of patches, fuzzy interfaces) as the ones described in [E. Hatna, I. Benenson, J. Artif. Soc. Social. Simul. 15, 6 (2012)]. We also investigate different transitions between segregated and mixed phases both at f = 0 and along lines of increasing f, where the nature of the transition changes.

  18. Moderate Hypothermia Significantly Decreases Hippocampal Cell Death Involving Autophagy Pathway after Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yichao; Lin, Yingying; Feng, Jun-feng; Jia, Feng; Gao, Guo-yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Here, we evaluated changes in autophagy after post-traumatic brain injury (TBI) followed by moderate hypothermia in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham injury with normothermia group (37°C); sham injury with hypothermia group (32°C); TBI with normothermia group (TNG; 37°C); and TBI with hypothermia group (THG; 32°C). Injury was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. Moderate hypothermia (32°C) was achieved by partial immersion in a water bath (0°C) under general anesthesia for 4 h. All rats were killed at 24 h after fluid percussion TBI. The ipsilateral hippocampus in all rats was analyzed with hematoxylin and eosin staining; terminal deoxynucleoitidyl transferase-mediated nick end labeling staining was used to determine cell death in ipsilateral hippocampus. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, as well as transmission electron microscopy performed to assess changes in autophagy. At 24 h after TBI, the cell death index was 27.90±2.36% in TNG and 14.90±1.52% in THG. Expression level of LC3 and Beclin-1 were significantly increased after TBI and were further up-regulated after post-TBI hypothermia. Further, ultrastructural observations showed that there was a marked increase of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in ipsilateral hippocampus after post-TBI hypothermia. Our data demonstrated that moderate hypothermia significantly attenuated cell death and increased autophagy in ipsilateral hippocampus after fluid percussion TBI. In conclusion, autophagy pathway may participate in the neuroprotective effect of post-TBI hypothermia. PMID:25942484

  19. Toward better research practice--shortcomings decreasing the significance of epidemiological studies in the toxicological field.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schäper, Michael; van Thriel, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    is among the first consequences from the data. The consideration of mechanistic insights from research on animals and neurobiology may further help to increase the significance of epidemiological studies. PMID:24657405

  20. Manipulation of dietary methionine+cysteine and threonine in broilers significantly decreases environmental nitrogen excretion.

    PubMed

    Donato, D C Z; Sakomura, N K; Silva, E P; Troni, A R; Vargas, L; Guagnoni, M A N; Meda, B

    2016-06-01

    The intensification of livestock have increased the emission of pollutants to the environment, leading to a growing interest in seeking strategies that minimise these emissions. Studies have shown that it is possible to manipulate diets by reducing CP levels and thus reducing nitrogen (N) excretion, without compromising performance. However, there is no knowledge of any study that has focused on reducing N excretion and relating this reduction to individual amino acids. This study investigated the effect of dietary methionine+cysteine (MC) and threonine (THR), the two most limiting amino acids for broiler production, on nitrogen excretion (NE) and nitrogen deposition (ND) and determined the efficiency of utilisation of both amino acids for protein deposition. Six trials were conducted to measure the NE and ND in broiler chickens during three rearing phases in response to dietary amino acid. The efficiency of utilisation of the amino acids was calculated by linear regression of body protein deposition and the amino acid intake. Despite the differences between sexes and phases, the efficiency of utilisation was the same, being 0.60 and 0.59 for MC and THR, respectively. The rate of NE behaved exponentially, increasing with amino acid intake, and can exceed 50% of N intake, being higher than ND. On average, for a reduction in intake of each unit of MC or THR (mg) there is a reduction of 0.5% of NE. Although this reduction seems low, considering that it corresponds to changes in one amino acid only, the impact on a large scale would be significant. Knowledge of how animals respond to NE and ND/protein deposition according to amino acid dietary content may represent new efforts towards reducing the impact on environment. PMID:27076031

  1. Implementation of a Multidisciplinary Bleeding and Transfusion Protocol Significantly Decreases Perioperative Blood Product Utilization and Improves Some Bleeding Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Timpa, Joseph G.; O’Meara, L. Carlisle; Goldberg, Kellen G.; Phillips, Jay P.; Crawford, Jack H.; Jackson, Kimberly W.; Alten, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perioperative transfusion of blood products is associated with increased morbidity and mortality after pediatric cardiac surgery. We report the results of a quality improvement project aimed at decreasing perioperative blood product administration and bleeding after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery. A multidisciplinary team evaluated baseline data from 99 consecutive CPB patients, focusing on the variability in transfusion management and bleeding outcomes, to create a standardized bleeding and transfusion management protocol. A total of 62 subsequent patients were evaluated after implementation of the protocol: 17 with single pass hemoconcentrated (SPHC) blood transfusion and 45 with modified ultrafiltration (MUF). Implementation of the protocol with SPHC blood led to significant decrease in transfusion of every blood product in the cardiovascular operating room and first 6 hours in cardiovascular intensive care unit ([CVICU] p < .05). Addition of MUF to the protocol led to further decrease in transfusion of all blood products compared to preprotocol. Patients <2 months old had 49% decrease in total blood product administration: 155 mL/kg preprotocol, 117 mL/kg protocol plus SPHC, and 79 mL/kg protocol plus MUF (p < .01). There were significant decreases in postoperative bleeding in the first hour after CVICU admission: 6 mL/kg preprotocol, 3.8 mL/kg protocol plus SPHC, and 2 mL/kg protocol plusMUF (p = .02). There was also significantly decreased incidence of severe postoperative bleeding (>10 mL/kg) in the first CVICU hour for protocol plus MUF patients (p < .01). Implementation of a multidisciplinary bleeding and transfusion protocol significantly decreases perioperative blood product transfusion and improves some bleeding outcomes. PMID:27134303

  2. BF066, a Novel Dual Target Antiplatelet Agent without Significant Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jianqin; Liu, Guangda; Zhang, Si; Zhang, Yan; Du, Hongguang; Ding, Zhongren

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we report BF066, a novel adenine derivative, inhibits platelet activation and thrombosis via the adenosine receptor (A2A) activation and phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition. BF066 inhibits platelet aggregation and ATP releasing induced by multiple platelet agonists in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of BF066 on ADP-induced aggregation is potentiated by adenosine and can be dramatically antagonized by the A2A antagonist SCH58261. BF066 also inhibits the PDE activity and platelet spreading on fibrinogen. In FeCl3-injured mouse mesenteric arterial thrombosis model, BF066 prevents thrombus formation effectively, similar to clopidogrel. Intriguingly, at dose achieving similar antithrombotic effect compared to clopidogrel, BF066 does not increase bleeding significantly. Taken together, these results suggest that BF066 may be an effective and safe antiplatelet agent targeting both PDE and A2A. Considering the successful use of combined antiplatelet therapy, BF066 may be further developed as a novel dual target antiplatelet agent. PMID:22815749

  3. Prognostic significance of decreased expression of six large common fragile site genes in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ge; Kasperbauer, Jan L; Tombers, Nicole M; Cornell, Melissa D; Smith, David I

    2014-12-01

    Common fragile sites (CFSs) are large regions with profound genomic instability that often span extremely large genes a number of which have been found to be important tumor suppressors. RNA sequencing previously revealed that there was a group of six large CFS genes which frequently had decreased expression in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction experiments validated that these six large CFS genes (PARK2, DLG2, NBEA, CTNNA3, DMD, and FHIT) had decreased expression in most of the tumor samples. In this study, we investigated whether the decreased expression of these genes has any clinical significance in OPSCCs. We analyzed the six CFS large genes in 45 OPSCC patients and found that 27 (60%) of the OPSCC tumors had decreased expression of these six genes. When we correlated the expression of these six genes to each patient's clinical records, for 11 patients who had tumor recurrence, 10 of them had decreased expression of almost all 6 genes. When we divided the patients into two groups, one group with decreased expression of the six genes and the other group with either slight changes or increased expression of the six genes, we found that there is significant difference in the incidence of tumor recurrence between these two groups by Kaplan-Meier plot analysis (P < .05). Our results demonstrated that those OPSCC tumors with decreased expression of this select group of six large CFS genes were much more likely to be associated with tumor recurrence and these genes are potential prognostic markers for predicting tumor recurrence in OPSCC.

  4. Mutation of NRAS but not KRAS significantly reduces myeloma sensitivity to single-agent bortezomib therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lichter, David I.; Di Bacco, Alessandra; Blakemore, Stephen J.; Berger, Allison; Koenig, Erik; Bernard, Hugues; Trepicchio, William; Li, Bin; Neuwirth, Rachel; Chattopadhyay, Nibedita; Bolen, Joseph B.; Dorner, Andrew J.; van de Velde, Helgi; Ricci, Deborah; Jagannath, Sundar; Berenson, James R.; Richardson, Paul G.; Stadtmauer, Edward A.; Orlowski, Robert Z.; Lonial, Sagar; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Sonneveld, Pieter; San Miguel, Jesús F.; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Schu, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Various translocations and mutations have been identified in myeloma, and certain aberrations, such as t(4;14) and del17, are linked with disease prognosis. To investigate mutational prevalence in myeloma and associations between mutations and patient outcomes, we tested a panel of 41 known oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in tumor samples from 133 relapsed myeloma patients participating in phase 2 or 3 clinical trials of bortezomib. DNA mutations were identified in 14 genes. BRAF as well as RAS genes were mutated in a large proportion of cases (45.9%) and these mutations were mutually exclusive. New recurrent mutations were also identified, including in the PDGFRA and JAK3 genes. NRAS mutations were associated with a significantly lower response rate to single-agent bortezomib (7% vs 53% in patients with mutant vs wild-type NRAS, P = .00116, Bonferroni-corrected P = .016), as well as shorter time to progression in bortezomib-treated patients (P = .0058, Bonferroni-corrected P = .012). However, NRAS mutation did not impact outcome in patients treated with high-dose dexamethasone. KRAS mutation did not reduce sensitivity to bortezomib or dexamethasone. These findings identify a significant clinical impact of NRAS mutation in myeloma and demonstrate a clear example of functional differences between the KRAS and NRAS oncogenes. PMID:24335104

  5. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23–25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  6. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-01-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters. PMID:27245709

  7. Decreased expression of Beclin-1 is significantly associated with a poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zedong; Zhong, Zhaoming; Huang, Shaohui; Wen, Haojie; Chen, Xue; Chu, Hongying; Li, Qiuli; Sun, Chuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    The autophagy-related gene Beclin-1 is critical in the regulation of tumourigenesis and progression, but its role in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate Beclin-1 expression and its significance in OTSCC. Beclin-1 expression was assessed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis in 14 OTSCC tissues and matched adjacent noncancerous tissues as well as in 5 OTSCC cell lines and a normal tongue epithelial cell line. Beclin-1 protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in 133 OTSCC specimens, and the correlation between Beclin-1 expression and clinicopathological features was investigated. Furthermore, MTT and colony formation assays were performed to investigate the effect of Beclin-1 on the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. It was demonstrated that Beclin-1 expression was significantly decreased in the majority of the 14 OTSCC tissues and the 5 OTSCC cell lines relative to the matched non-cancerous tissues and the normal tongue epithelial cell line, respectively. Immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that decreased Beclin-1 expression was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical tumour-node-metastasis stage, and a poor prognosis in patients with OTSCC. The in vitro assays indicated that the overexpression of Beclin-1 significantly inhibits the proliferation and clonogenicity of OTSCC cells. These results demonstrate that Beclin-1 acts as a tumour suppressor in the development or progression of OTSCC and that Beclin-1 may represent a novel prognostic marker for patients with OTSCC. PMID:27356955

  8. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    PubMed

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P < .05. There were 164 burn center admissions between Memorial Day and Labor Day in 2010 (n = 82) and 2011 (n = 82). Compared with all summer burn center admissions, patients injured by campfires were younger (18 vs 37 years; P = .002) with smaller total surface area burns (3.2 vs 6.2%; P = .41) and had shorter lengths of stay (10-11 vs 6-7 days; P = .62). There was more than a 3-fold decrease in burn admissions due to recreational fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of

  9. Effect of antispastic agents (calcium antagonists and/or isosorbide dinitrate) on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with coronary vasospastic angina pectoris and no hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Jui; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Cheng, Chi-Wen; Yang, Ning-I

    2005-01-01

    Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured before and after 3 months of treatment with antispastic agents (calcium antagonists and/or isosorbide dinitrate) in 27 patients who had coronary vasospastic angina pectoris and no hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein decreased after treatment with antispastic agents.

  10. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A. . E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu

    2007-08-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts ({>=}1,600 cm{sup 3}, n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT.

  11. Is the Transport of a Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent Decreased in a Degenerated or Aged Disc? A Post Contrast MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Tibiletti, Marta; Galbusera, Fabio; Ciavarro, Cristina; Brayda-Bruno, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A post contrast magnetic resonance imaging study has been performed in a wide population of low back pain patients to investigate which radiological and phenotypic characteristics influence the penetration of the contrast agent in lumbar discs in vivo. 37 patients affected by different pathologies (disc herniation, spondylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis, central canal stenosis) were enrolled in the study. The selected population included 26 male and 11 female subjects, with a mean age of 42.4±9.3 years (range 18–60). Magnetic resonance images of the lumbar spine were obtained with a 1.5 T scanner (Avanto, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with a phased-array back coil. A paramagnetic non–ionic contrast agent was injected with a dose of 0.4 ml/kg. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were subsequently acquired at 5 time points, 5 and 10 minutes, 2, 4 and 6 hours after injection. Endplates presented clear enhancement already 5 minutes after injection, and showed an increase in the next 2 hours followed by a decrease. At 5 and 10 minutes, virtually no contrast medium was present inside the intervertebral disc; afterwards, enhancement significantly increased. Highly degenerated discs showed higher enhancement in comparison with low and medium degenerated discs. Discs classified as Pfirrmann 5 showed a statistically significant higher enhancement than Pfirrmann 1, 2 and 3 at all time points but the first one, possibly due to vascularization. Disc height collapse and Modic changes significantly increased enhancement. Presence of endplate defects did not show any significant influence on post contrast enhancement, but the lack of a clear classification of endplate defects as seen on magnetic resonance scans may be shadowing some effects. In conclusion, disc height, high level of degeneration and presence of Modic changes are factors which increase post contrast enhancement in the intervertebral disc. The effect of age could not be demonstrated. PMID:24146913

  12. Fossil plants indicate that the most significant decrease in atmospheric CO2 happened prior to the Eocene-Oligocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinthorsdottir, Margret; Porter, Amanda; Holohan, Aidan; Kunzmann, Lutz; Collinson, Margaret; McElwain, Jennifer

    2016-04-01

    A unique stratigraphic sequence of fossil leaves of Eotrigonobalanus furcinervis (extinct trees of the beech family, Fagaceae) from central Germany was utilized to derive an atmospheric pCO2 record with multiple data points spanning the late middle to late Eocene, two sampling levels which may be earliest Oligocene, and two samples from later in the Oligocene. Using the stomatal proxy, which relies on the inverse relationship between pCO2 and leaf stomatal density, we show that a ~40% decrease in pCO2 preceded the large shift in marine oxygen isotope records that characterizes the Eocene-Oliogocene climate transition. The results endorse the theory that pCO2 drawdown was the main forcer of the Eocene-Oligocene climate change, and a 'tipping point' was reached in the latest Eocene, triggering the plunge of the Earth System into icehouse conditions.

  13. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them.

  14. Sodium metabisulphite, a preservative agent, decreases the heart capillary volume and length, and curcumin, the main component of Curcuma longa, cannot protect it.

    PubMed

    Noorafshan, A; Asadi-Golshan, R; Monjezi, S; Karbalay-Doust, S

    2014-01-01

    Sodium metabisulphite is used as an antioxidant agent in many pharmaceutical formulations. It is extensively used as a food preservative and disinfectant. It has been demonstrated that sulphite exposure can affect some organs. Curcumin, the main element of Curcuma longa, has been identified to have multiple protective properties. The present study extends the earlier works to quantitative evaluation of the effects of sulphite and curcumin on the heart structure using stereological methods. In this study, 28 rats were randomly divided into four experimental groups. The rats in groups I to IV received distilled water (group I), sodium metabisulphite (25 mg/ kg/day) (group II), curcumin (100 mg/kg/day) (group III), and sodium metabisulphite+curcumin (group IV), respectively, for 8 weeks. The left ventricle was subjected to stereological methods to estimate the quantitative parameters of the myocardium. A 20 % decrease was observed in the total volume of ventricular tissue in the sulphite-treated animals compared to the distilled water treatment (P < 0.02). Also, the volume and length of the capillaries were reduced by 43 % on average in the sulphite-treated rats in comparison to the distilled water-treated animals (P < 0.02). However, no significant change was seen in the mean and total volume of the myocardium and the cavity and diameter of the capillaries after sulphite ingestion. Treatment with curcumin did not protect the animals against the structural changes of the ventricle. Sulphite, as a preservative food agent, reduced the length and volume of the ventricular capillaries and curcumin could not protect them. PMID:25629268

  15. Rockfall erosion in Antarctica as a significant agent of change above ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunning, Stuart; Westoby, Matthew; Woodward, John; Hein, Andrew; Marrero, Shaster; Sugden, David; Lim, Michael; Winter, Kate

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of Antarctica's bedrock landscape has long been thought to be represent repeated glacial modification to an ancient pre-glacial land surface. However, significant areas of Antarctica are above current, and many past, ice elevations. These nunataks are often the steep sided upper part of buried mountains with high potential relief . They are therefore subject to hillslope erosion processes for long period of time, which in Antarctic landscapes has received scant attention ,with rates of sediment flux often assumed to be insignificant, or amongst the lowest on the planet. We have used repeat high resolution surveys to derive face averaged rockfall erosion rates of 0.095 - 0.137 mmyr-1 from 67°- 80°S along the Antarctic Peninsula, from the milder maritime influenced zone, to the high, arid, windy interior of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. These rates are in keeping with rates derived from Arctic and temperate landscapes thought to be far more active, and undergoing rapid changes to rates due to climatic warming. They are also consistent with long-term estimates of catchment wide denudation by the glaciers (not-ice streams) of the Antarctic Peninsula (0.001 - 0.08 mmyr-1). We further show using cosmogenic isotope dating of rockfall boulders (8.1, 10.5, 10.8 and 108.8 ka) deposited on a blue-ice moraine that failures have been occurring at 80°S for long periods in a mountain range that has had some slopes exposed for ~ 1.4 Ma. These findings demonstrate the importance of rockfalls for long-term debris supply to Antarctic glacier landsystems and the potential for substantial modification of nunataks between periods of ice-cover. Although caution must be exercised in upscaling short-term, limited spatial extent derived rates to long-term estimates, in the case of the stable ice-geometry site in the Ellsworth Mountains there has been the potential for > 190 m of face retreat, and a full suite of landslide processes.

  16. Embryonic stem cells lacking the epigenetic regulator Cfp1 are hypersensitive to DNA-damaging agents and exhibit decreased Ape1/Ref-1 protein expression and endonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Tate, Courtney M; Fishel, Melissa L; Holleran, Julianne L; Egorin, Merrill J; Skalnik, David G

    2009-12-01

    Modulation of chromatin structure plays an important role in the recruitment and function of DNA repair proteins. CXXC finger protein 1 (Cfp1), encoded by the CXXC1 gene, is essential for mammalian development and is an important regulator of chromatin structure. Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells lacking Cfp1 (CXXC1(-/-)) are viable but demonstrate a dramatic decrease in cytosine methylation, altered histone methylation, and an inability to differentiate. We find that ES cells lacking Cfp1 are hypersensitive to a variety of DNA-damaging agents. In addition, CXXC1(-/-) ES cells accumulate more DNA damage and exhibit decreased protein expression and endonuclease activity of AP endonuclease (Ape1/Ref-1), an enzyme involved in DNA base excision repair. Expression in CXXC1(-/-) ES cells of either the amino half of Cfp1 (amino acids 1-367) or the carboxyl half of Cfp1 (amino acids 361-656) restores normal Ape1/Ref-1 protein expression and rescues the hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents, demonstrating that Cfp1 contains redundant functional domains. Furthermore, retention of either the DNA-binding activity of Cfp1 or interaction with the Setd1A and Setd1B histone H3-Lys4 methyltransferase complexes is required to restore normal sensitivity of CXXC1(-/-) ES cells to DNA-damaging agents. These results implicate Cfp1 as a regulator of DNA repair processes. PMID:19836314

  17. Introduction of Peripheral Carboxylates to Decrease the Charge on Tm(3+) DOTAM-Alkyl Complexes: Implications for Detection Sensitivity and in Vivo Toxicity of PARACEST MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Suchý, Mojmír; Milne, Mark; Elmehriki, Adam A H; McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2015-08-27

    A series of structurally modified Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes as potential PARACEST MRI contrast agents has been synthesized with the aim to decrease the overall positive charge associated with these molecules and increase their biocompatibility. Two types of structural modification have been performed, an introduction of terminal carboxylate arms to the alkyl side chains and a conjugation of one of the alkyl side chains with aspartic acid. Detailed evaluation of the magnetic resonance imaging chemical exchange contrast associated with the structurally modified contrast agents has been performed. In contrast to the acutely toxic Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes, the structurally modified compounds were found to be tolerated well during in vivo MRI studies in mice; however, only the aspartic acid modified chelates produced an amide proton-based PARACEST signal. PMID:26214576

  18. Protection of gastric mucosa against hypertonic sodium chloride by 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 or sodium thiosulfate in the rat: Evidence for decreased mucosal penetration of damaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Pihan, G.; Szabo, S. )

    1989-12-01

    Protection of the gastric mucosa may be the result of either increased cellular resistance to injury (cytoprotection) or, alternatively, decreased exposure of mucosal cells to the damaging agent. To determine whether decreased exposure of mucosal cells to damaging agents plays a role in mucosal protection by 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate, we estimated the intramucosal concentration of 22NaCl and measured its absorption from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after intragastric administration of hypertonic (25% w/v) 22NaCl. In an attempt to explain the differences observed, we also measured the net transmucosal water flux in control animals and rats pretreated with the protective agents. Administration of hypertonic NaCl rapidly (within 1 min) induced extensive hemorrhagic mucosal lesions that were significantly reduced by pretreatment with 16,16-dm PGE2 or sodium thiosulfate. Ultra-low temperature autoradiography indicated that luminal hypertonic 22NaCl penetrates the upper layers of the mucosa in relatively high concentrations (12.5% w/v) within 1 min but its concentration decreases rapidly and reached low levels (3.12% w/v) by 5 min. Absorption of NaCl from the gastric lumen into the systemic circulation 1 and 5 min after hypertonic NaCl was lower in both pretreatment groups than in the control. Net gastric transmucosal water flux (from serosa to mucosa) increased (P less than 0.05) from 100 +/- 2 in controls, to 1470 +/- 8 and 715 +/- 9 microliters in rats pretreated with 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate, respectively. We conclude that 16,16-dm PGE2 and sodium thiosulfate protect the gastric mucosa against hypertonic NaCl, diminish mucosal penetration of NaCl, decrease mucosal absorption of NaCl, and significantly increase serosal to mucosal transmucosal water flux.

  19. Humans as major geological and geomorphological agents in the Anthropocene: the significance of artificial ground in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Price, Simon J; Ford, Jonathan R; Cooper, Anthony H; Neal, Catherine

    2011-03-13

    Since the first prehistoric people started to dig for stone to make implements, rather than pick up loose material, humans have modified the landscape through excavation of rock and soil, generation of waste and creation of artificial ground. In Great Britain over the past 200 years, people have excavated, moved and built up the equivalent of at least six times the volume of Ben Nevis. It is estimated that the worldwide deliberate annual shift of sediment by human activity is 57,000 Mt (million tonnes) and exceeds that of transport by rivers to the oceans (22,000 Mt) almost by a factor of three. Humans sculpt and transform the landscape through the physical modification of the shape and properties of the ground. As such, humans are geological and geomorphological agents and the dominant factor in landscape evolution through settlement and widespread industrialization and urbanization. The most significant impact of this has been since the onset of the Industrial Revolution in the eighteenth century, coincident with increased release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The anthropogenic sedimentological record, therefore, provides a marker on which to characterize the Anthropocene.

  20. Intraoperative frozen section analysis of margins in breast conserving surgery significantly decreases reoperative rates: one-year experience at an ambulatory surgical center.

    PubMed

    Jorns, Julie M; Visscher, Daniel; Sabel, Michael; Breslin, Tara; Healy, Patrick; Daignaut, Stephanie; Myers, Jeffrey L; Wu, Angela J

    2012-11-01

    Intraoperative frozen section (FS) margin evaluation is not common practice for patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT), but offers a significant reduction in reoperation. In this study, a technique to allow for more effective freezing of breast tissue was developed to perform FS evaluation of lumpectomy margins (FSM) for all patients undergoing BCT at an ambulatory surgery center. FS evaluation of sentinel lymph node biopsy specimens was performed concurrently. One hundred eighty-one study and 188 control patients, with and without FS evaluation, were compared. Reexcision was reduced 34% (from 48.9% to 14.9%) and reoperation was reduced 36% (from 55.3% to 19.3%) with FS evaluation. Most of the decrease in reoperative rate was because of a decrease in the need for margin reexcision. The number of patients requiring 1, 2, or 3 operations to complete therapy was 84, 92, and 12, respectively, in the control group, and 146, 33, and 2, respectively, in the study group. Lobular subtype, multifocal disease, and larger tumor size (≥2 cm) were significantly associated with failure of FSM to prevent reoperation, but reoperation rates were still significantly decreased in this subgroup of patients (from 75.5% to 43.8%) with FSM. This study highlights an innovative yet simple and adaptable FS approach that resulted in a nearly 3-fold reduction in reoperation for patients undergoing BCT.

  1. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Wang, Shuhui; Zhang, Qicheng; Tian, Meijuan; Hou, Jue; Wang, Rongmin; Liu, Chang; Ji, Xu; Liu, Ying; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT) has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  2. Appropriateness of gram-negative agent use at a tertiary care hospital in the setting of significant antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Vora, Neil M; Kubin, Christine J; Furuya, E Yoko

    2015-01-01

    Background.  Practicing antimicrobial stewardship in the setting of widespread antimicrobial resistance among gram-negative bacilli, particularly in urban areas, is challenging. Methods.  We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study at a tertiary care hospital with an established antimicrobial stewardship program in New York, New York to determine appropriateness of use of gram-negative antimicrobials and to identify factors associated with suboptimal antimicrobial use. Adult inpatients who received gram-negative agents on 2 dates, 1 June 2010 or 1 December 2010, were identified through pharmacy records. Clinical data were collected for each patient. Use of gram-negative agents was deemed optimal or suboptimal through chart review and according to hospital guidelines. Data were compared using χ(2) or Fischer's exact test for categorical variables and Student t test or Mann-Whitney U test for continuous variables. Results.  A total of 356 patients were included who received 422 gram-negative agents. Administration was deemed suboptimal in 26% of instances, with the most common reason being spectrum of activity too broad. In multivariable analysis, being in an intensive care unit (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], .49; 95% confidence interval [CI], .29-.84), having an infectious diseases consultation within the previous 7 days (aOR, .52; 95% CI, .28-.98), and having a history of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli within the past year (aOR, .24; 95% CI, .09-.65) were associated with optimal gram-negative agent use. Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination drug use (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.35-5.16) was associated with suboptimal use. Conclusions.  Gram-negative agents were used too broadly despite numerous antimicrobial stewardship program activities.

  3. No significant brain volume decreases or increases in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and above average intelligence: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Andreas; Maier, Simon; Ulbrich, Melanie; Biscaldi, Monica; Ebert, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Perlov, Evgeniy; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger

    2014-08-30

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is increasingly being recognized as an important issue in adult psychiatry and psychotherapy. High intelligence indicates overall good brain functioning and might thus present a particularly good opportunity to study possible cerebral correlates of core autistic features in terms of impaired social cognition, communication skills, the need for routines, and circumscribed interests. Anatomical MRI data sets for 30 highly intelligent patients with high-functioning autism and 30 pairwise-matched control subjects were acquired and analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. The gray matter volume of the pairwise-matched patients and the controls did not differ significantly. When correcting for total brain volume influences, the patients with ASD exhibited smaller left superior frontal volumes on a trend level. Heterogeneous volumetric findings in earlier studies might partly be explained by study samples biased by a high inclusion rate of secondary forms of ASD, which often go along with neuronal abnormalities. Including only patients with high IQ scores might have decreased the influence of secondary forms of ASD and might explain the absence of significant volumetric differences between the patients and the controls in this study. PMID:24953998

  4. The biological significance of color constancy: an agent-based model with bees foraging from flowers under varied illumination.

    PubMed

    Faruq, Samia; McOwan, Peter W; Chittka, Lars

    2013-08-20

    The perceived color of an object depends on its spectral reflectance and the spectral composition of the illuminant. Thus when the illumination changes, the light reflected from the object also varies. This would result in a different color sensation if no color constancy mechanism is put in place-that is, the ability to form consistent representation of colors across various illuminants and background scenes. We explore the quantitative benefits of various color constancy algorithms in an agent-based model of foraging bees, where agents select flower color based on reward. Each simulation is based on 100 "meadows" with five randomly selected flower species with empirically determined spectral reflectance properties, and each flower species is associated with realistic distributions of nectar rewards. Simulated foraging bees memorize the colors of flowers that they have experienced as most rewarding, and their task is to discriminate against other flower colors with lower rewards, even in the face of changing illumination conditions. We compared the performance of von Kries, White Patch, and Gray World constancy models with (hypothetical) bees with perfect color constancy, and color-blind bees. A bee equipped with trichromatic color vision but no color constancy performed only ∼20% better than a color-blind bee (relative to a maximum improvement at 100% for perfect color constancy), whereas the most powerful recovery of reflectance in the face of changing illumination was generated by a combination of von Kries photoreceptor adaptation and a White Patch calibration (∼30% improvement relative to a bee without color constancy). However, none of the tested algorithms generated perfect color constancy.

  5. Alleviating peanut allergy using genetic engineering: the silencing of the immunodominant allergen Ara h 2 leads to its significant reduction and a decrease in peanut allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Dodo, Hortense W; Konan, Koffi N; Chen, Fur C; Egnin, Marceline; Viquez, Olga M

    2008-02-01

    Peanut allergy is one of the most life-threatening food allergies and one of the serious challenges facing the peanut and food industries. Current proposed solutions focus primarily on ways to alter the immune system of patients allergic to peanut. However, with the advent of genetic engineering novel strategies can be proposed to solve the problem of peanut allergy from the source. The objectives of this study were to eliminate the immunodominant Ara h 2 protein from transgenic peanut using RNA interference (RNAi), and to evaluate the allergenicity of resulting transgenic peanut seeds. A 265-bp-long PCR product was generated from the coding region of Ara h 2 genomic DNA, and cloned as inverted repeats in pHANNIBAL, an RNAi-inducing plant transformation vector. The Ara h 2-specific RNAi transformation cassette was subcloned into a binary pART27 vector to construct plasmid pDK28. Transgenic peanuts were produced by infecting peanut hypocotyl explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA 105 harbouring the pDK28 construct. A total of 59 kanamycin-resistant peanut plants were regenerated with phenotype and growth rates comparable to wild type. PCR and Southern analyses revealed that 44% of plants stably integrated the transgene. Sandwich ELISA performed using Ara h 2-mAbs revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in Ara h 2 content in several transgenic seeds. Western immunobloting performed with Ara h 2-mAb corroborated the results obtained with ELISA and showed absence of the Ara h 2 protein from crude extracts of several transgenic seeds of the T(0) plants. The allergenicity of transgenic peanut seeds expressed as IgE binding capacity was evaluated by ELISA using sera of patients allergic to peanut. The data showed a significant decrease in the IgE binding capacity of selected transgenic seeds compared to wild type, hence, demonstrating the feasibility of alleviating peanut allergy using the RNAi technology.

  6. Microflow liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry--an approach to significantly increase sensitivity, decrease matrix effects, and reduce organic solvent usage in pesticide residue analysis.

    PubMed

    Uclés Moreno, Ana; Herrera López, Sonia; Reichert, Barbara; Lozano Fernández, Ana; Hernando Guil, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodríguez

    2015-01-20

    This manuscript reports a new pesticide residue analysis method employing a microflow-liquid chromatography system coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (microflow-LC-ESI-QqQ-MS). This uses an electrospray ionization source with a narrow tip emitter to generate smaller droplets. A validation study was undertaken to establish performance characteristics for this new approach on 90 pesticide residues, including their degradation products, in three commodities (tomato, pepper, and orange). The significant benefits of the microflow-LC-MS/MS-based method were a high sensitivity gain and a notable reduction in matrix effects delivered by a dilution of the sample (up to 30-fold); this is as a result of competition reduction between the matrix compounds and analytes for charge during ionization. Overall robustness and a capability to withstand long analytical runs using the microflow-LC-MS system have been demonstrated (for 100 consecutive injections without any maintenance being required). Quality controls based on the results of internal standards added at the samples' extraction, dilution, and injection steps were also satisfactory. The LOQ values were mostly 5 μg kg(-1) for almost all pesticide residues. Other benefits were a substantial reduction in solvent usage and waste disposal as well as a decrease in the run-time. The method was successfully applied in the routine analysis of 50 fruit and vegetable samples labeled as organically produced. PMID:25495653

  7. Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel findings.

    PubMed

    Radenahmad, Nisaudah; Saleh, Farid; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn; Subhadhirasakul, Patchara; Rundorn, Wilart; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Connor, James R

    2011-03-01

    Brains from ovariectomised (ovx) rats can display features similar to those observed in menopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and oestrogen seems to play a key role. Preliminary studies on young coconut juice (YCJ) have reported the presence of oestrogen-like components in it. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of YCJ on the AD pathological changes in the brains of ovx rats. Rat groups included sham-operated, ovx, ovx+oestradiol benzoate (EB) and ovx+YCJ. Brain sections (4 μm) were taken and were immunostained with β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (an intermediate neurofilament of astrocytes) and Tau-1 antibodies. Aβ 1-42, GFAP and Tau-1 are considered as reliable biomarkers of amyloidosis, astrogliosis and tauopathy (neurofibrillary tangles), respectively, which in turn are characteristic features associated with AD. The serum oestradiol (E2) level was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay technique. YCJ restored the serum E2 to levels significantly (P < 0·001) higher than that of the ovx group, and even that of the sham group. Aβ deposition was significantly (P < 0·0001) reduced in the cerebral cortex of the YCJ group, as compared with the ovx group and with the sham and ovx+EB groups (P < 0·01). A similar trend was observed in relation to GFAP expression in the cerebral cortex and to Tau-1 expression in the hippocampus. This is a novel study demonstrating that YCJ could have positive future implications in the prevention and treatment of AD in menopausal women.

  8. Presentation of a functional pituitary adenoma as a significant decrease in prostate-specific antigen level in a patient followed for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Grotas, Aaron B; Nagler, Harris M

    2006-12-01

    The stimulatory role of testosterone in the production and release of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been well characterized. Testosterone production by the testes is dependent on a functional hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. High prolactin levels have been shown to disrupt this axis, resulting in decreases in gonadotropins and testosterone levels. We report a patient with prostate cancer and elevated PSA levels followed with "watchful waiting" for several years who experienced a precipitous decrease in PSA level over a 3 month period. The patient was found to have an asymptomatic prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma.

  9. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  10. Significant decrease of ADP release rate underlies the potent activity of dimethylenastron to inhibit mitotic kinesin Eg5 and cancer cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Linlin; Sun, Xiaodong; Xie, Songbo; Yu, Haiyang; Zhong, Diansheng

    2014-05-09

    Highlights: • DIMEN displays higher anti-proliferative activity than enastron. • DIMEN induced mitotic arrest and apoptosis more significantly than enastron. • DIMEN blocked the conformational change of ADP-binding pocket more effectively. • DIMEN hindered ADP release more potently than enastron. - Abstract: Eg5 is a mitotic kinesin that plays a crucial role in the formation of bipolar mitotic spindles, by hydrolyzing ATP to push apart anti-parallel microtubules. Dimethylenastron is potent specific small molecule inhibitor of Eg5. The mechanism by which dimethylenastron inhibits Eg5 function remains unclear. By comparing with enastron, here we report that dimethylenastron prevents the growth of pancreatic and lung cancer cells more effectively, by halting mitotic progression and triggering apoptosis. We analyze their interactions with ADP-bound Eg5 crystal structure, and find that dimethylenastron binds Eg5 motor domain with higher affinity. In addition, dimethylenastron allosterically blocks the conformational change of the “sandwich”-like ADP-binding pocket more effectively. We subsequently use biochemical approach to reveal that dimethylenastron slows ADP release more significantly than enastron. These data thus provide biological, structural and mechanistic insights into the potent inhibitory activity of dimethylenastron.

  11. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process.

  12. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process. PMID:26216504

  13. An industry perspective on the use of “atoxigenic” strains of Aspergillus flavus as biological control agents and the significance of cyclopiazonic acid

    PubMed Central

    King, Eileen D; (Bobby) Bassi, Albeit B; Ross, David C; Druebbisch, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Several nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been registered in the United States to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize and other crops, but there may be unintended negative consequences if these strains produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). AF36, a nonaflatoxigenic, CPA-producing strain has been shown to produce CPA in treated maize and peanuts. Alternative strains, including Afla-Guard® brand biocontrol agent and K49, do not produce CPA and can reduce both aflatoxin and CPA in treated crops. Chronic toxicity of CPA has not been studied, and recent animal studies show significant harmful effects from short-term exposure to CPA at low doses. Grower and industry confidence in this approach must be preserved through transparency. PMID:22844262

  14. Exposure to Agent Orange is a significant predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-based recurrence and a rapid PSA doubling time after radical prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Sagar R.; Freedland, Stephen J.; Aronson, William J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Presti, Joseph C.; Amling, Christopher L.; Terris, Martha K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate and report the clinicopathological characteristics and outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with prostate cancer and previous exposure to Agent Orange (AO), particularly in relationship to race. PATIENTS AND METHODS In 1495 veterans who had undergone RP the clinicopathological characteristics, biochemical progression rates, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling time (DT) after recurrence between AO-exposed and unexposed men were compared using logistic and linear regression and Cox proportional hazards analyses, and stratified by race. RESULTS The 206 (14%) men with AO exposure were more likely to be black (P = 0.001), younger (P < 0.001), treated more recently (P < 0.001), have a higher body mass index (P = 0.001), have clinical stage T1 disease (P < 0.001), and have lower preoperative PSA levels (P = 0.001). After adjusting for several clinical characteristics, AO exposure was not significantly related to adverse pathological features but was significantly associated with biochemical progression risk (relative risk 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.15–2.09, P = 0.004) and shorter PSADT (P < 0.001) after recurrence (8.2 vs 18.6 months). When stratified by race, these associations were present and similar in both races, with no significant interaction between race and AO exposure for predicting biochemical recurrence or mean adjusted PSADT (P interaction >0.20). CONCLUSIONS Patients with AO exposure and treated with RP were more likely to be black, present with lower risk features, have an increased risk of biochemical progression, and shorter PSADT after recurrence. When stratified by race, the association between AO exposure and poor outcomes was present in both races. These findings suggest that among selected men who choose RP, AO exposure might be associated with more aggressive prostate cancer. PMID:19298411

  15. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU.

  16. Inhibition of para-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate Dioxygenase by Analogues of the Herbicide Nitisinone As a Strategy to Decrease Homogentisic Acid Levels, the Causative Agent of Alkaptonuria.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Marcella; Bernardini, Giulia; Dreassi, Elena; Millucci, Lia; Geminiani, Michela; Braconi, Daniela; Marzocchi, Barbara; Botta, Maurizio; Manetti, Fabrizio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2016-04-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare multisystem metabolic disease caused by deficient activity of homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), which leads to the accumulation of homogentisic acid (HGA). Currently, there is no treatment for AKU. The sole drug with some beneficial effects is the herbicide nitisinone (1), an inhibitor of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4-HPPD). 1 has been used as a life-saving drug in infants with type I tyrosinemia despite severe side effects due to the buildup of tyrosine. Four clinical trials of nitisinone to treat AKU have shown that 1 consistently decreases HGA levels, but also caused the accumulation of tyrosine in blood serum. Moreover, the human preclinical toxicological data for 1 are incomplete. In this work, we performed pharmacodynamics and toxicological evaluations of 1, providing the first report of LD50 values in human cells. Intracellular tyrosinemia was also evaluated. Three additional 4-HPPD inhibitors with a more favorable profile than that of 1 in terms of IC50, LD50, and tyrosine accumulation were also identified among commercially available compounds. These may be promising starting points for the development of new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of AKU. PMID:26947423

  17. Decreased Susceptibility to Commonly Used Antimicrobial Agents in Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Rwanda: Need for New Antimicrobial Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Muvunyi, Claude Mambo; Masaisa, Florence; Bayingana, Claude; Mutesa, Léon; Musemakweri, André; Muhirwa, Grégoire; Claeys, Geert (W.)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain data on susceptibility patterns of pathogens responsible for both community and hospital urinary tract infections (UTIs); and analyzed risk factors for infection caused by ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum β-lactamace (ESBL)-producing strains in Rwanda. Of 1,012 urine cultures prospectively studied, a total of 196 (19.3%) yielded significant growth of a single organism. The most common isolate (60.7%) was Escherichia coli. The antibiotics commonly used in UTIs are less effective except Fosfomycin-trometamol and imipinem. The use of ciprofloxacin in the previous 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 7.59 [1.75–32.74]), use of other antibiotics in the previous 6 months (OR = 1.02 [1.02–2.34]), and production of ESBL (OR = 19.32 [2.62–142.16]) were found to be associated with ciprofloxacin resistance among the E. coli isolates. Risk factors for ESBL positivity were the use of ciprofloxacin and third-generation cephalosporin in the preceding 6 months (OR = 3.05 [1.42–6.58] and OR = 9.78 [2.71–35.25], respectively); and being an inpatient (OR = 2.27 [1.79–2.89]). Fosfomycin-trometamol could be included as a reasonable alternative for the therapy of uncomplicated UTI in Rwanda. PMID:21633029

  18. Ferrimagnetic susceptibility contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, T

    1993-01-01

    Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic particles have been in clinical development for more than 5 years, and the complexity of their effects is still not elucidated. The relaxivities are frequently used to give an idea of their efficacy, but these parameters can only be used if they are concentration independent. For large superparamagnetic systems, the evolution of the transverse magnetization is biexponential, after an initial loss of magnetization. Both these characteristics of large superparamagnetic systems should lead to prudence in using the relaxivities as indicators of contrast medium efficacy. Susceptibility induced artefacts have been associated with the use of superparamagnetic contrast agents since the first imaging evaluation took place. The range of concentrations where good contrast effect was achieved without inducing artefacts, as well as blurring and metal artefacts were evaluated. The influence of motion on the induction of artefacts was studied, and compared to the artefacts induced by a paramagnetic agent subject to motion. With a suitable concentration of a negative contrast agent, a signal void could be achieved in the region prone to motion, and no artefacts were induced. If the concentration was too high, a displacement of the region close to the contrast agent was observed. The artefacts occurred in a volume surrounding the contrast agent, i.e., also outside the imaging plane. In comparison a positive, paramagnetic contrast agent induced heavy artefacts in the phase encoding direction, appearing as both high intensity regions and black holes, in a mosaic pattern. Clinical trials of the oral contrast agent OMP for abdominal MR imaging showed this agent to be safe and efficacious. OMP increased the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal MR imaging in 2 of 3 cases examined, with a significant decrease in motion artefacts. Susceptibility contrast agents may also be of use in the evaluation of small lesions in the liver. Particulate material

  19. Reduction in hSOD1 copy number significantly impacts ALS phenotype presentation in G37R (line 29) mice: implications for the assessment of putative therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In vivo animal models of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) are widely used to delineate the potential role that genetic mutations play in the neurodegenerative process. While these models are extensively used for establishing the safety and efficacy of putative therapeutics during pre-clinical development, effective clinical translation of pharmacological interventions has been largely unsuccessful. Results In this report we compare a recent cohort of G37R (line 29) mice generated from mating wild-type females with transgenic males obtained commercially to a previous set of offspring produced with transgenic male breeders from a colony established at a local collaborator’s facility. Commercially derived progeny presented with a tightly clustered genomic signature for the mutant human superoxide dismutase1 transgene (hSOD1) locus, and exhibited a greater than two-fold reduction in the number of transgene copies present in the genome compared to offspring derived locally. Decrease in transgene levels corresponded with delayed ALS progression and a significant increase in overall lifespan (146%). Conclusions These results highlight some key challenges inherent to the use of G37R (line 29) animals in pre-clinical studies for the development of ALS therapeutics. Without stringent assessment of mutant SOD1 copy number/protein levels, heterogeneity of transgene levels within cohorts may influence the behavioural and pathological presentation of disease and thus calls to question the validity of any detected therapeutic effects. Nuanced changes in mutant SOD1 copy number that currently remain unreported may undermine research endeavours, delay efforts for clinical translation, and compromise the rigor of animal studies by limiting reproducibility amongst research groups. PMID:25103619

  20. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R

    2004-04-01

    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  1. The norepinephrine transporter (NET) radioligand (S,S)-[18F]FMeNER-D2 shows significant decreases in NET density in the human brain in Alzheimer's disease: a post-mortem autoradiographic study.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Balázs; Brockschnieder, Damian; Nag, Sangram; Pavlova, Elena; Kása, Péter; Beliczai, Zsuzsa; Légrádi, Adám; Gulya, Károly; Thiele, Andrea; Dyrks, Thomas; Halldin, Christer

    2010-01-01

    Earlier post-mortem histological and autoradiographic studies have indicated a reduction of cell numbers in the locus coeruleus (LC) and a corresponding decrease in norepinephrine transporter (NET) in brains obtained from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients as compared to age-matched healthy controls. In order to test the hypothesis that the regional decrease of NET is a disease specific biomarker in AD and as such, it can be used in PET imaging studies for diagnostic considerations, regional differences in the density of NET in various anatomical structures were measured in whole hemisphere human brain slices obtained from AD patients and age-matched control subjects in a series of autoradiographic experiments using the novel selective PET radioligand for NET (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2). (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) appears to be a useful imaging biomarker for quantifying the density of NET in various brain structures, including the LC and the thalamus wherein the highest densities are found in physiological conditions. In AD significant decreases of NET densities can be demonstrated with the radioligand in both structures as compared to age-matched controls. The decreases in AD correlate with the progress of the disease as indicated by Braak grades. As the size of the LC is below the spatial resolution of the PET scanners, but the size of the thalamus can be detected with appropriate spatial accuracy in advanced scanners, the present findings confirm our earlier observations with PET that the in vivo imaging of NET with (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) in the thalamus is viable. Nevertheless, further studies are warranted to assess the usefulness of such an imaging approach for the early detection of changes in thalamic NET densities as a disease-specific biomarker and the possible use of (S,S)-[(18)F]FMeNER-D(2) as a molecular imaging biomarker in AD. PMID:20211213

  2. Synthesis of nanocrystals of Zr-based metal-organic frameworks with csq-net: significant enhancement in the degradation of a nerve agent simulant.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Klet, Rachel C; Moon, Su-Young; Wang, Timothy C; Deria, Pravas; Peters, Aaron W; Klahr, Benjamin M; Park, Hea-Jung; Al-Juaid, Salih S; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-07-11

    The synthesis of nano-sized particles of NU-1000 (length from 75 nm to 1200 nm) and PCN-222/MOF-545 (length from 350 nm to 900 nm) is reported. The catalytic hydrolysis of methyl paraoxon was investigated as a function of NU-1000 crystallite size and a significant enhancement in the rate was observed for the nano-sized crystals compared to microcrystals.

  3. Agent-based forward analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kerekes, Ryan A.; Jiao, Yu; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Potok, Thomas E.; Lusk, Rick M.

    2008-01-01

    We propose software agent-based "forward analysis" for efficient information retrieval in a network of sensing devices. In our approach, processing is pushed to the data at the edge of the network via intelligent software agents rather than pulling data to a central facility for processing. The agents are deployed with a specific query and perform varying levels of analysis of the data, communicating with each other and sending only relevant information back across the network. We demonstrate our concept in the context of face recognition using a wireless test bed comprised of PDA cell phones and laptops. We show that agent-based forward analysis can provide a significant increase in retrieval speed while decreasing bandwidth usage and information overload at the central facility. n

  4. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  5. Metformin may function as anti-cancer agent via targeting cancer stem cells: the potential biological significance of tumor-associated miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Bao, Bin; Azmi, Asfar S; Ali, Shadan; Zaiem, Feras; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2014-06-01

    Metformin is one of the most used diabetic drugs for the management of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world. Increased numbers of epidemiological and clinical studies have provided convincing evidence supporting the role of metformin in the development and progression of a variety of human tumors including breast and pancreatic cancer. Substantial pre-clinical evidence from in vitro and in vivo experimental studies strongly suggests that metformin has an anti-cancer activity mediated through the regulation of several cell signaling pathways including activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), and other direct and indirect mechanisms; however, the detailed mechanism(s) has not yet been fully understood. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has gained significant attention in recent years due its identification and defining its clinical implications in many different tumors including breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. In this review, we will discuss the protective role of metformin in the development of breast and pancreatic cancers. We will further discuss the role of metformin as an anti-cancer agent, which is in part mediated through targeting CSCs. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of metformin in the modulation of tumor-associated or CSC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) as part of the novel mechanism of action of metformin in the development and progression of breast and pancreatic cancers. PMID:25333034

  6. Metformin may function as anti-cancer agent via targeting cancer stem cells: the potential biological significance of tumor-associated miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Azmi, Asfar S.; Ali, Shadan; Zaiem, Feras

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is one of the most used diabetic drugs for the management of type II diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world. Increased numbers of epidemiological and clinical studies have provided convincing evidence supporting the role of metformin in the development and progression of a variety of human tumors including breast and pancreatic cancer. Substantial pre-clinical evidence from in vitro and in vivo experimental studies strongly suggests that metformin has an anti-cancer activity mediated through the regulation of several cell signaling pathways including activation of AMP kinase (AMPK), and other direct and indirect mechanisms; however, the detailed mechanism(s) has not yet been fully understood. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has gained significant attention in recent years due its identification and defining its clinical implications in many different tumors including breast cancer and pancreatic cancer. In this review, we will discuss the protective role of metformin in the development of breast and pancreatic cancers. We will further discuss the role of metformin as an anti-cancer agent, which is in part mediated through targeting CSCs. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of metformin in the modulation of tumor-associated or CSC-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) as part of the novel mechanism of action of metformin in the development and progression of breast and pancreatic cancers. PMID:25333034

  7. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  8. Comparison of hemostatic agents used in vascular surgery

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Krishna S.; Saha, Sibu P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Over the past 15 years, a wide range of agents have been developed for use in surgical procedures to achieve hemostasis. These agents can be divided into three broad categories: hemostats, sealants and adhesives. They vary widely related to their mechanism of action, composition, ease of application, adherence to wet or dry tissue, immunogenicity and cost. Areas covered This article focuses on the agents used in vascular surgery to achieve hemostasis; agents involved in clinical trials are also covered. Expert opinion When surgeons achieve rapid hemostasis, potential benefits include better visualization of the surgical area, shorter operative times, decreased requirement for transfusions, better management of an anticoagulated patient, decreased wound healing time and overall improvement in patient recovery time. The need for safe and efficacious hemostatic agents that can provide a range of benefits is clearly a significant surgical issue. PMID:24144261

  9. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  10. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly. PMID:26576135

  11. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  12. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  13. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  14. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  15. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  16. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  17. Calbindins decreased after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, I. N.; Rhoten, W. B.; Carney, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca2+ metabolism, yet the cellular and molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. Calbindins, vitamin D-dependent Ca2+ binding proteins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In this study, we used biochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D28k and calbindin-D9k in kidneys, small intestine, and pancreas of rats flown for 9 d aboard the space shuttle. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats from space were compared with synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls, modeled weightlessness animals (tail suspension), and their controls. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant and sustained decrease in calbindin-D28k content in the kidney and calbindin-D9k in the small intestine of flight animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Modeled weightlessness animals exhibited a similar decrease in calbindins by ELISA. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in the kidney and the small intestine, and the expression of insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease of immunoreactivity in renal distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D28k and in intestinal absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D9k of space flight and modeled weightlessness animals compared with matched controls. No consistent difference in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space flight, modeled weightlessness, and controls was observed. Regression analysis of results obtained by quantitative ICC and ELISA for space flight, modeled weightlessness animals, and their controls demonstrated a significant correlation. These findings after a short-term exposure to microgravity or modeled weightlessness suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins

  18. Smart Swarms of Bacteria-Inspired Agents with Performance Adaptable Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Shklarsh, Adi; Ariel, Gil; Schneidman, Elad; Ben-Jacob, Eshel

    2011-01-01

    Collective navigation and swarming have been studied in animal groups, such as fish schools, bird flocks, bacteria, and slime molds. Computer modeling has shown that collective behavior of simple agents can result from simple interactions between the agents, which include short range repulsion, intermediate range alignment, and long range attraction. Here we study collective navigation of bacteria-inspired smart agents in complex terrains, with adaptive interactions that depend on performance. More specifically, each agent adjusts its interactions with the other agents according to its local environment – by decreasing the peers' influence while navigating in a beneficial direction, and increasing it otherwise. We show that inclusion of such performance dependent adaptable interactions significantly improves the collective swarming performance, leading to highly efficient navigation, especially in complex terrains. Notably, to afford such adaptable interactions, each modeled agent requires only simple computational capabilities with short-term memory, which can easily be implemented in simple swarming robots. PMID:21980274

  19. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  20. Cooling Efficiency of 4 Common Cryotherapeutic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kennet, Jane; Hardaker, Natalie; Hobbs, Sarah; Selfe, James

    2007-01-01

    Context: Cryotherapy is the application of cold as a treatment. It is widely used and accepted as beneficial in early management of soft tissue injury. However, the most efficient cryotherapeutic agent remains unknown. Objective: To compare 4 common cryotherapeutic agents including crushed ice (CI), gel pack (GP), frozen peas (FP), and ice-water immersion (WI) and to determine which agent provided the greatest cooling efficiency after a 20-minute application. Design: Repeated-measures design. Setting: University physiology laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Nine healthy volunteers participated (5 males, 4 females; age = 24.0 ± 4.6 years, height = 1.73 ± 0.24 m, mass = 79.9 ± 24.1 kg). Intervention(s): The CI, GP, FP, and WI were applied to the right ankle for 20 minutes. Participants were required to attend 1 measurement session for each agent. Main Outcome Measure(s): We recorded skin surface temperature of the right ankle at a sampling rate of 1 image/min, using a thermal imaging camera during a 30-minute rewarming period. Results: Application of CI produced a significantly greater reduction in skin surface temperature (19.56 ± 3.78°C) than GP (13.19 ± 5.07°C) and FP (14.59 ± 4.22°C) ( P < .001). The CI and WI demonstrated significantly ( P < .001) greater cooling efficiency than GP and FP. Conclusions: The CI and WI had the greatest cooling efficiency and sustained decreased skin surface temperatures postapplication, indicating these agents are potentially the most clinically beneficial. PMID:18059988

  1. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  2. Therapeutic agents and herbs in topical application for acne treatment.

    PubMed

    Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2011-08-01

    Acne vulgaris suppresses an individual's self-confidence by causing distress with regard to physical appearance, which affects a significant number of individuals during puberty and is delineated by adolescence. Several treatments have been introduced to decrease the aesthetic and psychological problems caused by acne. The topical application of therapeutic agents has been found to be more feasible than hormonal treatment and laser therapy. The ingredients in topical acne treatments, particularly herbs and naturally derived compounds, have received considerable interest as they have fewer adverse effects than synthetic agents. PMID:21401650

  3. Contrast agents for cardiac angiography: effects of a nonionic agent vs. a standard ionic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Bettmann, M.A.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Barry, W.H.; Brush, K.A.; Levin, D.C.

    1984-12-01

    The effects on cardiac hemodynamics and of a standard contrast agent, sodium methylglucamine diatrizoate (Renografin 76) were compared with the effects of a new nonionic agent (iohexol) in a double-blind study in 51 patietns undergoing coronary angiography and left ventriculography. No significant alteration in measured blood parameters occurred with either contrast agent. Hemodynamic changes occurred with both, but were significantly greater with the standard renografin than with the low-osmolality, nonionic iohexol. After left ventriculography, heart rate increased and peripheral arterial pressure fell with both agents, but less with iohexol. It is concluded that iohexol causes less alteration in cardiac function than does the agent currently most widely used. Nonionic contrast material is likely to improve the safety of coronary angiography, particularly in those patients at greatest risk.

  4. Zonisamide Decreases Ethanol Intake in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Clifford M.; Mercado, Melissa; Markley, Tara Lynn; Crosby, Steven; Ciraulo, Domenic A.; Kornetsky, Conan

    2010-01-01

    Several anticonvulsant agents, including topiramate and valproate, have been found to reduce alcohol consumption in rodent models of drinking. The question of whether the novel anticonvulsant agent, zonisamide, shares similar actions in either mice or rats was investigated in the present experiments. In an initial experiment, the consumption of a 10% ethanol/5 % sucrose solution, available for one hour, by Wistar rats treated with lactose, topiramate, or zonisamide was determined. In a second experiment, the intake of a 10% ethanol/water solution, accessible for two hours, by C57BL/B6N mice treated with either zonisamide or vehicle was assessed. In the rat, 50-mg/kg (PO) doses of either topiramate or zonisamide produced significant, but moderate decreases in ethanol/sucrose intake. The administration of a 50-mg/kg (IP) dose of zonisamide to mice resulted in a marked lowering in ethanol consumption. These results provide evidence that zonisamide administration will decrease ethanol consumption by both mice and rats in limited access models of drinking, and might, like topiramate, be useful as a medication for alcoholism. PMID:17482246

  5. Control of active sites in selective flocculation: II -- Role of site blocking agents

    SciTech Connect

    Behl, S.; Moudgil, B.M. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Control of heteroflocculation using a lower molecular weight fraction of the flocculant as a site blocking agent is demonstrated in the apatite-dolomite-polyethylene oxide system. The most effective SBA (site blocking agent) was determined to be the highest molecular weight fraction of the flocculant itself which was not capable of flocculating any of the components of the mixture. In the presence of the SBA, flocculant adsorption decreased significantly on apatite particles, thereby inhibiting coflocculation.

  6. MIDAS: a practical Bayesian design for platform trials with molecularly targeted agents.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Guo, Beibei; Munsell, Mark; Lu, Karen; Jazaeri, Amir

    2016-09-30

    Recent success of immunotherapy and other targeted therapies in cancer treatment has led to an unprecedented surge in the number of novel therapeutic agents that need to be evaluated in clinical trials. Traditional phase II clinical trial designs were developed for evaluating one candidate treatment at a time and thus not efficient for this task. We propose a Bayesian phase II platform design, the multi-candidate iterative design with adaptive selection (MIDAS), which allows investigators to continuously screen a large number of candidate agents in an efficient and seamless fashion. MIDAS consists of one control arm, which contains a standard therapy as the control, and several experimental arms, which contain the experimental agents. Patients are adaptively randomized to the control and experimental agents based on their estimated efficacy. During the trial, we adaptively drop inefficacious or overly toxic agents and 'graduate' the promising agents from the trial to the next stage of development. Whenever an experimental agent graduates or is dropped, the corresponding arm opens immediately for testing the next available new agent. Simulation studies show that MIDAS substantially outperforms the conventional approach. The proposed design yields a significantly higher probability for identifying the promising agents and dropping the futile agents. In addition, MIDAS requires only one master protocol, which streamlines trial conduct and substantially decreases the overhead burden. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27112322

  7. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  8. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  9. A decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis after prenatal glucocorticoid therapy.

    PubMed

    Bauer, C R; Morrison, J C; Poole, W K; Korones, S B; Boehm, J J; Rigatto, H; Zachman, R D

    1984-05-01

    In a large multicentered, collaborative randomized and blinded trial utilizing antenatal corticosteroids, the goals included determining the effectiveness of these agents in accelerating lung maturation, as well as monitoring any short-term or long-term adverse effects of this treatment on the parturient, fetus, and/or infant. More than 100 specific items, pertaining to diagnoses, complications, and outcomes were recorded for the 696 mothers enrolled in the study and their 745 infants. A significantly decreased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (P = .002) was found in the infants treated with steroids. The possibility of accelerated intestinal maturation induced by antenatal maternal steroid therapy exists. This treatment regimen is particularly attractive as adverse aspects of steroid therapy at the dosage utilized have not been demonstrated. PMID:6371696

  10. Flotability and flotation separation of polymer materials modulated by wetting agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Chong-qing; Fu, Jian-gang; Gu, Guo-hua

    2014-02-01

    The surface free energy, surface tension and contact angles were performed to investigate the properties of wetting agents. Adsorption of wetting agents changes wetting behavior of polymer resins. Flotability of polymer materials modulated by wetting agents was studied, and wetting agents change significantly flotability of polymer materials. The flotability decreases with increasing the concentration of wetting agents, and the wetting ability is lignin sulfonate (LS)>tannic acid (TA)>methylcellulose (MC)>triton X-100 (TX-100) (from strong to weak). There is significant difference in the flotability between polymer resins and plastics due to the presence of additives in the plastics. Flotation separation of two-component and multicomponent plastics was conducted based on the flotability modulated by wetting agents. The two-component mixtures can be efficiently separated using proper wetting agent through simple flotation flowsheet. The multicomponent plastic mixtures can be separated efficiently through multi-stage flotation using TA and LS as wetting agents, and the purity of separated component was above 94%, and the recovery was more than 93%.

  11. Lipid-lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented. PMID:23811423

  12. Lipid-lowering agents.

    PubMed

    Ewang-Emukowhate, Mfon; Wierzbicki, Anthony S

    2013-09-01

    The role of lipid lowering in reducing the risk of mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is well established. Treatment particularly aimed at decreasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is effective in reducing the risk of death from coronary heart disease and stroke. Statins form the cornerstone of treatment. However, in some individuals with a high risk of CVD who are unable to achieve their target LDL-C due to either intolerance or lack of efficacy, there is the need for alternative therapies. This review provides an overview of the different classes of currently available lipid-lowering medications including statins, fibrates, bile acid sequestrants (resins), and omega-3 fatty acids. Data are presented on their indications, pharmacology, and the relevant end point clinical trial data with these drugs. It also discusses the human trial data on some novel therapeutic agents that are being developed including those for homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia--the antisense oligonucleotide mipomersen and the microsomal transfer protein inhibitor lomitapide. Data are presented on phase II and III trials on agents with potentially wider applications, cholesterol ester transfer protein inhibitors and proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 inhibitors. The data on a licensed gene therapy for lipoprotein lipase deficiency are also presented.

  13. [New agents for hypercholesterolemia].

    PubMed

    Pintó, Xavier; García Gómez, María Carmen

    2016-02-19

    An elevated proportion of high cardiovascular risk patients do not achieve the therapeutic c-LDL goals. This owes to physicians' inappropriate or insufficient use of cholesterol lowering medications or to patients' bad tolerance or therapeutic compliance. Another cause is an insufficient efficacy of current cholesterol lowering drugs including statins and ezetimibe. In addition, proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 inhibitors are a new cholesterol lowering medications showing safety and high efficacy to reduce c-LDL in numerous already performed or underway clinical trials, potentially allowing an optimal control of hypercholesterolemia in most patients. Agents inhibiting apolipoprotein B synthesis and microsomal transfer protein are also providing a new potential to decrease cholesterol in patients with severe hypercholesterolemia and in particular in homozygote familial hypercholesterolemia. Last, cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors have shown powerful effects on c-HDL and c-LDL, although their efficacy in cardiovascular prevention and safety has not been demonstrated yet. We provide in this article an overview of the main characteristics of therapeutic agents for hypercholesterolemia, which have been recently approved or in an advanced research stage.

  14. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil

    2010-01-01

    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  15. Spacecraft sanitation agent development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The development of an effective sanitizing agent that is compatible with the spacecraft environment and the human occupant is discussed. Experimental results show that two sanitation agents must be used to satisfy mission requirements: one agent for personal hygiene and one for equipment maintenance. It was also recommended that a water rinse be used with the agents for best results, and that consideration be given to using the agents pressure packed or in aerosol formulations.

  16. Haloprogin: a Topical Antifungal Agent

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, E. F.; Zwadyk, P.; Bequette, R. J.; Hamlow, E. E.; Tavormina, P. A.; Zygmunt, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Haloprogin was shown to be a highly effective agent for the treatment of experimentally induced topical mycotic infections in guinea pigs. Its in vitro spectrum of activity also includes yeasts, yeastlike fungi (Candida species), and certain gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of haloprogin against dermatophytes was equal to that observed with tolnaftate. The striking differences between the two agents were the marked antimonilial and selective antibacterial activities shown by haloprogin, contrasted with the negligible activities found with tolnaftate. Addition of serum decreased the in vitro antifungal activity of haloprogin to a greater extent than that of tolnaftate; however, diminished antifungal activity was not observed when haloprogin was applied topically to experimental dermatophytic infections. Based on its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, haloprogin may prove to be a superior topical agent in the treatment of dermatophytic and monilial infections in man. PMID:5422306

  17. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    The fluoroquinolones, a new class of potent orally absorbed antimicrobial agents, are reviewed, considering structure, mechanisms of action and resistance, spectrum, variables affecting activity in vitro, pharmacokinetic properties, clinical efficacy, emergence of resistance, and tolerability. The primary bacterial target is the enzyme deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase. Bacterial resistance occurs by chromosomal mutations altering deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase and decreasing drug permeation. The drugs are bactericidal and potent in vitro against members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, Haemophilus spp., and Neisseria spp., have good activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococci, and (with several exceptions) are less potent against streptococci and have fair to poor activity against anaerobic species. Potency in vitro decreases in the presence of low pH, magnesium ions, or urine but is little affected by different media, increased inoculum, or serum. The effects of the drugs in combination with a beta-lactam or aminoglycoside are often additive, occasionally synergistic, and rarely antagonistic. The agents are orally absorbed, require at most twice-daily dosing, and achieve high concentrations in urine, feces, and kidney and good concentrations in lung, bone, prostate, and other tissues. The drugs are efficacious in treatment of a variety of bacterial infections, including uncomplicated and complicated urinary tract infections, bacterial gastroenteritis, and gonorrhea, and show promise for therapy of prostatitis, respiratory tract infections, osteomyelitis, and cutaneous infections, particularly when caused by aerobic gram-negative bacilli. Fluoroquinolones have also proved to be efficacious for prophylaxis against travelers' diarrhea and infection with gram-negative bacilli in neutropenic patients. The drugs are effective in eliminating carriage of Neisseria meningitidis. Patient tolerability appears acceptable, with gastrointestinal or central nervous

  18. Effect of Acidic Agents on Surface Roughness of Dental Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Hengtrakool, Chanothai; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2011-01-01

    Background: An increase in surface roughness of ceramics may decrease strength and affect the clinical success of ceramic restorations. However, little is known about the effect of acidic agents on ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness of dental ceramics after being immersed in acidic agents. Methods: Eighty-three ceramic disk specimens (12.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm in thickness) were made from four types of ceramics (VMK 95, Vitadur Alpha, IPS Empress Esthetic, and IPS e.max Ceram). Baseline data of surface roughness were recorded by profilometer. The specimens were then immersed in acidic agents (citrate buffer solution, pineapple juice and green mango juice) and deionized water (control) at 37°C for 168 hours. One group was immersed in 4% acetic acid at 80°C for 168 hours. After immersion, surface roughness was evaluated by a profilometer at intervals of 24, 96, and 168 hours. Surface characteristics of specimens were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed using two-way repeated ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons (α = 0.05). Results: For all studied ceramics, all surface roughness parameters were significantly increased after 168 hours immersion in all acidic agents (P < 0.05). After 168 hours in 4% acetic acid, there were significant differences for all roughness parameters from other acidic agents of all evaluated ceramics. Among all studied ceramics, Vitadur Alpha showed significantly the greatest values of all surface roughness parameters after immersion in 4% acetic acid (P < 0.001). SEM photomicrographs also presented surface destruction of ceramics in varying degrees. Conclusion: Acidic agents used in this study negatively affected the surface of ceramic materials. This should be considered when restoring the eroded tooth with ceramic restorations in patients who have a high risk of erosive conditions. PMID:22132009

  19. Effect of primers on bonding agent polymerization.

    PubMed

    Hotta, M; Kondoh, K; Kamemizu, H

    1998-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of primers on the polymerization of bonding agent. We measured the degree of conversion (radical production) and mechanical properties (surface hardness and direct tensile strength) of various adhesives/primers mixed at different ratios and the effect of varying the visible-light curing time. With and without primer treatment, the tensile bond strength of adhesive resin to micacious glass ceramic and human enamel was measured. After the tensile bond test, using the Image Capture System, the failure patterns of adhesive resin bonded to micacious glass-ceramic were analysed. The results show that the mixtures containing the higher amounts of primer yielded a lower degree of conversion and inferior mechanical properties when compared with the mixtures containing a lower proportion of primer, except in the experimental bonding system. The adhesive/primer mixtures inhibited free radical polymerization. The value for the Knoop hardness number and the direct tensile strength of the adhesive/primer mixtures were significantly decreased compared with those of the adhesive bonding agent alone with no primer added. The tensile bond strength of adhesive resin bonded to micacious glass-ceramic or human enamel without primer treatment was significantly greater than that of adhesive resin with primer treatment in certain cases. Most of the fractures of ceramic surfaces were cohesive (within resins) and/or interface (at the ceramic surface) failure.

  20. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  1. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent

    PubMed Central

    Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria. PMID:27612193

  2. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Danevčič, Tjaša; Borić Vezjak, Maja; Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria. PMID:27612193

  3. Prodigiosin - A Multifaceted Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Agent.

    PubMed

    Danevčič, Tjaša; Borić Vezjak, Maja; Zorec, Maša; Stopar, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite a considerable interest in prodigiosin, the mechanism of its antibacterial activity is still poorly understood. In this work, Escherichia coli cells were treated with prodigiosin to determine its antimicrobial effect on bacterial physiology. The effect of prodigiosin was concentration dependent. In prodigiosin treated cells above MIC value no significant DNA damage or cytoplasmic membrane disintegration was observed. The outer membrane, however, becomes leaky. Cells had severely decreased respiration activity. In prodigiosin treated cells protein and RNA synthesis were inhibited, cells were elongated but could not divide. Pre-treatment with prodigiosin improved E. coli survival rate in media containing ampicillin, kanamycin and erythromycin but not phleomycin. The results suggest that prodigiosin acts as a bacteriostatic agent in E. coli cells. If prodigiosin was diluted, cells resumed growth. The results indicate that prodigiosin has distinct mode of antibacterial action in different bacteria.

  4. Mobile Agents Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Rosane Maria; Chaves, Magali Ribeiro; Pirmez, Luci; Rust da Costa Carmo, Luiz Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the need to filter and retrieval relevant information from the Internet focuses on the use of mobile agents, specific software components which are based on distributed artificial intelligence and integrated systems. Surveys agent technology and discusses the agent building package used to develop two applications using IBM's Aglet…

  5. Hydroxypyridonate chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Scarrow, Robert C.; White, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Chelating agents having 1-hydroxy-2-pyridinone (HOPO) and related moieties incorporated within their structures, including polydentate HOPO-substituted polyamines such as spermidine and spermine, and HOPO-substituted desferrioxamine. The chelating agents are useful in selectively removing certain cations from solution, and are particularly useful as ferric ion and actinide chelators. Novel syntheses of the chelating agents are provided.

  6. Effects of coloring agents applied during sintering on bending strength and hardness of zirconia ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Soichi; Shinya, Akikazu; Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Gomi, Harunori; Shinya, Akiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The effects of coloring agents (Vita in-ceram 2000 YZ coloring liquid (VL) and IPS e.max ZirCAD (IS)) and shades (1, 3, and 5) applied during sintering on the bending strength and fracture toughness of zirconia ceramics was examined. No differences in the bending strength or fracture toughness were observed for the type of coloring agent used. Moreover, the bending strength and Vickers hardness of the zirconia ceramics decreased, while the crack length and fracture toughness did not change with the different coloring agents. The marginal borders of the indentations formed were clear and linear, and no damage, including chipping, was observed. Therefore, clinical application of zirconia ceramics can be recommended because the coloring agents and shades applied during sintering have the same effect as an opaque layer and cause no significant deterioration of the mechanical properties of the zirconia ceramics.

  7. Standard Agent Framework 1

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4) Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.

  8. Alk5 inhibition increases delivery of macromolecular and protein-bound contrast agents to tumors

    PubMed Central

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E.; Mohanty, Suchismita; Ansari, Celina; Ito, Ken; Hong, Su Hyun; Hoffmann, Matthias; Pisani, Laura; Boudreau, Nancy; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Coussens, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Limited transendothelial permeability across tumor microvessels represents a significant bottleneck in the development of tumor-specific diagnostic agents and theranostic drugs. Here, we show an approach to increase transendothelial permeability of macromolecular and nanoparticle-based contrast agents via inhibition of the type I TGF-β receptor, activin-like kinase 5 (Alk5), in tumors. Alk5 inhibition significantly increased tumor contrast agent delivery and enhancement on imaging studies, while healthy organs remained relatively unaffected. Imaging data correlated with significantly decreased tumor interstitial fluid pressure, while tumor vascular density remained unchanged. This immediately clinically translatable concept involving Alk5 inhibitor pretreatment prior to an imaging study could be leveraged for improved tumor delivery of macromolecular and nanoparticle-based imaging probes and, thereby, facilitate development of more sensitive imaging tests for cancer diagnosis, enhanced tumor characterization, and personalized, image-guided therapies. PMID:27182558

  9. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  10. Carboxymethylated glucomannan as paper strengthening agent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; He, Weitao; Wang, Shun; Song, Xianliang

    2015-07-10

    Strength additives play an important role in allowing the papermaking industry to achieve its objectives. In this study, a new kind of paper strengthening agent based on glucomannan was developed by treating it with sodium chloroacetate under alkaline conditions, and the effects on paper properties were evaluated. Results indicated that carboxymethylated glucomannan could significantly improve the paper properties. Compared to the untreated paper, the density, burst index, tensile index, and folding endurance were increased by 15.2%, 22.8%, 34.6%, 179.0%, respectively, when 0.9% carboxymethylated glucomannan was used. Polyamide-epichlorohydrin (PAE) was used to improve the wet strength of the paper. When 0.6% PAE and 0.6% carboxymethylated glucomannan were used, the burst index, dry tensile index, wet tensile index of paper were increased by 14.1%, 25%, 34.3%, respectively, as compared to that of the control, while the folding endurance decreased slightly. In addition, dry tensile index and wet tensile index were increased with increasing the carboxymethylation time of glucomannan. The results demonstrated that PAE and carboxymethylated glucomannan displayed a synergistic effect. SEM analysis illustrated that paper strengthening agent could increase the combination of fibers in paper.

  11. Reversal Agents for the Direct Oral Anticoagulants.

    PubMed

    Ansell, Jack E

    2016-10-01

    The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are associated with a significant rate of major and fatal bleeding complications. The new direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), even though having a better bleeding profile than the VKAs, are still associated with serious bleeding. The anticoagulation induced by the VKAs can be reversed with both vitamin K and prothrombin complex concentrates, whereas the DOACs were developed without specific reversal agents. Although there is controversy around the necessity of a reversal agent, most clinicians agree that having a reversal agent for the DOACs would be beneficial. Three reversal agents are currently in development. PMID:27637309

  12. The Approval Process for Biosimilar Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A biosimilar drug or follow-on biologic drug is defined by the Public Health Service Act as a product that is “highly similar to the reference product notwithstanding minor differences in clinically active components and there are no clinically meaningful differences between the biologic product and the reference product in terms of the safety, purity and potency of the product.” The advantage of biosimilar drugs is that they are significantly less expensive than the reference products, allowing for increased accessibility and cost savings. Recognizing these advantages, the US Congress passed the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act in 2009 as part of health care reform. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act allows sponsors of biosimilar agents to seek approval by showing structural and functional similarity to the reference agent, with the extent of required clinical studies to be determined on the basis of the degree of biosimilarity with the reference product. The goal is to bring biosimilar agents to the market more efficiently while still protecting the safety of the public. The European Union has had such a process in place for a number of years. Two biosimilar epoetin agents have been approved in the European Union since 2007, and their companies are conducting trials to seek approval in the United States, because Amgen’s patent protection for epoetin alfa expires in 2014. Trials completed for European Union approval of both agents showed similar efficacy and safety to the reference epoetin alfa. As with all biologics, immunogenicity concerns may persist because of the fragility of the manufacturing process and the worldwide experience with pure red cell aplasia as a result of epoetin therapy. The uptake of biosimilar epoetins after approval in the United States will depend on the balance of cost advantage against safety concerns. Competition in the marketplace will likely decrease the cost of the reference agent as well. PMID

  13. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  14. Solar-wind velocity decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geranios, A.

    1980-08-01

    A model is developed to account for the solar wind electron and proton temperature decreases observed following the passage of an interplanetary shock wave and during the velocity decrease of a solar wind stream. The equations of mass and energy conservation are solved for a fully ionized, electrically neutral plasma expanding radially and spherically symmetrically, taking into account the heat flux from the solor corona to the plasma along the open magnetic field lines, and the electron thermal conductivity. An analytical relationship between the temperature and the velocity of the solar wind plasma is obtained which is found to be in agreement with experimental measurements made by the Vela 5 and 6 and IMP 6 satellites from August 1969-May 1974. It is thus proposed that the observed low plasma temperatures are due to the fact that the temperature decrease of the expanding plasma exceeds the heat gain due to thermal conduction from the corona.

  15. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  16. Comparison of effect of desensitizing agents on the retention of crowns cemented with luting agents: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pandharinath, Dange Shankar; Arun, Khalikar; Smita, Vaidya

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Many dentists use desensitizing agents to prevent hypersensitivity. This study compared and evaluated the effect of two desensitizing agents on the retention of cast crowns when cemented with various luting agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety freshly extracted human molars were prepared with flat occlusal surface, 6 degree taper and approximately 4 mm axial length. The prepared specimens were divided into 3 groups and each group is further divided into 3 subgroups. Desensitizing agents used were GC Tooth Mousse and GLUMA® desensitizer. Cementing agents used were zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cement. Individual crowns with loop were made from base metal alloy. Desensitizing agents were applied before cementation of crowns except for control group. Under tensional force the crowns were removed using an automated universal testing machine. Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA followed by Turkey-Kramer post hoc test at a preset alpha of 0.05. RESULTS Resin modified glass ionomer cement exhibited the highest retentive strength and all dentin treatments resulted in significantly different retentive values (In Kg.): GLUMA (49.02 ± 3.32) > Control (48.61 ± 3.54) > Tooth mousse (48.34 ± 2.94). Retentive strength for glass ionomer cement were GLUMA (41.14 ± 2.42) > Tooth mousse (40.32 ± 3.89) > Control (39.09 ± 2.80). For zinc phosphate cement the retentive strength were lowest GLUMA (27.92 ± 3.20) > Control (27.69 ± 3.39) > Tooth mousse (25.27 ± 4.60). CONCLUSION The use of GLUMA® desensitizer has no effect on crown retention. GC Tooth Mousse does not affect the retentive ability of glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cement, but it decreases the retentive ability of zinc phosphate cement. PMID:22977719

  17. Degradability of fluorapatite-leucite ceramics in naturally acidic agents.

    PubMed

    Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Hengtrakool, Chanothai; Kedjarune-Leggat, Ureporn

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the titratable acidity and effect of naturally acidic agents on the surface microhardness, elemental composition, and surface morphology of fluorapatite-leucite ceramics. One hundred and ten ceramic disks (IPS d.SIGN), 12.0 mm in diameter and 2.0 mm in thickness, were fabricated. Before immersion, the baseline data of Vickers microhardness and elemental composition were recorded. Four groups were immersed in acidic agents (citrate buffer solution, green mango juice, and pineapple juice) and deionized water (control) at 37ºC for 168 hours, whereas one group was immersed in 4% acetic acid at 80ºC for 168 hours. After immersion, specimens were evaluated and data were analyzed using one-way repeated ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Microhardness values significantly decreased after immersion (p<0.05). In terms of elemental composition, the weight percentages of silicon, potassium, aluminum, and sodium also decreased after immersion (p<0.05). Results of this study showed that fluorapatite-leucite ceramics were affected by long-term immersion in acidic agents.

  18. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    PubMed

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness. PMID:27107236

  19. Surface decontamination for blister agents Lewisite, sulfur mustard and agent yellow, a Lewisite and sulfur mustard mixture.

    PubMed

    Stone, Harry; See, David; Smiley, Autumn; Ellingson, Anthony; Schimmoeller, Jessica; Oudejans, Lukas

    2016-08-15

    Sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L) are blister agents that have a high potential for terrorist use; Agent Yellow (HL) is the eutectic mixture of HD and L. Bench-scale testing was used to determine the residual amount of these chemical warfare agents remaining on three building materials (wood, metal and glass) after application of various decontaminants (household bleach, full strength and dilute; hydrogen peroxide 3% solution; and EasyDECON(®) DF200). All decontaminants reduced the amount of L recovered from coupons. Application of dilute bleach showed little or no difference compared to natural attenuation in the amount of HD recovered from coupons. Full-strength bleach was the most effective of four decontaminants at reducing the amount of HD from coupons. Hydrogen peroxide (3% solution) and DF200 did decrease the amount of HD recovered from coupons more than natural attenuation (except DF200 against HD on metal), but substantial amounts of HD remained on some materials. Toxic HD by-products were generated by hydrogen peroxide treatment. The effectiveness of decontaminants was found to depend on agent, material, and decontaminant. Increased decontaminant reaction time (60min rather than 30min) did not significantly increase effectiveness.

  20. Nucleosome Assembly Alters the Accessibility of the Antitumor Agent Duocarmycin B2 to Duplex DNA.

    PubMed

    Zou, Tingting; Kizaki, Seiichiro; Pandian, Ganesh N; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2016-06-20

    To evaluate the reactivity of antitumor agents in a nucleosome architecture, we conducted in vitro studies to assess the alkylation level of duocarmycin B2 on nucleosomes with core and linker DNA using sequencing gel electrophoresis. Our results suggested that the alkylating efficiencies of duocarmycin B2 were significantly decreased in core DNA and increased at the histone-free linker DNA sites when compared with naked DNA conditions. Our finding that nucleosome assembly alters the accessibility of duocarmycin B2 to duplex DNA could advance its design as an antitumor agent.

  1. 13 CFR 107.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including... Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for... Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. (a) Agents....

  2. High-Relaxivity Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoworms with Decreased Immune Recognition and Long-Circulating Properties

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guankui; Inturi, Swetha; Serkova, Natalie J.; Merkulov, Sergey; McCrae, Keith; Russek, Stephen E.; Banda, Nirmal K.; Simberg, Dmitri

    2015-01-01

    One of the core issues of nanotechnology involves masking the foreignness of nanomaterials to enable in vivo longevity and long-term immune evasion. Dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are very effective magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, and strategies to prevent immune recognition are critical for their clinical translation. Here we prepared 20 kDa dextran-coated SPIO nanoworms (NWs) of 250 nm diameter and a high molar transverse relaxivity rate R2 (~400 mM−1 s−1) to study the effect of cross-linking-hydrogelation with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (epichlorohydrin) on the immune evasion both in vitro and in vivo. Cross-linking was performed in the presence of different concentrations of NaOH (0.5 to 10 N) and different temperatures (23 and 37 °C). Increasing NaOH concentration and temperature significantly decrease the binding of anti-dextran antibody and dextran-binding lectin conconavalin A to the NWs. The decrease in dextran immunoreactivity correlated with the decrease in opsonization by complement component 3 (C3) and with the decrease in the binding of the lectin pathway factor MASP-2 in mouse serum, suggesting that cross-linking blocks the lectin pathway of complement. The decrease in C3 opsonization correlated with the decrease in NW uptake by murine peritoneal macrophages. Optimized NWs demonstrated up to 10 h circulation half-life in mice and minimal uptake by the liver, while maintaining the large 250 nm size in the blood. We demonstrate that immune recognition of large iron oxide nanoparticles can be efficiently blocked by chemical cross-linking-hydrogelation, which is a promising strategy to improve safety and bioinertness of MRI contrast agents. PMID:25419856

  3. Clinical superiority of a new nonionic contrast agent (iopamidol) for cardiac angiography.

    PubMed

    Gertz, E W; Wisneski, J A; Chiu, D; Akin, J R; Hu, C

    1985-02-01

    The hemodynamic and electrophysiologic alterations induced by ionic contrast agents during cardiac angiography are well described. Recently nonionic contrast agents have become available for cardiac angiography. To evaluate the safety of these new agents, a double-blind randomized study was performed comparing a new nonionic agent (iopamidol) with a commonly used ionic contrast agent (Renografin-76). Eighty-one patients undergoing left ventriculography and coronary angiography were included; 41 received iopamidol and 40 received sodium meglumine diatrizoate (Renografin-76). After left ventriculography, there was a decrease in the arterial pressure with both contrast agents. However, the severity and the duration of hypotension were both significantly greater with Renografin-76 compared with the new nonionic agent (p less than 0.001). After selective injections of the coronary arteries, electrocardiographic analysis demonstrated that the increase in the QT interval (p less than 0.0002) and the changes in both the ST segment and T wave amplitude (p less than 0.001) were significantly greater in the Renografin-76 group compared with the iopamidol group. During coronary angiography, 8 of the 40 patients receiving Renografin-76 required temporary pacing for sinus pauses of 2.5 seconds or more, and 2 of the 40 also developed ventricular fibrillation. None of the 41 patients receiving iopamidol had these complications. This report demonstrates that the electrocardiographic changes, the severity and duration of hypotension and the incidence of serious arrhythmias are significantly greater with Renografin-76 than with iopamidol. Thus, this new nonionic agent appears to enhance the safety of cardiac angiography.

  4. [Responses of winter wheat photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content to water-retaining agent and N fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Wu, Pu-Te; Wu, Ji-Cheng; Zhao, Shi-Wei; Huang, Zhan-Bin; He, Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of water-retaining agent (60 kg x hm(-2)) and nitrogen fertilizer (0, 225, and 450 kg x hm(-2)) on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and water utilization of winter wheat at jointing and grain-filling stages were studied under field conditions. In all treatments, the net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, water use efficiency, and chlorophyll content were greater at grain-filling stage than at jointing stage. Under nitrogen fertilization but without water-retaining agent application, the water use efficiency (WUE) of single leaf at jointing stage increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization rate, while the net photosynthetic rate, stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate decreased after an initial increase. The chlorophyll content was the highest under 225 kg x hm(-2) nitrogen fertilization. In the treatments of water-retaining agent application, the intercellular CO2 con- centration decreased with increasing nitrogen application rate, but the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and WUE increased. The application of water-retaining agent or its combination with nitrogen fertilization increased the chlorophyll content, but excessive nitrogen fertilization had lesser effects. At grain-filling stage, applying nitrogen fertilizer alone significantly increased the net photosynthetic rate and WUE, but decreased the stomata conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, and transpiration rate. The chlorophyll content increased with increasing nitrogen application rate. After applying water-retaining agent and with the increase of nitrogen fertilization rate, the photosynthetic rate and WUE decreased after an initial increase, while the intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rate were in adverse but still lower than those without water-retaining agent application. The stomata conductance increased with increasing nitrogen fertilization

  5. Detecting biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Song, Linan; Ahn, Soohyoun; Walt, David R

    2005-10-01

    We developed a fiber-optic, microsphere-based, high-density array composed of 18 species-specific probe microsensors to identify biological warfare agents. We simultaneously identified multiple biological warfare agents in environmental samples by looking at specific probe responses after hybridization and response patterns of the multiplexed array.

  6. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  7. Change Agent Survival Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Folwell L.

    2011-01-01

    Consulting is a rough racket. Only a tarantula hair above IRS agents, meter maids and used car sales people, the profession is a prickly burr for slings and arrows. Throw in education, focus on dysfunctional schools and call oneself a "change agent," and this bad rap all but disappears. Unfortunately, though, consulting/coaching/mentoring in…

  8. Reduction of thioredoxin significantly decreases its partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, S. M.; Richards, F. M.

    1992-01-01

    The partial specific volume and adiabatic compressibility were determined at several temperatures for oxidized and reduced Escherichia coli thioredoxin. Oxidized thioredoxin had a partial specific volume of 0.785-0.809 mL/g at the observed upper limit for all proteins whereas the partial specific volume of reduced thioredoxin was 0.745-0.755 mL/g, a value in the range found for a majority of proteins. The adiabatic compressibility of oxidized thioredoxin was also much larger (9.8-18 x 10(-12) cm2 dyne-1) than that of the reduced protein (3.8-7.3 x 10(-12)). Apart from the region immediately around the small disulfide loop, the structures of the oxidized (X-ray, crystal) and reduced protein (nuclear magnetic resonance, solution) are reported to be very similar. It would appear that alterations in the solvent layer in contact with the protein surface must play a major role in producing these large changes in the apparent specific volumes and compressibilities in this system. Some activities of thioredoxin require the reduced structure but are not electron transfer reactions. The large changes in physical parameters reported here suggest the possibility of a reversible metabolic control function for the SS bond. PMID:1304879

  9. Standard Agent Framework 1

    1999-04-06

    The Standard Agent framework provides an extensible object-oriented development environment suitable for use in both research and applications projects. The SAF provides a means for constructing and customizing multi-agent systems through specialization of standard base classes (architecture-driven framework) and by composition of component classes (data driven framework). The standard agent system is implemented as an extensible object-centerd framework. Four concrete base classes are developed: (1) Standard Agency; (2) Standard Agent; (3) Human Factor, and (4)more » Resources. The object-centered framework developed and utilized provides the best comprimise between generality and flexibility available in agent development systems today.« less

  10. How do agents represent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Alex

    Representation is inherent to the concept of an agent, but its importance in complex systems has not yet been widely recognised. In this paper I introduce Peirce's theory of signs, which facilitates a definition of representation in general. In summary, representation means that for some agent, a model is used to stand in for another entity in a way that shapes the behaviour of the agent with respect to that entity. Representation in general is then related to the theories of representation that have developed within different disciplines. I compare theories of representation from metaphysics, military theory and systems theory. Additional complications arise in explaining the special case of mental representations, which is the focus of cognitive science. I consider the dominant theory of cognition — that the brain is a representational device — as well as the sceptical anti-representational response. Finally, I argue that representation distinguishes agents from non-representational objects: agents are objects capable of representation.

  11. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. )

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  12. Chelating agents and cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Shinobu, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    A wide range of conventional chelating agents have been screened for (a) antidotal activity in acute cadmium poisoning and (b) ability to reduce aged liver and kidney deposits of cadmium. Chelating agents belonging to the dithiocarbamate class have been synthesized and tested in both the acute and chronic modes of cadmium intoxication. Several dithiocarbamates, not only provide antidotal rescue, but also substantially decrease the intracellular deposits of cadmium associated with chronic cadmium intoxication. Fractionating the cytosol from the livers and kidneys of control and treated animals by Sephadex G-25 gel filtration clearly demonstrates that the dithiocarbamates are reducing the level of metallothionein-bound cadmium. However, the results of cell culture (Ehrlich ascites) studies designed to investigate the removal of cadmium from metallothionein and subsequent transport of the resultant cadmium complex across the cell membrane were inconclusive. In other in vitro investigations, the interaction between isolated native Cd, Zn-metallothionein and several chelating agents was explored. Ultracentrifugation, equilibrium dialysis, and Sephadex G-25 gel filtration studies have been carried out in an attempt to determine the rate of removal of cadmium from metallothionein by these small molecules. Chemical shifts for the relevant cadmium-dithiocarbamate complexes have been determined using natural abundance Cd-NMR.

  13. Phytonutrients as therapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu; Prakash, Dhan

    2014-09-01

    Nutrients present in various foods plays an important role in maintaining the normal functions of the human body. The major nutrients present in foods include carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins, and minerals. Besides these, there are some bioactive food components known as "phytonutrients" that play an important role in human health. They have tremendous impact on the health care system and may provide medical health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of disease and various physiological disorders. Phytonutrients play a positive role by maintaining and modulating immune function to prevent specific diseases. Being natural products, they hold a great promise in clinical therapy as they possess no side effects that are usually associated with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. They are also comparatively cheap and thus significantly reduce health care cost. Phytonutrients are the plant nutrients with specific biological activities that support human health. Some of the important bioactive phytonutrients include polyphenols, terpenoids, resveratrol, flavonoids, isoflavonoids, carotenoids, limonoids, glucosinolates, phytoestrogens, phytosterols, anthocyanins, ω-3 fatty acids, and probiotics. They play specific pharmacological effects in human health such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidants, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, anti-spasmodic, anti-cancer, anti-aging, hepatoprotective, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, hypotensive, diabetes, osteoporosis, CNS stimulant, analgesic, protection from UVB-induced carcinogenesis, immuno-modulator, and carminative. This mini-review attempts to summarize the major important types of phytonutrients and their role in promoting human health and as therapeutic agents along with the current market trend and commercialization.

  14. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  15. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    PubMed

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  16. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe

    PubMed Central

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980’s, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts. PMID:26982584

  17. A responsive particulate MRI contrast agent for copper (I): a cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Smolensky, Eric D.; Marjańska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-01

    A responsive MION-based MRI contrast agent for the detection of copper(I) is presented. Induced agglomeration of azide and acetylene-functionalized magnetite nanoparticles via Cu(I) catalysed Huisgen cycloaddition leads to significant decrease in longitudinal relaxivity due to the slow exchange of water molecules trapped within the cluster with bulk solvent. Agglomeration leads to an initial two fold increase followed by a sharp and almost complete loss in transverse relaxivity for clusters larger than 200 nm in size. The decrease in r2 for clusters reaching the static dephasing regime has two significant implications for particulate responsive MRI contrast agents. First, the maximum increase in r2 is barely two fold, second, since r2 does not increase continuously with increasing cluster size, the r1/r2 ratio cannot be used to determine the concentration of an analyte ratiometrically. PMID:22585342

  18. Biological warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-07-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  19. Biological warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  20. Suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by elevating DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Qing; Chai, Weihang

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage-inducing agents are among the most effective treatment regimens in clinical chemotherapy. However, drug resistance and severe side effects caused by these agents greatly limit their efficacy. Sensitizing malignant cells to chemotherapeutic agents has long been a goal of chemotherapy. In the present study, suppression of STN1, a gene important for safeguarding genome stability, potentiated the anticancer effect of chemotherapeutic agents in tumor cells. Using multiple cancer cells from a variety of origins, it was observed that downregulation of STN1 resulted in a significant decrease in the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of several conventional anticancer agents. When cells are treated with anticancer agents, STN1 suppression leads to a decline in colony formation and diminished anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, it was additionally observed that STN1 knockdown augmented the levels of DNA damage caused by damage-inducing agents. The present study concluded that suppression of STN1 enhances the cytotoxicity of damage-inducing chemotherapeutic agents by increasing DNA damage in cancer cells. PMID:27446354

  1. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  2. OKN-007 decreases free radical levels in a preclinical F98 rat glioma model.

    PubMed

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Smith, Nataliya; Atolagbe, Oluwatomisin; Ziegler, Jadith; Njoku, Charity; Lerner, Megan; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Mason, Ronald P; Meek, Bill; Plafker, Scott M; Saunders, Debra; Mamedova, Nadezda; Towner, Rheal A

    2015-10-01

    Free radicals are associated with glioma tumors. Here, we report on the ability of an anticancer nitrone compound, OKN-007 [Oklahoma Nitrone 007; a disulfonyl derivative of α-phenyl-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN)] to decrease free radical levels in F98 rat gliomas using combined molecular magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) and immunospin-trapping (IST) methodologies. Free radicals are trapped with the spin-trapping agent, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO), to form DMPO macromolecule radical adducts, and then further tagged by immunospin trapping by an antibody against DMPO adducts. In this study, we combined mMRI with a biotin-Gd-DTPA-albumin-based contrast agent for signal detection with the specificity of an antibody for DMPO nitrone adducts (anti-DMPO probe), to detect in vivo free radicals in OKN-007-treated rat F98 gliomas. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease (P < 0.05) free radical levels detected with an anti-DMPO probe in treated animals compared to untreated rats. Immunoelectron microscopy was used with gold-labeled antibiotin to detect the anti-DMPO probe within the plasma membrane of F98 tumor cells from rats administered anti-DMPO in vivo. OKN-007 was also found to decrease nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, 3-nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde in ex vivo F98 glioma tissues via immunohistochemistry, as well as decrease 3-nitrotyrosine and malondialdehyde adducts in vitro in F98 cells via ELISA. The results indicate that OKN-007 effectively decreases free radicals associated with glioma tumor growth. Furthermore, this method can potentially be applied toward other types of cancers for the in vivo detection of macromolecular free radicals and the assessment of antioxidants. PMID:26119786

  3. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  4. Increased susceptibility to radiofrequency radiation due to pharmacological agents

    SciTech Connect

    Jauchem, J.R.; Frei, M.R.; Heinmets, F.

    1984-11-01

    The effects of chlorpromazine, methysergide, and propranolol on thermal responses to 2.8 GHz radiofrequency radiation were examined in anesthetized rats. During intermittent exposure at an average power density of 60 mW/sq cm (specific absorption rate, 14 W/kg), when colonic temperature was not allowed to rise above 39.5 C, none of the pharmacological agents had any significant effects on thermal responses. When exposure was continued until lethal temperatures resulted, animals which were administered chlorpromazine, methysergide, or propranolol exhibited significantly shorter survival times than saline-treated animals. Propranolol administration caused the greatest decrease in survival time and resulted in a significantly lower lethal temperature than that which occurred in saline-treated animals. 29 references.

  5. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups Hard Fd and Soft Fd according to size of Fd at Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable for the present purpose than that of power-exponential type or of power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd.

  6. Creating Maps of Forbush Decreases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, A.; Lara, A.; Niembro, T.

    2013-05-01

    The flux of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) to the inner Heliosphere and in particular to the Earth surroundings, is modulated by the solar activity. In a time scale of hours the GCR flux may diminish abruptly, reach a minimum value and then follow a slow recovery phase lasting one or two days.The so called Forbush Decreases (FD) are caused by large scale structures of plasma and magnetic field traveling at high speed i. e. interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Using the new observational capability of imaging the interplanetary space (e.g. Stereo spacecraft) and assuming a direct relationship between density and magnetic field inside ICMEs, in this work we create maps of ICMEs, as GCR sinks seen by an observer at the Earth surface. The objective is to survey the observational necessities of new cosmic ray detectors in order to perform such maps.

  7. Decrease in major amputations in Germany.

    PubMed

    Santosa, Frans; Moysidis, Theodoros; Kanya, Susanne; Babadagi-Hardt, Zeynep; Luther, Bernd; Kröger, Knut

    2015-06-01

    A decrease in rate of amputation has been reported from many countries. This study aims to study the trends in amputation rates in Germany. On the basis of DRG-system, detailed lists of all amputations coded as minor amputations (OPS 5-864) and major amputations (OPS 5-865) performed between 2005 and 2010 were provided by the Federal Statistical Office. There was a significant decrease in age-adjusted major amputation rates per 100 000 population in Germany from 27·0 in 2005 to 22·9 in 2010 (15·2%, P ≪ 0·001) in males and from 19·7 in 2005 to 14·4 in 2010 (26·9%, P ≪ 0·001) in females. Overall, minor amputation rates did not show such a decrease but increased in males (from 47·4 in 2005 to 57·8 in 2010, 21·9%, P ≪ 0·001) and remained almost unchanged in females (23·1 in 2005 and 23·9 in 2010, not significant). Reduction in major amputation rates were even more pronounced in people above 80 years, especially in males from 216 to 150 (30·5%) and in females from 168 to 117 (30·4%). The present data demonstrate an increasing overall burden of foot lesions as indicated by an increase in incidence of minor amputations but an ongoing success in the fight against amputation, resulting in a significant decrease in major amputation rates in Germany, in the 6-year period from 2005 to 2010.

  8. Effects of doxazosin as the third agent on morning hypertension and position-related blood pressure changes in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Gen; Saka, Sanae; Ando, Daisaku; Hirawa, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study to assess the effects of doxazosin, as the third agent, on morning and position-related blood pressure (BP) in 77 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease, who were allocated randomly to doxazosin and diuretics groups. Doxazosin decreased morning BP but diuretics could not decrease pre-awakening diastolic BP. Only doxazosin improved sympathovagal balance. Doxazosin and diuretics decreased standing and sitting BP but only doxazosin improved sympathovagal balance regardless of body positions. Doxazosin did not decrease absolute BP changes shortly after standing. In diabetic patients, doxazosin decreased morning BP through improving sympathovagal balance without causing significant orthostatic hypotension (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00295555).

  9. Mortality among agricultural extension agents.

    PubMed

    Alavanja, M C; Blair, A; Merkle, S; Teske, J; Eaton, B

    1988-01-01

    The mortality experience of agricultural extension agents in the Cooperative Extension Service (CES) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture who died during the period January 1, 1970-December 31, 1979 (n = 1,495 white males) was evaluated in proportionate-mortality and case-control studies. The proportionate-mortality analysis was used to identify cancers that might be elevated in this occupational group compared with the U.S. white male population. All cancers with a significantly elevated proportionate-mortality ratio were more thoroughly evaluated in the case-control study, where there is presumably less of a selection bias in the comparison. In the case-control study, leukemia demonstrated a statistically significant linear trend with duration of employment as an extension agent. Smaller, but nonsignificant, trends were seen for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and brain cancer. The odds ratio for Hodgkin's disease and cancers of the colon, prostate, and kidney did not vary with the number of years on the job. These patterns resemble cancer risks seen among farmers, suggesting that agricultural factors may also play a role in the origin of these tumors among extension agents.

  10. Riot Control Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... your clothing, rapidly wash your entire body with soap and water, and get medical care as quickly ... agent from your skin with large amounts of soap and water. Washing with soap and water will ...

  11. Radioactive diagnostic agent

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, A.; Aihara, M.; Matsuda, M.; Suzuki, A.; Tsuya, A.

    1984-02-07

    A radioactive diagnostic agent for renal cortex, adrenal cortex, myocardium, brain stem, spinal nerve, etc., which comprises as an essential component monoiodoacetic acid wherein the iodine atom is radioactive.

  12. Agent oriented programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoham, Yoav

    1994-01-01

    The goal of our research is a methodology for creating robust software in distributed and dynamic environments. The approach taken is to endow software objects with explicit information about one another, to have them interact through a commitment mechanism, and to equip them with a speech-acty communication language. System-level applications include software interoperation and compositionality. A government application of specific interest is an infrastructure for coordination among multiple planners. Daily activity applications include personal software assistants, such as programmable email, scheduling, and new group agents. Research topics include definition of mental state of agents, design of agent languages as well as interpreters for those languages, and mechanisms for coordination within agent societies such as artificial social laws and conventions.

  13. Neuroprotective "agents" in surgery. Secret "agent" man, or common "agent" machine?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    The search for clinically-effective neuroprotective agents has received enormous support in recent years--an estimated $200 million by pharmaceutical companies on clinical trials for traumatic brain injury alone. At the same time, the pathophysiology of brain injury has proved increasingly complex, rendering the likelihood of a single agent "magic bullet" even more remote. On the other hand, great progress continues with technology that makes surgery less invasive and less risky. One example is the application of endovascular techniques to treat coronary artery stenosis, where both the invasiveness of sternotomy and the significant neurological complication rate (due to microemboli showering the cerebral vasculature) can be eliminated. In this paper we review aspects of intraoperative neuroprotection both present and future. Explanations for the slow progress on pharmacologic neuroprotection during surgery are presented. Examples of technical advances that have had great impact on neuroprotection during surgery are given both from coronary artery stenosis surgery and from surgery for Parkinson's disease. To date, the progress in neuroprotection resulting from such technical advances is an order of magnitude greater than that resulting from pharmacologic agents used during surgery. The progress over the last 20 years in guidance during surgery (CT and MRI image-guidance) and in surgical access (endoscopic and endovascular techniques) will soon be complemented by advances in our ability to evaluate biological tissue intraoperatively in real-time. As an example of such technology, the NASA Smart Probe project is considered. In the long run (i.e., in 10 years or more), pharmacologic "agents" aimed at the complex pathophysiology of nervous system injury in man will be the key to true intraoperative neuroprotection. In the near term, however, it is more likely that mundane "agents" based on computers, microsensors, and microeffectors will be the major impetus to improved

  14. Masoprocol decreases rat lipolytic activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of HSL.

    PubMed

    Gowri, M S; Azhar, R K; Kraemer, F B; Reaven, G M; Azhar, S

    2000-09-01

    Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a lipoxygenase inhibitor isolated from the creosote bush, has been shown to decrease adipose tissue lipolytic activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present study was initiated to test the hypothesis that the decrease in lipolytic activity by masoprocol resulted from modulation of adipose tissue hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity. The results indicate that oral administration of masoprocol to rats with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia significantly decreased their serum free fatty acid (FFA; P < 0.05), triglyceride (TG; P < 0.001), and insulin (P < 0.05) concentrations. In addition, isoproterenol-induced lipolytic rate and HSL activity were significantly lower (P < 0.001) in adipocytes isolated from masoprocol compared with vehicle-treated rats and was associated with a decrease in HSL protein. Incubation of masoprocol with adipocytes from chow-fed rats significantly inhibited isoproterenol-induced lipolytic activity and HSL activity, associated with a decrease in the ability of isoproterenol to phosphorylate HSL. Masoprocol had no apparent effect on adipose tissue phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity, but okadaic acid, a serine/threonine phosphatase inhibitor, blocked the antilipolytic effect of masoprocol. The results of these in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that the antilipolytic activity of masoprocol is secondary to its ability to inhibit HSL phosphorylation, possibly by increasing phosphatase activity. As a consequence, masoprocol administration results in lower serum FFA and TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic rodents.

  15. Agent amplified communication

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, H.; Selman, B.; Milewski, A.

    1996-12-31

    We propose an agent-based framework for assisting and simplifying person-to-person communication for information gathering tasks. As an example, we focus on locating experts for any specified topic. In our approach, the informal person-to-person networks that exist within an organization are used to {open_quotes}referral chain{close_quotes} requests for expertise. User-agents help automate this process. The agents generate referrals by analyzing records of e-mail communication patterns. Simulation results show that the higher responsiveness of an agent-based system can be effectively traded for the higher accuracy of a completely manual approach. Furthermore, preliminary experience with a group of users on a prototype system has shown that useful automatic referrals can be found in practice. Our experience with actual users has also shown that privacy concerns are central to the successful deployment of personal agents: an advanced agent-based system will therefore need to reason about issues involving trust and authority.

  16. Metabolic effects of lathyrogenic agents on cartilage in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    KARNOVSKY, M J; KARNOVSKY, M

    1961-02-01

    The effects of lathyrogenic agents in vivo and in vitro are described, in respect to some biochemical indices of cartilage metabolism. Lathyrogenic agents in vivo inhibited the incorporation of radiosulfate into rat epiphyseal cartilage and the isolated chondroitin sulfate. No significant changes in hydroxyproline or hexosamine content of epiphyseal cartilage were found, but there was a marked increase in water content. The content of chondroitin sulfate, measured as uronic acid, was decreased. The importance of taking growth rate differences between control and experimental rats into account in assessing the effects of lathyrogenic agents in vivo is emphasized. In an in vitro system, utilizing fresh calf costal cartilage slices, the presence of low concentrations of lathyrogenic agents markedly affected various metabolic events. The incorporation into cartilage slices of sulfate-S(35), glucose-U-C(14), and glycine-1-C(14) was significantly depressed, as was the production of organic acids, including lactic acid. In general, these effects were more severe under anaerobic conditions. Glutamine restored the activities of the slices treated with lathyrogenic agents to control values obtained in the absence of either lathyrogen or glutamine.

  17. Genistein-Supplemented Diet Decreases Malaria Liver Infection in Mice and Constitutes a Potential Prophylactic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Prudêncio, Miguel; Gonçalves, Lígia A.; Casalou, Cristina; Buger, Dominik; Sauerwein, Robert; Haas, Werner; Mota, Maria M.

    2008-01-01

    In tropical regions millions of people still live at risk of malaria infection. Indeed the emergence of resistance to chloroquine and other drugs in use in these areas reinforces the need to implement alternative prophylactic strategies. Genistein is a naturally occurring compound that is widely used as a food supplment and is thought to be effective in countering several pathologies. Results presented here show that genistein inhibits liver infection by the Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria. In vitro, genistein decreased the infection rates of both mouse and human hepatoma cells by inhibiting the early stages of the parasite's intracellular development. Oral or intraperitoneal administration of genistein decreased the liver parasite load of P. berghei-infected mice. Moreover, mice fed on a genistein-supplemented diet showed a significant reduction in Plasmodium liver infection as well as a reduced blood parasitemia and partial protection from severe disease. Since genistein is a safe, low-cost, natural compound that can be used permanently in a diet, we propose its use as a prophylactic agent against malaria for endemic populations and long-time travelers. PMID:18628947

  18. Metabolic control in a state of decreased activation: modulation of red cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jevning, R; Wilson, A F; Pirkle, H; O'Halloran, J P; Walsh, R N

    1983-11-01

    Very little is known in depth of the biochemical and physiological changes induced at the cellular level by human behavioral states. For study of the physiology of behavior at this level, the erythrocyte may be useful, because it is readily available and its metabolism and metabolic control are comparatively well understood. In this report we describe a marked decline of red cell glycolytic rate induced by the transcendental meditation technique (TM). This decline was significantly correlated with decreased plasma lactate concentration and with relaxation as indicated by electrodermal response. The occurrence of sleep was not correlated with the metabolic changes. The observed lack of variation of blood pH, blood gases, glucose, and hematocrit in this behavior implies that the decrease of erythrocyte metabolism is not an epiphenomenon of respiratory change or substrate availability. Based upon further measurements indicating persisting alteration of the red blood cell, we suggest the possibility of attachment of a humoral agent(s) to the cell in the mechanism of this effect. This behavioral effect is unique, and the effector(s) responsible may increase our understanding of metabolic control of the erythrocyte and of TM.

  19. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  20. Modeling the transport of cryoprotective agents in articular cartilage for cryopreservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torqabeh, Alireza Abazari

    Loading vitrifiable concentrations of cryoprotective agents is an important step for cryopreservation of biological tissues by vitrification for research and transplantation purposes. This may be done by immersing the tissue in a cryoprotective agent (CPA) solution, and increasing the concentration, continuously or in multiple steps, and simultaneously decreasing the temperature to decrease the toxicity effects of the cryoprotective agent on the tissue cellular system. During cryoprotective agent loading, osmotic water movement from the tissue to the surrounding solution, and the resultant tissue shrinkage and stress-strain in the tissue matrix as well as on the cellular system can significantly alter the outcome of the cryopreservation protocol. In this thesis, a biomechanical model for articular cartilage is developed to account for the transport of the cryoprotective agent, the nonideal-nondilute properties of the vitrifiable solutions, the osmotic water movement and the resultant tissue shrinkage and stress-strain in the tissue matrix, and the osmotic volume change of the chondrocytes, during cryoprotective agent loading in the cartilage matrix. Four essential transport parameters needed for the model were specified, the values of which were obtained uniquely by fitting the model to experimental data from porcine articular cartilage. Then, it was shown that using real nonuniform initial distributions of water and fixed charges in cartilage, measured separately in this thesis using MRI, in the model can significantly affect the model predictions. The model predictions for dimethyl sulfoxide diffusion in porcine articular cartilage were verified by comparing to spatially and temporally resolved measurements of dimethyl sulfoxide concentration in porcine articular cartilage using a spectral MRI technique, developed for this purpose and novel to the field of cryobiology. It was demonstrated in this thesis that the developed mathematical model provides a novel tool

  1. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  2. Sunscreening agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Latha, M S; Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B R

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents.

  3. A structure-activity analysis of the variation in oxime efficacy against nerve agents

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Donald M. Koplovitz, Irwin; Worek, Franz; Sweeney, Richard E.

    2008-09-01

    A structure-activity analysis was used to evaluate the variation in oxime efficacy of 2-PAM, obidoxime, HI-6 and ICD585 against nerve agents. In vivo oxime protection and in vitro oxime reactivation were used as indicators of oxime efficacy against VX, sarin, VR and cyclosarin. Analysis of in vivo oxime protection was conducted with oxime protective ratios (PR) from guinea pigs receiving oxime and atropine therapy after sc administration of nerve agent. Analysis of in vitro reactivation was conducted with second-order rate contants (k{sub r2}) for oxime reactivation of agent-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from guinea pig erythrocytes. In vivo oxime PR and in vitro k{sub r2} decreased as the volume of the alkylmethylphosphonate moiety of nerve agents increased from VX to cyclosarin. This effect was greater with 2-PAM and obidoxime (> 14-fold decrease in PR) than with HI-6 and ICD585 (< 3.7-fold decrease in PR). The decrease in oxime PR and k{sub r2} as the volume of the agent moiety conjugated to AChE increased was consistent with a steric hindrance mechanism. Linear regression of log (PR-1) against log (k{sub r2} {center_dot} [oxime dose]) produced two offset parallel regression lines that delineated a significant difference between the coupling of oxime reactivation and oxime protection for HI-6 and ICD585 compared to 2-PAM and obidoxime. HI-6 and ICD585 appeared to be 6.8-fold more effective than 2-PAM and obidoxime at coupling oxime reactivation to oxime protection, which suggested that the isonicotinamide group that is common to both of these oximes, but absent from 2-PAM and obidoxime, is important for oxime efficacy.

  4. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  5. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  6. Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy from bacteria subjected to bactericidal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Alvin; Alimova, Alexandra; Siddique, Masood; Savage, Howard E.; Shah, Mahendra; Rosen, Richard; Alfano, Robert

    2004-03-01

    The time-resolved and steady-state changes in fluorescence were investigated from one spore-forming (Bacillus subtilis) and four non-spore forming (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria subjected to different bactericidal agents. The bactericidal agents were sodium hypochlorite (bleach) hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and UV light exposure. Application of sodium hypochlorite resulted in an almost total lose of fluorescence signal and large decrease in the optical density of the bacterial suspension. Addition of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a 35% decrease in emission intensity fom the Sa and an 85-95% decrease for the other bacteria. Ultraviolet light exposure resulted in a 5-35% decrease in the emission intensity of the tryptophan band. The addition of formaldehyde to the bacteria did not result in significant changes in the steady-state emission intensity, but did shift the tryptophan emission peak position to shorter wavelengths by 3 to 5 nm. Time-resolved fluorescence measurements showed that the fluorescence lifetime of tryptophan in the bacteria could not be described by a single exponential decay, and was similar to that of tryptophan in neutral aqueous solution. Upon addition of formaldehyde to the Gram positive bacteria (Bs and Sa) the strength of the short lifetime component increased dramatically, while for the Gram negative bacteria, a smaller increase was observed. These fluorescence changes reflect the different mechanisms of the bactericidal agents and may provide a useful tool to monitor the effectiveness of disinfectants.

  7. MpcAgent

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of themore » building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.« less

  8. MpcAgent

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James

    2013-11-29

    MpcAgent software is a module for the VolltronLite platform from PNNL that regulates the operation of rooftop air conditioning units in small to medium commercial buildings for the purpose of reducing peak power consumption. The MpcAgent accomplishes this by restricting the number of units that may operate simultaneously and using a model predictive control strategy to select which units to operate in each control period. The outcome of this control is effective control of the building air temperature at the user specified set point while avoiding expensive peak demand charges that result from running all HVAC units simultaneously.

  9. Decreased aortic glutathione levels may contribute to impaired nitric oxide-induced relaxation in hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, Takeshi; Cohen, Richard A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the decrease in aortic total glutathione (GSH) levels in hypercholesterolaemia is related to the impairment of relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and exogenous nitric oxide (NO). Isometric tension and vascular GSH levels were measured in thoracic aortic rings from rabbits fed for 12 weeks with 0.5% cholesterol diet. Hypercholesterolaemia decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired relaxation to ACh and NO. To determine if GSH depletion impaired the response to NO, normal rabbit thoracic aorta was incubated with 1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea (BCNU; 0.2 mmol L−1), a GSH reductase inhibitor, or diazine-dicarboxylic acid bis [N, N dimethylamide] (diamide; 1 mmol L−1), a thiol oxidizing agent. BCNU or diamide decreased aortic GSH levels and impaired ACh and NO-induced relaxation. The effects of diamide on GSH levels and relaxation were partially prevented by co-incubation with GSH ester (GSE; 2 mmol L−1). Increasing GSH with GSE significantly enhanced NO-induced relaxation in aorta from both hypercholesterolaemic and normal rabbits, however relaxation of hypercholesterolaemic rabbit aorta was not restored to normal. These data suggest that other factors, perhaps related to the long-term decrease in GSH levels, are responsible for reduced NO bioactivity in hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:10696103

  10. The decreasing cost of telemedicine and telehealth.

    PubMed

    Doolittle, Gary C; Spaulding, Ashley O'Neal; Williams, Arthur R

    2011-11-01

    The teleoncology practice based at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) in Kansas City, Kansas, is one of the longest running practices of its kind worldwide. The practice began in 1995 and connected an oncologist at KUMC with a rural medical center in Hays, Kansas. Fifteen years later, the practice continues to thrive at Hays Medical Center and has also expanded to include two additional sites within the state-the Northeast Kansas Center for Health and Wellness in Horton and Goodland Regional Medical Center in Goodland-that offer regularly scheduled teleoncology clinics. While the KUMC practice has witnessed an expansion in service sites throughout its history, the practice has seen a significant decrease in the costs associated with providing such services since its inception. The cost decrease can, in part, be attributed to an increase in the number of teleoncology visits conducted through the practice since it began. In Fiscal Year 1995 (FY 1995), 103 teleoncology visits resulted in a cost per visit of $812. Five years later, the FY 2000 $410 per visit cost for 121 visits was almost half the cost identified in the initial cost analysis. The FY 2003 cost per visit for 219 visits saw another decrease to $401, and the most recent FY 2005 cost analysis yielded another decrease to $251 per visit for 235 visits. The data reported below are likely to be the best now available to track time trends in the cost of providing telemedicine or telehealth consultations. The Conclusion and Policy Recommendations at the end of this article will focus on both the cost-time profile and some other challenges and lessons learned. PMID:22035320

  11. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  12. 76 FR 40850 - Glymes; Proposed Significant New Use Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    .... Industrial uses include ] generation of chemicals, use as a reaction solvent, and use as a binding agent in... as special, high boiling solvents for chemical reactions, use as a solubilizing agent for plastic... chemical substances for an activity that is designated as a significant new use by this proposed rule...

  13. Farnesol decreases biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and exhibits synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John M; Barrish, Jim; Versalovic, James

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm infections are frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, are resistant to antimicrobial agents, and adversely affect patient outcomes. We evaluated farnesol (FSL), the Candida quorum-sensing molecule, on S. epidermidis biofilms, in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated ED50, ED75, and ED90 (drug concentrations causing 50%, 75%, and 90% inhibition, respectively) of FSL and evaluated synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin. FSL's effects on morphology of S. epidermidis biofilms were analyzed using confocal microscopy and real-time changes using a bioluminescent strain of S. epidermidis, Xen 43. In mice, effects of FSL treatment on s.c. catheter biofilms; cultures of blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues; and bioluminescence in strain Xen 43 were evaluated. FSL inhibited biofilms (ED50 ranged from 0.625 to 2.5 mM) and was synergistic with nafcillin and vancomycin at most combination ratios. FSL significantly decreased biovolume, substratum coverage, and mean thickness of S. epidermidis biofilms. In mice, FSL significantly decreased viable colony counts of S. epidermidis from blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues and decreased Xen 43 bioluminescence. We confirmed the antibiofilm effects of FSL both in vitro and in vivo, in a bioluminescent strain and its synergy with antibiotics. FSL may be effective against clinical S. epidermidis biofilm infections. PMID:21857375

  14. Farnesol decreases biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis and exhibits synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin.

    PubMed

    Pammi, Mohan; Liang, Rong; Hicks, John M; Barrish, Jim; Versalovic, James

    2011-12-01

    Biofilm infections are frequently caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis, are resistant to antimicrobial agents, and adversely affect patient outcomes. We evaluated farnesol (FSL), the Candida quorum-sensing molecule, on S. epidermidis biofilms, in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated ED50, ED75, and ED90 (drug concentrations causing 50%, 75%, and 90% inhibition, respectively) of FSL and evaluated synergy with nafcillin and vancomycin. FSL's effects on morphology of S. epidermidis biofilms were analyzed using confocal microscopy and real-time changes using a bioluminescent strain of S. epidermidis, Xen 43. In mice, effects of FSL treatment on s.c. catheter biofilms; cultures of blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues; and bioluminescence in strain Xen 43 were evaluated. FSL inhibited biofilms (ED50 ranged from 0.625 to 2.5 mM) and was synergistic with nafcillin and vancomycin at most combination ratios. FSL significantly decreased biovolume, substratum coverage, and mean thickness of S. epidermidis biofilms. In mice, FSL significantly decreased viable colony counts of S. epidermidis from blood, kidney, and catheter and pericatheter tissues and decreased Xen 43 bioluminescence. We confirmed the antibiofilm effects of FSL both in vitro and in vivo, in a bioluminescent strain and its synergy with antibiotics. FSL may be effective against clinical S. epidermidis biofilm infections.

  15. Agent Persuasion Mechanism of Acquaintance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinghua, Wu; Wenguang, Lu; Hailiang, Meng

    Agent persuasion can improve negotiation efficiency in dynamic environment based on its initiative and autonomy, and etc., which is being affected much more by acquaintance. Classification of acquaintance on agent persuasion is illustrated, and the agent persuasion model of acquaintance is also illustrated. Then the concept of agent persuasion degree of acquaintance is given. Finally, relative interactive mechanism is elaborated.

  16. 13 CFR 108.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent. 108.1620 Section 108.1620 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA...

  17. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  18. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  19. Battlefield agent collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budulas, Peter P.; Young, Stuart H.; Emmerman, Philip J.

    2001-09-01

    Small air and ground physical agents (robots) will be ubiquitous on the battlefield of the 21st century, principally to lower the exposure to harm of our ground forces in urban and open terrain scenarios. Teams of small collaborating physical agents conducting tasks such as Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Target Acquisition (RSTA), intelligence, chemical and biological agent detection, logistics, decoy, sentry; and communications relay will have advanced sensors, communications, and mobility characteristics. It is anticipated that there will be many levels of individual and team collaboration between the soldier and robot, robot to robot, and robot to mother ship. This paper presents applications and infrastructure components that illustrate each of these levels. As an example, consider the application where a team of twenty small robots must rapidly explore and define a building complex. Local interactions and decisions require peer to peer collaboration. Global direction and information fusion warrant a central team control provided by a mother ship. The mother ship must effectively deliver/retrieve, service, and control these robots as well as fuse the information gathered by these highly mobile robot teams. Any level of collaboration requires robust communications, specifically a mobile ad hoc network. The application of fixed ground sensors and mobile robots is also included in this paper. This paper discusses on going research at the U.S. Army Research Laboratory that supports the development of multi-robot collaboration. This research includes battlefield visualization, intelligent software agents, adaptive communications, sensor and information fusion, and multi-modal human computer interaction.

  20. Mobility control agent

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Phillips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1983-05-17

    Polymer mobility control agents useful in supplemental oil recovery processes, which give improved reciprocal relative mobilities, are prepared by initiating the polymerization of a monomer containing a vinyl group with a catalyst comprising a persulfate and ferrous ammonium sulfate. The vinyl monomer is an acrylyl, a vinyl cyanide, a styryl and water soluble salts thereof.

  1. E-Learning Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Dawn G.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the advantages of using intelligent agents to facilitate the location and customization of appropriate e-learning resources and to foster collaboration in e-learning environments. Design/methodology/approach: This paper proposes an e-learning environment that can be used to provide customized…

  2. Remote Agent Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benard, Doug; Dorais, Gregory A.; Gamble, Ed; Kanefsky, Bob; Kurien, James; Millar, William; Muscettola, Nicola; Nayak, Pandu; Rouquette, Nicolas; Rajan, Kanna; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Remote Agent (RA) is a model-based, reusable artificial intelligence (At) software system that enables goal-based spacecraft commanding and robust fault recovery. RA was flight validated during an experiment on board of DS1 between May 17th and May 21th, 1999.

  3. Can Subscription Agents Survive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Marcia

    1985-01-01

    With the saturation of traditional markets for their services, subscription agents have evolved from orders and invoices to serving customers by communicating with librarians and publishers and making automated and paper products available. Magazine fulfillment centers, publisher discounts, and electronic publishing will influence the subscription…

  4. The hepatitis C genotype 1 paradox: cost per treatment is increasing, but cost per cure is decreasing.

    PubMed

    Shafran, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Significant attention has been focused on the perceived increase in the cost of antiviral treatment for hepatitis C genotype 1 infection since the approval of the first direct-acting antiviral agents in 2011. Using Canadian list prices, the present analysis points out a paradox: while the cost per antiviral regimen is increasing, the cost per cure is decreasing, especially with interferon-free therapy. In a publicly funded health care system, the lowest cost per cure is a more valuable measure of value for public money than the cost per regimen. PMID:25706574

  5. Contamination of groundwater by outdoor highway deicing agent storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Hinlein, Erich S.; Rotaru, Camelia; DeGroot, Don J.

    2006-07-01

    This research quantifies the impact of outdoor highway deicing agent storage on groundwater quality. Data and theory realize the objective at a well characterized salt/premix storage facility on a glacial drumlin comprised of clayey sand till. Tritium and tritiogenic helium were observed in 17 monitoring wells in 2003, while chloride concentrations were measured in 43 monitoring wells from 1998 through 2004. The 3He/ 3H ratios confirm an analytical model of drumlin hydraulics (Ostendorf, D.W., DeGroot, D.J., Shelburne, W.M., and Mitchell, T.J., 2004. Hydraulic head in a clayey sand till over multiple timescales. Can. Geotech. J. 41, 89-105.), and support advective travel time estimates from the monitoring well screens back to the water table. An advective balance of recharge, precipitation, and surface runoff routes the water table Cl - concentrations inwards to the outdoor storage pile maintained at the site from the 1960s to the mid 1980s. Concentrations as high as 320 meq Cl -/L were observed in groundwater, although the deicing agent contamination had not yet reached the bottom of the drumlin in the study area. The travel time simulations yield a 200 meq Cl -/L water table isopleth in 1985 under the prior outdoor storage pile. The recharge concentration model matches the radial decrease of Cl - water table concentrations from the pile, and implies that 4400 kg of Cl - leached into the groundwater in 1985. This is about 0.3% of the deicing agent Cl - stored at the site each year. These results suggest that outdoor storage of highway deicing agents significantly impacted groundwater quality near the pile. The groundwater quality began to recover after source removal however: the leached Cl - flux dropped to 2,300 kg in 1992, more than 5 years after elimination of the outdoor storage pile.

  6. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  7. Lumazine Synthase Protein Nanoparticle-Gd(III)-DOTA Conjugate as a T1 contrast agent for high-field MRI.

    PubMed

    Song, YoungKyu; Kang, Young Ji; Jung, Hoesu; Kim, Hansol; Kang, Sebyung; Cho, HyungJoon

    2015-10-23

    With the applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at higher magnetic fields increasing, there is demand for MRI contrast agents with improved relaxivity at higher magnetic fields. Macromolecule-based contrast agents, such as protein-based ones, are known to yield significantly higher r1 relaxivity at low fields, but tend to lose this merit when used as T1 contrast agents (r1/r2 = 0.5 ~ 1), with their r1 decreasing and r2 increasing as magnetic field strength increases. Here, we developed and characterized an in vivo applicable magnetic resonance (MR) positive contrast agent by conjugating Gd(III)-chelating agent complexes to lumazine synthase isolated from Aquifex aeolicus (AaLS). The r1 relaxivity of Gd(III)-DOTA-AaLS-R108C was 16.49 mM(-1)s(-1) and its r1/r2 ratio was 0.52 at the magnetic field strength of 7 T. The results of 3D MR angiography demonstrated the feasibility of vasculature imaging within 2 h of intravenous injection of the agent and a significant reduction in T1 values were observed in the tumor region 7 h post-injection in the SCC-7 flank tumor model. Our findings suggest that Gd(III)-DOTA-AaLS-R108C could serve as a potential theranostic nanoplatform at high magnetic field strength.

  8. The pharmacologic approach to airway clearance: mucoactive agents.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2006-01-01

    The term "mucoactive agent" refers to any medication used to improve the clearance of airway secretions. It is not synonymous with the word "mucolytic" as this strictly means a drug that decreases the viscosity of secretions. In many cases, decreased viscosity will adversely affect cough transport. For this reason many of the older mucolytic agents such as acetylcysteine are not effective for the therapy of lung disease and their use is not recommended. I review here the many classes of mucoactive agents and identify a number of medications with great promise for the treatment of chronic airway disease. PMID:16798570

  9. St John's wort greatly decreases the plasma concentrations of oral S-ketamine.

    PubMed

    Peltoniemi, Marko A; Saari, Teijo I; Hagelberg, Nora M; Laine, Kari; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Olkkola, Klaus T

    2012-12-01

    Ketamine is an intravenous anaesthetic and analgesic agent but it can also be used orally as an adjuvant in the treatment of chronic pain. This study investigated the effect of the herbal antidepressant St John's wort, an inducer of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral S-ketamine. In a randomized cross-over study with two phases, 12 healthy subjects were pretreated with oral St John's wort or placebo for 14 days. On day 14, they were given an oral dose of 0.3 mg/kg of S-ketamine. Plasma concentrations of ketamine and norketamine were measured for 24 h and pharmacodynamic variables for 12 h. St John's wort decreased the mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-∞)) of ketamine by 58% (P < 0.001) and decreased the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of ketamine by 66% (P < 0.001) when compared with placebo. Mean C(max) of norketamine (the major metabolite of ketamine) was decreased by 23% (P = 0.002) and mean AUC(0-∞) of norketamine by 18% (P < 0.001) by St John's wort. There was a statistically significant linear correlation between the self-reported drug effect and C(max) of ketamine (r = 0.55; P < 0.01). St John's wort greatly decreased the exposure to oral S-ketamine in healthy volunteers. Although this decrease was not associated with significant changes in the analgesic or behavioural effects of ketamine in the present study, usual doses of S-ketamine may become ineffective if used concomitantly with St John's wort.

  10. Do Low Molecular Weight Agents Cause More Severe Asthma than High Molecular Weight Agents?

    PubMed Central

    Meca, Olga; Cruz, María-Jesús; Sánchez-Ortiz, Mónica; González-Barcala, Francisco-Javier; Ojanguren, Iñigo; Munoz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to analyse whether patients with occupational asthma (OA) caused by low molecular weight (LMW) agents differed from patients with OA caused by high molecular weight (HMW) with regard to risk factors, asthma presentation and severity, and response to various diagnostic tests. Methods Seventy-eight patients with OA diagnosed by positive specific inhalation challenge (SIC) were included. Anthropometric characteristics, atopic status, occupation, latency periods, asthma severity according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) control classification, lung function tests and SIC results were analysed. Results OA was induced by an HMW agent in 23 patients (29%) and by an LMW agent in 55 (71%). A logistic regression analysis confirmed that patients with OA caused by LMW agents had a significantly higher risk of severity according to the GINA classification after adjusting for potential confounders (OR = 3.579, 95% CI 1.136–11.280; p = 0.029). During the SIC, most patients with OA caused by HMW agents presented an early reaction (82%), while in patients with OA caused by LMW agents the response was mainly late (73%) (p = 0.0001). Similarly, patients with OA caused by LMW agents experienced a greater degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness, measured as the difference in the methacholine dose-response ratio (DRR) before and after SIC (1.77, range 0–16), compared with patients with OA caused by HMW agents (0.87, range 0–72), (p = 0.024). Conclusions OA caused by LMW agents may be more severe than that caused by HMW agents. The severity of the condition may be determined by the different mechanisms of action of these agents. PMID:27280473

  11. Tales of significance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  12. Curing depth of a resin-modified glass ionomer and two resin-based luting agents.

    PubMed

    Sigemori, Ricardo Massao; Reis, André Figueiredo; Giannini, Marcelo; Paulillo, Luís Alexandre M S

    2005-01-01

    The degree of conversion of resin-based luting agents used for retention of prefabricated posts has been questioned due to the difficulty of light penetration into the resin-filled root canal. This study evaluated the depth of cure of a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Rely X--3M ESPE) and two resin-based luting agents (Rely X ARC--3M ESPE and Enforce-Dentsply). Twenty-four 14x2x2mm3 specimens were prepared in a Teflon split mold with the three luting agents (n=8). After preparation, the specimens were stored at 37 degrees C in a dark box for 24 hours prior to microhardness testing. Measurements of Knoop hardness were performed at three different depths: superficial, medium and deep thirds. The results (KHN) were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey test (0.05), which showed that resin-based luting agents presented the highest Knoop hardness values within the superficial third. Within the medium third, there were no significant differences among luting materials. However, within the deep third, Rely X presented the highest values. KHN values of resin-based luting agents decreased remarkably as depth increased.

  13. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract.

  14. Nondestructive intervention to multi-agent systems through an intelligent agent.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Wang, Lin

    2013-01-01

    For a given multi-agent system where the local interaction rule of the existing agents can not be re-designed, one way to intervene the collective behavior of the system is to add one or a few special agents into the group which are still treated as normal agents by the existing ones. We study how to lead a Vicsek-like flocking model to reach synchronization by adding special agents. A popular method is to add some simple leaders (fixed-headings agents). However, we add one intelligent agent, called 'shill', which uses online feedback information of the group to decide the shill's moving direction at each step. A novel strategy for the shill to coordinate the group is proposed. It is strictly proved that a shill with this strategy and a limited speed can synchronize every agent in the group. The computer simulations show the effectiveness of this strategy in different scenarios, including different group sizes, shill speed, and with or without noise. Compared to the method of adding some fixed-heading leaders, our method can guarantee synchronization for any initial configuration in the deterministic scenario and improve the synchronization level significantly in low density groups, or model with noise. This suggests the advantage and power of feedback information in intervention of collective behavior.

  15. Enhancement of light in tissue using hyper-osmotic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, Raiyan T.; Chen, Bo; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Estrada, Arnold D., Jr.; Ponticorvo, Ardien; Rylander, Henry G., III; Dunn, Andrew K.; Welch, Ashley J.

    2008-02-01

    Optical changes in skin blood flow due to the presence of glycerol were measured from a two-dimensional map of blood flow in skin blood vessels with a dynamic imaging technique using laser speckle. In this study a dorsal skin-flap window was implanted on the hamster skin with and without a hyper-osmotic agent i.e. glycerol. The hyper-osmotic drug was delivered to the skin through the open dermal end of the window model. A two-dimensional map of blood flow in skin blood vessels were obtained with very high spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the speckle pattern with a CCD camera. Preliminary studies demonstrated that hyper-osmotic agents such as glycerol not only make tissue temporarily translucent, but also reduce blood flow. The blood perfusion was measured every 3 minutes up to 36-60 minutes after diffusion of anhydrous glycerol. Small capillaries blood flow reduced significantly within 3-9 minutes. Perfusion rate in lager blood vessels i.e. all arteries and some veins decreased (speckle contrasts increased from 0.0115 to 0.384) over time. However, the blood flow in some veins reduced significantly in 36 minutes. After 24 hours the blood perfusion further reduced in capillaries. However, the blood flow increased in larger blood vessels in 24 hours compared to an hour after application of glycerol. For further investigation the speckle contrast measurement were verified with color Doppler optical coherence tomography.

  16. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  17. Emulsified blasting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Chironis, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    This article describes an improved blasting agent which is being tailor-blended with bulk ANFO to provide more explosive energy and better water resistance when the blasting conditions call for it. The proportions of the emulsion/ANFO mix are easily changed at the blasthole site because both materials can be selectively mixed in modified bulk-explosive trucks before loading the blasting agents into the holes. Such blends are helping speed stripping at a number of surface mines and are leading to cost savings in production, ranging from 10% to 30%, depending upon application, even though the actual cost of a blend will be higher than if bulk ANFO is used alone.

  18. Resistance exercise decreases beta-endorphin immunoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Pierce, E F; Eastman, N W; McGowan, R W; Tripathi, H; Dewey, W L; Olson, K G

    1994-09-01

    Previous research investigating the response of plasma beta-endorphins (beta-EP) to resistance exercise has resulted in equivocal findings. To examine further the effects of resistance exercise on beta-EP immunoreactivity, 10 male and 10 female college-age students participated in a series of controlled isotonic resistance exercises. The session consisted of three sets of eight repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1-RM) for each of the following exercises: (1) bench press; (2) lateral pull-downs; (3) seated arm curls; and (4) military press. Blood plasma was sampled both before and after the lifting routine and beta-endorphin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. A Students t test for paired samples indicated that mean(s.e.) plasma beta-endorphin levels after exercise (10.5(1.3) pg beta-EP ml-1) were significantly decreased as compared with pre-exercise (control) levels (16.5(1.2), P < 0.05). While the mechanism(s) contributing to the decrease in immunoreactivity is unclear, it may be the result of the synergistic effect of beta-EP clearance during rest intervals and changes in psychological states between sampling.

  19. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  20. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    2000-02-08

    Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  1. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, M.P.; Mease, R.C.; Srivastava, S.C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo[2.2.2] octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo[2.2.1] heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N`,N`-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  2. Rigid bifunctional chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Sweet, Mark P.; Mease, Ronnie C.; Srivastava, Suresh C.

    1998-07-21

    Bicyclo›2.2.2! octane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acids (BODTA) and bicyclo›2.2.1! heptane-2,3 diamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BHDTA) are chelating agents useful in forming detectably labeled bioconjugate compounds for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. New compounds and processes of forming BODTA and BHDTA are disclosed. Radioimmunoconjugates of the present invention show high and prolonged tumor uptake with low normal tissue uptakes.

  3. Surface polymerization agents

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.; Wilkerson, C.

    1996-12-01

    This is the final report of a 1-year, Laboratory-Directed R&D project at LANL. A joint technical demonstration was proposed between US Army Missile Command (Redstone Arsenal) and LANL. Objective was to demonstrate that an unmanned vehicle or missile could be used as a platform to deliver a surface polymerization agent in such a manner as to obstruct the filters of an air-breathing mechanism, resulting in operational failure.

  4. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  5. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy.

  6. Anticonvulsants for nerve agent-induced seizures: The influence of the therapeutic dose of atropine.

    PubMed

    Shih, Tsung-Ming; Rowland, Tami C; McDonough, John H

    2007-01-01

    Two guinea pig models were used to study the anticonvulsant potency of diazepam, midazolam, and scopolamine against seizures induced by the nerve agents tabun, sarin, soman, cyclosarin, O-ethyl S-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)methylphosphonothioate (VX), and O-isobutyl S-(2-diethylamino)ethyl)-methyl phosphonothioate (VR). Animals instrumented for electroencephalogram recording were pretreated with pyridostigmine bromide (0.026 mg/kg i.m.) 30 min before challenge with 2 x LD50 (s.c.) of a nerve agent. In model A, atropine sulfate (2.0 mg/kg i.m.) and pyridine-2-aldoxime methylchloride (2-PAM; 25.0 mg/kg i.m.) were given 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the tested anticonvulsant was given (i.m.) 5 min after seizure onset. In model B, a lower dose of atropine sulfate (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given along with 2-PAM 1 min after nerve agent challenge, and the anticonvulsant was given at seizure onset. With the lower dose of atropine, seizure occurrence increased to virtually 100% for all agents; the time to seizure onset decreased for sarin, cyclosarin, and VX; the signs of nerve agent intoxication were more severe; and coma resulted frequently with cyclosarin. The anticonvulsant ED50 doses for scopolamine or diazepam were, in general, not different between the two models, whereas the anticonvulsant ED50 values of midazolam increased 3- to 17-fold with the lower atropine dose. Seizure termination times were not systematically effected by the different doses of atropine. The order of anticonvulsant effectiveness within each model was scopolamine > or = midazolam > diazepam. The findings indicate that the dose of atropine given as antidotal therapy can significantly influence measures of nerve agent toxicity and responsiveness to anticonvulsant therapy. PMID:17015638

  7. Investigation of oil recovery improvement by coupling an interfacial tension agent and a mobility control agent in light oil reservoirs. Second annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, M.J.

    1995-04-01

    {open_quotes}Investigation of Oil Recovery Improvement by Coupling an Interfacial Tension Agent and a Mobility Control Agent in Light Oil Reservoirs{close_quotes} is studying two major areas concerning co-injecting an interfacial tension reduction agent(s) and a mobility control agent. The first area defines the interactions of alkaline agents, surfactants, and polymers on a fluid-fluid and a fluid-rock basis. The second area concerns the economic improvement of the combined technology. This report continues the fluid-fluid interaction evaluations and begins the fluid-rock studies. Fluid-fluid interfacial tension work determined that replacing sodium ion with either potassium or ammonium ion in solutions with interfacial tension reduction up to 19,600 fold was detrimental and had little or no effect on alkali-surfactant solutions with interfacial tension reduction of 100 to 200 fold. Reservoir brine increases interfacial tension between crude oil and alkaline-surfactant solutions. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-surfactant solutions maintained ultra low and low interfacial tension values better than NaOH-surfactant solutions. The initial phase of the fluid-rock investigations was adsorption studies. Surfactant adsorption is reduced when co-dissolved with alkali. Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} are more efficient at reducing surfactant adsorption than NaOH. When polymer is added to the surfactant solution, surfactant adsorption is reduced as well. When both polymer and alkali are added, polymer is the dominate component, reducing the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and NaOH effect on adsorption. Substituting sodium ion with potassium or ammonium ion increased or decreased surfactant adsorption depending on surfactant structure with alkali having a less significant effect. No consistent change of surfactant adsorption with increasing salinity was observed in the presence or absence of alkali or polymer.

  8. Significance of postshunt ventricular asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Linder, M; Diehl, J T; Sklar, F H

    1981-08-01

    Ventricular asymmetries after shunt surgery were studied. Right and left ventricular areas from pre-and postoperative computerized tomography scans were measured with a computer digitizing technique, and the respective areas were expressed as a ratio. Measurements were made from the scans of 15 hydrocephalic children selected at random. Ages at surgery ranged from 1 to 101 weeks. The results indicate a significantly greater decrease in ventricular size on the side of the ventricular shunt catheter. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between the magnitude of change in ventricular size and either the patients' age orn the time intervals between surgery and follow-up scans. Possible mechanisms for these postshunt ventricular asymmetries are discussed.

  9. DRDE-07 and its analogues as promising cytoprotectants to nitrogen mustard (HN-2)--an alkylating anticancer and chemical warfare agent.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Vijayaraghavan, R; Gautam, Anshoo

    2009-08-10

    Nitrogen mustard (HN-2), also known as mechlorethamine, is an alkylating anticancer agent as well as blister inducing chemical warfare agent. We evaluated the cytoprotective efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07 and their analogues, and other antidotes of mustard agents against HN-2. Administration of 1 LD(50) of HN-2 (20mg/kg) percutaneously, decreased WBC count from 24h onwards. Liver glutathione (GSH) level decreased prominently and the maximum depletion was observed on 7th day post-HN-2 administration. Oxidised glutathione (GSSG) level increased significantly at 24h post-administration and subsequently showed a progressive decrease. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level and percent DNA damage increased progressively following HN-2 administration. The spleen weight decreased progressively and reached a minimum on 3-4 days with subsequent increase. The antidotes were administered repeatedly for 4 and 8 days after percutaneous administration of single sublethal dose (0.5 and 0.25 LD(50)) of HN-2. Treatment with DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 significantly protected the changes in spleen weight, WBC count, GSH, GSSG, MDA and DNA damage following HN-2 administration (0.5 and 0.25 LD(50)). There was no alteration in the transaminases (AST and ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, neither with HN-2 nor with antidotes. The present study shows that HN-2 is highly toxic by percutaneous route and DRDE-07, DRDE-30 and DRDE-35 can partially protect it.

  10. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  11. Decreased interleukin-21 expression in skin and blood in advanced mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Kabasawa, Miyoko; Sugaya, Makoto; Oka, Tomonori; Takahashi, Naomi; Kawaguchi, Makiko; Suga, Hiraku; Miyagaki, Tomomitsu; Takahashi, Takehiro; Shibata, Sayaka; Fujita, Hideki; Asano, Yoshihide; Tada, Yayoi; Kadono, Takafumi; Okochi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin (IL)-21 is regarded as a potent antitumor agent, which increases the cytotoxicity of both natural killer (NK) and CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-21 in mycosis fungoides (MF). IL-21 mRNA expression levels in patch and plaque MF were significantly higher than those in normal skin. IL-21 mRNA expression levels in tumor MF were significantly decreased compared with those in patch and plaque MF. Interestingly, mRNA expression levels of IL-21 in MF lesional skin significantly correlated with those of T-helper type-1 cytokines/chemokines such as CXCL10, CXCL11 and γ-interferon. Immunohistochemistry showed that IL-21 was expressed by keratinocytes in patch and plaque MF. Furthermore, serum IL-21 levels in patients with tumor MF were significantly lower than those of healthy controls and plaque MF. Thus, IL-21 expression was significantly downregulated in skin and blood of patients with tumor MF, which may contribute to progression of MF. Our study suggests that recombinant IL-21 would be a promising therapy for MF.

  12. Nanoparticle-based theranostic agents

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jin; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2010-01-01

    Theranostic nanomedicine is emerging as a promising therapeutic paradigm. It takes advantage of the high capacity of nanoplatforms to ferry cargo and loads onto them both imaging and therapeutic functions. The resulting nanosystems, capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response, are expected to play a significant role in the dawning era of personalized medicine, and much research effort has been devoted toward that goal. A convenience in constructing such function-integrated agents is that many nanoplatforms are already, themselves, imaging agents. Their well developed surface chemistry makes it easy to load them with pharmaceutics and promote them to be theranostic nanosystems. Iron oxide nanoparticles, quantum dots, carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles and silica nanoparticles, have been previously well investigated in the imaging setting and are candidate nanoplatforms for building up nanoparticle-based theranostics. In the current article, we will outline the progress along this line, organized by the category of the core materials. We will focus on construction strategies and will discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with this emerging technology. PMID:20691229

  13. Effect of Antithrombotic Agents on the Patency of PTFE-Covered Stents in the Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Makutani, Shiro; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Uchida, Hideo; Maeda, Munehiro; Konishi, Noboru; Hiasa, Yoshio; Yoshikawa, Tomohiro; Kimura, Yukio

    1999-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of antithrombotic agents in the prevention of stenosis of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stents in the venous system. Methods: Spiral Z stents covered with PTFE (PTFE-covered stents) were placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC) of 34 dogs. Nineteen dogs, used as a control group, were sacrificed at 2, 4, and 12 weeks. Fifteen dogs, previously given antithrombotic agents [cilostazol (n= 5), warfarin potassium (n= 5), cilostazol plus warfarin potassium (n= 5)] were sacrificed at 4 weeks, and then examined angiographically and histopathologically. The effect of the antithrombotic agents was compared between groups. Results: The patency rate of the antithrombotic agent group was 93% (14/15), which was higher than the control group rate of 63% (12/19). The mean stenosis rate of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was lower at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the mean stenosis rate in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly lower than the control group (Tukey's test, p < 0.05). The mean neointimal thickness of the patent stent at both ends and at the midportion was thinner at 4 weeks in the antithrombotic agent group than in the control group. In particular, the thickness of the neointima in the cilostazol plus warfarin potassium group was significantly decreased when compared with the control group (Tukey's test p < 0.05). At 4 weeks, endothelialization in the antithrombotic agent group tended to be almost identical to that in the control group. Conclusion: The present study suggests that administration of an antithrombotic agent is an effective way of preventing the stenosis induced by a neointimal thickening of PTFE-covered stents in the venous system.

  14. Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna

    PubMed Central

    McCloskey, Rosemary M.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows globally are disappearing at a rapid rate with physical disturbances being one of the major drivers of this habitat loss. Disturbance of seagrass can lead to fragmentation, a reduction in shoot density, canopy height and coverage, and potentially permanent loss of habitat. Despite being such a widespread issue, knowledge of how such small scale change affects the spatial distribution and abundances of motile fauna remains limited. The present study investigated fish and macro faunal community response patterns to a range of habitat variables (shoot length, cover and density), including individual species habitat preferences within a disturbed and patchy intertidal seagrass meadow. Multivariate analysis showed a measurable effect of variable seagrass cover on the abundance and distribution of the fauna, with species specific preferences to both high and low seagrass cover seagrass. The faunal community composition varied significantly with increasing/decreasing cover. The faunal species composition of low cover seagrass was more similar to sandy control plots than to higher cover seagrass. Shannon Wiener Diversity (H′) and species richness was significantly higher in high cover seagrass than in low cover seagrass, indicating increasing habitat value as density increases. The results of this study underline how the impacts of small scale disturbances from factors such as anchor damage, boat moorings and intertidal vehicle use on seagrass meadows that reduce shoot density and cover can impact upon associated fauna. These impacts have negative consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services such as the provision of nursery habitat. PMID:26137432

  15. Decreasing seagrass density negatively influences associated fauna.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Rosemary M; Unsworth, Richard K F

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows globally are disappearing at a rapid rate with physical disturbances being one of the major drivers of this habitat loss. Disturbance of seagrass can lead to fragmentation, a reduction in shoot density, canopy height and coverage, and potentially permanent loss of habitat. Despite being such a widespread issue, knowledge of how such small scale change affects the spatial distribution and abundances of motile fauna remains limited. The present study investigated fish and macro faunal community response patterns to a range of habitat variables (shoot length, cover and density), including individual species habitat preferences within a disturbed and patchy intertidal seagrass meadow. Multivariate analysis showed a measurable effect of variable seagrass cover on the abundance and distribution of the fauna, with species specific preferences to both high and low seagrass cover seagrass. The faunal community composition varied significantly with increasing/decreasing cover. The faunal species composition of low cover seagrass was more similar to sandy control plots than to higher cover seagrass. Shannon Wiener Diversity (H') and species richness was significantly higher in high cover seagrass than in low cover seagrass, indicating increasing habitat value as density increases. The results of this study underline how the impacts of small scale disturbances from factors such as anchor damage, boat moorings and intertidal vehicle use on seagrass meadows that reduce shoot density and cover can impact upon associated fauna. These impacts have negative consequences for the delivery of ecosystem services such as the provision of nursery habitat.

  16. Decreased chewing activity during mouth breathing.

    PubMed

    Hsu, H-Y; Yamaguchi, K

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effect of mouth breathing on the strength and duration of vertical effect on the posterior teeth using related functional parameters during 3 min of gum chewing in 39 nasal breathers. A CO(2) sensor was placed over the mouth to detect expiratory airflow. When no airflow was detected from the mouth throughout the recording period, the subject was considered a nasal breather and enrolled in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded during 3 min of gum chewing. The protocol was repeated with the nostrils occluded. The strength of the vertical effect was obtained as integrated masseter muscle EMG activity, and the duration of vertical effect was also obtained as chewing stroke count, chewing cycle variation and EMG activity duration above baseline. Baseline activity was obtained from the isotonic EMG activity during jaw movement at 1.6 Hz without making tooth contact. The duration represented the percentage of the active period above baseline relative to the 3-min chewing period. Paired t-test and repeated analysis of variance were used to compare variables between nasal and mouth breathing. The integrated EMG activity and the duration of EMG activity above baseline, chewing stroke count and chewing cycle significantly decreased during mouth breathing compared with nasal breathing (P<0.05). Chewing cycle variance during mouth breathing was significantly greater than nasal breathing (P<0.05). Mouth breathing reduces the vertical effect on the posterior teeth, which can affect the vertical position of posterior teeth negatively, leading to malocclusion.

  17. Designing Agents to Support Learning by Explaining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Although prior research has shown that generating explanations encourages students to learn new content with deeper understanding and to monitor their own comprehension more effectively, helping students learn how to explain properly remains a significant challenge. This study investigated the use of software agents as learning partners in an…

  18. Collaborating with Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Cross, Charles D.; Fan, Henry; Hempley, Lucas E.; Motter, Mark A.; Neilan, James H.; Qualls, Garry D.; Rothhaar, Paul M.; Tran, Loc D.; Allen, B. Danette

    2015-01-01

    With the anticipated increase of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) entering into the National Airspace System, it is highly likely that vehicle operators will be teaming with fleets of small autonomous vehicles. The small vehicles may consist of sUAS, which are 55 pounds or less that typically will y at altitudes 400 feet and below, and small ground vehicles typically operating in buildings or defined small campuses. Typically, the vehicle operators are not concerned with manual control of the vehicle; instead they are concerned with the overall mission. In order for this vision of high-level mission operators working with fleets of vehicles to come to fruition, many human factors related challenges must be investigated and solved. First, the interface between the human operator and the autonomous agent must be at a level that the operator needs and the agents can understand. This paper details the natural language human factors e orts that NASA Langley's Autonomy Incubator is focusing on. In particular these e orts focus on allowing the operator to interact with the system using speech and gestures rather than a mouse and keyboard. With this ability of the system to understand both speech and gestures, operators not familiar with the vehicle dynamics will be able to easily plan, initiate, and change missions using a language familiar to them rather than having to learn and converse in the vehicle's language. This will foster better teaming between the operator and the autonomous agent which will help lower workload, increase situation awareness, and improve performance of the system as a whole.

  19. Hydroxypyridonate and hydroxypyrimidinone chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Raymond, Kenneth N.; Doble, Daniel M.; Sunderland, Christopher J.; Thompson, Marlon

    2005-01-25

    The present invention provides hydroxypyridinone and hydroxypyrimidone chelating agents. Also provides are Gd(III) complexes of these agents, which are useful as contrast enhancing agents for magnetic resonance imaging. The invention also provides methods of preparing the compounds of the invention, as well as methods of using the compounds in magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  20. Chemical warfare agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  1. [Molecular action of insulin-sensitizing agents].

    PubMed

    Kacalska, Olga; Krzyczkowska-Sendrakowska, Magdalena; Milewicz, Tomasz; Zabińska-Popiela, Marta; Bereza, Tomasz; Krzysiek-Maczka, Gracjana; Krzysiek, Józef

    2005-01-01

    -2 have been confirmed in both normal and malignant endometrium. Binding of IGF-1 is significantly higher in endometrial cancer compared to normal endometrium. In the Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cell line IGF-1 was a more potent mitogen than insulin or IGF-2. Insulin may increase mitogenicity by regulating the expression of IGFBPs. The IGFBPs are a family of proteins that have both proliferative and anti-proliferative effects. While all six high-affinity IGFBPs are expressed in the endometrium, IGFBP-1 is the best characterized. Hyperinsulinemia can decrease IGFBP-1 even in the presence of progesterone, perhaps inhibiting progesterone's protective effects. Interestingly, IGFBP-1 was undetectable or minimally expressed in endometrial cancers. Nestler discussed results of a 6-month treatment of 100 nonebese women with PCOS, which showed a somewhat greater effect of metformin than rosiglitazone and no benefit of administering both agents in combination. Long-term treatment with oral contraceptives decreases endometrial cancer, with a reduction in serum androgens and a decreases in hirsutism and acne, but may worsen insulin resistance and lead to deteriration in glucose tolerance. Insulin sensitizers, on the other hand, should decrease endometrial hyperplasia by inducing regular menses, but may not be as beneficial in improving androgen - related symptoms. Note that the Nurses Health Study (NHS) showed increased risk of diabetes in oral contraceptive users. These considerations may be related to the finding that women who used oral contraceptives have increased risk of myocardial infarction. Thus, in view of the particular increase in CVD risk among women with PCOS, one might be less likely to recommend oral contraceptives, while insulin sensitizers may be of particular benefit, decreasing androgens, improving ovulation and fertility, and reducing the risk of diabetes and CVD. Theoretically, metformin, a treatment which is now widely used to treat infertile women

  2. Chemical oxidation decreases proteolytic susceptibility of skeletal muscle myofibrillar proteins.

    PubMed

    Morzel, Martine; Gatellier, Philippe; Sayd, Thierry; Renerre, Michel; Laville, Elisabeth

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical oxidation on proteolysis susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins. Myofibrils were prepared from pig M. longissimus dorsi and oxidised by a hydroxyl radical generating system. Protein oxidation level was measured by the carbonyl content, free thiol group content and bityrosine formation. Oxidised or non-oxidised myofibrillar proteins were exposed to papain and proteolysis was estimated by fluorescence using fluorescamine. Oxidation of myofibrillar proteins was dependent upon the oxidising agent concentration. Disulfide bridge and bityrosine formation indicated that oxidation by OH° can induce protein polymerization. Electrophoretic study showed that myosin was the protein most sensitive to oxidation. Results showed a direct and quantitative relationship between protein damages by hydroxyl radical and decreased proteolytic susceptibility. Electrophoretic observations suggest that polymerization and aggregation may explain in part decreased susceptibility of myofibrillar proteins to proteolysis. PMID:22062494

  3. Nanoparticles as strengthening agents in polymer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Naureen

    2005-11-01

    Carboxylate-substituted alumina nanoparticles are produced solvent free using mechanical shear. The general nature of this method has been demonstrated for L-lysine-, stearate, and p-hydroxybenzoate-derived materials. The reaction rate and particle size is controlled by a combination of temperature and shear rate. The nanoparticles are spectroscopically equivalent to those reported from aqueous syntheses, however, the average particle size can be decreased and the particle size distribution narrowed depending on the reaction conditions. Lysine and p-hydroxybenzoato alumoxanes have been introduced in carbon fiber reinforced epoxide resin composites. Different preparation conditions have been studied to obtain composite with enhanced performances that are ideal for the motor sports and aerospace industries. A new composite material has been fabricated utilizing surface-modified carboxylate alumoxane nanoparticles and the biodegradable polymer poly(propylene fumarate)/poly(propylene fumarate)-diacrylate (PPF/PPF-DA). For this study, composites were prepared using various functional groups including: a surfactant alumoxane to enhance nanoparticle dispersion into the polymer; an activated-alumoxane to enhance nanoparticle interaction with the polymer matrix; a mixed alumoxane containing both activated and surfactant groups. Nanocomposites prepared with all types of alumoxane, as well as blank polymer resin and unmodified boehmite, underwent mechanical testing and were characterized by SEM and microprobe analysis. A nanocomposite composed of mixed alumoxane nanoparticles dispersed in PPF/PPF-DA exhibited increased flexural modulus compared to polymer resin alone, and a significant enhancement over both the activated and surfacted alumoxanes. Boric acid is used as the cross-linking agent in oil well drilling industry even though the efficacy of the borate ion, [B(OH)4]- , as a cross-linking agent is poor. The reaction product of boric acid and the polysaccharide guaran

  4. [Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents].

    PubMed

    Lapierre, A; Souquet, P-J

    2014-02-01

    Anemia is fairly common in lung neoplasms and adequate management can influence both the prognosis and the quality of life of patients. Anemia can stem from diverse mechanisms, and its management must include the search for correctable causes (iron deficiency, inflammation, disease- or treatment-related), and their subsequent treatment. Use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents, namely recombinant erythropoietin, results in hemoglobin increase, fewer blood transfusions, and better quality of life. However, there is also a significant increase in thromboembolic risk associated with this treatment, and their effect on overall survival is still debated. Thus, their use must be restricted to patients treated with palliative intent, receiving chemotherapy but no radiotherapy, with a baseline hemoglobin level under 100 g/L, and target hemoglobin level must not exceed 120 g/L.

  5. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Lifestyle decreases risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Slavícek, Jaroslav; Kittnar, Otomar; Fraser, Gary E; Medová, Eva; Konecná, Jana; Zizka, Robert; Dohnalová, Alena; Novák, Vladimir

    2008-12-01

    The morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases is high in the developed countries. The lifestyle changes are capable to decrease it by 50%. The aim of the present study was to measure the parameters of some risk factors before and after a one-week NEW START rehabilitative retreat. 1349 volunteers, 320 men, 1029 woman, mean age 51 +/- 14.5 (SD) years participated in 30 rehabilitative retreats from 1999-2006 in the Czech Republic, using a low-fat, low-energy, lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet and exercise, in a stress-free environment. Body weight, height, BMI, blood pressure, heart rate, serum cholesterol and blood glucose were measured. Body weight decreased in 1223 measured persons from 71.2 +/- 14.38 (SD) to 70.6 +/- 14.02 kg (p<0.0001), BMI (1,046 measured persons) from 25.1 +/- 4.60 (SD) to 24.8+4.49 (SD) kg/m2 (p<0.0001), systolic blood pressure (1,218 persons) from 129.8 +/- 23.02 (SD) to 123.8 +/- 21.52 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (1210 persons) from 79.8 +/- 12.7 (SD) to 77.5 +/- 11.6 (SD) mmHg (p<0.0001), serum cholesterol (998 persons) from 4.86 +/- 0.95 (SD) to 4.32 +/- 0.77 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001), blood glucose (544 persons) from 4.31 +/- 1.59 (SD) to 3.88 +/- 1.33 (SD) mmol (p<0.0001). Heart rate was not significantly decreased. The parameters were lower in lacto-ovo vegetarians and Seventh-day Adventists than in controls who never observed the diet and avail the lifestyle programs. The parameters were nonsignificantly changed one year after finishing the retreat in the sample of 68 persons showing the positive effect of retreats. Our results showed, that the intake of a low-fat, low-energy diet, over the course of one week in a stress-free environment, had positive impact on the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19256282

  7. Altered UV absorbance and cytotoxicity of chlorinated sunscreen agents.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Vaughn F; Kennedy, Steven; Zhang, Hualin; Purser, Gordon H; Sheaff, Robert J

    2012-12-01

    Sunscreens are widely utilized due to the adverse effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on human health. The safety of their active ingredients as well as that of any modified versions generated during use is thus of concern. Chlorine is used as a chemical disinfectant in swimming pools. Its reactivity suggests sunscreen components might be chlorinated, altering their absorptive and/or cytotoxic properties. To test this hypothesis, the UV-filters oxybenzone, dioxybenzone, and sulisobenzone were reacted with chlorinating agents and their UV spectra analyzed. In all cases, a decrease in UV absorbance was observed. Given that chlorinated compounds can be cytotoxic, the effect of modified UV-filters on cell viability was examined. Chlorinated oxybenzone and dioxybenzone caused significantly more cell death than unchlorinated controls. In contrast, chlorination of sulisobenzone actually reduced cytotoxicity of the parent compound. Exposing a commercially available sunscreen product to chlorine also resulted in decreased UV absorbance, loss of UV protection, and enhanced cytotoxicity. These observations show chlorination of sunscreen active ingredients can dramatically decrease UV absorption and generate derivatives with altered biological properties.

  8. Holograms as Teaching Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Robin A.

    2013-02-01

    Hungarian physicist Dennis Gabor won the Pulitzer Prize for his 1947 introduction of basic holographic principles, but it was not until the invention of the laser in 1960 that research scientists, physicians, technologists and the general public began to seriously consider the interdisciplinary potentiality of holography. Questions around whether and when Three-Dimensional (3-D) images and systems would impact American entertainment and the arts would be answered before educators, instructional designers and students would discover how much Three-Dimensional Hologram Technology (3DHT) would affect teaching practices and learning environments. In the following International Symposium on Display Holograms (ISDH) poster presentation, the author features a traditional board game as well as a reflection hologram to illustrate conventional and evolving Three-Dimensional representations and technology for education. Using elements from the American children's toy Operation® (Hasbro, 2005) as well as a reflection hologram of a human brain (Ko, 1998), this poster design highlights the pedagogical effects of 3-D images, games and systems on learning science. As teaching agents, holograms can be considered substitutes for real objects, (human beings, organs, and animated characters) as well as agents (pedagogical, avatars, reflective) in various learning environments using many systems (direct, emergent, augmented reality) and electronic tools (cellphones, computers, tablets, television). In order to understand the particular importance of utilizing holography in school, clinical and public settings, the author identifies advantages and benefits of using 3-D images and technology as instructional tools.

  9. [Bacteriophages as antibacterial agents].

    PubMed

    Shasha, Shaul M; Sharon, Nehama; Inbar, Michael

    2004-02-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacteria. They have played an important role in the development of molecular biology and have been used as anti-bacterial agents. Since their independent discovery by Twort and d'Herelle, they have been extensively used to prevent and treat bacterial infections, mainly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. In western countries this method has been sporadically employed on humans and domesticated animals. However, the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics, coupled with doubts about the efficacy of phage therapy, led to an eclipse in the use of phage in medicine. The emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria, especially strains that are multiply resistant, has resulted in a renewed interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One of the possible replacements for antibiotics is the use of bacteriophages as antimicrobial agents. This brief review aims to describe the history of bacteriophage and early clinical studies on their use in bacterial disease prophylaxis and therapy, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of bacteriophage in this regard.

  10. Advances in antithrombotic agents.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Ranjan; Das, Saibal Kumar

    2007-07-01

    Thrombosis is the condition where an imbalance in the homeostatic mechanism results in unwanted intravascular thrombus formation. Imbalances in this highly regulated process of coagulation and anticoagulation can lead to a variety of pathophysiological conditions leading to stroke, pulmonary heart attack and other serious conditions. In the western world, thromboembolic diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Remarkable progress has occurred over the last decade in the development of antithrombotic drugs, which can be classified into 3 major categories - Anticoagulants, Antiplatelets and thrombolytics. Increased understanding of the pathobiology of thrombotic and vascular disorders has helped researchers to target novel pathways involving the coagulation, thrombolytic, fibrinolytic and integrin systems. Traditionally aspirin and unfractionated heparin was used for myocardial infarction. Newer antiplatelet agents such as, clopidogrel, GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors, low molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors and several improved thrombolytic agents have been introduced for clinical use. This review will discuss different important drugs, which have been launched in recent years and also some new targets pursued by different companies. PMID:17630943

  11. Pineapple juice as a negative oral contrast agent in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Riordan, R D; Khonsari, M; Jeffries, J; Maskell, G F; Cook, P G

    2004-12-01

    The quality of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) images is frequently degraded by high signal from the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study is to evaluate pineapple juice (PJ) as an oral negative contrast agent in MRCP. Preliminary in vitro evaluation demonstrated that PJ shortened T(2) relaxation time and hence decreased T(2) signal intensity on a standard MRCP sequence to a similar degree to a commercially available negative contrast agent (ferumoxsil). Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry assay demonstrated a high manganese concentration in PJ of 2.76 mg dl(-1), which is likely to be responsible for its T(2) imaging properties. MRCP was subsequently performed in 10 healthy volunteers, before and at 15 min and 30 min following ingestion of 400 ml of PJ. Images were assessed blindly by two Consultant Radiologists using a standard grading technique based on contrast effect (degree of suppression of bowel signal), and image effect (diagnostic quality). There were statistically significant improvements in contrast and image effect between pre and post PJ images. There was particularly significant improvement in visualization of the pancreatic duct, but no significant difference between 15 min and 30 min post PJ images. Visualization of the ampulla, common bile duct, common hepatic and central intrahepatic ducts were also significantly improved at 15 min following PJ. Our results demonstrate that PJ, may be used as an alternative to commercially available negative oral contrast agent in MRCP.

  12. Single Agents with Designed Combination Chemotherapy Potential: Synthesis and Evaluation of Substituted Pyrimido[4,5-b]indoles as Receptor Tyrosine Kinase and Thymidylate Synthase Inhibitors and as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gangjee, Aleem; Zaware, Nilesh; Raghavan, Sudhir; Ihnat, Michael; Shenoy, Satyendra; Kisliuk, Roy L.

    2010-01-01

    Combinations of antiangiogenic agents (AAs) with cytotoxic agents have shown significant promise and several such clinical trials are currently underway. We have designed, synthesized and evaluated two compounds that each inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and platelet derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) for antiangiogenic effects and also inhibit human thymidylate synthase (hTS) for cytotoxic effects in single agents. The synthesis of these compounds involved the nucleophilic displacement of the common intermediate 5-chloro-9H-pyrimido[4,5-b]indole-2,4-diamine with appropriate benzenethiols. The inhibitory potency of both these single agents against VEGFR-2, PDGFR-β and hTS is better than or close to standards. In a COLO-205 xenograft mouse model one of the analogs significantly decreased tumor growth (TGI = 76% at 35 mg/kg), liver metastases and tumor blood vessels compared to a standard drug and to control and thus demonstrated potent tumor growth inhibition, inhibition of metastasis and antiangiogenic effects in vivo. These compounds afford combination chemotherapeutic potential in single agents. PMID:20092323

  13. Transforming Health Professionals into Population Health Change Agents

    PubMed Central

    Naccarella, Lucio; Butterworth, Iain; Moore, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    further align recognition of population health professional development programs are presented. Significance for public health With decreasing health and wellbeing of whole populations, increasing inequities among specific population groups, health professional educators are increasingly turning their attention to population health. This has implications for implementing evidence into practice. Professional development short courses are being conducted to equip participants (health service managers, health promotion managers and coordinators, health planners, population health planners and senior executives) with knowledge, skills and tools to implement population health approaches and transform them into population health change agents. The findings of this study indicate there were mixed outcomes in facilitating participants’ implementation of population health approaches and their transformation into population health agents upon their return to their workplaces. The study findings informed the evolution of the short courses, from a one off event to a program of interdependent modules, and further reveal that professional development is not an event but part of an on-going transformative process,suggestions to further align recognition of population health professional development programs are presented. PMID:27190973

  14. Flexible, secure agent development framework

    DOEpatents

    Goldsmith; Steven Y.

    2009-04-07

    While an agent generator is generating an intelligent agent, it can also evaluate the data processing platform on which it is executing, in order to assess a risk factor associated with operation of the agent generator on the data processing platform. The agent generator can retrieve from a location external to the data processing platform an open site that is configurable by the user, and load the open site into an agent substrate, thereby creating a development agent with code development capabilities. While an intelligent agent is executing a functional program on a data processing platform, it can also evaluate the data processing platform to assess a risk factor associated with performing the data processing function on the data processing platform.

  15. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  16. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  17. Interaction of hyperthermia and cytotoxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Roizin-Towle, R.; Hall, E.J.; Capuano, L.

    1980-01-01

    Chinese hamster V79 cells in culture were used to investigate the temperature dependence of the cytotoxic action of 4 widely used chemotherapy agents, i.e., adriamycin, bleomycin, cis-platinum(II) diamminedichloride, and N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate. Cells were exposed to graded doses of each drug for 1 hour at a range of temperatures. Bleomycin showed the largest temperature dependence and N-(phosphonacetyl)-L-aspartate the least, with adriamycin and cis-platinum(II) diamminedichloride between the two extremes. The results presented demonstrated significant differences in the cytotoxicities of chemotherapy agents and their interactions with heat. The idea of combining localized hyperthermia with some chemotherapy agents allowed a targeting of the chemotherapy not otherwise possible.

  18. Autonomous Formations of Multi-Agent Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhali, Sanjana; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Autonomous formation control of multi-agent dynamic systems has a number of applications that include ground-based and aerial robots and satellite formations. For air vehicles, formation flight ("flocking") has the potential to significantly increase airspace utilization as well as fuel efficiency. This presentation addresses two main problems in multi-agent formations: optimal role assignment to minimize the total cost (e.g., combined distance traveled by all agents); and maintaining formation geometry during flock motion. The Kuhn-Munkres ("Hungarian") algorithm is used for optimal assignment, and consensus-based leader-follower type control architecture is used to maintain formation shape despite the leader s independent movements. The methods are demonstrated by animated simulations.

  19. Conversion of microwave pyrolysed ASR's char using high temperature agents.

    PubMed

    Donaj, Pawel; Blasiak, Wlodzimierz; Yang, Weihong; Forsgren, Christer

    2011-01-15

    Pyrolysis enables to recover metals and organic feedstock from waste conglomerates such as: automotive shredder residue (ASR). ASR as well as its pyrolysis solid products, is a morphologically and chemically varied mixture, containing mineral materials, including hazardous heavy metals. The aim of the work is to generate fundamental knowledge on the conversion of the organic residues of the solid products after ASR's microwave pyrolysis, treated at various temperatures and with two different types of gasifying agent: pure steam or 3% (v/v) of oxygen. The research is conducted using a lab-scale, plug-flow gasifier, with an integrated scale for analysing mass loss changes over time of experiment, serving as macro TG at 950, 850 and 760 °C. The reaction rate of char decomposition was investigated, based on carbon conversion during gasification and pyrolysis stage. It was found in both fractions that char conversion rate decreases with the rise of external gas temperature, regardless of the gasifying agent. No significant differences between the reaction rates undergoing with steam and oxygen for char decomposition has been observed. This abnormal char behaviour might have been caused by the inhibiting effects of ash, especially alkali metals on char activity or due to deformation of char structure during microwave heating. PMID:20940079

  20. Antipsychotic agents and QT changes.

    PubMed Central

    Welch, R; Chue, P

    2000-01-01

    Recently, antipsychotic medications of the novel or atypical classes have received increased attention because of concerns with respect to potential lengthening of the QT interval, yet the currently available and commonly prescribed conventional antipsychotics are significantly more cardiotoxic, particularly agents in the butyrophenone and phenothiazine classes. Lengthening of the QT interval can be associated with a fatal paroxysmal ventricular arrhythmia known as torsades de pointes. The specific duration of the QT interval at which the risk of an adverse cardiac event is greatest, is not established. There is not only significant variation in the applied definition of an abnormal interval, but the maximal QT interval in healthy volunteers is greater than the currently accepted standards. The QT interval is influenced by normal physiological and pathologic factors, but the mechanisms remain unclear. Using recombinant technology, haloperidol and sertindole have been demonstrated to be high-affinity antagonists of a human cardiac potassium channel encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene. Pimozide, however, has been shown to act principally through calcium channel antagonism, and chlorpromazine may affect sodium channels. Nevertheless, it is possible that these effects are significant only in the presence of predisposing factors, either genetic or acquired. Despite proven efficacy in clinical trials and subsequent supervised use in Europe, a number of recently developed antipsychotic medications are not available to patients in North America. Yet, conventional antipsychotic medications that would not be approved by current safety standards continue to be widely used. PMID:10740988

  1. Repurposing celecoxib as a topical antimicrobial agent

    PubMed Central

    Thangamani, Shankar; Younis, Waleed; Seleem, Mohamed N.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antibiotics and alternative strategies to combat multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens, which are a growing clinical issue. Repurposing existing approved drugs with known pharmacology and toxicology is an alternative strategy to accelerate antimicrobial research and development. In this study, we show that celecoxib, a marketed inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive pathogens from a variety of genera, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Listeria, Bacillus, and Mycobacterium, but not against Gram-negative pathogens. However, celecoxib is active against all of the Gram-negative bacteria tested, including strains of, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas, when their intrinsic resistance is artificially compromised by outer membrane permeabilizing agents such as colistin. The effect of celecoxib on incorporation of radioactive precursors into macromolecules in Staphylococcus aureus was examined. The primary antimicrobial mechanism of action of celecoxib was the dose-dependent inhibition of RNA, DNA, and protein synthesis. Further, we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of celecoxib in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infected Caenorhabditis elegans whole animal model. Topical application of celecoxib (1 and 2%) significantly reduced the mean bacterial count in a mouse model of MRSA skin infection. Further, celecoxib decreased the levels of all inflammatory cytokines tested, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 in wounds caused by MRSA infection. Celecoxib also exhibited synergy with many conventional antimicrobials when tested against four clinical isolates of S. aureus. Collectively, these results demonstrate that celecoxib alone, or in combination with traditional antimicrobials, has a potential to use as a topical drug for the treatment of bacterial skin infections. PMID:26284040

  2. Contrast agents in diagnostic imaging: Present and future.

    PubMed

    Caschera, Luca; Lazzara, Angelo; Piergallini, Lorenzo; Ricci, Domenico; Tuscano, Bruno; Vanzulli, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Specific contrast agents have been developed for x ray examinations (mainly CT), sonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Most of them are extracellular agents which create different enhancement on basis of different vascularization or on basis of different interstitial network in tissues, but some can be targeted to a particular cell line (e.g. hepatocyte). Microbubbles can be used as carrier for therapeutic drugs which can be released in specific targets under sonographic guidance, decreasing systemic toxicity and increasing therapeutic effect. Radiologists have to choose a particular contrast agent knowing its physical and chemical properties and the possibility of adverse reactions and balancing them with the clinical benefits of a more accurate diagnosis. As for any drug, contrast agents can cause adverse events, which are more frequent with Iodine based CA, but also with Gd based CA and even with sonographic contrast agents hypersensitivity reaction can occur. PMID:27168225

  3. Aneurysm strength can decrease under calcification.

    PubMed

    Volokh, Konstantin Y; Aboudi, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Aneurysms are abnormal dilatations of vessels in the vascular system that are prone to rupture. Prediction of the aneurysm rupture is a challenging and unsolved problem. Various factors can lead to the aneurysm rupture and, in the present study, we examine the effect of calcification on the aneurysm strength by using micromechanical modeling. The calcified tissue is considered as a composite material in which hard calcium particles are embedded in a hyperelastic soft matrix. Three experimentally calibrated constitutive models incorporating a failure description are used for the matrix representation. Two constitutive models describe the aneurysmal arterial wall and the third one - the intraluminal thrombus. The stiffness and strength of the calcified tissue are simulated in uniaxial tension under the varying amount of calcification, i.e. the relative volume of the hard inclusion within the periodic unit cell. In addition, the triaxiality of the stress state, which can be a trigger for the cavitation instability, is tracked. Results of the micromechanical simulation show an increase of the stiffness and a possible decrease of the strength of the calcified tissue as compared to the non-calcified one. The obtained results suggest that calcification (i.e. the presence of hard particles) can significantly affect the stiffness and strength of soft tissue. The development of refined experimental techniques that will allow for the accurate quantitative assessment of calcification is desirable. PMID:26717251

  4. Simulated microgravity decreases apoptosis in fetal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Beck, Michaël; Tabury, Kevin; Moreels, Marjan; Jacquet, Paul; Van Oostveldt, Patrick; De Vos, Winnok H; Baatout, Sarah

    2012-08-01

    Space travel is a major challenge for human beings. Especially, the mechanisms through which space conditions might alter animal development have been questioned for a long time. The two major physical stress factors that are of relevance in this context are space radiation and weightlessness. While it has been extensively shown that high doses of ionizing radiation induce deleterious effects on embryonic development, so far, little is known about the potential harmful effects of radiation in combination with microgravity on the developing organism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of simulated microgravity on irradiated STO mouse fetal fibroblast cells using a random positioning machine (RPM). Radiation-induced cell cycle changes were not affected when cells were subjected to simulated microgravity for 24 h. Moreover, no morphological differences were observed in irradiated samples exposed to simulated microgravity compared to cells that were exclusively irradiated. However, microgravity simulation significantly decreased the level of apoptosis at all doses as measured by caspase-3 activity and it prevented cells from undergoing radiation-induced size increase up to 1 Gy.

  5. Intelligent Software Agents: Sensor Integration and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kulesz, James J; Lee, Ronald W

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In a post Macondo world the buzzwords are Integrity Management and Incident Response Management. The twin processes are not new but the opportunity to link the two is novel. Intelligent software agents can be used with sensor networks in distributed and centralized computing systems to enhance real-time monitoring of system integrity as well as manage the follow-on incident response to changing, and potentially hazardous, environmental conditions. The software components are embedded at the sensor network nodes in surveillance systems used for monitoring unusual events. When an event occurs, the software agents establish a new concept of operation at the sensing node, post the event status to a blackboard for software agents at other nodes to see , and then react quickly and efficiently to monitor the scale of the event. The technology addresses a current challenge in sensor networks that prevents a rapid and efficient response when a sensor measurement indicates that an event has occurred. By using intelligent software agents - which can be stationary or mobile, interact socially, and adapt to changing situations - the technology offers features that are particularly important when systems need to adapt to active circumstances. For example, when a release is detected, the local software agent collaborates with other agents at the node to exercise the appropriate operation, such as: targeted detection, increased detection frequency, decreased detection frequency for other non-alarming sensors, and determination of environmental conditions so that adjacent nodes can be informed that an event is occurring and when it will arrive. The software agents at the nodes can also post the data in a targeted manner, so that agents at other nodes and the command center can exercise appropriate operations to recalibrate the overall sensor network and associated intelligence systems. The paper describes the concepts and provides examples of real-world implementations

  6. Ophiopogonin D: A new herbal agent against osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiang; Gao, Bo; Wang, Long; Zhang, Hong-Yang; Li, Xiao-Jie; Shi, Jun; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Jin-Kang; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuo-Jing; Liu, Jian

    2015-05-01

    Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. Ophiopogonin D (OP-D), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal agent Radix Ophiopogon japonicus, is a potent anti-oxidative agent. We hypothesized that OP-D demonstrates anti-osteoporosis effects via decreasing ROS generation in mouse pre-osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 subclone 4 cells and a macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells. We investigated OP-D on osteogenic and osteoclastic differentiation under oxidative status. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used to establish an oxidative damage model. In vivo, we established a murine ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporosis model. Then, we searched the molecular mechanism of OP-D against osteoporosis. Our results revealed that OP-D significantly promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells and improved some osteogenic markers. Moreover, OP-D reduced TRAP activity and the mRNA expressions of osteoclastic genes in RAW264.7 cells. OP-D suppressed ROS generation in both MC3T3-E1 and RAW264.7 cells. OP-D treatment reduced the activity of serum bone degradation markers, including CTX-1 and TRAP. Further research showed that OP-D displayed anti-osteoporosis effects via reducing ROS through the FoxO3a-β-catenin signaling pathway. In summary, our results indicated that the protective effects of OP-D against osteoporosis are linked to a reduction in oxidative stress via the FoxO3a-β-catenin signaling pathway, suggesting that OP-D may be a beneficial herbal agent in bone-related disorders, such as osteoporosis. PMID:25582622

  7. Biological agents and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, U

    1995-08-01

    Pregnant women are exposed to many biological, eg microbial, agents, which are potentially harmful to the fetus. The reported rates of vertical transmission of hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency virus vary between 3 to 90% and 0 to 65%, respectively. The susceptibility to hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency infection is increased in pregnant physicians, midwives, and nurses because of the bloodborne nature of these viruses. Also, TORCH (toxoplasmosis-rubella-cytomegalovirus-herpes) infections, acquired during pregnancy, may result in congenital infection, and serious sequelae in the neonatal period or years after birth. Schoolteachers and daycare personnel have an increased risk of perinatal varicella, "fifth disease," and mumps. Perinatal listeriosis affects one in 20,000 births and may result in fetal wastage. Because of the risk of the possibility of vertical transmission, immunization during pregnancy with live virus vaccines is not recommended. PMID:8520961

  8. Arylthiosemicarbazones as antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Manzano, José Ignacio; Cochet, Florent; Boucherle, Benjamin; Gómez-Pérez, Verónica; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Gamarro, Francisco; Peuchmaur, Marine

    2016-11-10

    Based on a screening process, we targeted substituted thiosemicarbazone as potential antileishmanial agents. Our objective was to identify the key structural elements contributing to the anti-parasite activity that might be used for development of effective drugs. A series of 32 compounds was synthesized and their efficacy was evaluated against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. From these, 22 compounds showed EC50 values below 10 μM with the most active derivative (compound 14) showing an EC50 of 0.8 μM with very low toxicity on two different mammalian cell lines. The most relevant structural elements required for higher activity indicate that the presence of a fused bicyclic aromatic ring such as a naphthalene bearing an alkyl or an alkoxy group substituent are prerequisites. Owing to the easy synthesis, high activity and low toxicity, the most active compounds could be considered as a lead for further development.

  9. Itch Management: Topical Agents.

    PubMed

    Metz, Martin; Staubach, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a common problem in patients with inflammatory skin diseases as well as in subjects with dry or sensitive skin. Regardless of the underlying cause of the pruritus, a topical therapy is not only useful but most often necessary to achieve symptom control. A good topical therapy should fulfill different functions. An optimal basic therapy based on the condition of the skin is important to repair epithelial barrier defects and to rehydrate the skin. An adequate disease-specific topical therapy is crucial for inflamed skin, e.g. anti-inflammatory topical therapy is an important part in the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Finally, the use of specific antipruritic substances can help to improve pruritus in patients irrespective of the underlying disease. Here, we summarize topical agents used in the treatment of chronic pruritus. PMID:27578070

  10. [Ribonucleases as antiviral agents].

    PubMed

    Il'inskaia, O N; Shakh Makhmud, R

    2014-01-01

    Many ribonucleases (RNases) are able to inhibit the reproduction of viruses in infected cell cultures and laboratory animals, but molecular mechanisms of their antiviral activity remain unclear. The review observes the most known RNases which possess established antiviral effects, actually intracellular RNases (RNase L, MCPIPI protein, eosinophylic RNases) as well as exogenously applied ones (RNase A, BS-RNase, onconase, binase, synthetic RNases). Attention is given on two important but not always obligatory aspects in molecule of RNases, which have antiviral properties: catalytic activity and ability to the dimerization. The hypothetic scheme of virus elimination by exogenous RNases, that reflects possible types of interaction of viruses and RNases with a cell, is proposed. The evidence for RNases as classical components of immune defense which are perspective agents for development of new antiviral therapeutics is produced.

  11. Software agents and the route to the information economy.

    PubMed

    Kephart, Jeffrey O

    2002-05-14

    Humans are on the verge of losing their status as the sole economic species on the planet. In private laboratories and in the Internet laboratory, researchers and developers are creating a variety of autonomous economically motivated software agents endowed with algorithms for maximizing profit or utility. Many economic software agents will function as miniature businesses, purchasing information inputs from other agents, combining and refining them into information goods and services, and selling them to humans or other agents. Their mutual interactions will form the information economy: a complex economic web of information goods and services that will adapt to the ever-changing needs of people and agents. The information economy will be the largest multiagent system ever conceived and an integral part of the world's economy. I discuss a possible route toward this vision, beginning with present-day Internet trends suggesting that agents will charge one another for information goods and services. Then, to establish that agents can be competent price setters, I describe some laboratory experiments pitting software bidding agents against human bidders. The agents' superior performance suggests they will be used on a broad scale, which in turn suggests that interactions among agents will become frequent and significant. How will this affect macroscopic economic behavior? I describe some interesting phenomena that my colleagues and I have observed in simulations of large populations of automated buyers and sellers, such as price war cycles. I conclude by discussing fundamental scientific challenges that remain to be addressed as we journey toward the information economy.

  12. Exchanging large data object in multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Yaseen, Wathiq Laftah; Othman, Zulaiha Ali; Nazri, Mohd Zakree Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    One of the Business Intelligent solutions that is currently in use is the Multi-Agent System (MAS). Communication is one of the most important elements in MAS, especially for exchanging large low level data between distributed agents (physically). The Agent Communication Language in JADE has been offered as a secure method for sending data, whereby the data is defined as an object. However, the object cannot be used to send data to another agent in a different location. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to propose a method for the exchange of large low level data as an object by creating a proxy agent known as a Delivery Agent, which temporarily imitates the Receiver Agent. The results showed that the proposed method is able to send large-sized data. The experiments were conducted using 16 datasets ranging from 100,000 to 7 million instances. However, for the proposed method, the RAM and the CPU machine had to be slightly increased for the Receiver Agent, but the latency time was not significantly different compared to the use of the Java Socket method (non-agent and less secure). With such results, it was concluded that the proposed method can be used to securely send large data between agents.

  13. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  14. Use of Biologic Agents in Ocular Manifestations of Rheumatic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Courtney L.; Culican, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    Biologic agents have dramatically shifted the treatment paradigm for rheumatic disease. Use of these agents can decrease disease burden, allow the patient to be weaned from corticosteroids, and reduce the likelihood of relapse. Eye disease associated with rheumatic conditions may present with a wide range of signs and symptoms. This coexisting pathology should not be overlooked and should be considered a reason for initiation or continuation of biologic therapy. Additionally, many of the ocular manifestations of rheumatic disease respond preferentially to specific targeting molecules. This paper summarizes the available studies on the use, efficacy, and safety of biologic agents in the treatment of ocular manifestations of rheumatic disease. PMID:22229035

  15. An Extension Dynamic Model Based on BDI Agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wang; Feng, Zhu; Hua, Geng; WangJing, Zhu

    this paper's researching is based on the model of BDI Agent. Firstly, This paper analyze the deficiencies of the traditional BDI Agent model, Then propose an extension dynamic model of BDI Agent based on the traditional ones. It can quickly achieve the internal interaction of the tradition model of BDI Agent, deal with complex issues under dynamic and open environment and achieve quick reaction of the model. The new model is a natural and reasonable model by verifying the origin of civilization using the model of monkeys to eat sweet potato based on the design of the extension dynamic model. It is verified to be feasible by comparing the extended dynamic BDI Agent model with the traditional BDI Agent Model uses the SWARM, it has important theoretical significance.

  16. One-bottle silane coupling agent containing 4-META.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Nobuya; Itoh, Kazuo; Kusunoki, Mizuho; Oikawa, Misa; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of commercial and experimental silane coupling agents was evaluated by measuring their shear bond strengths to a ceramic disk. Experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents were prepared using 3-MPTS, 4-META, and resin monomers. The surfaces of two ceramic disks (IPS e-max, Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Lichtenstein) were treated by a silane coupling agent to bond them to each other; this bonding was mediated by a commercial flowable resin composite (Clearfil Majesty LV, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan). A commercial silane coupling agent (Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator, Kuraray, Tokyo, Japan) modified by adding 4-META exhibited a significantly higher bond strength than the unmodified commercial one-bottle silane coupling agent. Among the tested materials, two experimental one-bottle silane coupling agents composed of 5% 4-META, 45% 3-MPTS, and 50% resin monomers exhibited statistically highest bond strengths.

  17. Renal toxicity of anticancer agents targeting HER2 and EGFR.

    PubMed

    Cosmai, Laura; Gallieni, Maurizio; Porta, Camillo

    2015-12-01

    EGFR and HER2 are found overexpressed and/or activated in many different human malignancies (e.g. breast and colon cancer), and a number of drugs specifically targeting these two tyrosine kinases have been developed over the years as anticancer agents. In the present review, the renal safety profile of presently available agents targeting either HER2 or EGFR will be discussed, together with the peculiarities related to their clinical use in patients with impaired renal function, or even in dialysis. Indeed, even though renal toxicity is not so common with these agents, it may nevertheless happen, especially when these agents are combined with traditional chemotherapeutic agents. As a whole, kidney impairment or dialysis should not be regarded per se as reasons not to administer or to stop an active anti-HER or anti-EGFR anticancer treatment, especially given the possibility of significantly improving the life expectancy of many cancer patients with the use of these agents. PMID:26341657

  18. Clinical significance of human papillomavirus genotyping.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youn Jin; Park, Jong Sup

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide, and the human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent for its development. HPV is a heterogeneous virus, and a persistent infection with a high-risk HPV contributes to the development of cancer. In recent decades, great advances have been made in understanding the molecular biology of HPV, and HPV's significance in cervical cancer prevention and management has received increased attention. In this review, we discuss the role of HPV genotyping in cervical cancer by addressing: clinically important issues in HPV virology; the current application of HPV genotyping in clinical medicine; and potential future uses for HPV genotyping.

  19. Additive Effects of Combination Treatment with Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Agents in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Sienmi; Sandoval, Francisco; Trinh, Pauline; Voskuhl, Rhonda R.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of combination treatment with an anti-inflammatory agent, interferon(IFN)-β, and a putative neuroprotective agent, an estrogen receptor(ER)-β ligand, during EAE. Combination treatment significantly attenuated EAE disease severity, preserved axonal densities in spinal cord, and reduced CNS inflammation. Combining ERβ treatment with IFNβ reduced IL-17, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated increases in Th1 and Th2 cytokines from splenocytes. Additionally, combination treatment reduced VLA-4 expression on CD4+ T cells, while it abrogated IFNβ-mediated decreases in MMP-9. Our data demonstrate that combination treatments can result in complex effects that could not have been predicted based on monotherapy data alone. PMID:20006910

  20. Resveratrol protects against arsenic trioxide-induced nephrotoxicity by facilitating arsenic metabolism and decreasing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Yu, Meiling; Xue, Jiangdong; Li, Yijing; Zhang, Weiqian; Ma, Dexing; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-06-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an environmental toxicant and a potent antineoplastic agent. Exposure to arsenic causes renal cancer. Resveratrol is a well-known polyphenolic compound that is reported to reduce As(2)O(3)-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol on As(2)O(3)-induced nephrotoxicity and arsenic metabolism. Chinese Dragon-Li cats were injected with 1 mg/kg As(2)O(3) on alternate days; resveratrol (3 mg/kg) was administered via the forearm vein 1 h before the As(2)O(3) treatment. On the sixth day, the cats were killed to determine the histological renal damage, renal function, the accumulation of arsenic, and antioxidant activities in the kidney. Urine samples were taken for arsenic speciation. In the resveratrol + As(2)O(3)-treated group, activities of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase, the ratio of reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione, the total arsenic concentrations, and the percentage of methylated arsenic in urine were significantly increased. The concentrations of renal malondialdehyde, reactive oxygen species, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and renal arsenic accumulation were significantly decreased and reduced renal morphologic injury was observed compared with the As(2)O(3)-treated group. These results demonstrate that resveratrol could significantly scavenge reactive oxygen species, inhibit As(2)O(3)-induced oxidative damage, and significantly attenuate the accumulation of arsenic in renal tissues by facilitating As(2)O(3) metabolism. These data suggest that use of resveratrol as postremission therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia as well as adjunctive therapy in patients with exposure to arsenic may decrease arsenic nephrotoxicity. PMID:23471352

  1. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances

    PubMed Central

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  2. Adhesion enhancement of steel fibers to acrylic bone cement through a silane coupling agent.

    PubMed

    Kotha, S P; Lieberman, M; Vickers, A; Schmid, S R; Mason, J J

    2006-01-01

    The use of a silane coupling agent (methacryloxypropyl-trichlorosilane) to improve the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced acrylic bone cements was assessed. Changes to the tensile and fracture properties of bone cements reinforced with silane-coated or uncoated 316L stainless steel fibers of different aspect ratios were studied. Contact-angle measurements indicated that the coupling agent coats the metal surface through room temperature treatments in a short time (within 2 h). Push-out tests indicated that the interfacial shear strength of silane-coated 316L stainless steel rods is 141% higher than the uncoated rods. The elastic moduli, ultimate stresses, and fracture toughness of the silane-coated, steel fiber-reinforced bone cements are significantly higher than the bone cements reinforced with uncoated steel fibers. There were no differences in the tensile mechanical properties of the silane-coated or uncoated, steel fiber-reinforced cements after aging in a physiological saline solution, indicating that the bonding effectiveness is decreased by the intrusion of water at the metal-polymer interface. Because of possible biocompatibility issues with leaching of the silane coupling agent and no long-term mechanical benefit in simulated aging experiments, the use of these agents is not recommended for in vivo use.

  3. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents. PMID:25126473

  4. The Topical Evolution: Free Ions, Orthomolecular Agents, Phytochemicals, and Insect-Produced Substances.

    PubMed

    Conner-Kerr, Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Significance: A variety of topical antiseptic substances have been used historically to treat open wounds with suspected tissue infection or that are slow to heal. However, the effectiveness of these substances in treating infected or recalcitrant wounds remains controversial. Recent Advances: Newly formulated topical antiseptics delivered through differing dressing technologies, such as ionic substances, hold the potential to limit the development of and treat antibiotic-resistant microbes in open wounds. Other topically delivered substances, such as insect-derived substances, orthomolecular agents, and phytochemicals, also present opportunities to optimize wound healing by decreasing tissue bioburden and facilitating the wound healing process. Critical Issues: Limited systemic perfusion of open wounds in individuals with certain diagnoses, such as peripheral arterial disease or necrotizing infection and the increasing number of antibiotic-resistant wound pathogens, suggests a continued role for topically applied antiseptic agents. Likewise, the failure of wounds to heal when treated with standard of care therapy opens the door to innovative treatment approaches that include the natural substances described in this article. Future Directions: Evidence for the use of select topical antiseptic agents from each of the aforementioned categories will be discussed in this article. Additional well-controlled clinical studies are needed to provide definitive recommendations for many of these topical agents.

  5. Influence of topically applied antimicrobial agents on muscular microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Goertz, Ole; Hirsch, Tobias; Ring, Andrej; Steinau, Hans U; Daigeler, Adrien; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Homann, Heinz H

    2011-10-01

    Bacterial infections cause major complications in wound healing. Local antiseptics are used for daily wound care; however, their potential toxic effects on the vasculature have not yet been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of antiseptics on microcirculation. Investigations were performed on a standardized cremaster muscle model on rats (n = 60). The arteriolar diameter and functional capillary density (FCD) were investigated using transillumination microscopy before and 60 and 120 minutes after application of each of the following antimicrobial agents: alcohol, hydrogen peroxide, imipenem, octenidine dihydrochloride, polyhexanide, and ethacridine lactate. Although polyhexanide caused a significant arteriolar dilatation (106.25 ± 3.23 vs. 88.54 ± 6.74 μm [baseline value]) and increase of FCD compared with baseline value (12.65 ± 0.82 vs. 9.10 ± 0.50 n/0.22 mm), alcohol led to a significant decrease of both parameters (90.63 ± 10.80 vs. 52.09 ± 7.69 and 5.35 ± 0.54 vs. 1.68 ± 0.48) and was the only agent that caused arteriolar thrombosis. The FCD also increased significantly after treatment with hydrogen peroxide (10.55 ± 0.33 vs. 12.30 ± 0.48) and octenidine (6.82 ± 0.63 vs. 12.32 ± 0.63). However, no positive effect on arteriolar diameter could be found. Ethacridine lactate and imipenem did not impact either parameter. In addition to reducing bacteria, an antiseptic should be nontoxic, especially to the microcirculation. Polyhexanide seems to have a positive influence on vessel diameter and capillary density, whereas alcohol reduces both parameters. If the antimicrobial efficacy is comparable, the antiseptic with less toxic effects should be chosen, especially in critically perfused wounds.

  6. Agent-based enterprise integration

    SciTech Connect

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  7. Collaborating Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.

    1997-01-01

    Earlier, we introduced GARIC-Q, a new method for doing incremental Dynamic Programming using a society of intelligent agents which are controlled at the top level by Fuzzy Relearning and at the local level, each agent learns and operates based on ANTARCTIC, a technique for fuzzy reinforcement learning. In this paper, we show that it is possible for these agents to compete in order to affect the selected control policy but at the same time, they can collaborate while investigating the state space. In this model, the evaluator or the critic learns by observing all the agents behaviors but the control policy changes only based on the behavior of the winning agent also known as the super agent.

  8. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities. PMID:12916745

  9. Immunotoxicological effects of Agent Orange exposure to the Vietnam War Korean veterans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Mi; Park, Yeong-Chul; Yu, Ji-Yeon; Hong, Seung-Kwon; Jeon, Seong-Hoon; Park, Kui-Lea; Hur, Sook-Jin; Heo, Yong

    2003-07-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) demonstrated using animals are thymic atrophy, downregulation of cytotoxic T or B lymphocyte differentiation or activation, whereas human immunotoxicities have not been investigated well. This study was undertaken to evaluate overall immunologic spectrum of the Vietnam War Korean veterans exposed to Agent Orange contaminated with TCDD. Quantity of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit in the veterans suffered from chronic diseases associated with Agent Orange exposure (Veterans-patient group) were decreased in comparison with those of the veterans without the diseases and the age-matched healthy controls, but no differences in leukocyte populations. Plasma IgG levels were lowered in the veterans than the controls, owing to significant decrease in the IgG1 levels. Increase in the IgE levels was observed in the plasma from the veterans. Alteration of T cell-mediated immunity was also resulted from activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with polyclonal T cell activators. Production of IFNgamma, a major cytokine mediating host resistance against infection or tumoregenesis, was lowered in the veterans-patient group. However, production of IL-4 and IL-10, representative cytokines involved with hypersensitivity induction, was enhanced in the patient group. Overall, this study suggests that military service in Vietnam and/or Agent Orange exposure disturbs immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulation of B and T cell activities.

  10. [Contact sensitization to external agents].

    PubMed

    Erdmann, S M; Merk, H-F

    2003-04-01

    The following review describes contact sensitization to topically applied medications--especially topical dermatological agents--and to external agents in the broadest sense. Particularly skin care products constitute a special source for sensitization due to their widespread use. Especially fragrances and preservatives in cosmetics play an important global role in eliciting contact allergies. Because of the extremely broad spectrum covered by the active and adjuvant ingredients contained in external agents, the following discussion focuses on specific substance groups.

  11. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD(+) can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD(+) can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD(+). We further found that the injection of NAD(+) can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD(+) administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD(+) administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD(+) can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD(+) may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  12. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury. PMID:27648125

  13. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Ban; Fu, Xingli; Guan, Shaofeng; Han, Wenzheng; Zhang, Jie; Gan, Qian; Fang, Weiyi; Ying, Weihai; Qu, Xinkai

    2016-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes for death around the world. Although essential for successful interventional therapy, it is inevitably complicated by reperfusion injury. Thus effective approaches to reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are still critically needed. To test our hypothesis that intravenous administration of NAD+ can attenuate I/R injury by reducing apoptotic damage and enhancing antioxidant capacity, we used a rat mode of myocardial I/R. Our study found that administration of 10-20 mg/kg NAD+ can dose dependently reduce myocardial infarct induced by I/R, with an approximately 85% reduction of the infarct at the dosage of 20 mg/kg NAD+. We further found that the injection of NAD+ can significantly decrease I/R-induced apoptotic damage in the heart: NAD+ administration can both decrease the TUNEL signals, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 levels and increase the Bcl-XL levels in the rats that are subjected to myocardial I/R injury. NAD+ administration can also significantly attenuate I/R-induced decreases in SOD activity and SOD-2 protein levels in the hearts. NAD+ can profoundly decrease myocardial I/R injury at least partially by attenuating apoptotic damage and enhancing the antioxidant capacity, thus suggesting that NAD+ may become a promising therapeutic agent for myocardial I/R injury.

  14. Broad-spectrum antiviral agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jun-Da; Meng, Wen; Wang, Xiao-Jia; Wang, Hwa-Chain R.

    2015-01-01

    Development of highly effective, broad-spectrum antiviral agents is the major objective shared by the fields of virology and pharmaceutics. Antiviral drug development has focused on targeting viral entry and replication, as well as modulating cellular defense system. High throughput screening of molecules, genetic engineering of peptides, and functional screening of agents have identified promising candidates for development of optimal broad-spectrum antiviral agents to intervene in viral infection and control viral epidemics. This review discusses current knowledge, prospective applications, opportunities, and challenges in the development of broad-spectrum antiviral agents. PMID:26052325

  15. Decreased skin reactivity to codeine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simonart, T h; Parent, D; Heenen, M; Farber, C M; Van Vooren, J P

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the skin reactivity and the mast cell releasibility in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 24 patients with AIDS were skin tested with histamine (1 mg/ml) and codeine phosphate (0.9, 0.09, and 0.009 mg/ml), a mast cell degranulating agent. They were compared to 12 HIV-negative healthy volunteers and 16 urticaria-prone subjects. Reactivity to codeine phosphate was lower in patients with AIDS than in HIV-negative subjects. This difference in skin reactivity was the more significant when the AIDS group was compared to the urticaria-prone group. There was no correlation between the reactivity to codeine and the IgE levels. Possible explanations to the decreased skin reacting to codeine in patients with AIDS include a decrease of local mast cell density or releasibility. This suggests that a mechanism related to urticaria and involving mast cells is quite unlikely to be at the origin of the hypersensitivity reactions observed in AIDS.

  16. Galangin prevents aminoglycoside-induced ototoxicity by decreasing mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species in mouse cochlear cultures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Ri; Kim, Min-A; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Se-Kyung; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Un-Kyung; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2016-03-14

    Amikacin is a semi-synthetic aminoglycoside widely used to treat infections caused by gentamicin-resistant gram-negative organisms and nontuberculous mycobacteria. However, the use of this agent often results in ototoxicity due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Galangin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown to play a protective role against mitochondrial dysfunction by reducing mitochondrial ROS production. In this study, the effect of galangin on amikacin-induced ototoxicity was examined using cultures of cochlear explants. Immunofluorescent staining showed that treatment of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs) with galangin significantly decreased damage induced by amikacin. Moreover, pretreatment with galangin resulted in decreased amikacin-provoked increase in ROS production in both types of hair cells by MitoSOX-red staining. Attenuation of apoptotic cell death was assessed immunohistochemically using active caspase-3 antibody and with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, compared to explants exposed to amikacin alone (P<0.05). These results indicate that galangin protects hair cells in the organ of Corti from amikacin-induced toxicity by reducing the production of mitochondrial ROS. The results of this study suggest that galangin can potentially be used as an antioxidant and antiapoptotic agent to prevent hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside induced-oxidative stress. PMID:26778349

  17. Incorporating BDI Agents into Human-Agent Decision Making Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamphorst, Bart; van Wissen, Arlette; Dignum, Virginia

    Artificial agents, people, institutes and societies all have the ability to make decisions. Decision making as a research area therefore involves a broad spectrum of sciences, ranging from Artificial Intelligence to economics to psychology. The Colored Trails (CT) framework is designed to aid researchers in all fields in examining decision making processes. It is developed both to study interaction between multiple actors (humans or software agents) in a dynamic environment, and to study and model the decision making of these actors. However, agents in the current implementation of CT lack the explanatory power to help understand the reasoning processes involved in decision making. The BDI paradigm that has been proposed in the agent research area to describe rational agents, enables the specification of agents that reason in abstract concepts such as beliefs, goals, plans and events. In this paper, we present CTAPL: an extension to CT that allows BDI software agents that are written in the practical agent programming language 2APL to reason about and interact with a CT environment.

  18. Perfluorochemical emulsions decrease Kupffer cell phagocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottalico, L.A.; Betensky, H.T.; Min, Y.B.; Weinstock, S.B. )

    1991-07-01

    One drawback to using perfluorochemical emulsions as blood substitutes is that perfluorochemical particles are cleared from the blood by the reticuloendothelial system, primarily liver and spleen. The authors measured the impact of two perfluorochemical emulsions on clearance of colloidal carbon (less than 1 microns) and 51Cr-sheep red blood cells (about 8 microns) by the reticuloendothelial system in vivo and in the isolated perfused liver. Male rats were injected with 2 ml/100 gm body wt of Fluosol-DA or Oxypherol-ET for 4 consecutive days. Carbon (1 ml/100 gm body wt) or sheep red blood cells (0.05 ml of 5% vol/vol/100 gm body wt) were then injected intravenously (in vivo) or added to perfusate. Samples were taken at several time points for 1 hr. In the isolated perfused liver, carbon clearance was depressed by 25% 1 day after treatment. Rates returned to control levels by 12 days in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but remained depressed by 67% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats. Sheep red blood cell (8 microns) clearance was two to five times slower than carbon clearance and depressed by 40% in livers from Fluosol-DA rats 1 day and 12 days after treatment. Added serum did not improve phagocytosis. In vivo carbon clearance remained normal in Fluosol-DA-treated rats but decreased by 74% in Oxypherol-ET-treated rats 1 day after treatment, returning to normal by 12 days. Clearance rates were similar in control rats in vivo and in the perfused liver. They conclude that the isolated perfused liver is a good model to measure liver clearance function. Although low doses of perfluorochemical emulsions may depress Kupffer cell phagocytosis, general reticuloendothelial system function is not significantly compromised.

  19. Decreased fecundity among male lead workers

    PubMed Central

    Shiau, C; Wang, J; Chen, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) in male lead workers in order to determine the dose-response relation between blood lead and decreased fecundity. Methods: A total of 163 currently employed married male lead battery workers were classified into five categories of exposure based on questionnaire information and annual individual blood lead measurement. Information pertaining to the TTP was collected using personal interviews with 133 men and their spouses, with 280 valid pregnancies. The fecundability ratios (FRs) were calculated with the Cox discrete proportional hazard regression technique to evaluate the effects of lead exposure. Results: After other factors associated with TTP were controlled for, there was a dose-response relation between blood lead level and TTP. The measured FRs were 0.90 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.34), 0.72 (0.46 to 1.11), 0.52 (0.35 to 0.77), and 0.40 (0.27 to 0.59) for concurrent blood lead levels of <20, 20–29, 30–39, and ⩾40 µg/dl, respectively. Paired self comparison was also performed for 41 couples that had pregnancies prior to lead exposure and pregnancies with male occupational lead exposure. The TTP was prolonged for 0.15 cycles by a 1 µg/dl increase in blood lead. Conclusions: These results corroborate the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects fecundity. A blood lead level of less than 40 µg/dl may still significantly prolong TTP. PMID:15477285

  20. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  1. TACtic- A Multi Behavioral Agent for Trading Agent Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Hassan; Shiri, Mohammad E.; Khosravi, Hamid; Iranmanesh, Ehsan; Davoodi, Alireza

    Software agents are increasingly being used to represent humans in online auctions. Such agents have the advantages of being able to systematically monitor a wide variety of auctions and then make rapid decisions about what bids to place in what auctions. They can do this continuously and repetitively without losing concentration. To provide a means of evaluating and comparing (benchmarking) research methods in this area the trading agent competition (TAC) was established. This paper describes the design, of TACtic. Our agent uses multi behavioral techniques at the heart of its decision making to make bidding decisions in the face of uncertainty, to make predictions about the likely outcomes of auctions, and to alter the agent's bidding strategy in response to the prevailing market conditions.

  2. The effects of restorative composite resins on the cytotoxicity of dentine bonding agents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghwan; Son, Kyung Mi; Kwon, Ji Hyun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    During restoration of damaged teeth in dental clinics, dentin bonding agents are usually overlaid with restorative resin composites. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of restorative resin composites on cytotoxicity of dentin bonding agents. Dentin bonding agents were placed on glass discs, pre-cured and uncured resin composite discs. Bonding agents on the glass discs and composite resins discs were light cured and used for agar overlay cytotoxicity testing. Dentin bonding agents on composite resin discs exhibited far less cytotoxicity than that on glass discs. The polymerization of resin composite increased the surface hardness and decreased the cytotoxicity of bonding agents. In conclusion, composite resins in dental restorations are expected to enhance the polymerization of dentin bonding agents and reduce the elution of resin monomers, resulting in the decrease of cytotoxicity.

  3. [Liberation of active agents from coherent emulsions].

    PubMed

    Erós, I; Csóka, I; Csányi, E; Aref, T

    2000-01-01

    Drug release from coherent emulsions containing high water concentration (50-80 w/w%) was studied. Composition of coherent systems was as follows: self-emulsifying wax and preserved water. Griseofulvin was applied as active agent in suspended form. The liberation experiments were carried out with Hanson vertical diffusion cell, acceptor phase was distilled water, membrane was celophane one. It was established that the time course of liberation of griseofulvin from coherent emulsions can be characterized with a multiplicative function and the exponent of this function is about 0.5. The quantity of released drug increased linearly with the water content and it decreased exponentially with the viscosity of coherent emulsions.

  4. The Hunt for Natural Skin Whitening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Nico; Vicanova, Jana; Pavel, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Skin whitening products are commercially available for cosmetic purposes in order to obtain a lighter skin appearance. They are also utilized for clinical treatment of pigmentary disorders such as melasma or postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Whitening agents act at various levels of melanin production in the skin. Many of them are known as competitive inhibitors of tyrosinase, the key enzyme in melanogenesis. Others inhibit the maturation of this enzyme or the transport of pigment granules (melanosomes) from melanocytes to surrounding keratinocytes. In this review we present an overview of (natural) whitening products that may decrease skin pigmentation by their interference with the pigmentary processes. PMID:20054473

  5. Zinc-deficient diet decreases fetal long bone growth through decreased bone matrix formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Tak; Baek, Sang-Heum; Lee, Sang-Han; Park, Eui Kyun; Kim, Eun-Cheol; Kwun, In-Sook; Shin, Hong-In

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of zinc on skeletal development during fetal development in pregnant ICR mice fed a zinc-deficient (3 mg/kg) or zinc-adequate (30 mg/kg) diet. We also included a group pair-fed with the zinc-deficient group to control for decreased appetite due to zinc deficiency. Developing fetuses at embryonic day 18.5 were removed by cesarean section, and the skeletal development was evaluated by histological analysis as well as by body weight and longitudinal growth measurement. Reduced maternal food intake in the zinc-deficient and pair-fed groups resulted in a marked and significant (P < .05) decrease in fetal weight compared to that of the zinc-adequate group. However, fetal length retardation in the pair-fed group was less marked than in the zinc-deficient group, suggesting that reduced supply of zinc from maternal circulation may play a role in longitudinal growth through skeletal development. The fetal developing tibia of the zinc-deficient group showed marked shortening of diaphysis and a mild narrowing of the hypertrophic chondrocyte zone width with increased osteoclast number, but there was no influence on the mineralization of bone matrix. This may be the result of reduced activation of osteoblasts and maturation of chondrocytes with increased osteoclastic activity, suggesting that zinc deficiency during the fetal development has a greater impact on the matrix formation of bone than the mineralization of bone matrix.

  6. Antibacterial activity and ion release of bonding agent containing amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; Weir, Michael D.; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Nancy; Lin-Gibson, Sheng; Chow, Laurence C.; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Recurrent caries at the margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. The objectives of this study were to develop bonding agent with the double benefits of antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities, to investigate the effects of NACP filler level and solution pH on Ca and P ion release from adhesive, and to examine the antibacterial and dentin bond properties. Methods Nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) and a quaternary ammonium monomer (dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate, DMADDM) were synthesized. Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP) primer and adhesive served as control. DMADDM was incorporated into primer and adhesive at 5% by mass. NACP was incorporated into adhesive at filler mass fractions of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model was used to test the antibacterial bonding agents. Calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) ion releases from the cured adhesive samples were measured vs. filler level and solution pH of 7, 5.5 and 4. Results Adding 5% DMADDM and 10–40% NACP into bonding agent, and water-aging for 28 days, did not affect dentin bond strength, compared to SBMP control at 1 day (p > 0.1). Adding DMADDM into bonding agent substantially decreased the biofilm metabolic activity and lactic acid production. Total microorganisms, total streptococci, and mutans streptococci were greatly reduced for bonding agents containing DMADDM. Increasing NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive increased the Ca and P ion release by an order of magnitude. Decreasing solution pH from 7 to 4 increased the ion release from adhesive by 6–10 folds. Significance Bonding agents containing antibacterial DMADDM and remineralizer NACP were formulated to have Ca and P ion release, which increased with NACP filler level from 10% to 40% in adhesive. NACP adhesive was “smart” and dramatically increased the ion release at cariogenic pH 4, when these ions would be most-needed to inhibit caries. Therefore, bonding agent

  7. Alteration of tissue disposition of cadmium by chelating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, C D; Waalkes, M P; Cantilena, L R

    1984-01-01

    The effect of several chelating agents (diethyldithiocarbamic acid, DDC; nitrilotriacetic acid, NTA; 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, BAL; d,l-penicillamine, PEN; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, DMSA; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA; and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, DTPA) on the toxicity, distribution and excretion of cadmium (Cd) was determined in mice. When chelators were administered immediately after Cd, significant increases in survival were noted after treatment with DMSA, EDTA, and DTPA. DTPA, followed by EDTA and then DMSA, were consistently the most effective in decreasing the tissue concentrations of Cd and increasing the excretion of Cd. NTA, BAL, DDC and PEN had no beneficial effects. The effects of increasing the time interval between Cd administration and initiation of chelation therapy was determined by using a single administration of DTPA, EDTA, and DMSA. Mice treated immediately after Cd administration excreted approximately 50% of the administered dose of Cd compared to 0.2% in controls. Treatment with chelator at later times significantly increased Cd excretion but the magnitude of the effect was much less than that seen in mice treated immediately after Cd. To determine the role of MT in the acute decrease in chelator efficacy following Cd poisoning, rats were injected IV with Cd followed by DTPA at various times after Cd. Although DTPA reduced Cd content in the various organs when given immediately after Cd, the chelator was ineffective at all later times. Increases in hepatic and renal metallothionein (MT) did not occur until 2 hr after Cd, and did not coincide with the earlier drop in chelator efficacy. Blockade of MT synthesis by actinomycin D failed to eliminate this decreased DTPA effectiveness. Therefore, it appears that MT does not play an important role in the acute decrease in efficacy of chelation therapy for Cd poisoning. The effect of repeated daily administration of chelators on the distribution and excretion of Cd was studied by

  8. Hydrocarbon Contamination Decreases Mating Success in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Seuront, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    The mating behavior and the mating success of copepods rely on chemoreception to locate and track a sexual partner. However, the potential impact of the water-soluble fraction of hydrocarbons on these aspects of copepod reproduction has never been tested despite the widely acknowledged acute chemosensory abilities of copepods. I examined whether three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (0.01%, 0.1% and 1%) impacts (i) the swimming behavior of both adult males and females of the widespread calanoid copepod Temora longcornis, and (ii) the ability of males to locate, track and mate with females. The three concentrations of the water-soluble fraction of diesel oil (WSF) significantly and non-significantly affect female and male swimming velocities, respectively. In contrast, both the complexity of male and female swimming paths significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations, hence suggesting a sex-specific sensitivity to WSF contaminated seawater. In addition, the three WSF concentrations impacted both T. longicornis mating behavior and mating success. Specifically, the ability of males to detect female pheromone trails, to accurately follow trails and to successfully track a female significantly decreased with increasing WSF concentrations. This led to a significant decrease in contact and capture rates from control to WSF contaminated seawater. These results indicate that hydrocarbon contamination of seawater decreases the ability of male copepods to detect and track a female, hence suggest an overall impact on population fitness and dynamics. PMID:22053187

  9. Hypersensitivity to antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Castells, M C

    2008-01-01

    The need to offer first line therapy for primary and recurrent cancers has spurred the clinical development of rapid desensitizations for chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies. Rapid desensitizations allow patients to be treated with medications to which they have presented with hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), including anaphylaxis. Rapid desensitization achieves temporary tolerization to full therapeutic doses by slow administration of incremental doses of the drug inducing the HSR. Protocols are available for most chemotherapy agents, including taxanes, platins, doxorubicin, monoclonal antibodies, and others. Candidate patients include those who present with type I HSRs, mast cell/IgE dependent, including anaphylaxis, and non-IgE mediated HSRs, during the chemotherapy infusion or shortly after. Idiosyncratic reactions, erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis are not amenable to rapid desensitization. The recommendation for rapid desensitization can only be made by allergy and immunology specialists and can only be performed in settings with one-to-one nurse-patient care and where resuscitation personnel and resources are readily available. Repeated desensitizations can be safely performed in outpatient settings with similar conditions, which allow cancer patients to remain in clinical studies. We have generated a universal 12-step protocol that was applied to 413 cases of intravenous and intraperitoneal rapid desensitizations using taxanes, platins, liposomal doxorubicin, doxorubicin, rituximab, and other chemotherapy drugs. Under this protocol all patients were able to complete their target dose, and 94% of the patients had limited or no reactions. No deaths or codes were reported, indicating that the procedure was safe and effective in delivering first line chemotherapy drugs. PMID:18991707

  10. Agent-Based Literacy Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEneaney, John E.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this theoretical essay is to explore the limits of traditional conceptualizations of reader and text and to propose a more general theory based on the concept of a literacy agent. The proposed theoretical perspective subsumes concepts from traditional theory and aims to account for literacy online. The agent-based literacy theory…

  11. Gelled Anti-icing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markles, O. F.; Sperber, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Pectin added to antifreeze/water mixture. Formulations include water with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as deicer and pectin as gel former. Without gelling agent, deicer runs off vertical surfaces. Without pectin solution will completely evaporate in far less time. Agents developed have wide potential for ice prevention on runways, highways, bridges and sidewalks.

  12. Time-Extended Payoffs for Collectives of Autonomous Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2002-01-01

    A collective is a set of self-interested agents which try to maximize their own utilities, along with a a well-defined, time-extended world utility function which rates the performance of the entire system. In this paper, we use theory of collectives to design time-extended payoff utilities for agents that are both aligned with the world utility, and are "learnable", i.e., the agents can readily see how their behavior affects their utility. We show that in systems where each agent aims to optimize such payoff functions, coordination arises as a byproduct of the agents selfishly pursuing their own goals. A game theoretic analysis shows that such payoff functions have the net effect of aligning the Nash equilibrium, Pareto optimal solution and world utility optimum, thus eliminating undesirable behavior such as agents working at cross-purposes. We then apply collective-based payoff functions to the token collection in a gridworld problem where agents need to optimize the aggregate value of tokens collected across an episode of finite duration (i.e., an abstracted version of rovers on Mars collecting scientifically interesting rock samples, subject to power limitations). We show that, regardless of the initial token distribution, reinforcement learning agents using collective-based payoff functions significantly outperform both natural extensions of single agent algorithms and global reinforcement learning solutions based on "team games".

  13. Luteolin decreases the attachment, invasion and cytotoxicity of UPEC in bladder epithelial cells and inhibits UPEC biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-fei; Ren, Lai-bin; Teng, Yan; Zheng, Shuang; Yang, Xiao-long; Guo, Xiao-juan; Wang, Xin-yuan; Sha, Kai-hui; Li, Na; Xu, Guang-ya; Tian, Han-wen; Wang, Xiao-ying; Liu, Xiao-kang; Li, Jingyu; Huang, Ning

    2014-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI), primarily caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Emerging antibiotic resistance requires novel treatment strategies. Luteolin, a dietary polyphenolic flavonoid, has been confirmed as a potential antimicrobial agent. Here, we evaluated the sub-MICs of luteolin for potential properties to modulate the UPEC infection. We found that luteolin significantly decreased the attachment and invasion of UPEC J96 or CFT073 in human bladder epithelial cell lines T24. Meanwhile, obvious decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae adhesin fimH gene, lower bacterial surface hydrophobicity and swimming motility, were observed in luteolin-pretreated UPEC. Furthermore, luteolin could attenuate UPEC-induced cytotoxicity in T24 cells, which manifested as decreased activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Simultaneously, the inhibition of luteolin on UPEC-induced cytotoxicity was confirmed by ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. Finally, the luteolin-pretreated UPEC showed a lower ability of biofilm formation. Collectively, these results indicated that luteolin decreased the attachment and invasion of UPEC in bladder epithelial cells, attenuated UPEC-induced cytotoxicity and biofilm formation via down-regulating the expression of adhesin fimH gene, reducing the bacterial surface hydrophobicity and motility.

  14. Dialogue Games for Agent Argumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBurney, Peter; Parsons, Simon

    The rise of the Internet and the growth of distributed computing have led to a major paradigm shift in software engineering and computer science. Until recently, the notion of computation has been variously construed as numerical calculation, as information processing, or as intelligent symbol analysis, but increasingly, it is now viewed as distributed cognition and interaction between intelligent entities [60]. This new view has major implications for the conceptualization, design, engineering and control of software systems, most profoundly expressed in the concept of systems of intelligent software agents, or multi-agent systems [99]. Agents are software entities with control over their own execution; the design of such agents, and of multi-agent systems of them, presents major research and software engineering challenges to computer scientists.

  15. Intelligent Agents in Physics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Guzmán, D.; Mora, César

    2010-07-01

    Intelligent Agents are being applied in a wide range of processes and everyday applications. Their development is not new, in recent years they have had an increased attention and design; like learning and mentoring tools. In this work we discuss the definition of what an intelligent agent is; how they are applied; how they look like; recent implementations of agents; agents as support in the learning process, more precisely intelligent tutors; their state in Latin-American countries and future developments and trends that will permit a better communication between people and agents. Also we present an Intelligent Tutor applied as a tool for improving high-school students' skills and reasoning for the first five topics of Mechanics curricula.

  16. Transdermal delivery of therapeutic agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwiatkowski, Krzysztof C. (Inventor); Hayes, Ryan T. (Inventor); Magnuson, James W. (Inventor); Giletto, Anthony (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A device for the transdermal delivery of a therapeutic agent to a biological subject that includes a first electrode comprising a first array of electrically conductive microprojections for providing electrical communication through a skin portion of the subject to a second electrode comprising a second array of electrically conductive microprojections. Additionally, a reservoir for holding the therapeutic agent surrounding the first electrode and a pulse generator for providing an exponential decay pulse between the first and second electrodes may be provided. A method includes the steps of piercing a stratum corneum layer of skin with two arrays of conductive microprojections, encapsulating the therapeutic agent into biocompatible charged carriers, surrounding the conductive microprojections with the therapeutic agent, generating an exponential decay pulse between the two arrays of conductive microprojections to create a non-uniform electrical field and electrokinetically driving the therapeutic agent through the stratum corneum layer of skin.

  17. Markov Tracking for Agent Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washington, Richard; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDPs) axe an attractive representation for representing agent behavior, since they capture uncertainty in both the agent's state and its actions. However, finding an optimal policy for POMDPs in general is computationally difficult. In this paper we present Markov Tracking, a restricted problem of coordinating actions with an agent or process represented as a POMDP Because the actions coordinate with the agent rather than influence its behavior, the optimal solution to this problem can be computed locally and quickly. We also demonstrate the use of the technique on sequential POMDPs, which can be used to model a behavior that follows a linear, acyclic trajectory through a series of states. By imposing a "windowing" restriction that restricts the number of possible alternatives considered at any moment to a fixed size, a coordinating action can be calculated in constant time, making this amenable to coordination with complex agents.

  18. Decrease in phosphocreatine level in skeletal muscle of SIV-infected rhesus macaques correlates with decrease in intracellular glutathione.

    PubMed

    Hack, V; Gross, A; Böhme, A; Stahl-Hennig, C; Dröge, W

    1997-09-01

    Loss of skeletal muscle tissue (cachexia) is one of the hallmarks of HIV infection. It has been found (1) that creatine kinase, i.e., an enzyme of pivotal importance in muscular mitochondrial energy metabolism, is inhibited by oxidative glutathiolation, and (2) that reduced glutathione (GSH) is decreased in skeletal muscle of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. We, therefore, have studied the phosphocreatine (P-Cr) levels. Muscle tissue from SIV-infected macaques showed significantly decreased P-Cr but normal creatine (Cr), ATP, and ADP when compared with uninfected macaques. Individual P-Cr levels were significantly correlated with GSH. Our findings may explain the dysregulation of energy metabolism in cachexia.

  19. Investigation of acetylated chitosan microspheres as potential chemoembolic agents.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuan; Kong, Ming; Cheng, Xiaojie; Li, Jingjing; Li, Jing; Chen, Xiguang

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the potential of chitosan microspheres (CMs) with different acetylation using as a chemoembolic agent. Chitosan microspheres (CMs) were prepared via water-in-oil (W/O) emulsification cross-linking method, and acetylated chitosan microspheres (ACMs) were obtained by acetylation of CMs. Next, we characterized the morphology, size, composition and degrees of deacetylation using scanning electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic laser light scattering (DLS), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). All microspheres had smooth surfaces and good mechanical flexibility, and all could pass through a 5F catheter. The swelling rate (SR) of CMs decreased significantly with the increase of pH (4.0-10.0) but ACMs did not change under the same conditions. Protein absorption assays suggested that albumin was more greatly adsorbed on CMs than on ACMs. Furthermore, CMs caused more blood clots than ACMs. ACMs caused hemolysis less than CMs (<5% of the time). Data indicated that ACMs had more hemocompatibility. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that ACMs initially had less cell attached proliferation but increased with incubation. In contrast, the relative growth rate of mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) on CMs decreased gradually. The results suggested that ACMs could stimulate the growth of MEFs, and CMs were not cytotoxic to MEFs. Thus, ACMs were more biocompatible with greater potential to be used as chemoembolic material.

  20. Nedocromil: a new agent for the treatment of asthma.

    PubMed

    Keenan, J M

    1994-10-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a recently approved anti-inflammatory medication for the treatment of mild to moderate asthma. This pyranoquinolone blocks the inflammatory response in the airways by stabilizing inflammatory cells (mast cells, bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages), by preventing local release of inflammatory mediators, and by blocking chemotaxis and preventing the release of inflammatory mediators by inflammatory cells. Nedocromil may also be effective in blocking the neurogenic component of asthma. The drug is administered by metered-dose inhaler, two 4-mg inhalations four times per day. Clinical improvement usually occurs within two to four days. Studies of patients receiving nedocromil have shown a significant decrease in the number of days lost from work or school, an increase in morning peak flow rates and a decrease in need for bronchodilator medications. Overall, only 2 to 3 percent of patients discontinue therapy because of adverse side effects. With respect to cost, nedocromil is comparable to other inhaled anti-inflammatory agents, and it is a safe and effective first-line therapy for mild to moderate asthma in patients 12 years of age or older.

  1. Advances in nanodiagnostic techniques for microbial agents.

    PubMed

    Syed, Muhammad Ali

    2014-01-15

    Infectious diseases account for millions of sufferings and deaths in both developing as well as developed countries with a substantial economic loss. Massive increase in world population and international travel has facilitated their spread from one part of the world to other areas, making them one of the most significant global health risks. Furthermore, detection of bioterrorism agents in water, food and environmental samples as well traveler's baggage is a great challenge of the time for security purpose. Prevention strategies against infectious agents demand rapid and accurate detection and identification of the causative agents with highest sensitivity which should be equally available in different parts of the globe. Similarly, rapid and early diagnosis of infectious diseases has always been indispensable for their prompt cure and management, which has stimulated scientists to develop highly sophisticated techniques over centuries and the efforts continue unabated. Conventional diagnostic techniques are time consuming, tedious, expensive, less sensitive, and unsuitable for field situations. Nanodiagnostic assays have been promising for early, sensitive, point-of-care and cost-effective detection of microbial agents. There has been an explosive research in this area of science in last two decades yielding highly fascinating results. This review highlights some of the advancements made in the field of nanotechnology based assays for microbial detection since 2005 along with providing the basic understanding. PMID:24012709

  2. Overview of Agents Used for Emergency Hemostasis

    PubMed Central

    Khoshmohabat, Hadi; Paydar, Shahram; Kazemi, Hossein Mohammad; Dalfardi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Context: In today’s modern world, despite the multiple advances made in the field of medicine, hemorrhagic shock is still the main cause of battlefield mortality and the second most prevalent cause of mortality in civilian trauma. Hemostatic agents can play a key role in establishing hemostasis in prehospital situations and preventing hemorrhage-associated death. In this respect, this article aims to review different aspects of known hemostatic agents. Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive search of the academic scientific databases for relevant keywords was conducted; relevant articles were compiled and assessed. Results: Hemostatic agents can establish hemostasis by means of different mechanisms, including concentrating coagulation factors, adhesion to the tissues, in which traumatic hemorrhage occurred, and delivering procoagulant factors to the hemorrhage site. Presently, these hemostatics have been significantly improved with regard to efficacy and in adverse consequences, resulting from their use. Several hemostatic dressings have been developed to the degree that they have received FDA approval and are being used practically on the battlefield. In addition, there are currently several case reports on the use of such hemostatics in the hospital setting, in conditions where commonly known approaches fail to stop life-threatening bleeding. Conclusions: The use of hemostatic dressings and agents is one of the main advancements achieved in recent decades. However, it can be claimed that the ideal hemostatic has not been recognized yet; therefore, this topic needs to be brought into focus and further addressed. PMID:27218055

  3. Social Branding to Decrease Smoking Among Young Adults in Bars

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Youn Ok; Hong, Juliette; Neilands, Torsten B.; Jordan, Jeffrey W.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated a Social Branding antitobacco intervention for “hipster” young adults that was implemented between 2008 and 2011 in San Diego, California. Methods. We conducted repeated cross-sectional surveys of random samples of young adults going to bars at baseline and over a 3-year follow-up. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate changes in daily smoking, nondaily smoking, and binge drinking, controlling for demographic characteristics, alcohol use, advertising receptivity, trend sensitivity, and tobacco-related attitudes. Results. During the intervention, current (past 30 day) smoking decreased from 57% (baseline) to 48% (at follow-up 3; P = .002), and daily smoking decreased from 22% to 15% (P < .001). There were significant interactions between hipster affiliation and alcohol use on smoking. Among hipster binge drinkers, the odds of daily smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30, 0.63) and nondaily smoking (OR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.77) decreased significantly at follow-up 3. Binge drinking also decreased significantly at follow-up 3 (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.53, 0.78). Conclusions. Social Branding campaigns are a promising strategy to decrease smoking in young adult bar patrons. PMID:24524502

  4. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants.

  5. Cantharidin decreases in vitro digestion of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass.

    PubMed

    Lenssen, A W; Blodgett, S L; Higgins, R A; Nagaraja, T G; Posler, G L; Broce, A B

    1990-10-01

    Blister beetles (Coleoptera:Meloidae) containing the toxin cantharidin can be incorporated with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L) during forage conservation. Cantharidin inadvertently ingested with animal feed may cause illness or death. Little information is available on the effects of cantharidin on ruminant microbial digestion. The objective of our study was to determine cantharidin effects on digestibility of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss) by measuring in vitro digestible dry matter (IVDDM) and cell wall digestion (CWD). Alfalfa dry matter digestibility, measured after IVDDM at 48 and 96 h fermentation periods, decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. Increasing cantharidin concentration also significantly reduced IVDDM of smooth bromegrass at 24 and 96 h digestion time. The CWD of alfalfa and smooth bromegrass decreased as cantharidin concentration increased. These results indicate that ingestion of cantharidin by ruminants may decrease microbial digestion of fibrous feeds and therefore may decrease the efficiency of feed utilization by ruminants. PMID:2238434

  6. [Effects of Intensity of Acting Agents on the Manifestation of Synergistic Interaction].

    PubMed

    Petin, V G; Zhurakovskaya, G P

    2015-01-01

    The universal dependence of the synergistic interaction on the intensity of the acting agents was demonstrated. This dependence is not associated with the biological object, as well as the nature of the physical or chemical agents used in the combined exposures. In all cases, with a decrease in the intensity of one of the agents the intensity of the other factor should be also decreased to ensure the greatest synergistic effect. Such relationship of synergy and the intensity of the acting agents is of interest for radiation safety. This regularity indicates the principal possibility of synergistic interaction of harmful environmental factors actually occurring in the biosphere at their low intensities. PMID:26964345

  7. Linalool-Incorporated Nanoparticles as a Novel Anticancer Agent for Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Han, Hee Dong; Cho, Young-Jae; Cho, Sung Keun; Byeon, Yeongseon; Jeon, Hat Nim; Kim, Hye-Sun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Bae, Duk-Soo; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Sood, Anil K; Shin, Byung Cheol; Park, Yeong-Min; Lee, Jeong-Won

    2016-04-01

    Although cytotoxic chemotherapy is widely used against epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), adverse side effects and emergence of resistance can limit its utility. Therefore, new drugs with systemic delivery platforms are urgently needed for this disease. In this study, we developed linalool-incorporated nanoparticles (LIN-NP) as a novel anticancer agent. We prepared LIN-NPs by the self-assembly water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) emulsion method. LIN-NP-mediated cytotoxicity and apoptosis was assessed in EOC cells, and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as the mechanism of action was evaluated. In addition, therapeutic efficacy of LIN-NP was assessed in cell lines and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models for EOC. LIN-NPs had significant cytotoxicity and apoptotic activity against EOC cells, including A2780, HeyA8, and SKOV3ip1. LIN-NP treatment increased apoptosis in EOC cells through ROS generation and a subsequent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in caspase-3 levels. In addition, 100 mg/kg LIN-NPs significantly decreased tumor weight in the HeyA8 (P < 0.001) and SKOV3ip1 (P = 0.006) in vivo models. Although treatment with 50 mg/kg LIN-NP did not decrease tumor weight compared with the control group, combination treatment with paclitaxel significantly decreased tumor weight compared with paclitaxel alone in SKOV3ip1 xenografts (P = 0.004) and the patient-derived xenograft model (P = 0.020). We have developed LIN-NPs that induce ROS generation as a novel anticancer agent for EOC. These findings have broad applications for cancer therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(4); 618-27. ©2016 AACR.

  8. Knowledge focus via software agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henager, Donald E.

    2001-09-01

    The essence of military Command and Control (C2) is making knowledge intensive decisions in a limited amount of time using uncertain, incorrect, or outdated information. It is essential to provide tools to decision-makers that provide: * Management of friendly forces by treating the "friendly resources as a system". * Rapid assessment of effects of military actions againt the "enemy as a system". * Assessment of how an enemy should, can, and could react to friendly military activities. Software agents in the form of mission agents, target agents, maintenance agents, and logistics agents can meet this information challenge. The role of each agent is to know all the details about its assigned mission, target, maintenance, or logistics entity. The Mission Agent would fight for mission resources based on the mission priority and analyze the effect that a proposed mission's results would have on the enemy. The Target Agent (TA) communicates with other targets to determine its role in the system of targets. A system of TAs would be able to inform a planner or analyst of the status of a system of targets, the effect of that status, adn the effect of attacks on that system. The system of TAs would also be able to analyze possible enemy reactions to attack by determining ways to minimize the effect of attack, such as rerouting traffic or using deception. The Maintenance Agent would scheudle maintenance events and notify the maintenance unit. The Logistics Agent would manage shipment and delivery of supplies to maintain appropriate levels of weapons, fuel and spare parts. The central idea underlying this case of software agents is knowledge focus. Software agents are createad automatically to focus their attention on individual real-world entities (e.g., missions, targets) and view the world from that entities perspective. The agent autonomously monitors the entity, identifies problems/opportunities, formulates solutions, and informs the decision-maker. The agent must be

  9. Correlation between size and external temperature in four rat tumours after treatment with cytostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Nickers, P; Oosters, L; Brasseur, F; Kunkler, I; Maisin, H; Deckers, C

    1988-01-01

    The reduction in size of four experimental tumours (ISIS 130 and ISIS 208 immunocytomas, S 437 mammary adenocarcinoma, S 447 colon adenocarcinoma) was investigated in LOU rats under the influence of cytostatic agents belonging to different classes (5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinblastine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide). External tumour and rectal temperatures were measured at the same time, twice daily, during the whole experiment. With the rectal temperature of the rats kept constant, the reduction in tumour dimensions following chemotherapy correlated via a linear relationship with the duration and degree of tumour hypothermia for the three tumours S 437, ISIS 208, ISIS 130. However, for the same reduction in tumour volume following chemotherapy, the duration and degree of transient tumour hypothermia varied according to the type of tumour and cytostatic agent studied. There was not correlation between the decrease in size of S 447 and external tumour hypothermia. Even when the reduction in tumour size was statistically significant, the hypothermic tumour phase after drug administration was not sufficient to be significant, except for vinblastine. However, the temperature of this slowly growing tumour before chemotherapy was particularly low. The measurement of the degree and duration of external tumour hypothermia of tumours following chemotherapy would represent a new physiological technique for measuring the efficacy and duration of action of cytostatic agents.

  10. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders.

  11. Decreased interpretation of nonverbal cues in rape victims.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Kniepple, J L

    The ability to receive nonverbal facial cues was tested in twelve female victims of multiple nonserial rapes and matched controls. Subjects attempted to interpret nonverbal messages transmitted by male and female senders who were covertly taped while involved in a gambling task. Rape victims had significantly decreased ability to interpret the nonverbal facial cues of both male and female senders. PMID:3557809

  12. Commercially available Hypericum perforatum extracts do not decrease immobility of rats in the forced swimming test.

    PubMed

    Guilhermano, Luiz G; Ortiz, Luciana; Ferigolo, Maristela; Barros, Helena M T

    2004-01-01

    There are controversial results of clinical trials on the antidepressant effects of Hypericum perforatum, while several preclinical studies describe antidepressant properties for Hypericum extracts. This study evaluates the antidepressant effect of two commercially available hydroalcoholic extracts of H. perforatum standardized to contain 0.3% hypericin in comparison to imipramine (IMI), in the forced swimming test (FST). Wistar rats were treated with different doses of two Hypericum extracts, of hypericin or of IMI and submitted to the FST. The experiments were videotape recorded to detail immobile and active behaviors of rats during the procedures. The imported extract tested and hypericin did not modify rats' behaviors in the test, while IMI, a classical antidepressant, significantly shortened immobility and prolonged climbing behavior during forced swimming. The locally produced Hypericum extract significantly increased immobility duration as compared to the controls at the same time as climbing efforts were decreased. Therefore, the two different commercially available Brazilian hydroalcoholic H. perforatum extracts did not show the expected effects in a screening test for antidepressant agents, on the contrary, one of the extracts promoted a depressant-like effect in rats. Therefore, these extracts available to the population differ from other Hypericum extracts. At which step of the production or commercialization chain these extracts probably lost their therapeutic potential remains to be evaluated.

  13. Statin therapy: rationale for a new agent, rosuvastatin.

    PubMed

    Korlipara, K

    2002-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of death in industrialised societies, and elevated serum lipids are a significant, highly prevalent and undertreated risk factor for this condition. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have revolutionised the treatment of hyperlipidaemia, and results from large-scale, long-term clinical trials have shown that the substantial reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) achieved with these drugs are associated with dramatic decreases in cardiovascular risk. Results from recent comparative clinical trials that have included a new drug in this class, rosuvastatin (Crestor), have demonstrated that it is significantly superior to atorvastatin, pravastatin and simvastatin in reducing total cholesterol, LDL-C and apolipoprotein B (Apo B). It is also significantly more effective than atorvastatin in increasing high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (Apo A-I). Rosuvastatin was also superior to all these agents in helping patients meet European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) and National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCEP) goals for LDL-C. The results of an increasing number of studies indicate that statins have a wide range of pleiotropic properties that almost certainly contribute to their ability to decrease cardiovascular risk and may also make them valuable for treatment of other diseases. These actions include plaque stabilisation, improvement of endothelial function, inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, reduction of expression of adhesion molecules, prevention of cholesterol esterification and accumulation, reduction of secretion of matrix metalloproteinases by macrophages, reduction of platelet activity, reduction of formation of thrombogenic factors, chemoprotection and induction of bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2). Further exploration of these actions will provide key information about class effects

  14. YM155 reverses cisplatin resistance in head and neck cancer by decreasing cytoplasmic survivin levels

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhavna; Yadav, Arti; Lang, James C.; Cipolla, Michael; Schmitt, Alessandra C.; Arradaza, Nicole; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Kumar, Pawan

    2013-01-01

    Cisplatin is one of the commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, acquisition of cisplatin resistance is common in patients with HNSCC and it often leads to local and distant failure. In this study, we demonstrate that survivin expression is significantly upregulated in HNSCC primary tumors and cell lines. In addition, survivin levels were significantly higher in HPV negative patients that normally respond poorly to cisplatin treatment. Survivin expression was further increased in cisplatin resistant cells (CAL27-CisR) as compared to its parent cells (CAL27). Therefore, we hypothesize that targeting of survivin in HNSCC could reverse the resistant phenotype in tumor cells thereby enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of cisplatin. We used both in vitro and in vivo models to test the efficacy of YM155, a small molecule survivin inhibitor, either as a single agent or in combination with cisplatin. YM155 significantly decreased survivin levels and cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YM155 pretreatment significantly reversed cisplatin resistance in cancer cells. Interestingly, YM155 treatment altered the dynamic localization of survivin in cells by inducing a rapid reduction in cytoplasmic survivin, which plays a critical role in its anti-apoptotic function. In a SCID mouse xenograft model, YM155 significantly enhanced the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic effects of cisplatin with no added systemic toxicity. Taken together, our results suggest a potentially novel strategy to use YM155 to overcome the resistance in tumor cells thereby enhancing the effectiveness of the chemotherapy in HNSCC. PMID:22723337

  15. Agent Communications using Distributed Metaobjects

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Steven Y.; Spires, Shannon V.

    1999-06-10

    There are currently two proposed standards for agent communication languages, namely, KQML (Finin, Lobrou, and Mayfield 1994) and the FIPA ACL. Neither standard has yet achieved primacy, and neither has been evaluated extensively in an open environment such as the Internet. It seems prudent therefore to design a general-purpose agent communications facility for new agent architectures that is flexible yet provides an architecture that accepts many different specializations. In this paper we exhibit the salient features of an agent communications architecture based on distributed metaobjects. This architecture captures design commitments at a metaobject level, leaving the base-level design and implementation up to the agent developer. The scope of the metamodel is broad enough to accommodate many different communication protocols, interaction protocols, and knowledge sharing regimes through extensions to the metaobject framework. We conclude that with a powerful distributed object substrate that supports metaobject communications, a general framework can be developed that will effectively enable different approaches to agent communications in the same agent system. We have implemented a KQML-based communications protocol and have several special-purpose interaction protocols under development.

  16. New Teachers and Support: An Examination of Ratings of Significant Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ellice P.; Andrews, Shirley P.; Gilbert, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    A survey of 442 beginning teachers, 57 mentors, and 33 administrators asked participants to rate the support provided to first-year teachers. Respondents identified persons who provided the most support, and responses were compared. Generally, new teachers indicated that administrators and other teachers had been more helpful than were mentors. In…

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  18. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  19. Antibacterial agents in the cinema.

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, J E; García Sánchez, E; Merino Marcos, M L

    2006-12-01

    Numerous procedures used as antibacterial therapy are present in many films and include strategies ranging from different antimicrobial drugs to surgery and supporting measures. Films also explore the correct use and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Side effects and other aspects related to antibacterial therapy have also been reflected in some films. This article refers to the presence of antibacterial agents in different popular movies. There are movies in which antibacterial agents form part of the central plot, while in others it is merely an important part of the plot. In still others, its presence is isolated, and in these it plays an ambient or anecdotal role.

  20. Provocative agents in panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Bourin, M; Malinge, M; Guitton, B

    1995-01-01

    The pharmacological challenge strategy involves giving a provoking agent under controlled rules to clarify some aspect of behavioural or biological function. Various agents such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, caffeine, yohimbine, isoprenaline and now cholecystokinin have been used as provoking agents in healthy volunteers as well as in panic patients. Results obtained in this field are updated, with emphasis on the potential mechanisms of action. It is concluded that there may be a final pathway between carbon dioxide, sodium lactate, and cholecystokinin inducing panic attacks.

  1. Iopamidol as a gastrointestinal contrast agent. Lack of peritoneal reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ferrante, S L; Schreiman, J S; Rouse, J W; Rysavy, J A; Cheng, S C; Frick, M P

    1990-02-01

    The ideal contrast agent in patients suspected of having gastrointestinal perforation is an iso-osmolar, or nearly iso-osmolar substance, that causes no peritoneal reaction. Iopamidol is a nonionic water-soluble contrast medium that may be considered in such situations. Intraperitoneal injections of ionic and nonionic contrast agents were compared in rats to study potentially harmful peritoneal inflammation. Only intraperitoneal barium injection produced any significant tissue reaction, such as adhesions and ascites. There was no difference between iopamidol and the other water-soluble contrast agents. Iopamidol may satisfy the need for nonreactive and nearly iso-osmolar contrast agents for evaluating patients with possible bowel perforation. However, the high cost of this agent may make its clinical application impractical.

  2. Microbial resistance to disinfectants: mechanisms and significance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, J.C.; Akin, E.W.

    1986-11-01

    Drinking water disinfection provides the final barrier to transmission of a wide variety of potentially waterborne infectious agents including pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. These agents differ greatly in their innate resistance to inactivation by disinfectants, ranging from extremely sensitive bacteria to highly resistant protozoan cysts. The close similarity between microorganism inactivation rates and the kinetics of chemical reactions has long been recognized. Ideally, under carefully controlled conditions, microorganism inactivation rates simulate first-order chemical reaction rates, making it possible to predict the effectiveness of disinfection under specific conditions. In practice, changes in relative resistance and deviations from first-order kinetics are caused by a number of factors, including microbial growth conditions, aggregation, and association with particulate materials. The net effect of all these factors is a reduction in the effectiveness and predictability of disinfection processes. To ensure effective pathogen control, disinfectant concentrations and contact times greater than experimentally determined values may be required. Of the factors causing enhanced disinfection resistance, protection by association with particulate matter is the most significant. Therefore, removal of particulate matter is an important step in increasing the effectiveness of disinfection processes.

  3. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    PubMed Central

    Khilnani, Gurudas; Khilnani, Ajeet Kumar

    2011-01-01

    A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced) receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity) or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity). Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity). Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors) have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics) have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H1 and H2 antihistaminics (antagonists) have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D2 receptors antagonist), antihypertensive (AT1 receptor antagonists), antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103), a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse

  4. Calcium sensitizer agents: a new class of inotropic agents in the treatment of decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Sergio V; Kaplinsky, Edgardo J

    2005-09-01

    The clinician's primary objective in treating a patient with decompensated heart failure is rapid and effective stabilization. This goal often is achieved through the use of inotropic support. Classic inotropic agents (beta-adrenergic agonists and phosphodiesterase III inhibitors) can provide short-term hemodynamic benefits, but their long-term use has been correlated with poor survival rates. Calcium sensitizers comprise a new drug class that offers hemodynamic and symptomatic improvements without increasing cAMP and intracellular calcium concentrations. These agents enhance contractility without a concurrent increase in the risk of cardiac events and thus represent a significant improvement over classic positive inotropic agents. Levosimendan is the most potent calcium sensitizer to date, exhibiting a unique dual mechanism of action that combines a positive inotropic action mediated via calcium sensitization and a vasodilator property via ATP-dependent potassium channels. Available clinical data suggest that calcium sensitizer agents represent a promising class of inotropic agents in a field that has seen few advances in recent decades.

  5. Ambient agents: embedded agents for remote control and monitoring using the PANGEA platform.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2014-07-31

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation.

  6. Ambient agents: embedded agents for remote control and monitoring using the PANGEA platform.

    PubMed

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation. PMID:25090416

  7. Ambient Agents: Embedded Agents for Remote Control and Monitoring Using the PANGEA Platform

    PubMed Central

    Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F.; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has advanced significantly during the last few years. The incorporation of image processing and artificial intelligence techniques have opened the possibility for such aspects as pattern recognition, thus allowing for a better adaptation of these systems. This study presents a new model of an embedded agent especially designed to be implemented in sensing devices with resource constraints. This new model of an agent is integrated within the PANGEA (Platform for the Automatic Construction of Organiztions of Intelligent Agents) platform, an organizational-based platform, defining a new sensor role in the system and aimed at providing contextual information and interacting with the environment. A case study was developed over the PANGEA platform and designed using different agents and sensors responsible for providing user support at home in the event of incidents or emergencies. The system presented in the case study incorporates agents in Arduino hardware devices with recognition modules and illuminated bands; it also incorporates IP cameras programmed for automatic tracking, which can connect remotely in the event of emergencies. The user wears a bracelet, which contains a simple vibration sensor that can receive notifications about the emergency situation. PMID:25090416

  8. A novel approach to assess the spontaneous gastrointestinal bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents using Apc(min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Wei, Huijun; Shang, Jin; Keohane, CarolAnn; Wang, Min; Li, Qiu; Ni, Weihua; O'Neill, Kim; Chintala, Madhu

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the bleeding risk of antithrombotic agents is usually performed in healthy animals with some form of vascular injury to peripheral organs to induce bleeding. However, bleeding observed in patients with currently marketed antithrombotic drugs is typically spontaneous in nature such as intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, which happens most frequently on top of preexisting pathologies such as GI ulcerations and polyps. Apc(min/+) mice are reported to develop multiple adenomas through the entire intestinal tract and display progressive anaemia.In this study, we evaluated the potential utility of Apc(min/+) mice as a model for assessing spontaneous GI bleeding with antithrombotic agents. Apc(min/+) mice exhibited progressive blood loss starting at the age of nine weeks. Despite the increase in bleeding, Apc(min/+) mice were in a hypercoagulable state and displayed an age-dependent increase in thrombin generation and circulating fibrinogen as well as a significant decrease in clotting times. We evaluated the effect of warfarin, dabigatran etexilate, apixaban and clopidogrel in this model by administering them in diet or in the drinking water to mice for 1-4 weeks. All of these marketed drugs significantly increased GI bleeding in Apc(min/+) mice, but not in wild-type mice. Although different exposure profiles of these antithrombotic agents make it challenging to compare the bleeding risk of compounds, our results indicate that the Apc(min/+) mouse may be a sensitive preclinical model for assessing the spontaneous GI bleeding risk of novel antithrombotic agents.

  9. Receptor-mediated control of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and apoptotic volume decrease (AVD).

    PubMed

    Okada, Y; Maeno, E; Shimizu, T; Dezaki, K; Wang, J; Morishima, S

    2001-04-01

    A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is accomplished mainly by KCl efflux induced by parallel activation of K+ and Cl- channels. We have studied the molecular mechanism of RVD in a human epithelial cell line (Intestine 407). Osmotic swelling results in a significant increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and thereby activates intermediate-conductance Ca2+-dependent K+ (IK) channels. Osmotic swelling also induces ATP release from the cells to the extracellular compartment. Released ATP stimulates purinergic ATP (P2Y2) receptors, thereby inducing phospholipase C-mediated Ca2+ mobilization. Thus, RVD is facilitated by stimulation of P2Y2 receptors due to augmentation of IK channels. In contrast, stimulation of another G protein-coupled Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) enhances the activity of volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channels, thereby facilitating RVD. Therefore, it is possible that Ca2+ efflux stimulated by swelling-induced and P2Y2 receptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization activates the CaR, thereby secondarily upregulating the volume-regulatory Cl- conductance. On the other hand, the initial process towards apoptotic cell death is coupled to normotonic cell shrinkage, called apoptotic volume decrease (AVD). Stimulation of death receptors, such as TNF receptor and Fas, induces AVD and thereafter biochemical apoptotic events in human lymphoid (U937), human epithelial (HeLa), mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid (NG108-15) and rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. In those cells exhibiting AVD, facilitation of RVD is always observed. Both AVD induction and RVD facilitation as well as succeeding apoptotic events can be abolished by

  10. Determining Multiple Responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to an Antimicrobial Agent, Free Nitrous Acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Hong; Fan, Lu; Peng, Lai; Guo, Jianhua; Agulló-Barceló, Míriam; Yuan, Zhiguo; Bond, Philip L

    2016-05-17

    Free nitrous acid (FNA) has recently been demonstrated as an antimicrobial agent on a range of micro-organisms, especially in wastewater-treatment systems. However, the antimicrobial mechanism of FNA is largely unknown. Here, we report that the antimicrobial effects of FNA are multitargeted. The response of a model denitrifier, Pseudomnas aeruginosa PAO1 (PAO1), common in wastewater treatment, was investigated in the absence and presence of inhibitory level of FNA (0.1 mg N/L) under anaerobic denitrifying conditions. This was achieved through coupling gene expression analysis, by RNA sequencing, and with a suite of physiological analyses. Various transcripts exhibited significant changes in abundance in the presence of FNA. Respiration was likely inhibited because denitrification activity was severely depleted, and decreased transcript levels of most denitrification genes occurred. As a consequence, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was inhibited due to the lowered cellular redox state in the FNA-exposed cultures. Meanwhile, during FNA exposure, PAO1 rerouted its carbon metabolic pathway from the TCA cycle to pyruvate fermentation with acetate as the end product as a possible survival mechanism. Additionally, protein synthesis was significantly decreased, and ribosome preservation was evident. These findings improve our understanding of PAO1 in response to FNA and contribute toward the potential application for use of FNA as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:27116299

  11. The therapeutic efficacy of oral cholecystographic agent (iopanoic acid) in the management of hyperthyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Bal, C.; Nair, N. )

    1990-07-01

    Five randomly chosen patients with thyrotoxicosis were administered 1 gm of the oral cholecystographic agent iopanoic acid daily for 21 days. There was a marked fall in T3 levels by 75% of the pretherapy value by 96 hr; values remained normal over the 21-day period. T4 values fell significantly by seven days of therapy, and the decreased values were sustained. FT3 and FT4I also showed corresponding decreases in value. All subjects showed clinical improvement by both subjective and objective criteria. During therapy, escape from the effect of iopanoic acid was not encountered. However, after stopping the drug for 2-4 wk, the patients' iodine-131 uptake become as high as the pretherapy level, enabling them to undergo radioiodine treatment for thyrotoxicosis. The treatment strategy can be aimed at achieving quick euthyroidism and in planning radioiodine treatment as early as possible in high risk patients. This treatment may also be useful in preoperative control of thyrotoxicosis.

  12. Cardiovascular effects of bupivacaine and the role of this agent in preemptive dental analgesia.

    PubMed Central

    Younessi, O. J.; Punnia-Moorthy, A.

    1999-01-01

    Inappropriately high blood concentrations of bupivacaine have been reported to cause toxicity and even death. The potential for cardiovascular toxicity and the difficulty with which this may be reversed has made the dental practitioners reluctant to use this agent. Nevertheless, cardiovascular toxicity from its use in and around the mouth is exceedingly rare. This study was undertaken to assess bupivacaine's cardiotoxic potential in the practice of oral and maxillofacial surgery. Results showed a dose-dependent decrease in systolic blood pressure, but no other statistically significant cardiovascular change was noted. Preemptive treatment of postsurgical pain has been the subject of numerous trials. Bupivacaine administered preoperatively has been suggested to prevent central nervous system "conditioning," thus decreasing the perceived postoperative pain. However, there was no statistical support for any reduction in the perceived postoperative pain in the treatment groups in this study. PMID:10853566

  13. Effects of subconjunctivally injected antineoplastic agents on three models of corneal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rootman, J; Bussanich, N; Gudauskas, G; Kumi, C

    1985-06-01

    Three models of corneal inflammation--acute toxic keratitis, phlyctenular keratitis and corneal graft rejection--were induced in rabbits and treated with subconjunctival injections of antineoplastic agents (methotrexate, cytosine arabinoside, 5-fluorouracil and 6-mercaptopurine) and Solu-Medrol (methylprednisolone sodium succinate). The inflammations responded to the drugs to various degrees when compared with the response in control animals treated with saline. Cytosine arabinoside effected a slight decrease in the clinical features of acute toxic keratitis, methotrexate was superior in decreasing inflammation and neovascularization in phlyctenular keratitis, and Solu-Medrol appeared to be the most useful in the treatment of graft rejection. When injected repeatedly, 5-fluorouracil tended to have significant toxicity in the presence of inflammation.

  14. Nitrate leaching concentrations in the Netherlands decreased more than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumans, Leo; Fraters, Dico; Wattel, Esther

    2014-05-01

    The implementation of EU environmental directives and national policies into measures has led to a decrease in nitrogen (N) surplus in agriculture, notably at dairy farms in the 1995-2002 period. In addition, N emissions to air from agricultural fields have been reduced, and atmospheric N deposition on nature areas subsequently lessened. The nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching at dairy farms and nature areas in the Sand region of the Netherlands also decreased. These decreases were larger than would be expected based on the decreases in net loads. We have formulated and tested hypotheses to explain these extra decreases at farms and in nature areas. Dairy farms cover about 60% of the area in the sandy region of the Netherlands. They have shown a nitrate leaching decrease of 100 mg/l during the 1992-2010 period (67%). The N-surplus at dairy farms decreased from about 340 to 180 kg/ha in this period (47%). Other farm management factors may have caused the additional decrease in root zone leaching concentration on farm level. The main potential factors are the ratio grassland - arable land, the grazing intensity and the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N. There are no indications that the ratio grassland - arable land or the ratio artificial fertilizer N - manure N significantly changed between 1992 and 2010. The mowing percentage, as an indicator for grazing intensity, increased from about 180 to 290% in the study period. About 80% (80 mg/l) of the decrease at dairy farms can be attributed to a lower N-surplus and about 20% (20 mg/l) is postulated to be caused by an increasing mowing percentage or less fodder grazing. Nature areas cover about 20% of the area in the Sand region. Nitrate concentrations in root zone leaching in nature areas showed a decrease of 55% in 2010 compared to 1990. Yet in rainwater, the concentration decrease is only 40%. Several factors may cause an additional decrease in nitrate concentration particularly an increase of plant

  15. Thermoregulatory set point decreases after hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Brown, Justin W; Whitehurst, Marvin E; Gordon, Christopher J; Carroll, Robert G

    2005-03-01

    Hemorrhage in rats causes a drop in body core temperature that is proportional to the hemorrhage volume. We tested the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic hypothermia is due to a downward shift in the thermoregulatory set point. If so, rats subjected to hemorrhage would prefer a cooler ambient temperature to enhance heat loss during the posthemorrhage period. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with carotid arterial catheters and biotelemetry temperature probes. Two days later, rats were placed in a temperature gradient chamber that allowed the rat to move between ambient temperatures of 15 degrees C to 40 degrees C. Rat location within the gradient was recorded as the selected ambient temperature. After 48 h, a 24 mL/kg hemorrhage was induced via the carotid cannula followed by a 24-h recovery period in the gradient. Body core and selected ambient temperatures significantly decreased after hemorrhage. Within 50 min, selected ambient temperature decreased by 11 degrees C, and returned to normal 100 min after hemorrhage. Within 80 min after hemorrhage, core temperature decreased by 2.3 degrees C, and returned to normal by 8 h after hemorrhage. Expanded analysis of the first hour after hemorrhage showed that reduction in selected ambient temperature preceded the drop in body core temperature. Importantly, the decrease in selected ambient temperature persisted even during the peak decrease in body core temperature. These results indicate that a decrease in thermoregulatory set point contributes to the drop in body core temperature after hemorrhage. PMID:15718921

  16. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, Hagan; Walker, Barbara J.; Chang, Chung-yu; Niblack, Brett; Panchal, Rekha

    1998-01-01

    An inactive pore-forming agent which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell.

  17. AL Amyloidosis and Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... for survivors' benefits . Research on AL amyloidosis and herbicides The Health and Medicine Division (formally known as ... to the compounds of interest found in the herbicide Agent Orange and AL amyloidosis." VA made a ...

  18. Diamine curing agents for polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Three aromatic diamines have properties that make them promising candidates as curing agents for converting isocyanates to polyurethanes with higher adhesive strengths, higher softening temperatures, better toughness, and improved abrasion resistance.

  19. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  20. Noncontraceptive use of contraceptive agents.

    PubMed

    Nickles, Monique Collier; Alderman, Elizabeth

    2014-06-01

    • On the basis of strong research evidence, there are many noncontraceptive advantages to use of hormonal contraceptive agents in adolescent girls. (3) (4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, most of these agents are safe with minor adverse effects. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, through application of evidence-based approaches and proper counseling, pediatricians can use various contraceptive agents to treat several medical conditions and to help alleviate many of the undesired symptoms and complications associated with menstrual periods. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13) (14). • On the basis of research evidence and consensus, these agents may be used in sexually active adolescents to simultaneously help prevent unintended adolescent pregnancies. (2)(3)(4)(5)(7)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14).

  1. Anticancer agents derived from natural cinnamic acids.

    PubMed

    Su, Ping; Shi, Yaling; Wang, Jinfeng; Shen, Xiuxiu; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the most dangerous disease that causes deaths all over the world. Natural products have afforded a rich source of drugs in a number of therapeutic fields including anticancer agents. Many significant drugs have been derived from natural sources by structural optimization of natural products. Cinnamic acid has gained great interest due to its antiproliferative, antioxidant, antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic potency. Currently it has been observed that cinnamic acid and its analogs such as caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and isoferulic acid display various pharmacological activities, such as immunomodulation, anti-inflammation, anticancer and antioxidant. They have served to be the major sources of potential leading anticancer compounds. In this review, we focus on the anticancer potency of cinnamic acid derivatives and novel strategies to design these derivatives. We hope this review will be useful for researchers who are interested in developing anticancer agents.

  2. The pandemonium system of reflective agents.

    PubMed

    Smieja, F

    1996-01-01

    The Pandemonium system of reflective MINOS agents solves problems by automatic dynamic modularization of the input space. The agents contain feedforward neural networks which adapt using the backpropagation algorithm. We demonstrate the performance of Pandemonium on various categories of problems. These include learning continuous functions with discontinuities, separating two spirals, learning the parity function, and optical character recognition. It is shown how strongly the advantages gained from using a modularization technique depend on the nature of the problem. The superiority of the Pandemonium method over a single net on the first two test categories is contrasted with its limited advantages for the second two categories. In the first case the system converges quicker with modularization and is seen to lead to simpler solutions. For the second case the problem is not significantly simplified through flat decomposition of the input space, although convergence is still quicker.

  3. Decreasing Smoking Behavior through Subliminal Stimulation Treatments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1979-01-01

    Determines whether subliminal perception can be used as a means for altering cigarette smoking behavior. Smoking behavior was not altered through subliminal perception as carried out in this study. There was evidence that smoking behavior was altered, but it was an unpredicted change. Some subjects decreased smoking patterns. (Author)

  4. How To Decrease School Bus Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddlemire, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Suggestions for principals to decrease school bus vandalism are presented. Guidelines are offered for the improvement of bus conditions, reorganization of the transportation system, establishment of a bus driver training program, and student involvement in an antivandalism campaign. Cooperation and regular meetings between students, parents,…

  5. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  6. Temporal Decrease in Upper Atmospheric Chlorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froidevaux, L.; Livesey, N. J.; Read, W. G.; Salawitch, R. J.; Waters, J. W.; Drouin, B.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Bernath, P.; Boone, C.; Nassar, R.; Montzka, S.; Elkins, J.; Cunnold, D.; Waugh, D.

    2006-01-01

    We report a steady decrease in the upper stratospheric and lower mesospheric abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl) from August 2004 through January 2006, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. For 60(deg)S to 60(deg)N zonal means, the average yearly change in the 0.7 to 0.1 hPa (approx.50 to 65 km) region is -27 +/- 3 pptv/year, or -0.78 +/- 0.08 percent/year. This is consistent with surface abundance decrease rates (about 6 to 7 years earlier) in chlorine source gases. The MLS data confirm that international agreements to reduce global emissions of ozone-depleting industrial gases are leading to global decreases in the total gaseous chlorine burden. Tracking stratospheric HCl variations on a seasonal basis is now possible with MLS data. Inferred stratospheric total chlorine (CITOT) has a value of 3.60 ppbv at the beginning of 2006, with a (2-sigma) accuracy estimate of 7%; the stratospheric chlorine loading has decreased by about 43 pptv in the 18-month period studied here. We discuss the MLS HCl measurements in the context of other satellite-based HCl data, as well as expectations from surface chlorine data. A mean age of air of approx. 5.5 years and an age spectrum width of 2 years or less provide a fairly good fit to the ensemble of measurements.

  7. Antimicrobials for bacterial bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Atkins, Helen S

    2011-06-01

    The limitations of current antimicrobials for highly virulent pathogens considered as potential bioterrorism agents drives the requirement for new antimicrobials that are suitable for use in populations in the event of a deliberate release. Strategies targeting bacterial virulence offer the potential for new countermeasures to combat bacterial bioterrorism agents, including those active against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Although early in the development of antivirulence approaches, inhibitors of bacterial type III secretion systems and cell division mechanisms show promise for the future.

  8. Ramucirumab: a novel antiangiogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Roopma; Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Blum-Murphy, Mariela; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2013-06-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGFR2 and can inhibit angiogenesis, a quintessential mechanism for promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Several antiangiogenesis agents are already approved for cancer therapy; however, ramucirumab's selectivity for VEGFR2 makes it interesting. The selectivity of an agent can improve safety and efficacy. This article describes the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, safety and clinical trial results of ramucirumab with particular emphasis on gastric cancer.

  9. [Is it possible to decrease cholesterol levels with dietary supplements?].

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Pierre-Yves; Degoumois, Florence; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements for cardiovascular prevention. An US study showed that 75% of patients with cardiovascular disease used dietary supplements. Red yeast rice, phytosterols and fibers can significantly decrease LDL. The level of monacolin in red yeast rice can vary between products and toxins can sometimes be found. Prospective studies showed that fibers could decrease cardiovascular risk. Others substances, like guggul, soy and artichoke leaf extracts, did not show a clear benefit for cardiovascular prevention. Measurements of cholesterol levels can help the physician to discuss with his patient about the effects of some dietary supplements.

  10. [Is it possible to decrease cholesterol levels with dietary supplements?].

    PubMed

    Rodondi, Pierre-Yves; Degoumois, Florence; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Patients often use dietary supplements for cardiovascular prevention. An US study showed that 75% of patients with cardiovascular disease used dietary supplements. Red yeast rice, phytosterols and fibers can significantly decrease LDL. The level of monacolin in red yeast rice can vary between products and toxins can sometimes be found. Prospective studies showed that fibers could decrease cardiovascular risk. Others substances, like guggul, soy and artichoke leaf extracts, did not show a clear benefit for cardiovascular prevention. Measurements of cholesterol levels can help the physician to discuss with his patient about the effects of some dietary supplements. PMID:27089602

  11. Decreased prostacyclin sensitivity of human platelets after jogging and squash.

    PubMed

    Burghuber, O; Sinzinger, H; Silberbauer, K; Wolf, C; Haber, P

    1981-02-01

    8 healthy male volunteers performed jogging (as an example of an aerobic metabolic condition) and squash (as an example of an intermittently anaerobic metabolic condition). The platelets sensitivity to prostacyclin (PGI2) decreased after jogging. After squash, a statistically significant (p 0,001) decrease in the sensitivity of the platelets could be seen. Our findings suggest that an early alteration of platelet sensitivity might play a key role in maintaining the hemostatic balance and could be of greater importance than the vascular wall PGI2-synthesis, as the sensitivity changes immediately, whereas the PGI2-formation change is a long-term process.

  12. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance…

  13. Novel sulfonanilide analogs decrease aromatase activity in breast cancer cells: synthesis, biological evaluation, and ligand-based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Tian, Ran; Darby, Michael V; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2008-03-13

    Aromatase converts androgens to estrogens and is a particularly attractive target in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Previously, the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide and analogs decreased aromatase expression and enzyme activity independent of COX-2 inhibition. In this manuscript, a combinatorial approach was used to generate diversely substituted novel sulfonanilides by parallel synthesis. Their pharmacological evaluation as agents for suppression of aromatase activity in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells was extensively explored. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was elaborated for selective aromatase modulation (SAM) using the Catalyst HipHop algorithms. The best qualitative model consisted of four features: one aromatic ring, two hydrogen bond acceptors, and one hydrophobic function. Several lead compounds have also been tested in aromatase transfected MCF-7 cells, and they significantly suppressed cellular aromatase activity. The results suggest that both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms of these compounds are involved within the aromatase suppression effect. PMID:18271519

  14. Novel sulfonanilide analogs decrease aromatase activity in breast cancer cells: synthesis, biological evaluation, and ligand-based pharmacophore identification.

    PubMed

    Su, Bin; Tian, Ran; Darby, Michael V; Brueggemeier, Robert W

    2008-03-13

    Aromatase converts androgens to estrogens and is a particularly attractive target in the treatment of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer. Previously, the COX-2 selective inhibitor nimesulide and analogs decreased aromatase expression and enzyme activity independent of COX-2 inhibition. In this manuscript, a combinatorial approach was used to generate diversely substituted novel sulfonanilides by parallel synthesis. Their pharmacological evaluation as agents for suppression of aromatase activity in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells was extensively explored. A ligand-based pharmacophore model was elaborated for selective aromatase modulation (SAM) using the Catalyst HipHop algorithms. The best qualitative model consisted of four features: one aromatic ring, two hydrogen bond acceptors, and one hydrophobic function. Several lead compounds have also been tested in aromatase transfected MCF-7 cells, and they significantly suppressed cellular aromatase activity. The results suggest that both genomic and nongenomic mechanisms of these compounds are involved within the aromatase suppression effect.

  15. Natural products as antimitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Natural products still play an important role in the medicinal chemistry, especially in some therapeutic areas. As example more than 60% of currently-used anticancer agents are derives from natural sources including plants, marine organisms or micro-organism. Thus natural products (NP) are an high-impact source of new "lead compounds" or new potential therapeutic agents despite the large development of biotechnology and combinatorial chemistry in the drug discovery and development. Many examples of anticancer drugs as paclitaxel, combretastatin, bryostatin and discodermolide have shown the importance of NP in the anticancer chemotherapy through many years. Many organisms have been studied as sources of drugs namely plants, micro-organisms and marine organisms and the obtained NP can be considered a group of "privileged chemical structures" evolved in nature to interact with other organisms. For this reason NP are a good starting points for pharmaceutical research and also for library design. Tubulin and microtubules are one of the most studied targets for the search of anticancer compounds. Microtubule targeting agents (MTA) also named antimitotic agents are compounds that are able to perturb mitosis but are also able to arrest cell growing during interphase. The anticancer drugs, taxanes and vinca alkaloids have established tubulin as important target in cancer therapy. More recently the vascular disrupting agents (VDA) combretastatin analogues were studied for their antimitotics properties. This review will consider the anti mitotic NP and their potential impact in the development of new therapeutic agents.

  16. What makes virtual agents believable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanovych, Anton; Trescak, Tomas; Simoff, Simeon

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the concept of believability and make an attempt to isolate individual characteristics (features) that contribute to making virtual characters believable. As the result of this investigation we have produced a formalisation of believability and based on this formalisation built a computational framework focused on simulation of believable virtual agents that possess the identified features. In order to test whether the identified features are, in fact, responsible for agents being perceived as more believable, we have conducted a user study. In this study we tested user reactions towards the virtual characters that were created for a simulation of aboriginal inhabitants of a particular area of Sydney, Australia in 1770 A.D. The participants of our user study were exposed to short simulated scenes, in which virtual agents performed some behaviour in two different ways (while possessing a certain aspect of believability vs. not possessing it). The results of the study indicate that virtual agents that appear resource bounded, are aware of their environment, own interaction capabilities and their state in the world, agents that can adapt to changes in the environment and exist in correct social context are those that are being perceived as more believable. Further in the paper we discuss these and other believability features and provide a quantitative analysis of the level of contribution for each such feature to the overall perceived believability of a virtual agent.

  17. Inhibition of Pediatric Glioblastoma Tumor Growth by the Anti-Cancer Agent OKN-007 in Orthotopic Mouse Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho de Souza, Patricia; Mallory, Samantha; Smith, Nataliya; Saunders, Debra; Li, Xiao-Nan; McNall-Knapp, Rene Y.; Fung, Kar-Ming; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric glioblastomas (pGBM), although rare, are one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in children, with tumors essentially refractory to existing treatments. Here, we describe the use of conventional and advanced in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to assess a novel orthotopic xenograft pGBM mouse (IC-3752GBM patient-derived culture) model, and to monitor the effects of the anti-cancer agent OKN-007 as an inhibitor of pGBM tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry support data is also presented for cell proliferation and tumor growth signaling. OKN-007 was found to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.05) and increase animal survival (p<0.05) in all OKN-007-treated mice compared to untreated animals. In a responsive cohort of treated animals, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease tumor volumes (p<0.0001), increase survival (p<0.001), and increase diffusion (p<0.01) and perfusion rates (p<0.05). OKN-007 also significantly reduced lipid tumor metabolism in responsive animals [(Lip1.3 and Lip0.9)-to-creatine ratio (p<0.05)], as well as significantly decrease tumor cell proliferation (p<0.05) and microvessel density (p<0.05). Furthermore, in relationship to the PDGFRα pathway, OKN-007 was able to significantly decrease SULF2 (p<0.05) and PDGFR-α (platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α) (p<0.05) immunoexpression, and significantly increase decorin expression (p<0.05) in responsive mice. This study indicates that OKN-007 may be an effective anti-cancer agent for some patients with pGBMs by inhibiting cell proliferation and angiogenesis, possibly via the PDGFRα pathway, and could be considered as an additional therapy for pediatric brain tumor patients. PMID:26248280

  18. Antihypertensive agents and renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Vergoulas, G

    2007-01-01

    Advances in the field of kidney transplantation have led to a significant increase in the life of renal allograft with 1 - year graft survival rates of 93% to 99%.This increase in early graft survival has made it possible to observe the long-term morbidities that accompany renal transplantation. Studies correlating the reduction of arterial blood pressure with patient and graft survival as well as the risk of cardiovascular disease do not exist. The recommendations come from the general population and from comparative studies of hypertensive and normotensive kidney graft recipients. It is known that in the general population hypertension is a risk factor for chronic kidney disease but at the same time a risk factor for death, ischaemic heart disease, chronic heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy. We must always have in mind that there are many similarities between a kidney graft recipient and a patient with chronic kidney disease. Renal transplant recipients represent a patient population with a very high risk for development of cardiovascular disease which has been identified as the leading cause of death in these patients1. Of 18,482 deaths among renal allograft recipients, 38% had functioning renal allografts 2, 3. Successful renal transplantation (Rt) can result in partial regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) if it is associated with hypertension (HTN) remission or if HTN is controlled by medications. Frequently post transplant HTN is associated with failure of LVH to regress. Transplant clinicians must choose antihypertensive agents that will provide their patients with maximum benefit from renal allograft and cardiovascular perspective. The target must always be long term patient and graft survival and acceptable quality of life. The antihypertensive drugs usually used after kidney transplantation are diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β – blockers. Most

  19. Novel nanomedicine-based MRI contrast agents for gynecological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mody, Vicky V; Nounou, Mohamed Ismail; Bikram, Malavosklish

    2009-08-10

    Gynecological cancers result in significant morbidity and mortality in women despite advances in treatment and diagnosis. This is due to detection of the disease in the late stages following metastatic spread in which treatment options become limited and may not result in positive outcomes. In addition, traditional contrast agents are not very effective in detecting primary metastatic tumors and cells due to a lack of specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic tools, which limits their effectiveness. Recently, the field of nanomedicine-based contrast agents offers a great opportunity to develop highly sophisticated devices that can overcome many traditional hurdles of contrast agents including solubility, cell-specific targeting, toxicities, and immunological responses. These nanomedicine-based contrast agents including liposomes, micelles, dendrimers, multifunctional magnetic polymeric nanohybrids, fullerenes, and nanotubes represent improvements over their traditional counterparts, which can significantly advance the field of molecular imaging.

  20. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  1. Did liberalising bar hours decrease traffic accidents?

    PubMed

    Green, Colin P; Heywood, John S; Navarro, Maria

    2014-05-01

    Legal bar closing times in England and Wales have historically been early and uniform. Recent legislation liberalised closing times with the object of reducing social problems thought associated with drinking to "beat the clock." Indeed, using both difference in difference and synthetic control approaches we show that one consequence of this liberalisation was a decrease in traffic accidents. This decrease is heavily concentrated among younger drivers. Moreover, we provide evidence that the effect was most pronounced in the hours of the week directly affected by the liberalisation: late nights and early mornings on weekends. This evidence survives a series of robustness checks and suggests at least one socially positive consequence of extending bar hours.

  2. Hypnotic induction decreases anterior default mode activity.

    PubMed

    McGeown, William J; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Venneri, Annalena; Kirsch, Irving

    2009-12-01

    The 'default mode' network refers to cortical areas that are active in the absence of goal-directed activity. In previous studies, decreased activity in the 'default mode' has always been associated with increased activation in task-relevant areas. We show that the induction of hypnosis can reduce anterior default mode activity during rest without increasing activity in other cortical regions. We assessed brain activation patterns of high and low suggestible people while resting in the fMRI scanner and while engaged in visual tasks, in and out of hypnosis. High suggestible participants in hypnosis showed decreased brain activity in the anterior parts of the default mode circuit. In low suggestible people, hypnotic induction produced no detectable changes in these regions, but instead deactivated areas involved in alertness. The findings indicate that hypnotic induction creates a distinctive and unique pattern of brain activation in highly suggestible subjects. PMID:19782614

  3. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  4. Miscellaneous and experimental agents.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y

    1997-01-01

    Current therapeutic approaches to postmenopausal bone loss or established osteoporosis vary widely among the different regions of the world. Because no treatment of osteoporosis has unequivocally demonstrated full prevention of the appearance or the recurrence of axial or peripheral fractures so far, many investigational compounds are being developed. Anabolic steroids act mainly as inhibitors of bone resorption with very few, if any, effects on bone formation. Because of the high occurrence of signs of virilization and the weak effects on bone structure, the risk/benefit ratio in osteoporosis should be considered at least problematic. If ongoing large-scale trials confirm the expected benefits of estrogen antagonist/agonists on the skeleton and confirm no cardiovascular risk to postmenopausal women with optimal uterine safety, these substances are likely to become the most prominent alternative to hormonal replacement therapy after the menopause. Additional studies are requested to evaluate the potential benefit of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factors in treatment of osteoporosis. Ipriflavone acts predominantly as an inhibitor of bone resorption. To confirm the efficacy of ipriflavone on the prevention of vertebral fractures and its effects on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal established osteoporosis, a large multicentric European study is being conducted. Treatment with parathyroid peptides induces a significant gain in bone mass, mainly in the axial skeleton. Long-term studies that compare peptides, doses, and regimes are needed to better understand the exact position of parathyroid peptides as treatment of osteoporosis. Prolonged administration of strontium to postmenopausal osteoporotic women resulted in a decoupling between bone resorption and formation that yielded a significant increase in the lumbar spine bone mineral density of treated subjects. In the view of these promising results and of the excellent tolerance of strontium

  5. Aspirin decreases platelet uptake on Dacron vascular grafts in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, W.C.; Connolly, R.J.; Callow, A.D.; Keough, E.M.; Ramberg-Laskaris, K.; McCullough, J.L.; O'Donnell, T.F. Jr.; Melaragno, A.; Valeri, C.R.; Weiblen, B.

    1984-07-01

    The influence of a single dose of aspirin (5.4-7.4 mg/kg) on platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron interposition grafts was studied in a baboon model using gamma camera scanning for 111-Indium labeled platelets. In vitro assessment of platelet function after aspirin administration revealed that in the baboon, as in the human, aspirin abolished arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation, prolonged the lag time between exposure to collagen and aggregation, and decreased plasma thromboxane B2 levels. Aspirin also prolonged the template bleeding time. Scans for 111-Indium labeled platelets revealed that pretreatment with a single dose of aspirin decreased platelet uptake on 4-mm Dacron carotid interposition grafts. This decrease in platelet uptake was associated with a significant improvement in 2-hour graft patency and with a trend toward improved 2-week patency.

  6. Decreased fibrinolytic activity in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Mussoni, L; Pintucci, G; Romano, G; De Benedetti, F; Massa, M; Martini, A

    1990-12-01

    The basal fibrinolytic activity in 17 children with active juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) was investigated. It was found that patients with JCA, and particularly those with the systemic form, show decreased plasma fibrinolytic activity and a marked increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor. Additionally, it was found that patients with systemic JCA, but not those with the polyarticular or pauciarticular form, have increased circulating levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, and endothelial cell protein, suggesting possible endothelial cell participation in systemic JCA.

  7. Decreased osteoclastogenesis in serotonin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Chabbi-Achengli, Yasmine; Coudert, Amélie E.; Callebert, Jacques; Geoffroy, Valérie; Côté, Francine; Collet, Corinne; de Vernejoul, Marie-Christine

    2012-01-01

    Peripheral serotonin, synthesized by tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1), has been shown to play a key role in several physiological functions. Recently, controversy has emerged about whether peripheral serotonin has any effect on bone density and remodeling.We therefore decided to investigate in detail bone remodeling in growing and mature TPH1 knockout mice (TPH1−/−). Bone resorption in TPH1−/− mice, as assessed by biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry, was markedly decreased at both ages. Using bone marrow transplantation, we present evidence that the decrease in bone resorption in TPH1−/− mice is cell-autonomous. Cultures from TPH1−/− in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator for NF-KB ligand (RANKL) displayed fewer osteoclasts, and the decreased differentiation could be rescued by adding serotonin. Our data also provide evidence that in the presence of RANKL, osteoclast precursors express TPH1 and synthesize serotonin. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of serotonin receptor 1B with SB224289, and of receptor 2A with ketanserin, also reduced the number of osteoclasts. Our findings reveal that serotonin has an important local action in bone, as it can amplify the effect of RANKL on osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22308416

  8. Attenuation of Oxidative Damage by Boerhaavia diffusa L. Against Different Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Homogenate.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Prathapan; Palayyan, Salin Raj; Kozhiparambil Gopalan, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Due to a high rate of oxidative metabolic activity in the brain, intense production of reactive oxygen metabolite occurs, and the subsequent generation of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and ischemia as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, protective effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a neuroprotective edible medicinal plant against oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents, were evaluated. BDE was tested against quinolinic acid (QA), 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and Fe (II)/EDTA complex induced oxidative stress in rat brain homogenates. QA, NPA, SNP, and Fe (II)/EDTA treatment caused an increased level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain homogenates along with a decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. BDE treatment significantly decreased the production of TBARS (p < .05) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with increased concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). Similarly, BDE caused a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the cerebral cortex. Inhibitory potential of BDE against deoxyribose degradation (IC50 value 38.91 ± 0.12 μg/ml) shows that BDE can protect hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage in the tissues. Therefore, B. diffusa had high antioxidant potential that could inhibit the oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents in brain. Since many of the neurological disorders are associated with free radical injury, these data may imply that B. diffusa, functioning as an antioxidant agent, may be beneficial for reducing various neurodegenerative complications.

  9. Sesamol decreases melanin biosynthesis in melanocyte cells and zebrafish: Possible involvement of MITF via the intracellular cAMP and p38/JNK signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-hwa; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-10-01

    The development of antimelanogenic agents is important for the prevention of serious aesthetic problems such as melasma, freckles, age spots and chloasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimelanogenic effect of sesamol, an active lignan isolated from Sesamum indicum, in melan-a cells. Sesamol strongly inhibited melanin biosynthesis and the activity of intracellular tyrosinase by decreasing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation. Sesamol significantly decreased the expression of melanogenesis-related genes, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1,2 (TRP-1,2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) and melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R). In addition, sesamol also induces phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, sesamol dose-dependently decreased zebrafish pigment formation, tyrosinase activity and expression of melanogenesis-related genes. These findings indicate that sesamol inhibited melanin biosynthesis by down-regulating tyrosinase activity and melanin production via regulation of gene expression of melanogenesis-related proteins through modulation of MITF activity, which promoted phosphorylation of p38 and JNK in melan-a cells. Together, these results suggest that sesamol strongly inhibits melanin biosynthesis, and therefore, sesamol represents a new skin-whitening agent for use in cosmetics.

  10. High-rigidity Forbush decreases: due to CMEs or shocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunbabu, K. P.; Antia, H. M.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Nonaka, T.; Oshima, A.; Subramanian, P.

    2013-07-01

    Aims: We seek to identify the primary agents causing Forbush decreases (FDs) in high-rigidity cosmic rays observed from the Earth. In particular, we ask if these FDs are caused mainly by coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun that are directed towards the Earth, or by their associated shocks. Methods: We used the muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We selected those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and can be reasonably well associated with an Earth-directed CME and its associated shock. We employed two models: one that considers the CME as the sole cause of the FD (the CME-only model) and one that considers the shock as the only agent causing the FD (the shock-only model). We used an extensive set of observationally determined parameters for both models. The only free parameter in these models is the level of MHD turbulence in the sheath region, which mediates cosmic ray diffusion (into the CME for the CME-only model, and across the shock sheath for the shock-only model). Results: We find that good fits to the GRAPES-3 multi-rigidity data using the CME-only model require turbulence levels in the CME sheath region that are only slightly higher than those estimated for the quiescent solar wind. On the other hand, reasonable model fits with the shock-only model require turbulence levels in the sheath region that are an order of magnitude higher than those in the quiet solar wind. Conclusions: This observation naturally leads to the conclusion that the Earth-directed CMEs are the primary contributors to FDs observed in high-rigidity cosmic rays. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. PRSS8 methylation and its significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Yonghua; Wang, Qian; Guo, Yongchen; Chen, Zhiguo; Li, Kai; Yang, Yiqiong; Zhang, Huijuan; Dong, Huali; Shen, Kui; Yang, Wancai

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and the incidence and mortality is increasing rapidly in recent years in China, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unclear. Herein we found that the expression of PRSS8, a serine protease prostasin, is significantly decreased in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCC) at mRNA and protein levels. The reduction of PRSS8 was well correlated with poor differentiation and shorter survival time. Interestingly, ESCC stromal expression of PRSS8 was significantly correlated with stromal lymphocyte infiltration and cancer progression. Methylation specific PCR showed that PRSS8 was hypermethylated in ESCC tissues and ESCC cell lines, which was linked to the downregulation of PRSS8 expression and decreased activities of PRSS8 promoter. De-methylation agent decitabine was able to restore PRSS8 expression, leading to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, motility, migration and cell cycle arrest. However, the restored PRSS8 and its tumor inhibition could be reversed by small interfering RNA targeting PRSS8. Mechanistic study showed that tumor inhibition of PRSS8 may be associated with proliferation- and epithelial mesenchymal transition - related proteins in ESCC cells. In conclusion, our finding showed that PRSS8 methylation and its stromal expression had important clinical significance in ESCC. PMID:27081034

  12. Radiolabeled antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, D A; Meares, C F

    1976-10-01

    Bleomycin serves as a useful prototype for a study of the various properties required in a radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging. Both in vitro and in vivo results using bleomycin labeled with a large number of different radionuclides have now been reported. In general, it has not been possible to predict in vivo biologic behavior solely from in vitro data. For example, 57Co-bleomycin and 111In-bleomycin both have identical patterns in several different chromatographic systems and do not break down with prolonged storage in saline, exposure to heat, or other cations. However, when the labeled bleomycin is exposed to serum transferrin (and to other as yet unidentified ligands in the body) a difference in stability becomes obvious. The stability and biologic activity of 57Co-bleomycin in humans demonstrate the validity of metal chelation as a labeling technique for this specific molecule, and also suggests that other stable chelates will have useful applications. Although 57Co-bleomycin has the most desirable biologic characteristics of all the chelates of bleomycin, the extremely long physical half-life of 57Co of 270 days creates a significant contamination problem in the hospital. Because of this, the use of 57Co-bleomycin is limited to a few specialized centers. All users have emphasized the need for a better radionuclide to produce a labeled bleomycin with the same or superior biologic characteristics to 57Co-bleomycin. Unfortunately, the elements forming the most stable chelates with bleomycin (copper, zinc, cobalt, and nickel) do not have radionuclides with suitable physical characteristics for scanning. Copper-67 may become available in the future from high-energy linear accelerators. However, even if it were available, copper will probably not have as good chemical properties as cobalt.

  13. Synthesis and mechanisms of action of novel harmine derivatives as potential antitumor agents.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Rong-Qin; Jia, Yi-Fan; Chen, Qing; Tu, Rong-Fu; Li, Ke-Ke; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Du, Run-Lei; Cao, Ri-Hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel harmine derivatives bearing a benzylindine substituent in position-1 of β-carboline ring were synthesized and evaluated as antitumor agents. The N2-benzylated β-carboline derivatives 3a-g represented the most interesting anticancer activities and compound 3c was found to be the most active agent to diverse cancer cell lines such as gastric carcinoma, melanoma and colorectal cancer. Notably, compound 3c showed low toxicity to normal cells. The treatment significantly induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway mediated compound 3c-induced apoptosis. Compound 3c inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS scavenger, LNAC and GSH, could disturb the effect of compound 3c induced apoptosis and PI3K activity inhibitor LY294002 synergistically enhanced compound 3c efficacy. Moreover, the results from nude mice xenograft model showed that compound 3c treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth and decreased tumor weight. Collectively, our results demonstrated that compound 3c exerts apoptotic effect in cancer cells via suppression of phosphorylated AKT and evocation of ROS generation, which suggested that compound 3c might be served as a promising therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. PMID:27625151

  14. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    PubMed

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-01

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents.

  15. Cardiocladius oliffi (Diptera: Chironomidae) as a potential biological control agent against Simulium squamosum (Diptera: Simuliidae)

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Daniel A; Fokam, Eric; Ghansah, Anita; Amakye, Josef; Wilson, Michael D; Brown, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Background The control of onchocerciasis in the African region is currently based mainly on the mass drug administration of ivermectin. Whilst this has been found to limit morbidity, it does not stop transmission. In the absence of a macrofilaricide, there is a need for an integrated approach for disease management, which includes vector control. Vector control using chemical insecticides is expensive to apply, and therefore the use of other measures such as biological control agents is needed. Immature stages of Simulium squamosum, reared in the laboratory from egg masses collected from the field at Boti Falls and Huhunya (River Pawnpawn) in Ghana, were observed to be attacked and fed upon by larvae of the chironomid Cardiocladius oliffi Freeman, 1956 (Diptera: Chironomidae). Methods Cardiocladius oliffi was successfully reared in the rearing system developed for S. damnosum s.l. and evaluated for its importance as a biological control agent in the laboratory. Results Even at a ratio of one C. oliffi to five S. squamosum, they caused a significant decrease in the number of adult S. squamosum emerging from the systems (treatments). Predation was confirmed by the amplification of Simulium DNA from C. oliffi observed to have fed on S. squamosum pupae. The study also established that the chironomid flies could successfully complete their development on a fish food diet only. Conclusion Cardiocladius oliffi has been demonstrated as potential biological control agent against S. squamosum. PMID:19393069

  16. [Half-molar sodium-lactate: The osmotic agent we are looking for?].

    PubMed

    Aramendi, I; Manzanares, W; Biestro, A

    2016-03-01

    Intracranial hypertension (ICH) is the most important modifiable factor with predictive negative value in brain injury patients. Osmotherapy is the most important first level specific measure in the treatment of ICH. Mannitol 20%, and 3, 7.5, 10, and 23% hypertonic sodium chloride are the most commonly used osmotic agents in the neurocritical care setting. Currently, controversy about the best osmotic agent remains elusive. Therefore, over the past few years, half-molar sodium lactate has been introduced as a new osmotic agent to be administered in the critically ill. Lactate is able to prevent hyperchloremia, as well as its adverse effects such as hyperchloremic acidosis, systemic inflammation, and acute kidney injury. Furthermore, lactate may also be used by glia as energy substrate in brain injury patients. Half-molar sodium lactate would also have a more potent and long-lasting effect decreasing intracellular osmolarity and by inhibiting neuronal volume control mechanisms. Pioneering researches in patients with traumatic brain injury have shown a more significant effect than mannitol on the control of ICH. In addition, in this group of patients this solution appears to be beneficial in preventing episodes of ICH. However, future research is necessary to corroborate or not these promising results.

  17. Combining agent-based modeling and life cycle assessment for the evaluation of mobility policies.

    PubMed

    Florent, Querini; Enrico, Benetto

    2015-02-01

    This article presents agent-based modeling (ABM) as a novel approach for consequential life cycle assessment (C-LCA) of large scale policies, more specifically mobility-related policies. The approach is validated at the Luxembourgish level (as a first case study). The agent-based model simulates the car market (sales, use, and dismantling) of the population of users in the period 2013-2020, following the implementation of different mobility policies and available electric vehicles. The resulting changes in the car fleet composition as well as the hourly uses of the vehicles are then used to derive consistent LCA results, representing the consequences of the policies. Policies will have significant environmental consequences: when using ReCiPe2008, we observe a decrease of global warming, fossil depletion, acidification, ozone depletion, and photochemical ozone formation and an increase of metal depletion, ionizing radiations, marine eutrophication, and particulate matter formation. The study clearly shows that the extrapolation of LCA results for the circulating fleet at national scale following the introduction of the policies from the LCAs of single vehicles by simple up-scaling (using hypothetical deployment scenarios) would be flawed. The inventory has to be directly conducted at full scale and to this aim, ABM is indeed a promising approach, as it allows identifying and quantifying emerging effects while modeling the Life Cycle Inventory of vehicles at microscale through the concept of agents. PMID:25587896

  18. In Vivo Characterization of a Smart MRI Agent That Displays an Inverse Response to Calcium Concentration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that exhibit sensitivity toward specific ions or molecules represent a challenging but attractive direction of research. Here a Gd3+ complex linked to an aminobis(methylenephosphonate) group for chelating Ca2+ was synthesized and investigated. The longitudinal relaxivity (r1) of this complex decreases during the relaxometric titration with Ca2+ from 5.76 to 3.57 mM−1 s−1 upon saturation. The r1 is modulated by changes in the hydration number, which was confirmed by determination of the luminescence emission lifetimes of the analogous Eu3+ complex. The initial in vivo characterization of this responsive contrast agent was performed by means of electrophysiology and MRI experiments. The investigated complex is fully biocompatible, having no observable effect on neuronal function after administration into the brain ventricles or parenchyma. Distribution studies demonstrated that the diffusivity of this agent is significantly lower compared with that of gadolinium−diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd−DTPA). PMID:22778817

  19. Synthesis and mechanisms of action of novel harmine derivatives as potential antitumor agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Sun, Rong-qin; Jia, Yi-fan; Chen, Qing; Tu, Rong-Fu; Li, Ke-ke; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Du, Run-Lei; Cao, Ri-hui

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel harmine derivatives bearing a benzylindine substituent in position-1 of β-carboline ring were synthesized and evaluated as antitumor agents. The N2-benzylated β-carboline derivatives 3a–g represented the most interesting anticancer activities and compound 3c was found to be the most active agent to diverse cancer cell lines such as gastric carcinoma, melanoma and colorectal cancer. Notably, compound 3c showed low toxicity to normal cells. The treatment significantly induced cell apoptosis. Mechanistically, PI3K/AKT signaling pathway mediated compound 3c-induced apoptosis. Compound 3c inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS scavenger, LNAC and GSH, could disturb the effect of compound 3c induced apoptosis and PI3K activity inhibitor LY294002 synergistically enhanced compound 3c efficacy. Moreover, the results from nude mice xenograft model showed that compound 3c treatment effectively inhibited tumor growth and decreased tumor weight. Collectively, our results demonstrated that compound 3c exerts apoptotic effect in cancer cells via suppression of phosphorylated AKT and evocation of ROS generation, which suggested that compound 3c might be served as a promising therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. PMID:27625151

  20. Degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment: implications for terrorism response.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Amy L; Wilkening, Dean A

    2005-04-15

    We investigate the impact on effective terrorism response of the viability degradation of biological weapons agents in the environment. We briefly review the scientific understanding and modeling of agent environmental viability degradation. In general, agent susceptibility to viability loss is greatest for vegetative bacteria, intermediate for viruses, and least for bacterial spores. Survival is greatest in soil and progressively decreases in the following environments: textiles, water, hard surfaces, and air. There is little detailed understanding of loss mechanisms. We analyze the time behavior and sensitivity of four mathematical models that are used to represent environmental viability degradation (the exponential, probability, and first- and second-order catastrophic decay models). The models behave similarly at short times (<30 min for our example case) but diverge to significantly different values at intermediate to long times. Hence, for a release event in which the majority of atmospheric exposure or deposition occurs oververy short times, the current response models likely provide a good representation of the hazard. For longer time phenomena, including decontamination, the current model capabilities are likely insufficient. Finally, we implement each model in a simple numerical integration of anthrax dispersion, viability degradation, and dose response. Decay models spanning the current knowledge of airborne degradation result in vastly different predicted hazard areas. This confounds attempts to determine necessary medical and decontamination measures. Hence,the current level of understanding and representation of environmental viability degradation in response models is inadequate to inform appropriate emergency response measures.

  1. Software agents and the route to the information economy

    PubMed Central

    Kephart, Jeffrey O.

    2002-01-01

    Humans are on the verge of losing their status as the sole economic species on the planet. In private laboratories and in the Internet laboratory, researchers and developers are creating a variety of autonomous economically motivated software agents endowed with algorithms for maximizing profit or utility. Many economic software agents will function as miniature businesses, purchasing information inputs from other agents, combining and refining them into information goods and services, and selling them to humans or other agents. Their mutual interactions will form the information economy: a complex economic web of information goods and services that will adapt to the ever-changing needs of people and agents. The information economy will be the largest multiagent system ever conceived and an integral part of the world's economy. I discuss a possible route toward this vision, beginning with present-day Internet trends suggesting that agents will charge one another for information goods and services. Then, to establish that agents can be competent price setters, I describe some laboratory experiments pitting software bidding agents against human bidders. The agents' superior performance suggests they will be used on a broad scale, which in turn suggests that interactions among agents will become frequent and significant. How will this affect macroscopic economic behavior? I describe some interesting phenomena that my colleagues and I have observed in simulations of large populations of automated buyers and sellers, such as price war cycles. I conclude by discussing fundamental scientific challenges that remain to be addressed as we journey toward the information economy. PMID:12011399

  2. A multi-agent architecture for geosimulation of moving agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahidnia, Mohammad H.; Alesheikh, Ali A.; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel architecture is proposed in which an axiomatic derivation system in the form of first-order logic facilitates declarative explanation and spatial reasoning. Simulation of environmental perception and interaction between autonomous agents is designed with a geographic belief-desire-intention and a request-inform-query model. The architecture has a complementary quantitative component that supports collaborative planning based on the concept of equilibrium and game theory. This new architecture presents a departure from current best practices geographic agent-based modelling. Implementation tasks are discussed in some detail, as well as scenarios for fleet management and disaster management.

  3. Enhancing Middle School Students' Scientific Learning and Motivation through Agent-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-H.; Chou, M.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Facing students' decreasing motivation to pursue scientific study, schools and educators need to coordinate new technologies with pedagogical agents to effectively sustain or promote students' scientific learning and motivation to learn. Although the provision of pedagogical agents in student learning has been studied previously, it is not clear…

  4. Sulforaphane increases the efficacy of anti-androgens by rapidly decreasing androgen receptor levels in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Namrata; Talwar, Sudha; Chandra, Partha K; Sharma, Pankaj; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Mondal, Debasis; Sikka, Suresh C

    2016-10-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells utilize androgen for their growth. Hence, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) using anti-androgens, e.g. bicalutamide (BIC) and enzalutamide (ENZ), is a mainstay of treatment. However, the outgrowth of castration resistant PCa (CRPC) cells remains a significant problem. These CRPC cells express androgen receptor (AR) and utilize the intratumoral androgen towards their continued growth and invasion. Sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, can decrease AR protein levels. In the present study, we tested the combined efficacy of anti-androgens and SFN in suppressing PCa cell growth, motility and clonogenic ability. Both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (C4-2B) cells were used to monitor the effects of BIC and ENZ, alone and in combination with SFN. Co-exposure to SFN significantly (p<0.005) enhanced the anti-proliferative effects of anti-androgens and downregulated expression of the AR-responsive gene, prostate specific antigen (PSA) (p<0.05). Exposure to SFN decreased AR protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner with almost no AR detected at 24 h with 15 µM SFN (p<0.005). This rapid and potent AR suppression by SFN occurred by both AR protein degradation, as suggested by cycloheximide (CHX) co-exposure studies, and by suppression of AR gene expression, as evident from quantitative RT-PCR experiments. Pre-exposure to SFN also reduced R1881-stimulated nuclear localization of AR, and combined treatment with SFN and anti-androgens abrogated the mitogenic effects of this AR-agonist (p<0.005). Wound-healing assays revealed that co-exposure to SFN and anti-androgens can significantly (p<0.005) reduce PCa cell migration. In addition, long-term exposures (14 days) to much lower concentrations of these agents, SFN (0.2 µM), BIC (1 µM) and/or ENZ (0.4 µM) significantly (p<0.005) decreased the number of colony forming units (CFUs). These findings clearly suggest that

  5. Dietary agents for chemoprevention of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Deeba N; Suh, Yewseok; Afaq, Farrukh; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (CaP) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in American men, responsible for over 29,000 deaths in the year 2007. Chemoprevention is a plausible and cost-effective approach to reduce cancer morbidity and mortality through inhibition of precancerous events before the occurrence of clinical disease. Indeed, CaP is an ideal candidate disease for chemopreventive intervention as it is typically diagnosed in the elderly population with a relatively slower rate of growth and progression. The potential of dietary substances to act as chemopreventive agents against CaP is increasingly appreciated. Furhter, epidemiological studies have identified significant correlations between CaP incidence and dietary habits. It is hoped that, combining the knowledge based on agents with targets, we will be able to build an armamentarium of naturally occurring chemopreventive substances that could prevent or slow down the development and progression of CaP. In this review, we have summarized the findings from clinical and preclinical studies on dietary agents including green tea, pomegranate, lupeol, fisetin and delphinidin that are currently being investigated in our laboratory for their chemopreventive potential against CaP. PMID:18395333

  6. [Bioterrorism agents: getting ready for the unthinkable].

    PubMed

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso; Santos-Preciado, José Ignacio

    2005-01-01

    The September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S.A. demonstrated our vulnerability to terrorist raids. Furthermore, in the same year inhalational anthrax cases in humans caused by the intentional [corrected] release of Bacillus anthracis spores via the U.S.A. postal system inflicted a lot of panic and terror over the civilian population. The succeeding terrorist events scattered in several other countries are continuous reminders of our frailness [corrected] and of the risk that terrorists attempts in the future may be implemented by means of deliberate evil release of biological agents. These events may be perpetrated by either the release of an infectious agent or any of its products in order to spread death or sickness in humans, animals, or plants with the obnoxius purpose of scaring governments and societies for the profit of particular ideological causes. In the current article, we present a review of the main bioterrorism agents, as well as a historical and clinical aspects and their significance for public health preparedness and response.

  7. Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

  8. Evolution of Embolic Agents in Interventional Neuroradiology.

    PubMed

    Brassel, F; Meila, D

    2015-10-01

    The growth in understanding of the pathophysiological relationships between various neurovascular diseases in the past decades has increased the significance and need for endovascular treatment. Consequently, an extraordinary development of different embolic agents was indispensable. The present work first presents the historical milestones in the discovery of various embolic materials used for neurovascular interventions. In the second part, the current endovascular embolization procedures, requiring both liquid and solid embolic agents, are discussed. In some cases and diseases the combination of both may be mandatory. Special emphasis is placed on the consideration needed when choosing appropriate embolic materials, chiefly depending on the goal of the endovascular procedure. Furthermore, the present understanding of the specifics in angioarchitecture and hemodynamics, leading to the most suitable form of access to the vascular lesion, will be covered. Regarding the latter, it is important to note that the aim should always be to achieve optimal superselectivity while being aware of all approaches, ranging from transarterial and transvenous to direct puncture. Finally, based on the limitations of the currently available embolic materials, we present a brief outlook on the future of new liquid and solid embolic agents.

  9. Next Generation Remote Agent Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Muscettola, Nicola; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    In May 1999, as part of a unique technology validation experiment onboard the Deep Space One spacecraft, the Remote Agent became the first complete autonomous spacecraft control architecture to run as flight software onboard an active spacecraft. As one of the three components of the architecture, the Remote Agent Planner had the task of laying out the course of action to be taken, which included activities such as turning, thrusting, data gathering, and communicating. Building on the successful approach developed for the Remote Agent Planner, the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner is a completely redesigned and reimplemented version of the planner. The new system provides all the key capabilities of the original planner, while adding functionality, improving performance and providing a modular and extendible implementation. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop a system that provides both a basis for future applications and a framework for further research in the area of autonomous planning for spacecraft. In this article, we present an introductory overview of the Next Generation Remote Agent Planner. We present a new and simplified definition of the planning problem, describe the basics of the planning process, lay out the new system design and examine the functionality of the core reasoning module.

  10. Investigational Antimicrobial Agents of 2013

    PubMed Central

    Pucci, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY New antimicrobial agents are always needed to counteract the resistant pathogens that continue to be selected by current therapeutic regimens. This review provides a survey of known antimicrobial agents that were currently in clinical development in the fall of 2012 and spring of 2013. Data were collected from published literature primarily from 2010 to 2012, meeting abstracts (2011 to 2012), government websites, and company websites when appropriate. Compared to what was reported in previous surveys, a surprising number of new agents are currently in company pipelines, particularly in phase 3 clinical development. Familiar antibacterial classes of the quinolones, tetracyclines, oxazolidinones, glycopeptides, and cephalosporins are represented by entities with enhanced antimicrobial or pharmacological properties. More importantly, compounds of novel chemical structures targeting bacterial pathways not previously exploited are under development. Some of the most promising compounds include novel β-lactamase inhibitor combinations that target many multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, a critical medical need. Although new antimicrobial agents will continue to be needed to address increasing antibiotic resistance, there are novel agents in development to tackle at least some of the more worrisome pathogens in the current nosocomial setting. PMID:24092856

  11. Intralipid Fat Emulsion Decreases Respiratory Failure in a Rat Model of Parathion Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Courtney; Bird, Steven B.; Gaspari, Romolo

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapies exist for acute organophosphate (OP) exposure but mortality rates remain high (10% to 20%). Currently, treatment focuses on reversing the resultant cholinergic excess effects through the use of atropine. Intralipid fat emulsion (IFE) has been used to treat lipophilic drug ingestions and theoretically would be beneficial for some OP agents. Objectives The hypothesis was that IFE would decrease the acute respiratory depressant effects following lethal OP exposure using a lipophilic OP agent (parathion). Methods The authors used a previously validated animal model of OP poisoning with detailed physiologic respiratory recordings. The model consisted of Wistar rats anesthetized but spontaneously breathing 100% oxygen. Airflow, respiratory rate, tidal volume, mean arterial pressure, and pulse rate were digitally recorded for 120 minutes following OP exposure or until respiratory failure. Three study groups included parathion alone (n = 6), parathion and IFE 5 minutes after poisoning (n = 6), and parathion and IFE 20 minutes after poisoning (n = 6). In all groups, parathion was given as a single oral dose of 54 mg/kg (4 times the rat oral 50% population lethal dose [LD50]). Three boluses of IFE (15 mg/kg/min) were given over 3 minutes, 20 minutes apart, starting either 5 or 20 minutes after poisoning. Timing of IFE was based on parathion kinetics. In one study group IFE was initiated 5 minutes after poisoning to coincide with initial absorption of parathion. In another study group IFE was given at 20 minutes to coincide with peak intravenous parathion concentration. Primary outcome was percent of animals with apnea. Secondary outcome was time to apnea. Results Animals exposed to parathion alone demonstrated a steady decline in respiratory rate and tidal volume post-exposure, with apnea occurring a mean of 51.6 minutes after poisoning (95% CI = 35.8 min to 53.2 min). Animals treated with IFE 5 minutes post-exposuredemonstrated no difference in mean

  12. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually.

  13. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  14. Effect of sweetener and flavoring agent on oxidative indices, liver and kidney function levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Amin, Kamal A; Al-muzafar, Hessa M; Abd Elsttar, Adel H

    2016-01-01

    Food additives while attract consumers, improve quality, control weight and replace sugar, may affect seriously children and adults health. Here, we investigated the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes as sweetener and flavoring agent on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function and oxidative stress/antioxidants (lipid peroxidation, catalase and reduced glutathione in liver tissues). Saccharin and methylsalicylate were administered orally in young male albino rats at low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd (low and high saccharin-treated groups) and 4th and 5th (low and high methylsalicylate-treated group). Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were found decreased in saccharin high dose group compared to control. Rats consumed high dose of saccharin showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Further, saccharin at high dose induced significant decrease in liver GSH levels, catalase and SOD activity and increase in hepatic MDA level. Overall saccharin harmfully altered biochemical markers in liver and kidney at higher as well as lower doses. Whereas, methyl salicylates did not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26891553

  15. The Use of Anabolic Agents in Catabolic States

    PubMed Central

    Demling, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We plan to review the current problem of lean mass erosion in catabolic states, caused by injury and critical illness. This protein loss is driven by the hormonal imbalance and excess inflammation referred to as the “stress response to injury.” We then plan to provide the current concepts on the use of available anabolic agents to attenuate the excess catabolism. Data Source: The available published literature on the pathogenesis of acute catabolic states and the use of anabolic and anticatabolic agents, their indications, mechanism of action, and potential complications was reviewed. Data Extraction: The current understanding and experience of the available anabolic and anticatabolic agents as well as the rationale for the use of each anabolic agent are described. Conclusion: We conclude that the preservation of lean body mass (body protein) is extremely important in the management of critical care populations, as lean mass loss leads to severe morbidity and increased mortality. Essentially, all of the available anabolic agents stimulate protein synthesis and decrease protein breakdown, but all have different mechanisms of action. Adequate nutrition, especially protein intake, is essential for any anabolism to occur. Combined anabolic therapy also appears to be advantageous. Although controlling the inflammatory response would also be of major benefit in further controlling protein loss, effective and safe anti-inflammatory agents have not yet become clinically available for this purpose. PMID:17364003

  16. Polypropylenes foam consisting of thermally expandable microcapsule as blowing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeoung, Sun Kyung; Hwang, Ye Jin; Lee, Hyun Wook; Kwak, Sung Bok; Han, In-Soo; Ha, Jin Uk

    2016-03-01

    The structure of thermally expandable microcapsule (TEMs) is consisted of a thermoplastic shell which is filled with liquid hydrocarbon at core. The shell of TEMs becomes soft when the temperature is higher than boiling temperature of liquid hydrocarbon. The shell of TEMs is expanded under the high temperature because the inner pressure of TEMs is increased by vaporization of hydrocarbon core. Therefore, the TEMs are applicable for blowing agents and light weight fillers. In this research, we fabricated the polypropylene (PP) foam by using the TEMs and chemical blowing agents and compared to their physical properties. The density of the specimen was decreased when the contents of chemical blowing agents and TEMs were increased. In addition, the mechanical properties (i.e. tensile strength and impact strength) of specimens were deteriorated with increasing amount of chemical blowing agents and TEMs. However, PP foam produced with TEMs showed higher impact strength than the one with the chemical blowing agent. In order to clarify the dependence of impact strength of PP foam as the blowing agent, the morphology difference of the PP foams was investigated. Expanding properties of PP foams produced with TEMs was changed with TEMs content of PP foams. Processing conditions also influenced the mechanical properties of PP foam containing TEMs.

  17. Wealth distribution across communities of adaptive financial agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLellis, Pietro; Garofalo, Franco; Lo Iudice, Francesco; Napoletano, Elena

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies the trading volumes and wealth distribution of a novel agent-based model of an artificial financial market. In this model, heterogeneous agents, behaving according to the Von Neumann and Morgenstern utility theory, may mutually interact. A Tobin-like tax (TT) on successful investments and a flat tax are compared to assess the effects on the agents’ wealth distribution. We carry out extensive numerical simulations in two alternative scenarios: (i) a reference scenario, where the agents keep their utility function fixed, and (ii) a focal scenario, where the agents are adaptive and self-organize in communities, emulating their neighbours by updating their own utility function. Specifically, the interactions among the agents are modelled through a directed scale-free network to account for the presence of community leaders, and the herding-like effect is tested against the reference scenario. We observe that our model is capable of replicating the benefits and drawbacks of the two taxation systems and that the interactions among the agents strongly affect the wealth distribution across the communities. Remarkably, the communities benefit from the presence of leaders with successful trading strategies, and are more likely to increase their average wealth. Moreover, this emulation mechanism mitigates the decrease in trading volumes, which is a typical drawback of TTs.

  18. Traumatic brain injury decreases AMP-activated protein kinase activity and pharmacological enhancement of its activity improves cognitive outcome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Julia L; Kobori, Nobuhide; Zhao, Jing; Rozas, Natalia S; Hylin, Michael J; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2016-10-01

    Prolonged metabolic suppression in the brain is a well-characterized secondary pathology of both experimental and clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular energy sensor that, when activated, regulates various metabolic and catabolic pathways to decrease ATP consumption and increase ATP synthesis. As energy availability after TBI is suppressed, we questioned if increasing AMPK activity after TBI would improve cognitive outcome. TBI was delivered using the electromagnetic controlled cortical impact model on male Sprague-Dawley rats (275-300 g) and C57BL/6 mice (20-25 g). AMPK activity within the injured parietal cortex and ipsilateral hippocampus was inferred by western blots using phospho-specific antibodies. The consequences of acute manipulation of AMPK signaling on cognitive function were assessed using the Morris water maze task. We found that AMPK activity is decreased as a result of injury, as indicated by reduced AMPK phosphorylation and corresponding changes in the phosphorylation of its downstream targets: ribosomal protein S6 and Akt Substrate of 160 kDa (AS160). Increasing AMPK activity after injury using the drugs 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide or metformin did not affect spatial learning, but significantly improved spatial memory. Taken together, our results suggest that decreased AMPK activity after TBI may contribute to the cellular energy crisis in the injured brain, and that AMPK activators may have therapeutic utility. Increased phosphorylation of Thr172 activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) under conditions of low cellular energy availability. This leads to inhibition of energy consuming, while activating energy generating, processes. Hill et al., present data to indicate that TBI decreases Thr172 phosphorylation and that its stimulation by pharmacological agents offers neuroprotection and improves memory. These results suggest that decreased AMPK phosphorylation after

  19. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast. PMID:27190149

  20. Boric acid-dependent decrease in regulatory histone H3 acetylation is not mutagenic in yeast.

    PubMed

    Pointer, Benjamin R; Schmidt, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Candida albicans is a dimorphic yeast commonly found on human mucosal membranes that switches from yeast to hyphal morphology in response to environmental factors. The change to hyphal growth requires histone H3 modifications by the yeast-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109. In addition to its role in morphogenesis, Rtt109-dependent acetylation of histone H3 lysine residues 9 and 56 has regulatory functions during DNA replication and repair. Boric acid (BA) is a broad-spectrum agent that specifically inhibits C. albicans hyphal growth, locking the fungus in its harmless commensal yeast state. The present study characterizes the effect of BA on C. albicans histone acetylation in respect to specificity, time-course and significance. We demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of BA reduce H3K9/H3K56 acetylation, both on a basal level and in response to genotoxic stress. Acetylation at other selected histone sites were not affected by BA. qRT-PCR expression analysis of the DNA repair gene Rad51 indicated no elevated level of genotoxic stress during BA exposure. A forward-mutation analysis demonstrated the BA does not increase spontaneous or induced mutations. The findings suggest that DNA repair remains effective even when histone H3 acetylation decreases and dispels the notion that BA treatment impairs genome integrity in yeast.

  1. The Role of Biomarkers in Decreasing Risk of Cardiac Toxicity after Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Henri, Christine; Heinonen, Therese; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of cancer therapy, survival related to malignancy has improved, but the prevalence of long-term cardiotoxicity has also increased. Cancer therapies with known cardiac toxicity include anthracyclines, biologic agents (trastuzumab), and multikinase inhibitors (sunitinib). The most frequent presentation of cardiac toxicity is dilated cardiomyopathy associated with poorest prognosis. Monitoring of cardiac toxicity is commonly performed by assessment of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, which requires a significant amount of myocardial damage to allow detection of cardiac toxicity. Accordingly, this creates the impetus to search for more sensitive and reproducible biomarkers of cardiac toxicity after cancer therapy. Different biomarkers have been proposed to that end, the most studied ones included troponin release resulting from cardiomyocyte damage and natriuretic peptides reflecting elevation in LV filling pressure and wall stress. Increase in the levels of troponin and natriuretic peptides have been correlated with cumulative dose of anthracycline and the degree of LV dysfunction. Troponin is recognized as a highly efficient predictor of early and chronic cardiac toxicity, but there remains some debate regarding the clinical usefulness of the measurement of natriuretic peptides because of divergent results. Preliminary data are available for other biomarkers targeting inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, and neuregulin-1. The purpose of this article is to review the available data to determine the role of biomarkers in decreasing the risk of cardiac toxicity after cancer therapy. PMID:27257396

  2. CONJUGATED LINOLEIC ACIDS (CLA) DECREASE THE BREAST CANCER RISK IN DMBA-TREATED RATS.

    PubMed

    Białek, Agnieszka; Tokarz, Andrzej; Zagrodzki, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how supplementation of diet of female Sprague-Dawley rats with different doses of conjugated linoleic acids and for a varied period of time influences breast cancer risk, fatty acids profile and lipids peroxidation in chemically induced mammary tumors. Animals were divided into nine groups with different modifications of diet (vegetable oil, 1.0 or 2.0% of CLA) and period of supplementation, which lasted after (A), before (B) and before and after (BA) carcinogenic agent--7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene administration at 50th day of life. Mammary adenocarcinomas occurred in all groups, but CLA supplementation decreased the cancer morbidity. Two percent CLA seems to be excessive because of the coexisting cachexia. Two CLA isomers (9-cis, 11-trans and 10-trans, 12-cis) were detected in tumors but content of rumenic acid was higher. Dietary supplementation significantly influenced some unsaturated fatty acids content (C18:2 n-6 trans, C20:1, C20:5 n-3, C22:2), but the anti- or prooxidant properties of CLA were not confirmed. CLA can inhibit chemically induced mammary tumors development in female rats, but their cytotoxic action seems not to be connected with lipids peroxidation. CLA isomers differ with their incorporation into cancerous tissues and they influence the content of some other fatty acids. PMID:27180424

  3. Erythropoietin stimulation decreases hepcidin expression through hematopoietic activity on bone marrow cells in mice.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yusuke; Noguchi-Sasaki, Mariko; Yasuno, Hideyuki; Yorozu, Keigo; Shimonaka, Yasushi

    2012-12-01

    Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) are now central to the treatment of renal anemia and are associated with improved clinical outcomes. It is well known that erythropoietin (EPO) is a key regulator of erythropoiesis through its promotion of red blood cell production. In order to investigate the role of ESA on iron metabolism, we analyzed the regulation of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin by ESA treatment in a bone marrow transplant model in mouse. After treating C57BL/6 mice with continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (C.E.R.A.), recombinant human epoetin-β (rhEPO), or recombinant human carbamylated epoetin-β (rhCEPO), we investigated serum hepcidin concentrations and parameters of erythropoiesis. Serum hepcidin concentrations after rhEPO treatment were analyzed in mice subjected to total body irradiation followed by bone marrow transplantation. C.E.R.A. administration caused long-term downregulation of serum hepcidin levels. Serum hepcidin levels in rhEPO-treated mice decreased significantly, whereas there was no change in rhCEPO-treated mice. The reduction in circulating hepcidin levels after rhEPO administration was not observed in irradiated mice. Finally, bone marrow transplantation recovered the response to rhEPO administration that downregulates hepcidin concentration in irradiated mice. These results indicate that ESA treatment downregulates serum hepcidin concentrations, mainly by indirect mechanisms affecting hematopoietic activity in bone marrow cells. PMID:23160767

  4. Melatonin promotes myelination by decreasing white matter inflammation after neonatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Villapol, Sonia; Fau, Sébastien; Renolleau, Sylvain; Biran, Valérie; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Baud, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Melatonin demonstrates neuroprotective properties in adult models of cerebral ischemia, acting as a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. We investigated the effect of melatonin in a 7-d-old rat model of ischemia-reperfusion, leading to both cortical infarct and injury in the underlying white matter observed using MRI and immunohistochemistry. Melatonin was given i.p. as either a single dose before ischemia or a double-dose regimen, combining one before ischemia and one 24 h after reperfusion. At 48 h after injury, neither a significant reduction in cortical infarct volume nor a variation in the number of TUNEL- and nitrotyrosine-positive cells within the ipsilateral lesion was observed in melatonin-treated animals compared with controls. However, a decrease in the density of tomato lectin-positive cells after melatonin treatment was found in the white matter underlying cortical lesion. Furthermore, we showed a marked increase in the myelin basic protein-immunoreactivity in the cingulum and in the density of mature oligodendrocytes (APC-immunoreactive) in both the ipsilateral cingulum and external capsule. These results suggest that melatonin is not able to reduce cortical infarct volume in a neonatal stroke model but strongly reduces inflammation and promotes subsequent myelination in the white matter. PMID:20856166

  5. Staurosporine induces apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) in ECV304 cells.

    PubMed

    Porcelli, A M; Ghelli, A; Zanna, C; Valente, P; Ferroni, S; Rugolo, M

    2003-12-01

    Incubation of ECV304 cells with 1 micro M staurosporine (STS) causes apoptotic cell death. In the present study, we investigate whether a significant apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) was apparent during the very early times (1 h) of the apoptotic process. Our data suggest that upregulation of Cl(-) (and possibly K(+)) channels by STS may be a very early primary event required for the subsequent onset of AVD, which results in apoptosis.

  6. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential.

  7. Bone Marrow Stress Decreases Osteogenic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Adeline H; Baht, Gurpreet S; Alman, Benjamin A; Grynpas, Marc D

    2015-11-01

    Age-related bone loss may be a result of declining levels of stem cells in the bone marrow. Using the Col2.3Δtk (DTK) transgenic mouse, osteoblast depletion was used as a source of marrow stress in order to investigate the effects of aging on osteogenic progenitors which reside in the marrow space. Five-month-old DTK mice were treated with one or two cycles of ganciclovir to conditionally ablate differentiated osteoblasts, whereas controls were saline-treated. Treatment cycles were two weeks in length followed by four weeks of recovery. All animals were sacrificed at 8 months of age; bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were harvested for cell culture and whole bones were excised for bone quality assessment. Colony-forming unit (CFU) assays were conducted to investigate the osteogenic potential of BMSC in vitro, and RNA was extracted to assess the expression of osteoblastic genes. Bone quality assessments included bone histomorphometry, TRAP staining, microcomputed tomography, and biomechanical testing. Osteoblast depletion decreased CFU-F (fibroblast), CFU-ALP (alkaline phosphatase), and CFU-VK (von Kossa) counts and BMSC osteogenic capacity in cell culture. Ex vivo, there were no differences in bone mineral density of vertebrae or femurs between treatment groups. Histology showed a decrease in bone volume and bone connectivity with repeated osteoblast depletion; however, this was accompanied by an increase in bone formation rate. There were no notable differences in osteoclast parameters or observed bone marrow adiposity. We have developed a model that uses bone marrow stress to mimic age-related decrease in osteogenic progenitors. Our data suggest that the number of healthy BMSCs and their osteogenic potential decline with repeated osteoblast depletion. However, activity of the remaining osteoblasts increases to compensate for this loss in progenitor osteogenic potential. PMID:26220824

  8. Decreased bone mineral density and periodontal management.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Michael S; Morgan, Sarah L

    2013-02-01

    The definition of osteoporosis has evolved beyond low bone mineral density to include impaired bone morphology and matrix properties. As such, the subsequent bone density insufficiencies extend beyond the skeletal risks of fracture and have implications for oral health management patients. As our population ages there is a worldwide increase in the risk of decreased bone mineral density and its subsequent morbidity. This makes age an independent risk factor for fracture and decreased bone mineral density. Multiple examinations and diagnostic tests are currently used in combination to develop an algorithm to assess osteoporotic risk. Oral health care professionals should follow these principles and caution should be used in applying a single independent assessment to determine a patient's osteoporotic or bone metabolism risk. Therapeutic approaches for osteoporosis are often divided into nonpharmacological interventions and pharmacological therapies. The periodontist and other oral health care professionals should have a full understanding of the therapeutic options, benefits and implementation of preventive therapies. Bone turnover is a coupled event of bone formation and bone resorption and it is the imbalance of this homeostasis that results in osteoporosis. Based on this uncoupling of bone resorption and formation, osteoporosis or decreased bone mineral density and osteopenia, may be a risk factor for alveolar bone loss in periodontitis. The role of prevention and maintenance with a history of periodontitis and oesteopenia extends beyond biofilm control and should include management of bone mineral density. The chronic periodontal infection in a patient with osteopenia may place the patient at greatly increased risk for alveolar bone loss, gingival recession and root caries. A key component in the management is the oral health professional's knowledge of the interrelationship between skeletal health and periodontal health.

  9. Improving Access To Novel Agents For Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weili; Gaynon, Paul S.; Sposto, Richard; Wayne, Alan S.

    2015-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer. Despite great progress in the development of curative therapy, leukemia remains a leading cause of death from disease in childhood and survivors are at life-long risk of complications of treatment. New agents are needed to further increase cure rates and decrease treatment-associated toxicities. The complex biology and aggressive nature of childhood leukemia, coupled with the relatively small patient population available for study, pose specific challenges to the development of new therapies. In this review, we discuss strategies and initiatives designed to improve access to new agents in the treatment of pediatric leukemia. PMID:25678105

  10. Molecular recognition of biowarfare agents using micromechanical sensors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hai Feng; Yang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jing; Thundat, Thomas

    2004-11-01

    Recent terrorist events have demonstrated that an urgent and widespread need exists for the development of novel sensors for threat detection, especially biowarfare agents. The advent of inexpensive, mass-produced microcantilever sensors promises to bring about a revolution in detection of terrorist threats. Extremely sensitive and highly selective sensors can be developed for using a microcantilever platform. Microcantilevers undergo bending when molecules are adsorbed on a single side. For biowarfare agent detection, specificity is achieved by immobilizing antibodies on one side of the cantilever. Antigen adsorption decreases surface energy and stress, resulting in cantilever deflection.

  11. Decreased fibrinolytic activity in juvenile chronic arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Mussoni, L; Pintucci, G; Romano, G; De Benedetti, F; Massa, M; Martini, A

    1990-01-01

    The basal fibrinolytic activity in 17 children with active juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) was investigated. It was found that patients with JCA, and particularly those with the systemic form, show decreased plasma fibrinolytic activity and a marked increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor. Additionally, it was found that patients with systemic JCA, but not those with the polyarticular or pauciarticular form, have increased circulating levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator, and endothelial cell protein, suggesting possible endothelial cell participation in systemic JCA. PMID:2125408

  12. Methodology of decreasing software complexity using ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DÄ browska-Kubik, Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a model of web application`s source code, based on the OSD ontology (Ontology for Software Development), is proposed. This model is applied to implementation and maintenance phase of software development process through the DevOntoCreator tool [5]. The aim of this solution is decreasing software complexity of that source code, using many different maintenance techniques, like creation of documentation, elimination dead code, cloned code or bugs, which were known before [1][2]. Due to this approach saving on software maintenance costs of web applications will be possible.

  13. New modified β-cyclodextrin derivatives as detoxifying agents of chemical warfare agents (I). Synthesis and preliminary screening: evaluation of the detoxification using a half-quantitative enzymatic assay.

    PubMed

    Kalakuntla, Raman Kumar; Wille, Timo; Le Provost, Romain; Letort, Sophie; Reiter, Georg; Müller, Susanne; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; Gouhier, Géraldine; Lafont, Olivier; Estour, François

    2013-02-01

    Current treatments of organophosphorus nerve agents poisoning are imperfect, and more efficient medical countermeasures need to be developed. Chemical scavengers based on β-cyclodextrin displayed promising results, but further investigations have to be performed to evaluate the possibility of application of substituted cyclodextrins as potential detoxification agents. Herein, five new cyclodextrins scavengers were synthesized. New optimal conditions for regioselectively monosubstitution of β-cyclodextrin at O-2 position were then studied to access to key intermediates. After these optimizations, a new series of three permethylated derivatives was developed, and two compounds bearing an α-nucleophilic group via a three carbon atoms linker were prepared. The ability of these five scavengers to detoxify nerve agents (cyclosarin, soman, tabun and VX) was evaluated by a semi-quantitative biological assay. All the modified cyclodextrins significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of chemical warfare G agents on acetylcholinesterase activity. For this purpose, we showed that the specific interactions between the organophosphorus compound and the oligosaccharidic moiety of the scavenger played a pivotal role in the detoxification process.

  14. Relational agents in clinical psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Bickmore, Timothy; Gruber, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Relational agents are computational artifacts, such as animated, screen-based characters or social robots, that are designed to establish a sense of rapport, trust, and even therapeutic alliance with patients, using ideal therapeutic relationships between human counselors and patients as role models. We describe the development and evaluation of several such agents designed for health counseling and behavioral-change interventions, in which a therapeutic alliance is established with patients in order to enhance the efficacy of the intervention. We also discuss the promise of using such agents as adjuncts to clinical psychiatry, a range of possible applications, and some of the challenges and ethical issues in developing and fielding them in psychiatric interventions.

  15. Dual Rationality and Deliberative Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debenham, John; Sierra, Carles

    Human agents deliberate using models based on reason for only a minute proportion of the decisions that they make. In stark contrast, the deliberation of artificial agents is heavily dominated by formal models based on reason such as game theory, decision theory and logic—despite that fact that formal reasoning will not necessarily lead to superior real-world decisions. Further the Nobel Laureate Friedrich Hayek warns us of the ‘fatal conceit’ in controlling deliberative systems using models based on reason as the particular model chosen will then shape the system’s future and either impede, or eventually destroy, the subtle evolutionary processes that are an integral part of human systems and institutions, and are crucial to their evolution and long-term survival. We describe an architecture for artificial agents that is founded on Hayek’s two rationalities and supports the two forms of deliberation used by mankind.

  16. Polycatechol Nanoparticle MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiwen; Huang, Yuran; Wang, Zhao; Carniato, Fabio; Xie, Yijun; Patterson, Joseph P; Thompson, Matthew P; Andolina, Christopher M; Ditri, Treffly B; Millstone, Jill E; Figueroa, Joshua S; Rinehart, Jeffrey D; Scadeng, Miriam; Botta, Mauro; Gianneschi, Nathan C

    2016-02-01

    Amphiphilic triblock copolymers containing Fe(III) -catecholate complexes formulated as spherical- or cylindrical-shaped micellar nanoparticles (SMN and CMN, respectively) are described as new T1-weighted agents with high relaxivity, low cytotoxicity, and long-term stability in biological fluids. Relaxivities of both SMN and CMN exceed those of established gadolinium chelates across a wide range of magnetic field strengths. Interestingly, shape-dependent behavior is observed in terms of the particles' interactions with HeLa cells, with CMN exhibiting enhanced uptake and contrast via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compared with SMN. These results suggest that control over soft nanoparticle shape will provide an avenue for optimization of particle-based contrast agents as biodiagnostics. The polycatechol nanoparticles are proposed as suitable for preclinical investigations into their viability as gadolinium-free, safe, and effective imaging agents for MRI contrast enhancement. PMID:26681255

  17. Agent review phase one report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  18. Significance and Biological Importance of Pyrimidine in the Microbial World

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vinita; Agarwal, Ajay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are unique creatures that adapt to varying lifestyles and environment resistance in extreme or adverse conditions. The genetic architecture of microbe may bear a significant signature not only in the sequences position, but also in the lifestyle to which it is adapted. It becomes a challenge for the society to find new chemical entities which can treat microbial infections. The present review aims to focus on account of important chemical moiety, that is, pyrimidine and its various derivatives as antimicrobial agents. In the current studies we represent more than 200 pyrimidines as antimicrobial agents with different mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrasubstituted classes along with in vitro antimicrobial activities of pyrimidines derivatives which can facilitate the development of more potent and effective antimicrobial agents. PMID:25383216

  19. Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  20. Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen

    2011-11-01

    Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-α, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

  1. Metformin inhibits growth and decreases resistance to anoikis in medullary thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Jensen, Kirk; Costello, John; Patel, Aneeta; Hoperia, Victoria; Bauer, Andrew; Burman, Kenneth D; Wartofsky, Leonard; Vasko, Vasyl

    2012-06-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is associated with activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways. Recent studies showed that the antidiabetic agent metformin decreases proliferation of cancer cells through 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent inhibition of mTOR. In the current study, we assessed the effect of metformin on MTC cells. For this purpose, we determined growth, viability, migration, and resistance to anoikis assays using two MTC-derived cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1). Expressions of molecular targets of metformin were examined in MTC cell lines and in 14 human MTC tissue samples. We found that metformin inhibited growth and decreased expression of cyclin D1 in MTC cells. Treatment with metformin was associated with inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling and downregulation of pERK in both TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells. Metformin had no significant effects on pAKT in the cell lines examined. Metformin-inducible AMPK activation was noted only in TT cells. Treatment with AMPK inhibitor (compound C) or AMPK silencing did not prevent growth inhibitory effects of metformin in TT cells. Metformin had no effect on MTC cell migration but reduced the ability of cells to form multicellular spheroids in nonadherent conditions. Immunostaining of human MTC showed over-expression of cyclin D1 in all tumors compared with corresponding normal tissue. Activation of mTOR/p70S6K was detected in 8/14 (57.1%) examined tumors. Together, these findings indicate that growth inhibitory effects in MTC cells are associated with downregulation of both mTOR/6SK and pERK signaling pathways. Expression of metformin's molecular targets in human MTC cells suggests its potential utility for the treatment of MTC in patients.

  2. Effects of autoclaving and charcoal on root-promoting substances present in water extracts made from gelling agents.

    PubMed

    Arthur, G D; Stirk, W A; Van Staden, J

    2006-10-01

    The root-promoting ability of water extracts made from gelling agents (agar and Gelrite) was investigated using the mungbean rooting bioassay. Autoclaving these water extracts decreased the number of roots in mungbean cuttings compared to the controls. The addition of activated charcoal to the water extracts from Agar Bacteriological and Agar Commercial Gel had no effect on their root-promoting ability. Extracts with exogenous indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) which were treated by autoclaving or via a freeze-thaw cycle, significantly increased rooting. However, incorporation of activated charcoal to similar IBA-containing extracts reduced rooting. Our results indicate that more attention should be given to the choice of gelling agent and its interaction with other additives in the media used during tissue culture. PMID:16274988

  3. Prenatal buprenorphine exposure decreases neurogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Cheng; Hung, Chih-Jen; Shen, Ching-Hui; Chen, Wen-Ying; Chang, Cheng-Yi; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Liao, Su-Lan; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2014-02-10

    Perinatal opioid exposure has a negative effect on neurogenesis and produces neurological consequences. However, its mechanisms of action are incompletely understood. Buprenorphine, a mixed opioid agonist/antagonist, is an alternative medication for managing pregnant opioid addicts. This study provides evidence of decreased neurogenesis and depression-like consequences following prenatal exposure to buprenorphine and sheds light on mechanisms of action in a rat model involving administration of intraperitoneal injection to pregnant rats starting from gestation day 7 and lasting for 14 days and a cultured neurosphere model. Results of forced swimming test and tail suspension test showed that pups at postnatal day 21 had worse parameters of depression-like neurobehaviors, independent of gender. Neurobehavioral changes were accompanied by reduction of neuronal composition, biochemical parameters of neural stem/progenitor cells, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B phosphorylation, protein kinase A (PKA) activity, and cAMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation. Results of parallel cell studies further demonstrated a negative impact of buprenorphine on cultured neurospheres, including proliferation, differentiation, BDNF expression and signaling, and PKA activity. Taken together, our results suggest that prenatal exposure to buprenorphine might result in depression-like phenotypes associated with impaired BDNF action and decreased neurogenesis in the developing brain of weanlings.

  4. Solarwind Transient flows and Associated Forbush Decrease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, S. C.; Subhash Chandra Kaushik

    2011-12-01

    In this study we discuss the behavior of cosmic rays during the phase of highly intense or ultra intense geomagnetic storms, as shocks driven by energetic coronal mass ejections (CME's) and other interplanetary (IP) transients are mainly responsible for initiating large and intense geomagnetic storms. Observational results indicate that galactic cosmic rays (CR) coming from deep surface interact with these abnormal solar and IP conditions and suffer modulation effects. In this paper a systematic study has been performed to analyze the CRI variation during super storms i.e. very intense geomagnetic storms with Dst index ≥ -100 nT. The neutron monitor data of three stations Oulu (Rc = 0.77 GV), Climax (Rc = 2.97 GV) and Huancayo (Rc = 13.01 GV) well distributed over different latitudes and hourly values of IMF parameters derived from satellite observations near Earth IP medium from OMNI Data base is used for the period spanning over solar cycles 20, 21, 22 and 23. It is found that AP and AE indices show rise before the forward turnings of IMF, while the Dst index shows a classic storm time decrease. The analysis indicates that the magnitude of all the responses depends on BZ component of IMF being well correlated with solar maximum and minimum periods. Transient decrease in CRI with slow recovery is observed during the storm phase duration.

  5. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations... release of this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice,...

  6. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  7. Autonomous sensor manager agents (ASMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osadciw, Lisa A.

    2004-04-01

    Autonomous sensor manager agents are presented as an algorithm to perform sensor management within a multisensor fusion network. The design of the hybrid ant system/particle swarm agents is described in detail with some insight into their performance. Although the algorithm is designed for the general sensor management problem, a simulation example involving 2 radar systems is presented. Algorithmic parameters are determined by the size of the region covered by the sensor network, the number of sensors, and the number of parameters to be selected. With straight forward modifications, this algorithm can be adapted for most sensor management problems.

  8. Washington State hospital survey 2000: gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers.

    PubMed

    Marino, C; Cohen, M

    2001-12-01

    Hand dermatitis as a result of frequent exposure to water and cleansing agents is a significant problem in the health care industry. In developing prevention efforts to address this problem, it is necessary to make appropriate recommendations for moisturizers that are compatible with latex gloves and/or handwashing agents that contain chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). Infection control personnel or employee health nurses in all 106 Washington hospitals were interviewed to determine what types of gloves, handwashing agents, and moisturizers are in current use in the hospital setting. The interview also addressed awareness of skin care issues involving the compatibility of moisturizers with latex gloves and handwashing agents that contain CHG. Latex gloves were available in 90% of the hospitals. Handwashing agents containing CHG were available in 33% of the hospitals. Moisturizers were supplied for the nursing personnel in 61% of the hospitals; most of these moisturizers were compatible with latex gloves and agents containing CHG. Seventy-four percent of the infection control personnel were aware of the compatibility issues of petroleum-based moisturizers with latex gloves, and 48% were aware of the need to avoid the use of anionic moisturizers in combination with CHG handwashing agents.

  9. The evolutionary significance of pulmonary surfactant in lungfish (Dipnoi).

    PubMed

    Orgeig, S; Daniels, C B

    1995-08-01

    In this study, we characterized surfactant lipids from the lungs of the lungfish, Protopterus annectens, Lepidosiren paradoxa, and Neoceratodus fosteri (Sarcopterygiia: Dipnoi). We quantified the types of phospholipids present, the amounts of total phospholipid, disaturated phospholipid (DSP)--purported to be the primary surface tension-controlling agent--and cholesterol (CHOL), an important fluidizer. The surfactant phospholipid profiles of all three lungfish were very similar to each other and those of many other animals reported previously. Phosphatidylcholine was the dominant phospholipid (60% to 80%); phosphatidylglycerol was virtually absent; and there was a significant proportion of the combination of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol (10%). The Australian lungfish N. forsteri possessed a surfactant 5 times richer in CHOL and 2 and 3 times poorer in DSP than the surfactant of the African lungfish P. annectens and the South American lungfish L. paradoxa, respectively. Hence, the CHOL/DSP mass ratio of N. forsteri was 12 and 20 times greater than that of P. annectens and L. paradoxa, respectively. Therefore, the surfactant composition of the two derived species of lungfish (P. annectens and L. paradoxa) very closely resembles that of amphibians, whereas surfactant from the primitive lungfish (N. forsteri) is almost identical to that of the primitive air-breathing actinopterygiian fish. Thus, it is likely that pulmonary surfactant had only a single origin, coinciding with that of the vertebrates. As with most nonmammalian vertebrates, it is possible that lungfish surfactant functions as an antiglue at low lung volumes or when the lungs are completely collapsed. Furthermore, it appears that within a species, an increase in lung development correlates with an increase in the relative amount of surfactant cholesterol and a decrease in the phospholipid saturation level.

  10. Antimicrobial peptides: Possible anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah Narayana, Jayaram; Chen, Jyh-Yih

    2015-10-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections are major health threats. The Infectious Diseases Society of America has expressed concern on the decrease of pharmaceutical companies working on antibiotic research and development. However, small companies, along with academic research institutes, are stepping forward to develop novel therapeutic methods to overcome the present healthcare situation. Among the leading alternatives to current drugs are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are abundantly distributed in nature. AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and even cancerous cells. They also show potential immunomodulatory properties, and are highly responsive to infectious agents and innate immuno-stimulatory molecules. In recent years, many AMPs have undergone or are undergoing clinical development, and a few are commercially available for topical and other applications. In this review, we outline selected anion and cationic AMPs which are at various stages of development, from preliminary analysis to clinical drug development. Moreover, we also consider current production methods and delivery tools for AMPs, which must be improved for the effective use of these agents.

  11. Evaluation of risedronate as an antibiofilm agent.

    PubMed

    Reshamwala, Shamlan M S; Mamidipally, Chandrasekhar; Pissurlenkar, Raghuvir R S; Coutinho, Evans C; Noronha, Santosh B

    2016-01-01

    Escherichia coli cra null mutants have been reported in the literature to be impaired in biofilm formation. To develop E. coli biofilm-inhibiting agents for prevention and control of adherent behaviour, analogues of a natural Cra ligand, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, were identified based on two-dimensional similarity to the natural ligand. Of the analogues identified, those belonging to the bisphosphonate class of drug molecules were selected for study, as these are approved for clinical use in humans and their safety has been established. Computational and in vitro studies with purified Cra protein showed that risedronate sodium interacted with residues in the fructose-1,6-bisphosphate-binding site. Using a quantitative biofilm assay, risedronate sodium, at a concentration of 300-400 μM, was found to decrease E. coli and Salmonella pullorum biofilm formation by >60 %. Risedronate drastically reduced the adherence of E. coli cells to a rubber Foley urinary catheter, demonstrating its utility in preventing the formation of biofilm communities on medical implant surfaces. The use of risedronate, either alone or in combination with other agents, to prevent the formation of biofilms on surfaces is a novel finding that can easily be translated into practical applications. PMID:26497196

  12. [Liberation of active agents from coherent emulsions].

    PubMed

    Erós, I; Csóka, I; Csányi, E; Aref, T

    2000-01-01

    Drug release from coherent emulsions containing high water concentration (50-80 w/w%) was studied. Composition of coherent systems was as follows: self-emulsifying wax and preserved water. Griseofulvin was applied as active agent in suspended form. The liberation experiments were carried out with Hanson vertical diffusion cell, acceptor phase was distilled water, membrane was celophane one. It was established that the time course of liberation of griseofulvin from coherent emulsions can be characterized with a multiplicative function and the exponent of this function is about 0.5. The quantity of released drug increased linearly with the water content and it decreased exponentially with the viscosity of coherent emulsions. PMID:11379037

  13. Portuguese guidelines for the use of biological agents in rheumatoid arthritis - March 2010 update.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, João Eurico; Canhão, Helena; Reis, Paulo; Santos, Maria José; Branco, Jaime; Quintal, Alberto; Malcata, Armando; Araújo, Domingos; Ventura, Francisco; Figueiredo, Guilherme; da Silva, José Canas; Patto, José Vaz; de Queiroz, Mário Viana; Santos, Rui André; Neto, Adriano José; de Matos, Alves de; Rodrigues, Ana; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Ribeiro, Ana Sofia; Cravo, Ana Rita; Barcelos, Anabela; Cardoso, Anabela; Vilar, António; Braña, Arecili; Faustino, Augusto; Silva, Candida; Godinho, Fátima; Cunha, Inês; Costa, José António; Gomes, José António Melo; Pinto, José António Araújo; da Silva, J A Pereira; Miranda, Luís Cunha; Inês, Luís; Santos, Luís Maurício; Cruz, Margarida; Salvador, Maria João; Ferreira, Maria Júlia; Rial, Maria; Bernardes, Miguel; Bogas, Mónica; Araújo, Paula; Machado, Pedro; Pinto, Patrícia; de Melo, Rui Gomes; Cortes, Sara; Alcino, Sérgio; Capela, Susana

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the revised version of the Portuguese Society of Rheumatology (SPR) guidelines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with biological therapies. In these guidelines the criteria for introduction and maintenance of biological agents are discussed as well as the contraindications and procedures in the case of non-responders. Biological treatment should be considered in RA patients with a disease activity score 28 (DAS 28) superior to 3.2 despite treatment with 20mg/week of methotrexate (MTX) for at least 3 months or, if such treatment is not possible, after 6 months of other conventional disease modifying drug or combination therapy. A DAS 28 score between 2.6 and 3.2 with a significant functional or radiological deterioration under treatment with conventional regimens could also constitute an indication for biological treatment. The treatment goal should be remission or, if that is not achievable, at least a low disease activity, characterized by a DAS28 lower than 3.2, without significative functional or radiological worsening. The response criteria, at the end of the first 3 months of treatment, are a decrease of 0.6 in the DAS28 score. After 6 months of treatment response criteria is defined as a decrease of more than 1.2 in the DAS28 score. Non-responders, in accordance to the Rheumatologist's clinical opinion, should try a switch to another biological agent (tumour necrosis factor antagonist, abatacept, rituximab or tocilizumab).

  14. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  15. [Forensic significance of depressive syndromes].

    PubMed

    Lammel, M

    1987-10-01

    The three chief problems arising when an expert opinion is to be given are dealt with in brief, and the forensic significance of the depressive syndrome is described, without entering into the question of giving an opinion as to responsibility.

  16. An attempt to evaluate the effect of vitamin K3 using as an enhancer of anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Matzno, Sumio; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Akiyoshi, Takeshi; Nakabayashi, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Kenji

    2008-06-01

    The possibility of vitamin K3 (VK3) as an anticancer agent was assessed. VK3 dose-dependently diminished the cell viability (measured as esterase activity) with IC50 of 13.7 microM and Hill coefficient of 3.1 in Hep G2 cells. It also decreased the population of S phase and arrested cell cycle in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner. G2/M arrest was regulated by the increment of cyclin A/cdk1 and cyclin A/cdk2 complex, and contrasting cyclin B/cdk1 complex decrease. Finally, combined application demonstrated that VK3 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of etoposide, a G2 phase-dependent anticancer agent, whereas it reduced the cytotoxic activity of irinotecan, a S phase-dependent agent. These findings suggest that VK3 induces G2/M arrest by inhibition of cyclin B/cdk1 complex formation, and is thus useful as an enhancer of G2 phase-dependent drugs in hepatic cancer chemotherapy.

  17. Integrated effect of gamma radiation and biocontrol agent on quality parameters of apple fruit: An innovative commercial preservation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahari Mostafavi, Hossein; Mahyar Mirmajlessi, Seyed; Fathollahi, Hadi; Shahbazi, Samira; Mohammad Mirjalili, Seyed

    2013-10-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation and biocontrol agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens) on the physico-chemical parameters (including moisture, total soluble solids, antioxidant activity, phenolic content and firmness) of cv. Golden Delicious apples were investigated for their ability to avoid the post-harvest blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum during cold storage. Freshly harvested apples were inoculated with P. expansum. Treated fruits were irradiated at doses of 0, 200, 400, 600 and 800 Gy and then inoculated with P. fluorescens suspension. Samples were evaluated at 3 month intervals. The results demonstrated a clear link between antioxidant activity and phenolic content, so that dose range of 200-400 Gy significantly increased phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Effect of P. fluorescens was similar to irradiation at 200 and 400 Gy that could prevent lesion diameter in pathogen-treated apples. As dose and storage time increased firmness decreased but, combination of P. fluorescens as well as irradiation (at 200-400 Gy) could decrease softening apple fruits during storage. In all parameters, P. fluorescens (as biocontrol agent) inhibited P. expansum similar to irradiation at 200-400 Gy. So, integrated treatment of irradiation and biocontrol agent explored the potential dual benefit of low doses (200 and 400 Gy) as a suitable method to sustain physico-chemical quality and conclusively reduce apple fruits losses during post-harvest preservation.

  18. Investigation of three home-applied bleaching agents on enamel structure and mechanical properties: an in situ study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sa, Yue; Wang, Zhejun; Ma, Xiao; Lei, Chang; Liang, Shanshan; Sun, Lili; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Yining

    2012-03-01

    The safety of at-home tooth bleaching, based upon carbamide peroxide (CP) or hydrogen peroxide (HP) as the active agent, has been questioned. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of three differently concentrated home-applied bleaching agents on human enamel under in situ conditions. Sixty specimens were divided randomly into four groups and treated with 10% CP, 15% CP, 20% CP, and distilled water, respectively. Raman spectroscopy, attenuated total reflectance-infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), microhardness, and fracture toughness (FT) measurements were conducted to determine variations on enamel structure and mechanical properties before and after the bleaching process. Raman revealed little variation of Raman relative intensity after treatment with CP, which was consistent with the results of ATR-IR, AFM, and microhardness analyses. In addition, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity, and FT showed significant decreases on CP-treated specimens. These findings suggested there were minimal demineralization effects of the three at-home bleaching agents on enamel in situ. However, the decrease of LIF intensity and FT on enamel seemed to be inevitable.

  19. Neurobiological changes by cytotoxic agents in mice.

    PubMed

    Seigers, R; Loos, M; Van Tellingen, O; Boogerd, W; Smit, A B; Schagen, S B

    2016-02-15

    Cognitive deficit is a frequently reported side-effect of adjuvant chemotherapy. A large number of animal studies has been performed to examine the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, definite conclusions from these studies are restricted due to differences in experimental set-up. We systematically investigated the effects of 6 cytotoxic agents on various neurobiological parameters. C57Bl/6J mice were treated with cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate, or topotecan. The animals were sacrificed 3 or 15 weeks after treatment and the effect on neurogenesis, blood vessel density, and neuroinflammation was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. None of the cytostatic agents tested affected neurogenesis (cell survival or cell proliferation). Blood vessel density was increased in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex 3 weeks after treatment with docetaxel and doxorubicin compared with control animals. A decrease in the number of microglial cells was observed in the prefrontal cortex after treatment with cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, 5-FU, and topotecan compared with control mice. The observed decrease in microglia cells is indicative of inflammation that occurred after treatment. Overall, the magnitude of the effects was relatively modest. Therefore, we conducted a similar study with topotecan in Abcg2;Abcb1a/b knock out and wildtype FVB mice. Animals were sacrificed 3 weeks after treatment and no notable effect was seen in hippocampal cell differentiation (DCX), microglia activation, or blood vessel density. Perhaps the FVB strain is more resistant to the neurotoxic effects of topotecan which makes this not the correct model to study the mechanism of chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:26602283

  20. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  1. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II by the Anticancer Agent Lonidamine.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lili; Shestov, Alexander A; Worth, Andrew J; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Leeper, Dennis B; Glickson, Jerry D; Blair, Ian A

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND inhibits the formation of fumarate and malate and suppresses succinate-induced respiration of isolated mitochondria. Utilizing biochemical assays, we determined that LND inhibits the succinate-ubiquinone reductase activity of respiratory complex II without fully blocking succinate dehydrogenase activity. LND also induces cellular reactive oxygen species through complex II, which reduced the viability of the DB-1 melanoma cell line. The ability of LND to promote cell death was potentiated by its suppression of the pentose phosphate pathway, which resulted in inhibition of NADPH and glutathione generation. Using stable isotope tracers in combination with isotopologue analysis, we showed that LND increased glutaminolysis but decreased reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate. Our findings on the previously uncharacterized effects of LND may provide potential combinational therapeutic approaches for targeting cancer metabolism. PMID:26521302

  2. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex II by the Anticancer Agent Lonidamine*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lili; Shestov, Alexander A.; Worth, Andrew J.; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Blair, Ian A.

    2016-01-01

    The antitumor agent lonidamine (LND; 1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid) is known to interfere with energy-yielding processes in cancer cells. However, the effect of LND on central energy metabolism has never been fully characterized. In this study, we report that a significant amount of succinate is accumulated in LND-treated cells. LND inhibits the formation of fumarate and malate and suppresses succinate-induced respiration of isolated mitochondria. Utilizing biochemical assays, we determined that LND inhibits the succinate-ubiquinone reductase activity of respiratory complex II without fully blocking succinate dehydrogenase activity. LND also induces cellular reactive oxygen species through complex II, which reduced the viability of the DB-1 melanoma cell line. The ability of LND to promote cell death was potentiated by its suppression of the pentose phosphate pathway, which resulted in inhibition of NADPH and glutathione generation. Using stable isotope tracers in combination with isotopologue analysis, we showed that LND increased glutaminolysis but decreased reductive carboxylation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate. Our findings on the previously uncharacterized effects of LND may provide potential combinational therapeutic approaches for targeting cancer metabolism. PMID:26521302

  3. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A; Schweitzer, Julie B; McClure, Samuel M

    2015-07-21

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with an increase in impulsivity. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and in this study we focus on one of the underlying components: impatience. Impatience can result from (i) disregard of future outcomes and/or (ii) oversensitivity to immediate rewards, but it is not known which of these evaluative processes underlie developmental changes. To distinguish between these two causes, we investigated developmental changes in the structural and functional connectivity of different frontostriatal tracts. We report that adolescents were more impatient on an intertemporal choice task and reported less future orientation, but not more present hedonism, than young adults. Developmental increases in structural connectivity strength in the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract were related to increased negative functional coupling with the striatum and an age-related decrease in discount rates. Our results suggest that mainly increased control, and the integration of future-oriented thought, drives the reduction in impatience across adolescence. PMID:26100897

  4. Decreased interoceptive accuracy following social exclusion.

    PubMed

    Durlik, Caroline; Tsakiris, Manos

    2015-04-01

    The need for social affiliation is one of the most important and fundamental human needs. Unsurprisingly, humans display strong negative reactions to social exclusion. In the present study, we investigated the effect of social exclusion on interoceptive accuracy - accuracy in detecting signals arising inside the body - measured with a heartbeat perception task. We manipulated exclusion using Cyberball, a widely used paradigm of a virtual ball-tossing game, with half of the participants being included during the game and the other half of participants being ostracized during the game. Our results indicated that heartbeat perception accuracy decreased in the excluded, but not in the included, participants. We discuss these results in the context of social and physical pain overlap, as well as in relation to internally versus externally oriented attention. PMID:25701592

  5. [Decreasing total fertility rates in Europe].

    PubMed

    Zakee, R

    1994-04-01

    "Due to an almost overall decrease during the last four decades total (period) fertility rates have reached values below the replacement level of 2.07 in most European countries. Only in Albania (2.8 in 1991), on the Faroe Islands (2.7 in 1990) and Iceland (2.3 in 1992) the last known values are higher. In most other European countries values between 1.4 and 2.0 are registered, but in Italy, Spain and Germany the TFR is about 1.2. Especially in the former German Democratic Republic (0.7), San Marino and most northern Italian regions (1.0) the TFR is low." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  6. Wastewater temperature decrease in pressure sewers.

    PubMed

    Sallanko, Jarmo; Pekkala, Mari

    2008-12-01

    The centralization of wastewater treatment in large central treatment plants and the connection of sparsely populated areas to sewerage systems have increased the time wastewater is retained in sewers. These retention times lead to a decrease in wastewater temperature and affect wastewater treatment, especially the removal of nitrogen. In this study, temperature changes in long transfer sewers were examined. The temperature change was greatest at the end of winter and in the front part of the sewer. Temperature changes in the front parts of the sewers ranged from 0.16 to 0.27 degree C/km, and in the end parts from 0.02 to 0.10 degree C/km. When expressed in terms of the retention time for wastewater in the sewer, the temperature changes ranged from 0.12 to 0.17 degree C per retention hour.

  7. Adolescent impatience decreases with increased frontostriatal connectivity

    PubMed Central

    van den Bos, Wouter; Rodriguez, Christian A.; Schweitzer, Julie B.; McClure, Samuel M.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period associated with an increase in impulsivity. Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, and in this study we focus on one of the underlying components: impatience. Impatience can result from (i) disregard of future outcomes and/or (ii) oversensitivity to immediate rewards, but it is not known which of these evaluative processes underlie developmental changes. To distinguish between these two causes, we investigated developmental changes in the structural and functional connectivity of different frontostriatal tracts. We report that adolescents were more impatient on an intertemporal choice task and reported less future orientation, but not more present hedonism, than young adults. Developmental increases in structural connectivity strength in the right dorsolateral prefrontal tract were related to increased negative functional coupling with the striatum and an age-related decrease in discount rates. Our results suggest that mainly increased control, and the integration of future-oriented thought, drives the reduction in impatience across adolescence. PMID:26100897

  8. Cosmic ray decreases and magnetic clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.

    1992-01-01

    Energetic particle data, obtained from IMP 8, in conjunction with solar wind field and plasma data at the times of reported magnetic clouds was studied. It is shown that magnetic clouds can cause a depression of the cosmic ray flux but high fields are required. A depression of 3 percent in a neutron monitor requires a field of about 25 nT. Such high fields are found only in a subset of coronal ejecta. The principal cause for Forbush decreases associated with energetic shocks is probably turbulence in the post-shock region although some shocks will be followed by an ejecta with a high field. Each event is different. The lower energy particles can help in identifying the dominant processes in individual events.

  9. Incomplete and transitory decrease of glycolysis

    PubMed Central

    Schoors, Sandra; Cantelmo, Anna Rita; Georgiadou, Maria; Stapor, Peter; Wang, Xingwu; Quaegebeur, Annelies; Cauwenberghs, Sandra; Wong, Brian W; Bifari, Francesco; Decimo, Ilaria; Schoonjans, Luc; De Bock, Katrien; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2014-01-01

    During vessel sprouting, a migratory endothelial tip cell guides the sprout, while proliferating stalk cells elongate the branch. Tip and stalk cell phenotypes are not genetically predetermined fates, but are dynamically interchangeable to ensure that the fittest endothelial cell (EC) leads the vessel sprout. ECs increase glycolysis when forming new blood vessels. Genetic deficiency of the glycolytic activator PFKFB3 in ECs reduces vascular sprouting by impairing migration of tip cells and proliferation of stalk cells. PFKFB3-driven glycolysis promotes the tip cell phenotype during vessel sprouting, since PFKFB3 overexpression overrules the pro-stalk activity of Notch signaling. Furthermore, PFKFB3-deficient ECs cannot compete with wild-type neighbors to form new blood vessels in chimeric mosaic mice. In addition, pharmacological PFKFB3 blockade reduces pathological angiogenesis with modest systemic effects, likely because it decreases glycolysis only partially and transiently. PMID:24335389

  10. Decreased adult neurogenesis in hibernating Syrian hamster.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; Gómez-Pinedo, Ulises; Hernández, Félix; DeFelipe, Javier; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Generation of new neurons from adult neural stem cells occurs in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the lateral walls of the lateral ventricles. In this article, we study the neurogenesis that takes place during the hibernation of the Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Using a variety of standard neurogenesis markers and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation, we describe a preferential decrease in the proliferation of newborn neurons in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the hibernating hamsters (torpor) rather than in the hippocampus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the proliferative capacity is recovered after 3-4days of torpor when arousal is triggered under natural conditions (i.e., not artificially provoked). In addition, we show that tau3R, a tau isoform with three microtubule-binding domains, is a suitable marker to study neurogenesis both in the SVZ and subgranular zone (SGZ) of the Syrian hamster brain. PMID:27436535

  11. Decreasing dangerous infant behaviors through parent instruction.

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R

    1987-01-01

    One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially dangerous behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895

  12. Biological warfare agents as threats to potable water.

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, W D; Renner, S E

    1999-01-01

    Nearly all known biological warfare agents are intended for aerosol application. Although less effective as potable water threats, many are potentially capable of inflicting heavy casualties when ingested. Significant loss of mission capability can be anticipated even when complete recovery is possible. Properly maintained field army water purification equipment can counter this threat, but personnel responsible for the operation and maintenance of the equipment may be most at risk of exposure. Municipal water treatment facilities would be measurably less effective. Some replicating (infectious) agents and a few biotoxins are inactivated by chlorine disinfection; for others chlorine is ineffective or of unknown efficacy. This report assesses the state of our knowledge of agents as potable water threats and contemplates the consequences of intentional or collateral contamination of potable water supplies by 18 replicating agents and 9 biotoxins known or likely to be weaponized or otherwise used as threats. PMID:10585901

  13. An Agent that can Prohibit Microbial Development and Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, A

    2005-01-26

    We have developed a process that makes use of double-stranded DNA:RNA hybrids to inhibit specific, targeted genetic activity completely within a cell. This process can be used in both human and bacterial cells. The agent that produces this effect can be inserted into a cell and remain quiescent for a considerable period of time without affecting cellular processes, until the gene against which it is targeted is induced. At this time the agent becomes effective, silencing the genetic response without affecting the host cell in any other way. When given as an anti-infective, this process may have significant use as an anti-bacterial, anti-viral agent. Our objective with this proposal is to develop the siHybrid concept sufficiently that it can be used as both an antibiotic and an antiviral agent.

  14. Detoxification of organophosphate nerve agents by bacterial phosphotriesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghanem, Eman; Raushel, Frank M. . E-mail: raushel@tamu.edu

    2005-09-01

    Organophosphates have been widely used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents. The health risks associated with these agents have necessitated the need for better detoxification and bioremediation tools. Bacterial enzymes capable of hydrolyzing the lethal organophosphate nerve agents are of special interest. Phosphotriesterase (PTE) isolated from the soil bacteria Pseudomonas diminuta displays a significant rate enhancement and substrate promiscuity for the hydrolysis of organophosphate triesters. Directed evolution and rational redesign of the active site of PTE have led to the identification of new variants with enhanced catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity toward the hydrolysis of organophosphate neurotoxins. PTE has been utilized to protect against organophosphate poisoning in vivo. Biotechnological applications of PTE for detection and decontamination of insecticides and chemical warfare agents are developing into useful tools. In this review, the catalytic properties and potential applications of this remarkable enzyme are discussed.

  15. Cooperation and Coordination Between Fuzzy Reinforcement Learning Agents in Continuous State Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenji, Hamid R.; Vengerov, David

    1999-01-01

    Successful operations of future multi-agent intelligent systems require efficient cooperation schemes between agents sharing learning experiences. We consider a pseudo-realistic world in which one or more opportunities appear and disappear in random locations. Agents use fuzzy reinforcement learning to learn which opportunities are most worthy of pursuing based on their promise rewards, expected lifetimes, path lengths and expected path costs. We show that this world is partially observable because the history of an agent influences the distribution of its future states. We consider a cooperation mechanism in which agents share experience by using and-updating one joint behavior policy. We also implement a coordination mechanism for allocating opportunities to different agents in the same world. Our results demonstrate that K cooperative agents each learning in a separate world over N time steps outperform K independent agents each learning in a separate world over K*N time steps, with this result becoming more pronounced as the degree of partial observability in the environment increases. We also show that cooperation between agents learning in the same world decreases performance with respect to independent agents. Since cooperation reduces diversity between agents, we conclude that diversity is a key parameter in the trade off between maximizing utility from cooperation when diversity is low and maximizing utility from competitive coordination when diversity is high.

  16. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course.Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations,which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  17. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  18. Triggered pore-forming agents

    DOEpatents

    Bayley, H.; Walker, B.J.; Chang, C.Y.; Niblack, B.; Panchal, R.

    1998-07-07

    An inactive pore-forming agent is revealed which is activated to lytic function by a condition such as pH, light, heat, reducing potential, or metal ion concentration, or substance such as a protease, at the surface of a cell. 30 figs.

  19. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of agents... to: (i) Establish performance criteria for Poolers. (ii) Monitor and evaluate the financial...

  20. Direct Vasodilators and Sympatholytic Agents.

    PubMed

    McComb, Meghan N; Chao, James Y; Ng, Tien M H

    2016-01-01

    Direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents were some of the first antihypertensive medications discovered and utilized in the past century. However, side effect profiles and the advent of newer antihypertensive drug classes have reduced the use of these agents in recent decades. Outcome data and large randomized trials supporting the efficacy of these medications are limited; however, in general the blood pressure-lowering effect of these agents has repeatedly been shown to be comparable to other more contemporary drug classes. Nevertheless, a landmark hypertension trial found a negative outcome with a doxazosin-based regimen compared to a chlorthalidone-based regimen, leading to the removal of α-1 adrenergic receptor blockers as first-line monotherapy from the hypertension guidelines. In contemporary practice, direct vasodilators and sympatholytic agents, particularly hydralazine and clonidine, are often utilized in refractory hypertension. Hydralazine and minoxidil may also be useful alternatives for patients with renal dysfunction, and both hydralazine and methyldopa are considered first line for the treatment of hypertension in pregnancy. Hydralazine has also found widespread use for the treatment of systolic heart failure in combination with isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN). The data to support use of this combination in African Americans with heart failure are particularly robust. Hydralazine with ISDN may also serve as an alternative for patients with an intolerance to angiotensin antagonists. Given these niche indications, vasodilators and sympatholytics are still useful in clinical practice; therefore, it is prudent to understand the existing data regarding efficacy and the safe use of these medications. PMID:26033778

  1. Nucleotide cleaving agents and method

    DOEpatents

    Que, Jr., Lawrence; Hanson, Richard S.; Schnaith, Leah M. T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a unique series of nucleotide cleaving agents and a method for cleaving a nucleotide sequence, whether single-stranded or double-stranded DNA or RNA, using and a cationic metal complex having at least one polydentate ligand to cleave the nucleotide sequence phosphate backbone to yield a hydroxyl end and a phosphate end.

  2. 7 CFR 4290.1620 - Functions of agents, including Central Registration Agent, Selling Agent and Fiscal Agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functions of agents, including Central Registration..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANY (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financial Assistance for RBICs (Leverage) Funding Leverage by Use of Guaranteed Trust Certificates (âtcsâ) § 4290.1620 Functions of...

  3. SEM: A Cultural Change Agent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bradley; Bourke, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The authors advance the concept that institutional culture is a purposeful framework by which to view SEM's utility, particularly as a cultural change agent. Through the connection of seemingly independent functions of performance and behavior, implications emerge that deepen the understanding of the influence of culture on performance outcomes…

  4. Escitalopram versus other antidepressive agents for depression

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Andrea; Santilli, Claudio; Furukawa, Toshi A; Signoretti, Alessandra; Nakagawa, Atsuo; McGuire, Hugh; Churchill, Rachel; Barbui, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Although pharmacological and psychological interventions are both effective for major depression, antidepressant drugs remain the mainstay of treatment in primary and secondary care settings. During the last 20 years, antidepressant prescribing has risen dramatically in western countries, mainly because of the increasing consumption of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and newer antidepressants, which have progressively become the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. Escitalopram is the pure S-enantiomer of the racemic citalopram. Objectives To assess the evidence for the efficacy, acceptability and tolerability of escitalopram in comparison with tricyclics, other SSRIs, heterocyclics and newer agents in the acute-phase treatment of major depression. Search methods Electronic databases were searched up to July 2008. Trial databases of drug-approving agencies were hand-searched for published, unpublished and ongoing controlled trials. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials comparing escitalopram against any other antidepressant (including non-conventional agents such as hypericum) for patients with major depressive disorder (regardless of the diagnostic criteria used). Data collection and analysis Data were entered by two review authors (double data entry). Responders and remitters to treatment were calculated on an intention-to-treat basis. For dichotomous data, odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Continuous data were analysed using standardised mean differences (with 95% CI) using the random effects model. Main results Fourteen trials compared escitalopram with another SSRI and eight compared escitalopram with a newer antidepressive agent (venlafaxine, bupropion and duloxetine). Escitalopram was shown to be significantly more effective than citalopram in achieving acute response (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.87). Escitalopram was also more effective than citalopram in terms of remission (OR

  5. Targeting cancer chemotherapeutic agents by use of lipiodol contrast medium

    SciTech Connect

    Konno, T. )

    1990-11-01

    Arterially administered Lipiodol Ultrafluid contrast medium selectively remained in various malignant solid tumors because of the difference in time required for the removal of Lipiodol contrast medium from normal capillaries and tumor neovasculature. Although blood flow was maintained in the tumor, even immediately after injection Lipiodol contrast medium remained in the neovasculature of the tumor. To target anti-cancer agents to tumors by using Lipiodol contrast medium as a carrier, the characteristics of the agents were examined. Anti-cancer agents had to be soluble in Lipiodol, be stable in it, and separate gradually from it so that the anti-cancer agents would selectively remain in the tumor. These conditions were found to be necessary on the basis of the measurement of radioactivity in VX2 tumors implanted in the liver of 16 rabbits that received arterial injections of 14C-labeled doxorubicin. Antitumor activities and side effects of arterial injections of two types of anti-cancer agents were compared in 76 rabbits with VX2 tumors. Oily anti-cancer agents that had characteristics essential for targeting were compared with simple mixtures of anti-cancer agents with Lipiodol contrast medium that did not have these essential characteristics. Groups of rabbits that received oily anti-cancer agents responded significantly better than groups that received simple mixtures, and side effects were observed more frequently in the groups that received the simple mixtures. These results suggest that targeting of the anti-cancer agent to the tumor is important for treatment of solid malignant tumors.

  6. Alternative Agents to Prevent Fogging in Head and Neck Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak

    2011-01-01

    Background: The essential factor for diagnosis and treatment of diseases in head and neck endoscopy is the visibility of the image. An anti-fogging agent can reduce this problem by minimizing surface tension to prevent the condensation of water in the form of small droplets on a surface. There is no report on the use of hibiscrub® or baby shampoo to reduce fogging in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy between commercial anti-fogging agent, hibiscrub® and baby shampoo to reduce fogging for the use in head and neck endoscopy. Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University in August 2010. Commercial anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® were applied on rigid endoscope lens before putting them into a mist generator. The images were taken at baseline, 15 seconds, 30 seconds and 1 minute. The images’ identifiers were removed before they were sent to two evaluators. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to rate the image quality from 0 to 10. Results: The difference in mean VAS score between anti-fogging agent, baby shampoo and hibiscrub® versus no agent were 5.46, 4.45 and 2.1 respectively. The commercial anti-fogging agent and baby shampoo had most protective benefit and performed significantly better than no agent (P = 0.05). Conclusions: Baby shampoo is an effective agent to prevent fogging during head and neck endoscopy and compares favourably with commercial anti-fogging agent. PMID:24179399

  7. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1996-05-07

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene or terpineol cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  8. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, G.W.; Carter, R.D.; Hand, T.E.; Powers, M.T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  9. Limonene and tetrahydrofurfurly alcohol cleaning agent

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Carter, Richard D.; Hand, Thomas E.; Powers, Michael T.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention is a tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol and limonene cleaning agent and method for formulating and/or using the cleaning agent. This cleaning agent effectively removes both polar and nonpolar contaminants from various electrical and mechanical parts and is readily used without surfactants, thereby reducing the need for additional cleaning operations. The cleaning agent is warm water rinsable without the use of surfactants. The cleaning agent can be azeotropic, enhancing ease of use in cleaning operations and ease of recycling.

  10. Halide test agent replacement study

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J.

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  11. Shear-induced volume decrease in MDCK cells.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinseok; Sachs, Frederick; Wang, Jianbin; Hua, Susan Z

    2012-01-01

    Using a microfluidic cell volume sensor we measured the change in the cell volume of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells induced by shear stress. An increase in shear stress from 0.2 to 2.0 dyn/cm(2) resulted in a volume decrease to a steady state volume ∼ 20 - 30 % smaller than the initial resting cell volume. Independent experiments based on fluorescence quenching confirmed the volume reduction. This shear-induced cell shrinkage was irreversible on the time scale of the experiment (∼ 30 min). Treatment of 0.1 µM Hg(2+) significantly inhibited the volume decrease, suggesting that the shear-induced cell shrinkage is associated with water efflux through aquaporins. The volume decrease cannot be inhibited by 75 mM TEA, 100 µM DIDS, or 100 µM Gd(3+) suggesting that volume reduction is not directly mediated by K(+) and Cl(-)channels that typically function during regulatory volume decrease (RVD), nor is it through cationic stretch-activated ion channels (SACs). The process also appears to be Ca(2+) independent because it was insensitive to intracellular Ca(2+) level. Since cell volume is determined by the intracellular water content, we postulate that the shear induced reductions in cell volume may arise from increased intracellular hydrostatic pressure as the cell is deformed under flow, which promotes the efflux of water. The increase in internal pressure in a deformable object under the flow is supported by the finite element mechanical model.

  12. Subacute ethanol consumption reverses p-xylene-induced decreases in axonal transport

    SciTech Connect

    Padilla, S.; Lyerly, D.L.; Pope, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    Organic solvants, as a class, have been implicated as neurotoxic agents in humans and laboratory animals. The study was designed to assess the interaction between subacute ingestion of moderate levels of ethanol and the p-xylene-induced decreases in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and axonal transport in the rat optic system. The results indicated that animals maintained on 10% ethanol as a drinking liquid show less p-xylene-induced neurotoxicity than animals receiving no ethanol supplement.

  13. Decreasing intrapartum malpractice: Targeting the most injurious neonatal adverse events.

    PubMed

    Santos, Palmira; Ritter, Grant A; Hefele, Jennifer L; Hendrich, Ann; McCoy, Christine Kocot

    2015-01-01

    Medical malpractice expenditures are mainly due to the occurrence of preventable harm with some of the highest liability rates in obstetrics. Establishing delivery system models which decrease preventable harm and malpractice risk have had varied results over the last decade. We conducted a case study of a risk reduction labor and delivery model at 5 demonstration sites. The model included standardized protocols for the most injurious events, training teams in labor and delivery emergencies, rapid reporting with cause analysis for all unplanned events, and disclosing unexpected occurrences to patients using coordinated communication and documentation. Each of the model's components required buy in from the hospital's clinical and administrative leadership, and it also required collaboration, training, and continual feedback to labor and delivery nurses, doctors, midwives, and risk managers. The case study examined the key elements in the development of the model based on interviews of all team members and document review. We also completed data analysis pre and post implementation of the new model to assess the impact on event reporting and high liability occurrence rates. After 27 months post implementation, reporting of unintended events increased significantly (43 vs 84 per 1000 births, p < .01) while high-risk malpractice events decreased significantly (14 vs 7 per 1000 births, p < .01). This decrease enabled money allotted for malpractice claims to be reallocated for the implementation of the new model at 42 additional labor and delivery sites. Due to these results, this multilevel integrated model showed promise. PMID:25891287

  14. Initial examination of priming tasks to decrease delay discounting.

    PubMed

    Sheffer, Christine E; Mackillop, James; Fernandez, Arislenia; Christensen, Darren; Bickel, Warren K; Johnson, Matthew W; Panissidi, Luana; Pittman, Jami; Franck, Christopher T; Williams, Jarrett; Mathew, Merlin

    2016-07-01

    Steep discounting of delayed rewards is linked with a variety of unhealthy behaviors that contribute to the major causes of preventable death and disease. Growing evidence suggests that decreases in delay discounting contribute to healthier preferences. This study sought to provide preliminary evidence for the viability of developing a brief priming task to reduce delay discounting in a large, diverse group of individuals. Participants (n=1,122) were randomized to one of three conditions: Future Focus (FF), Present Focus (PF), and Non-Temporal Focus (NTF) intended respectively to decrease, increase, or have no effect on delay discounting. Participants then completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire, a brief assessment of delay discounting rate. Participants randomized to FF exhibited significantly lower discounting rates than those randomized to PF or NTF conditions. Race, Hispanic background, social self-monitoring, education, and cigarette smoking also accounted for a significant amount of variance in the discounting model. These findings provide support for the development of a brief priming intervention that might be examined in clinical or public health contexts to decrease discounting and support healthy choices.

  15. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, L. M.; Diette, G. B.; Scott, M.; McCormack, M. C.; Matsui, E. C.; Curtin-Brosnan, J.; Williams, D. L.; Kidd-Taylor, A.; Shea, M.; Breysse, P. N.; Hansel, N. N.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P < 0.01) and bedroom (22%, P = 0.02), but at 3 months, a significant reduction was seen only in the kitchen (20%, P = 0.05). NO2 concentrations in the kitchen and bedroom did not significantly change following ventilation hood installation. Replacing unvented gas stoves with electric stoves or placement of air purifiers with HEPA and carbon filters can decrease indoor NO2 concentrations in urban homes. PMID:24329966

  16. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Sørensen, Ditte; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe–/– mice (Irs1/Apoe–/–) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE–/– mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE–/– mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr–/– and Irs1/Ldlr–/– mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr–/– mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  17. Insulin decreases atherosclerosis by inducing endothelin receptor B expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyoungmin; Mima, Akira; Li, Qian; Rask-Madsen, Christian; He, Pingnian; Mizutani, Koji; Katagiri, Sayaka; Maeda, Yasutaka; Wu, I-Hsien; Khamaisi, Mogher; Preil, Simone Rordam; Maddaloni, Ernesto; Sørensen, Ditte; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Huang, Paul L.; King, George L.

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cell (EC) insulin resistance and dysfunction, caused by diabetes, accelerates atherosclerosis. It is unknown whether specifically enhancing EC-targeted insulin action can decrease atherosclerosis in diabetes. Accordingly, overexpressing insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) in the endothelia of Apoe−/− mice (Irs1/Apoe−/−) increased insulin signaling and function in the aorta. Atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in Irs1/ApoE−/− mice on diet-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. The mechanism of insulin’s enhanced antiatherogenic actions in EC was related to remarkable induction of NO action, which increases endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) expression and intracellular [Ca2+]. Using the mice with knockin mutation of eNOS, which had Ser1176 mutated to alanine (AKI), deleting the only known mechanism for insulin to activate eNOS/NO pathway, we observed that IRS1 overexpression in the endothelia of Aki/ApoE−/− mice significantly decreased atherosclerosis. Interestingly, endothelial EDNRB expression was selectively reduced in intima of arteries from diabetic patients and rodents. However, endothelial EDNRB expression was upregulated by insulin via P13K/Akt pathway. Finally EDNRB deletion in EC of Ldlr−/− and Irs1/Ldlr−/− mice decreased NO production and accelerated atherosclerosis, compared with Ldlr−/− mice. Accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetes may be reduced by improving insulin signaling selectively via IRS1/Akt in the EC by inducing EDNRB expression and NO production. PMID:27200419

  18. Plasma dopamine: regulation and significance.

    PubMed

    Van Loon, G R

    1983-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) normally circulates in plasma. The plasma concentration of the free form of DA is approximately equivalent to that of epinephrine (E) and 20% that of norepinephrine (NE). The free form constitutes less than 2% of total plasma DA, and the remainder exists predominantly as sulfate or glucuronide conjugates. DA is found in adrenal medulla and cortex, peripheral nerves, sympathetic ganglia, carotid body, and kidney, but quantitatively the origin of circulating DA remains poorly understood. Plasma concentrations of free DA increase in association with events that increase sympathetic tone, although to a much lesser degree than seen for NE or E. Thus, upright posture, bicycle exercise, a variety of emotional and physical stresses, and hypoglycemia may be associated with increases in plasma free DA. Plasma DA decreases during the course of dietary sodium depletion in humans, in contrast to the plasma NE response, and consistent with a physiological role for DA in the regulation of aldosterone secretion. Plasma DA increases after administration of its precursor L-dihydroxyphenylalanine, together with the decarboxylase inhibitor carbidopa. Plasma NE and (in some studies) plasma DA decrease after administration of the DA receptor agonist bromocriptine. In contrast, plasma DA and one of its major metabolites, homovanillic acid, increase after administration of the DA receptor antagonist haloperidol. Administration of the endogenous opioid peptide beta-endorphin into the brain increases central sympathetic outflow, thus increasing plasma DA concentration, although to a lesser extent than for NE or E. Disordered basal concentrations of DA in plasma or disordered responses of plasma DA have been reported in a number of disease states. Clear understanding of physiological roles of DA in plasma and of its pathophysiology awaits definition. PMID:6413258

  19. Decreased Core-Fucosylation Contributes to Malignancy in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; You, Qing; Yi, Chang-Hong; Ji, Jun; Gu, Xing; Zhou, Ping-Ting; Cheng, Cheng; Gao, Chun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study is to identify N-glycan profiling changes associated with gastric cancer and explore the impact of core-fucosylation on biological behaviors of human gastric cancer cells. A total of 244 subjects including gastric cancer, gastric ulcer and healthy control were recruited. N-glycan profiling from serum and total proteins in gastric tissues was analyzed by DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis. The abundance of total core-fucosylated residues and the expression of enzymes involved in core-fucosylation were analyzed with lectin blot, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blot, Immunohistochemical staining and lectin-histochemical staining. The recombinant plasmids of GDP-fucose transporter and α-1,6-fucosyltransferase (Fut8) were constructed and transfected into gastric cancer cell lines BGC-823 and SGC-7901. CCK-8 and wound healing assay were used to assess the functional impact of core-fucosylation modulation on cell proliferation and migration. Characteristic serum N-glycan profiles were found in gastric cancer. Compared with the healthy control, a trianntenary structure abundance, peak 9 (NA3Fb), was increased significantly in gastric cancer, while the total abundance of core-fucosylated residues (sumfuc) was decreased. Core-fucosylated structures, peak6(NA2F) and peak7(NA2FB) were deceased in gastric tumor tissues when compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Consistently, lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA)-binding proteins were decreased significantly in sera of gastric cancer, and protein level of Fut8 was decreased significantly in gastric tumor tissues compared with that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Upregulation of GDP-Tr and Fut8 could inhibit proliferation, but had no significant influence on migration of BGC-823 and SGC-7901 cells. Core-fucosylation is down regulated in gastric cancer. Upregulation of core-fucosylation could inhibit proliferation of the human

  20. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şen, Zekai

    2015-11-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  1. Significance of Lead Residues in Mallard Tissues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Locke, L.N.; Bagley, G.E.; Andrews, R.

    1974-01-01

    Tissues of adult, lead-dosed mallards that either died or were sacrificed were analyzed for lead. Lead levels in brains, tibiae, and breast muscle of ducks that died and in tibiae of ducks that were sacrificed increased significantly from dosage until death. Lead in the heart, lung, and blood from sacrificed ducks decreased significantly from dosage until death. Lead concentrations in tissues from ducks in the two groups were not significantly different except for the liver, kidney, and lung. Average lead levels in the livers and kidneys of ducks that died were significantly higher than those in ducks that were sacrificed. The mean concentration of lead in the lungs of the ducks sacrificed was significantly higher than the mean level in the lungs of ducks that died. Measurements of the lead concentrations in this study, when compared with lead levels reported in the literature for avian and non-avian species, showed that arbitrary diagnostic levels indicating lead poisoning could be set. In mallard ducks, lead levels exceeding 3 ppm in the brain, 6 to 20 ppm in the kidney or liver, or 10 ppm in clotted blood from the heart indicated acute exposure to lead.

  2. Decreased sleep quality in high myopia children.

    PubMed

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Torii, Hidemasa; Tsubota, Kazuo; Negishi, Kazuno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality in myopic children and adults. This cross sectional study surveyed 486 participants aged from 10 to 59 years with refractive errors using a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Children (< 20 years) in the high myopia group exhibited the poorest PSQI scores (P < 0.01), while the adults showed no such correlations. Subscales of PSQI and HADS in children disclosed that the high myopia groups had the shortest sleep duration (P < 0.01), worst subjective sleep scores (P < 0.001), and latest bedtime (P < 0.05). Regression analyses in children significantly correlated myopic errors with PSQI (P < 0.05), sleep duration (P < 0.01), and bedtime (P < 0.01). Sleep efficacy (P < 0.05) and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05) were significantly better in contact-lens users compared to the respective non-user groups across all participants. In conclusion, sleep quality in children was significantly correlated with myopic error, with the high myopia group worst affected. PMID:27650408

  3. Decreased sleep quality in high myopia children

    PubMed Central

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Torii, Hidemasa; Tsubota, Kazuo; Negishi, Kazuno

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep quality in myopic children and adults. This cross sectional study surveyed 486 participants aged from 10 to 59 years with refractive errors using a questionnaire containing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Children (< 20 years) in the high myopia group exhibited the poorest PSQI scores (P < 0.01), while the adults showed no such correlations. Subscales of PSQI and HADS in children disclosed that the high myopia groups had the shortest sleep duration (P < 0.01), worst subjective sleep scores (P < 0.001), and latest bedtime (P < 0.05). Regression analyses in children significantly correlated myopic errors with PSQI (P < 0.05), sleep duration (P < 0.01), and bedtime (P < 0.01). Sleep efficacy (P < 0.05) and daytime dysfunction (P < 0.05) were significantly better in contact-lens users compared to the respective non-user groups across all participants. In conclusion, sleep quality in children was significantly correlated with myopic error, with the high myopia group worst affected. PMID:27650408

  4. Cooking does not decrease hydrophilic antioxidant capacity of wild blueberries.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rebecca Ree; Renfroe, Michael H; Brevard, Patricia Bowling; Lee, Robert E; Gloeckner, Janet W

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of domestic cooking methods on the hydrophilic antioxidant activity (HAA) of wild blueberries. Baked, microwaved, simmered, and pan-fried frozen wild blueberries, and a thawed uncooked control, were analyzed for HAA using an ABTS/H(2)O(2)/HRP decoloration method. All cooking treatments were derived from recipes using wild blueberries, and were performed in triplicate. A randomized block design was used to determine whether there were statistical differences in antioxidant content after cooking and between each of the trials. There were no statistically significant decreases after cooking the thawed berries. On both a fresh weight and a dry weight basis, pan-fried blueberries had significantly higher HAA than baked, simmered, and control blueberries (P<0.05). Antioxidants in wild blueberries appear to be heat stable since cooked berries retained significant HAA. Cooked wild blueberries can be recommended as a good source of dietary antioxidants.

  5. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  6. Bupropion as an augmenting agent in patients of depression with partial response.

    PubMed

    Gulrez, Gaurav; Badyal, Dinesh Kumar; Deswal, Randhir Singh; Sharma, Arvind

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of bupropion as an add-on therapy to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) on patients of major depressive disorder with partial response. This prospective, randomized, controlled and single-blind study was conducted in sixty patients suffering from major depressive disorder as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-IV TR criteria, who were having Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) score ≥16 after 4 weeks of treatment with SSRIs. Group A received SSRI plus placebo and group B received SSRI plus bupropion. Evaluation was performed based on changes in HDRS score, Montgomery and Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS), Amritsar depressive inventory (ADI) and spontaneously reported adverse effects. There was a significant decrease in the HDRS, MADRS and ADI scores as compared to baseline in both groups. However, the mean decrease in depression score was more in group B than in group A. The percentage decrease of remitters was also significantly more in group B (60% as per HDRS score and 63% as per MADRS score), as compared to group A (24% as per HDRS score and 27% as per MADRS score) (p < 0.05), at the end of treatment. In conclusion, bupropion add-on can act as augmenting agent in patients of depression with partial response to SSRIs.

  7. High temperature, differentiation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress decrease but epigenetic and antioxidative agents increase Aspergillus ribosomal protein gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide gene expression assays using next-generation sequencing techniques have allowed the identification of transcriptomes in many species. Transcript abundance of ribosomal protein (RP) genes can serve as a proxy for the capacity of general transcription and synthesis of cellular proteins tha...

  8. Hyaluronan decreases surfactant inactivation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Karen W; Goerke, Jon; Clements, John A; Taeusch, H William

    2005-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an anionic polymer and a constituent of alveolar fluid that can bind proteins, phospholipids, and water. Previous studies have established that nonionic polymers improve the surface activity of pulmonary surfactants by decreasing inactivation of surfactant. In this work, we investigate whether HA can also have beneficial effects when added to surfactants. We used a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer to measure mixtures of several commercially available pulmonary surfactants or native calf surfactant with and without serum inactivation. Surface properties such as equilibrium surface tension, minimum and maximum surface tensions on compression and expansion of a surface film, and degree of surface area reduction required to reach a surface tension of 10 mN/m were measured. In the presence of serum, addition of HA dramatically improved the surface activities of all four surfactants and in some cases in the absence of serum as well. These results indicate that HA reduces inactivation of surfactants caused by serum and add evidence that endogenous HAs may interact with alveolar surfactant under normal and abnormal conditions.

  9. Future Avenues to Decrease Uremic Toxin Concentration.

    PubMed

    Vanholder, Raymond C; Eloot, Sunny; Glorieux, Griet L R L

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we review approaches for decreasing uremic solute concentrations in chronic kidney disease and in particular, in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The rationale to do so is the straightforward relation between concentration and biological (toxic) effect for most toxins. The first section is devoted to extracorporeal strategies (kidney replacement therapy). In the context of high-flux hemodialysis and hemodiafiltration, we discuss increasing dialyzer blood and dialysate flows, frequent and/or extended dialysis, adsorption, bioartificial kidney, and changing physical conditions within the dialyzer (especially for protein-bound toxins). The next section focuses on the intestinal generation of uremic toxins, which in return is stimulated by uremic conditions. Therapeutic options are probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and intestinal sorbents. Current data are conflicting, and these issues need further study before useful therapeutic concepts are developed. The following section is devoted to preservation of (residual) kidney function. Although many therapeutic options may overlap with therapies provided before ESRD, we focus on specific aspects of ESRD treatment, such as the risks of too-strict blood pressure and glycemic regulation and hemodynamic changes during dialysis. Finally, some recommendations are given on how research might be organized with regard to uremic toxins and their effects, removal, and impact on outcomes of uremic patients. PMID:26500179

  10. Exogenous spatial attention decreases audiovisual integration.

    PubMed

    Van der Stoep, N; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijboer, T C W

    2015-02-01

    Multisensory integration (MSI) and spatial attention are both mechanisms through which the processing of sensory information can be facilitated. Studies on the interaction between spatial attention and MSI have mainly focused on the interaction between endogenous spatial attention and MSI. Most of these studies have shown that endogenously attending a multisensory target enhances MSI. It is currently unclear, however, whether and how exogenous spatial attention and MSI interact. In the current study, we investigated the interaction between these two important bottom-up processes in two experiments. In Experiment 1 the target location was task-relevant, and in Experiment 2 the target location was task-irrelevant. Valid or invalid exogenous auditory cues were presented before the onset of unimodal auditory, unimodal visual, and audiovisual targets. We observed reliable cueing effects and multisensory response enhancement in both experiments. To examine whether audiovisual integration was influenced by exogenous spatial attention, the amount of race model violation was compared between exogenously attended and unattended targets. In both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, a decrease in MSI was observed when audiovisual targets were exogenously attended, compared to when they were not. The interaction between exogenous attention and MSI was less pronounced in Experiment 2. Therefore, our results indicate that exogenous attention diminishes MSI when spatial orienting is relevant. The results are discussed in terms of models of multisensory integration and attention. PMID:25341648

  11. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is markedly decreased following pulmonary F. tularensis challenge.

    PubMed

    Chambers, James P; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Jupelli, Madhulika; Weintraub, Susan T; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Valdes, James J; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of defense during infection and are indispensable in this function. The neutrophil elastase is a key effector molecule of the innate immune system with potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, spirochaetes, and fungi. However, the release of neutrophil elastase during bacterial infection must be checked otherwise its release in the extracellular milieu will result in damage to surrounding tissues. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a small glycoprotein clade A serpine serine protease inhibitor and has been shown to increase in humans following bacterial and viral infection. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Type A strains are the most virulent with an infectious dose as low as 10 colony forming units and a mortality rate of 30-60% among untreated cases of pneumonic tularemia. We report here significant reduction of this major inhibitor of the neutrophil elastase in plasma of F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 infected animals following pulmonary challenge. Associated with an imbalance of protease-antiprotease function at the alveolar level in lungs of infected animals, increased elastase activity was observed in lung lavage fluids accompanied by decrease lung function, i.e., loss of lung elastance with concomitant increase of pulmonary hysteresivity. Consistent with a competent acute phase response following F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 pulmonary challenge and proposed up-regulation of plasma haptoglobin during the course of the acute phase reaction, haptoglobin was observed significantly increased. These data suggest that unchecked neutrophil serine protease activity may arise from F. tularensis targeted reduction of plasma α(1)-antitrysin promoting lung tissue damage facilitating increased dissemination of this bacterium in infected animals. PMID:22919586

  12. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin is Markedly Decreased Following Pulmonary F. tularensis Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, James P.; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Jupelli, Madhulika; Weintraub, Susan T.; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L.; Valdes, James J.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2011-01-01

    Neutrophils form the first line of defense during infection and are indispensable in this function. The neutrophil elastase is a key effector molecule of the innate immune system with potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, spirochaetes, and fungi. However, the release of neutrophil elastase during bacterial infection must be checked otherwise its release in the extracellular milieu will result in damage to surrounding tissues. Alpha-1 antitrypsin is a small glycoprotein clade A serpine serine protease inhibitor and has been shown to increase in humans following bacterial and viral infection. Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of tularemia. Type A strains are the most virulent with an infectious dose as low as 10 colony forming units and a mortality rate of 30–60% among untreated cases of pneumonic tularemia. We report here significant reduction of this major inhibitor of the neutrophil elastase in plasma of F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 infected animals following pulmonary challenge. Associated with an imbalance of protease–antiprotease function at the alveolar level in lungs of infected animals, increased elastase activity was observed in lung lavage fluids accompanied by decrease lung function, i.e., loss of lung elastance with concomitant increase of pulmonary hysteresivity. Consistent with a competent acute phase response following F. tularensis LVS and F. tularensis (type A) SCHU S4 pulmonary challenge and proposed up-regulation of plasma haptoglobin during the course of the acute phase reaction, haptoglobin was observed significantly increased. These data suggest that unchecked neutrophil serine protease activity may arise from F. tularensis targeted reduction of plasma α1-antitrysin promoting lung tissue damage facilitating increased dissemination of this bacterium in infected animals. PMID:22919586

  13. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    PubMed

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  14. Synthesis and characterization of a porphyrazine–Gd(III) MRI contrast agent and in vivo imaging of a breast cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Evan R.; Ma, Zhidong; Waters, Emily A.; Macrenaris, Keith W.; Subramanian, Rohit; Barrettf, Anthony G. M.; Meade, Thomas J.; Hoffman, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Porphyrazines (Pz), or tetraazaporphyrins, are being studied for their potential use in detection and treatment of cancer. Here, an amphiphilic Cu–Pz–Gd(III) conjugate has been prepared via azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition or ‘click’ chemistry between an azide functionalized Pz and alkyne functionalized DOTA–Gd(III) analog for use as an MRI contrast agent. This agent, Cu–Pz–Gd(III), is synthesized in good yield and exhibits solution-phase ionic relaxivity (r1 = 11.5 mm−1 s−1) that is approximately four times higher than that of a clinically used monomeric Gd (III) contrast agent, DOTA–Gd(III). Breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) associate with Cu–Pz–Gd(III) in vitro, where significant contrast enhancement (9.336 ± 0.335 contrast-to-noise ratio) is observed in phantom cell pellet MR images. This novel contrast agent was administered in vivo to an orthotopic breast tumor model in athymic nude mice and MR images were collected. The average T1 of tumor regions in mice treated with 50 mg kg−1 Cu–Pz–Gd (III) decreased relative to saline-treated controls. Furthermore, the decrease in T1 was persistent relative to mice treated with the monomeric Gd(III) contrast agent. An ex vivo biodistribution study confirmed that Cu–Pz–Gd(III) accumulates in the tumors and is rapidly cleared, primarily through the kidneys. Differential accumulation and T1 enhancement by Cu–Pz–Gd(III) in the tumor's core relative to the periphery offer preliminary evidence that this agent would find application in the imaging of necrotic tissue. PMID:24706615

  15. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment. PMID:27148715

  16. The first Forbush decrease of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, A.; Belov, A.; Mavromichalaki, H.; Eroshenko, E.; Yanke, V.; Asvestari, E.; Abunin, A.; Abunina, M.

    2013-02-01

    The first significant Forbush decrease of solar cycle 24 was recorded in February 18, 2011 from neutron monitors around the world. This was the result of the coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that was released from the Sun on 14 and 15 February 2011, respectively, and their interplanetary counterparts (ICME) that were prevalent in the interplanetary space in this period. We report on the global characteristics of cosmic rays during the FD such as the amplitude (A0), the decrement and the three dimensional anisotropy parameters (Ax, Ay and Az), deduced from the global survey method (GSM). We also analyze the interplanetary space solar wind data and we present the structure of the ICME as it passed through the Earth resulting in a strong Forbush decrease. We compare high time resolution neutron monitor data with multipoint space-based measurements of the interplanetary space (e.g. ACE/SWEPAM and ACE/MAG).

  17. Time variation analysis of the daily Forbush decrease indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Sankar Narayan; Ghosh, Koushik; Panja, Subhash Chandra

    2011-08-01

    In the present paper we have analyzed the daily Forbush decrease indices from January 1, 1967 to December 31, 2003. First filtering the time series by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied Scargle Method of Periodogram on the processed time series in order to search for its time variation. Study exhibits periodicities around 174, 245, 261, 321, 452, 510, 571, 584, 662, 703, 735, 741, 767, 774, 820, 970, 1062, 1082, 1489, 1715, 2317, 2577, 2768, 3241 and 10630 days with confidence levels higher than 90%. Some of these periods are significantly similar to the observed periodicities of other solar activities, like solar filament activity, solar electron flare occurrence, solar-flare rate, solar proton events, solar neutrino flux, solar irradiance, cosmic ray intensity and flare, spectrum of the sunspot, solar wind, southern coronal hole area and solar cycle, which may suggest that the Forbush decrease behaves similarly to these solar activities and these activities may have a common origin.

  18. Decrease of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by food waste materials.

    PubMed

    Maderova, Zdenka; Horska, Katerina; Kim, Sang-Ryoung; Lee, Chung-Hak; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarikova, Mirka; Safarik, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    The formation of bacterial biofilm on various surfaces has significant negative economic effects. The aim of this study was to find a simple procedure to decrease the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation in a water environment by using different food waste biological materials as signal molecule adsorbents. The selected biomaterials did not reduce the cell growth but affected biofilm formation. Promising biomaterials were magnetically modified in order to simplify manipulation and facilitate their magnetic separation. The best biocomposite, magnetically modified spent grain, exhibited substantial adsorption of signal molecules and decreased the biofilm formation. These results suggest that selected food waste materials and their magnetically responsive derivatives could be applied to solve biofilm problems in water environment.

  19. Does an Agent Matter? The Effects of Animated Pedagogical Agents on Multimedia Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Scotty D.; Gholson, Barry

    Data are presented on the effects of Animated Agents on multimedia learning environments with specific concerns of split attention and modality effects. The study was a 3 (agent properties: agent only, agent with gestures, no agent) x 3 (picture features: static picture, sudden onset, animation) factorial design with outcome measures of mental…

  20. The New Agent: A Qualitative Study to Strategically Adapt New Agent Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lauri M.; Hadley, Gregg

    2014-01-01

    The qualitative study reported here assessed the needs of agents related to new agent professional development to improve the current model. Agents who participated in new agent professional development within the last 5 years were selected to participate in focus groups to determine concerns and continued needs. Agents enjoyed networking and…