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Sample records for agents toxic industrial

  1. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  2. Reactive chromophores for sensitive and selective detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.

    2005-05-01

    A reactive chromophore developed at MIT exhibits sensitive and selective detection of surrogates for G-class nerve agents. This reporter acts by reacting with the agent to form an intermediate that goes through an internal cyclization reaction. The reaction locks the molecule into a form that provides a strong fluorescent signal. Using a fluorescent sensor platform, Nomadics has demonstrated rapid and sensitive detection of reactive simulants such as diethyl chloro-phosphate (simulant for sarin, soman, and related agents) and diethyl cyanophosphate (simulant for tabun). Since the unreacted chromophore does not fluoresce at the excitation wavelength used for the cyclized reporter, the onset of fluo-rescence can be easily detected. This fluorescence-based detection method provides very high sensitivity and could enable rapid detection at permissible exposure levels. Tests with potential interferents show that the reporter is very selective, with responses from only a few highly toxic, electrophilic chemicals such as phosgene, thionyl chloride, and strong acids such as HF, HCl, and nitric acid. Dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP), a common and inactive simu-lant for other CW detectors, is not reactive enough to generate a signal. The unique selectivity to chemical reactivity means that a highly toxic and hazardous chemical is present when the reporter responds and illustrates that this sensor can provide very low false alarm rates. Current efforts focus on demonstrating the sensitivity and range of agents and toxic industrial chemicals detected with this reporter as well as developing additional fluorescent reporters for a range of chemical reactivity classes. The goal is to produce a hand-held sensor that can sensitively detect a broad range of chemical warfare agent and toxic industrial chemical threats.

  3. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  4. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  5. Sensitive detection of chemical agents and toxic industrial chemicals using active open-path FTIRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, William T.

    2004-03-01

    Active open-path FTIR sensors provide more sensitive detection of chemical agents than passive FTIRs, such as the M21 RSCAAL and JSLSCAD, and at the same time identify and quantify toxic industrial chemicals (TIC). Passive FTIRs are bistatic sensors relying on infrared sources of opportunity. Utilization of earth-based sources of opportunity limits the source temperatures available for passive chemical-agent FTIR sensors to 300° K. Active FTIR chemical-agent sensors utilize silicon carbide sources, which can be operated at 1500° K. The higher source temperature provides more than an 80-times increase in the infrared radiant flux emitted per unit area in the 7 to 14 micron spectral fingerprint region. Minimum detection limits are better than 5 μgm/m3 for GA, GB, GD, GF and VX. Active FTIR sensors can (1) assist first responders and emergency response teams in their assessment of and reaction to a terrorist threat, (2) provide information on the identification of the TIC present and their concentrations and (3) contribute to the understanding and prevention of debilitating disorders analogous to the Gulf War Syndrome for military and civilian personnel.

  6. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals.

  7. Organic pollutant removal versus toxicity reduction in industrial wastewater treatment: the example of wastewater from fluorescent whitening agent production.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Annette; Hellweg, Stefanie; Escher, Beate I; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2006-05-15

    Industrial wastewater treatment in the chemical industry aims at eliminating organic contaminants, as these pollutants may be persistent and ecotoxic. In a case study performed in collaboration with the chemical industry, we investigated the removal of a fluorescent whitening agent and its side products in the wastewater-treatment system. Adsorption to activated carbon and biological treatment were simulated in laboratory tests. Algae toxicity tests were performed to quantify the toxicity of the wastewater mixture and of single components. The contaminants identified accounted for up to 82% of the wastewater's total organic carbon (TOC). Adsorption to activated carbon eliminated the TOC and the single contaminants only slightly. Nevertheless, the toxicity of the wastewater decreased by 40%. In contrast, biological treatment reduced the TOC by up to 80%, and the whole effluent toxicity increased. These results indicate that new ecotoxic metabolites were formed during the biological treatment. They also illustrate that mere reduction of the TOC in the wastewater-treatment system is not sufficient for ensuring a reduction of environmental impact. Therefore, simultaneously conducting TOC measurements and toxicity tests, as demonstrated in the current work, is recommended.

  8. Analysis of gaseous toxic industrial compounds and chemical warfare agent simulants by atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cotte-Rodríguez, Ismael; Justes, Dina R; Nanita, Sergio C; Noll, Robert J; Mulligan, Christopher C; Sanders, Nathaniel L; Cooks, R Graham

    2006-04-01

    The suitability of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry as sensing instrumentation for the real-time monitoring of low levels of toxic compounds is assessed, especially with respect to public safety applications. Gaseous samples of nine toxic industrial compounds, NH3, H2S, Cl2, CS2, SO2, C2H4O, HBr, C6H6 and AsH3, and two chemical warfare agent simulants, dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and methyl salicylate (MeS), were studied. API-MS proves highly suited to this application, with speedy analysis times (<30 seconds), high sensitivity, high selectivity towards analytes, good precision, dynamic range and accuracy. Tandem MS methods were implemented in selected cases for improved selectivity, sensitivity, and limits of detection. Limits of detection in the parts-per-billion and parts-per-trillion range were achieved for this set of analytes. In all cases detection limits were well below the compounds' permissible exposure limits (PELs), even in the presence of added complex mixtures of alkanes. Linear responses, up to several orders of magnitude, were obtained over the concentration ranges studied (sub-ppb to ppm), with relative standard deviations less than 3%, regardless of the presence of alkane interferents. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are presented to show the performance trade-off between sensitivity, probability of correct detection, and false positive rate. A dynamic sample preparation system for the production of gas phase analyte concentrations ranging from 100 pptr to 100 ppm and capable of admixing gaseous matrix compounds and control of relative humidity and temperature is also described.

  9. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  10. Organophosphate nerve agent toxicity in Hydra attenuata.

    PubMed

    Lum, Karin T; Huebner, Henry J; Li, Yingchun; Phillips, Timothy D; Raushel, Frank M

    2003-08-01

    The toxicity for analogues of sarin (GB), soman (GD), and VX was evaluated using Hydra attenuata as a model organism. The organophosphate nerve agent analogue simulants used in this investigation included the following: isopropyl p-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate (for GB); pinacolyl p-nitrophenyl methylphosphonate (for GD); and diisopropyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate, diethyl S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate, and diethyl S-(2-trimethylaminoethyl)phosphorothioate (for VX). The toxicity of each organophosphate nerve agent was assessed quantitatively by measuring the minimal effective concentration within 92 h in H. attenuata. There is a positive correlation between the molecular hydrophobicity of the compound and its ability to cause toxicity. Results from this study indicate the potential for application of this assay in the field of organophosphate chemical warfare agent detection, as well as for the prediction of toxicity of structurally similar organophosphate compounds. The minimal effective concentration for two of the VX analogues was 2 orders of magnitude more toxic than the analogue for GD and 4 orders of magnitude more toxic than the analogue for GB.

  11. Development of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of agents suitable for removal of CO, NH3, NO2 SO2, and other spacecraft contaminants was approached. An extensive technology review was conducted, yielding a large number of potentially useful materials and/or concepts. Because the two toxic gases of greatest interest, CO and NH3, suggested the use of catalysis principles emphasis was placed on the intestigation of transition metals on various supports. Forty-three materials were prepared or obtained and 25 were tested. Gas chromatographic techniques were used to find seven candidates that effectively managed various combinations of the four toxic gases: none managed all. These candidates included six transition metal-containing preparations and a supported LiOH material. Three commercial charcoals showed some efficiency for the toxic gases and may constitute candidates for enhancement by doping with transition metals.

  12. Release and toxicity comparison between industrial- and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many consumer products containing ZnO have raised concern for safety in regards toenvironmental impact and the public health. Widely used sunscreens for protectingagainst UV and avoiding sunburns represent a great exposure to nano-ZnO, one of theingredients commonly applied in sunscreens. Applying nano-products on beaches mayrelease nanoparticles unintentionally into the ocean. Despite the accumulation of suchnano-products in the ocean harming or being detrimental to critical marine organisms,few studies have investigated the release and potential toxicity of nanoparticlesextracted from products and compared them with those from industrial-typenanoparticles. Results show that the cytotoxicity of both industrial- and sunscreenderivednano-ZnO to the marine diatom algae, Thalassiosira pseudonana, increasedas exposure increases over time, as measured by growth inhibition (%) of the algae ata constant concentration of nano-ZnO (10 mg/L). The extent of toxicity appeared to behigher from industrial-type nano-ZnO compared to sunscreen-extracted nano-ZnO,though the extent becomes similar when concentrations increase to 50 mg/L. On theother hand, at a fixed exposure time of 48 hrs, the cytotoxicity increases asconcentrations increase with the higher toxicity shown from the industrial-typecompared to sunscreen-induced nano-ZnO. Results indicate that while industrial-typenano-ZnO shows higher toxicity than sunscreen-derived nano-ZnO, the release andextent of toxicity from n

  13. Perspectives on testing for toxic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, N

    1987-01-01

    A series of observations and comments are made with respect to several areas of toxicology: these are briefly discussed. Some innovative areas receive discussion as representing substantial progress made in the field of toxicology in recent years. Topics included raise a number of questions: what agents should we test, and how should we go about selecting them; what is the importance of allowing for genetic diversity in carrying out tests that are meaningful for humans; and what is the relevance of studies in pharmacokinetics in the laboratory to humans. Human studies, because of ethical considerations, must be indirect, through access to available autopsy and surgical human tissues. Also, drug trials and clinical studies must be exploited. Cancer testing and evaluation is briefly commented on. Systemic toxicity is considered in respect to possible improved ways of determining the "NOEL," that is, the no-observed-effect level. Suggestions for improving study of mixtures of chemicals are considered. The rapid advances in molecular biology have significantly strengthened our ability to trace the action of chemicals in the body from exposure to disease. It is very important that training in toxicology be based on a sound disciplinary training in one of the classic fields of the biomedical sciences, such as biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology. It is concluded that advances in the past decade have made the practice of toxicology a much more scientific endeavor, especially in its use of the latest developments in basic biomedical sciences. PMID:3319572

  14. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  15. Translation of Toxicity Data into CW Agent Toxicity Estimates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-07-01

    dosage defined by vapor concentration (C) multiplied by exposure time (T) CTXX -- Lethal or Effective Concentration-Time to XX% exposed Dependence of...kg, young healthy adult males Agents addressed: GA (tabun), GB (sarin), GD (soman), GF (cyclosarin), VX and HD (mustard) Routes of exposure ...use with CW agent exposure scenarios involving healthy adult males Evidence exists that in some mammalian species (ex. rodents) that a significant

  16. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  17. Antidotal Effects of Curcumin Against Agents-Induced Cardiovascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Farkhondeh, Tahereh; Samarghandian, Saeed

    Curcumin, the major phenolic compound in turmeric, shows preventive effects in various diseases. Curcumin is commonly found in rhizome of the Curcuma species and traditionally used in herbal medicine. Numeros studies has indicated that curcumin posses protective effects against toxic agents in various systems including cardiovascular. This study found that curcumin may be effective in cardiovascular diseases induced by toxic agents including Streptozotocin, Doxorubicin, Cyclosporin A, Methotrexate, Isoproterenol, Cadmium, Diesel exhaust particle, Nicotine, Hydrogen peroxide, and tert- Butyl hydroperoxide. However, due to the lake of information on human, further studies are needed to determine the efficacy of curcumin as an antidote agent. The present study aimed to critically review the recent literature data from that regarding the protective effects of curcumin against agents-induced cardiovascular toxicity.

  18. The Respiratory Toxicity of Chemical Warefare Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation is one of the most important routes of exposure for chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and thus, the lung remains a critical target of injury. Depending on the mode of action by which the CWAs cause injury, the nature of injury, the location being impacted within the respi...

  19. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  20. Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Ohnsorge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents. In humans, cardiotoxic agents due to mitochondrial dysfunction include anthracyclines (particularly doxorubicin), mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, fluorouracil, imatinib, bortezomib, trastuzumab, arsenic trioxide, cyclosporine-A, zidovudine, lamotrigine, glycosides, lidocain, isoproterenol, nitroprusside, pivalic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, cadmium, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, meat meal, or carbon monoxide. Even more agents exhibit cardiac abnormalities due to mitochondrion-toxicity only in animals or tissue cultures. The mitochondrion-toxic effect results from impairment of the respiratory chain, the oxidative phosphorylation, the Krebs cycle, or the β-oxidation, from decrease of the mitochondrion-membrane potential, from increased oxidative stress, reduced anti-oxidative capacity, or from induction of apoptosis. Cardiac abnormalities induced via these mechanisms include cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, or Takotsubo syndrome. Discontinuation of the cardiotoxic agent results in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. Antioxidants and nutritiants may be of additional help. Particularly coenzyme-Q, riboflavin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, L-carnitine, vitamin-D, thiamin, folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, and D-ribose may alleviate mitochondrial cardiotoxic effects.

  1. Grand Rounds: An Outbreak of Toxic Hepatitis among Industrial Waste Disposal Workers

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Eun A; Choi, Jung-Keun; Choi, Sung-Bong; Suh, Jeong-Ill; Choi, Dae Seob; Kim, Jung Ran

    2007-01-01

    Context Industrial waste (which is composed of various toxic chemicals), changes to the disposal process, and addition of chemicals should all be monitored and controlled carefully in the industrial waste industry to reduce the health hazard to workers. Case presentation Five workers in an industrial waste plant developed acute toxic hepatitis, one of whom died after 3 months due to fulminant hepatitis. In the plant, we detected several chemicals with hepatotoxic potential, including pyridine, dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, and methylenedianiline. The workers had been working in the high-vapor-generating area of the plant, and the findings of pathologic examination showed typical features of acute toxic hepatitis. Discussion Infectious hepatitis and drug-induced hepatitis were excluded by laboratory findings, as well as the clinical course of hepatitis. All cases of toxic hepatitis in this plant developed after the change of the disposal process to thermochemical reaction–type treatment using unslaked lime reacted with industrial wastes. During this chemical reaction, vapor containing several toxic materials was generated. Although we could not confirm the definitive causative chemical, we suspect that these cases of hepatitis were caused by one of the hepatotoxic agents or by a synergistic interaction among several of them. Relevance to clinical or professional practice In the industrial waste treatment process, the danger of developing toxic hepatitis should be kept in mind, because any subtle change of the treatment process can generate various toxic materials and threaten the workers’ health. A mixture of hepatotoxic chemicals can induce clinical manifestations that are quite different from those predicted by the toxic property of a single agent. PMID:17366828

  2. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui )

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  3. Molluscicidal properties and selective toxicity of surface-active agents

    PubMed Central

    Visser, S. A.

    1965-01-01

    Of over 100 commercially produced surface-active agents tested against the bilharziasis vector snail Biomphalaria sudanica, 13 were found to possess considerable and highly selective molluscicidal properties at concentrations of less than 1 ppm for exposures of 48 hours. Against crustacea, fish, water plants, mosquito larvae, mice, and the eggs of B. sudanica, the toxicities of the 13 surfactants were slight. The chemicals did not appear to be absorbed by organic matter to any appreciable extent. It is thought that the toxicity to B. sudanica is of both a chemical and a physical nature. PMID:5294185

  4. The Impact of Toxic Agent Training on Combat Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-24

    34 stress " testing and appearance before a military awards board. We thus drew general comparisons between the CDTF experience and stressful situations...significance level of 0.01 was chosen because of the large number of dependent variables (and tests ) involved. RESULTS Stress Urinary hormones. Table 2 displays...urine collection allowed The best test of the hypothesis that toxic agent training was stressful would have been samples taken during the exercise itself

  5. Environmentally Safer, Less Toxic Fire-Extinguishing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2003-01-01

    Fire-extinguishing agents comprising microscopic drops of water microencapsulated in flame-retardant polymers have been proposed as effective, less toxic, non-ozone-depleting, non-globalwarming alternatives to prior fire-extinguishing agents. Among the prior fire-extinguishing agents are halons (various halocarbon fluids), which are toxic and contribute both to depletion of upperatmospheric ozone and to global warming. Other prior fire-extinguishing agents are less toxic and less environmentally harmful but, in comparison with halons, are significantly less effective in extinguishing fires. The proposal to formulate new waterbased agents is based on recent success in the use of water mist as a fire-suppression agent. Water suppresses a flame by reducing the flame temperature and the concentration of oxygen available for the combustion process. The temperature is reduced because the water droplets in the mist absorb latent heat of vaporization as they evaporate. The concentration of oxygen is reduced because the newly generated water vapor displaces air. Unfortunately, water mists are difficult to produce in confined spaces and can evaporate before they reach the bases of flames. The proposal addresses both of these issues: The proposed fire-extinguishing agents would be manufactured in microencapsulated form in advance, eliminating the problem of generating mists in confined spaces. Because of the microencapsulation, the droplets would not evaporate until exposed directly to the heat of flames. In addition, the proposal calls for the introduction of free radicals that would inhibit the propagation of the chemical reactions of the combustion reactions. Manufacturing of a fire-extinguishing agent according to the proposal would begin with the formulation of a suitable polymer (e.g., a polybromostyrene) that would contribute free radicals to the combustion process. The polymer would be dissolved in a suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g., toluene). Water would be

  6. Industrial toxicants and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, W. Michael; Guillot, Thomas S.; Lazo, Carlos R.; Miller, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of the human population to environmental contaminants is recognized as a significant contributing factor for the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. While pesticides have repeatedly been identified as risk factors for PD, these compounds represent only a subset of environmental toxicants that we are exposed to on a regular basis. Thus, non-pesticide contaminants, such as metals, solvents, and other organohalogen compounds have also been implicated in the clinical and pathological manifestations of these movement disorders and it is these non-pesticide compounds that are the subject of this review. As toxic exposures to these classes of compounds can result in a spectrum of PD or PD-related disorders, it is imperative to appreciate shared clinico-pathological characteristics or mechanisms of action of these compounds in order to further delineate the resultant disorders as well as identify improved preventive strategies or therapeutic interventions. PMID:22309908

  7. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Amantea, Diana; Caruso, Anna; Saturnino, Carmela

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals.

  8. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: response to toxic agents.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, R H; LaMontagne, A D; Petito, C T; Rong, X H

    1989-01-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Great differences were evident even among those cells derived from stratified squamous epithelia (epidermal, esophageal, vaginal, forestomach) despite their expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities to similar degrees. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAMP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Although expressing keratinocyte character (transglutaminase activity and envelope forming ability), the cells thus retain some hormonal character that may be modulated by cAMP-dependent kinase activity. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 4. PMID:2466642

  9. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  10. USE OF TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION EVALUATION METHODS TO CHARACTERIZE IDENTIFY, AND CONFIRM HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM TOXICITY IN AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was conducted on effluent from a major industrial discharger. Initial monitoring showed slight chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia; later sample showed substantial toxicity to C. dubia. Chemical analysis detected hexavalent chromium ...

  11. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  12. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location.

  13. Low toxicity aromatic diamine curing agents for adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, G.F.

    1993-08-24

    Increasing severity of regulations for handling of hazardous materials has led to formulation of adhesives with considerably lowered toxicities for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Fundamental was the development of Asilamine aromatic diamines, a family of liquid aromatic diamines useful as substitutes for methylenedianiline (MDA), a widely used adhesives curing agent. The use of Asilamine has allowed us to continue operations without dealing with expensive measures for regulation of MDA as a carcinogen promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  14. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Gage, J. C.

    1970-01-01

    Gage, J. C. (1970).Brit. J. industr. Med.,27, 1-18. The subacute inhalation toxicity of 109 industrial chemicals. The inhalation toxicity of 109 substances has been studied by exposing experimental animals to known concentrations in air for periods of about three weeks. The toxic properties of these substances are reviewed in relation to the effects of similar compounds on animals and on man. Provisional operational limits are suggested to assist in the design of new plant and in the establishment of codes for safe manufacturing practice. PMID:5418916

  15. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of Resistance and Toxicity Associated with Platinating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Rabik, Cara A.; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2007-01-01

    Platinating agents, including cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, have been used clinically for nearly thirty years as part of the treatment of many types of cancers, including head and neck, testicular, ovarian, cervical, lung, colorectal and relapsed lymphoma. The cytotoxic lesion of platinating agents is thought to be the platinum intrastrand crosslink that forms on DNA, although treatment activates a number of signal transduction pathways. Treatment with these agents is characterized by resistance, both acquired and intrinsic. This resistance can be caused by a number of cellular adaptations, including reduced uptake, inactivation by glutathione and other anti-oxidants, and increased levels of DNA repair or DNA tolerance. Here we investigate the pathways that treatment with platinating agents activate, the mechanisms of resistance, potential candidate genes involved in the development of resistance, and associated clinical toxicities. Although the purpose of this review is to provide an overview of cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin, we have focused primarily on preclinical data that has clinical relevance generated over the past five years. PMID:17084534

  17. Technical considerations regarding toxicity testing of commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Merski, A.T.; Cianciarulo, F.L.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicological evaluation of commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs) for use on oil spills is under consideration by the USEPA. Currently, acute and chronic bioassays are conducted with the CBA alone and with CBA that has been diluted with the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil. Endpoints are expressed as a concentration of the CBA. This approach may not address the toxicological issue of CBA use since it (1) does not determine if the CBA affects toxicity of the oil itself, and (2) does not consider temporal aspects associated with byproducts of oil degradation. The present study was conducted to address these issues. A CBA was mixed with unweathered crude oil from 1 to 42 days. The WSF of the mixture was then drawn off and acute bioassays were conducted with silverside minnows, Menidia beryllina, and mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia. For silversides, 96-hr LC50 values ranged from 42.7% WSF after 1 day mixing to 10.5% after 42 days. Toxicity increased sharply between days 4 and 7 when the 96-hr LC50 dropped from 39.0 to 18.2% WSF. A similar trend occurred for mysid shrimp. The presence of the CBA caused a more rapid increase in the toxicity of the oil as compared to bioassays in which oil was mixed alone and then tested. These data indicate that the interaction of CBAs with oil, and associated temporal trends in toxicity, are important aspects to consider in hazard evaluation of these products. The current proposed CBA toxicity testing protocol does not effectively address these issues.

  18. Physiologic conditions affect toxicity of ingested industrial fluoride.

    PubMed

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings.

  19. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  20. Toxicity Tests for Ensuring Succesful Industrial Wastewater Treatment Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cěbere, B.; Faltiņa, E.; Zelčāns, N.; Kalniņa, D.

    2009-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters are complex and can be polluted by non-biodegradable end toxic organic compounds and are a serious threat to the environment. Chemical procedure alone cannot provide sufficient information. A complete evaluation of wastewaters should include ecotoxicological tests too, especially concerning the complex wastewaters. In the literature review the authors attempted to establish which is the more promising and suitable aquatic toxicology test for sewage treatment plant influent toxicity monitoring. A variety of types of organisms representing different trophic levels and many different species are used for aquatic toxicity testing. Toxicity characterization would be needed both for influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plant. For the purpose of screening biological wastewater treatment influent, toxicity to activated sludge microorganisms is important and toxicology tests here used are respirometry and bioluminescence toxicology tests. Respirometry toxicity tests are easy, fast and inexpensive compared to other approaches. Bioluminescence has been widely used, the most thoroughly investigated test system is the Microtox. The toxicity tests have also been compared by different authors. International, national and regional authorities use these tools to meet various regulatory and legislative requirements. Importance of biotesting has been emphasized also in EU legislation.

  1. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  2. Studies of the developmental toxicity of polycarboxylate dispersing agents.

    PubMed

    Nolen, G A; Monroe, A; Hassall, C D; Iavicoli, J; Jamieson, R A; Daston, G P

    1989-06-01

    Three linear polycarboxylate compounds, two linear polyacrylates (90,000 MW and 4,500 MW) and one linear polyacrylate-maleate copolymer (12,000 MW), were tested for their teratogenic potential in female Sprague Dawley rats. These polymers, which were tested as sodium salts, are used as dispersing agents in detergent formulations at levels of 1-5%. All compounds were administered by gavage during organogenesis (days 6-15 of pregnancy). No adverse effects on development were seen with any of the three compounds at any of the doses tested. The highest dose, and therefore the minimum no-effect dose, for the three linear polymers was 1125 mg/kg/day for the 90,000 MW polyacrylate, 3000 mg/kg/day for the 4,500 MW polyacrylate, and 6670 mg/kg/day for the polyacrylate-maleate copolymer. Based on these data, these compounds are not developmentally toxic, even at very high dose levels.

  3. Toxicity of nanoparticle surface coating agents: Structure-cytotoxicity relationship.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiaoping; Yu, Hongtao

    2016-07-02

    Surface coating agents for metal nanoparticles, cationic alkyl ammonium bromides, and anionic alkyl sulfates were tested against human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT) and blood T lymphocytes (TIB-152). The surfactants of short chain (C8) are not cytotoxic, but as chain length increases, their cytotoxicity increases and levels off at C12 for cationic surfactants against both cell lines and for anionic surfactants against the TIB-152, but C14 for anionic surfactants against HaCaT. The cationic surfactants are more toxic than the anionic surfactants for HaCaT; while with similar cytotoxicity for TIB-152 cells. di- and tetra-Alkyl ammonium salts are more cytotoxic than the mono-substituted.

  4. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in water supplies using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Clauson, Susan L.

    2010-04-01

    An effective method to create fear in the populace is to endanger the water supply. Homeland Security places significant importance on ensuring drinking water integrity. Beyond terrorism, accidental supply contamination from a spill or chemical residual increases is a concern. A prominent class of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) is pesticides, which are prevalent in agricultural use and can be very toxic in minute concentrations. Detection of TICs or warfare agents must be aggressive; the contaminant needs to be rapidly detected and identified to enable isolation and remediation of the contaminated water while continuing a clean water supply for the population. Awaiting laboratory analysis is unacceptable as delay in identification and remediation increases the likelihood of infection. Therefore, a portable or online water quality sensor is required that can produce rapid results. In this presentation, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a viable fieldable sensor that can be immersed directly into the water supply and can provide results in <5 minutes from the time the instrument is turned on until analysis is complete. The ability of SERS to detect several chemical warfare agent degradation products, simulants and toxic industrial chemicals in distilled water, tap water and untreated water will be shown. In addition, results for chemical warfare agent degradation products and simulants will be presented. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves will also be presented.

  5. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  6. Application of Solid Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry as a Rapid Method for Field Sampling and Analysis of Chemical Warfare Agents and Toxic Industrial Chemicals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY AS A RAPID METHOD FOR FIELD...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 iii ABSTRACT APPLICATION OF SOLID PHASE MICROEXTRACTION COUPLED WITH

  7. Acute Toxicity Estimation and Operational Risk Management of Chemical Warfare Agent Exposures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    December 2001 Deputy Assistant to The Secretary of Defense Chemical and Biological (Warfare Agent) Defense ((DATSD- CBD ) interim-certified acute...avoidance (detection), protection, decontamination, and medical intervention. d. Compares the DATSD- CBD interim-certified acute toxicity values...defense. 2. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS. a. Translating Toxicity Information into ORM Terminology. The 2001 DATSD- CBD toxicity

  8. Aquatic Toxicity of the Decontamination Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine...pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively. EC50, Calcium hypochlorite, Daphnia magna Photobacterium phosphoreum, Aquatic toxicity N-Cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone.

  9. Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

    2014-10-01

    The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation.

  10. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  11. Toxics Release Inventory reporting: Focus on the electric utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Biden, D.; Cain, R.D.; Hoone, D.; Duncan, M.F.; O'Reilly, M.J.; Dodson, S.; Koch, L.L.; Novitsky, W.M.; Ogitis, R.S.; Farkas, S.M.

    1999-07-01

    The look of EPA's annual Toxics Release Inventory Report (TRI) is about to change. Starting in the 1998 reporting year seven new industries are required to report TRI releases. The electric utility industry will join the chemical industry and others who have reported under TRI rules for the last ten years. A major change to EPA's report will be the top ten chemical list. The TRI releases that the electric utility sector will report are of a different chemical composition than those from manufacturing. Because of the layout of the TRI database, the large quantities of utility releases will shift the public focus away from organic constituents to that of less familiar combustion by-products. The resulting shift of reported chemicals could rekindle and intensify interest in air related issues such as acid rain, global warming, and deforestation, and result in public confusion over the health and safety implications associated with releases generated by coal combustion. The nature of the electric generation marketplace will also make year-to-year and company-to-company chemical release comparisons difficult with the present framework of EPA's publication of TRI data.

  12. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  13. Pharmacological activity and toxicity of some neurotropic agents under conditions of experimental hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.

    1980-01-01

    The indices of pharmacological range, risk coefficients, ED50, LD50, the size of the area of toxic activity, and maximal tolerated and absolute lethal doses were compared in hypodynamic mice. The pharmacological activity of the test neurotropic agents exhibiting a central action underwent change, but their toxicity remained unchanged.

  14. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

  15. 76 FR 59142 - Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities-Integrating Study Results To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental... a guidance for industry entitled ``Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities--Integrating Study... developmental or reproductive risks associated with drug or biological product exposure when a...

  16. Anaerobic toxicity and biodegradability of hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Sklyar, V I; Mosolova, T P; Kucherenko, I A; Degtyarova, N N; Varfolomeyev, S D; Kalyuzhnyi, S V

    1999-08-01

    The toxicity and biodegradability of the main hydrolysis products of chemical warfare agents were investigated under methanogenic conditions. Among the tested substances, only MPhA does not have any toxic effect with regard to the aceticlastic methanogenic activity. The toxicity of other compounds varied between moderate (TDG, mercaptoethanol) to strong (ethanolamine, diisobutyl ester of MPhA). Biodegradability tests showed that all the products of chemical detoxification of mustard gas (ethanolamine, ethylene glycol, TDG, mercaptoethanol) can be biomineralized under methanogenic conditions. On the contrary, phosphorus-containing compounds from the chemical detoxification of nerve warfare agents (Sarin, Soman, Vx-gases) are quite persistent under these conditions.

  17. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  18. Selection of an averaging technique by simulation study of a DIAL system for toxic agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeja, Jai Paul; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Veerabuthiran, S.

    2007-10-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a very effective technique for standoff detection of various toxic agents in the atmosphere. The Lidar backscattered signal received usually has poor signal to noise (SNR) ratio. In order to improve the SNR, statistical averaging over a number of laser pulses is employed. The aim of the present work is to select a particular statistical averaging technique, which is most suitable in removing the noise in Lidar return signals. The DIAL system considered here uses laser transmitters based on OPO based (2-5 μm) and TEA CO2 (9-11μm) lasers. Eight commonly used chemical warfare agents including five nerve agents and three blister agents have been considered here as examples of toxic agents. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in LabVIEW to simulate return signals mixed with the expected noise levels. A toxic agent cloud with a given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges up to 5 Km. Data for 200 pulses per agent was stored in the computer memory. Various known statistical averaging techniques were used and number concentrations of particular agent have been computed and compared with ideal Lidar return signal values. This exercise was repeated for all the eight agents and based on the results obtained; the most suitable averaging technique has been selected.

  19. Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: implications for public protection.

    PubMed

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is no evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxicity, the nerve agents are not likely to be carcinogens. The overreaching concern with regard to nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Furthermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent release, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs.

  20. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is no evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxcity, the nerve agents are not likely to be carcinogens. The overreaching concern with regard to nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Furthermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent releaase, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. Images Figure 2. PMID:9719666

  1. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias [Knoxville, TN; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne [Knoxville, TN; Qi, Hairong [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-12

    A water quality analyzer for real-time detection according to the invention comprises a biased AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) cell for receiving a fluid to be analyzed having a plurality photosynthetic organisms therein, and concentrating the plurality photosynthetic organisms into at least one concentrated region. A photodetector is provided for obtaining a measured photosynthetic activity of the plurality of photosynthetic organisms in the concentrated region, wherein chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. An electronics package analyzes the measured photosynthetic activity to indicate a presence of the chemical, biological or radiological agents in the fluid.

  2. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  3. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  4. Toxicity of the organophosphate chemical warfare agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for public protection

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Ambrose, K.R.; Watson, A.P. )

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is not evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxicity, the nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Futhermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent release, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. 187 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  6. Impact of toxic-agent training on combat readiness. Final report, Feb-Mar 92

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, R.J.; Smith, P.S.; Healy, S.L.; Kierzewski, M.O.; Smith, D.H.

    1992-03-24

    An assessment of the impact of live/toxic chemical agent training on combat readiness. Impact is based on USACMLS task force review of current and projected simulant technology, analysis of feedback from soldiers in grades of PVl to General, input from Desert Storm veterans, as well as Lessons Learned from the use of toxic chemicals in World War I. Conclusions reached are: (1) Live agent training is directly linked and contributes significantly to combat readiness. (2) There is a significant quantifiable difference in soldier confidence and credibility as a result of training with live agents versus simulant training. (3) our current level of proficiency and readiness cannot be achieved through use of simulants alone. (4) Army must sustain live agent training in the CDTF if we are to maintain an NBC trained and ready Army.

  7. Application of toxicity tests into discharges of the pulp-paper industry in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity of pulp-paper industry wastewater using traditional and enrichment toxicity tests and to emphasize the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. Enrichment toxicity tests are novel applications and give an idea of whether there is potential toxicity or growth-limiting and -stimulating conditions. Different organisms were used such as bacteria (floc and coliform bacteria), algae (Chlorella sp.), protozoa (Vorticella sp.), and fish (Lepistes sp.) to represent four trophic levels. Furthermore, chemical oxygen demand (COD) fractionation results were compared with these tests to assess the effect of COD subcategories on the determination of possible toxicity. The pulp-paper industry results revealed acute toxicity to at least two organisms in 6 of 20 effluent samples. The toxicity test results were assessed with chemical analyses such as COD, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), color, absorbable organic halogen (AOXs), and phenol. It was observed that the toxicity of the effluents could not be explained by using physicochemical analyses in four cases for the pulp-paper industry. The results clearly indicate that bioassay tests provide additional information on the toxicity potential of industrial discharges and effluents.

  8. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  9. Sub-chronic toxicity of low concentrations of industrial volatile organic pollutants in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Catherine; Allshire, Ashley; Pelt, Frank N.A.M. van; Heffron, James J.A. . E-mail: j.heffron@ucc.ie

    2007-02-15

    Organic solvents form an important class of pollutants in the ambient air and have been associated with neurotoxicity and immunotoxicity in humans. Here we investigated the biological effects of sub-chronic exposure to industrially important volatile organic solvents in vitro. Jurkat T cells were exposed to toluene, n-hexane and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) individually for 5 days and solvent exposure levels were confirmed by headspace gas chromatography. A neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) was exposed to toluene for the same period. Following exposure, cells were harvested and toxicity measured in terms of the following endpoints: membrane damage (LDH leakage), perturbations in intracellular free Ca{sup 2+}, changes in glutathione redox status and dual-phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, JNK and p38. The results show that sub-chronic exposure to the volatile organic solvents causes membrane damage, increased intracellular free calcium and altered glutathione redox status in both cell lines. However, acute and sub-chronic solvent exposure did not result in MAP kinase phosphorylation. Toxicity of the solvents tested increased with hydrophobicity. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect-levels (LOAELs) measured in vitro were close to blood solvent concentrations reported for individuals exposed to the agents at levels at or below their individual threshold limit values (TLVs)

  10. 76 FR 72952 - Guidance for Industry on Nonclinical Evaluation of Late Radiation Toxicity of Therapeutic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Nonclinical Evaluation of Late Radiation Toxicity of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  11. Fact Sheet: Final Air Toxics Standards for Area Sources in the Chemical Manufacturing Industry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet on the national air toxics standards issued October 16, 2009 by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for smaller-emitting sources, known as area sources, in the chemical manufacturing industry.

  12. Diet Composition Exacerbrates or Attenuates Soman Toxicity in Rats: Implied Metabolic Control of Nerve Agent Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    diet, is not dependent on its metabolites acetol, 1,2-propanediol, methylglyoxal , or pyruvic acid. Epilep- sia 2007;48:793–800. Greene AE, Todorova MT...12. Kudchodkar BJ, Lacko AG , Dory L, Fungwe TV. Dietary fat modulates serum paraox- onase 1 activity in rats. J Nutr 2000;130:2427–33. Lallement G...restriction on the toxicity of soman in male guinea pigs of different ages . In: Internal report to special projects officer and In-House Labora- tory

  13. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  14. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Caceres, Ana I.; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.—Bessac, B. F., Sivula, M., von Hehn, C. A., Caceres, A. I., Escalera, J., Jordt, S.-E. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. PMID:19036859

  16. Methods for estimating cleaning effectiveness, dispersion, and toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents at oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Stransky, B.C.; Clayton, J.R. Jr.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Reilly, T.J.; Michel, J.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) are designed to enhance removal of stranded oil from shoreline surfaces. However, difficulties associated with estimating cleaning effectiveness and toxicity of SCAs for site-specific conditions make it desirable to perform measurements in the field with onsite oil, substrates, and resident or otherwise appropriate test organisms. Information for onsite testing should address the following questions: (1) does use of an SCA promote removal of oil from substate surfaces; (2) does use of an SCA increase the amount of dispersed oil in the water column; (3) does toxicity for resident organisms indicate a likelihood for adverse effects; (4) does toxicity with a portable test organism indicate a likelihood for adverse effects? Methodologies are described for use in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information for cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field. Toxicity methodologies for resident organisms include echinoderm fertilization, byssal thread attachment for mussels, and righting/water-escaping ability for periwinkle snails. Microtox{trademark} is used for toxicity measurements as a portable test organism/assay. Use of portable methodologies for assessing cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field can assist onsite evaluations for cleaning performance and relative risk to biological resources, which are important for supporting use-no use decisions for SCAs.

  17. Toxic Industrial Chemicals: A Future Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dependent on factors, such as temperature , pressure, and wind speed (US Army 1990; 1994; and 1998a). In addition to CW agents’ toxicities, their chemical...expected to be at especially high risk of shigellosis, malaria, sandfly fever, and cutaneous leishmaniasis (Quin 1992). Studies conducted since the war

  18. Application of simple and low-cost toxicity tests for ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Aydin, Senar; Tongur, Süheyla; Kara, Gülnihal; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and to apply appropriate biotests having the advantages of being highly sensitive, easy to run, relatively inexpensive and able to substitute fish toxicity tests due to ethical reasons of animal welfare. To perform an ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters, different microbiotests were conducted to substitute the fish toxicity test with Lebistes reticulatus through Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum representing different trophic levels in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also, Algaltox F(TM) with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Protox F(TM) with Tetrahymena thermophila tests were carried out. However, they could not be applied successfully for the wastewater samples. Wastewater samples from seven different industrial zones comprising different industries were subjected to characterization through measuring their physical-chemical parameters and their toxicity versus the above-mentioned organisms. T. platyurus, D. magna and L. reticulatus were the most sensitive test organisms investigated for the wastewaters. Considering toxic unit values, generally wastewater samples were toxic according to Thamnotox F(TM), Daphtox F(TM) and fish toxicity tests. As an important outcome, it was concluded that Daphtox F(TM) and Thamnotox F(TM) could be a good alternative for the fish toxicity test, which is so far the sole toxicity test accepted by the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation.

  19. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  20. Toxicity of spill-treating agents and oil to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Murado, Miguel A

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the joint toxicity of a Maya crude oil and four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol OSR51, Agma OSD569 and OD4000). The acute toxicity of the binary mixtures of the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) obtained independently for the oil and each STA was assessed. The toxicity of the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of oil and Finasol OSR51 at several dispersant to oil ratios (1:2, 1:10 and 1:100) was also evaluated. The toxicity (EC50) obtained for the WAFs of the STAs was: CytoSol (15.1 mL/L)toxicity of binary mixtures was obtained by the following models: Concentration Addition (Agma OSD569 and CytoSol), Independent Action (Finasol OSR51) and extended Concentration Addition model to describe antagonistic effects (OD4000). The CEWAFs showed an intermediate position between the more moderate effects of the WAF of oil and the higher toxicity of the WAFs of Finasol OSR51, which suggested the high sensitivity of the sea urchin embryo toward the dispersant.

  1. In vitro toxicities of experimental jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents.

    PubMed

    Geiss, K T; Frazier, J M

    2001-07-02

    One research emphasis within the Department of Defense has been to seek the replacement of operational compounds with alternatives that pose less potential risk to human and ecological systems. Alternatives to glycol ethers, such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (M-DE), were investigated for use as jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents (FSIIs). This group of chemicals includes three derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (M-1, M-2, and M-3) and a 1,3-dioxane (M-27). In addition, M-DE was evaluated as a reference compound. Our approach was to implement an in vitro test battery based on primary rat hepatocyte cultures to perform initial toxicity evaluations. Hepatocytes were exposed to experimental chemicals (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM dosages) for periods up to 24 h. Samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, MTT dye reduction activity, glutathione level, and rate of protein synthesis as indicators of toxicity. Of the compounds tested, M-1, especially at the 10-mM dose, appeared to be more potent than the other chemicals, as measured by these toxicity assays. M-DE, the current FSII, elicited little response in the toxicity assays. Although some variations in toxicity were observed at the 10-mM dose, the in vitro toxicities of the chemicals tested (except for M-1) were not considerably greater than that of M-DE.

  2. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX.

    PubMed

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H; Price, Matthew E; Graham, Stuart J; Green, A Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J; Timperley, Christopher M

    2015-04-08

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM-VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved.

  3. Toxicity and medical countermeasure studies on the organophosphorus nerve agents VM and VX

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Helen; Dalton, Christopher H.; Price, Matthew E.; Graham, Stuart J.; Green, A. Christopher; Jenner, John; Groombridge, Helen J.; Timperley, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    To support the effort to eliminate the Syrian Arab Republic chemical weapons stockpile safely, there was a requirement to provide scientific advice based on experimentally derived information on both toxicity and medical countermeasures (MedCM) in the event of exposure to VM, VX or VM–VX mixtures. Complementary in vitro and in vivo studies were undertaken to inform that advice. The penetration rate of neat VM was not significantly different from that of neat VX, through either guinea pig or pig skin in vitro. The presence of VX did not affect the penetration rate of VM in mixtures of various proportions. A lethal dose of VM was approximately twice that of VX in guinea pigs poisoned via the percutaneous route. There was no interaction in mixed agent solutions which altered the in vivo toxicity of the agents. Percutaneous poisoning by VM responded to treatment with standard MedCM, although complete protection was not achieved. PMID:27547080

  4. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  5. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-30

    MD Anderson Cancer Center BCPeX Business Continuity Plan Exercise MDS Myelodysplastic Syndrome BMCC Bone Marrow Coordinating Center MHC Major...Histocompatibility Complex BMDW Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide MICA MHC Class I-Like Molecule, Chain A BMT Bone Marrow Transplantation MICB MHC Class I-Like...1 of 16 Grant Award N00014-13-1-0039 DEVELOPMENT OF MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTINGENCY RESPONSE TO MARROW TOXIC AGENTS QUARTERLY

  6. Carbon dioxide laser absorption spectra of toxic industrial compounds.

    PubMed

    Loper, G L; Sasaki, G R; Stamps, M A

    1982-05-01

    CO(2) laser absorption cross-section data are reported for acrolein, styrene, ethyl acrylate, trichloroethylene, vinyl bromide, and vinylidene chloride. These data indicate that sub parts per billion level, interference-free detection limits should be possible for these compounds by the CO(2) laser photoacoustic technique. Photoacoustic detectabilities below 40 ppb should be possible for these compounds in the presence of ambient air concentrations of water vapor and other anticipated interferences. These compounds are also found not to be important interferences in the detection of toxic hydrazine-based rocket fuels by CO(2) laser spectroscopic techniques.

  7. A versatile simulation software for performance analysis of DIAL system for the detection of toxic agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindal, Mukesh K.; Veerabuthiran, S.; Dudeja, Jai Paul; Dubey, Deepak K.

    2006-12-01

    Simulation studies have been carried out to analyze the performance of a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for the remote detection of a large variety of toxic agents in the 2-5 μm and 9-11 μm spectral bands. Stand-alone Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in the MATLAB platform to perform the simulation operations. It takes various system inputs from the user and computes the required laser energy to be transmitted, backscattered signal strengths, signal-to-noise ratio and minimum detectable concentrations for various agents from different ranges for the given system parameters. It has the flexibility of varying any of the system parameters for computation in order to provide inputs for the required design of proposed DIAL system. This software has the advantage of optimizing system parameters in the design of Lidar system. As a case study, the DIAL system with specified pulse energy of OPO based laser transmitter (2-5 μm) and a TEA CO II laser transmitter (9-11μm) has been considered. The proposed system further consists of a 500-mm diameter Newtonian telescope, 0.5-mm diameter detector and 10-MHz digitizer. A toxic agent cloud with given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges between 0.2 and 5 km. For a given set of system parameters, the required energy of laser transmitter, power levels of the return signals, signal-to-noise ratio and minimum detectable concentrations from different ranges have been calculated for each of these toxic agents.

  8. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  9. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space.

  10. On the engineering design for systematic integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyong; Schüller, Andreas; Epple, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In today's automation industry, agent-oriented development of system functionalities appears to have a great potential for increasing autonomy and flexibility of complex operations, while lowering the workload of users. In this paper, we present a reference model for the harmonious and systematical integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation. Considering compatibility with existing automation systems and best practice, this model combines advantages of function block technology, service orientation and native description methods from the automation standard IEC 61131-3. This approach can be applied as a guideline for the engineering design of future agent-oriented automation systems.

  11. Not All Drugs Are Created Equal: The Importance of Causative Agent in Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

    PubMed

    Cooney, Ryan; Beck, Anna; Gonzalez, Beverly; Gamelli, Richard L; Mosier, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Steven-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and SJS/TEN overlap make up a spectrum of severe mucocutaneous disease that is an adverse reaction to a large number of medications and various infectious agents. Little is known about the differences in acute course of illness depending on the inciting agent, which prompted the authors to further explore their experience with TEN. In a retrospective analysis, 88 patients ≥18 years old were identified with biopsy-confirmed TEN and a variety of variables were analyzed. The authors evaluated for differences in presentation and hospital course between drug class and medication half-life using Kruskal-Wallis for continuous variables and χ or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Those subjects with the inciting agent of allopurinol had 100% incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), significantly higher than other drug classes with antibiotics having the second highest incidence at 14%. Medications with a half-life of <6 hours were also associated with a higher incidence of AKI. Acutely there are significant clinical differences in TEN patients depending on the drug class and medication half-life of the inciting agent. Allopurinol, drugs with a short half-life, and a diagnosis of TEN were all associated with greater incidence of AKI. This is the first time that the relationship between clinical course and inciting agent has been examined in a United States population.

  12. Comparative effects of chelating agents on distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kojima, S.; Shimada, H.; Kiyozumi, M. )

    1989-06-01

    The effects of three chelating agents, sodium N-benzyl-D-glucamine dithiocarbamate(NBG-DTC), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol(BAL), and D-penicillamine(D-PEN), on the distribution, excretion, and renal toxicity of inorganic mercury were compared in rats exposed to HgCl2. Rats were injected i.p. with 203HgCl2 (300 micrograms of Hg and 2 microCi of 203Hg/kg) and 30 min or 24 h later they were injected with a chelating agent (a quarter of an LD50). The injection of the chelating agents significantly enhanced the biliary and urinary excretions of mercury. BAL was the most effective for removal of mercury from the body at 30 min after mercury treatment. The extent of enhancing effect of the chelating agents for removal of mercury at 24 h after mercury was in the order NBG-DTC = BAL greater than D-PEN. The injection of BAL at 24 h after mercury treatment caused the redistribution of mercury to the heart and lung. NBG-DTC did not result in the redistribution of mercury to the heart, lung, and brain. Urinary excretion of protein and AST significantly increased 24-48 h after mercury treatment and decreased to the control values 72 h after mercury. The injection of the chelating agents at 30 min after mercury treatment significantly decreased the urinary excretion of protein and AST. In rats pretreated with mercury 24 h earlier, the chelating agents significantly decreased the urinary protein at 48 h after mercury treatment, but did not decrease the urinary AST. The results of this study indicate that the chelating agents are effective in removing mercury from the body, resulting in the protective effect against the mercury-induced renal damage.

  13. Toxicity of Topical Antifungal Agents to Stratified Human Cultivated Corneal Epithelial Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Kimakura, Mikiko; Yokoo, Seiichi; Nakagawa, Suguru; Yamagami, Satoru; Amano, Shiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Prolonged use of topical antifungal agents may compromise corneal epithelial integrity. Here, we used an in vitro model of human stratified corneal epithelium to compare the ocular toxicity profiles of 4 different antifungal eye drops. Methods: Human corneal epithelial cell sheets were cultured in a serum-free medium containing 0.1% micafungin, 1% voriconazole, 5% pimaricin, 0.1% amphotericin B, or controls (saline or 5% glucose). Cell viability and barrier function were measured by WST-1 assay and carboxyfluorescein permeability assay, respectively. Cell migration was measured on a wound healing assay. Results: WST-1 assay and carboxyfluorescein permeability assay revealed that amphotericin B was the most toxic drug, followed by pimaricin, micafungin, and voriconazole. Cell migration on a wound healing assay was decreased in the following order, amphotericin B, pimaricin, micafungin, and voriconazole. Conclusions: Topical micafungin and voriconazole appeared to be the least toxic to the corneal epithelium. Drug prescription should consider not only fungal species and susceptibility but also ocular toxicity and stage of treatment. PMID:25280055

  14. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  15. Assessment of combined toxicity of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters on Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, BibiSaima; Ping, Zheng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Lin, Qiu; Pervez, Arshid; Irshad, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shaheen, Shahida

    2016-02-01

    This research work is focusing on the toxicities of heavy metals of industrial origin to anaerobic digestion of the industrial wastewater. Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S was used as an indicator organism. The acute toxicities of heavy metals on P. phosphoreum T3S were assessed during 15-min half inhibitory concentration (IC50) as indicator at pH 5.5-6. Toxicity assays involved the assessment of multicomponent mixtures using TU and MTI approaches. The results of individual toxicity indicated that the toxicity of Cd, Cu and Pb on P. phosphoreum increased with increasing concentrations and there was a linear correlation. The 15-min IC50 values of Cd, Cu and Pb were 0.537, 1.905 and 1.231 mg/L, respectively, and their toxic order was Cd > Pb > Cu. The combined effects of Cd, Cu and Pb were assayed by equivalent concentration mixing method. The results showed that the combined effects of Cd + Cu, Cd + Pb, Cu + Pb, Cd + Cu + Pb were antagonistic, antagonistic and partly additive. The combined effect of three heavy metals was partly additive.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of imidazenil against chemical warfare nerve agent soman toxicity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Oguntayo, Samuel; Wei, Yanling; Wood, Elisa; Brown, Ammon; Jensen, Neil; Auta, James; Guiodotti, Alessandro; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-03-01

    The chemical warfare nerve agent, soman irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to hypercholinergy and seizures which trigger glutamate toxicity and status epilepticus ultimately resulting in neuropathology and neurobehavioral deficits. The standard emergency treatment comprising of anticholinergic, AChE reactivator and anticonvulsant does not completely protect against soman toxicity. We have evaluated imidazenil, a new anticonvulsant imidazo benzodiazepine with high affinity and intrinsic efficacy at α5-, α2-, and α3- but low intrinsic efficacy at α1-containing GABA(A) receptors and is devoid of cardiorespiratory depression, sedative/hypnoitc and amnestic actions and does not elicit tolerance and dependence liabilities unlike diazepam, for protection against soman toxicity. Guinea pigs implanted with bipotential radiotelemetry probes for recording EEG and ECG were administered with 26 μg/kg pyridostigmine bromide 30 min prior to 2× LD(50) soman exposure and 1 min later treated with a combination of 2mg/kg atropine sulfate and 25mg/kg 2-pralidoxime and various doses of imidazenil. Intramuscular administration of imidazenil, dose-dependently protected against 2× LD(50) of soman toxicity up to 1mg/kg. Further increase in the dose of imidazenil to 2.5mg/kg was less effective than 1mg/kg probably due to non-specific actions at sites other than GABA(A) receptors. Compared to vehicle group, 1mg/kg imidazenil treatment showed optimal increase in survival rate, reduction in behavioral manifestations and high power of EEG spectrum as well as neuronal necrosis. These data suggest that imidazenil is an effective anticonvulsant for medical countermeasure against soman-induced toxicity.

  17. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Hamdi K. . E-mail: hkhamdi@gmail.com; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-09-02

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet.

  18. Toxicity and in vitro activity of HIV-1 latency-reversing agents in primary CNS cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Lachlan R; On, Hung; Roberts, Emma; Lu, Hao K; Moso, Michael A; Raison, Jacqueline A; Papaioannou, Catherine; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Ellett, Anne M; Jacobson, Jonathan C; Purcell, Damian F J; Wesselingh, Steve L; Gorry, Paul R; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J

    2016-08-01

    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV persists in long lived latently infected cells in the blood and tissue, and treatment is required lifelong. Recent clinical studies have trialed latency-reversing agents (LRA) as a method to eliminate latently infected cells; however, the effects of LRA on the central nervous system (CNS), a well-known site of virus persistence on cART, are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and potency of a panel of commonly used and well-known LRA (panobinostat, romidepsin, vorinostat, chaetocin, disulfiram, hexamethylene bisacetamide [HMBA], and JQ-1) in primary fetal astrocytes (PFA) as well as monocyte-derived macrophages as a cellular model for brain perivascular macrophages. We show that most LRA are non-toxic in these cells at therapeutic concentrations. Additionally, romidepsin, JQ-1, and panobinostat were the most potent at inducing viral transcription, with greater magnitude observed in PFA. In contrast, vorinostat, chaetocin, disulfiram, and HMBA all demonstrated little or no induction of viral transcription. Together, these data suggest that some LRA could potentially activate transcription in latently infected cells in the CNS. We recommend that future trials of LRA also examine the effects of these agents on the CNS via examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

  19. Lycopersicon esculentum seeds: an industrial byproduct as an antimicrobial agent.

    PubMed

    Taveira, Marcos; Silva, Luís R; Vale-Silva, Luís A; Pinto, Eugénia; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Andrade, Paula B

    2010-09-08

    Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) fruit is a widely studied matrix. However, only few works focus their attention on its seeds, which constitute a major byproduct of the tomato processing industry. In this study the antimicrobial potential of ten different tomato seed extracts from "Bull's heart" and "Cherry" varieties were analyzed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacteria and fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichophyton rubrum). Regarding antibacterial capacity, the different extracts were revealed to be active only against Gram-positive bacteria, E. faecalis being the most susceptible one (MIC: 2.5-10 mg/mL). Concerning antifungal activity, "Bull's heart" extracts were the most active. In a general way C. albicans was the most susceptible species (MIC: 5-10 mg/mL). The chemical composition of the extracts was also pursued, concerning organic acids, phenolics and fatty acids, in order to establish a possible relationship with the observed antimicrobial effect.

  20. Toxicity of four spill-treating agents on bacterial growth and sea urchin embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Murado, Miguel A; Beiras, Ricardo; Vázquez, José A

    2014-06-01

    The toxicity of spill-treating agents (STAs) is a topic that needs to be assessed prior to their potential application in environmental disasters. The aim of the present work was to study the effects of four commercial STAs (CytoSol, Finasol OSR 51, Agma OSD 569 and OD4000) on the growth of marine (Phaeobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp.) and terrestrial (Leuconostoc mesenteroides) bacteria, and sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryolarval development. In general, STA did not inhibit significantly the biomass production of the tested marine bacteria. Finasol OSR 51 and OD4000 clearly inhibited the growth of L. mesenteroides and an accurate description of the kinetics was provided by a proposed bivariate equation. For this species, a global parameter (EC50,τ) was defined to summarize the set of growth kinetics. Using this parameter Finasol OSR 51 was found to be less toxic (754μL L(-1)) than OD4000 (129μL L(-1)). For the sea urchin embryo assay, the ranking of toxicity as EC50 (μL L(-1)) was Agma OSD 569 (34.0)

  1. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  2. Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents, extremely small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these agents provide a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast agents in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, providing useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast agents.

  3. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.

  4. Dermostyx (IB1) - High efficacy and safe topical skin protectant against percutaneous toxic agents.

    PubMed

    Dachir, Shlomit; Barness, Izhak; Fishbine, Eliezer; Meshulam, Jacob; Sahar, Rita; Eisenkraft, Arik; Amir, Adina; Kadar, Tamar

    2017-04-01

    Prevention of the penetration of toxic agents through the skin is crucial for both military troops and civilian populations. We have developed a novel topical skin protectant (TSP), coded as IB1 and commercially available as Dermostyx protective solution (Rekah Pharm, Israel). The formulation afforded significant protection against chemical warfare agents such as sulfur mustard (SM) and VX (2LD50), pesticides such as parathion and irritants such as acrolein. The efficacy of the protectant was evaluated in the pig model using clinical, histological and biochemical monitoring. A single topical application prior to exposure to the toxic agents reduced significantly the size and severity of skin lesions and ameliorated or prevented systemic clinical symptoms. The barrier properties of IB1 are immediate upon application and remain effective for at least 12 h. It is absorbed into the stratum corneum of the skin and remains there until rinsing with water, yet the ingredients are not absorbed into the body. The formulation is a hydrophilic water-based solution, composed of magnesium sulfate and glycerin that are widely used in cosmetic and medicine, and was shown to be safe in preclinical and in Phase I clinical studies. The suggested mode of action is based on the unique interaction of glycerin with the stratum corneum, changing its properties to hydrophilic and on the "salting out" effect of magnesium sulfate. The expected use of the TSP is by application on exposed skin areas and sensitive skin sites (e.g. armpits, groin, waist), when necessary. A quantity of 10 ml is sufficient for one application covering approximately 20% of the body surface area. The formulation was approved for human use by the Israel Ministry of Health and a CE mark certificate in Europe has been recently issued (Class I). Dermostyx has been adopted by the IDF and first responders as a skin protectant for special needs.

  5. The geographic distribution of potential risks posed by industrial toxic emissions in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2004-01-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), compiled annually by the EPA, has emerged as the most comprehensive database on industrial toxic emissions in the U.S. While various risk indicators and pollutant weighting methods have been developed to compare TRI emissions, these measures are rarely used to examine the geography of potential risks posed by toxic emissions at the national scale. This article provides a geographic perspective on the evaluation of industrial pollution by exploring the spatial distribution of the potential health and environmental impacts of TRI emissions across the U.S. Six indicators of potential risk based on the impact benchmarking concept are used to characterize specific human health and environmental concerns: carcinogenic toxicity, noncarcinogenic toxicity, ozone depletion, global warming, smog formation and acid rain formation. Air emission data from the 2000 TRI are used to analyze the six potential impacts at the state level. The objectives are to: (a) examine and compare spatial variations in the distribution of these adverse impacts across the U.S.: and (b) identify the states facing the highest health and environmental risk from industrial toxic releases. The effect of differences in state area and population size on the distribution of the six potential impacts and state rankings for each category are also investigated. While Ohio and Texas receive the highest ranks in all risk categories, Louisiana and West Virginia represent the most "hazardous" states when emissions are weighted by state area and population. The results demonstrate the need to examine the geographic variability of different risk indicators that are used to evaluate TRI emissions, at multiple scales.

  6. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  7. Mustard vesicating agent-induced toxicity in the skin tissue and silibinin as a potential countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to the vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM) causes severe skin injury with delayed blistering. Depending upon the dose and time of their exposure, edema and erythema develop into blisters, ulceration, necrosis, desquamation, and pigmentation changes, which persist weeks and even years after exposure. Research advances have generated data that have started to explain the probable mechanism of action of vesicant-induced skin toxicity; however, despite these advances, effective and targeted therapies are still deficient. This review highlights studies on two SM analogs, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES) and NM, and CEES- and NM-induced skin injury mouse models that have substantially added to the knowledge on the complex pathways involved in mustard vesicating agent-induced skin injury. Furthermore, employing these mouse models, studies under the National Institutes of Health Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats program have identified the flavanone silibinin as a novel therapeutic intervention with the potential to be developed as an effective countermeasure against skin injury following exposure to mustard vesicating agents.

  8. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  9. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy.

  10. Contact allergens in registered cleaning agents for industrial and household use.

    PubMed Central

    Flyvholm, M A

    1993-01-01

    Cleaning work is a common cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Cleaning agents for industrial and household use are registered in the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS) according to a special notification rule issued by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. About 2350 registered washing and cleaning agents containing about 1250 different chemical substances were marketed in Denmark in February 1992. The occurrence of 49 contact allergens in 16 different product types within washing and cleaning agents were listed. Preservatives and surface active agents made up the main part of contact allergens. Isothiazolinones and formaldehyde releasers were the most commonly registered preservatives, and coconut diethanolamide the most commonly registered surface active agent. The major product types registered as containing contact allergens were general cleaners, skin cleaners, hair shampoos, and floor polishes. PMID:8280630

  11. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  12. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Asimina; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Baklavaridis, Apostolos; Papapolymerou, George; Karayannis, Vayos

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  13. Toxicity of industrial wastes and waste leaching test eluates containing organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Eija; Vaajasaari, Kati; Joutti, Anneli; Ahtiainen, Jukka

    2002-07-01

    Leaching tests, CEN prEN 12457-2, CEN PrEN 12457-3, and NEN 7349, were conducted for varnish residue and urea resin waste, two industrial wastes containing organic chemicals. The leaching test eluates were analyzed for solvent concentrations and total organic carbon. Aqueous leaching tests were found to be suitable for both chemical and biological testing. Ecotoxicity was assessed by luminescent bacteria, plant root growth, reverse electron transport, and ToxiChromopad. The eluates were highly toxic but the toxicity decreased in later stages of the multistep leaching test (NEN 7349). Urea resin eluates were significantly less toxic than varnish residue eluates. The solid wastes markedly inhibited plant seed germination before and after the leaching test (CEN prEN 12457-3). The solid wastes were not biologically degradable in the standard test (ISO 14593), whereas the eluates from the CEN prEN 12457-3 test degraded slowly.

  14. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  15. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  16. Detecting the effects of toxic agents on spermatogenesis using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, N.B.

    1987-10-01

    Advances in the molecular biology of spermatogenesis suggest that DNA probes can be used to monitor the effects of toxic agents in male germ cells of mammals. Molecular hybridization analyses with DNA probes can provide a reproducible methodology capable of detecting changes ranging from massive deletions to single base pair substitutions in the genome of exposed individuals. A constantly increasing number of DNA probes that can be used to detect such alterations in human sperm DNA exist for both ubiquitously expressed proteins and for genes solely expressed in the testis. In this chapter, the currently available testicular stage-specific and/or cell type-specific DNA probes and the techniques by which they can be utilized in reproductive toxicology studies are discussed. The advantages, limitations, and future technological advances of this novel biological marker system for the human male reproductive system are also considered.

  17. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a companion to "Innovation Agents: VET Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 1". The detailed report of the project is contained in Volume 1 while Volume 2 contains the appendices: (1) Data tables for construction of the composite index of innovation; (2) Case study interview schedule; and (3)…

  18. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-05-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer. According to the literatures, saffron has remarkable therapeutic effects. The protective effects of saffron and its main constituents in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been reported against some toxic materials either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies.In this review article, we have summarized different in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of saffron and its major components against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. Due to the lake of human studies, further investigations are required to ascertain the efficacy of saffron as an antidote or a protective agent in human intoxication.

  19. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  20. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons.

  1. Effect of electrochemical oxidation on biodegradability and toxicity of batik industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Devagi; Halim, Azhar A.

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the increase in biodegradability and reduction in toxicity level in the batik wastewater treatment. Basically, the wastewater treatment from batik industry contained chemicals especially dyes which are not biodegradable and contains higher toxicity level because of the chemical compartment which comes out during the wastewater discharge and this could lead high risk in health wise to humans and all the aquatic living organisms. Thus, this research was carried to enhance the effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation method by using the batik wastewater. Optimal parameters such as pH, time, distance between graphite electrodes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as it activates as the electrolyte was done to obtain the removal of BOD, COD and color in the batik wastewater. The research study found that the removal of COD and color was high in the acidic conditions which are pH 5 with the removal of COD, 89.71% and color 93.89%. The ratio of BOD5/ COD successfully increased from 0.015 to 0.271 which mean it increase by 94.46% and the toxicity level using Toxtrax method (10017) also successfully reduced from 1.195% to 0.129% which means the samples which were slightly toxic were reduced to non-toxic level.

  2. Boric acid: a potential chemoprotective agent against aflatoxin b1 toxicity in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen. Since the eradication of Aflatoxin B1 contamination in agricultural products has been difficult, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boric acid is the major component of industry and its antioxidant role has recently been reported. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effectiveness of boric acid following exposure to Aflatoxin B1 on human whole blood cultures. The biochemical characterizations of glutathione and some enzymes have been carried out in erythrocytes. Alterations in malondialdehyde level were determined as an index of oxidative stress. The sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests were performed to assess DNA damages in lymphocytes. Aflatoxin B1 treatment significantly reduced the activities of antioxidants by increasing malondialdehyde level (30.53 and 51.43%) of blood, whereas, the boric acid led to an increased resistance of DNA to oxidative damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in comparison with control values (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the support of boric acid was especially useful in Aflatoxin-toxicated blood. Thus the risk on tissue targeting of Aflatoxin B1 could be reduced ensuring early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:20431944

  3. Dermal toxicity evaluation of neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an overview of the dermal toxicity of vesicant agents and their degradation products. Final report, January-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olajos, E.J.; Cameron, K.P.; Way, R.A.; Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.

    1996-10-01

    Acute dermal toxicity (limit test) and skin irritation studies were conducted in New Zealand white rabbits to ascertain the systemic toxicity and skin-injury potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). Studies also included the assessment of oxidant/solvent systems and solvent induced toxicity. The toxicity limit test consisted of a 24-hr occluded exposure to 1.0 ml/kg of `test article.` Dermal irritation studies were based on a 4-hr occluded exposure to 0.5 ml of `test article.` Chemical neutralization of CAIS resulted in complex product solutions (wastestreams) containing ppm levels of agent and an array of degradation products. Findings from the skin irritation testing of wastestreams and oxidant/solvent systems indicate that wastestream-induced skin effects (edema and erythema) were equivalent to or less in severity than the skin effects produced by exposure to oxidant/solvent systems. Systemic effects were not observed in 4/5 wastestream-exposed groups; however, 2/5 wastestream-treated groups exhibited systemic effects. Lethality was noted in only 1/5 wastestream-treated groups. Limit test data indicate that agents (HD, HN, or L) were destroyed by reaction with oxidant to less toxic materials.

  4. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  5. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  6. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  7. Proposal of an agent-based analytical model to convert industrial areas in industrial eco-systems.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elena; Ruiz, M Carmen

    2014-01-15

    The transformation of industrial areas towards greater sustainability results from a strategic objective to address the effects of economic and environmental crisis. Such transformation, however, requires methodologies and tools that support and facilitate the process. This paper proposes an analytical model that favours the redesign of industrial areas based on sustainable strategies for eco-industrial parks. The proposed model is enhanced by the definition of building blocks of an agent-based modelling method. The methodology that was followed favours the detailed description of the objectives of the system, with individual elements and adaptation to the surrounding environment, amongst other features. The proposed model integrates a knowledge database that supports the process of identification of cooperative strategies such as material exchange networks in industrial areas. The underlying theory for the assessment of cooperative interactions is game theory, which supports the resolution of problems with strategic choices. This work covers the stage of analytical model formulation that is essential for advancement towards the inference process based on simulation models.

  8. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  9. Conditioned flavor aversions: a toxicity test of the anticholinesterase agent, physostigmine.

    PubMed

    Parker, L A; Hutchison, S; Riley, A L

    1982-01-01

    The viability of the conditioned flavor aversion test as a behavioral index of the toxicity of physostigmine, an anticholinesterase agent, was evaluated in a series of three experiments. Experiments 1 and 2 used the flavor aversion paradigm and Experiment 3 used a more traditional behavioral testing paradigm in which the effect of physostigmine on a specified set of behaviors was measured. In the flavor aversion paradigm, the rats were allowed to consume 0.5% saccharin solution before being injected with one of various doses of physostigmine (0.025--0.50 mg/kg) or saline. They were subsequently tested for a learned flavor aversion by means of a one-bottle test in Experiment 1 and a two-bottle test in Experiment 2. In the behavioral testing paradigm used in Experiment 3, each rat was injected with one of various doses of physostigmine within the range of those used in the prior experiments, and thirty minutes later was placed in a chamber for observation for 15 minutes. The procedures of Experiment 3 were much more time consuming than those of Experiments 1 and 2. By the two-bottle aversion test of Experiment 2, a dose as low as 0.05 mg/kg of physostigmine produced a reliable flavor aversion which persisted for three extinction test trials. On the other hand, robust and reliable behavioral differences of decreased rearing and consumption of water in Experiment 3 were only evident in rats given 0.25 mg/kg of physostigmine. We conclude that the flavor aversion test is a simple and sensitive behavioral measure of toxicity.

  10. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  11. Detoxification of a highly toxic lead-loaded industrial solid waste by stabilization using apatites.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, T A; Zouboulis, A I

    2003-02-28

    Apatites are known for their properties to immobilize lead contained in aqueous solutions or contaminated soils. In this study, apatites were examined as stabilization additives for lead-loaded industrial solid toxic wastes. The specific waste was the residue, obtained after thermal treatment of sludges (incineration), which was derived from tetraethyl lead fuel storage tanks. It was found to contain around 30 wt.% lead and 33 wt.% iron. Standard leaching tests (according to DIN 38414 S-4) were applied for the determination of leachability of metals from the ash and, thus, of chemical toxicity; the proposed leaching tests examined both initial and stabilized products in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied additives. The results obtained demonstrate the fact that lead concentrations in leachates, after the application of the proposed leaching tests using apatites as additives and with a ratio of 50% solid waste-50 wt.% apatite, could be reduced to the range of 1mg/l.

  12. Basalt fiber insulating material with a mineral binding agent for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdyuk, T.; Aizenshtadt, A.; Tutygin, A.; Frolova, M.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers a possibility of using mining industry waste as a binding agent for heat insulating material on the basis of basalt fiber. The main objective of the research is to produce a heat-insulating material to be applied in machine building in high-temperature environments. After synthetic binder having been replaced by a mineral one, an environmentally sound thermal insulating material having desirable heat-protecting ability and not failing when exposed to high temperatures was obtained.

  13. Dermal Toxicity Evaluation of Neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS) with an Overview of the Dermal Toxicity of Vesicant Agents and their Degradation Products.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    100 Aquatic Toxicity: LC 5. (rainbow trout): 43,800 yg/L (96 hr) LC5 0 (blue gill): 100,000 ug/L (96 hr) LC50 ( Daphnia magna ): 28,900 ug/L (48 hr...on Foods, Drugs , and Cosmetics", In: Dermal Toxicity, pp 49-52, Assoc. of Food and Drug Officers of the U.S., Topeka, KS (1965). Draize, J.H...ingredient of powder laundry bleaches. DCDMH contains about 66% "available chlorine". Other uses of DCDYIH are: (1) as an intermediate drug and

  14. Gancidin W, a potential low-toxicity antimalarial agent isolated from an endophytic Streptomyces SUK10.

    PubMed

    Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zainal-Abidin, Abu Hassan; Latip, Jalifah; Mazlan, Noor Wini; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Streptomyces strains are potential sources for novel bioactive molecules. In this study, the diketopiperazine gancidin W (GW) was isolated from the endophytic actinobacterial genus Streptomyces, SUK10, obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, and it was tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100. GW exhibited an inhibition rate of nearly 80% at 6.25 and 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight on day four using the 4-day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice. Comparing GW at both concentrations with quinine hydrochloride and normal saline as positive and negative controls, respectively, 50% of the mice treated with 3.125 μg kg(-1) body weight managed to survive for more than 11 months after infection, which almost reached the life span of normal mice. Biochemical tests of selected enzymes and proteins in blood samples of mice treated with GW were also within normal levels; in addition, no abnormalities or injuries were found on internal vital organs. These findings indicated that this isolated bioactive compound from Streptomyces SUK10 exhibits very low toxicity and is a good candidate for potential use as an antimalarial agent in an animal model.

  15. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity.

  16. Gancidin W, a potential low-toxicity antimalarial agent isolated from an endophytic Streptomyces SUK10

    PubMed Central

    Zin, Noraziah Mohamad; Baba, Mohd Shukri; Zainal-Abidin, Abu Hassan; Latip, Jalifah; Mazlan, Noor Wini; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2017-01-01

    Endophytic Streptomyces strains are potential sources for novel bioactive molecules. In this study, the diketopiperazine gancidin W (GW) was isolated from the endophytic actinobacterial genus Streptomyces, SUK10, obtained from the bark of Shorea ovalis tree, and it was tested in vivo against Plasmodium berghei PZZ1/100. GW exhibited an inhibition rate of nearly 80% at 6.25 and 3.125 μg kg−1 body weight on day four using the 4-day suppression test method on male ICR strain mice. Comparing GW at both concentrations with quinine hydrochloride and normal saline as positive and negative controls, respectively, 50% of the mice treated with 3.125 μg kg−1 body weight managed to survive for more than 11 months after infection, which almost reached the life span of normal mice. Biochemical tests of selected enzymes and proteins in blood samples of mice treated with GW were also within normal levels; in addition, no abnormalities or injuries were found on internal vital organs. These findings indicated that this isolated bioactive compound from Streptomyces SUK10 exhibits very low toxicity and is a good candidate for potential use as an antimalarial agent in an animal model. PMID:28223778

  17. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  18. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter.

  19. Iodinated α-tocopherol nano-emulsions as non-toxic contrast agents for preclinical X-ray imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Anton, Nicolas; Zuber, Guy; Zhao, Minjie; Messaddeq, Nadia; Hallouard, François; Fessi, Hatem; Vandamme, Thierry F

    2013-01-01

    Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) is an emerging imaging modality, due to the low cost of the imagers as well as their efficiency in establishing high-resolution (1-100 μm) three-dimensional images of small laboratory animals and facilitating rapid, structural and functional in vivo visualization. However use of a contrast agent is absolutely necessary when imaging soft tissues. The main limitation of micro-CT is the low efficiency and toxicity of the commercially available blood pool contrast agents. This study proposes new, efficient and non-toxic contrast agents for micro-CT imaging. This formulation consists of iodinated vitamin E (α-tocopheryl 2,3,5-triiodobenzoate) as an oily phase, formulated as liquid nano-emulsion droplets (by low-energy nano-emulsification), surrounded by a hairy PEG layer to confer stealth properties. The originality and strength of these new contrast agents lie not only in their outstanding contrasting properties, biocompatibility and low toxicity, but also in the simplicity of their fabrication: one-step synthesis of highly iodinated oil (iodine constitutes 41.7% of the oil molecule weight) and its spontaneous emulsification. After i.v. administration in mice (8.5% of blood volume), the product shows stealth properties towards the immune system and thus acts as an efficient blood pool contrast agent (t(1/2) = 9.0 h), exhibiting blood clearance following mono-exponential decay. A gradual accumulation predominantly due to hepatocyte uptake is observed and measured in the liver, establishing a strong hepatic contrast, persistent for more than four months. To summarize, in the current range of available or developed contrast agents for preclinical X-ray imaging, this agent appears to be one of the most efficient.

  20. The use of sugar and alcohol industry waste in the adsorption of potentially toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Oseas Silva; Mendonça, André Gustavo Ribeiro; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas; Silva, Amanda Paulina Bezerra; Costa, Silvanio Silverio Lopes; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Janaina Braga; Botero, Wander Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    One of the waste products of the industrial process of the sugar and alcohol agribusiness is filter cake (FC). This waste product has high levels of organic matter, mainly proteins and lipids, and is rich in calcium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. In this work we characterized samples of FC from sugar and alcohol industries located in sugarcane-producing regions in Brazil and assessed the adsorption of potentially toxic metals (Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III)) by this waste in mono- and multi-elemental systems, seeking to use FC as an adsorbent in contaminated environments. The characterization of FCs showed significant differences between the samples and the adsorption studies showed retention of over 90% of potentially toxic metals. In a competitive environment (multi-metallic solution), the FC was effective in adsorbing all metals except lead, but less effective compared to the mono-metallic solution. These results show the potential for use of this residue as an adsorbent in contaminated environments.

  1. In silico analysis of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase active site with toxic industrial dyes.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Nirmal K; Vindal, Vaibhav; Narayana, Siva Lakshmi; Ramakrishna, V; Kunal, Swaraj Priyaranjan; Srinivas, M

    2012-05-01

    Laccases belong to multicopper oxidases, a widespread class of enzymes implicated in many oxidative functions in various industrial oxidative processes like production of fine chemicals to bioremediation of contaminated soil and water. In order to understand the mechanisms of substrate binding and interaction between substrates and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus laccase, a homology model was generated. The resulted model was further validated and used for docking studies with toxic industrial dyes- acid blue 74, reactive black 5 and reactive blue 19. Interactions of chemical mediators with the laccase was also examined. The docking analysis showed that the active site always cannot accommodate the dye molecules, due to constricted nature of the active site pocket and steric hindrance of the residues whereas mediators are relatively small and can easily be accommodated into the active site pocket, which, thereafter leads to the productive binding. The binding properties of these compounds along with identification of critical active site residues can be used for further site-directed mutagenesis experiments in order to identify their role in activity and substrate specificity, ultimately leading to improved mutants for degradation of these toxic compounds.

  2. Fast detection of toxic industrial compounds by laser ion mobility spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhuettinger, Carola; Langmeier, Andreas; Oberpriller, Helmut; Kessler, Matthias; Goebel, Johann; Mueller, Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    Trace detection of toxic industrial compounds has been investigated with the help of a laser ion mobility spectrometer (LIMS). The LIMS was equipped with a tuneable UV laser source for enabling two-photon ionization of the analyte gases and an ion drift tube for the measurement of the ion mobility. Different aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons as well as amines were investigated. We find that the first class of molecules can be well ionized due to the delocalization of their valence electron shells and the second due to the presence of non-bonding electrons in lone-pair orbitals. Selectivity of detection is attained on the basis of molecule-specific photo-ionization and drift time spectra. Ion currents were found to scale linearly with the substance concentration over several orders of magnitude down to the detection limits in the ppt range. As besides toxic industrial compounds, similar electron configurations also occur in illicit drugs, toxins and pharmaceutical substances, LIMS can be applied in a variety of fields ranging from environmental analysis, air pollution monitoring, drug detection and chemical process monitoring.

  3. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine and lower water toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Xirou, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Dailianis, Stefanos; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and treated wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination efficiency and kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. As chlorine concentration increases the removal also increases linearily. After 1 and 24 hours of contact the chlorine relative removal efficiencies for the biochar made from olive seeds are 50 and 77 ± 4%, respectively. It seems that the removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0

  4. Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-02

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  5. Toxicity Identification Evaluation (Phase I) of water and sediment samples from a tropical reservoir contaminated with industrial and domestic effluents.

    PubMed

    Matos, Mariana de F; Botta, Clarice Maria Rispoli; Fonseca, Ana Lúcia

    2014-11-01

    The Funil Reservoir (Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil) is an environment degraded by constant discharge of nutrients and pollution coming from the most industrialized region of the country. As a consequence of eutrophication, there are continuous cyanobacteria blooms, which cause acute and chronic toxicity to zooplankton. In this context, Phase I of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed on Daphnia similis using water and interstitial water from the reservoir, with the aim of identifying classes of compounds responsible for toxicity. The results indicated that water toxicity was due to cyanobacteria resulting from blooms in the reservoir and surfactants. Metals, especially copper, contributed to sediment toxicity. This research is the first attempt to describe the nature of toxicity in this reservoir using this method.

  6. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  7. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds.

  8. Homogeneous sonophotolysis of food processing industry wastewater: Study of synergistic effects, mineralization and toxicity removal.

    PubMed

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; Gómez, P

    2013-03-01

    The mineralization of industrial wastewater coming from food industry using an emerging homogeneous sonophotolytic oxidation process was evaluated as an alternative to or a rapid pretreatment step for conventional anaerobic digestion with the aim of considerably reducing the total treatment time. At the selected operation conditions ([H(2)O(2)]=11,750ppm, pH=8, amplitude=50%, pulse length (cycles)=1), 60% of TOC is removed after 60min and 98% after 180min when treating an industrial effluent with 2114ppm of total organic carbon (TOC). This process removed completely the toxicity generated during storing or due to intermediate compounds. An important synergistic effect between sonolysis and photolysis (H(2)O(2)/UV) was observed. Thus the sonophotolysis (ultrasound/H(2)O(2)/UV) technique significantly increases TOC removal when compared with each individual process. Finally, a preliminary economical analysis confirms that the sono-photolysis with H(2)O(2) and pretreated water is a profitable system when compared with the same process without using ultrasound waves and with no pretreatment.

  9. Low toxicity and long circulation time of Polyampholyte-coated magnetic nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Ming; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jiang; Duan, Yourong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Polyampholyte-coated (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) magnetite nanoparticles (PAMNPs) have been prepared as contrasting agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent biocompatibility is required for contrasting agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of PAMNPs, some experiments have been conducted. The hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting, prothrombin time, inflammatory cytokine release and complement system activation assays were carried out to investigate the hemocompatibility. To evaluate the toxicity to vessel, MTT test and vascular irritation tests were conducted. Tissue toxicity test was also performed to investigate the biocompability in vivo. We also looked into the biodistribution. The results showed that PAMNPs at the working concentration (0.138 mM) present similar hemocompatibility with negative control, thus have no significant effect to vessels. PAMNPs were mainly distributed in the liver and the blood. The circulation time in blood was considerably long, with the half-time of 3.77 h in plasma. This property is advantageous for PAMNPs' use in angiography. PAMNPs could be metabolized rapidly in mice and were not observed to cause any toxic or adverse effect. In short, these results suggest that the PAMNPs have great potential to serve as safe contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  10. Diffusion dynamics and concentration of toxic materials from quantum dots-based nanotechnologies: an agent-based modeling simulation framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agusdinata, Datu Buyung; Amouie, Mahbod; Xu, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Due to their favorable electrical and optical properties, quantum dots (QDs) nanostructures have found numerous applications including nanomedicine and photovoltaic cells. However, increased future production, use, and disposal of engineered QD products also raise concerns about their potential environmental impacts. The objective of this work is to establish a modeling framework for predicting the diffusion dynamics and concentration of toxic materials released from Trioctylphosphine oxide-capped CdSe. To this end, an agent-based model simulation with reaction kinetics and Brownian motion dynamics was developed. Reaction kinetics is used to model the stability of surface capping agent particularly due to oxidation process. The diffusion of toxic Cd2+ ions in aquatic environment was simulated using an adapted Brownian motion algorithm. A calibrated parameter to reflect sensitivity to reaction rate is proposed. The model output demonstrates the stochastic spatial distribution of toxic Cd2+ ions under different values of proxy environmental factor parameters. With the only chemistry considered was oxidation, the simulation was able to replicate Cd2+ ion release from Thiol-capped QDs in aerated water. The agent-based method is the first to be developed in the QDs application domain. It adds both simplicity of the solubility and rate of release of Cd2+ ions and complexity of tracking of individual atoms of Cd at the same time.

  11. Colorimetric sensor array for determination and identification of toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Musto, Christopher J; Kemling, Jonathan W; Lim, Sung H; Zhong, Wenxuan; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2010-11-15

    A low-cost yet highly sensitive colorimetric sensor array for the detection and identification of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) has been developed. The sensor consists of a disposable array of cross-responsive nanoporous pigments whose colors are changed by diverse chemical interactions with analytes. Clear differentiation among 20 different TICs has been easily achieved at both their IDLH (immediately dangerous to life or health) concentration within 2 min of exposure and PEL (permissible exposure limit) concentration within 5 min of exposure with no errors or misclassifications. Detection limits are generally well below the PEL (in most cases below 5% of PEL) and are typically in the low ppb range. The colorimetric sensor array is not responsive to changes in humidity or temperature over a substantial range. The printed arrays show excellent batch to batch reproducibility and long shelf life (greater than 3 months).

  12. Novel bifunctional hybrid small molecule scavengers for mitigating nerve agents toxicity.

    PubMed

    Amitai, Gabriel; Gez, Rellie; Raveh, Lily; Bar-Ner, Nira; Grauer, Ettie; Chapman, Shira

    2016-11-25

    The antidotal treatment of organophosphates (OP) nerve agents (NA) poisoning is based on anticholinergics (e.g. atropine) combined with oxime reactivators (e.g. 2PAM) of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). This treatment is symptomatic and does not degrade the OP. New small-molecule OP scavengers were developed as bifunctional hybrids. Their molecular design was based on combining a nucleophile that directly degrades OP with a moiety that reactivates OP-inhibited AChE. The OP degrading moiety is either benzhydroxamic acid (BHA) or 4-pyridinehydroxamic acid (4PHA) coupled via (CH2)n, (n = 1 or 3) to 2PAM. Three newly synthesized oxime-hydroxamate hybrids: 2PAMPr4PHA, 2PAMMeBHA and 2,4-DiPAMMeBHA were found to detoxify sarin, cyclosarin and soman in solution at 3-10-fold faster rate than 2PAM and to reactivate OP-AChE in vitro. 2PAMPr4PHA displayed 18-fold faster reactivation than 2-PAM of cyclosarin-inhibited HuAChE (kr = 3.6 × 10(2) vs. 0.2 × 10(2) M(-1)min(-1), respectively, 37 °C). These hybrids inhibited AChE reversibly, IC50 = 16-48 μM, thereby decreasing the inhibition rates by OPs. The LD50 (im) of 2PAMPr4PHA, 2PAMMeBHA and 2,4DiPAMMeBHA are >568, 508 and >506 μmol/kg in rats and 144, 203 and >506 μmol/kg in guinea pigs. The rate of blood ChE recovery by the hybrids administered either pre- or post-exposure to 0.8xLD50 sarin was comparable or faster than 2PAM. Antidotal efficacy of 2PAMPr4PHA, 2PAMMeBHA and 2,4DiPAMMeBHA administered with atropine, as pre-treatment to sarin in rats (im), yielded protection ratios (PR) 11.6, 11.5 and 4.7, respectively, vs. 5.5 with 2PAM. Post-treatment against various OPs in rats and guinea-pigs yielded PRs higher or similar to that of 2 PAM. Our in vivo data indicates that some hybrids may serve as efficient small molecule scavengers for mitigating the toxicity of OP NAs.

  13. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-08-14

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  14. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions.

  15. Comparative toxicity of an effluent from a chlor-alkali industry and HgCl sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, B.P.; Sahu, A.; Panigrahi, A.K. )

    1990-08-01

    Release of waste waters from industries severely affect aquatic flora and fauna. Effluents from industries involved in the production of pesticides, or from industries utilizing toxic substances in their production processes are of particular concern. One such industry, the chlor-alkali industry, utilizes mercury as a cathode in an electrolytic process. The present study reports the toxicity assessment of the effluent from a chlor-alkali factor, Jayshree Chemicals Ltd., Ganjam, Orissa. The reported production capacity of the plant is 50 tons of NaOH per day. The effluent discharged, 50,000 1 per day, contains mercury ranging up to 1.5 mg/l, much more than the permissible limit of 0.01 mg/l set by the Central Board for the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution, India. The effluent enters the Rushikulya River Estuary and finally the Bay of Bengal. This paper was also designed to determine whether the mercury present in the effluent was toxic or whether the toxicity involved some other parameters of the effluent as well.

  16. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  17. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment.

  18. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  19. Toxicity identification and high-efficiency treatment of aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Hua, Tao; Zhou, Qixing; Zhang, Shuguang; Rong, Weiying

    2011-01-01

    The Hangu Reservoir, located in Binhai New Area, Tianjin, China, receives mixed wastewater from a chemical industrial park. The aging chemical industrial wastewater is less biodegradable and contains complex hazardous substances, thus having an adverse effect on local ecological service function of the reservoir and on local economic and social development. In this study, key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater from the Hangu Reservoir were systematically identified by the toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs), and the treatment efficiency of the aging chemical industrial wastewater was examined and optimized by a municipal wastewater treatment process simulated in a laboratory. According to the TIE results using and wheat seeds as tested organisms, Cl, Cu, Pb, and Zn were identified as key toxicants in the aging chemical industrial wastewater, with concentrations of 7349.11, 0.01, 0.07, and 0.07 mg L, respectively, which were confirmed by subsequent spiking approaches. Based on the TIE results, the aging chemical industrial wastewater could be classified as high-salinity wastewater. The co-treatment of the aging chemical industrial wastewater and municipal wastewater may be an effective and low-cost method. The treatment efficiency of the mixed wastewater increased with an increase in the volume ratio of municipal wastewater to aging chemical industrial wastewater. When the volume ratio was 10:1, the best removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand, total N, and total P were up to 85.1, 89.3, and 96.5%, respectively, whereas the toxicity unit of the treated wastewater was reduced to 0.50.

  20. Toxicity of oiled sediments treated with bioremediation agents: A shoreline experiment in Delaware, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mearna, A.; Doe, K.; Fisher, W.; Lee, K.; Mueller, C.

    1995-12-31

    Using a randomized complete block design, a battery of five pore water and sediment bioassays were used to monitor and compare toxicity among un-oiled, oiled (light Nigerian crude) and nutrient and bacteria-treated shoreline plots on a sandy beach. Tests included sea urchin fertilization, water and modified-solid phase microtox, 10-day amphipod survival and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. During the 13-week study, bioremediation treatment with nutrients and/or bacteria did not decrease toxicity relative to that in untreated plots. Results from at least one bioassay suggested that, relative to no treatment, treatment may have increased toxicity for several weeks. The least and most sensitive tests were sea urchin fertilization (pore water) and 10-day amphipod test, respectively. Coupled with chemical monitoring, the study produced a large data-base for evaluating toxic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy sediments.

  1. Characterization of a phosphodiesterase capable of hydrolyzing EA 2192, the most toxic degradation product of the nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Eman; Li, Yingchun; Xu, Chengfu; Raushel, Frank M

    2007-08-07

    Glycerophosphodiesterase (GpdQ) from Enterobacter aerogenes is a nonspecific diesterase that enables Escherichia coli to utilize alkyl phosphodiesters, such as diethyl phosphate, as the sole phosphorus source. The catalytic properties of GpdQ were determined, and the best substrate found was bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate with a kcat/Km value of 6.7 x 10(3) M-1 s-1. In addition, the E. aerogenes diesterase was tested as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of a series of phosphonate monoesters which are the hydrolysis products of the highly toxic organophosphonate nerve agents sarin, soman, GF, VX, and rVX. Among the phosphonate monoesters tested, the hydrolysis product of rVX, isobutyl methyl phosphonate, was the best substrate with a kcat/Km value of 33 M-1 s-1. The ability of GpdQ to hydrolyze the phosphonate monoesters provides an alternative selection strategy in the search of enhanced variants of the bacterial phosphotriesterase (PTE) for the hydrolysis of organophosphonate nerve agents. This investigation demonstrated that the previously reported activity of GpdQ toward the hydrolysis of methyl demeton-S is due to the presence of a diester contaminant in the commercial material. Furthermore, it was shown that GpdQ is capable of hydrolyzing a close analogue of EA 2192, the most toxic and persistent degradation product of the nerve agent VX.

  2. Science First: Contributions of a University-Industry Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program to Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.; Kennedy, Kevin M.; Davis, Paul R.; Lloyd, Larry L.; Gwebu, Nokuthula; Last, Jerold A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how public policy establishing the University of California Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program helped to establish the state's environmental technology industry. The multidisciplinary "science-push" program generated economic development benefits including leveraged research funding and at least 200 new private…

  3. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-01-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

  4. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the chemical stockpile disposal program

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.; Griffin, G.D. )

    1992-11-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. 112 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  5. Comparison of toxicity of selected mustard agents by percutaneous and subcutaneous routes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Vijayaraghavan, R; Ganesan, K

    2008-12-01

    Comparative toxicity of nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard was carried out in mice. Based on LD50, the toxicity pattern was HN-2 < HN-1 < HN-3 < sulphur mustard by percutaneous route whereas, by subcutaneous route the toxicity pattern was sulphur mustard < HN-3 < HN-2 < HN-1. Single dose of 1 LD50 of nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard was administered percutaneously and various oxidative stress parameters were also evaluated. The weight loss was more in HN-2 on day 3 and in sulphur mustard on day 7. There was a drastic fall of WBC count on day 3 in all groups with a recovery in nitrogen mustard groups on day 7. The RBC count and haemoglobin content showed a significant increase on day 7 in sulphur mustard group. The plasma enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP) showed an increase in all groups on day 3 and day 7. The hepatic GSH and GSSG contents were reduced and MDA content increased in all groups, with a further change in sulphur mustard on 7 day. Extensive DNA fragmentation was observed in all the nitrogen mustard groups compared to sulphur mustard group, on day 3. However, on the day 7 the DNA fragmentation was same in all groups. This study showed that the nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard were extremely toxic by percutaneous route and caused oxidative stress. Sulphur mustard was more toxic by the percutaneous route and the effects were delayed and progressive.

  6. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry.

  7. TOXICITY-BASED CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTION SYSTEMS: CONTINUOUS MONITOR AND EXPOSURE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop and characterize chemical agent detection systems that will provide broad toxicological screening information to first responders and building decontamination personnel. The primary goal for this technology is to detect the presence of airborne chemic...

  8. Stress, Confidence, Performance, and Credibility Produced by Toxic Agent Training at the Chemical Decontamination Training Facility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    building with sophisticated ventilatory and other decontamination equipment, sensitive chemical agent monitoring devices , amount of agent in use at any...responses to be distributed in two senses : first, they were not so extreme as to preclude improvement/decrement; second, they showed confidence to be...jumping. A zero score represents "a completely no-risk activity* and a score of ten "the most risky or dangerous activity a person could possibly dow

  9. A LITERATURE REVIEW OF WIPE SAMPLING METHODS FOR CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wipe sampling is an important technique for the estimation of contaminant deposition in buildings, homes, or outdoor surfaces as a source of possible human exposure. Numerous

    methods of wipe sampling exist, and each method has its own specification for the type of wipe, we...

  10. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  11. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  12. Foliar nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content in trees in environmentally toxic plastic industry area.

    PubMed

    Sett, Rupnarayan; Soni, Bhawna

    2013-04-01

    In plants, nitrogen deficiency causes stunted growth and chlorosis or yellowing of the leaves due to decreased levels of chlorophyll, while excess nitrogen uptake may cause dark green overly vigorous foliage which may have increased susceptibility to disease and insect attacks. Phosphorus is an important nutrient in crop production, since many soils in their native state do not have sufficient available phosphorus to maximize crop yield. Potassium deficiency may cause necrosis or interveinal chlorosis. Plastics are synthetic or semi-synthetic moldable organic solids that are organic polymers of high molecular mass, most commonly derived from petrochemicals; these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen. Plastic is a non- biodegradable major toxic pollutant. It pollutes earth and leads to air pollution and water pollution. Merely there is any safe way to dispose the hazardous plastic wastes. The study was targeted to estimate foliar level of NPK content of three plant species, viz. Cassia tora (Herb), Ailanthus excelsa (Tree) and Dalbergia sissoo (Tree) from polluted areas associated to polythene-industries as well as control areas having least pollution, where all the parameters were found to be higher than the control experiments.

  13. Polymer single-arm optical waveguide interferometer for detection of toxic industrial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Adamovsky, Grigory

    2001-12-01

    We report a novel single-arm double-mode double-order waveguide interferometer being used as a chemical sensor for detection f toxic industrial materials such as ammonia in air. The sensor is based on thin films of polymers poly(methyl methacrylate) and polyimide doped with indicator dyes bromocresol purple and bromothymol blue. These dye- doped polymer materials exhibit a reversible optical absorption in a band near 600 nm being exposed to ammonia in wet air. The rise of absorption is accompanied by the change of the refractive index in near IR region out of the absorption band. The distinguished feature of the sensor is that is uses for reading the change of the refractive index of the dye-doped polymer film the interference of two propagation waveguide modes of different orders. The modes TM0 and TM1 are simultaneously excited in the light- guiding polymer film with a focusing optics and a prism coupler. The modes are decoupled from the film and recombined producing an interference pattern in the face of an output optical fiber. The sensitivity of the sensor to ammonia is 200 ppm per one full oscillation of the signal. We analyze effects of various factors such as polymer composition, light wavelength, ambient humidity and atmospheric pressure on the performance of the sensor. Various design and fabrication issues are also discussed. The problems of particular interest are reduction of losses and sensitivity improvement.

  14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  15. Fiber-optic-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors for the detection of toxic nerve agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Anna M. C.; Kim, Yoon-Chang; Banerji, Soame; Masson, Jean-Francois; Booksh, Karl S.

    2004-03-01

    Analytical instruments capable of detecting nerve agents in battlefield conditions where speed, accuracy and ease of operation are a must in today's military. Fast detection and decontamination of nerve agents in very low concentrations is the primary focus of our research. The method presented here focuses on optimizing polymer stabilized sensing elements on the surface of SPR fiber-optic probes. A number of polymers & polymer supported metal complexes capable of reversibly binding to the species of interest & which have robust operation in hostile environments are incorporated with the fiber optic sensing elements. An optical technique, such as Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR), better suited to rapid data collection without sample pretreatment is employed. The approach using polymer-based optical fibers with off-the-shelf SPR system components has been tested for the detection of Pinacolyl methylphosphonate (PMP), a simulant for nerve agent Soman. Surface initiated polymeric sensors have higher sensitivity toward detecting PMP than bulk-polymerized sensors.

  16. Determination of the toxic variability of lipophilic biotoxins in marine bivalve and gastropod tissues treated with an industrial canning process.

    PubMed

    García, Carlos; Oyaneder-Terrazas, Javiera; Contreras, Cristóbal; Del Campo, Miguel; Torres, Rafael; Contreras, Héctor R

    2016-11-01

    Contamination of shellfish with lipophilic marine biotoxins (LMB), pectenotoxins (PTXs), yessotoxins (YTXs) and okadaic acid (OA) toxin groups in southern Chile is a constant challenge for the development of miticulture considering the high incidence of toxic episodes that tend to occur. This research is focused on using methodologies for assessing the decrease in toxins of natural resources in Chile with high value, without altering the organoleptic properties of the shellfish. The species were processed through steaming (1 min at 121°C) and subsequent canning (5 min at 121°C). Changes in the profiles of toxins and total toxicity levels of LMB in endemic bivalves and gastropods were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The total reduction of toxicity (≈ 15%) was not related to the destruction of the toxin, but rather to the loss of LMB on removing the shells and packing media of canned products (***p < 0.001). Industrial processing of shellfish reduces LMB contents by up to 15% of the total initial contents, concomitant only with the interconversion of PTX-group toxins into PTX-2sa. In soft bottom-dwelling species with toxicities beyond the standard for safe human consumption (≥ 160 μg OA-eq kg(-)(1)), toxicity can be reduced to safe levels through industrial preparation procedures.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of glycerol monolaurate nanocapsules against American foulbrood disease agent and toxicity on bees.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonardo Q S; Santos, Cayane G; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Gende, Liesel; Raffin, Renata P; Santos, Roberto C V

    2016-08-01

    The American Foulbrood Disease (AFB) is a fatal larval bee infection. The etiologic agent is the bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. The treatment involves incineration of all contaminated materials, leading to high losses. The Glycerol Monolaurate (GML) is a known antimicrobial potential compound, however its use is reduced due to its low solubility in water and high melting point. The nanoencapsulation of some drugs offers several advantages like improved stability and solubility in water. The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against P. larvae and the toxicity in bees of GML nanoparticles. The nanocapsules were produced and presented mean diameter of 210 nm, polydispersity index of 0.044, and zeta potential of -23.4 mV demonstrating the acceptable values to predict a stable system. The microdilution assay showed that it is necessary 142 and 285 μg/mL of GML nanocapsules to obtain a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect respectively. The time-kill curve showed the controlled release of compound, exterminating the microorganism after 24 h. The GML nanocapsules were able to kill the spore form of Paenibacillus larvae while the GML do not cause any effect. The assay in bees showed that the GML has a high toxicity while the GML nanoparticles showed a decrease on toxic effects. Concluding, the formulation shows positive results in the action to combat AFB besides not causing damage to bees.

  18. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K; Rezk, Peter E; Katos, Alexander M; Wajda, Nikolai A; Moran, Theodore S; Steele, Keith E; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2007-03-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m(3) of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  19. Crataegus monogyna fruit aqueous extract as a protective agent against doxorubicin-induced reproductive toxicity in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Shalizar Jalali, Ali; Hasanzadeh, Shapour

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Doxorubicin (DOX) is a broad spectrum chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of several malignancies. The use of DOX in clinical chemotherapy has been restricted due to its diverse toxicities, including reproductive toxicity. Crataegus monogyna (C. monogyna) is one of the oldest medicinal plants that have been shown to be cytoprotective because of scavenging free radicals. The present study was undertaken to determine whether C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract could serve as a protective agent against reproductive toxicity during DOX treatment in a rat model through antioxidant-mediated mechanisms. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were allocated to four groups. Two groups of rats were treated with DOX at a dose of 4 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (accumulated dose of 20 mg/kg). One of the groups received C. monogyna fruits aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg per day orally for 28 days along with DOX. A vehicle-treated control group and a C. monogyna control group were also included. Results: The DOX-treated group showed significant decreases in the body and organ weights and spermatogenic activities as well as many histological alterations. DOX treatment also caused a significant decrease in sperm count and motility with an increase in dead and abnormal sperms. Moreover, significant decrease in serum levels of testosterone and increased serum concentrations of FSH, LH, LDH, CPK, and SGOT were observed in DOX-treated rats. Notably, Crataegus co-administration caused a partial recovery in above-mentioned parameters. Conclusion: These findings indicated that doxorubicin can adversely damage the testicular tissue, while Crataegus co-administration could effectively prevent these adverse effects by effective inhibiting oxidative processes and restoration of antioxidant defense system. PMID:25050270

  20. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    SciTech Connect

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.

    2007-03-15

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m{sup 3} of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  1. Identification and leaching characteristics of sludge generated from metal pickling and electroplating industries by Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP).

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Sihorwala, T A

    2003-06-01

    One of India's major concerns is the increasing level of land pollution largely due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrial solid and hazardous waste. With rapid industrialization, the generation of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increased appreciably and the nature of waste generated has become complex. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable. The article describes the details of studies conducted using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure, to estimate the toxicity effects of the metals viz., chromium, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and copper by the Zero Headspace Extractor for the sludges generated from effluent treatment plant of steel tube, wire and plating industries on environment constituents like groundwater, surface water and land. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure determines the mobility of organic and inorganic analytes of liquid, solid or multiphase waste from hazardous solid wastes in the form of primary and secondary extracts. These extracts are mixed in equal volume proportion and analyzed by Direct Reading 2000 spectrophotometer. The amount of heavy metals observed during the studies in the leachates were found and the results were compared with Hazardous Waste categories as per Indian Standards. TCLP regulatory limits given by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and Germany Leachate Quality Standards and it was observed that they were on higher side, needing a proper preventive concept of sludge management including handling, treatment, recovery and disposal.

  2. [Acute toxicity of 10 Moroccan plants reported to be hypoglycemic agents].

    PubMed

    Jaouhari, J T; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    1999-01-01

    An acute toxicity study of twelve medicinal plants on Swiss albino mice has been carried out. The extracts were administered orally at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight. Animals were observed for 7 days and changes in weight and behaviour were noted. On the eighth day, the animals were sacrificed and an anatomo-histopathologic survey was undertaken. The results showed a change in behaviour and some histologic modifications following the administration of certain plant extracts.

  3. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  4. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-31

    Agents October 01, 2013 through December 31, 2013 11 of 20 o S1203: A Randomized Phase III Study of Standard Cytarabine plus Daunorubicin (7+3...Therapy or Idarubicin with High Dose Cytarabine (IA) versus IA with Vorinostat (IA+V) in Younger Patients with Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid

  5. An industry perspective on the use of "atoxigenic" strains of Aspergillus flavus as biological control agents and the significance of cyclopiazonic acid.

    PubMed

    King, Eileen D; Bobby Bassi, Albeit B; Ross, David C; Druebbisch, Bernd

    2011-08-01

    Several nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been registered in the United States to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize and other crops, but there may be unintended negative consequences if these strains produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). AF36, a nonaflatoxigenic, CPA-producing strain has been shown to produce CPA in treated maize and peanuts. Alternative strains, including Afla-Guard® brand biocontrol agent and K49, do not produce CPA and can reduce both aflatoxin and CPA in treated crops. Chronic toxicity of CPA has not been studied, and recent animal studies show significant harmful effects from short-term exposure to CPA at low doses. Grower and industry confidence in this approach must be preserved through transparency.

  6. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  7. Development of a Broad-Spectrum Oxime for the Treatment of Nerve Agent Toxicity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    A. Saxena Division of Biochemistry, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Silver Spring, MD 20910 K. Brecht , and D. M. Maxwell US Army Medical...wild-type and mutant AChEs revealed that the peripheral anionic site of AChE plays a critical role in the reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited AChE...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  8. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  9. The past suppression of industry knowledge of the toxicity of benzene to humans and potential bias in future benzene research.

    PubMed

    Infante, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Petrochemical industry representatives often withhold information and misinterpret positive evidence of toxicity of benzene, even from their own research, also discouraging or delaying disclosure of findings of adverse effects to the public. They now appear to be attempting to influence study results in industry's favor by offering predetermined conclusions about study results as part of an effort to draw financial support for the studies. The American Petroleum Institute is currently raising funds for benzene research being conducted in China for which it has already announced the intended conclusions.

  10. Subchronic oral toxicity and metabolite profiling of the p53 stabilizing agent, CP-31398, in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William D; Muzzio, Miguel; Detrisac, Carol J; Kapetanovic, Izet M; Kopelovich, Levy; McCormick, David L

    2011-11-18

    maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for subchronic oral administration of CP-31398 is 80mg/kg/day (480mg/m(2)/day) in rats and 20mg/kg/day (400mg/m(2)/day) in dogs. Although only modest and apparently reversible toxicities (microscopic changes in rats; reductions in body weight gain and alterations in red cell parameters in dogs) were seen in the low dose groups, no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs) for CP-31398 could not be established for either species. The toxicity of CP-31398 suggests that this agent may not be suitable for use in cancer prevention. However, should in vivo antitumor efficacy be achievable at doses that do not induce limiting toxicity, CP-31398 may have utility as a cancer therapeutic. Modification of the primary sites of CP-31398 metabolism (N-demethylation of the alkyl side chain; hydroxylation and O-demethylation of the styryl benzene group) may result in the development of CP-31398 analogs with comparable pharmacologic activity and reduced toxicity.

  11. Wheat enolase demonstrates potential as a non-toxic cryopreservation agent for liver and pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Grondin, Mélanie; Chow-Shi-Yée, Mélanie; Ouellet, François; Averill-Bates, Diana A

    2015-05-01

    Cryopreservation is essential for long-term storage of cells and tissues, which can be used for clinical applications such as drug toxicity testing, human transplantation, reproductive, regenerative and transfusion medicine. It requires use of cryoprotectants (e.g. dimethyl disulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol) that protect cells and tissues from dehydration and damage caused by formation of intracellular ice during freezing. As an alternative to these cytotoxic cryoprotectants, we are developing new technology using natural substances produced by plants that survive freezing conditions. We previously showed that soluble protein extracts such as wheat protein extract (WPE) prepared from winter wheat plants can substitute for DMSO as a cryoprotectant for certain mammalian cell types. To identify novel cryoactive proteins, WPE was separated using different chromatographic procedures and cryoactive fractions were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed enolase as a potential wheat protein candidate. A recombinant enolase protein was prepared and was able to successfully cryopreserve rat hepatocytes and insulin-secreting INS832/13 pancreatic cells. Post-thaw cells had high viability and levels of metabolic activities. Cryopreserved cells were plateable and had good adherence and morphological properties. These results indicate that individual plant proteins such as enolase have promising potential as new, non-toxic technology for cryopreservation protocols used for clinical applications.

  12. The chronic toxicity of alcohol alkoxylate surfactants on anaerobic granular sludge in the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, Steven W; Kortekaas, Sjon J M; Van Lier, Jules B

    2007-07-01

    The chronic toxicity of an alcohol alkoxylate surfactant used in the pulp and paper industry was observed in methanogenic consortia under unfed conditions. Methanogenic inhibition was not observed until 250 h of famine conditions while in the presence of the surfactant. The delayed onset of inhibition is likely due to the amount of time necessary for the surfactant to partition into the cellular membrane which uncouples cellular energy conservation mechanisms and exhausts internal energy reserves necessary to maintain homeostasis.

  13. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon.

  14. Detection of genotoxicity of the gaseous agents emitted from two industrial sites with Tradescantia bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Fomin, A.; Hafner, C.; Schachner, J.; Sallenave, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The Tradescantia-Micronucleus (Trad-MCN) assay was used to determine the genotoxicity of gaseous agents emitted from a car painting factory and from an incinerator. The fumigation chambers consisted of small greenhouses placed on the roofs of the factory and incinerator, into which mixtures of flue gases and clean air could be directly pumped. Plant cuttings bearing young flower buds were exposed to various concentrations of the emissions for 8 or 24 hours. The treated and control flower buds were fixed in aceto-ethanol (1:3 ratio) and slides of the early tetrads were prepared to score the micronuclei frequencies. The genotoxicity of fumes emitted from two paint formulations (P1, P2) used at the paint factory were compared, The average MCN frequencies of the groups exposed to P2 fumes increased with increasing concentration, and were as high as 6 times those of the control groups at full strength. Average MCN frequencies of groups exposed to full strength P1 fumes were 3.6 times higher than those of the control groups. Although the results of the incinerator trials were more variable, the average MCN frequencies of groups exposed to 1:1,000 diluted incinerator emissions were significantly higher than those in the control groups, on most dates. The results of the study demonstrated the potential genotoxicity of the emissions, and the usefulness of in-situ monitoring of gaseous emissions from incinerators and industrial sources.

  15. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  16. 8-Hydroxyquinolines Are Boosting Agents of Copper-Related Toxicity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Santosh; Dalecki, Alex G.; Malalasekera, Aruni P.; Crawford, Cameron L.; Michalek, Suzanne M.; Kutsch, Olaf; Bossmann, Stefan H.

    2016-01-01

    Copper (Cu) ions are likely the most important immunological metal-related toxin utilized in controlling bacterial infections. Impairment of bacterial Cu resistance reduces viability within the host. Thus, pharmacological enhancement of Cu-mediated antibacterial toxicity may lead to novel strategies in drug discovery and development. Screening for Cu toxicity-enhancing antibacterial molecules identified 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ) to be a potent Cu-dependent bactericidal inhibitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The MIC of 8HQ in the presence of Cu was 0.16 μM for replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis cells. We found 8HQ's activity to be dependent on the presence of extracellular Cu and to be related to an increase in cell-associated labile Cu ions. Both findings are consistent with 8HQ acting as a Cu ionophore. Accordingly, we identified the 1:1 complex of 8HQ and Cu to be its active form, with Zn, Fe, or Mn neither enhancing nor reducing its Cu-specific action. This is remarkable, considering that the respective metal complexes have nearly identical structures and geometries. Finally, we found 8HQ to kill M. tuberculosis selectively within infected primary macrophages. Given the stark Cu-dependent nature of 8HQ activity, this is the first piece of evidence that Cu ions within macrophages may bestow antibacterial properties to a Cu-dependent inhibitor of M. tuberculosis. In conclusion, our findings highlight the metal-binding ability of the 8-hydroxyquinoline scaffold to be a potential focus for future medicinal chemistry and highlight the potential of innate immunity-inspired screening platforms to reveal molecules with novel modes of action against M. tuberculosis. PMID:27431227

  17. Metabolite pharmacokinetics of soman, sarin, and GF in rats and biological monitoring of exposure to toxic organophosphorus agents

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, M.L.; McMonagle, J.D.; Dolzine, T.W.; Gresham, V.C.

    1993-05-13

    This study reports on the pharmacokinetics of the elimination of the metabolites of three toxic organophosphorus compounds (Soman, sarin, and GF). Urine, blood, and lung tissue were collected from rats dosed via subcutaneous route at 75 ug/Kg. Urinary excretion of the metabolite was the major elimination route for these three compounds. The major differences among them were primarily the extent and rate of excretion. The hydrolyzed form, alkylmethylphosphonic acid, was the single major metabolite formed and excreted in urine by a nonsaturable mechanism. Nearly total recoveries of the given doses for sarin and GF in metabolite form were obtained from the urine. The terminal elimination half-lives in urine were 6 and 15 hours for sarin and GF, respectively. Soman metabolite showed a biphasic elimination curve with terminal half-lives of 24 and 14 hours approximately. Soman was excreted at a slower rate with a recovery of only about 60%. Lung was the major organ of accumulation for soman. In blood the toxic agents were concentrated more in red blood cells than in plasma.

  18. Sequential application of chelating agents and innovative surfactants for the enhanced electroremediation of real sediments from toxic metals and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Hahladakis, John N; Lekkas, Nikolaos; Smponias, Andreas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the sequential application of a chelating agent (citric acid) followed by a surfactant in the simultaneous electroremediation of real contaminated sediments from toxic metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, the efficiency evaluation of two innovative non-ionic surfactants, commercially known as Poloxamer 407 and Nonidet P40, was investigated. The results indicated a removal efficacy of approximately 43% and 48% for the summation of PAHs (SUM PAHs), respectively for the aforementioned surfactants, much better than the one obtained by the use of Tween 80 (nearly 21%). Individual PAHs (e.g. fluorene) were removed in percentages that reached almost 84% and 92% in the respective electrokinetic experiments when these new surfactants were introduced. In addition, the combined-enhanced sequential electrokinetic treatment with citric acid improved dramatically the removal of Zn and As, compared to the unenhanced run, but did not favor the other toxic metals examined. Since no improvement in metal removal percentages occurred when Tween 80 was used, significant contribution to this matter should also be attributed to the solubilization capacity of these innovative, in electrokinetic remediation, non-ionic surfactants.

  19. Sources of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in an urban area subjected to an industrial impact.

    PubMed

    Cachada, Anabela; Pereira, Maria Eduarda; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Duarte, Armando Costa

    2012-01-01

    Urban and industrial development has caused a major impact on environmental soil quality. This work assesses the extent and severity of contamination in a small urban area subjected to an industrial impact and identifies the major anthropogenic inputs. Twenty-six soil samples were collected from agricultural and urban sites, and concentrations of potentially toxic elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), PAHs and PCBs, were determined. In spite of the low median concentrations observed, some sites represent a potential hazard for human health and ecosystems. Concentrations of contaminants were higher than those found in a nearby city, indicating that the study area is affected by the surrounding industry. The use of multivariate statistical analyses allowed for the identification of the main factors controlling the variability of potentially toxic elements and organic pollutants in the soils. The presence of Cr, Fe, Mn and Ni was associated with geogenic inputs, and Cu, Pb, Zn, As, PAHs and PCBs were associated with anthropogenic inputs. Industry and traffic were the most important anthropogenic sources. Soil characteristics were identified as important factors controlling the spatial variability of elements, both from recognised natural and anthropogenic origin. Differences between land uses were observed, which may be attributed to both management practices and proximity to sources.

  20. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  1. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-08-05

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  2. Agents.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2002-01-01

    Although health care is inherently an economic activity, it is inadequately described as a market process. An alternative, grounded in organizational economic theory, is to view professionals and many others as agents, contracted to advance the best interests of their principals (patients). This view untangles some of the ethical conflicts in dentistry. It also helps identify major controllable costs in dentistry and suggests that dentists can act as a group to increase or decrease agency costs, primarily by controlling the bad actors who damage the value of all dentists.

  3. Utilization of animal studies to determine the effects and human risks of environmental toxicants (drugs, chemicals, and physical agents).

    PubMed

    Brent, Robert L

    2004-04-01

    Toxicology studies using animals and in vitro cellular or tissue preparations have been used to study the toxic effects and mechanism of action of drugs and chemicals and to determine the effective and safe dose of drugs in humans and the risk of toxicity from chemical exposures. Studies in pregnant animals are used to determine the risk of birth defects and other reproductive effects. There is no question that whole animal teratology studies are helpful in raising concerns about the reproductive effects of drugs and chemicals, but negative animal studies do not guarantee that these agents are free from reproductive effects. There are examples in which drug testing was negative in animals (rat and mouse) but was teratogenic in the human (thalidomide), and there are examples in which a drug was teratogenic in an animal model but not in the human (diflunisal). Testing in animals could be improved if animal dosing using the mg/kg basis were abandoned and drugs and chemicals were administered to achieve pharmacokinetically equivalent serum levels in the animal and the human. Because most human teratogens have been discovered by alert physicians or epidemiology studies, not animal studies, animal studies play a minor role in discovering teratogens. In vitro studies play an even less important role, although they are helpful in describing the cellular or tissue effects of the drugs or chemicals. One cannot determine the magnitude of human risks from these in vitro studies. Performing toxicology studies on adult animals is performed by pharmaceutical companies, chemical companies, the Food and Drug Administration, many laboratories at the National Institutes of Health, and scientific investigators in laboratories throughout the world. Although a vast amount of animal toxicology studies are performed on pregnant animals and numerous toxicology studies are performed on adult animals, there is a paucity of animal studies using newborn, infant, and juvenile animals. This

  4. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  5. Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

    2013-06-01

    This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

  6. Novel antifouling agent zinc pyrithione: determination, acute toxicity, and bioaccumulation in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis).

    PubMed

    Marcheselli, Marco; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Mauri, Marina

    2010-11-01

    Antifouling biocide zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and its biological fate have received little attention because this compound was assumed not to be persistent in marine ecosystems. An analytical procedure was developed that has proved to be efficient and very sensitive in extracting ZnPT and its main secondary products, Zn and ionized pyrithione (PT(-)), from both seawater and biological samples, namely in the gills and digestive gland of the bioindicator species Mytilus galloprovincialis. Short-term experiments were carried out to investigate ZnPT toxicity and bioaccumulation. The effects on survival and tissue bioaccumulation of ZnPT and its secondary products were studied on adult mussels from a natural population, collected in the harbor area of Porto Santo Stefano (Italy) and exposed to sublethal doses of the biocide for up to 7 d. Zinc pyrithione was shown to be persistent in the experimental seawater in the short term. A basal level of ZnPT and ionized PT(-) was detected in the mussels, indicating that ZnPT availability in the sampling site is already high enough to induce a detectable accumulation in individuals of the native population. Zinc pyrithione rapidly accumulated in the tissues of the exposed mussels, proportionately to both exposure concentration and time, identifying the gills and digestive gland as important targets in the biological pathway of the contaminants. Even though the 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) = 8.27 µM established here appears high with respect to reported ZnPT environmental concentrations, the results indicate that this biocide could represent a threat for marine organisms in coastal environments and that further investigations on its biological effects at sublethal doses are needed.

  7. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process. PMID:25836969

  8. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  9. (WASHINGTON, DC) A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous natural and man-made agents are continuously released into the environment due to human activity. Many of these agents cause irreversible damage to the normal biological functions leading to morbidity and mortality in the exposed organisms. The possibility of deliberat...

  10. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous natural and man-made agents are continuously released into the environment due to human activity. Many of these agents cause irreversible damage to the normal biological functions leading to morbidity and mortality in the exposed organisms. The possibility of deliberat...

  11. Kromoscopy for detection of chemical warfare agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Kenneth J.; Sanghera, Jas; Aggarwal, Ishwar D.; Block, Myron J.

    2004-12-01

    The ability of a Kromoscope to discriminate between chemical warfare agent simulants and toxic industrial chemicals is evaluated. The Kromoscope response to the simulants DMMP and DIMP is compared to a pesticide (diazanon) and cyclopentanol. The response of a mid-infrared Kromoscope to the nerve agents VX and GB and the stimulant DF are calculated.

  12. Scientific and industrial challenges of developing nanoparticle-based theranostics and multiple-modality contrast agents for clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J.; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Designing of theranostics and dual or multi-modality contrast agents are currently two of the hottest topics in biotechnology and biomaterials science. However, for single entity theranostics, a right ratio of their diagnostic component and their therapeutic component may not always be realized in a composite suitable for clinical application. For dual/multiple modality molecular imaging agents, after in vivo administration, there is an optimal time window for imaging, when an agent is imaged by one modality, the pharmacokinetics of this agent may not allow imaging by another modality. Due to reticuloendothelial system clearance, efficient in vivo delivery of nanoparticles to the lesion site is sometimes difficult. The toxicity of these entities also remains poorly understood. While the medical need of theranostics is admitted, the business model remains to be established. There is an urgent need for a global and internationally harmonized re-evaluation of the approval and marketing processes of theranostics. However, a reasonable expectation exists that, in the near future, the current obstacles will be removed, thus allowing the wide use of these very promising agents.

  13. Treatment of toxic industrial wastewater in fluidized and fixed-bed batch reactors with Trametes versicolor: influence of immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Font, X; Caminal, G; Gabarrell, X; Vicent, T

    2006-08-01

    This work presents the results obtained in the treatment of industrial pulp mill wastewater (black liquor) with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor immobilised in nylon and polyurethane foam cubes. Reductions in colour (36%), aromatic compounds (54%) and toxicity (3.15 times reduction of the initial value) were obtained when the fungus was immobilised in nylon and good toxicity reduction (5.7-fold reduction of the initial value) when polyurethane foam was used. These results were compared with those obtained with Trametes versicolor in the form of pellets for colour and aromatic compounds (84.8% and 70.2% respectively). Correlations among different parameters have been studied. Relationships between colour and changes in the molecular weight distribution profiles, as well as a correlation between laccase production and toxicity reduction have been found. For laccase production vs. toxicity reduction a different behaviour has been observed depending on the bioreactor configuration (fixed-bed reactor with immobilised Trametes versicolor or fluidised bed reactor with pellets of Trametes versicolor).

  14. Toxic legacy: the environmental impact of the manufactured gas industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The manufactured gas industry provided cities in the United States with energy for light and power during much of the period from approximately 1850 to 1950. This article explores the history of the effects of this industry on air, land, and water environments; it also examines attempts by the courts and municipal and state governments to regulate gas-waste pollution and the industry's response. The article concludes by exploring the heritage of badly contaminated sites that the manufactured gas industry left to the nation after it was replaced by natural gas after World War II.

  15. Challenges and solutions for clinical development of new antibacterial agents: results of a survey among pharmaceutical industry professionals.

    PubMed

    Bettiol, Esther; Wetherington, Jeffrey D; Schmitt, Nicola; Harbarth, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    As the number of antibacterial medicines in the pipeline remains low, we anonymously surveyed pharmaceutical industry professionals on challenges and solutions for clinical development of these agents. Challenges were reported primarily as financial and regulatory. For multidrug-resistant organisms, there are needs for rapid diagnostic tests, new regulatory guidance, and adaptation of endpoints/trial designs. Regulators and public/private initiatives are addressing these challenges to help ensure that proposed solutions have the support of all involved stakeholders.

  16. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-05-15

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: {yields} We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. {yields} We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. {yields} Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. {yields} In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. {yields} Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  17. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models.

  18. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  19. Biomarker of Exposure and Mechanism of Action of Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    primary chemicals used, 10 employee 37 samples with a rank of 1 and 10 with a rank of 6. In addition, since AN is a constituent of tobacco smoke and...toxicity of AN. First is that it can be metabolized in the body to cyanide , a well-known acute toxin. However, we have previously shown that...blocking cyanide production with inhibitors of the enzyme(s) that convert AN to cyanide does not prevent acute toxicity but only delays the time to death

  20. Acute toxic effects of nerve agent VX on respiratory dynamics and functions following microinsillation inhalation exposure in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezk, Peter E; Graham, Jacob R; Moran, Theodore S; Gordon, Richard K; Sciuto, Alfred M; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2007-03-01

    Exposure to a chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) leads to severe respiratory distress, respiratory failure, or death if not treated. We investigated the toxic effects of nerve agent VX on the respiratory dynamics of guinea pigs following exposure to 90.4 mug/m3 of VX or saline by microinstillation inhalation technology for 10 min. Respiratory parameters were monitored by whole-body barometric plethysmography at 4, 24, and 48 h, 7 d, 18 d, and 4 wk after VX exposure. VX-exposed animals showed a significant decrease in the respiratory frequency (RF) at 24 and 48 h of recovery (p value .0329 and .0142, respectively) compared to the saline control. The tidal volume (TV) slightly increased in VX exposed animals at 24 and significantly at 48 h (p = .02) postexposure. Minute ventilation (MV) increased slightly at 4 h but was reduced at 24 h and remained unchanged at 48 h. Animals exposed to VX also showed an increase in expiratory (Te) and relaxation time (RT) at 24 and 48 h and a small reduction in inspiratory time (Ti) at 24 h. A significant increase in end expiratory pause (EEP) was observed at 48 h after VX exposure (p = .049). The pseudo lung resistance (Penh) was significantly increased at 4 h after VX exposure and remained slightly high even at 48 h. Time-course studies reveal that most of the altered respiratory dynamics returned to normal at 7 d after VX exposure except for EEP, which was high at 7 d and returned to normal at 18 d postexposure. After 1 mo, all the monitored respiratory parameters were within normal ranges. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 1 mo after exposure showed virtually no difference in protein levels, cholinesterase levels, cell number, and cell death in the exposed and control animals. These results indicate that sublethal concentrations of VX induce changes in respiratory dynamics and functions that over time return to normal levels.

  1. Resveratrol induces catalytic bioscavenger paraoxonase 1 expression and protects against chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Bryan F; Seetharam, Karthik I; Dhoieam, Pilin; Gordon, Richard K; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2008-04-01

    Current advances in enzyme bioscavenger prophylactic therapy against chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure are moving towards the identification of catalytic bioscavengers that can degrade large doses of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents without self destruction. This is a preferred method compared to therapy with the purified stoichiometric bioscavenger, butyrylcholinesterase, which binds OPs 1:1 and would thus require larger doses for treatment. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is one such catalytic bioscavenger that has been shown to hydrolyze OP insecticides and contribute to detoxification in animals and humans. Here we investigated the effects of a common red wine ingredient, Resveratrol (RSV), to induce the expression of PON-1 in the human hepatic cell line HC04 and evaluated the protection against CWNA simulants. Dose-response curves showed that a concentration of 20 microM RSV was optimal in inducing PON-1 expression in HC04 cells. RSV at 20 microM increased the extracellular PON-1 activity approximately 150% without significantly affecting the cells. Higher doses of RSV were cytotoxic to the cells. Resveratrol also induced PON-1 in the human lung cell line A549. RSV pre-treatment significantly (P = 0.05) protected the hepatic cells against exposure to 2x LD(50) of soman and sarin simulants. However, lung cells were protected against soman simulant exposure but not against sarin simulant exposure following RSV treatment. In conclusion, these studies indicate that dietary inducers, such as RSV, can up-regulate PON-1, a catalytic bioscavenger, which can then hydrolyze and protect against CWNA-induced toxicity, providing a prospective new method to protect against CWNA exposure.

  2. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  3. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  4. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  5. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    PubMed

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  6. Lead removal and toxicity reduction from industrial wastewater through biological sulfate reduction process.

    PubMed

    Teekayuttasakul, Paphungkorn; Annachhatre, Ajit P

    2008-10-01

    The practicability of lead removal from sulfate-rich wastewater through biological sulfate reduction process with hydrogen as electron donor was investigated. Sulfide, which was converted from sulfate by a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in a gas-lift reactor, was used to remove lead as lead sulfide precipitate. Furthermore, the toxicity of wastewater in terms of whole effluent toxicity (WET) before and after treatment was analyzed by using Microtox analyzer. The experiment was divided into three stages as follows: Stage I, startup and operation of sulfidogenic process fed with synthetic wastewater in a gas-lift reactor; Stage II, operation of sulfidogenic process fed with real wastewater in the same reactor and analysis of toxicity; and Stage III, separation of lead from wastewater. In stage I, the volumetric sulfate-sulfur loading rate was gradually increased from 1.0 g/L.d until no improvement of sulfide-sulfur production efficiency was evident at 2.58 g/L.d and maximum sulfide-sulfur concentration was set to 340 mg/L. In stage II, the results showed that the laboratory scale reactor could treat a real wastewater without inhibition or any remarkable problem. The produced sulfide-sulfur, 200 mg/L, was a little less in comparison with that of the previous stage. It could be due to the higher concentration of total dissolved solid (TDS). However, the sulfate concentration was still reduced by approximately 30%. The WET test by Microtox showed that toxicity was reduced more than 13 times. In stage III, the effluent from the reactor containing sulfide-sulfur of about 200 mg/L and lead-containing solution of 20 mg/L were fed with sulfide to lead ratio 3 moles: 1 mole into the precipitation chamber in which the optimum pH for lead sulfide precipitation of 8.0 was maintained. It was found that lead removal of 99% was attained.

  7. Elemental selenium at nano size (Nano-Se) as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of selenium toxicity: comparison with se-methylselenocysteine in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Xufang; Xu, Tongwen

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect of Se. Furthermore, upregulation of phase 2 enzymes by Se has been implicated as a possible chemopreventive mechanism at supranutritional dietary levels. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), a naturally occurring organic Se product, is considered as one of the most effective chemopreventive selenocompounds. The present study revealed that, as compared with SeMSC, elemental Se at nano size (Nano-Se) possessed equal efficacy in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, but had much lower toxicity as indicated by median lethal dose, acute liver injury, survival rate, and short-term toxicity. Our results suggest that Nano-Se can serve as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of Se toxicity.

  8. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  9. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident…

  10. Review of methods for sublethal aquatic toxicity tests relevant to the Canadian metal-mining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Sprague, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    The sublethal toxicity program of the Aquatic Effects Technology Evaluation Program intends to identify methods for assessing impacts of liquid effluent from metal mining, methods that are effective for estimating impacts, of least cost, and linked to a field program. The first section of this report evaluates a pre-selected list of sublethal aquatic toxicity tests and recommends which ones should be subjected to a laboratory program for evaluating performance. The tests were evaluated according to four criteria related to the instructional document, test relevance, technical items, and test convenience and economy. Tests evaluated were of the following types: Genotoxicity, biochemical, whole-organism bacterial, whole-organism fish, and tests with green plants and with invertebrates. The second section reviews literature on sublethal tests as a means of determining effects of mining effluents in receiving waters. A number of testing approaches are described and evaluated, a framework and rationale for monitoring discharges of effluents is outlined, and attempts to validate sublethal tests on effluents are reviewed by examining validation studies using natural water bodies, artificial stream channels, mesocosms in ponds, and other experimental procedures of interest.

  11. TetrakisHydroxymethylPhosphonium Sulfate (THPS), a new industrial biocide with low environmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Downward, B.L.; Talbot, R.E.; Haack, T.K.

    1997-12-01

    THPS is a new biocide active designed for use in a variety of environmentally sensitive applications such as industrial cooling systems and oilfield situations. EPA registration has recently been achieved thus permitting, for the first time, the use of THPS based biocides in the US. This paper reviews the chemistry of THPS and reports a variety of case histories where THPS has successfully been used for the control of bacteria, algae and fungi in industrial cooling systems in Western Europe. An extensive data package, including field applications and laboratory studies, is available for THPS providing many exciting opportunities for this product in the US. Case studies are presented for a cooling system in a fuel reprocessing plant, a process water system for a textile plant, and cooling systems for a chemical plant and a confectionary site.

  12. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    Australia's competitive success with innovation-based products and services is an influential factor to its long-term prosperity. This study examines the role of vocational education and training (VET) and occupations in innovative industries and firms. The authors find VET is vital to developing knowledge and practical skills across a broad range…

  13. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum.

  14. Laboratory scale and pilot plant study on treatment of toxic wastewater from the petrochemical industry by UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Stergar, V; Zagorc-Koncan, J; Zgajnar-Gotvanj, A

    2003-01-01

    This research concentrates on the development of an integrated approach to evaluate the possibility of treating very concentrated (COD = 15-20 g/l) and toxic wastewater (nitro-organic effluent) from the petrochemical industry in UASB reactors. A newly developed method utilising a modified Micro-Oxymax respirometer was used to (1) evaluate the inhibitory effects of varying concentrations of nitro-organic effluent on anaerobic granular sludge and (2) to make the proposal of operational parameters for the start up of the continuous process. Subsequently, the continuous tests were undertaken using laboratory scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors to test gradual adaptation of anaerobic biomass to nitro-organic effluent. Practical application of the experimental results of the laboratory-scale continuous tests was evaluated by running the UASB pilot plant. Acceptable COD removal efficiencies were obtained when nitro-organic effluent was diluted with a readily biodegradable substrate up to 80 vol % of nitro-organic effluent in the inlet. The COD removal was 90% and the methane production rate was 4.5 l/d. Wastewater was detoxified and no acute toxicity of the treated wastewater to the anaerobic biomass was detected. This research indicates that anaerobic digestion of the undiluted nitro-organic effluent was not feasible. However, it is possible to blend the nitro-organic effluent with another effluent stream and co-treat these effluents.

  15. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals and bacterial endotoxins via electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammu, Srikanth

    The first decade of the 21st century has been labeled by some as the "Sensor Decade." With a dramatic increase in sensor R&D and applications over the past 20 years, sensors are certainly on the brink of a revolution similar to what was in the field of computers in 1980s, information technology in the 1990s and wireless communication at the turn of the century. Just in the pharmaceutical industry alone, sensing needs are growing by leaps and bounds, and the sensing technologies used are as varied as the applications. Tremendous advances have been made in sensor technology and many more are on the brink of commercialization. In this work, I have attempted to balance breadth and depth in a single, practical and up-to-date resource. Understanding sensor design and operation typically requires a cross-disciplinary background, as it draws basic concepts from both engineering (chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). This work is an attempt to pull together the most crucial information utilized in designing, fabricating and application of this relatively novice field of Nanomaterials. While it would be impossible to cover each and every sensor in use today, I have attempted to provide as broad a range of sensor types and applications as possible. Current industrial standards, latest techniques for fabrication and assembly, followed by their application in safeguarding the human race against from possible chemical and biological threats are discussed in detail.

  16. Reproductive toxicity of the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol in rats and interactive effects of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Setzer, J V; O'Donohue, T L

    1984-08-01

    The solvent, 2-ethoxyethanol, induced complete embryomortality in pregnant rats exposed to three times the current Federal permissible exposure limit (PEL). Following exposure to ethoxyethanol at a concentration only one-half the current PEL, the offspring evidenced behavioral and neurochemical deviations from controls. Subsequent studies found that ingestion of ethanol with concomitant inhalation of ethoxyethanol vapors early in pregnancy appeared to reduce the number of both behavioral and neurochemical deviations found for ethoxyethanol. In contrast, the concomitant exposure to ethanol and ethoxyethanol later in gestation potentiated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethoxyethanol. This research indicates that the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol presents an occupational reproductive hazard and raises the issue of the importance of an interaction of social habits with occupational exposure to such hazards. The results would suggest that occupational physicians should advise pregnant workers in the chemical industry of the adverse effects of ethanol during pregnancy and of the possible interactions with other chemicals and should encourage them to be especially cautious with ethanol consumption since they may be at greater risk.

  17. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  18. Effects from Filtration, Capping Agents, and Presence/Absence of Food on the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Daphnia Magna

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relatively little is known regarding the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. The objectives of the work presented here include establishing the toxicity of a variety of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Daphnia magna neonates, assessing the applicability of ...

  19. On the use of multi-agent systems for the monitoring of industrial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezki, Nafissa; Kazar, Okba; Mouss, Leila Hayet; Kahloul, Laid; Rezki, Djamil

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the current paper is to present an intelligent system for complex process monitoring, based on artificial intelligence technologies. This system aims to realize with success all the complex process monitoring tasks that are: detection, diagnosis, identification and reconfiguration. For this purpose, the development of a multi-agent system that combines multiple intelligences such as: multivariate control charts, neural networks, Bayesian networks and expert systems has became a necessity. The proposed system is evaluated in the monitoring of the complex process Tennessee Eastman process.

  20. A chemical and microbiological characterization and toxicity assessment of the Pančevo industrial complex wastewater canal sediments, Serbia.

    PubMed

    Čučak, Dragana I; Spasojević, Jelena M; Babić, Olivera B; Maletić, Snežana P; Simeunović, Jelica B; Rončević, Srđan D; Dalmacija, Božo D; Tamaš, Ivica; Radnović, Dragan V

    2017-02-10

    The wastewater canal Vojlovica of the Pančevo industrial area, Serbia, is the main collector of the effluents from the local industrial complex. The canal is directly connected to the Europe's second largest river, the Danube. Here, we present a chemical and microbiological analysis of the sediment in order to determine the fate of pollutants over the years, as well as its current condition. Dry matter, clay and organic matter content, a Kjeldahl ammonia, phosphorus, metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons concentrations were measured. Microbiological analysis included heterotrophic and oil-degrading bacterial counts, isolation of the phenanthrene-degrading bacteria, and identification of cyanobacteria. Generally, in comparison to the results from previous studies, concentrations of the measured pollutants have been in a decline. Specifically, the metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were reduced whereas microbial counts and toxicity tests did not indicate significant pollution. The obtained results are probably a consequence of an improved wastewater treatment and microbial degradation of pollutants.

  1. On the use of in silico tools for prioritising toxicity testing of the low-volume industrial chemicals in REACH.

    PubMed

    Rybacka, Aleksandra; Rudén, Christina; Andersson, Patrik L

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of a selection of commercially and freely available non-testing tools and to analyse how REACH registrants can apply these as prioritisation tool for low-volume chemicals. The analysis was performed on a set of organic industrial chemicals and pesticides with extensive peer-reviewed risk assessment data. Analysed in silico model systems included Derek Nexus, Toxtree, QSAR Toolbox, LAZAR, TEST and VEGA, and results from these were compared with expert-judged risk classification according to the classifying, labelling and packaging (CLP) regulation. The most reliable results were obtained for carcinogenicity; however, less reliable predictions were derived for mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. A group of compounds frequently predicted as false negatives was identified. These were relatively small molecules with low structural complexity, for example benzene derivatives with hydroxyl-, amino- or aniline-substituents. A rat liver S9 metabolite simulator was applied to illustrate the importance of considering metabolism in the risk assessment procedure. We also discuss outcome of combining predictions from multiple model systems and advise how to apply in silico tools. These models are proposed to be used to prioritise low-volume chemicals for testing within the REACH legislation, and we conclude that further guidance is needed so that industry can select and apply models in a reliable, systematic and transparent way.

  2. Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R H

    2003-09-01

    An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.

  3. Amelioration of metal-induced toxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans: utility of chelating agents in the bioremediation of metals.

    PubMed

    Harrington, James M; Boyd, Windy A; Smith, Marjolein V; Rice, Julie R; Freedman, Jonathan H; Crumbliss, Alvin L

    2012-09-01

    The presence of toxic amounts of transition metals in the environment may originate from a range of human activities and natural processes. One method for the removal of toxic levels of metals is through chelation by small molecules. However, chelation is not synonymous with detoxification and may not affect the bioavailability of the metal. To test the bioavailability of chelated metals in vivo, the effects of several metal/chelator combinations were tested in the environmentally relevant organism Caenorhabditis elegans. The effect of metal exposure on nematode growth was used to determine the toxicity of cadmium, copper, nickel, and zinc. The restoration of growth to levels observed in nonexposed nematodes was used to determine the protective effects of the polydentate chelators: acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), cyclam, cysteine, calcium EDTA, desferrioxamine B, 1,2-dimethyl,3-hydroxy,4-pyridinone, and histidine. Cadmium toxicity was removed only by EDTA; copper toxicity was removed by all of the chelators except AHA; nickel toxicity was removed by cyclam, EDTA, and histidine; and zinc toxicity was removed by only EDTA. These results demonstrate the utility of polydentate chelators in the remediation of metal-contaminated systems. They also demonstrate that although the application of a chelator to metal contaminants may be effective, binding alone cannot be used to predict the level of remediation. Remediation depends on a number of factors, including metal complex speciation in the environment.

  4. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  5. [Plastic industry and exposure to carcinogenic chemical agents: an Italian Multicentric Study in Lombardy].

    PubMed

    Cirla, P E; Castoldi, M R; Marchese, E; Cavallo, D M; Fustinoni, S; Cattaneo, A; Martinotti, I; Foà, V; Tiso, C

    2007-01-01

    The potential carcinogenic risk at the workplaces is a primary interest of occupational health, but some questions are also controversially discussed. Particularly, in the plastic forming industry a great attention was directed to the hot processing and their possible exposure to monomers, some of which were classified as carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and/or the European Union (EU). In Lombardy, a study on occupational exposure to chemical carcinogens in the plastic forming industry was planned during last years. The aim was to recognize and promote preventive technical and medical solutions, basing on efficacy. By an investigation at workplace supported with standardized questionnaires, the presence of chemical carcinogens was registered in 59% of a representative sample of firms; but an effective possibility of exposure was found only for 34% of cases. The evaluation of exposure to monomers by air monitoring (acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, formaldehyde), involving a representative sample of factory with ABS and formaldehydic resins processing, showed low level exposure, because the common hygienic prevention measures were applied; some particular occupation shoved greater exposure to formaldehyde.

  6. Safe disposal of toxic chrome buffing dust generated from leather industries.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, S; Srinivasulu, T; Srimurali, M; Sekaran, G

    2008-01-31

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in chrome buffing dust (CBD), the solid waste discharged from leather industries, causes severe groundwater contamination on land co-disposal and chronic air pollution during thermal incineration. In the present investigation, CBD was subjected to starved air incineration (SAI) at 800 degrees C in a thermal incinerator under different flow rates of oxygen to optimize the oxygen required to incinerate the organic compounds and simultaneously preventing the conversion of Cr(3+) to Cr(6+). The energy audit of SAI of buffing dust under the external supply of oxygen was carried out under different incineration conditions. The bottom ash from SAI was effectively solidified/stabilized using Portland cement and fine aggregate. The solidified blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 120-180 kg/cm(2). The stabilization of chromium(III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Leachability studies through TCLP on solidified blocks were carried out to determine the degree of leaching of chromium and organic compounds (expressed as COD) under standard conditions.

  7. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  8. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  9. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams.

  10. Destruction of some more and less hydrophobic PAHs and their toxicities in a petrochemical industry wastewater with sonication in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa; Oztekin, Rukiye

    2010-11-01

    The effects of increasing sonication time (60-150min), NaCl (2-18g/l), S(2)O(8)(2-) (2-10mg/l) and 1-butanol (200-600mg/l) concentrations on the destructions of seven polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and acute toxicity in a petrochemical industry wastewater in Izmir (Turkey) were investigated. The yields in more hydrophobic PAHs (DahA and BghiP) were as high as in less hydrophobic PAHs (CHR, PHE, PY, BbF and ANT) at 60 degrees C after 150min sonication. The removals in all PAHs increased from 72-78% to 97-99% as the NaCl administration was increased from 1.5 to 12g/l. The degradation efficiency of seven PAHs was enhanced by 36% with 6mg/l S(2)O(8)(2-) after 150min. OH(*) is the major process for complete sonodegradation of less hydrophobic PAHs while pyrolysis is the major process for complete degradation of more hydrophobic PAHs.

  11. CMCTS stabilized Fe3O4 particles with extremely low toxicity as highly efficient near-infrared photothermal agents for in vivo tumor ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Song; Kong, Fenfen; Guo, Xiaomeng; Wu, Lin; Shen, Haijun; Xie, Meng; Wang, Xinshi; Jin, Yi; Ge, Yanru

    2013-08-01

    With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low toxicity was proposed. This hyperthermia agent showed rapid heat generation under NIR irradiation. After modification with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS), the obtained Fe3O4@CMCTS particles could disperse stably in PBS and serum without any aggregation. The modification of CMCTS could decrease the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the cellular uptake. In a comparative study with hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS), Fe3O4@CMCTS particles exhibited a comparable photothermal effect and fairly low cytotoxicity. The in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images of mice revealed that by attaching a magnet to the tumor, Fe3O4@CMCTS particles accumulated in the tumor after intravenous injection and showed a low distribution in the liver. After being exposed to a 808 nm laser for 5 min at a low power density of 1.5 W cm-2, the tumors on Fe3O4@CMCTS-injected mice reached a temperature of ~52 °C and were completely destroyed. Thus, a kind of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticle with extremely low toxicity and a simple structure for simultaneous MR imaging, targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy can be easily fabricated.With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low

  12. Evaluating the mobility of toxic metals in untreated industrial wastewater sludge using a BCR sequential extraction procedure and a leaching test.

    PubMed

    Kazi, T G; Jamali, M K; Kazi, G H; Arain, M B; Afridi, H I; Siddiqui, A

    2005-09-01

    The distribution and speciation of toxic metals in industrial wastewater sludge (IWS) was investigated. In this work, the modified BCR three-stage sequential extraction procedure was applied to the fractionation of Cr Pb Ni, and Cd in untreated industrial wastewater sludge from industrial sites in Hyderabad (Pakistan). The extracts were analyzed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure was evaluated using a certified reference material for soil mixed with sewage sludge BCR 483. The results from the partitioning study indicate that more easily mobilized forms (acid exchangeable) of Cd were dominant. The oxidizable fraction was dominant for all four toxic metals. Metal recovery was good, with <4% difference between the total metal recovered through the extractant steps and the total metal determined after microwave digestion. Lixiviation tests (DIN 38414-S4) were used to evaluate the leaching of toxic species from IWS, and it was observed that levels of leachable toxic metals were low compared to the amount of metal extracted in the exchangeable fraction of the BCR protocol.

  13. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process.

  14. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives.

  15. Measurement of Toxic industrial Chemicals, Chemical Warfare Agents and Their Simulants: A LWIR Passive Standoff Detection Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    obscurcissants n’affectent pas de façon significative les capacités de détection des capteurs passifs en retrait. Les résultats obtenus avec le GB en milieu...ainsi que de gaz chimiques toxiques tels que le phosgène et le GB. Résultats Ce rapport décrit la détection, à l’aide de CATSI (Compact...obscurcissants n’affectaient pas de façon significative les capacités des capteurs passifs en retrait. Les résultats obtenus avec le GB à ciel ouvert ont

  16. Development of the AIRIS-WAD Multispectral Sensor for Airborne Standoff Chemical Agent and Toxic Industrial Chemical Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    through the closely-coupled Fabry-Perot tunable filter, which is operated at ambient temperature. An integral Stirling -Cycle cryocooler maintains the...which about 70 watts is from the detector cryocooler and the remainder from the electronics. The sensor unit is air-cooled and uses a series of heat

  17. 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death.

    PubMed

    Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul I; El-Zanfaly, Marwa; Wood, David M

    2011-09-01

    2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is reported to cause rapid loss of weight, but unfortunately is associated with an unacceptably high rate of significant adverse effects. DNP is sold mostly over the internet under a number of different names as a weight loss/slimming aid. It causes uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation; the classic symptom complex associated with toxicity of phenol-based products such as DNP is a combination of hyperthermia, tachycardia, diaphoresis and tachypnoea, eventually leading to death. Fatalities related to exposure to DNP have been reported since the turn of the twentieth century. To date, there have been 62 published deaths in the medical literature attributed to DNP. In this review, we will describe the pattern and pathophysiology of DNP toxicity and summarise the previous fatalities associated with exposure to DNP.

  18. Major congenital malformations and residential proximity to a regional industrial park including a national toxic waste site: An ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Bentov, Yaakov; Kordysh, Ella; Hershkovitz, Reli; Belmaker, Ilana; Polyakov, Marina; Bilenko, Natasha; Sarov, Batia

    2006-01-01

    Background Public concern about exposure to emissions from the regional industrial park (IP), including 17 chemical plants and the national industrial toxic waste site, initiated this study of the possible association between major congenital malformations (MCM) and residence near the IP in Israel's Southern District. Methods The study was conducted during the period 1995–2000 and included 63,850 deliveries. Data on deliveries and MCM detected at births were obtained from the regional medical center, and stratified by ethnicity and type of locality. As exposure indicator we used distance categories (proximal and distant) and predominant wind direction from the IP. Distance stratification was based on the geographical distribution of the localities and complaints about the odor related to IP emissions. Based on these complaints, localities up to 20 km from the IP were considered proximal to the IP. Results Average rates of MCM were 5.0% and 4.1% for Bedouin and Jewish newborns, respectively. The rate of MCM for Bedouin from proximal localities was significantly greater compared with distant localities (5.6% vs. 4.8%; RR = 1.17 with 95% CI: 1.04–1.29). In the proximal Bedouin permanent localities, the MCM rate reached 8.2 %, which was significantly higher than in distant areas (RR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.39–1.80). Significant risk increase of central nervous system MCM was found in these localities, compared to distant ones (RR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.44–3.60). Among newborns from the traditional tribal settlements, proximity to the IP was associated with increased rates of the following MCM: 1) all combined, 2) those associated with chromosomal abnormalities, and 3) those defined as "others unclassified MCM." Comparison of autosomal recessive disease rates by proximity to the IP in Bedouin newborns indicates that the observed increased risk of MCM is not explained by consanguineous marriages. The rates of MCM in the Jewish population were similar among "exposed" and

  19. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  20. Effect of the industrial steaming on the toxicity, estimated by LC-MS/MS, of mussels exposed for a long time to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2015-06-15

    The effect of industrial steaming on mussels that had been naturally exposed to DSP toxins for a long time was studied using LC-MS/MS. The estimated toxicity increased with steaming by a percentage that cannot be explained by weight loss. The estimated toxin content per mussel increased substantially with the treatment, which can only be explained by an incorrect estimation by the technique (at the extraction or analytical level) or by the presence of unknown derivatives or analogues. Direct alkaline hydrolysis of the mussel meat yielded more toxin than the standard hydrolysis (hydrolysis of the methanolic extracts), suggesting that extraction was, at least in part, responsible for the increase of toxin content. In situations as the one described in this work, it can be expected that mussels with toxicities well below the regulatory limit could easily surpass that level after industrial steaming, thus producing important losses for food processors.

  1. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  2. Preliminary industrial-hygiene survey report of Conley Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma. [4,4'-methlene-dianiline as hardening agent

    SciTech Connect

    Boeniger, M.

    1986-06-01

    In July, 1984, a preliminary industrial-hygiene survey was performed at Conley Corporation, Tulsa, Oklahoma, where 4,4'-methylene-dianiline (4,4'-MDA) is used as a hardening agent in manufacturing fiberglass epoxy pipe and pipe fittings. Air and hand contact samples from 2 of 6 workers tested showed 4,4'-MDA contamination. Workers with potential exposure wore neoprene rubber gloves. Workers with direct contact with uncured resin wore a medium-weight flock-lined neoprene glove and a heavy rubber glove over the inner glove when handling the resin. Half-face respirators were available for mixing-room workers. These respirators use combination dust/organic vapor replaceable cartridges. Detectable exposure to airborne 4,4'-MDA was noted for two individuals, the extrusion resin mixer and a winding operator at the extrusion fittings machine, 0.011 and 0.0005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively, each below the present voluntary guideline of 0.8 mg/m/sup 3/.

  3. Effect of poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid as a capping agent on morphology and oxidative stress-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Magdalena; Kovačević, Branimir; Petković, Jana; Filipič, Metka; Uskoković, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable dispersions of nanosized silver particles were synthesized using a straightforward, cost-effective, and ecofriendly method. Nontoxic glucose was utilized as a reducing agent and poly-α, γ, L-glutamic acid (PGA), a naturally occurring anionic polymer, was used as a capping agent to protect the silver nanoparticles from agglomeration and render them biocompatible. Use of ammonia during synthesis was avoided. Our study clearly demonstrates how the concentration of the capping agent plays a major role in determining the dimensions, morphology, and stability, as well as toxicity of a silver colloidal solution. Hence, proper optimization is necessary to develop silver colloids of narrow size distribution. The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and zeta potential measurement. MTT assay results indicated good biocompatibility of the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles. Formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species was measured spectrophotometrically using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate as a fluorescent probe, and it was shown that the PGA-capped silver nanoparticles did not induce intracellular formation of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22131829

  4. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar P. Gupta, Shikha

    2014-03-15

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R{sup 2} and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  5. Magnetic PEGylated Pt3Co nanoparticles as a novel MR contrast agent: in vivo MR imaging and long-term toxicity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shengnan; Li, Zhiwei; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yumeng; Chen, Qian; Gong, Hua; Guo, Liang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles exhibit an extremely high T2-weighted relaxivity rate (r2) up to 451.2 mM s-1, which is much higher than that of Resovist®, a commercial T2-MR contrast agent used in the clinic. In vitro experiments indicate no obvious cytotoxicity of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles to various cell lines. After intravenous injection of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles, in vivo T2-weighted MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice reveals strong tumor contrast, which is much higher than that offered by injecting Resovist®. We further study the long-term biodistribution and toxicology of this new type of MR contrast nanoparticles after intravenous injection into healthy mice. Despite the significant retention of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles in the mouse liver and spleen, no appreciable toxicity of these nanoparticles to the treated animals has been noted in our detailed histological and hematological analysis over a course of 60 days. Our work demonstrates that functionalized Pt3Co nanoparticles may be a promising new type of T2-weighted MR contrast agent potentially useful in biomedical imaging and diagnosis.Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene

  6. Magnetic PEGylated Pt3Co nanoparticles as a novel MR contrast agent: in vivo MR imaging and long-term toxicity study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shengnan; Li, Zhiwei; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yumeng; Chen, Qian; Gong, Hua; Guo, Liang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-12-21

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles exhibit an extremely high T2-weighted relaxivity rate (r2) up to 451.2 mM s(-1), which is much higher than that of Resovist®, a commercial T2-MR contrast agent used in the clinic. In vitro experiments indicate no obvious cytotoxicity of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles to various cell lines. After intravenous injection of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles, in vivo T2-weighted MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice reveals strong tumor contrast, which is much higher than that offered by injecting Resovist®. We further study the long-term biodistribution and toxicology of this new type of MR contrast nanoparticles after intravenous injection into healthy mice. Despite the significant retention of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles in the mouse liver and spleen, no appreciable toxicity of these nanoparticles to the treated animals has been noted in our detailed histological and hematological analysis over a course of 60 days. Our work demonstrates that functionalized Pt3Co nanoparticles may be a promising new type of T2-weighted MR contrast agent potentially useful in biomedical imaging and diagnosis.

  7. Effects from filtration, capping agents, and presence/absence of food on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles to Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Allen, H Joel; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Macke, Dana A; Heckman, J Lee; Poynton, Helen C; Lazorchak, James M; Govindaswamy, Shekar; Roose, Deborah L; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N

    2010-12-01

    Relatively little is known about the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. Objectives of work presented here include establishing the toxicity of a variety of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Daphnia magna neonates, assessing the applicability of a commonly used bioassay for testing AgNPs, and determining the advantages and disadvantages of multiple characterization techniques for AgNPs in simple aquatic systems. Daphnia magna were exposed to a silver nitrate solution and AgNPs suspensions including commercially available AgNPs (uncoated and coated), and laboratory-synthesized AgNPs (coated with coffee or citrate). The nanoparticle suspensions were analyzed for silver concentration (microwave acid digestions), size (dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy), shape (electron microscopy), surface charge (zeta potentiometer), and chemical speciation (X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction). Toxicities of filtered (100 nm) versus unfiltered suspensions were compared. Additionally, effects from addition of food were examined. Stock suspensions were prepared by adding AgNPs to moderately hard reconstituted water, which were then diluted and used straight or after filtration with 100-nm filters. All nanoparticle exposure suspensions, at every time interval, were digested via microwave digester and analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma-optical emission spectroscopy or graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectroscopy. Dose-response curves were generated and median lethal concentration (LC50) values calculated. The LC50 values for the unfiltered particles were (in µg/L): 1.1 ± 0.1-AgNO(3) ; 1.0 ± 0.1-coffee coated; 1.1 ± 0.2-citrate coated; 16.7 ± 2.4 Sigma Aldrich Ag-nanoparticles (SA) uncoated; 31.5 ± 8.1 SA coated. LC50 values for the filtered particles were (in µg/L): 0.7 ± 0.1-AgNO(3) ; 1.4 ± 0.1-SA uncoated; 4.4 ± 1.4-SA coated. The LC50 resulting from the addition of food was 176.4 ± 25.5-SA coated

  8. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  9. Dual Role of ROS as Signal and Stress Agents: Iron Tips the Balance in favor of Toxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gammella, Elena; Recalcati, Stefania; Cairo, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, while also being potentially harmful. Therefore, its level is strictly monitored and complex pathways have evolved to keep iron safely bound to transport or storage proteins, thereby maintaining homeostasis at the cellular and systemic levels. These sequestration mechanisms ensure that mildly reactive oxygen species like anion superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which are continuously generated in cells living under aerobic conditions, keep their physiologic role in cell signaling while escaping iron-catalyzed transformation in the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. In this review, we describe the multifaceted systems regulating cellular and body iron homeostasis and discuss how altered iron balance may lead to oxidative damage in some pathophysiological settings. PMID:27006749

  10. Synthesis, molecular properties, toxicity and biological evaluation of some new substituted imidazolidine derivatives in search of potent anti-inflammatory agents

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Asif; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Asif, Mohd; Bhutani, Rubina; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and synthesize pharmaceutical agents containing imidazolidine heterocyclic ring in the hope of developing potent, safe and orally active anti-inflammatory agents. A number of substituted-imidazolidine derivatives (3a–k) were synthesized starting from ethylene diamine and aromatic aldehydes. The imidazolidine derivatives (3a–k) were investigated for their anticipated anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Bioactivity score, molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of the imidazolidine derivatives were calculated by online computer software programs viz. Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. The results of biological testing indicated that among the synthesized compounds only three imidazolidine derivatives namely 4-[1,3-Bis(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3g), 4-[1,3-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3i) and 4-(1,3-Bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylimidazolidin-2-yl)-phenyl-diethylamine (3j) possess promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. Additionally these derivatives displayed superior GI safety profile (low severity index) with respect to the positive control, Indomethacin. All synthesized compounds showed promising bioactivity score for drug targets by Molinspiration software. Almost all the compounds were predicted to have very low toxicity risk by Osiris online software. Compound number (3i) emerged as a potential candidate for further research as it obeyed Lipinski’s rule of five for drug likeness, exhibited promising biological activity in-vivo and showed no risk of toxicity in computer aided screening. PMID:26903774

  11. Monitoring toxicity of industrial wastewater and specific chemicals to a green alga, nitrifying bacteria and an aquatic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Eilersen, A M; Arvin, E; Henze, M

    2004-01-01

    Treatment plants may be exposed to a whole range of toxic organic and inorganic compounds that may inhibit the removal of organic matter and nitrogen. In order to secure maximum treatment efficiency, the plant manager has to monitor the toxicity of the influent sewage. With regard to the receiving water the manager also has to make sure that toxicity in the influent is significantly reduced during treatment. Because a whole range of chemicals may be present, chemical analysis may be insufficient and expensive as a control instrument. Instead, direct toxicity measurements are preferable to capture the complexity of the wastewater. The monitoring methods have to be relevant and sensitive for the processes in the treatment plant, i.e. removal of organic matter and nutrients. The methods also have to be simple and inexpensive. The paper reports on recent results from the application of nitrification, algae and Biotox tests, and summarises the experience with monitoring of toxicity. Although the sensitivity of the tests varies with respect to individual chemicals or group of chemicals, the application of a combination of the tests gives a high likelihood of detecting toxic impacts on treatment plants and receiving waters.

  12. The optimization of microwave digestion procedures and application to an evaluation of potentially toxic element contamination on a former industrial site.

    PubMed

    Okorie, Alexander; Entwistle, Jane; Dean, John R

    2010-09-15

    The optimization of a microwave dissolution procedure for potentially toxic elements in a contaminated soil sample has been evaluated using a central composite design approach. By considering the operating parameters of temperature, digestion time, microwave power and acid volume it was possible to identify the following optimum conditions: temperature, 160 degrees C; power, 750 W; digestion time, 25 min; and, an aqua regia volume of 13 mL. These microwave digestion conditions were then applied to 19 samples obtained from a former industrial site in Newcastle upon Tyne. Of the range of potentially toxic elements present at the site as a consequence of former industrial activity (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb and Zn), the majority of topsoil samples indicated elevated concentrations of one or more of these elements. In particular, data obtained using either inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry or flame atomic absorption spectroscopy indicates the high and wide concentration of Pb on the site (188-60300 mg/kg). Comparing the resulting potentially toxic elements data with UK soil guidelines values (SGVs) suggests at least parts of the site represent areas of potential human health risk. It was found that lead soil values exceeded the SGV on 17 out of the 19 sampling sites; similarly for As 6 out of 19 sampling sites exceeded the SGV. While for Cd, Cr and Ni the soil levels were below the stated SGVs.

  13. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-10-15

    Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water-rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ(34)S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; (206)Pb/(207)Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  14. Developmental toxicity (dominant lethal mutation) study on agent lewisite. Dominant lethal study of lewisite in male rats. Final report, 15 September 1988-14 June 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Dacre, J.C.; Denny, K.H.

    1993-12-01

    Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine, Agent L) was investigated as part of the US Army Toxicological Program on Chemical Agents. The study was conducted during January - April, 1990. Dosing was performed during 3-12 January, 1990. Twenty male CD rats per dose group were given 1.5, 0.75 or 0.375 mg/kg Lewisite or vehicle control (one ml sesame seed oil) daily by gavage for 5 days. Positive control males were given one ml sesame seed oil by gavage on Day 1-4 and on Day 5 they were given an intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg ethyl methanesulphonate, a known mutagen. Each male was mated to two virgin females (12 weeks of age) per counted and the uteri and contents were examined. Implantation sites were categorized as live/dead fetuses or early/late resorption. No significant differences inreproductive indices were seen between treatment groups and the control group with the exception of the positive control. Males were killed during Week 13 and necropsied. Sperm morphology/modify, testicular histopathologic evaluation and morphometric analysis of seminiferous tubule cross-sections revealed no differences among Lewisite-treated rats and rats given sesame seed oil. There was no indication of a dominant lethal mutagenic or other toxic effect on the male reproductive tract as a result of exposure to Lewisite, under the conditions of this study. The No Observable Adverse Effect Level was the highest dose used, 1.500 mg/kg.

  15. Therapeutic agents with dramatic antiretroviral activity and little toxicity at effective doses: aromatic polycyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin.

    PubMed Central

    Meruelo, D; Lavie, G; Lavie, D

    1988-01-01

    Two aromatic polycyclic diones hypericin and pseudohypericin have potent antiretroviral activity; these substances occur in plants of the Hypericum family. Both compounds are highly effective in preventing viral-induced manifestations that follow infections with a variety of retroviruses in vivo and in vitro. Pseudohypericin and hypericin probably interfere with viral infection and/or spread by direct inactivation of the virus or by preventing virus shedding, budding, or assembly at the cell membrane. These compounds have no apparent activity against the transcription, translation, or transport of viral proteins to the cell membrane and also no direct effect on the polymerase. This property distinguishes their mode of action from that of the major antiretro-virus group of nucleoside analogues. Hypericin and pseudohypericin have low in vitro cytotoxic activity at concentrations sufficient to produce dramatic antiviral effects in murine tissue culture model systems that use radiation leukemia and Friend viruses. Administration of these compounds to mice at the low doses sufficient to prevent retroviral-induced disease appears devoid of undesirable side effects. This lack of toxicity at therapeutic doses extends to humans, as these compounds have been tested in patients as antidepressants with apparent salutary effects. Our observations to date suggest that pseudohypericin and hypericin could become therapeutic tools against retroviral-induced diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Images PMID:2839837

  16. Design, synthesis, in silico toxicity prediction, molecular docking, and evaluation of novel pyrazole derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents

    PubMed Central

    Ravula, Parameshwar; Vamaraju, Harinadha Babu; Paturi, Manichandrika; Chandra JN, Narendra Sharath; Kolli, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    A new series of pyrazole derivatives were designed by docking into vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) kinase active site. The designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 colon and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and angioinhibitory activity in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on the obtained antiproliferative activity results of in vitro and CAM assay, compounds 4b, 4c, 4f, 5b, 5c and 5f were selected, and tested for anticancer activity using in vivo ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Compound 5c showed the highest in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 and PC-3 with IC50 values of 6.43 µM and 9.83 µM respectively and comparable to reference drug Doxorubicin. Results of in vivo anticancer activity revealed that compound 5c showed the highest percentage increase in life span ( %ILS), and mean survival time (MST) with 75.13 % and 32.4 ± 0.53 days respectively. Moreover, compound 5c demonstrated significant reduction of microvessel density (MVD) in CAM assay. In silico prediction of toxicities, and drug score profiles of designed compounds are promising. A correlation made between the results obtained by antiproliferative study and molecular docking studies suggest that the synthesized compounds may be beneficial as molecular scaffolds for antiproliferative activity. PMID:27103897

  17. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  18. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  19. Design, synthesis, in silico toxicity prediction, molecular docking, and evaluation of novel pyrazole derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Ravula, Parameshwar; Vamaraju, Harinadha Babu; Paturi, Manichandrika; Chandra Jn, Narendra Sharath; Kolli, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    A new series of pyrazole derivatives were designed by docking into vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) kinase active site. The designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 colon and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and angioinhibitory activity in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on the obtained antiproliferative activity results of in vitro and CAM assay, compounds 4b, 4c, 4f, 5b, 5c and 5f were selected, and tested for anticancer activity using in vivo ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Compound 5c showed the highest in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 and PC-3 with IC50 values of 6.43 µM and 9.83 µM respectively and comparable to reference drug Doxorubicin. Results of in vivo anticancer activity revealed that compound 5c showed the highest percentage increase in life span ( %ILS), and mean survival time (MST) with 75.13 % and 32.4 ± 0.53 days respectively. Moreover, compound 5c demonstrated significant reduction of microvessel density (MVD) in CAM assay. In silico prediction of toxicities, and drug score profiles of designed compounds are promising. A correlation made between the results obtained by antiproliferative study and molecular docking studies suggest that the synthesized compounds may be beneficial as molecular scaffolds for antiproliferative activity.

  20. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  1. Assessing acute toxicity of effluent from a textile industry and nearby river waters using sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in continuous mode.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Anup; Hassan, Sedky H A; Oh, Sang-Eun

    2011-10-01

    Bioassays are becoming an important tool for assessing the toxicity of complex mixtures of substances in aquatic environments in which Daphnia magna is routinely used as a test organism. Bioassays outweigh physicochemical analyses and are valuable in the decision-making process pertaining to the final discharge of effluents from wastewater treatment plants as they measure the total effect of the discharge which is ecologically relevant. In this study, the aquatic toxicity of a textile plant effluent and river water downstream from the plant were evaluated with sulfur-oxidizing bacterial biosensors in continuous mode. Collected samples were analysed for different physicochemical parameters and 1,4-dioxane was detected in the effluent. The effluent contained a relatively high chemical oxygen demand of 60 mg L(-1), which exceeded the limit set by the Korean government for industrial effluent discharges. Results showed that both the effluent and river waters were toxic to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. These results show the importance of incorporating bioassays to detect toxicity in wastewater effluents for the sustainable management of water resources.

  2. Genotoxicity and toxicity assay of water sampled from a radium production industry storage cell territory by means of Allium-test.

    PubMed

    Evseeva, Tatiana I; Geras'kin, Stanislav A; Shuktomova, Ida I

    2003-01-01

    Water from natural reservoirs located near the radium production industry storage cell were analyzed using the anaphase-telophase chromosome aberration assay that was carried out on Allium schoenoprasum L. meristematic root tip cells. (262)Ra, (228)U, (232)Th, (210)Pb and (210)Po concentrations in all samples were found not to exceed the radioactivity concentration guides. The concentrations of 10 heavy metal ions were measured in water samples, but only Zn and Mn levels exceeded the maximum permissible concentration for the natural reservoirs. All water samples caused a significant increase of the chromosome aberration frequency as compared to control. The chromosome aberration spectrum analysis shows that the genotoxic effect was a result of chemical toxicity mainly. Two samples from the brook springhead were found to be toxic. The regression analysis results show that the mitotic index increased in parallel to Zn ion levels, and decreased with higher (238)U concentrations. The water samples genotoxicity positively correlated with the Zn concentration. The present work demonstrates that in order to achieve pollutant screening, it is not sufficient to determine the pollutants concentration only. Adequate conclusions on the risk due to environment contamination need to be based on the additional simultaneous use of toxicity and genotoxicity tests. When bioassays indicate some genotoxic and toxic effects, the determination of the chemical composition of the samples is then required. A combination of these two methods allows the identification of the elements that require constant biological monitoring. In the study reported here, those elements are Zn and (238)U.

  3. Identification of 5-Methoxyflavone as a Novel DNA Polymerase-Beta Inhibitor and Neuroprotective Agent against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sara; Basile, Livia; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Sortino, Maria Angela; Guccione, Salvatore; Copani, Agata

    2015-11-25

    Cell-cycle reactivation is a core feature of degenerating neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). A variety of stressors, including β-amyloid (Aβ) in the case of AD, can force neurons to leave quiescence and to initiate an ectopic DNA replication process, leading to neuronal death rather than division. As the primary polymerase (pol) involved in neuronal DNA replication, DNA pol-β contributes to neuronal death, and DNA pol-β inhibitors may prove to be effective neuroprotective agents. Currently, specific and highly active DNA pol-β inhibitors are lacking. Nine putative DNA pol-β inhibitors were identified in silico by querying the ZINC database, containing more than 35 million purchasable compounds. Following pharmacological evaluation, only 5-methoxyflavone (1) was validated as an inhibitor of DNA pol-β activity. Cultured primary neurons are a useful model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of potential DNA pol-β inhibitors, since these neurons undergo DNA replication and death when treated with Aβ. Consistent with the inhibition of DNA pol-β, 5-methoxyflavone (1) reduced the number of S-phase neurons and the ensuing apoptotic death triggered by Aβ. 5-Methoxyflavone (1) is the first flavonoid compound able to halt neurodegeneration via a definite molecular mechanism rather than through general antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  4. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  5. Design and evaluation of improved barrier fabrics for protection against toxic aerosols and biological agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, S.P.; Tucker, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    The structure of nine fabrics, their resistance to aerosol penetration, and their pore size distributions were evaluated to determine their suitability as barrier fabrics for protection against aerosols. A main objective is to gain insight and knowledge which will be useful for designing fabrics that will provide better protection with minimum discomfort. Aerosol penetration was assessed using fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 4.5 um at a face velocity of 1.8 cm/s. The maximum penetration occurred for 1.01 micrometers diameter spheres. Fabric pore size distributions were measured by liquid extrusion and microscopical image analysis, and the maximum pore size was also measured by liquid critical breakthrough pressure. Results obtained by all three techniques were fairly consistent. The best correlation between fabric structure and particle penetration at this time is between fabric density and weave type, with penetration decreasing with increasing fabric areal density and being lower for plain weave fabrics than for twill weaves. Biological aerosols, Chemical protective clothing, Biological agents, Fabrics, Aerosol penetration, Aerosols, Pore size.

  6. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ventrice, Pasquale; Ventrice, Domenica; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-07-01

    Phthalates are chemicals widely used in industry and the consequences for human health caused by exposure to these agents are of significant current interest. Phthalate toxicity targets the reproductive and respiratory systems primarily, but they also may be involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and even in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in organ toxicity of phthalates; furthermore, pharmacokinetic, chemistry and the European regulation are summarized.

  7. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls.

  8. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  9. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  10. Impact of different pH control agents on biopesticidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis during the fermentation of starch industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Vu, Khanh Dang; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-06-01

    Different pH control agents (NaOH/H(2)SO(4)--SodSulp, NaOH/CH(3)COOH--SodAcet, NH(4)OH/CH(3)COOH--AmmoAcet and NH(4)OH/H(2)SO(4)--AmmoSulp) were used to investigate their effects on growth, enzyme production (alkaline protease and amylase), and entomotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-1 (Btk) against eastern spruce budworm larvae (Choristoneura fumiferana) using starch industry wastewater (SIW) as a raw material in a 15-l fermentor. AmmoSulp and SodSulp were found to be the best pH control agents for alkaline protease and amylase production, respectively; whereas, the fermented broth obtained by using SodAcet as pH control agents recorded the highest delta-endotoxin production of 1043.0 mg/l and entomotoxicity value 18.4 x 10(9) SBU/l. Entomotoxicity of re-suspended centrifuged pellet in one-tenth of original volume in case of SodAcet as pH control agents was 26.7 x 10(9) SBU/l and was the highest value compared to three other pH control agents.

  11. Capping Agent-Dependent Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles: An In Vitro Study. Concerns about Potential Application in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Niska, Karolina; Knap, Narcyz; Kędzia, Anna; Jaskiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control. Methods: The interaction of AgNPs with human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) was evaluated using the mitochondrial metabolic potential assay (MTT). Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested against anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with oral cavity and respiratory tract infections, and selected aerobic Staphylococci strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the agar dilution method for anaerobic bacteria or broth microdilution method for reference Staphylococci strains and Streptococcus mutans. These strains were also used for antibiofilm activity of AgNPs. Results: The highest antimicrobial activities at nontoxic concentrations were observed for the uncapped AgNPs and the AgNPs capped with LA. It was found that AgNPs-LA and AgNPs-PEG demonstrated lower cytotoxicity as compared with the AgNPs-TA or AgNPs-UC in the gingival fibroblast model. All of the tested nanoparticles proved less toxic and demonstrated wider spectrum of antimicrobial activities than AgNO3 solution. Additionally, AgNPs-LA eradicated Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mutans 1-day biofilm at concentration nontoxic to oral cells. Conclusions: Our results proved that a capping agent had significant influence on the antibacterial

  12. Capping Agent-Dependent Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles: An In Vitro Study. Concerns about Potential Application in Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Niska, Karolina; Knap, Narcyz; Kędzia, Anna; Jaskiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control. Methods: The interaction of AgNPs with human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) was evaluated using the mitochondrial metabolic potential assay (MTT). Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested against anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with oral cavity and respiratory tract infections, and selected aerobic Staphylococci strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the agar dilution method for anaerobic bacteria or broth microdilution method for reference Staphylococci strains and Streptococcus mutans. These strains were also used for antibiofilm activity of AgNPs. Results: The highest antimicrobial activities at nontoxic concentrations were observed for the uncapped AgNPs and the AgNPs capped with LA. It was found that AgNPs-LA and AgNPs-PEG demonstrated lower cytotoxicity as compared with the AgNPs-TA or AgNPs-UC in the gingival fibroblast model. All of the tested nanoparticles proved less toxic and demonstrated wider spectrum of antimicrobial activities than AgNO3 solution. Additionally, AgNPs-LA eradicated Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mutans 1-day biofilm at concentration nontoxic to oral cells. Conclusions: Our results proved that a capping agent had significant influence on the antibacterial

  13. Combined thermal treatments of industrial wastes for the elimination of toxic elements and the concentration of valuable metals

    SciTech Connect

    Menad, N.; Djona, M.; Allain, E.; Gaballah, I. |||

    1995-12-31

    Thermal treatments of five different types of non-ferrous metallurgical wastes, under controlled atmosphere, were carried out at temperatures lower than 800 C. The aim of these treatments was to reduce the toxic elements content and to increase that of valuable metals in the residue. Best results were obtained by their treatments in air or hydrogen or successively both of them. Simple treatments using air or hydrogen of three samples allowed the elimination of more than 95% of their toxic elements and almost doubled their valuable metals` concentration. For the rest two samples, combined treatment was necessary for their efficient decontamination and the concentration of valuable metals, in the treatment`s residue, to a reasonable value. Most of the solids issued from these treatments can be recycled in the current non-ferrous metallurgical processes.

  14. [Effect of industrial toxic pollutants on the activity and isoforms of acid DNase in the freshwater snail (Viviparus viviparus L.)].

    PubMed

    Popov, A P; Konichev, A S; Tsvetkov, I L

    2003-01-01

    The effect of various toxic compounds (phenol, gasoline, detergents, halogenated benzenes, and copper salts) on the activity and multiple forms of acid DNase was investigated in the liver of the widespread freshwater snail species Viviparus viviparus L. Characteristic variations in the specific activity and isoform pattern of the enzyme depending on pollutant concentration and exposure time were revealed. It was shown that the pattern of DNase isoforms in V. viviparus could be an index of water pollution.

  15. Toxicity studies on agents Gb and Gd (Phase 2): Delayed neuropathy study of soman in SPF white leghorn chickens. Final technical report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    A dose rangefinding study, a delayed neuropathy study, and a neurotoxic esterase study, were performed in White Leghorn chickens using the organophosphate ester Soman. The hens used for the Rangefinding study were dosed once orally with 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, or 0 microns g/Kg GD, on Day 1. They were pretreated and protected daily through Day 7 with atropine. Surviving hens were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital on Day 21. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be used in the Delayed Neuropathy Study was chosen based upon the rangefinding data. Fifty hens were assigned to a Single Dose Delayed Neuropathy study. Groups of ten hens were given 14.2 (MTD), 7.1 (MTD/2), 3.5 (MTD/4), 0 (negative control) microns/Kg GD or 51 0 mg/Kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) (positive control). Rangefinding study. They were evaluated for signs of neurologic toxicity/ataxia. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Sections of cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), both sciatic nerves and their tibial branch were examined microscopically.... Delayed neuropathy; Agents; Soman; Chickens.

  16. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical Gd3+-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn2+) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn2+/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn2+ concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe. PMID:26625867

  17. The toxicity and fate of phenolic pollutants in the contaminated soils associated with the oil-shale industry.

    PubMed

    Kahru, Anne; Maloverjan, Alla; Sillak, Helgi; Põllumaa, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols considered major pollutants in the oil-shale semi-coke dump leachates (up to 380 mg phenols/L) that contaminate the surrounding soils and pose a threat to the groundwater in the North-East of Estonia. However; despite high residual concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oil products in these soils, the concentration of phenols (especially their water-extractable fraction) was low, not exceeding 0.7 mg/kg dwt. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the role of biodegradation and aging on the decrease of hazard caused by phenolic pollution. The extractability of phenols (phenol, cresols, dimethylphenols and resorcinols) and their biodegradability by the microbial population was studied in the 13 soils sampled from the Estonian oil-shale region, territories of former gas stations, and from presumably non-polluted areas. Phenol, 5-methylresorcinol, p-cresol and resorcinol could be considered easily degradable in the soils as the microbial populations from majority of the soils studied were able to grow on mineral medium supplemented with these phenols as a single source of carbon. 2,3- and 2,4- and 3,4-dimethylphenols could be considered less easily biodegradable. The semi-coke dump leachate polluted soil (containing no dibasic phenols, 43 mg of monobasic phenols, 1348 mg of oil products and 35 mg of PAHs per g dwt) was analyzed chemically (HPLC) and toxicologically (Flash-Assay using Vibrio fischeri) for the leaching of phenols during shaking of soil-water slurries for 24 h. Only 5.8% of the total concentration of phenols was water-extractable, whereas about 50% of the leached amount was biodegraded by the soil microorganisms. Phenol and cresols were biodegraded by 80%, but the concentration of dimethylphenols practically did not change. The pollutants (measured as total water-extractable toxicity) were desorbed from the soil particles by the 8th h of extraction, whereas the toxicity of the aqueous

  18. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  19. Risk assessment of toxic metals in street dust from a medium-sized industrial city of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinwei; Wu, Xing; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Hao; Gao, Panpan; Fu, Yi

    2014-08-01

    The concentrations of toxic metals As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in street dust of Tongchuan, China were determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The risk of the analyzed metals to urban ecosystem and human health were evaluated by potential ecological risk index and human exposure model, respectively. The results show that, in comparison with Shaanxi soil, dust samples have elevated metal concentration as a whole expect for As, Mn, V and Ni. The assessment results of ecological risk indicate that the ecological risks of As, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, V and Zn in the dust were in the low level, while Pb and Co presented low to moderate level. Health risk assessment shows that ingestion was the main exposure route of all analyzed toxic metals in street dust to children and adults. The non-cancer risks of the studied metals to children and adults were within the safe range, and the cancer risks of As, Co, Cr and Ni were also within the currently acceptable range.

  20. Toxicity Studies on Antiradiation Agents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    SCIENCES CENTER red in cclor (100 and 1000 rg/kg levels), poor differentiation between cortex and medulla of kidneys (100, 398, 631, and 1000 mg/kg levels...clear fluid in peritoneal cavity, margins of liver translucent in appearanc~e, dark red kidneys, and poor differentiation between cortex and -edulla...kg level), poor differentiation between cortex and medulla of kidneys (398, 631, and 1000 mg/kg levels), kidneys dark red in color (631 and 1000 mg

  1. Detoxification of aflatoxin-polluted peanut cakes with monomethylamine/Ca(OH)2: pilot industrial application, nutrition experiments, toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Giddey, C; Bunter, G; Larroux, R; Jemmali, M; Rossi, J

    1992-01-01

    The process described has been studied up to an industrial pilot scale. In this article this article we summarize the basic knowledge on the process and the technological conditions of pilot application for detoxifying peanut cakes polluted by up to 3,500 ppb Aflatoxine (2,300 ppb B1). The nutritional experiments carried out on rats and other mammals are described, and the toxicological and biochemical evaluation of the cakes on Bacillacea are reported and discussed. The data collected show that the MMA/Ca(OH)2 process offers promising possibilities for industrial application on the basis of technological and economic criteria, as well as from the point of view of efficiency and safety.

  2. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  3. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb.

  4. Initial formal toxicity evaluation of APC-2, a novel fluorescent tracer agent for real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate in preparation for a first-in-man clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.

    2014-03-01

    The fluorescent tracer agent 2,5-bis[N-(1-carboxy-2-hydroxy)]carbamoyl-3,6-diaminopyrazine, designated APC-2, has been developed with properties and attributes necessary for use as a direct measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison to known standard exogenous GFR agents in animal models has demonstrated an excellent correlation. A clinical trial to demonstrate this same correlation in humans is in preparation. A battery of formal toxicity tests necessary for regulatory clearance to proceed with a clinical trial has been recently completed on this new fluorescent tracer agent. These include single dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs to determine overall toxicity and toxicokinetics of the compound. Blood compatibility, mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, and several other assays were also completed. Toxicity assessments were based on mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption and anatomical pathology. Blood samples were collected to assess pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, area under the curve, and clearance. Urine samples were collected to assess distribution. Doses of up to 200-300 times the estimated human dose were administered. No test-article related effects were noted on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic observations and no abnormal pathology was seen in either macroscopic or microscopic evaluations of any organs or tissues. All animals survived to scheduled sacrifice. Transient discoloration of skin and urine was noted at the higher dose levels in both species as expected from a highly fluorescent compound and was not considered pathological. Thus initial toxicology studies of this new fluorescent tracer agent APC-2 have resulted in no demonstrable pathological test article concerns.

  5. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-01-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  6. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs.

  7. Wastewater generated during cleaning/washing procedures in a wood-floor industry: toxicity on the microalgae Desmodesmus subspicatus.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanon, S; Kaczala, F; Salomon, P S; Marques, M; Hogland, W

    2012-01-01

    In industries based on dry processes, such as wood floor and wood furniture manufacture, wastewater is mainly generated after cleaning of surfaces, storage tanks and machinery. Owing to the small volumes, onsite treatment options and potential environmental risks posed to aquatic ecosystems due to discharge of these wastewaters are seldom investigated. In the present study, the effects of cleaning wastewater streams generated at two wood floor production lines on Desmodesmus subspicatus were investigated. The microalgae was exposed to different wastewater concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25% v:v) and the algae growth evaluation was based on in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence, cell density, cell size (number of cells/colony) and cell ratio (length/width). Inhibitory effects of the tested wastewaters on the microalgae were positively related to concentration and negatively related to exposure time. The EC50,24 h of blade cleaning wastewater (BCW) and floor cleaning wastewater (FCW) were 3.36 and 5.87% (v:v), respectively. No negative effect on cell colony formation was caused by BCW, whereas an increase of 90% unicellular cells was observed in FCW concentrations below 50% (v:v). At the lowest concentration (3.13% v:v) where no growth inhibition was observed, both wastewater streams caused changes in cell dimensions by increasing cell length and width. To conclude, wastewaters generated during cleaning procedures in the wood floor industries can have severe environmental impacts on aquatic organisms, even after high dilution. Therefore, these wastewaters must be treated before being discharged into water bodies.

  8. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

    2006-09-01

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies.

  9. Toxic Effects of Chronic Mercury Exposure on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular and Choroidal Thickness in Industrial Mercury Battery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinç; Keleş, Sadullah; Çağatay, Halil Hüseyin; Apil, Aytekin; Tanyıldız, Burak; Uludag, Gunay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of mercury on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular thickness (MT), and choroidal thickness (CT) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in battery industry workers who had been chronically exposed to mercury. Material/Methods Battery factory workers (n=31) and healthy non-factory employee controls (n=15) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=15) was factory workers who had worked for more than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; Group 2 (n=16) was factory worker who had worked for less than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; and Group 3 (n=15) was healthy non-employees. Systemic symptoms were recorded. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity test, color vision test, full ophthalmologic examination, and SD-OCT of the RNLF, macula, and choroid. To determine mercury exposure, venous blood samples were collected and mercury levels were assessed. Results In our study group the most common systemic symptoms were insomnia (67.7%) and fatigue (67.7%). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2, but there were significant differences between Group 3 and both Group 1 and Group 2 in best-corrected visual acuity values (1=2<3), color vision scores, blood mercury levels, and duration (mean ±SD, range) of mercury exposure(1>2>3). OCT values of RNFLTs, MTs, and CTs of all 3 groups were statistically different from each another (1<2<3). Conclusions SD-OCT can be useful for evaluating the toxic effects of chronic exposure to mercury. PMID:25056093

  10. Animal Capture Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    agents and delivery systems reviewed . Questionnaires were sent to 137 Air Force bases to obtain information about the chemical agents and delivery systems...used by animal control personnel. A literature review included chemical agents, delivery methods, toxicity information and emergency procedures from...34-like agent. Users should familiarize themselves with catatonia in general and particularly that its successful use as an immobilizer doesn’t necessarily

  11. Toxic hazards research unit

    SciTech Connect

    Macewen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.

    1980-08-01

    Chronic toxicity or oncogenic studies were carried out with methylcyclohexane, tricyclodecane, purified 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, and bicycloheptadiene. A subchronic inhalation study was conducted with shale derived JP-5 and DFM fuels. Acute toxicity studies were conducted on a variety of chemical agents used by the Air Force and Navy.

  12. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda.

  13. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer effects evaluation of 1-alkyl-3-(6-(2-methoxy-3-sulfonylaminopyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea as anticancer agents with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Huan; Wang, Juan; Mao, Shuai; Xin, Min-Hang; Lu, She-Min; Mei, Qi-Bing; Zhang, San-Qi

    2015-10-01

    As a PI3K and mTOR dual inhibitor, N-(2-chloro-5-(2-acetylaminobenzo[d]thiazol-6-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-4-fluorophenylsulfonamide displays toxicity when orally administrated. In the present study, alkylurea moiety replaced the acetamide group in the compound and a series of 1-alkyl-3-(6-(2,3-disubstituted pyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea derivatives were synthesized. The antiproliferative activities of the synthesized compounds in vitro were evaluated against HCT116, MCF-7, U87 MG and A549 cell lines. The compounds with potent antiproliferative activity were tested for their acute oral toxicity and inhibitory activity against PI3Ks and mTORC1. The results indicate that the compound attached a 2-(dialkylamino)ethylurea moiety at the 2-positeion of benzothiazole can retain the antiproliferative activity and inhibitory activity against PI3K and mTOR. In addition, their acute oral toxicity reduced dramatically. Moreover, compound 2f can effectively inhibit tumor growth in a mice S180 homograft model. These findings suggest that 1-(2-dialkylaminoethyl)-3-(6-(2-methoxy-3-sulfonylaminopyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea derivatives can serve as potent PI3K inhibitors and anticancer agents with low toxicity.

  15. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon ... people with an inflamed colon due to: Ulcerative colitis , or Crohn disease that is not well controlled ...

  16. Cells, Agents, and Support Vectors in Interaction - Modeling Urban Sprawl based on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Post-Industrial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienow, A.; Menz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, artificial intelligence techniques as cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) have been incorporated into land-system simulations to address the complex challenges of transitions in urban areas as open, dynamic systems. The study presents a hybrid modeling approach for modeling the two antagonistic processes of urban sprawl and urban decline at once. The simulation power of support vector machines (SVM), cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) are integrated into one modeling framework and applied to the largest agglomeration of Central Europe: the Ruhr. A modified version of SLEUTH (short for Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, and Hillshade) functions as the CA component. SLEUTH makes use of historic urban land-use data sets and growth coefficients for the purpose of modeling physical urban expansion. The machine learning algorithm of SVM is applied in order to enhance SLEUTH. Thus, the stochastic variability of the CA is reduced and information about the human and ecological forces driving the local suitability of urban sprawl is incorporated. Subsequently, the supported CA is coupled with the MAS ReHoSh (Residential Mobility and the Housing Market of Shrinking City Systems). The MAS models population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking regions based on interactions between household and city agents. Semi-explicit urban weights are introduced as a possibility of modeling from and to the pixel simultaneously. Three scenarios of changing housing preferences reveal the urban development of the region in terms of quantity and location. They reflect the dissemination of sustainable thinking among stakeholders versus the steady dream of owning a house in sub- and exurban areas. Additionally, the outcomes are transferred into a digital petri dish reflecting a synthetic environment with perfect conditions of growth. Hence, the generic growth elements affecting the future

  17. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A; Viñas, M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.

  18. Toxic Synovitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Toxic Synovitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Toxic Synovitis A A A ... and causes no long-term problems. About Toxic Synovitis Toxic synovitis (also known as transient synovitis ) is ...

  19. Differential mobility spectroscopy for chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. Todd

    2006-05-01

    General Dynamics ATP (GDATP) and Sionex Corporation (Sionex) are carrying out a cooperative development for a handheld chemical agent detector, being called JUNO TM, which will have lower false positives, higher sensitivity, and improved interference rejection compared with presently available detectors. This enhanced performance is made possible by the use of a new principle of ion separation called Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS). The enhanced selectivity is provided by the field tunable nature of the Sionex differential mobility technology (microDMxTM) which forms the analytical heart of the JUNO system and enables fingerprinting of molecules by characterization of the ionized molecular behavior under multiple electric field conditions. This enhanced selectivity is valuable in addressing not only the traditional list of chemical warfare agents (CWA) but also the substantial list of Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) which may be released in warfare or terrorist situations. Experimental results showing the ability of the microDMx to reject interferences, detect and resolve live agents are presented. An additional breakthrough in the technology was realized by operating the device at a reduced pressure of around 0.5 atmospheres. This reduced pressure operation resulted in roughly doubling the spectrometers resolution over what has previously been reported [1]. Advances have also been made in power consumption and packaging leading to a device suitable for portable, handheld, applications. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the microDMx technology employed in JUNO are highlighted.

  20. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  1. Paclitaxel in tyrosine-derived nanospheres as a potential anti-cancer agent: in vivo evaluation of toxicity and efficacy in comparison with paclitaxel in Cremophor.

    PubMed

    Sheihet, Larisa; Garbuzenko, Olga B; Bushman, Jared; Gounder, Murugesan K; Minko, Tamara; Kohn, Joachim

    2012-02-14

    Paclitaxel (PTX) has gained widespread clinical use yet its administration is associated with significant toxicity. In the present study, the toxicity and anti-tumor efficacy of tyrosine-derived nanospheres (NSP) for the delivery of PTX was compared to a clinical formulation of PTX in PBS-diluted Cremophor® EL (PTX-CrEL-D). Maximum tolerated dose was determined using a concentration series of PTX in NSP and CrEL-D, with toxicity assessed by measuring changes in body weight. Healthy mice administered PTX-NSP continued to gain weight normally while treatment with PTX-CrEL-D resulted in significant weight loss that failed to recover following treatment. Even at the dose of 50mg/kg, PTX-NSP showed better tolerance than 25mg/kg of PTX-CrEL-D. Xenograft studies of breast cancer revealed that the anti-tumor efficacy of PTX-NSP was equal to that of PTX-CrEL-D in tumors originating from both MDA-MB-435 and ZR-75-1 cancer lines. Larger volume of distribution and longer half-life were measured for PTX-NSP administration compared to those reported in the literature for a CrEL formulation. This trend suggests the potential for improved therapeutic index of PTX when administered via NSP. The findings reported here confirm that the NSP formulation is an efficient method for PTX administration with significant increase in maximum tolerated dose, offering possible clinical implications in the treatment of breast tumors.

  2. Ocular toxicity of targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Daniel J; Velazquez-Martin, Juan P; Simpson, Rand; Siu, Lillian L; Bedard, Philippe L

    2012-09-10

    Molecularly targeted agents are commonly used in oncology practice, and many new targeted agents are currently being tested in clinical trials. Although these agents are thought to be more specific and less toxic then traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy, they are associated with a variety of toxicities, including ocular toxicity. Many of the molecules targeted by anticancer agents are also expressed in ocular tissues. We reviewed the literature for described ocular toxicities associated with both approved and investigational molecularly targeted agents. Ocular toxicity has been described with numerous approved targeted agents and also seems to be associated with several classes of agents currently being tested in early-phase clinical trials. We discuss the proposed pathogenesis, monitoring guidelines, and management recommendations. It is important for oncologists to be aware of the potential for ocular toxicity, with prompt recognition of symptoms that require referral to an ophthalmologist. Ongoing collaboration between oncologists and ocular disease specialists is critical as the use of molecularly targeted agents continues to expand and novel targeted drug combinations are developed.

  3. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  4. SEROTONIN AND OTHER VASOACTIVE AGENTS IN EXPERIMENTAL DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SEROTONIN, DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS), (*VASOACTIVE AGENTS, DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS), RATS, EXERCISE(PHYSIOLOGY), DOSAGE, CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC AGENTS, BLOOD ANALYSIS, TOXICITY, BLOOD CIRCULATION, MORTALITY RATES , CANADA

  5. Guidelines for Reproductive Toxicity Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These guidelines discuss the scientific basis for concern about exposure to agents that cause reproductive toxicity and describe the principles and procedures to be followed in conducting risk assessments for reproductive toxicity.

  6. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  7. Effect of chemical cross-linking on gelatin membrane solubility with a non-toxic and non-volatile agent: terephthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Biscarat, Jennifer; Galea, Benjamin; Sanchez, José; Pochat-Bohatier, Celine

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) is proposed as non-toxic and non-volatile gelatin cross-linker. Optimal cross-linking parameters (TPA/gelatin ratio, temperature) were first determined from in situ rheological measurements on gelatin solutions and from chemical tests with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assays) on gelatin gel. The highest cross-linking ratio was achieved for a concentration of 0.005 g TPA/g gelatin at 60°C. The impact of TPA cross-linking on gelatin membrane functional properties (water swelling ratio, water vapor sorption and mechanical properties) was measured. TPA cross-linking increased 17 times the liquid water resistance duration of gelatin films, and delayed the entry of vapor water in the polymer matrix for 7 days, indicating that TPA increased the hydrophobic character of the gelatin matrix.

  8. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B.; Rausch, R. J.

    1989-05-01

    The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.

  9. Egg yolk enhances early sporulation and toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus H5a5b for small-scale production of a mosquito control agent.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, G; Hoti, L

    2008-10-01

    Bacillus sphaericus has been widely used in mosquito control programs, but the production of this bacterium is a little tricky as it does not utilize carbohydrates and requires proteinaceous substrates, which are expensive. In this study, we developed a cost-effective medium that resulted in a lower cost and shorter fermentation time. The locally available raw material, egg yolk was used and the level of sporulation, toxicity and biomass were compared with the conventional medium. Use of the egg yolk culture medium significantly shortened fermentation time to 15 h and yielded high activity, equivalent to that of conventional medium against 3rd instar Culex quinquefasciatus. Conventional NYSM medium required 21 h to attain the maximum activity and biomass. Hence, the egg yolk-based culture medium appears to be suitable and economical for the small-scale production of B. sphaericus.

  10. Toxic Hepatitis

    MedlinePlus

    Toxic hepatitis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Toxic hepatitis is an inflammation of your liver in reaction to certain substances to which you're exposed. Toxic hepatitis can be caused by alcohol, chemicals, drugs or ...

  11. One-pot fabricating Fe3O4/graphene nanocomposite with excellent biocompatibility and non-toxicity as a negative MR contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Zan, Ping; Yang, Chunyan; Sun, Huan; Zhao, Lijun; Lv, Zhongwen; He, Yuquan

    2016-09-01

    We report a facile approach to synthesize water-dispersible nanocomposite with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) attached to graphene (G), which combines the growth of Fe3O4NPs and the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in one single step. The unique hydrophilic surface structure of Fe3O4/G nanocomposite leads to it being colloidally stable, non-cytotoxic, well-dispersible and biocompatible in aqueous solution verified via bio-experiments. In vivo tests also prove that Fe3O4/G nanocomposite, which can be cleared from the body through the metabolic processes, is harmless to the living body. Most importantly, the Fe3O4/G nanocomposite showed T2relaxivity (123.04mM(-1)s(-1)) indicating its potential as a sensitive T2 contrast agent.

  12. Multicellular behaviour and production of a wide variety of toxic substances support usage of Bacillus subtilis as a powerful biocontrol agent.

    PubMed

    Nagórska, Krzysztofa; Bikowski, Mariusz; Obuchowski, Michał

    2007-01-01

    Intensive cultivation of plants in the monoculture field system in order to feed the continuously growing human population creates a need for their protection from the variety of natural competitors such as: bacteria, fungi, insects as well as other plants. The increase in the use of chemical substances in the 20th century has brought many effective solutions for the agriculture. However, it was extremely difficult to obtain a substance, which would be directed solely against a specific plant pathogen and would not be harmful for the environment. In the late 1900's scientists began trying to use natural antagonisms between resident soil organism to protect plants. This phenomenon was named biocontrol. Biological control of plants by microorganisms is a very promising alternative to an extended use of pesticides, which are often expensive and accumulate in plants or soil, having adverse effects on humans. Nonpathogenic soil bacteria living in association with roots of higher plants enhance their adaptive potential and, moreover, they can be beneficial for their growth. Here, we present the current status of the use of Bacillus subtilis in biocontrol. This prevalent inhabitant of soil is widely recognized as a powerful biocontrol agent. Naturally present in the immediate vicinity of plant roots, B. subtilis is able to maintain stable contact with higher plants and promote their growth. In addition, due to its broad host range, its ability to form endospores and produce different biologically active compounds with a broad spectrum of activity, B. subtilis as well as other Bacilli are potentially useful as biocontrol agents.

  13. Comparative analysis between native and reference cladocerans to assess the toxic effects of products used by the oil industry in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Mejía, Guillermo; Zavala-Olivares, Gerardo; Martínez-Jerónimo, Fernando

    2007-08-01

    In this study, native cladocerans, Scapholeberis armata freyi and Macrothrix elegans, were collected from the region and their offspring were used as test organisms to assess the effects of 18 corrosion and scale inhibitors, widely used to protect oil pipelines. Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia were used as international reference species, and their sensitivity was compared to native species and assessed with the reference toxicant Cr(VI). We also determined the correlation between the native and the reference species. Corrosion inhibitors were grouped according to their uses and acute toxicity gradient; those used for multifunction pipelines are considered moderately toxic (LC(50) of 10 to 100 mg/L), and the remainder as toxic (LC(50) between 1.0 and 10 mg/L). Scale inhibitors are considered non-toxic, since the LC(50) for the 4 species exceeded 2,000 mg/L. Sensitivity test to Cr(VI) indicated that M. elegans was the least sensitive species. There was a high correlation (> 90%) in sensitivity among M. elegans, D. magna, and C. dubia to the corrosion inhibitors used. Hence, it is feasible to use these native species from Southeast Mexico as substitutes of the typical reference species.

  14. Applying theoretical premises of binary toxicity mathematical modeling to combined impacts of chemical plus physical agents (A case study of moderate subchronic exposures to fluoride and static magnetic field).

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, B A; Tsepilov, N A; Panov, V G; Sutunkova, M P; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Minigalieva, I A; Valamina, I E; Makeyev, O H; Meshtcheryakova, E Y

    2016-09-01

    Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two thirds of these rats and of the sham-injected ones were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field for 2 or 4 h a day, 5 times a week. For mathematical analysis of the effects they produced in combination, we used a response surface model. This analysis demonstrated that (like in combined toxicity) the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a diversity of types depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on their level as well. From this point of view, the indices for which at least one statistically significant effect was observed could be classified as identifying (1) single-factor action; (2) additivity; (3) synergism; (4) antagonism (both subadditive unidirectional action and all variants of contradirectional action). Although the classes (2) and (3) taken together encompass a smaller part of the indices, the biological importance of some of them renders the combination of agents studied as posing a higher health risk than that associated with each them acting alone.

  15. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  16. Subacute toxicity evaluation of KR-33493, FAF1 inhibitor for a new anti-parkinson's disease agent, after oral administration in rats and dogs.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jong-Woo; Yu, Changsun; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Moon, Kyoung-Sik; Kim, Eunhee; Yoo, Sung-Eun; Koo, Tae-Sung

    2016-11-01

    KR33493, a newly developed FAS-associated factor 1 (FAF1) inhibitor for Parkinson's disease, is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial. In the present study, the subchronic toxicity of KR33493 in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and beagle dogs was investigated at various oral doses for 28 and 14 days, respectively. During the study, food consumption, body weights, organ weights, gross findings, and mortality were examined; and ophthalmoscopy, electrocardiography, hematology, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, histopathology, and toxicokinetics were performed. In rats, weight gain decreased in both sexes at 500 mg/kg/day, with no significant differences. In dogs, some significant differences compared with the control were found during the trial; however, at the end of recovery periods, these were no longer observed and there was no dose correlation. Some histopathological findings were observed, but these were considered as incidental changes. Since no other significant changes were observed, doses above 500 and 1000 mg/kg KR33493 in rat and dogs, respectively, caused no observed adverse effects. Therefore, based on these results, the Phase 1 clinical trial for KR33493 was approved by the Korean Food & Drug Administration.

  17. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.; Book, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  18. Neuromuscular toxicity of therapy.

    PubMed

    Mollman, J E

    1992-06-01

    The peripheral nervous system is frequently impaired in patients who have cancer. This impairment often results from toxicity of treatment but may also be due to direct invasion by tumor or may be part of a paraneoplastic syndrome. This review summarizes the recent literature regarding peripheral neuropathies and myopathies that are seen in patients with cancer. Highlights include the neuromuscular toxicity of some of the newer chemotherapeutic agents and immune mediators such as taxol and interleukin-2; a discussion of some of the agents being investigated for chemoprotection and rescue; an assessment of the evidence supporting the concept of motor neuron disease as a paraneoplastic disorder; and an interesting case report of megakaryoblastic leukemia invading peripheral nerves. Also summarized are some nice reviews and prospective studies of the toxicity of more conventional treatments.

  19. Identification and confirmation of ammonia toxicity in contaminated sediments using a modified toxicity identification evaluation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sprang, P.A. Van; Janssen, C.R.

    1997-12-01

    Toxicity identification of sediment pore waters from four sites in the Upper Scheldt (Belgium) was assessed using a simplified and discriminative toxicity identification evaluation procedure. The samples from all locations exhibited acute toxicity toward the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. Toxicity was removed or considerably reduced by the cation exchange resins and air stripping at pH 11. In addition, the toxicity of the pore waters was found to be highly pH dependent. Increased toxicity was observed at higher pH levels, whereas reduced toxicity was found at lower pH levels. Based on these results, ammonia was suggested as the main toxic agent. The presence of ammonia concentrations exceeding the 24-h median lethal concentration and comparison of the toxicity characterization profiles of the pore waters with those of the suspected toxicant supported this hypothesis. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the observed toxicity of the pore waters and the expected toxicity (due to the presence of the suspected toxicant) confirmed ammonia as the true toxic agent. Finally, the ratio between the expected ammonia toxicity and the observed toxicity from the characterization tests was approx. 1, meaning that all or most of the observed toxicity was caused by the presence of one toxicant (i.e., ammonia). The developed toxicity identification evaluation procedure is suggested as a useful tool for the identification and confirmation of toxicants in contaminated sediments.

  20. Protective effects of a by-product of the pecan nut industry (Carya illinoensis) on the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rats Carya illinoensis protects against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Benvegnú, D; Barcelos, R C S; Boufleur, N; Reckziegel, P; Pase, C S; Müller, L G; Martins, N M B; Vareli, C; Bürger, M E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant effects of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in the heart, kidney, liver, bladder, plasma and erythrocytes of rats. Rats were treated with water or pecan shell AE (5%) ad libitum, replacing drinking water for 37 days up to the end of the experiment. On day 30, half of each group received a single administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg-ip. After 7 days, the organs were removed. Rats treated with CP showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LP) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in all structures. Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in the heart and decreased in liver and kidney. Besides, CP treatment decreased plasmatic vitamin C (VIT C) levels and induced bladder macroscopical and microscopical damages. In contrast, co-treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the LP development and the GSH depletion in all structures, except in the heart and plasma, respectively. CAT activity in the heart and liver as well as the plasmatic VIT C levels remained unchanged. Finally, AE prevented CP-induced bladder injury. These findings revealed the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced multiple organ toxicity.

  1. Coupling coagulation, flocculation and decantation with photo-Fenton process for treatment of industrial wastewater containing fipronil: Biodegradability and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    da Costa Filho, Batuira Martins; da Silva, Valdislaine Maria; Silva, Jader de Oliveira; da Hora Machado, Antonio Eduardo; Trovó, Alam Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the treatment of wastewater containing the insecticide fipronil, integrating coagulation, flocculation and decantation in the photo-Fenton process. Under the best concentration of the coagulant - Fe(3+) (56 mg L(-1)), the suspended solids and total fipronil concentrations decreased respectively from 7000 and 20.9 mg L(-1) to 590 and 2.2 mg L(-1), but without reduction in dissolved organic carbon - DOC (1760 mg C L(-1)) and acute toxicity to Artemia salina (100%). Subsequently, the photo-Fenton process was applied as alternative of pre- or complete treatment, taking into account toxicity and biodegradability (given by biochemical oxygen demand after five days - BOD5/chemical oxygen demand - COD ratio) assessment. The best DOC and COD removal were reached with 60 and 6723 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and H2O2, respectively. Under these conditions, after 60 min of irradiation, 57% of DOC and 74% of COD were removed, with a decrease in acute toxicity to A. salina from 100% to 13% and an increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.052 to 1.0. With these parameters, the integration of coagulation/flocculation/decantation and photo-Fenton processes may be an alternative to the pre- or complete treatment of wastewater containing fipronil.

  2. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  3. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  4. Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Castro, Aline M; Machado, Olga L T; Freire, Denise M G

    2011-08-01

    In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology.

  5. Evaluation of the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to toxic pyridinium cations by monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes and its use to search for new MAO inhibitors and protective agents.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomás

    2012-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and inhibitors of MAO are useful as neuroprotectants. This work evaluates the human MAO-catalyzed oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a dopaminergic neurotoxin, to the directly-acting neurotoxic metabolites, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and this approach is subsequently used as a new method for screening of MAO inhibitors and protective agents. Oxidation of MPTP by human MAO-B was more efficient than by MAO-A. R-Deprenyl, a known neuroprotectant, norharman (β-carboline), 5-nitroindazole and menadione (vitamin K3) inhibited MAO-B and reduced the formation of toxic pyridinium cations. Clorgyline and the β-carbolines, harman and norharman, inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-A. Cigarette smoke, as well as the naturally occurring β-carbolines (norharman and harman) isolated from smoke and coffee inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-B and/or MAO-A, suggesting protective effects against MPTP. The results show the suitability of the approach used to search for new MAO inhibitors with eventual neuroprotective activity.

  6. Novel drug delivery systems for actinides (uranium and plutonium) decontamination agents.

    PubMed

    Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Phan, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of accidents in the nuclear industry or of nuclear terrorist attacks makes the development of new decontamination strategies crucial. Among radionuclides, actinides such as uranium and plutonium and their different isotopes are considered as the most dangerous contaminants, plutonium displaying mostly a radiological toxicity whereas uranium exhibits mainly a chemical toxicity. Contamination occurs through ingestion, skin or lung exposure with subsequent absorption and distribution of the radionuclides to different tissues where they induce damaging effects. Different chelating agents have been synthesized but their efficacy is limited by their low tissue specificity and high toxicity. For these reasons, several groups have developed smart delivery systems to increase the local concentration of the chelating agent or to improve its biodistribution. The aim of this review is to highlight these strategies.

  7. Nicotinic toxicity from tincture of blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) used as an abortifacient.

    PubMed

    Rao, Rama B; Hoffman, Robert S

    2002-08-01

    Numerous natural products have been used as traditional abortifacients, each with their own efficacy and adverse effects. With the continued growth of the natural products industry, clinicians are more likely to see adverse effects from attempted abortions using these agents. A 21-y-old female developed tachycardia, diaphoresis, abdominal pain, vomiting and muscle weakness and fasciculations after using blue cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides) in an attempt to induce an abortion. These symptoms are consistent with nicotinic toxicity and probably resulted from methylcytisine known present in blue cohosh. The patient's symptoms resolved over 24 h and she was discharged. Whether successful or not, the use of natural agents to induce abortion is frequently associated with adverse effects in the mother or fetus. Clinicians should recognize the potential toxicity of these agents.

  8. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry--Part II: Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A.; Legator, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart hemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumors, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukemias, and other cancers of hematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure.29 references.

  9. Profiling the reproductive toxicity of chemicals from multigeneration studies in the toxicity reference database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multigeneration reproduction studies are used to characterize parental and offspring systemic toxicity, as well as reproductive toxicity of pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Results from 329 multigeneration studies on 316 chemicals have been digitized into sta...

  10. Industry Related Financial Incentives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    toxic chemicals. Campbell hazards were more specific to concerns of the food processing industry -- preventing food contamination. Celanese, citing...Maintenance of production Control of Toxic chemicals HCESCHT Hiazarcs -pecific to tre chemical industry. CE LANE SE 3-2 Exhibit 3-2 IDENTIFICATION OF...of the event and that no one was harmed. Additionally, Johnson and Johnson called upon Campbell’s expertise during the more recent Tylenol recall

  11. Sulfur-Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By-Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Michael P; Evans, Austin M; Worthington, Max J H; Albuquerque, Inês S; Slattery, Ashley D; Gibson, Christopher T; Campbell, Jonathan A; Lewis, David A; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2016-01-26

    A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d-limonene, by-products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur-limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next-generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing.

  12. Sulfur‐Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By‐Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Michael P.; Evans, Austin M.; Worthington, Max J. H.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Lewis, David A.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d‐limonene, by‐products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur‐limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next‐generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  13. Toxic oil syndrome: the perspective after 20 years.

    PubMed

    Posada de la Paz, M; Philen, R M; Borda, A I

    2001-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome burst upon the scene in Spain in May of 1981, draining the resources of a newly evolving political and social medicine system. The vehicle of the causative toxic agent was identified as an illicit oil that had been diverted from industrial use and refined in order to remove the aniline denaturant, and that was sold in unlabeled 5-liter containers by itinerant salesmen. Over 20,000 people were ultimately affected, and over 1,200 deaths from all causes have been recorded in the affected cohort. The epidemiologic investigation of toxic oil syndrome involved all facets of investigative and analytical work; from visits to factories and interviewing workers, to sophisticated chemical and statistical analytical techniques. This investigation serves as a further illustration that data and information of all types, and from a wide range of fields, need to be systematically collected and evaluated in order to best resolve an epidemiologic mystery. Astute clinical observation of the patients, however, led to the hypothesis that toxic oil syndrome was a result of a toxic exposure. In this and other epidemics of unknown etiology, clinical observation and the intense scrutiny of patients' histories, signs, and symptoms by treating clinicians have often led to hypotheses that could be tested epidemiologically. When there are medical unknowns, the role of the astute clinician continues to be crucial. The toxic oil syndrome epidemic is an example of how even a developed country can be affected by a massive epidemic of environmental origin if failures occur in the systems that control and regulate the food supply or other consumer products. However, such failures could occur anywhere that large commercial networks operate on the regulatory edge, and if these business lack an in depth knowledge of the consequences of alterations in manufacturing conditions. Such was the case with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome as well, when apparently minor alterations in

  14. Evaluation of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of the decomposition of various compounds adsorbed on charcoal was made, with a view toward providing a critical appraisal of previous data from charcoal adsorption studies. It was found that thermal decomposition occurs at temperature lower than previously suspected during the charcoal stripping process. A discussion is presented dealing with the various types of reactions found. A rough, quantitative scheme for correcting previous analytical results is developed and presented.

  15. The Problem with Toxic Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, John L.; Fossa, Arthur J.

    1980-01-01

    Traced is the historical development of toxic waste problems in western New York State from 1825 to the present. Three major data sources are described: Industrial Chemical Survey, Inventory of Industrial Waste Generation Study, and the Interagency Task Force Study, developed by the Department of Environmental Conservation to prevent future…

  16. Liposome encapsulation of chelating agents

    DOEpatents

    Rahman, Yueh Erh

    1976-01-13

    A method for transferring a chelating agent across a cellular membrane by encapsulating the charged chelating agent within liposomes and carrying the liposome-encapsulated chelating agent to the cellular membrane where the liposomes containing the chelating agent will be taken up by the cells, thereby transferring the chelating agent across the cellular membrane. A chelating agent can be introduced into the interior of a cell of a living organism wherein the liposomes will be decomposed, releasing the chelating agent to the interior of the cell. The released chelating agent will complex intracellularly deposited toxic heavy metals, permitting the more soluble metal complex to transfer across the cellular membrane from the cell and subsequently be removed from the living organism.

  17. Air toxics issues in the 1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book on air toxic issues is organized under the following headings: initiatives by state and local regulatory agencies; industry's role in meeting air toxics goals of the reauthorized Clean Air Act; implementation of strategies and public health impacts; regulatory, permitting, and enforcement strategies; air toxics control; emission estimation, impact analysis and monitoring.

  18. Arsenic toxicity in Hawaii: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Nakawatase, T V; Nakatsuka, C H

    1993-10-01

    As mentioned at the beginning of this article, many questions were raised in our one particular case including the problem of verifying true arsenic toxicity and in determining the source of the exposure. In our case, there was a markedly elevated concentration of arsenic in samples of pubic hair and in the sample of urine. While arsenic toxicity can present with GI symptoms, we felt that in this particular case the association of the abdominal pain with arsenic toxicity was unlikely. For one, the patient's symptoms persisted despite apparent adequate treatment for arsenic toxicity. Also, the usual symptom of chronic arsenic toxicity is peripheral neuropathy (which was not documented in our case) and not abdominal pain. After the exhaustive diagnostic workup, we felt that this patient had irritable bowel syndrome and that the discovery of arsenic toxicity was serendipitous. In regards to the etiology of the toxicity, the patient's occupation involved working in the construction industry for a number of years. He indicated a definite exposure to termite-treated wood throughout that period. Wood for building houses, etc. is commonly pressure-treated with an arsenic-based compound; therefore, this source of occupational exposure appears to be a likely one. Another remotely possible source was the ingestion of contaminated illicit drugs. Cases of the use of illicit drugs laced with various toxic agents such as cyanide and strychnine have been reported. Although our patient required analgesics not commensurate with his symptoms, he categorically denied any use of "street" drugs. The random urine drug screen for such was negative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Effect of annealing on the spectral and optical characteristics of nano ZnO: Evaluation of adsorption of toxic metal ions from industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Asha; Rejani, P; Shanavas Khan, J; Beena, B

    2016-11-01

    The present work accentuates an unexploited and environmentally benign method of synthesizing ZnO nanomaterials using Sugar cane juice. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, EDS and FTIR. UV-visible and photoluminescence studies were also carried out to understand the absorption properties of synthesized nanomaterial. From the adsorption studies, it would be clear that synthesized ZnO should be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) removal. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min and isotherm follows the order Sips>Langmuir>Freundlich. The adsorption-desorption studies conducted over 6 cycles illustrate the viability and repeated use of the adsorbent for the removal of Pb(ll)and Cd(ll) from aqueous solutions. The practical efficiency and usefulness of the adsorbent was tested using real industrial wastewater also. Cytotoxicity result shows that, ZnO was biocompatible at lower concentrations, and it was used as an ecofriendly nanoadsorbent for industrial and environmental applications.

  20. Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Siy, Anna-Kristen J.; Rodushkin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)–therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. Methods Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. Results Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Conclusions Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control–developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight–is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers. PMID:23185404

  1. Aminophylline toxicity.

    PubMed

    Albert, S

    1987-02-01

    Aminophylline therapy has undergone change in the past decade. With the changes in usage and dosage forms, the frequency of toxicity in the pediatric population, especially in adolescents, has increased dramatically. Two distinct patterns, chronic and acute, have been recognized and treatment methods for both are changing. Table 4 summarizes the emerging state-of-the-art therapy for aminophylline toxicity. Judging from the activity seen in the literature, investigation into aminophylline toxicity will continue to be a priority. We will see a greater understanding of the disease process and a refining of the therapeutic process. The ultimate goal is the elimination of mortality and the minimization of morbidity from aminophylline toxicity.

  2. Lidocaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mehra, P; Caiazzo, A; Maloney, P

    1998-01-01

    Local anesthetics are the most commonly used drugs in dentistry. The number of adverse reactions reported, particularly toxic reactions, are extraordinarily negligible. This article reports a case of lidocaine toxicity with its typical manifestation in a 37-yr-old healthy male. The toxic reaction followed transoral/transpharyngeal topical spraying of lidocaine preoperatively during preparation for general anesthesia. A review of dosages of the most commonly used local anesthetic drugs in dentistry and the management of a toxic reaction is presented. Clinicians need to be in a position to recognize and successfully manage this potential adverse reaction.

  3. An elementary framework for judging the cardiovascular toxicity of carbon soot: experiences from an occupational health survey of diamond industry workers.

    PubMed

    Beniwal, Rajesh; Shivgotra, Vijay Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Carbon soot is produced in the process of diamond manufacture. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies have associated exposure to carbon nanoparticles with effects on cardiovascular system and blood cells. The objective of this study is to assess the cardiovascular effects consequent to chronic respiratory exposure of carbon soot. A cross-sectional occupational health survey was conducted in all consenting workers who employed in the production wing of diamond-processing industries. Blood pressure, ECGs, height, weight, and blood counts were measured and evaluated. Blood pressure measurements revealed a high prevalence of hypertension in young workers. Left atrial abnormality (LAA) was the major finding in the electrocardiograms. We found a high prevalence of hypertension in young diamond workers. The LASER saw operators had highest prevalence of LAA. White cell count and prevalence of hypertension was highest for the workers in grinder operations.

  4. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  5. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste.

  6. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  7. Tungsten toxicity.

    PubMed

    Witten, Mark L; Sheppard, Paul R; Witten, Brandon L

    2012-04-05

    There is emerging evidence that tungsten has toxic health effects. We summarize the recent tungsten toxicity research in this short review. Tungsten is widely used in many commercial and military applications because it has the second highest melting temperature of any element. Consequently, it is important to elucidate the potential health effects of tungsten.

  8. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  9. A Multicompartment Approach - Diatoms, Macrophytes, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish - To Assess the Impact of Toxic Industrial Releases on a Small French River

    PubMed Central

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination. PMID:25019954

  10. Megacity Levels of Black and Brown Carbon in the Port of Valparaiso, Chile: A Toxic Mix of Bus, Truck, Ship, Industrial and Wood Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Julio; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cordova, Ana; Arevalo, Jorge; Pozo, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of effective black carbon (eBC) have been made during three seasons (Winter, Spring and Summer) in Valparaiso, a coastal city that is located in the subtropics and is the largest commercial port in Chile. In addition to the ships in the harbor and the trucks that service the shipping industry, the primary public transport in the city is a bus system that uses diesel as its primary fuel source. Adding to the emissions of black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) from mobile sources is an oil refinery approximately 30 km to the north and in the winter many residences use wood burning as a primary source of heating. In winter the wind speeds are low, the boundary layer is shallow and there are frequent night time thermal inversions. The meteorology, coupled with a topography of very steep hillsides surrounding the bay, leads to episodes when the maximum eBC, measured with filter-based and photoacoustic techniques, often exceeds 10 µg m-3 and average mass concentrations are > 1.0 µg m-3. The absorption angstrom exponent (AAE), derived from measurements of the absorption coefficient at 550 nm and 870 nm, provides an indicator of the source of the eBC and brown carbon (BrC). The AAE ranges from 0 - 4, the lowest values, <1, associated with diesel emissions from public transport and the highest values, >3, with biomass combustion. The values in the mid-range appear to be associated with ship emissions or from the oil refinery. Removal of these aerosol particles is linked to the sea/land breeze circulations and periods of heavy fog and drizzle.

  11. A multicompartment approach--diatoms, macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish--to assess the impact of toxic industrial releases on a small French river.

    PubMed

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination.

  12. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... Orange Parkinson’s Awareness Month Were you exposed to herbicides during service and have Parkinson’s disease? You may ...

  13. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  14. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, or slow and irregular. An ECG is done to check for irregular heartbeats. Blood ... A. Digitalis toxicity. In: Goldberger AL, ed. Clinical Electrocardiography : A Simplified Approach, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  15. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Yahoo MyWeb Beryllium Toxicity Patient Education Care Instruction Sheet Course : WB 1095 CE Original ... of Contents Introduction Printer-Friendly version of the Patient Education Sheet [PDF - 48 KB] What Is Beryllium? Beryllium ...

  16. Toxic'' terminology

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., toxic chemicals,'' toxic pollutants,'' toxic waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it is easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that may apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statues. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and reference for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to toxic'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-003/0191) addresses hazardous'' nomenclature.

  17. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  18. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  19. Joint Actions of Developmental Toxicants.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    chemicals on mortality and inhibition of reproduction of Daphnia magna . Aquat Toxicol 5:315-322, 1984. 29. Broderius S, Kahl M: Acute toxicity of...acute toxicity to Daphnia magna of industrial organic chemicals at low concentrations. Aquat Toxicol 12:33-38, 1988. 31. Sprague JB: Measurement of...quantal responses to mixtures of drugs . Biometrics 23:27-44, 1967. 26. Hewlett PS, Plackett RL: A unified theory for quantal responses to mixtures of drugs

  20. Controlling toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Postel, S.

    1988-01-01

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the disposal of industrial chemical wastes constitute two major pathways by which people are inadvertently exposed to toxics. These practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. In many ways the situation with industrial chemical waste parallels the predicament with pesticides: Not only are current practices contaminating the environment and creating health risks, but they are unsustainable over the long term. Strategies that reduce pesticide use in agriculture and minimize waste generation in industry offer cost-effective approaches to decreasing risks from toxics. Such strategies differ fundamentally from current practice and require new ways of thinking. The quick fixes of pesticide spraying and end-of-pipe pollution control are replaced with new production systems aimed at reconciling economic profits with environmental protection. Current efforts in integrated pest management and industrial waste reduction, although clearly promising, only hint at their long-term potential for detoxifying the environment.

  1. Novel fluorescence-based integrated sensor for chemical and biological agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye-Mason, Greg; Leuschen, Martin; Wald, Lara; Paul, Kateri; Hancock, Lawrence F.; Fagan, Steve; Krouse, Justin; Hutchinson, Kira D.

    2004-12-01

    There is a renewed interest in the development of chemical and biological agent sensors due to the increased threat of weapons deployment by terrorist organizations and rogue states. Optically based sensors address the needs of military and homeland security forces in that they are reliable, rapidly deployed, and can provide continuous monitoring with little to no operator involvement. Nomadics has developed optically based chemical weapons sensors that utilize reactive fluorescent chromophores initially developed by Professor Tim Swager at MIT. The chromophores provide unprecedented sensitivity and selectivity toward toxic industrial chemicals and certain chemical weapon agents. The selectivity is based upon the reactivity of the G-class nerve agents (phosphorylation of acetylcholinesterase enzyme) that makes them toxic. Because the sensor recognizes the reactivity of strong electrophiles and not molecular weight, chemical affinity or ionizability, our system detects a specific class of reactive agents and will be able to detect newly developed or modified agents that are not currently known. We have recently extended this work to pursue a combined chemical/biological agent sensor system incorporating technologies based upon novel deep ultraviolet (UV) light emitting diodes (LEDs) developed out of the DARPA Semiconductor UV Optical Sources (SUVOS) program.

  2. Chip-based liver equivalents for toxicity testing--organotypicalness versus cost-efficient high throughput.

    PubMed

    Materne, Eva-Maria; Tonevitsky, Alexander G; Marx, Uwe

    2013-09-21

    Drug-induced liver toxicity dominates the reasons for pharmaceutical product ban, withdrawal or non-approval since the thalidomide disaster in the late-1950s. Hopes to finally solve the liver toxicity test dilemma have recently risen to a historic level based on the latest progress in human microfluidic tissue culture devices. Chip-based human liver equivalents are envisaged to identify liver toxic agents regularly undiscovered by current test procedures at industrial throughput. In this review, we focus on advanced microfluidic microscale liver equivalents, appraising them against the level of architectural and, consequently, functional identity with their human counterpart in vivo. We emphasise the inherent relationship between human liver architecture and its drug-induced injury. Furthermore, we plot the current socio-economic drug development environment against the possible value such systems may add. Finally, we try to sketch a forecast for translational innovations in the field.

  3. Toxicity of nanocrystal quantum dots: the relevance of surface modifications.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Akiyoshi; Hanada, Sanshiro; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2011-07-01

    With the development of nanotechnology, nanometer-sized products smaller than several 100 nm have been applied for all areas of science and technology. The nanometer-sized products, including carbon nanotubes, fullerene derivatives, and nanocrystals made of various materials, are widely employed as novel tools in various fields, not only in material engineering, electronics, plastics, automobile, aviation, and aerospace industries, but also even in cellular biology, molecular biology, and basic and clinical medical fields. In particular, nanocrystal quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in biological and medical studies because of their far brighter photoemission and photostability. The physical and chemical properties of QDs have been circumstantially investigated, but little is known about the potential harmful effects of QDs on human health. In addition to the physical and chemical properties of the QDs, their toxicity and biological behavior are generally regulated by three other conditions: (1) the QD core material itself, (2) the surface modifications of the QD, and (3) the external environmental condition of the QDs. We herein report on the in vitro and in vivo toxicity and biological behavior of nanocrystals such as QDs. Accumulating evidence suggests that the QD-capping material, rather than the core metalloid complex, is responsible for the majority of their toxicity and biological activity. For example, molecules covered with a toxic agent showed cytotoxicity, whereas QDs conjugated with biomolecules retained the biological effects of the conjugate.

  4. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  5. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  6. Treating the Treatment: Toxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Plenderleith, Ian H.

    1990-01-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents can produce toxicity, even at the usual therapeutic doses. Family physicians are often called upon to treat symptoms of these toxicities and to advise patients about them. This brief discussion may help family physicians to anticipate some of the problems, to avoid some, and to manage others more effectively. PMID:21234006

  7. Influence of anionic surface-active agents on the uptake of heavy metals by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.; Oki, Y.

    1984-10-01

    In a previous paper, the ability of water hyacinth to remove toxic heavy metals, cadmium, lead, and mercury, from a metal-containing solution was reported. However, information on the effects of surface-active agents on the metal uptake from waste water by water hyacinth is insufficient. Surface-active agents including anionic detergents have been found in lake, ponds, and rivers polluted by waste from industry and municipal sewage treatment plants. The present study examines the uptake of cadmium or nickel in the presence of the anionic detergent sodium dedecyl sulfate.

  8. Toxic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, as they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features and possible underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:25037083

  9. Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1992-01-01

    The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.

  10. Identification of acute toxicants in New Bedford Harbor sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, K.T.; McKinney, R.A.; Kuhn, A.; Pelletier, M.C.; Burgess, R.M.

    1997-03-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH) is a marine Superfund site contaminated with high concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals. Experiments were conducted to determine the causal toxic agent(s) in pore waters from New Bedford Harbor sediments to amphipods and mysid shrimp. Chemical manipulations to characterize toxicity revealed that pore-water toxicity was organic in nature. Fractionation and subsequent mass spectral identification of peaks in the toxic fraction indicated that PCBs. PAHs, and unknown compounds were present. Comparisons of PAH LC50s and PAH concentrations in this fraction indicated that the toxicity was not due to PAHs because the PAH concentrations were much lower than the reported PAH LC50s. One unknown peak was positively identified as bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and the other tentatively identified as pyrazole. Toxicity tests and comparison of toxicity in the blank and toxic fractions eliminated the two unknowns as toxic causal agents. The authors determined the range of PCB LC50s to fall between 10 and 110 ppb for Mysidopsis bahia and Ampelisca abdita. Concentrations of PCBs for the toxic fractions ranged from 12 to 27 ppb. This range falls within the observed PCB LC50s for M. bahia and A. abdita. Based upon these PCB concentrations, they concluded that PCBs were the acute toxic agents in NBH pore waters. Other compounds in the toxic fractions, or compounds that coeluted and were undistinguished from PCBs had minor contributions to the measured toxicity.

  11. DISTRIBUTED STRUCTURE-SEARCHABLE TOXICITY ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The ability to assess the potential genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other toxicity of pharmaceutical or industrial chemicals based on chemical structure information is a highly coveted and shared goal of varied academic, commercial, and government regulatory groups. These diverse interests often employ different approaches and have different criteria and use for toxicity assessments, but they share a need for unrestricted access to existing public toxicity data linked with chemical structure information. Currently, there exists no central repository of toxicity information, commercial or public, that adequately meets the data requirements for flexible analogue searching, SAR model development, or building of chemical relational databases (CRD). The Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) Public Database Network is being proposed as a community-supported, web-based effort to address these shared needs of the SAR and toxicology communities. The DSSTox project has the following major elements: 1) to adopt and encourage the use of a common standard file format (SDF) for public toxicity databases that includes chemical structure, text and property information, and that can easily be imported into available CRD applications; 2) to implement a distributed source approach, managed by a DSSTox Central Website, that will enable decentralized, free public access to structure-toxicity data files, and that will effectively link knowledgeable toxicity data s

  12. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  13. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  14. Mechanistic Understanding of Toxicity from Nanocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cuijuan; Jia, Jianbo; Zhai, Shumei

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based catalysts, or nanocatalysts, have been applied in various industrial sectors, including refineries, petrochemical plants, the pharmaceutical industry, the chemical industry, food processing, and environmental remediation. As a result, there is an increasing risk of human exposure to nanocatalysts. This review evaluates the toxicity of popular nanocatalysts applied in industrial processes in cell and animal models. The molecular mechanisms associated with such nanotoxicity are emphasized to reveal common toxicity-inducing pathways from various nanocatalysts and the uniqueness of each specific nanocatalyst. PMID:25119861

  15. Mechanistic understanding of toxicity from nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cuijuan; Jia, Jianbo; Zhai, Shumei

    2014-08-12

    Nanoparticle-based catalysts, or nanocatalysts, have been applied in various industrial sectors, including refineries, petrochemical plants, the pharmaceutical industry, the chemical industry, food processing, and environmental remediation. As a result, there is an increasing risk of human exposure to nanocatalysts. This review evaluates the toxicity of popular nanocatalysts applied in industrial processes in cell and animal models. The molecular mechanisms associated with such nanotoxicity are emphasized to reveal common toxicity-inducing pathways from various nanocatalysts and the uniqueness of each specific nanocatalyst.

  16. EPA Announces 2014 Toxics Release Inventory Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 1, 2016) In 2014, 93 percent of toxic waste from industrial facilities within U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6-Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, New Mexico, and Texas-was not released into the environment. Instead, the

  17. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  18. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where particles are abundantly internalized - is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a ``lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect'' since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments.The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where

  19. Verifiable Middleware for Secure Agent Interoperability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-10-01

    bandwidth commu- nication links. However, agents technology carries with it associated security vulnerabilities. Distributed computing in general...carries with it risks such as denial of service, Trojan horses, information leaks, and malicious code. Agents technology , by introducing autonomy and code... technology to industry because security is a necessary pre- requisite for distributed computing. To make agent-based systems economically viable, it is

  20. In-phase and out-of-phase tensile properties of polypropylene/mica composites modified by a novel industrial waste based interfacial agent. Responses at the α and β transitions of the polymer phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Martínez, Jesús María; Collar, Emilia P.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the study of the evolution with temperature of the in-phase and the out-of-phase responses of polypropylene/mica composites with improved interfacial interactions due to the presence of an industrial waste based interfacial modifier. This one is a p-phenylen-bis-maleamic acid grafted atactic polypropylene (aPP-pPBMA) with 15% w/w grafted pPBMA (5.0.10-4 g.mol-1). This work has been two-fold planned. On one hand, we have used dynamic mechanical parameters to evidence the interfacial improve caused by the addition of the interfacial modifier (aPP-pPBMA). The other purpose has been to obtain a mathematical to predict the overall behaviour of the heterogeneous system for whatever temperature considered. In our case we have merely used the dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) for just the α and β transition temperatures. Hence, a Box-Wilson experimental design considering the amount of mica particles and of interfacial agent as independent variables was used to obtain the mathematical model. The study has been tackled by considering the different transitions of the polypropylene matrix in the temperature interval scanned and further application of the Statistical Design of Experiments (sDOE) to each transition temperature in order to make forecasts for the property (E', E") as a function of the composite components and of the type of temperature dependent relaxation phenomena taking place.

  1. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  2. Save the Bay's "Toxic Diet" Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Although progress has been made in curbing industrial pollutants in larger communities, small, nonindustrial communities lack strategies for reducing unregulated toxic sources to the influent stream. This article outlines one environmental organization's model for reducing these toxic sources that can be used to help small communities nationwide.…

  3. Sequential (anaerobic/aerobic) biological treatment of Dalaman SEKA pulp and paper industry effluent.

    PubMed

    Tezel, U; Guven, E; Erguder, T H; Demirer, G N

    2001-01-01

    In the pulp and paper industry, lignin and other color compounds are removed by chemical agents in bleaching process. Use of chlorine-based agents results in production of degradation products which include various chloro-organic derivatives. Since these new compounds are highly chlorinated, they cause a problem in the treatment of pulp and paper industry wastewaters. Chemical precipitation, lagooning, activated sludge, and anaerobic treatment are the processes used for treating pulp and paper effluents. Furthermore, a combination of these processes is also applicable. In this study, the effluent of Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry was examined for its toxic effects on anaerobic microorganisms by anaerobic toxicity assay. Additionally, this wastewater was applied to a sequential biotreatment process consisting of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket as the anaerobic stage and a once-through completely mixed stirred tank as the aerobic stage. Results indicated that: (1) Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry wastewater exerted no inhibitory effects on the anaerobic cultures under the studied conditions, and (2) application of a sequential biological (anaerobic/aerobic) system to treat the Dalaman SEKA Pulp and Paper Industry wastewater resulted in approximately 91% COD and 58% AOX removals at a HRT of 5 and 6.54 h for anaerobic and aerobic, respectively.

  4. [The antiretroviral agent Fullevir].

    PubMed

    Nosik, D N; Lialina, I K; Kalnina, L B; Lobach, O A; Chataeva, M S; Rasnetsov, L D

    2009-01-01

    The antiretroviral properties of Fullevir (sodium salt of fullerenepolyhydropolyaminocaproic acid) manufactured by IntelFarm Co.) were studied in the human cell culture infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The agent was ascertained to be able to protect the cell from the cytopathic action of HIV. The 90% effective concentration (EF90) was 5 microg/ml. The 50% average toxic concentration was 400 microg/ml. Testing of different (preventive and therapeutic) Fullevir dosage regimens has shown that the drug is effective when used both an hour before and an hour after infection and when administered simultaneously with cell infection. The longer contact time for the agent with the cells increased the degree of antiviral defense. Co-administration of Fullevir and the HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor Retrovir (azidothymidine) showed a synergistic antiretroviral effect. Thus, Fullevir may be regarded as a new promising antiretroviral drug for the treatment of HIV infection.

  5. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... producing ). Examples of this type are the alcohols, chlorine, peroxides, and aldehydes. The second group consists mostly ... viruses have some kind of antibacterial agent. Alcohols, chlorine and peroxides have been used for many decades ...

  6. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... eligible Veterans a free Agent Orange Registry health exam for possible long-term health problems related to ...

  7. Sediment toxicity in Savannah Harbor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Savannah Harbor, located near the mouth of the Savannah River, Georgia and South Carolina, is impacted by industrial and municipal effluents. Potential release of contaminants stored in harbor sediments through dredging and shipping operations requires that contaminated areas be identified for proper management of the system and protection of wildlife resources. During 1991, Hyalella azteca were exposed in 10-d static-renewal toxicity tests to pore-water and solid-phase sediment samples collected from 26 sites within Savannah Harbor. Pore-water toxicity was more pronounced than that for solidphase sediment. Toxicity and reduced leaf consumption demonstrated impaired sediment quality at specific sites within Savannah Harbor and Back River. Factors responsible for the decreased sediment quality were ammonia, alkalinity, and metal concentrations (cadmium, chromium, lead, molybdenum, and nickel). Elevated concentrations of metals and toxicities in Back River sediments indicated impacts from adjacent dredge-spoil areas.

  8. Cadmium toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Lichuan; Zhang, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium is a well-known environmental pollutant with distinctly toxic effects on plants. It can displace certain essential metals from a wealth of metalloproteins, and thus disturb many normal physiological processes and cause severe developmental aberrant. The harmful effects of cadmium stress include, but are not limited to: reactive oxygen species overproduction, higher lipid hydroperoxide contents, and chloroplast structure change, which may lead to cell death. Plants have developed diverse mechanisms to alleviate environmental cadmium stress, e.g., cadmium pump and transporting cadmium into the leaf vacuoles. This mini-review focuses on the current research into understanding the cellular mechanisms of cadmium toxicity on cytoskeleton, vesicular trafficking and cell wall formation in plants. PMID:22499203

  9. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  10. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  11. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  12. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  13. Acute copper toxicity following copper glycinate injection.

    PubMed

    Oon, S; Yap, C-H; Ihle, B U

    2006-11-01

    We present a patient who developed multi-organ failure due to severe copper toxicity following attempted suicide by s.c. injection of copper glycinate. Acute copper toxicity is rare in the developed world, although it occurs more frequently in developing world countries, where it is a common mode of suicide. Acute toxicity usually results from oral ingestion and there are several local and systemic effects. Specific management can be difficult as there is little evidence regarding the efficacy of chelating agents in acute toxicity.

  14. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  15. Priorities in the investigation of human health hazards in the plastics and synthetic rubber industries

    PubMed Central

    Selikoff, Irving J.

    1976-01-01

    Experiences in the past decade provide guidance in selecting priorities for investigation of health hazards in chemical industries. Pride of place should be given to the experience of large industrial populations, in part simply because large numbers of people are at risk and in part because such studies are more likely to give reliable answers. This recommendation has further strength when there is community exposure as well. Parenthetically, large populations provide opportunity to study multiple factor interaction; without this, toxic potential of a single agent may be obscured. Second, investigations should be mounted when there is reason for suspicion, as with particular chemical configurations, observed organ toxicity, animal carcinogenicity, unusual clinical experience (“signal” tumors). It may be added that when agents have already been used several decades, evaluation of human experience with them is now in order, if only to document absence of toxicity. The same recommendations hold for planned introduction of new agents or widened distribution of existing ones, until we have better information concerning validity of “pretesting” programs. Major advances have been made in epidemiological methods for these investigations. These now allow us to successfully focus on small defined groups as well as to manage large populations. PMID:1026418

  16. Priorities in the investigation of human health hazards in the plastics and synthetic rubber industries.

    PubMed

    Selikoff, I J

    1976-10-01

    Experiences in the past decade provide guidance in selecting priorities for investigation of health hazards in chemical industries. Pride of place should be given to the experience of large industrial populations, in part simply because large numbers of people are at risk and in part because such studies are more likely to give reliable answers. This recommendation has further strength when there is community exposure as well. Parenthetically, large populations provide opportunity to study multiple factor interaction; without this, toxic potential of a single agent may be obscured. Second, investigations should be mounted when there is reason for suspicion, as with particular chemical configurations, observed organ toxicity, animal carcinogenicity, unusual clinical experience ("signal" tumors). It may be added that when agents have already been used several decades, evaluation of human experience with them is now in order, if only to document absence of toxicity. The same recommendations hold for planned introduction of new agents or widened distribution of existing ones, until we have better information concerning validity of "pretesting" programs. Major advances have been made in epidemiological methods for these investigations. These now allow us to successfully focus on small defined groups as well as to manage large populations.

  17. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  18. Natural Pathogen Control Chemistry to Replace Toxic Treatment of Microbes and Biofilm in Cooling Towers.

    PubMed

    Brouse, Lon; Brouse, Richard; Brouse, Daniel

    2017-03-31

    Application of toxic antibacterial agents is considered necessary to control prevalent fresh water microorganisms that grow in evaporative cooling water systems, but can adversely affect the environment and human health. However, natural antibacterial water chemistry has been applied in industrial cooling water systems for over 10 years to inhibit microorganisms with excellent results. The water chemistry method concentrates natural minerals in highly-softened water to produce elevated pH and dissolved solids, while maintaining low calcium and magnesium content. The method provides further benefits in water conservation, and generates a small volume of non-toxic natural salt concentrate for cost efficient separation and disposal if required. This report describes the antimicrobial effects of these chemistry modifications in the cooling water environment and the resultant collective inhibition of microbes, biofilm, and pathogen growth. This article also presents a novel perspective of parasitic microbiome functional relationships, including "Trojan Protozoans" and biofilms, and the function of polyvalent metal ions in the formation and inhibition of biofilms. Reducing global dependence on toxic antibacterial agents discharged to the environment is an emerging concern due to their impact on the natural microbiome, plants, animals and humans. Concurrently, scientists have concluded that discharge of antibacterial agents plays a key role in development of pathogen resistance to antimicrobials as well as antibiotics. Use of natural antibacterial chemistry can play a key role in managing the cooling water environment in a more ecologically sustainable manner.

  19. Effects of Humic and Fulvic Acids on Silver Nanoparticle Stability, Dissolution, and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Mousavi, Maral P. S.; Hussein, Kadir; Bühlmann, Philippe; Haynes, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    The colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in natural aquatic environments influences their transport and environmental persistence, while their dissolution to Ag+ influences their toxicity to organisms. Here, we characterize the colloidal stability, dissolution behavior, and toxicity of two industrially relevant classes of AgNPs (i.e., AgNPs stabilized by citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone) after exposure to natural organic matter (NOM, i.e., Suwannee River Humic and Fulvic Acid Standards and Pony Lake Fulvic Acid Reference). We show that NOM interaction with the nanoparticle surface depends on (i) the NOM’s chemical composition, where sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM more significantly increases colloidal stability, and (ii) the affinity of the capping agent for the AgNP surface, where nanoparticles with loosely bound capping agents are more effectively stabilized by NOM. Adsorption of NOM is shown to have little effect on AgNP dissolution under most experimental conditions, the exception being when the NOM is rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Similarly, the toxicity of AgNPs to a bacterial model (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1) decreases most significantly in the presence of sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM. Our data suggest that the rate of AgNP aggregation and dissolution in aquatic environments containing NOM will depend on the chemical composition of the NOM, and that the toxicity of AgNPs to aquatic microorganisms is controlled primarily by the extent of nanoparticle dissolution. PMID:26047330

  20. Toxicant-associated Steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wahlang, Banrida; Beier, Juliane I.; Clair, Heather B.; Bellis-Jones, Heather J.; Falkner, K. Cameron; McClain, Craig J.; Cave, Matt C.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is the most common organ injury due to occupational and environmental exposures to industrial chemicals. A wide range of liver pathologies ranging from necrosis to cancer have been observed following chemical exposures both in humans and in animal models. Toxicant-associated fatty liver disease (TAFLD) is a recently named form of liver injury pathologically similar to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Toxicant-associated steatohepatitis (TASH) is a more severe form of TAFLD characterized by hepatic steatosis, inflammatory infiltrate, and in some cases, fibrosis. While subjects with TASH have exposures to industrial chemicals, such as vinyl chloride, they do not have traditional risk factors for fatty liver such as significant alcohol consumption or obesity. Conventional biomarkers of hepatotoxicity including serum alanine aminotransferase activity may be normal in TASH, making screening problematic. This article examines selected chemical exposures associated with TAFLD in human subjects or animal models and concisely reviews the closely related NAFLD and ALD. PMID:23262638

  1. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. Immobilized materials for removal of toxic metal ions from surface/groundwaters and aqueous waste streams.

    PubMed

    Zawierucha, Iwona; Kozlowski, Cezary; Malina, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial processes are of special concern because they produce chronic poisoning in the aquatic environment. More strict environmental regulations on the discharge of toxic metals require the development of various technologies for their removal from polluted streams (i.e. industrial wastewater, mine waters, landfill leachate, and groundwater). The separation of toxic metal ions using immobilized materials (novel sorbents and membranes with doped ligands), due to their high selectivity and removal efficiency, increased stability, and low energy requirements, is promising for improving the environmental quality. This critical review is aimed at studying immobilized materials as potential remediation agents for the elimination of numerous toxic metal (e.g. Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) ions from polluted streams. This study covers the general characteristics of immobilized materials and separation processes, understanding of the metal ion removal mechanisms, a review of the application of immobilized materials for the removal of toxic metal ions, as well as the impacts of various parameters on the removal efficiency. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of remediation technologies using these materials are addressed.

  4. Fate of sessile droplet chemical agents in environmental substrates in the presence of physiochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaz, H. K.; Dang, A. L.; Atkinson, T.; Zand, A.; Nowakowski, A.; Kamensky, K.

    2014-05-01

    A general-purpose multi-phase and multi-component computer model capable of solving the complex problems encountered in the agent substrate interaction is developed. The model solves the transient and time-accurate mass and momentum governing equations in a three dimensional space. The provisions for considering all the inter-phase activities (solidification, evaporation, condensation, etc.) are included in the model. The chemical reactions among all phases are allowed and the products of the existing chemical reactions in all three phases are possible. The impact of chemical reaction products on the transport properties in porous media such as porosity, capillary pressure, and permeability is considered. Numerous validations for simulants, agents, and pesticides with laboratory and open air data are presented. Results for chemical reactions in the presence of pre-existing water in porous materials such as moisture, or separated agent and water droplets on porous substrates are presented. The model will greatly enhance the capabilities in predicting the level of threat after any chemical such as Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) release on environmental substrates. The model's generality makes it suitable for both defense and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. [Hospital response and medical management in toxic chemical substance disasters].

    PubMed

    Yeh, I-Jeng; Lin, Tzeng-Jih

    2010-06-01

    A hazardous material is defined as any item or agent which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. Toxic chemical substance events are increasingly common events in our modern world. The numerous variables and special equipment involved make effective response to toxic chemical events an especially critical test of hospital emergency response and patient rescue mechanisms. Inadequacies in management could result in disaster - even when only a simple event and minimal error are involved. This article introduces the general medical management algorithm for toxic chemical substance injury and the hospital incident command systems (HICS) developed and currently used by Taiwanese hospitals. Important steps and frequent mistakes made during medical management procedures are further described. The goal of medical care response and emergency units is to prevent catastrophic disasters in the emergency room and their subsequent results. This article further emphasizes correct patient management not only in terms of medical unit effort, but also in terms of cooperation between various relevant organizations including factory-based industrial health and safety systems, multi-factory union defense systems, coordination centers, fire protection and disaster rescue systems, the Environmental Protection Administration and national defense system in order to achieve the most appropriate management. Such coordination, in particular, requires reinforcement in order to ensure readiness for future response needs.

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2010-01-01

    A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

  7. 40 CFR 125.66 - Toxics control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of its current discharge for all toxic pollutants and pesticides as defined in § 125.58(aa) and (p... no known or suspected sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides and documents the certification with... any applicant which has no known or suspected industrial sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides...

  8. 40 CFR 125.66 - Toxics control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of its current discharge for all toxic pollutants and pesticides as defined in § 125.58(aa) and (p... no known or suspected sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides and documents the certification with... any applicant which has no known or suspected industrial sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides...

  9. 40 CFR 125.66 - Toxics control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of its current discharge for all toxic pollutants and pesticides as defined in § 125.58(aa) and (p... no known or suspected sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides and documents the certification with... any applicant which has no known or suspected industrial sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides...

  10. 40 CFR 125.66 - Toxics control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of its current discharge for all toxic pollutants and pesticides as defined in § 125.58(aa) and (p... no known or suspected sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides and documents the certification with... any applicant which has no known or suspected industrial sources of toxic pollutants or pesticides...

  11. The efficacy of spinosad against the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and its impact on associated biological control agents on greenhouse cucumbers in southern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Jones, Terri; Scott-Dupree, Cynthia; Harris, Ron; Shipp, Les; Harris, Brenda

    2005-02-01

    Insecticides are the most commonly used tactic to control western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on greenhouse cucumber. However, WFT has developed resistance to several of the insecticides presently in use. In addition, some of these insecticides adversely affect greenhouse biological control agents used to control WFT, resulting in subsequent pest resurgence. Therefore, there is a need to identify novel insecticides with unique modes of action for use in integrated pest management (IPM) programs to effectively control WFT with minimal impact on associated biological control agents. In laboratory bioassays conducted in 2001, immature and adult WFT and three associated greenhouse biological control agents: Amblyseius cucumeris Oudemans (Acarina: Phytoseiidae), Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) and Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were exposed to direct, direct/residual, and residual contact applications of the novel biopesticide, spinosad (Conserve 120 SC), and the industry standard for whitefly control, endosulfan (Thiodan 50 WP). In all three types of assay, spinosad was effective against immature and adult WFT life stages. It showed low toxicity to A. cucumeris, moderate toxicity to O. insidiosus and high toxicity to E formosa. Greenhouse studies involving exposure of immature and adult WFT and adult biological control agents to cucumber leaves sprayed previously with spinosad supported the laboratory data. Spinosad showed low toxicity to A. cucumeris exposed to leaves 1 day after treatment (DAT), moderate toxicity to O. insidiosus 1 and 8 DAT, and high toxicity to E. formosa up to 28 DAT. These data, along with spinosad's unique mode of action, suggest it would be a valuable reduced-risk control agent for greenhouse cucumber IPM programs.

  12. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  13. Possible theophylline toxicity during anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Redden, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Asthmatic patients who undergo outpatient anesthesia are typically prescribed one or more drugs for treatment. Some of these agents have narrow therapeutic ranges and are associated with potentially serious adverse reactions, toxic effects, or drug interactions. Various clinical signs of toxicity may be first uncovered during routine monitoring of an office anesthetic. The case reported here demonstrates the need for proper understanding of the asthmatic patient's medical history and an appreciation for the medications used to control the disease. A sudden cardiovascular event possibly related to drug toxicity is witnessed and treated in an asthmatic patient during intravenous sedation. A possible drug interaction with a non-asthmatic medication taken concomitantly by the patient is implicated and discussed. In addition to the case report, the broad classification of drugs employed for bronchial asthma and their effects is reviewed. PMID:10323129

  14. Possible theophylline toxicity during anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Redden, R J

    1996-01-01

    Asthmatic patients who undergo outpatient anesthesia are typically prescribed one or more drugs for treatment. Some of these agents have narrow therapeutic ranges and are associated with potentially serious adverse reactions, toxic effects, or drug interactions. Various clinical signs of toxicity may be first uncovered during routine monitoring of an office anesthetic. The case reported here demonstrates the need for proper understanding of the asthmatic patient's medical history and an appreciation for the medications used to control the disease. A sudden cardiovascular event possibly related to drug toxicity is witnessed and treated in an asthmatic patient during intravenous sedation. A possible drug interaction with a non-asthmatic medication taken concomitantly by the patient is implicated and discussed. In addition to the case report, the broad classification of drugs employed for bronchial asthma and their effects is reviewed.

  15. Aloe-induced Toxic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ha Na; Kim, Young Mook; Kim, Byoung Ho; Sohn, Kyoung Min; Choi, Myung Jin; Choi, Young Hee

    2010-01-01

    Aloe has been widely used in phytomedicine. Phytomedicine describes aloe as a herb which has anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-aging effects. In recent years several cases of aloe-induced hepatotoxicity were reported. But its pharmacokinetics and toxicity are poorly described in the literature. Here we report three cases with aloe-induced toxic hepatitis. A 57-yr-old woman, a 62-yr-old woman and a 55-yr-old woman were admitted to the hospital for acute hepatitis. They had taken aloe preparation for months. Their clinical manifestation, laboratory findings and histologic findings met diagnostic criteria (RUCAM scale) of toxic hepatitis. Upon discontinuation of the oral aloe preparations, liver enzymes returned to normal level. Aloe should be considered as a causative agent in hepatotoxicity. PMID:20191055

  16. Environmental levels, toxicity and human exposure to tributyltin (TBT)-contaminated marine environment. a review. b_antizar@hotmail.com.

    PubMed

    Antizar-Ladislao, Blanca

    2008-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a toxic chemical used for various industrial purposes such as slime control in paper mills, disinfection of circulating industrial cooling waters, antifouling agents, and the preservation of wood. Due to its widespread use as an antifouling agent in boat paints, TBT is a common contaminant of marine and freshwater ecosystems exceeding acute and chronic toxicity levels. TBT is the most significant pesticide in marine and freshwaters in Europe and consequently its environmental level, fate, toxicity and human exposure are of current concern. Thus, the European Union has decided to specifically include TBT compounds in its list of priority compounds in water in order to control its fate in natural systems, due to their toxic, persistent, bioaccumulative and endocrine disruptive characteristics. Additionally, the International Maritime Organization has called for a global treaty that bans the application of TBT-based paints starting 1 of January 2003, and total prohibition by 1 of January 2008. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding TBT, with special attention paid to the environmental levels, toxicity, and human exposure. TBT compounds have been detected in a number of environmental samples. In humans, organotin compounds have been detected in blood and in the liver. As for other persistent organic pollutants, dietary intake is most probably the main route of exposure to TBT compounds for the general population. However, data concerning TBT levels in foodstuffs are scarce. It is concluded that investigations on experimental toxicity, dietary intake, potential human health effects and development of new sustainable technologies to remove TBT compounds are clearly necessary.

  17. Neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B.

    2000-01-01

    A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness. PMID:10745641

  18. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  19. Mitochondrial toxicity: myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Graeme

    2004-05-01

    Nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) represent key components of the antiretroviral combinations used to manage HIV infection. A range of nucleoside analogues are currently available which differ in their convenience of administration, frequency of dosing, resistance profile and frequency and severity of adverse effects. Many of the important and treatment limiting side-effects of nucleoside analogues have been suggested to be related to the impact of these agents on mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma. Depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impacts of these agents on mitochondrial enzymes during chronic nucleoside analogue therapy may lead to cellular respiratory dysfunction and both generalised and tissue specific toxicities. In particular, fatal lactic acidosis represents a rare but clinically important manifestation of nucleoside analogue induced mitochondrial dysfunction. Other potentially severe toxicities which are well-characterised include peripheral neuropathy (PN) and myopathy. Management of potentially mitochondrial toxicity during nucleoside analogue therapy remains a challenge. A range of nutritional supplements, both as treatments and prophylaxes have been proposed and some investigated in vitro but not as yet in vivo. At present, therefore, interruption of nucleoside analogue therapy, or substitution of the probable causative agent with nucleoside analogues which appear better tolerated represent the mainstay of management.

  20. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  1. Newer antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Türel, Ozden

    2011-03-01

    The frequency and spectrum of fungal infections have been increasing steadily over the last several decades. The reason for this increase may be explained by the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients due to malignancies, AIDS, invasive surgical procedures and transplantation. In parallel with this increase, several therapeutic options have become available but problems such as intrinsic or acquired antifungal resistance have led researchers to develop new antifungal drugs with expanded effectiveness. Reduced toxicity, enhancement of bioavailability and counteraction of resistance are features desired by clinicians. The aim of this article is to summarize the studies involving isavuconazole, ravuconazole, albaconazole, aminocandin and some other investigational antifungal agents. Most data on the clinical use of ravuconazole, isavuconazole and albaconazole are mainly available as meeting abstracts or limited to animal studies or Phase I/II studies in humans. These new antifungal agents in development offer extended half-lives, possibly reduced drug interaction profiles and good tolerance. In addition to activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp., they have a broad spectrum of activity including activity against resistant and emerging pathogens. The real possibilities of these agents will only be fully understood after adequate randomized clinical trials.

  2. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  3. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  4. Portable Sensor for Chemical Nerve Agents and Organophosphorus Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-18

    as pesticides in crop, livestock, and poultry products and as chemical and biological warfare agents. As a result of the high toxicity and the...agents have been exploited for use as pesticides in crop, livestock, and poultry products and as chemical and biological warfare agents. As a result of

  5. SYSTEMIC TOXIC REACTIONS TO LOCAL ANESTHETICS

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Daniel C.; Green, John

    1956-01-01

    The topical use of anesthetic agents involves an element of risk. Systemic toxic reactions are rare, but they do occur and may result in death. When a reaction occurs from a topical application, it usually progresses rapidly to respiratory and cardiovascular collapse, and thus therapy must be instituted with more haste to avoid deaths. Fatal systemic toxic reactions from topically administered anesthetic drugs are, in effect, usually not due to well informed use of the drug but to misuse owing to less than complete understanding of absorption. Emphasis is placed on the causes, prophylaxis and treatment of severe systemic toxic reactions which follow the topical application of local anesthetic drugs. If systemic toxic reactions resulting from a safe dose of a local anesthetic agent are correctly treated, there will usually follow an uneventful recovery rather than a catastrophe. PMID:13343009

  6. Final Rule for Industrial Process Cooling Towers: Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet concerning a final rule to reduce air toxics emissions from industrial process cooling towers. Air toxics are those pollutants known or suspected of causing cancer or other serious health effects.

  7. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  8. Biotechnological and industrial significance of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Sinha, Rajeshwar P

    2009-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are considered to be a rich source of novel metabolites of a great importance from a biotechnological and industrial point of view. Some cyanobacterial secondary metabolites (CSMs), exhibit toxic effects on living organisms. A diverse range of these cyanotoxins may have ecological roles as allelochemicals, and could be employed for the commercial development of compounds with applications such as algaecides, herbicides and insecticides. Recently, cyanobacteria have become an attractive source of innovative classes of pharmacologically active compounds showing interesting and exciting biological activities ranging from antibiotics, immunosuppressant, and anticancer, antiviral, antiinflammatory to proteinase-inhibiting agents. A different but not less interesting property of these microorganisms is their capacity of overcoming the toxicity of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) by means of UV-absorbing/screening compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) and scytonemin. These last two compounds are true 'multipurpose' secondary metabolites and considered to be natural photoprotectants. In this sense, they may be biotechnologically exploited by the cosmetic industry. Overall CSMs are striking targets in biotechnology and biomedical research, because of their potential applications in agriculture, industry, and especially in pharmaceuticals.

  9. Pb neurotoxicity: neuropsychological effects of lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lisa H; Harp, Jordan P; Han, Dong Y

    2014-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is a term used to describe neurophysiological changes caused by exposure to toxic agents. Such exposure can result in neurocognitive symptoms and/or psychiatric disturbances. Common toxic agents include heavy metals, drugs, organophosphates, bacterial, and animal neurotoxins. Among heavy metal exposures, lead exposure is one of the most common exposures that can lead to significant neuropsychological and functional decline in humans. In this review, neurotoxic lead exposure's pathophysiology, etiology, and epidemiology are explored. In addition, commonly associated neuropsychological difficulties in intelligence, memory, executive functioning, attention, processing speed, language, visuospatial skills, motor skills, and affect/mood are explored.

  10. Chronic Ifosfamide toxicity: kidney pathology and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Akilesh, Shreeram; Juaire, Noemie; Duffield, Jeremy S; Smith, Kelly D

    2014-05-01

    Ifosfamide is a nitrogen mustard alkylating agent used as both a first-line and a salvage chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of testicular germ cell tumors, various sarcomas, carcinomas, and some lymphomas. A well-known complication of ifosfamide therapy is transient acute kidney injury. However, in a minority of patients, the reduction in kidney function is progressive and permanent, sometimes occurring long after exposure to ifosfamide. Scattered reports have described the pathologic findings in kidneys permanently affected by ifosfamide toxicity. We present the findings of an illustrative case and review the pathology and molecular mechanisms of long-term ifosfamide toxicity with implications for personalized medicine.

  11. Effect of water quality on mercury toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum: Model development and its application in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinghao; Qu, Ruijuan; Wei, Zhongbo; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zunyao

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) compounds are widely distributed toxic environmental and industrial pollutants and they may bring danger to growth and development of aquatic organisms. The distribution of Hg species in the 3 percent NaCl solution was calculated using the chemical equilibrium model Visual MINTEQ, which demonstrated that Hg was mainly complexed by chlorides in the pH range 5.0-9.0 and the proportions of HgCl4(2-), HgCl3(-) and HgCl2(aq) reached to 95 percent of total Hg. Then the effects of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+) and H(+)), anions (HCO3(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-) and HPO4(2-)) and complexing agents (ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and dissolved organic matter (DOM)) on Hg toxicity to Photobacterium phosphoreum were evaluated in standardized 15min acute toxicity tests. The significant increase of 6.3-fold in EC50 data with increasing pH was observed over the tested pH range of 5.0-8.0, which suggested the possible competition between hydroxyl and the negatively charged chloro-complex. By contrast, it was found that major cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and K(+)) have little effect on Hg toxicity to P. phosphoreum. An interesting finding was that the addition of HPO4(2-) significantly increased Hg toxicity, which may imply that the addition of phosphate increased the soluble Hg-chloro complex species. Additions of complexing agents (EDTA and DOM) into the exposure water increased Hg bioavailability via complexation of Hg. Finally, a model which incorporated the effect of pH, HPO4(2-), HCO3(-), SO4(2-) and DOM on Hg toxicity was developed to predict acute Hg toxicity for P. phosphoreum, which may be a useful tool in setting realistic water quality criteria for different types of water.

  12. Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan; Rudrawar, Santosh; Zunk, Matthew; Bernaitis, Nijole; Arora, Devinder; McDermott, Catherine M; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents. PMID:27399787

  13. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  14. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  15. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    Statistics on the production, consumption, cost, trade, and government stockpile of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are provided. The outlook for the industrial diamond market is also considered.

  16. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  17. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL-1. Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32–37, 20–24, and 16–18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log KLB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins

  18. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which

  19. 13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies for organ toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, H; Bochkov, N P; Costa, L; Gribaldo, L; Guillouzo, A; Heindel, J J; Karol, M; Parchment, R; Pfaller, W; Peraita, P P; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    In the past decade in vitro tests have been developed that represent a range of anatomic structure from perfused whole organs to subcellular fractions. To assess the use of in vitro tests for toxicity testing, we describe and evaluate the current status of organotypic cultures for the major target organs of toxic agents. This includes liver, kidney, neural tissue, the hematopoietic system, the immune system, reproductive organs, and the endocrine system. The second part of this report reviews the application of in vitro culture systems to organ specific toxicity and evaluates the application of these systems both in industry for safety assessment and in government for regulatory purposes. Members of the working group (WG) felt that access to high-quality human material is essential for better use of in vitro organ and tissue cultures in the risk assessment process. Therefore, research should focus on improving culture techniques that will allow better preservation of human material. The WG felt that it is also important to develop and make available relevant reference compounds for toxicity assessment in each organ system, to organize and make available via the Internet complete in vivo toxicity data, including human data, containing dose, end points, and toxicokinetics. The WG also recommended that research should be supported to identify and to validate biological end points for target organ toxicity to be used in alternative toxicity testing strategies. PMID:9599689

  20. Radio-protective role of antioxidant agents

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Mahdavi, Seied Rabie; Mohseni, Mehran

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation interacts with biological systems to produce reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species which attack various cellular components. Radio-protectors act as prophylactic agents to shield healthy cells and tissues from the harmful effects of radiation. Past research on synthetic radio-protectors has brought little success, primarily due to the various toxicity-related problems. Results of experimental research show that antioxidant nutrients, such as vitamin E and herbal products and melatonin, are protective against the damaging effects of radiation, with less toxicity and side effects. Therefore, we propose that in the future, antioxidant radio-protective agents may improve the therapeutic index in radiation oncology treatments. PMID:25992214

  1. Potential community exposure to toxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    LaGrone, F.S. )

    1991-03-01

    There is increasing public concern over potential exposure to airborne chemical substances from all sources. Industries in Houston have cooperated to implement a comprehensive regional monitoring program to address the issue of long-term community exposure to toxic airborne chemicals. The initial results from the HRM Volatile Organic Indicator Compound Study have been used effectively to address public concerns regarding the air quality impact of airborne toxic emissions reported under Section 313 of SARA Title III.

  2. In Vivo Cholinesterase Inhibitory Specificity of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-26

    of the hydrolysis products of V-agents are presumably phoric acid anhydrides , and their structures are very simi- toxic. Also, V-agents may be...slowly with carboxylesterases and phospho- anhydrides . GF contains a cyclohexyl substituent. rylphosphatases than do G-agents [3]. The G-type nerve agents...USA). Tris(hydroxymethyl) 2.4. AChE analysis amino methane was purchased from Fischer Scientific (Fair Lawn, NJ, USA). The bicinchronic (BCA) protein

  3. Industrial Minerals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, James C.

    1978-01-01

    The past year is seen as not particularly good for industrial minerals and for industry in general. Environmental concerns continued to trouble the industry with unacceptable asbestos concentrations and chlorofluorocarbon effects on ozone. A halting U.S. economy also affected industrial progress. (MA)

  4. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. A review of the state of the global industrial diamond industry in 1999 is presented. World consumption of industrial diamond has increased annually in recent years, with an estimated 500 million carats valued between $650 million and $800 million consumed in 1999. In 1999, the U.S. was the world's largest market for industrial diamond and was also one of the world's main producers; the others were Ireland, Russia, and South Africa. Uses of industrial diamonds are discussed, and prices of natural and synthetic industrial diamond are reported.

  6. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  7. Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Foulks, E.; McLellen, T. )

    1992-02-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial substances has been a topic of increasing concern to environmentalists, government agencies, industrial engineers, and medical specialists. Our study focuses on the psychologic symptom responses of a community to perceived long-term exposure to toxic waste products. We compared their symptom clusters, as shown by their responses to questions on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Item (SCL-90) and the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), with symptom levels of normal and depressed subjects. Issues of media coverage, litigation, and potential for compensation complicate the psychiatric epidemiology of the subject.

  8. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  9. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  10. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... burn to avoid getting a staph infection. Toxic shock syndrome treatment Because toxic shock syndrome gets worse quickly, you may be seriously ... toxic shock syndrome in a wound? Resources Toxic Shock Syndrome ... treatment, women's health Family Health, Women January 2017 Copyright © ...

  11. Small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James W; Plummer, Mark S; Blount, Kenneth F; Ames, Tyler D; Breaker, Ronald R

    2015-04-23

    Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here, we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride.

  12. Small Molecule Fluoride Toxicity Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Nelson1, James W.; Plummer, Mark S.; Blount, Kenneth F.; Ames, Tyler D.; Breaker, Ronald R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Fluoride is a ubiquitous anion that inhibits a wide variety of metabolic processes. Here we report the identification of a series of compounds that enhance fluoride toxicity in Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutans. These molecules were isolated by using a high-throughput screen (HTS) for compounds that increase intracellular fluoride levels as determined via a fluoride riboswitch-reporter fusion construct. A series of derivatives were synthesized to examine structure-activity relationships, leading to the identification of compounds with improved activity. Thus, we demonstrate that small molecule fluoride toxicity agonists can be identified by HTS from existing chemical libraries by exploiting a natural fluoride riboswitch. In addition, our findings suggest that some molecules might be further optimized to function as binary antibacterial agents when combined with fluoride. PMID:25910244

  13. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  14. Complex dynamics of industrial transferring in a credit-constrained economy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Tongkui; Yu, Jiefei; Li, Honggang; Lin, Hongxi

    2010-08-01

    We present a simple industrial transferring macroeconomic model where credit constrained agents may invest projects of different industries. The feedback effect between agent's net worth and credit composition among industries with different productivity gives rise to complex aggregation dynamics including unique equilibrium, multiple-equilibrium, cycle and chaos. These dynamics replicate many industry transferring patterns and provide economic implications for industry policy.

  15. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS) is one of a number of riot control agents referred to as tear gas, although it is in fact a particulate suspension. The toxicity of this material has been studied in various detail. The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the literature data available on the toxicity of CS.

  16. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A number of spacecraft construction materials are evaluated for the toxic effects of their thermodegradation products on rats. Pyrolysis toxicity testing of pyrolysate fumes establish carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide as the most common intoxicating agents. Generally, COHb levels of animals expiring in the test chamber suggest higher concentrations of CO are produced with larger samples of most materials.

  17. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  18. Assessing aquatic terrestrial toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.S.; Mirenda, R.J.

    1993-06-01

    it is recognized that the toxic effects of environmental samples cannot be predicted based on chemical concentration data alone. The EPA recommends an integrated approach that uses both chemical specific and whole effluent toxicity testing methods to control effluent toxicity. Toxicity tests allow for the consideration of site-specific factors that may increase or decrease the toxicity of a chemical in a given medium.

  19. Developmental toxicity risk assessment: consensus building, hypothesis formulation, and focused research.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, C A

    1996-01-01

    Risk assessment for developmental toxicity has become more defined over the last decade and the most recent EPA guidelines for developmental toxicity risk assessment were published in 1991. Development of approaches for risk assessment in this area have relied on building of consensus opinion among experts about the interpretation of developmental toxicity data. These discussions have aided in strengthening the scientific basis for risk assessment for developmental toxicity, including the default assumptions that must be used when more complete information on mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics are unavailable. Such discussions continue on both a national and international basis. The EPA risk assessment guidelines outlined several major areas of research needed to strengthen risk assessment for developmental toxicity and led to the formulation of hypotheses to be tested in focused research projects. Several major research efforts have focused on dose-related mechanisms and biologically based modeling of specific agents, physiologically based pharmacokinetic models of pregnancy that can be scaled across species, and the influence of dose and duration of exposure on developmental outcomes, as well as the delineation of specific biomarkers of adverse developmental effects. Although such research initiatives will require a long-term effort, it is important that attention be focused now on those approaches that can improve the risk assessment process to avoid continued reliance on default approaches that have been used for the past 30 years or more. The impact of the EPA Guidelines for Developmental Toxicity Risk Assessment has been widespread. One of the main purposes for developing risk assessment guidelines by EPA was to communicate procedures to risk assessors inside the agency in an effort to promote consistency. In addition, the guidelines were to communicate to those outside the agency in private industry and other regulatory agencies how EPA would evaluate

  20. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    PubMed

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  1. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Redox Cycling Agents Implicated in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopert, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Environmental agents have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) based on epidemiological studies and the ability of toxicants to replicate features of PD. However, the precise mechanisms by which toxicants induce dopaminergic toxicity observed in the idiopathic form of PD remain to be fully understood. The roles of ROS and mitochondria are strongly suggested in the mechanisms by which these toxicants exert dopaminergic toxicity. There are marked differences and similarities shared by the toxicants in increasing steady-state levels of mitochondrial ROS. Furthermore, toxicants increase steady-state mitochondrial ROS levels by stimulating the production, inhibiting the antioxidant pathways of both. This review will focus on the role of mitochondria and ROS in PD associated with environmental exposures to redox-based toxicants. PMID:25749885

  2. Risk assessment for neurobehavioral toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, D.E.

    1987-12-01

    A study of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) found neurobehavioral toxicity to be one of the areas where almost no data are available for the assessment of toxicity. Using the NAS/NRC report and a data base from the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), an estimate of the number of neurobehavioral toxins in commercial chemicals can be made. Although the assumption made in making such a calculation may be invalid, the exercise suggests that the number of neurobehavioral toxins may be quite large. There does seem to be general agreement as to what type of neurobehavioral test procedures are appropriate for regulatory purposes. Select committees have consistently recommended the use of test batteries that include schedule-controlled behavior, motor activity, and neuropathological examination following in vivo perfusion, for regulatory purposes. Alkyltin data developed from such a battery were applied to the risk assessment model employed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in their calculations of acceptable daily intake. Using this test battery and the EPA risk assessment model, the acceptable daily intake calculated is of the same order of magnitude as the total limit values established by the ACGIH. A number of special issues in neurobehavioral toxicity also are discussed, including the definition of adverse neurobehavioral toxic effect, species extrapolation, correlation of behavior and neuropathology, alternative methods, and quality of life issues.

  3. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. Supply and demand data for industrial diamond are provided. Topics discussed are consumption, prices, imports and exports, government stockpiles, and the outlook for 2004.

  4. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry.

  5. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Estimated 2011 world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.45 billion carats. During 2011, natural industrial diamonds were produced in more than 20 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond was produced in at least 13 countries. About 98 percent of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in China, Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States. China is the world's leading producer of synthetic industrial diamond followed by Russia and the United States.

  6. Industrial Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demain, Arnold L.; Solomon, Nadine A.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the field of industrial microbiology, providing historical backgrounds of scientific discoveries in the field and descriptions of industrially important microorganisms. Applied research in industry is also detailed, with mention of gene amplification, DNA recombination, pharmaceutical approaches, and detoxification and…

  7. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was about 4.44 billion carats in 2010. Natural industrial diamond deposits have been found in more than 35 countries, and synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries.

  8. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, estimated world production of natural and synthetic industrial diamond was 630 million carats. Natural industrial diamond deposits were found in more than 35 countries. Synthetic industrial diamond is produced in at least 15 countries. More than 81% of the combined natural and synthetic global output was produced in Ireland, Japan, Russia, South Africa and the United States.

  9. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  10. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  11. Effects-Directed Analysis (EDA) and Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE): Complementary but Different Approaches for Diagnosing Causes of Environmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, two approaches are available for performing environmental diagnostics on samples like municipal and industrial effluents, interstitial waters and whole sediments in order to identify anthropogenic contaminants causing toxicological effects. One approach is Toxicity Id...

  12. Prioritizing industrial chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, Veronique D; Bratt, Gary M

    This article describes the approach used to develop a prioritized list of toxic and hazardous industrial chemical hazards considered to pose substantial risk to deployed troops and military operations. The U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine published the prioritized list in November 2003. The work was performed as part of a multinational military effort supported by Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Previous chemical priority lists had been developed to support military as well as homeland defense research, development, and acquisition communities to determine enhanced detection and protection needs. However, there were questions as to the adequacy of the methodologies and focus of the previous efforts. This most recent effort is a more extensive evaluation of over 1700 industrial chemicals, with a modified methodology that includes not only the assessment of acute inhalation toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), but also chemicals/compounds that pose substantial physical risk (from fire/explosion) and those that may pose acute ingestion risks (such as in water supplies). The methodology was designed to rank such hazards from a strategic (global) military perspective, but it may be adapted to address more site/user specific needs. Users of this or any other chemical priority list are cautioned that the derivation of such lists is largely influenced by subjective decisions and significant variability in chemical-specific data availability and quality.

  13. Cardiotoxicity of Molecularly Targeted Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hedhli, Nadia; Russell, Kerry S

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac toxicity of molecularly targeted cancer agents is increasingly recognized as a significant side effect of chemotherapy. These new potent therapies may not only affect the survival of cancer cells, but have the potential to adversely impact normal cardiac and vascular function. Unraveling the mechanisms by which these therapies affect the heart and vasculature is crucial for improving drug design and finding alternative therapies to protect patients predisposed to cardiovascular disease. In this review, we summarize the classification and side effects of currently approved molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics. PMID:22758623

  14. MONITORING THE AIR FOR TOXIC AND GENOTOXIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor p...

  15. EPA Issues 2014 Toxic Release Inventory data for Nevada

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    SAN FRANCISCO - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released its annual Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) report that showed that the majority of toxic chemicals managed at industrial facilities in the U.S. increased as a result of producti

  16. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei; Pai, Reetesh K.; Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  17. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies. PMID:26617524

  18. Exposure to Crystal Violet, Its Toxic, Genotoxic and Carcinogenic Effects on Environment and Its Degradation and Detoxification for Environmental Safety.

    PubMed

    Mani, Sujata; Bharagava, Ram Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Crystal Violet (CV), a triphenylmethane dye, has been extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as a biological stain, as a textile dye in textile processing industries and also used to provide a deep violet color to paints and printing ink. CV is also used as a mutagenic and bacteriostatic agent in medical solutions and antimicrobial agent to prevent the fungal growth in poultry feed. Inspite of its many uses, CV has been reported as a recalcitrant dye molecule that persists in environment for a long period and pose toxic effects in environment. It acts as a mitotic poison, potent carcinogen and a potent clastogene promoting tumor growth in some species of fish. Thus, CV is regarded as a biohazard substance. Although, there are several physico-chemical methods such as adsorption, coagulation and ion-pair extraction reported for the removal of CV, but these methods are insufficient for the complete removal of CV from industrial wastewaters and also produce large quantity of sludge containing secondary pollutants. However, biological methods are regarded as cost-effective and eco-friendly for the treatment of industrial wastewaters, but these methods also have certain limitations. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop such eco-friendly and cost-effective biological treatment methods, which can effectively remove the dye from industrial wastewaters for the safety of environment, as well as human and animal health.

  19. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Warne, M S; Schifko, A D

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of 39 laundry detergent components including surfactants, enzymes, builders, fabric brighteners, fillers, and coloring agents to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. The difference between the most and the least toxic components was approximately 17,000-fold and 1,000,000-fold for the mg/L and mmol/L EC50 data, respectively. Two of the components had high toxicity (EC50 values < 1 mg/L), 11 moderate toxicity (EC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/L), and the remaining 26 components had low toxicity (EC50 values > 10 mg/L). Analysis revealed that mixtures of the components interacted antagonistically, additively, and synergistically. On a molarity basis the most toxic group of compounds was the surfactants followed by the brighteners. The most toxic individual components included sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium silicate solution, four brighteners, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, and the surfactants. Many of the most toxic components, however, contributed very little to the toxicity of the detergents due to being present in the detergents at low concentrations. The main contributors to the toxicity of detergents were the sodium silicate solution and the surfactants-with the remainder of the components contributing very little to detergent toxicity. The potential for acute aquatic toxic effects due to the release of secondary or tertiary sewage effluents containing the breakdown products of laundry detergents may frequently be low. However, untreated or primary treated effluents containing detergents may pose a problem. Chronic and/or other sublethal effects that were not examined in this study may also pose a problem.

  20. Toxic Shock Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... toxic shock syndrome results from toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus (staph) bacteria, but the condition may also ... a skin or wound infection. Bacteria, most commonly Staphylococcus aureus (staph), causes toxic shock syndrome. It can ...