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Sample records for agents toxic industrial

  1. Optical detection of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webber, Michael E.; Pushkarsky, Michael B.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2004-12-01

    We present an analytical model evaluating the suitability of optical absorption based spectroscopic techniques for detection of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in ambient air. The sensor performance is modeled by simulating absorption spectra of a sample containing both the target and multitude of interfering species as well as an appropriate stochastic noise and determining the target concentrations from the simulated spectra via a least square fit (LSF) algorithm. The distribution of the LSF target concentrations determines the sensor sensitivity, probability of false positives (PFP) and probability of false negatives (PFN). The model was applied to CO2 laser based photoacosutic (L-PAS) CWA sensor and predicted single digit ppb sensitivity with very low PFP rates in the presence of significant amount of interferences. This approach will be useful for assessing sensor performance by developers and users alike; it also provides methodology for inter-comparison of different sensing technologies.

  2. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.

  3. Insect-gene-activity detection system for chemical and biological warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackie, Ryan S.; Schilling, Amanda S.; Lopez, Arturo M.; Rayms-Keller, Alfredo

    2002-02-01

    Detection of multiple chemical and biological weapons (CBW) agents and/or complex mixtures of toxic industrial chemicals (TIC) is imperative for both the commercial and military sectors. In a military scenario, a multi-CBW attack would create confusion, thereby delaying decontamination and therapeutic efforts. In the commercial sector, polluted sites invariably contain a mixture of TIC. Novel detection systems capable of detecting CBW and TIC are sorely needed. While it may be impossible to build a detector capable of discriminating all the possible combinations of CBW, a detection system capable of statistically predicting the most likely composition of a given mixture is within the reach of current emerging technologies. Aquatic insect-gene activity may prove to be a sensitive, discriminating, and elegant paradigm for the detection of CBW and TIC. We propose to systematically establish the expression patterns of selected protein markers in insects exposed to specific mixtures of chemical and biological warfare agents to generate a library of biosignatures of exposure. The predicting capabilities of an operational library of biosignatures of exposures will allow the detection of emerging novel or genetically engineered agents, as well as complex mixtures of chemical and biological weapons agents. CBW and TIC are discussed in the context of war, terrorism, and pollution.

  4. Fate of chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals in landfills.

    PubMed

    Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Barlaz, Morton A; Knappe, Detlef R U; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2006-07-01

    One component of preparedness for a chemical attack is planning for the disposal of contaminated debris. To assess the feasibility of contaminated debris disposal in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills, the fate of selected chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) in MSW landfills was predicted with a mathematical model. Five blister agents [sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN-2), lewisite (L), ethyldichloroarsine (ED), and phosgene oxime (CX)], eight nerve agents [tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), GE, GF, VX, VG, and VM], one riot-control agent [CS], and two TICs [furan and carbon disulfide] were studied. The effects of both infiltration (climate) and contaminant biodegradability on fate predictions were assessed. Model results showed that hydrolysis and gas-phase advection were the principal fate pathways for CWAs and TICs, respectively. Apart from CX and the TICs, none of the investigated compounds was predicted to persist in a landfill for more than 5 years. Climate had little impact on CWA/TIC fate, and biodegradability was only important for compounds with long hydrolysis half-lives. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess the influence of uncertainty in model input parameters on CWA/TIC fate predictions. Correlation analyses showed that uncertainty in hydrolysis rate constants was the primary contributor to variance of CWA fate predictions, while uncertainty in the Henry's Law constant and landfill gas-production rate accounted for most of the variance of TIC fate predictions. CWA hydrolysates were more persistent than the parent CWAs, but limited information is available on abiotic or biotic transformation rates for these chemicals. PMID:16856738

  5. Remote Continuous Wave and Pulsed Laser Raman Detection of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants and Toxic Industrial Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Rivera, William; Pacheco-Londoño, Leonardo C.; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2010-09-01

    This study describes the design, assembly, testing and comparison of two Remote Raman Spectroscopy (RRS) systems intended for standoff detection of hazardous chemical liquids. Raman spectra of Chemical Warfare Agents Simulants (CWAS) and Toxic Industrial Compounds (TIC) were measured in the laboratory at a 6.6 m source-target distance using continuous wave (CW) laser detection. Standoff distances for pulsed measurements were 35 m for dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) detection and 60, 90 and 140 m for cyclohexane detection. The prototype systems consisted of a Raman spectrometer equipped with a CCD detector (for CW measurements) and an I-CCD camera with time-gated electronics (for pulsed laser measurements), a reflecting telescope, a fiber optic assembly, a single-line CW laser source (514.5, 488.0, 351.1 and 363.8 nm) and a frequency-doubled single frequency Nd:YAG 532 nm laser (5 ns pulses at 10 Hz). The telescope was coupled to the spectrograph using an optical fiber, and filters were used to reject laser radiation and Rayleigh scattering. Two quartz convex lenses were used to collimate the light from the telescope from which the telescope-focusing eyepiece was removed, and direct it to the fiber optic assembly. To test the standoff sensing system, the Raman Telescope was used in the detection of liquid TIC: benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, carbon tetrachloride, cyclohexane and carbon disulfide. Other compounds studied were CWAS: dimethylmethyl phosphonate, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide and 2-(butylamino)-ethanethiol. Relative Raman scattering cross sections of liquid CWAS were measured using single-line sources at 532.0, 488.0, 363.8 and 351.1 nm. Samples were placed in glass and quartz vials at the standoff distances from the telescope for the Remote Raman measurements. The mass of DMMP present in water solutions was also quantified as part of the system performance tests.

  6. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course.Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations,which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  7. Exposure to toxic environmental agents.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    : Reducing exposure to toxic environmental agents is a critical area of intervention for obstetricians, gynecologists, and other reproductive health care professionals. Patient exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and other stressors is ubiquitous, and preconception and prenatal exposure to toxic environmental agents can have a profound and lasting effect on reproductive health across the life course. Prenatal exposure to certain chemicals has been documented to increase the risk of cancer in childhood; adult male exposure to pesticides is linked to altered semen quality, sterility, and prostate cancer; and postnatal exposure to some pesticides can interfere with all developmental stages of reproductive function in adult females, including puberty, menstruation and ovulation, fertility and fecundity, and menopause. Many environmental factors harmful to reproductive health disproportionately affect vulnerable and underserved populations, which leaves some populations, including underserved women, more vulnerable to adverse reproductive health effects than other populations. The evidence that links exposure to toxic environmental agents and adverse reproductive and developmental health outcomes is sufficiently robust, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine join leading scientists and other clinical practitioners in calling for timely action to identify and reduce exposure to toxic environmental agents while addressing the consequences of such exposure.

  8. Health protection: Toxic agent and radiation control.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    It is estimated that of the four million chemical compounds which have been synthesized or isolated from natural materials, more than 55,000 are produced commercially. Approximately 1,000 new compounds are introduced annually; pesticide formulations alone contain about 1,500 active chemical ingredients. Diagnostic x-rays are used extensively in medicine and dentistry. Over 2,000 chemicals are suspected carcinogens in laboratory animals--epidemiologic evidence suggests that 26 of these chemicals and/or industrial processes are carcinogenic in humans. More than 20 agents are known to be associated with birth defects in humans; 47 atmospheric contaminants have been identified in animal studies as recognized carcinogens and 128 as mutagens; and, of the 765 contaminants identified in drinking water, 12 were recognized carcinogens, 31 suspected carcinogens, and 59 mutagens. Radiation has known carcinogenic and genetic effects at significant levels of exposure. Problems with toxic agents and radiation sources occur not only in industry, but also in medical and dental care (x-rays and drugs), agriculture (pesticides and herbicides), Government activities (biological and chemical agents), consumer products (incorrect use of consumer products which contain toxic substances), and natural sources (fungal products).

  9. Toxicity reduction in industrial effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Lankford, P.W.; Eckenfelder, W.W.

    1990-01-01

    The toxicity of manufacturing wastewaters to fish and other aquatic organisms is now being used by state and federal regulators to monitor and restrict industrial wastewater discharges. As a result, there is a great need for guidance on the subject of aquatic toxicity reduction in the field of industrial water pollution control. This book is a comprehensive reference source on the testing protocols, comparative data, and treatment techniques for effective toxicity reduction. Included in this book are detailed chapters covering various methods for toxicity reduction, such as the removal of metals, aerobic biological treatment, stripping of volatile organics, and management of sludges from toxic wastewater treatment. The book features: a complete overview of the subject, including background material for newcomers to the field; a basic summary and comparison of alternate treatment procedures; the latest methods for the identification of toxic components that readers can use for testing in their own laboratories; a description of applicable technologies for toxicity reduction; actual data from the use of processes that allow readers to compare technologies; solids management requirements including handling and disposal; useful economic comparisons of technologies; and illustrative case studies that demonstrate the application of the latest toxicity reduction technology and data to specific situations. Eleven chapters are processed separately in the appropriate data bases.

  10. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    PubMed

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages.

  11. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    PubMed

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages. PMID:21840437

  12. Civilian exposure to toxic agents: emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Baker, David

    2004-01-01

    Civilian populations are at risk from exposure to toxic materials as a result of accidental or deliberate exposure. In addition to industrial hazards, toxic agents designed for use in warfare now are a potential hazard in everyday life through terrorist action. Civil emergency medical responders should be able to adapt their plans for dealing with casualties from hazardous materials (HazMat) to deal with the new threat. Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) and HazMat agents can be viewed as a continuous spectrum. Each of these hazards is characterized by qualities of toxicity, latency of action, persistency, and transmissibility. The incident and medical responses to release of any agent is determined by these characteristics. Chemical and biological wardare agents usually are classified as weapons of mass destruction, but strictly, they are agents of mass injury. The relationship between mass injury and major loss of life depends very much on the protection, organization, and emergency care provided. Detection of a civil toxic agent release where signs and symptoms in casualties may be the first indicator of exposure is different from the military situation where intelligence information and tuned detection systems generally will be available. It is important that emergency medical care should be given in the context of a specific action plan. Within an organized and protected perimeter, triage and decontamination (if the agent is persistent) can proceed while emergency medical care is provided at the same time. The provision of advanced life support (TOXALS) in this zone by protected and trained medical responders now is technically feasible using specially designed ventilation equipment. Leaving life support until after decontamination may have fatal consequences. Casualties from terrorist attacks also may suffer physical as well as toxic trauma and the medical response also should be capable of dealing with mixed injuries. PMID:15506255

  13. Development of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. S.

    1974-01-01

    The development of agents suitable for removal of CO, NH3, NO2 SO2, and other spacecraft contaminants was approached. An extensive technology review was conducted, yielding a large number of potentially useful materials and/or concepts. Because the two toxic gases of greatest interest, CO and NH3, suggested the use of catalysis principles emphasis was placed on the intestigation of transition metals on various supports. Forty-three materials were prepared or obtained and 25 were tested. Gas chromatographic techniques were used to find seven candidates that effectively managed various combinations of the four toxic gases: none managed all. These candidates included six transition metal-containing preparations and a supported LiOH material. Three commercial charcoals showed some efficiency for the toxic gases and may constitute candidates for enhancement by doping with transition metals.

  14. Occupational exposures to potentially hazardous agents in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Runion, H.E.

    1988-07-01

    This chapter has been created to acquaint the reader with occupational exposures that are more common in, and somewhat unique to, the petroleum industry. Both highly toxic materials capable of causing acute illness or even death following short-term exposure, and chemical and physical agents that pose risk of chronic and irreversible damage to health during prolonged exposure are addressed.

  15. Toxicity identification evaluation of cosmetics industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira

    2013-01-15

    The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters.

  16. The Respiratory Toxicity of Chemical Warefare Agents

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation is one of the most important routes of exposure for chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and thus, the lung remains a critical target of injury. Depending on the mode of action by which the CWAs cause injury, the nature of injury, the location being impacted within the respi...

  17. Toxic impact of effluents from petrochemical industry

    SciTech Connect

    Nikunen, E.

    1985-02-01

    The toxicity of effluents from a petrochemical industry center in southern Finland was tested by conducting bioassays on organisms from three different trophic levels. In fish tests, rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were caged at the discharge site and simultaneously at a reference area. The only clear differences, among the measurements of 25 metabolic parameters, were observed in fish liver where activities of two detoxication enzymes were significantly increased in the exposed group. The water flea (Daphnia magna) was used both in acute (EC50) and long-term reproduction tests. No acute lethal toxicity was detected in any of the wastewater samples investigated. A combined effluent, however, caused a reduction in the reproduction rate with an EC50 of 3%. No mutagenic activity was observed with the Ames test (Salmonella typhimurium, strains TA 97, TA 98, and TA 100) in concentrated effluents, in sediment samples, or in liver samples from predator fish caught from the discharge site.

  18. Occupational diseases associated with toxic substances and their effects upon the energy industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, C.W.

    1984-02-01

    In recent years the concept of ''toxic substances'' and the potential effects therefrom have attracted the attention and concern of the nation. Asbestosis put both society and industry on alert of the potential hazards inherent in the continued development of new chemicals and substances being employed in the work environment. Asbestosis is not the only causative element of occupational diseases. Other toxic substances currently raising concern include Agent Orange, DES (diethylstilbesterol), cotton dust, silicon and, of particular concern to the petroleum industry, benzene.

  19. Renal toxicity of anticancer agents targeting HER2 and EGFR.

    PubMed

    Cosmai, Laura; Gallieni, Maurizio; Porta, Camillo

    2015-12-01

    EGFR and HER2 are found overexpressed and/or activated in many different human malignancies (e.g. breast and colon cancer), and a number of drugs specifically targeting these two tyrosine kinases have been developed over the years as anticancer agents. In the present review, the renal safety profile of presently available agents targeting either HER2 or EGFR will be discussed, together with the peculiarities related to their clinical use in patients with impaired renal function, or even in dialysis. Indeed, even though renal toxicity is not so common with these agents, it may nevertheless happen, especially when these agents are combined with traditional chemotherapeutic agents. As a whole, kidney impairment or dialysis should not be regarded per se as reasons not to administer or to stop an active anti-HER or anti-EGFR anticancer treatment, especially given the possibility of significantly improving the life expectancy of many cancer patients with the use of these agents. PMID:26341657

  20. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  1. Influence of mitochondrion-toxic agents on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Ohnsorge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease may be induced or worsened by mitochondrion-toxic agents. Mitochondrion-toxic agents may be classified as those with or without a clinical effect, those which induce cardiac disease only in humans or animals or both, as prescribed drugs, illicit drugs, exotoxins, or nutritiants, as those which affect the heart exclusively or also other organs, as those which are effective only in patients with a mitochondrial disorder or cardiac disease or also in healthy subjects, or as solid, liquid, or volatile agents. In humans, cardiotoxic agents due to mitochondrial dysfunction include anthracyclines (particularly doxorubicin), mitoxantrone, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin, fluorouracil, imatinib, bortezomib, trastuzumab, arsenic trioxide, cyclosporine-A, zidovudine, lamotrigine, glycosides, lidocain, isoproterenol, nitroprusside, pivalic acid, alcohol, cocaine, pesticides, cadmium, mycotoxins, cyanotoxins, meat meal, or carbon monoxide. Even more agents exhibit cardiac abnormalities due to mitochondrion-toxicity only in animals or tissue cultures. The mitochondrion-toxic effect results from impairment of the respiratory chain, the oxidative phosphorylation, the Krebs cycle, or the β-oxidation, from decrease of the mitochondrion-membrane potential, from increased oxidative stress, reduced anti-oxidative capacity, or from induction of apoptosis. Cardiac abnormalities induced via these mechanisms include cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, coronary heart disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, or Takotsubo syndrome. Discontinuation of the cardiotoxic agent results in complete recovery in the majority of the cases. Antioxidants and nutritiants may be of additional help. Particularly coenzyme-Q, riboflavin, vitamin-E, vitamin-C, L-carnitine, vitamin-D, thiamin, folic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, and D-ribose may alleviate mitochondrial cardiotoxic effects.

  2. Differentiation of cultured epithelial cells: Response to toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.H.; LaMontagne, A.D.; Petito, C.T.; Rong, Xianhui )

    1989-03-01

    Cell culture systems are instrumental in elucidating regulation of normal function and mechanisms of its perturbation by toxic substances. To this end, three applications of epithelial cells cultured with 3T3 feeder layer support are described. First, treatment of the premalignant human epidermal keratinocyte line SCC-12F2 with the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate suppressed cell growth and differentiation. This agent produced a biphasic growth response greatly inhibiting cell growth at 1 to 10 nM, but much less above 100 nM. Expression of the differentiated functions involucrin and transglutaminase was found to be inhibited markedly at concentrations above 10 nM. Second, 3-methylcholanthrene toxicity was surveyed in a variety of rat epithelial cell types. The two most sensitive to growth inhibition were epidermal and mammary epithelial cells, while those from bladder, prostate, thyroid, and endometrium were insensitive to growth inhibition. Finally, expression of estrogen receptors in rat endometrial cells was shown to be stimulated by the cAmP-elevating agent forskolin. Maximal stimulation of 3- to 6-fold occurred in 6 hr, compatible with a requirement for protein synthesis. Pursuit of such results will aid in understanding differences in response among cell types and species, in elucidating mechanisms of action of known toxic substances and, ultimately, in predicting toxicity of less well understood agents.

  3. Prevention by chelating agents of metal-induced developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L

    1995-01-01

    Chelating agents such as calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL), or D-penicillamine (D-PA) have been widely used for the past 4 decades as antidotes for the treatment of acute and chronic metal poisoning. In recent years, meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS) and sodium 4,5-dihydroxybenzene-1,3-disulfonate (Tiron) have also shown to be effective to prevent against toxicity induced by a number of heavy metals. The purpose of the present article was to review the protective activity of various chelating agents against the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of well-known developmental toxicants (arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium, and vanadium). DMSA and DMPS were found to be effective in alleviating arsenate- and arsenite-induced teratogenesis, whereas BAL afforded only some protection against arsenic-induced embryo/fetal toxicity. Also, DMSA, DMPS, and Tiopronin were effective in ameliorating methyl mercury-induced developmental toxicity. Although the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of vanadate were significantly reduced by Tiron, no significant amelioration of uranium-induced embryotoxicity was observed after treatment with this chelator.

  4. [Source identification of toxic wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Yu, Yin; Zhou, Yue-Xi; Chen, Xue-Min; Fu, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Miao

    2014-12-01

    Petrochemical wastewaters have toxic impacts on the microorganisms in biotreatment processes, which are prone to cause deterioration of effluent quality of the wastewater treatment plants. In this study, the inhibition effects of activated sludge's oxygen consumption were tested to evaluate the toxicity of production wastewaters in a petrochemical industrial park. The evaluation covered the wastewaters from not only different production units in the park, but also different production nodes in each unit. No direct correlation was observed between the toxicity effects and the organic contents, suggesting that the toxic properties of the effluents could not be predicted by the organic contents. In view of the variation of activated sludge sensitivity among different tests, the toxicity data were standardized according to the concentration-effect relationships of the standard toxic substance 3, 5-dichlorophenol on each day, in order to improve the comparability among the toxicity data. Furthermore, the Quality Emission Load (QEL) of corresponding standard toxic substance was calculated by multiplying the corresponding 3, 5-dichlorophenol concentration and the wastewater flow quantity, to indicate the toxicity emission contribution of each wastewater to the wastewater treatment plant. According to the rank list of the toxicity contribution of wastewater from different units and nodes, the sources of toxic wastewater in the petrochemical industrial park were clearly identified. This study provides effective guidance for source control of wastewater toxicity in the large industrial park.

  5. Environmentally Safer, Less Toxic Fire-Extinguishing Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.

    2003-01-01

    Fire-extinguishing agents comprising microscopic drops of water microencapsulated in flame-retardant polymers have been proposed as effective, less toxic, non-ozone-depleting, non-globalwarming alternatives to prior fire-extinguishing agents. Among the prior fire-extinguishing agents are halons (various halocarbon fluids), which are toxic and contribute both to depletion of upperatmospheric ozone and to global warming. Other prior fire-extinguishing agents are less toxic and less environmentally harmful but, in comparison with halons, are significantly less effective in extinguishing fires. The proposal to formulate new waterbased agents is based on recent success in the use of water mist as a fire-suppression agent. Water suppresses a flame by reducing the flame temperature and the concentration of oxygen available for the combustion process. The temperature is reduced because the water droplets in the mist absorb latent heat of vaporization as they evaporate. The concentration of oxygen is reduced because the newly generated water vapor displaces air. Unfortunately, water mists are difficult to produce in confined spaces and can evaporate before they reach the bases of flames. The proposal addresses both of these issues: The proposed fire-extinguishing agents would be manufactured in microencapsulated form in advance, eliminating the problem of generating mists in confined spaces. Because of the microencapsulation, the droplets would not evaporate until exposed directly to the heat of flames. In addition, the proposal calls for the introduction of free radicals that would inhibit the propagation of the chemical reactions of the combustion reactions. Manufacturing of a fire-extinguishing agent according to the proposal would begin with the formulation of a suitable polymer (e.g., a polybromostyrene) that would contribute free radicals to the combustion process. The polymer would be dissolved in a suitable hydrocarbon liquid (e.g., toluene). Water would be

  6. Chemical and biological properties of toxic metals and use of chelating agents for the pharmacological treatment of metal poisoning.

    PubMed

    Sinicropi, Maria Stefania; Amantea, Diana; Caruso, Anna; Saturnino, Carmela

    2010-07-01

    Exposure to toxic metals is a well-known problem in industrialized countries. Metals interfere with a number of physiological processes, including central nervous system (CNS), haematopoietic, hepatic and renal functions. In the evaluation of the toxicity of a particular metal it is crucial to consider many parameters: chemical forms (elemental, organic or inorganic), binding capability, presence of specific proteins that selectively bind metals, etc. Medical treatment of acute and chronic metal toxicity is provided by chelating agents, namely organic compounds capable of interacting with metal ions to form structures called chelates. The present review attempts to provide updated information about the mechanisms, the cellular targets and the effects of toxic metals.

  7. Mixture toxicity effects of sea louse control agents in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephanie; Altenburger, Rolf; Sturm, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Caligid sea lice are ectoparasites causing major disease problems in industrial salmon farming. Sea louse control currently relies widely on parasiticides. Among non-target species, crustaceans are particularly susceptible to salmon delousing agents. Drug combinations have recently been suggested for sea louse control; however, no information is available on the non-target effects of such mixtures. To obtain first insights into combination effects of salmon parasiticides, acute toxicity tests with the crustacean model species Daphnia magna were conducted. Four compounds, including two organophosphates and two pyrethroids, were tested individually and in all pair-wise combinations at one fixed concentration ratio. For most combinations, observed toxicities were close to predictions assuming concentration additivity. However, deltamethrin and cypermethrin showed greater than predicted combination effects, while the inverse was observed for deltamethrin and malathion. The results demonstrate combination effects of anti-sea louse agents and suggest that predictions based on concentration additivity are in most cases protective.

  8. Mixture toxicity effects of sea louse control agents in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Rose, Stephanie; Altenburger, Rolf; Sturm, Armin

    2016-02-01

    Caligid sea lice are ectoparasites causing major disease problems in industrial salmon farming. Sea louse control currently relies widely on parasiticides. Among non-target species, crustaceans are particularly susceptible to salmon delousing agents. Drug combinations have recently been suggested for sea louse control; however, no information is available on the non-target effects of such mixtures. To obtain first insights into combination effects of salmon parasiticides, acute toxicity tests with the crustacean model species Daphnia magna were conducted. Four compounds, including two organophosphates and two pyrethroids, were tested individually and in all pair-wise combinations at one fixed concentration ratio. For most combinations, observed toxicities were close to predictions assuming concentration additivity. However, deltamethrin and cypermethrin showed greater than predicted combination effects, while the inverse was observed for deltamethrin and malathion. The results demonstrate combination effects of anti-sea louse agents and suggest that predictions based on concentration additivity are in most cases protective. PMID:26401637

  9. Low toxicity aromatic diamine curing agents for adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, G.F.

    1993-08-24

    Increasing severity of regulations for handling of hazardous materials has led to formulation of adhesives with considerably lowered toxicities for use at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Fundamental was the development of Asilamine aromatic diamines, a family of liquid aromatic diamines useful as substitutes for methylenedianiline (MDA), a widely used adhesives curing agent. The use of Asilamine has allowed us to continue operations without dealing with expensive measures for regulation of MDA as a carcinogen promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA).

  10. Technical considerations regarding toxicity testing of commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Merski, A.T.; Cianciarulo, F.L.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicological evaluation of commercial bioremediation agents (CBAs) for use on oil spills is under consideration by the USEPA. Currently, acute and chronic bioassays are conducted with the CBA alone and with CBA that has been diluted with the water soluble fraction (WSF) of a crude oil. Endpoints are expressed as a concentration of the CBA. This approach may not address the toxicological issue of CBA use since it (1) does not determine if the CBA affects toxicity of the oil itself, and (2) does not consider temporal aspects associated with byproducts of oil degradation. The present study was conducted to address these issues. A CBA was mixed with unweathered crude oil from 1 to 42 days. The WSF of the mixture was then drawn off and acute bioassays were conducted with silverside minnows, Menidia beryllina, and mysid shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia. For silversides, 96-hr LC50 values ranged from 42.7% WSF after 1 day mixing to 10.5% after 42 days. Toxicity increased sharply between days 4 and 7 when the 96-hr LC50 dropped from 39.0 to 18.2% WSF. A similar trend occurred for mysid shrimp. The presence of the CBA caused a more rapid increase in the toxicity of the oil as compared to bioassays in which oil was mixed alone and then tested. These data indicate that the interaction of CBAs with oil, and associated temporal trends in toxicity, are important aspects to consider in hazard evaluation of these products. The current proposed CBA toxicity testing protocol does not effectively address these issues.

  11. Unacceptable "occupational" exposure to toxic agents among children in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Harari, R; Forastiere, F; Axelson, O

    1997-09-01

    To document the problem of child labor as a health issue, we report here three case-studies in Ecuador: exposure to mercury among gold washers, exposure to organophosphates and carbamates in the fruit-growing industry, and exposure to solvents among shoe cleaners. We measured the relevant biological indicators of exposure (mercury in urine, urinary levels of phenols, and acetylcholine esterase in erythrocytes) among selected samples of 10 children for each working place. In all the case studies, the values of the biological indicators showed elevated exposure to well-known toxicants, which are now rare in developed countries, even among adult workers. The findings meld with a previously reported case study of intoxication from inorganic lead among children employed in the manufacture of roof tiles in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to properly evaluate and control the potential health effects due to exposure to toxic substances among children employed in different occupations in several parts of the world.

  12. Industrial toxicants and Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Caudle, W. Michael; Guillot, Thomas S.; Lazo, Carlos R.; Miller, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of the human population to environmental contaminants is recognized as a significant contributing factor for the development of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other forms of parkinsonism. While pesticides have repeatedly been identified as risk factors for PD, these compounds represent only a subset of environmental toxicants that we are exposed to on a regular basis. Thus, non-pesticide contaminants, such as metals, solvents, and other organohalogen compounds have also been implicated in the clinical and pathological manifestations of these movement disorders and it is these non-pesticide compounds that are the subject of this review. As toxic exposures to these classes of compounds can result in a spectrum of PD or PD-related disorders, it is imperative to appreciate shared clinico-pathological characteristics or mechanisms of action of these compounds in order to further delineate the resultant disorders as well as identify improved preventive strategies or therapeutic interventions. PMID:22309908

  13. SCREENING FOR TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS USING SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE DEVICES WITH RAPID TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling device interfaced with two toxicity-based assays is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  14. Application of toxicity identification evaluation procedure to toxic industrial effluent in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ra, Jin-Sung; Jeong, Tae-Yong; Lee, Sun-Hong; Kim, Sang Don

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) was applied to the effluent from a pharmaceutical industrial complex, following the US EPA TIE guidelines. The whole effluent toxicity (WET) test found toxicity greater than 16toxic units (TU) in the effluent. Dissolved non-polar organic compounds were identified as the major contributor to the observed toxicity in the TIE manipulations in phases I and II. Among the 48 organic compounds identified, three compounds (i.e., acetophenone, benzoimide, and benzothiazole) were related to the pharmaceutical production procedure; however, no contribution to toxicity was predicted in the compounds. The results of the ECOSAR model, which predicts toxicity, indicated that the alkane compounds caused significant toxicity in the effluent. The toxicity test and heavy metal analysis, which used IC and ICP/MS, identified that particulate and heavy metals, such as Cu and Zn, contributed to the remaining toxicity, except dissolved organics. The results showed the applicability of the TIE method for predicting regional effluents produced by the industrial pharmaceutical complex in this study. Although the location was assumed to be affected by discharge of pharmaceutical related compounds in the river, no correlations were observed in the study. Based on the results, advanced treatment processes, such as activated carbon adsorption, are recommended for the wastewater treatment process in this location.

  15. Industrial wastewater analysis: A toxicity-directed approach

    SciTech Connect

    Reemtsma, T.; Putschew, A.; Jekel, M.

    1999-06-01

    Methods of toxicity-directed analysis have been developed for the characterization and identification of toxic organic constituents in industrial wastewater. Sequential solid-phase extraction is followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation or by automated multiple development thin-layer chromatography fractionation (AMD-TLC) of the toxic extracts. Toxic fractions were finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Toxicity was detected before each of the analytical steps by the bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri, which was performed on microtiter plates and on the developed TLC plates. While sequential extraction broadens the polarity range of the procedure, the new variants of the luminescence test make the method very versatile and fast. The potential of this kind of toxicity-directed analysis with respect to resolution and polarity of analytes is discussed and applications to partial effluents of a tannery, to molasses wastewater and a spent dyeing bath are presented. A variety of benzothiazoles and more polar organics were identified as major toxic compounds in tannery effluents. It is shown that the procedures are well suited to detect individual toxic components in complex industrial wastewaters. The use of LC-MS is proposed to extend the polarity range of the final identification step.

  16. A comparative study on toxicity identification of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kim, Eunhee; Jo, Hun-Je; Han, Taejun; Jung, Jinho

    2011-09-01

    In this study, acute toxicity monitoring and toxicity identification evaluation procedures were applied to identify causative toxicants in industrial effluents. Effluents from a metal plating factory and a rubber products factory were acutely toxic toward Daphnia magna and the toxicity varied over different sampling events (2.9-5.9 and 1.7-7.6 TU, respectively). For the rubber products effluent, it was confirmed that zinc (5.65-13.18 mg L(-1)) was found to be a major cause of toxicity, which is likely originated from zinc 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc diethyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators. For the metal plating effluent, it appeared that the presence of high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO(4)(2-) (8,539-11,400 and 3,588-4,850 mg L(-1), respectively) caused the observed toxicity. These toxicants likely originated from sodium bisulfate (NaHSO(3)) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) used as reducing and oxidizing agents. Though copper was found to be present in levels much higher than the EC(50) (50% effective concentration) value, this was not attributable to the toxicity of metal plating effluent likely due to complexation with dissolved organic matter. PMID:21761172

  17. Necessity of toxicity assessment in Turkish industrial discharges (examples from metal and textile industry effluents).

    PubMed

    Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2002-01-01

    Toxicity of some organic and inorganic chemicals to microorganisms is an important consideration in assessing their environmental impact against their economic benefits. Microorganisms play an important role in several environmental processes, both natural and engineered. Some organic and inorganics at toxic levels have been detected in industrial discharges resulting in plant upsets and discharge permit violations. In addition to this, even though in some cases the effluent wastewater does not exceed the discharge limits, the results of toxicity tests show potential toxicity. Toxicity knowledge of effluents can benefit treatment plant operators in optimising plant operation, setting pre-treatment standards, and protecting receiving water quality and in establishing sewer discharge permits to safeguard the plant. In the Turkish regulations only toxicity dilution factor (TDF) with fish is part of the toxicity monitoring program of permissible wastewater discharge. In various countries, laboratory studies involving the use of different organisms and protocol for toxicity assessment was conducted involving a number of discharges. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of textile and metal industry wastewaters by traditional and enrichment toxicity tests and emphasize the importance of toxicity tests in wastewater discharge regulations. The enrichment toxicity tests are novel applications and give an idea whether there is potential toxicity or growth limiting and stimulation conditions. Different organisms were used such as bacteria (Floc and Coliform bacteria) algae (Chlorella sp.). fish (Lepistes sp.) and protozoan (Vorticella sp.) to represent four tropic levels. The textile industry results showed acute toxicity for at least one organism in 8 out of 23 effluent samples. Acute toxicity for at least two organisms in 7 out of 23 effluent sampling was observed for the metal industry. The toxicity test results were assessed with chemical analyses

  18. [Specific toxicological considerations on anabolic agents; transmitted toxicity].

    PubMed

    Ferrando, R; Truhaut, R

    1976-01-01

    The growth of populations and the spread of urbanization, resulting in new agricultural structures, have entailed a concentration of livestock production and recourse to new techniques. Of some importance among these techniques is the enteric or parenteral administration of substances in very low doses. These substances include anabolic agents, some of which, like many natural feeds, exhibit hormonal activity. They may be divided into two classes: --those of the DES type, synthetic compounds non-existent in the natural state, --natural agents, which are normally distributed throughout the animal and human organism, and hence in food of animal origin---milk, meat, eggs. The compounds belonging to the second class may also be synthesized and the main toxicological consideration is that they then have to meet clear-cut standards of identity and purity. A compound belonging to the first class, diethylstilbestrol (DES), administered to rats in doses as small as 60 mug/kg of feed or even smaller, causes in general lower growth rates as well as alterations in the genital system and reproductive functions. In long-term experiments (12 months) using rats and mice and applying so-called toxicity "de relais" tests, developed and described by the authors, it also appeared that meat from calves in which DES pellets were implanted under normal rearing conditions, inhibits growth and reproduction in mice and rats fed a diet containing 20% of this meat. Studies in which the livers from treated calves constituted 6% of the diet of these two rodent species also led to the conclusion that fertility was impaired in the second reproduction test. The authors also recall cases of vaginal cancer observed in young girls whose mothers had been treated with DES during pregnancy. Compounds belonging to the second class (estradiol-progesterone and estradiol-testosterone) gave no evidence of harmful effects upon rats when mixed with their rations during short and medium-term trials. Similar

  19. Physiologic Conditions Affect Toxicity of Ingested Industrial Fluoride

    PubMed Central

    Sauerheber, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The effects of calcium ion and broad pH ranges on free fluoride ion aqueous concentrations were measured directly and computed theoretically. Solubility calculations indicate that blood fluoride concentrations that occur in lethal poisonings would decrease calcium below prevailing levels. Acute lethal poisoning and also many of the chronic effects of fluoride involve alterations in the chemical activity of calcium by the fluoride ion. Natural calcium fluoride with low solubility and toxicity from ingestion is distinct from fully soluble toxic industrial fluorides. The toxicity of fluoride is determined by environmental conditions and the positive cations present. At a pH typical of gastric juice, fluoride is largely protonated as hydrofluoric acid HF. Industrial fluoride ingested from treated water enters saliva at levels too low to affect dental caries. Blood levels during lifelong consumption can harm heart, bone, brain, and even developing teeth enamel. The widespread policy known as water fluoridation is discussed in light of these findings. PMID:23840230

  20. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals in water supplies using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Sylvia, James M.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Clauson, Susan L.

    2010-04-01

    An effective method to create fear in the populace is to endanger the water supply. Homeland Security places significant importance on ensuring drinking water integrity. Beyond terrorism, accidental supply contamination from a spill or chemical residual increases is a concern. A prominent class of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) is pesticides, which are prevalent in agricultural use and can be very toxic in minute concentrations. Detection of TICs or warfare agents must be aggressive; the contaminant needs to be rapidly detected and identified to enable isolation and remediation of the contaminated water while continuing a clean water supply for the population. Awaiting laboratory analysis is unacceptable as delay in identification and remediation increases the likelihood of infection. Therefore, a portable or online water quality sensor is required that can produce rapid results. In this presentation, Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is discussed as a viable fieldable sensor that can be immersed directly into the water supply and can provide results in <5 minutes from the time the instrument is turned on until analysis is complete. The ability of SERS to detect several chemical warfare agent degradation products, simulants and toxic industrial chemicals in distilled water, tap water and untreated water will be shown. In addition, results for chemical warfare agent degradation products and simulants will be presented. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves will also be presented.

  1. New low toxicity corrosion inhibitors for industrial cleaning operations

    SciTech Connect

    Lindert, A.; Johnston, W.G.

    1999-11-01

    Inhibitors are routinely employed in chemical cleaning solvents used for removing scale from electrical power plants and industrial equipment since these cleaning solvents are corrosive to metal surfaces. This paper discusses the development of three new inhibitors developed for the use in hydrochloric acid, ammoniated EDTA or citric acid chemical cleaning solutions. Synthesis procedures used in the production of Mannich derivatives employed in the inhibitors were optimized for maximum corrosion resistance and reduced toxicity. All auxiliary ingredients used in the formulation of final inhibitor products were chosen to give the lowest possible toxicity of these products.

  2. Reactive formulations for a neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Mark D.; Betty, Rita G.

    2006-10-24

    Decontamination formulations for neutralization of toxic industrial chemicals, and methods of making and using same. The formulations are effective for neutralizing malathion, hydrogen cyanide, sodium cyanide, butyl isocyanate, carbon disulfide, phosgene gas, capsaicin in commercial pepper spray, chlorine gas, anhydrous ammonia gas; and may be effective at neutralizing hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, methyl bromide, boron trichloride, fluorine, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, phosphorous trichloride, arsine, and tungsten hexafluoride.

  3. Evaluation of Chemical Warfare Agent Percutaneous Vapor Toxicity: Derivation of Toxicity Guidelines for Assessing Chemical Protective Ensembles.

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, A.P.

    2003-07-24

    Percutaneous vapor toxicity guidelines are provided for assessment and selection of chemical protective ensembles (CPEs) to be used by civilian and military first responders operating in a chemical warfare agent vapor environment. The agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents, the vesicant sulfur mustard (agent HD) and, to a lesser extent, the vesicant Lewisite (agent L). The focus of this evaluation is percutaneous vapor permeation of CPEs and the resulting skin absorption, as inhalation and ocular exposures are assumed to be largely eliminated through use of SCBA and full-face protective masks. Selection of appropriately protective CPE designs and materials incorporates a variety of test parameters to ensure operability, practicality, and adequacy. One aspect of adequacy assessment should be based on systems tests, which focus on effective protection of the most vulnerable body regions (e.g., the groin area), as identified in this analysis. The toxicity range of agent-specific cumulative exposures (Cts) derived in this analysis can be used as decision guidelines for CPE acceptance, in conjunction with weighting consideration towards more susceptible body regions. This toxicity range is bounded by the percutaneous vapor estimated minimal effect (EME{sub pv}) Ct (as the lower end) and the 1% population threshold effect (ECt{sub 01}) estimate. Assumptions of exposure duration used in CPE certification should consider that each agent-specific percutaneous vapor cumulative exposure Ct for a given endpoint is a constant for exposure durations between 30 min and 2 hours.

  4. Psychiatrists' relationships with industry: the principal-agent problem.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Paul S; Gold, Azgad

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatrists' relationships with the pharmaceutical and device industries have been a growing focus of attention, with questions raised about the impact of those relationships on prescribing practices, diagnostic criteria, practice guidelines, continuing education, conduct and reporting of research, and patients' and public trust. Indeed, these concerns exist for the medical profession as a whole, with various remedial measures proposed. We suggest that such relationships can be understood as giving rise to a "principal-agent problem," which occurs when an agent (here, a physician) is engaged to advance the interests of another party, the principal (typically a patient), but also faces incentives to promote other interests. Studies suggest that at least some relationships--which include attending industry-sponsored presentations, meeting with marketing representatives, and accepting samples--can alter psychiatrists' and other physicians' behavior in ways that can compromise patients' interests, and that industry-funded research may create bias in the medical literature. These effects are difficult to detect in specific cases, however, because of asymmetries of information and may not be apparent even to physicians themselves. Principal-agent analysis suggests that the possible responses to such problems, including appeals to ethical principles, monitoring behavior, and managing risk-inducing situations, should include consideration of aligning agents' incentives with principals' interests. This type of analysis underscores the similarity of the issues raised by physicians' relationships with industry to problems that arise more generally in society, thus reducing physicians' potential affective responses to these issues and efforts to address them. Finally, such analysis directs attention to the benefits and costs of each alternative, thereby encouraging reliance on evidence as a basis for policy.

  5. Toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons: exposure, identification, and management by syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassoni, Anthony J; French, Robert N E; Walter, Frank G

    2015-02-01

    Toxidromes aid emergency care providers in the context of the patient presenting with suspected poisoning, unexplained altered mental status, unknown hazardous materials or chemical weapons exposure, or the unknown overdose. The ability to capture an adequate chemical exposure history and to recognize toxidromes may reduce dependence on laboratory tests, speed time to delivery of specific antidote therapy, and improve selection of supportive care practices tailored to the etiologic agent. This article highlights elements of the exposure history and presents selected toxidromes that may be caused by toxic industrial chemicals and chemical weapons. Specific antidotes for toxidromes and points regarding their use, and special supportive measures, are presented.

  6. Wind tunnel modeling of toxic gas releases at industrial facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, R.L.

    1994-12-31

    Government agencies and the petroleum, chemical and gas industries in the US and abroad have become increasingly concerned about the issues of toxic gas dispersal. Because of this concern, research programs have been sponsored by these various groups to improve the capabilities in hazard mitigation and response. Present computer models used to predict pollutant concentrations at industrial facilities do not properly account for the effects of structures. Structures can act to trap or deflect the cloud and modify the cloud dimensions, thereby possibly increasing or reducing downwind concentrations. The main purpose of this evaluation was to develop a hybrid modeling approach, which combines wind tunnel and dispersion modeling, to obtain more accurate concentration estimates when buildings or structures affect the dispersion of hazardous chemical vapors. To meet the study objectives, wind tunnel testing was performed on a building cluster typical of two industrial settings where accidental releases of toxic gases might occur. This data set was used to test the validity of the AFTOX and SLAB models for estimating concentrations and was used to develop and test two hybrid models. Two accident scenarios were simulated, an evaporating pool of a gas slightly heavier than air (Hydrazine-N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and a liquid jet release of Nitrogen Tetroxide (N{sub 2}O{sub 4}) where dense gas dispersion effects would be significant. Tests were conducted for a range of wind directions and wind speeds for two different building configurations (low rise and high rise structures).

  7. Pharmacological activity and toxicity of some neurotropic agents under conditions of experimental hypodynamia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirichek, L. T.

    1980-01-01

    The indices of pharmacological range, risk coefficients, ED50, LD50, the size of the area of toxic activity, and maximal tolerated and absolute lethal doses were compared in hypodynamic mice. The pharmacological activity of the test neurotropic agents exhibiting a central action underwent change, but their toxicity remained unchanged.

  8. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2013-10-01

    A biosensor based detection of toxins includes enhancing a fluorescence signal by concentrating a plurality of photosynthetic organisms in a fluid into a concentrated region using biased AC electro-osmosis. A measured photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms is obtained in the concentrated region, where chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. A presence of the chemical, biological and/or radiological agents or precursors thereof, is determined in the fluid based on the measured photosynthetic activity of the concentrated plurality of photosynthetic organisms. A lab-on-a-chip system is used for the concentrating step. The presence of agents is determined from feature vectors, obtained from processing a time dependent signal using amplitude statistics and/or time-frequency analysis, relative to a control signal. A linear discriminant method including support vector machine classification (SVM) is used to identify the agents.

  9. Chemometric analysis of ecological toxicants in petrochemical and industrial environments.

    PubMed

    Olawoyin, Richard; Heidrich, Brenden; Oyewole, Samuel; Okareh, Oladapo T; McGlothlin, Charles W

    2014-10-01

    The application of chemometrics in the assessment of toxicants, such as heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) potentially derived from petrochemical activities in the microenvironment, is vital in providing safeguards for human health of children and adults residing around petrochemical industrial regions. Several multivariate statistical methods are used in geosciences and environmental protection studies to classify, identify and group prevalent pollutants with regard to exhibited trends. Chemometrics can be applied for toxicant source identification, estimation of contaminants contributions to the toxicity of sites of interest, the assessment of the integral risk index of an area and provision of mitigating measures that limit or eliminate the contaminants identified. In this study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of both organic and inorganic substances data in the environment, which are potentially hazardous. The high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs correlated positively with stronger impact on the model than the lower molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, the total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs), PAHs and BTEX correlate positively in the F1 vs F2 plot indicating similar source contributions of these pollutants in the environmental material. Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Zn and Pb all show positive correlation in the same space indicating similar source of contamination. Analytical processes involving environmental assessment data obtained in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria, confirmed the usefulness of chemometrics for comprehensive ecological evaluation.

  10. Method and apparatus for enhanced detection of toxic agents

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Wu, Jie Jayne; Qi, Hairong

    2012-06-12

    A water quality analyzer for real-time detection according to the invention comprises a biased AC electro-osmosis (ACEO) cell for receiving a fluid to be analyzed having a plurality photosynthetic organisms therein, and concentrating the plurality photosynthetic organisms into at least one concentrated region. A photodetector is provided for obtaining a measured photosynthetic activity of the plurality of photosynthetic organisms in the concentrated region, wherein chemical, biological or radiological agents reduce a nominal photosynthetic activity of the photosynthetic organisms. An electronics package analyzes the measured photosynthetic activity to indicate a presence of the chemical, biological or radiological agents in the fluid.

  11. Selection of an averaging technique by simulation study of a DIAL system for toxic agents monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeja, Jai Paul; Jindal, Mukesh Kumar; Veerabuthiran, S.

    2007-10-01

    Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is a very effective technique for standoff detection of various toxic agents in the atmosphere. The Lidar backscattered signal received usually has poor signal to noise (SNR) ratio. In order to improve the SNR, statistical averaging over a number of laser pulses is employed. The aim of the present work is to select a particular statistical averaging technique, which is most suitable in removing the noise in Lidar return signals. The DIAL system considered here uses laser transmitters based on OPO based (2-5 μm) and TEA CO2 (9-11μm) lasers. Eight commonly used chemical warfare agents including five nerve agents and three blister agents have been considered here as examples of toxic agents. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) software has been developed in LabVIEW to simulate return signals mixed with the expected noise levels. A toxic agent cloud with a given thickness and concentration has been assumed to be detected in the ambient atmospheric conditions at various ranges up to 5 Km. Data for 200 pulses per agent was stored in the computer memory. Various known statistical averaging techniques were used and number concentrations of particular agent have been computed and compared with ideal Lidar return signal values. This exercise was repeated for all the eight agents and based on the results obtained; the most suitable averaging technique has been selected.

  12. Toxicity of the Organophosphate Chemical Warfare Agents GA, GB, and VX: Implications for Public Protection.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N

    1994-01-01

    The nerve agents, GA, GB, and VX are organophosphorus esters that form a major portion of the total agent volume contained in the U.S. stockpile of unitary chemical munitions. Congress has mandated the destruction of these agents, which is currently slated for completion in 2004. The acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity of these agents is reviewed in this analysis. The largely negative results from studies of genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, developmental, and reproductive toxicity are also presented. Nerve agents show few or delayed effects. At supralethal doses, GB can cause delayed neuropathy in antidote-protected chickens, but there is no evidence that it causes this syndrome in humans at any dose. Agent VX shows no potential for inducing delayed neuropathy in any species. In view of their lack of genotoxcity, the nerve agents are not likely to be carcinogens. The overreaching concern with regard to nerve agent exposure is the extraordinarily high acute toxicity of these substances. Furthermore, acute effects of moderate exposure such as nausea, diarrhea, inability to perform simple mental tasks, and respiratory effects may render the public unable to respond adequately to emergency instructions in the unlikely event of agent releaase, making early warning and exposure avoidance important. Likewise, exposure or self-contamination of first responders and medical personnel must be avoided. Control limits for exposure via surface contact of drinking water are needed, as are detection methods for low levels in water or foodstuffs. Images Figure 2. PMID:9719666

  13. Corneal toxicity induced by vesicating agents and effective treatment options.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Dinesh G; Tewari-Singh, Neera; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2016-06-01

    The vesicating agents sulfur mustard (SM) and lewisite (LEW) are potent chemical warfare agents that primarily cause damage to the ocular, skin, and respiratory systems. However, ocular tissue is the most sensitive organ, and vesicant exposure results in a biphasic injury response, including photophobia, corneal lesions, corneal edema, ulceration, and neovascularization, and may cause loss of vision. There are several reports on ocular injury from exposure to SM, which has been frequently used in warfare. However, there are very few reports on ocular injury by LEW, which indicate that injury symptoms appear instantly after exposure and faster than SM. In spite of extensive research efforts, effective therapies for vesicant-induced ocular injuries, mainly to the most affected corneal tissue, are not available. Hence, we have established primary human corneal epithelial cells and rabbit corneal organ culture models with the SM analog nitrogen mustard, which have helped to test the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents. These agents will then be further evaluated against in vivo SM- and LEW-induced corneal injury models, which will assist in the development of potential broad-spectrum therapies against vesicant-induced ocular injuries. PMID:27327041

  14. Perspective of surface active agents in baking industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Asif; Arshad, Nazish; Ahmed, Zaheer; Bhatti, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zahoor, Tahir; Anjum, Nomana; Ahmad, Hajra; Afreen, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Different researchers have previously used surfactants for improving bread qualities and revealed that these compounds result in improving the quality of dough and bread by influencing dough strength, tolerance, uniform crumb cell size, and improve slicing characteristics and gas retention. The objective of this review is to highlight the areas where surfactants are most widely used particularly in the bread industries, their role and mechanism of interaction and their contribution to the quality characteristics of the dough and bread. This review reveals some aspects of surface-active agents regarding its role physiochemical properties of dough that in turn affect the bread characteristics by improving its sensory quality and storage stability.

  15. The sources, fate, and toxicity of chemical warfare agent degradation products.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, N B; Talmage, S S; Griffin, G D; Waters, L C; Watson, A P; King, J F; Hauschild, V

    1999-01-01

    We include in this review an assessment of the formation, environmental fate, and mammalian and ecotoxicity of CW agent degradation products relevant to environmental and occupational health. These parent CW agents include several vesicants: sulfur mustards [undistilled sulfur mustard (H), sulfur mustard (HD), and an HD/agent T mixture (HT)]; nitrogen mustards [ethylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN1), methylbis(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN2), tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3)], and Lewisite; four nerve agents (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX), tabun (GA), sarin (GB), and soman (GD)); and the blood agent cyanogen chloride. The degradation processes considered here include hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, and photolysis. We also briefly address decontamination but not combustion processes. Because CW agents are generally not considered very persistent, certain degradation products of significant persistence, even those that are not particularly toxic, may indicate previous CW agent presence or that degradation has occurred. Of those products for which there are data on both environmental fate and toxicity, only a few are both environmentally persistent and highly toxic. Major degradation products estimated to be of significant persistence (weeks to years) include thiodiglycol for HD; Lewisite oxide for Lewisite; and ethyl methyl phosphonic acid, methyl phosphonic acid, and possibly S-(2-diisopropylaminoethyl) methylphosphonothioic acid (EA 2192) for VX. Methyl phosphonic acid is also the ultimate hydrolysis product of both GB and GD. The GB product, isopropyl methylphosphonic acid, and a closely related contaminant of GB, diisopropyl methylphosphonate, are also persistent. Of all of these compounds, only Lewisite oxide and EA 2192 possess high mammalian toxicity. Unlike other CW agents, sulfur mustard agents (e.g., HD) are somewhat persistent; therefore, sites or conditions involving potential HD contamination should include an

  16. Fate and control of blistering chemical warfare agents in Kuwait`s desalination industry

    SciTech Connect

    Khordagui, H.K.

    1997-01-01

    Kuwait, as most of the other states located along the Western shores of the Arabian Gulf, relies upon the Gulf as its main drinking water resource via desalination. In case of seawater contamination with blistering chemical warfare agents, traces of the agents and/or degradation products in the finished water might pose a serious health hazard. The objective of the present review is to study the potential contamination, transport, fate, effect and control of blistering chemical warfare agents (CWAs), in the Kuwaiti desalination industry. In general, all the environmental factors involved in the aquatic degradation of CWAs in Kuwait marine environment except for the high salinity in case of blistering agents such as sulphur mustard, and in favor of a fast degradation process. In case of massive releases of CWAs near the Kuwaiti shorelines, turbulence resulting from tidal cycles and high temperature will affect the dissolution process and extend the toxicity of the insoluble agent. Post- and pre-chlorination during the course of seawater desalination will catalyze and significantly accelerate the hydrolysis processes of the CWAs. The heat exerted on CWAs during the power generation-desalination processes is not expected to thermally decompose them. However, the steam heat will augment the agent`s rate of hydrolysis with subsequent acceleration in their rate of detoxification. Conventional pretreatment of feed seawater for reverse-osmosis desalination is theoretically capable of reducing the concentration of CWAs by coprecipitation and adsorption on flocs formed during coagulation. Prechlorination and prolonged detention in time in pretreatment units will simultaneously promote hydrolysis reactions. 50 refs.

  17. Aquatic toxicity of the decontamination agent: Multipurpose (DAM) decontamination solution. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haley, M.V.; Kurnas, C.W.; Chester, N.A.; Muse, W.T.

    1994-05-01

    A new formulation, Decontaminating Agent: Multipurpose (DAM) Decontamination Solution, is being considered as a replacement to the DS-2 decontaminating solution. The new formulation is composed of calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone. Since this is a new formulation little environmental data exists. To estimate potential impact to an aquatic environment, Daphnia magna and Photobacterium phosphoreum (a luminescent marine bacterium) were exposed to the DAM solution and to the individual components (Calcium hypochlorite and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone). The toxicity of the DAM solution to D. magna and P. phosphoreum was 5000 and 0.00053, respectively (highly toxic). The toxicity of calcium hypochlorite' and N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidinone to daphnia was 0.04 mg/L (highly toxic) and 107 mg/L (moderately toxic), respectively.

  18. 76 FR 59142 - Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities-Integrating Study Results To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Reproductive and Developmental... a guidance for industry entitled ``Reproductive and Developmental Toxicities--Integrating Study... developmental or reproductive risks associated with drug or biological product exposure when a...

  19. Toxic agent and radiation control: meeting the 1990 objectives for the nation.

    PubMed Central

    Rall, D P

    1984-01-01

    Toxic agent and radiation control is 1 of the 15 health priority areas addressed through the Public Health Service's Objectives for the Nation. Several gains in moving toward the 1990 goals for toxic agent and radiation control have been recorded. Research and technical assistance, combined with legislation to reduce the amount of lead in gasoline, have contributed to a decrease in the mean blood lead level of the general population. New testing procedures have been developed to evaluate both reproductive and developmental toxicities of chemicals. Educational implementation of pelvimetry referral criteria in a multiyear study involving approximately 200 U.S. hospitals has resulted in a 50 percent reduction in the number of pelvimetries performed. Health-related responses have been given to environmental problems such as exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Massachusetts and Florida and exposures to dioxin in Missouri and New Jersey. Chemical records for some 1,000 compounds likely to occur in chemical dumps or in bulk transit are being either created or updated to enhance online data retrieval services. For the foreseeable future, however, improvement of knowledge of the potential health risk posed by toxic chemicals and radiation must remain one of the most important priorities. To control toxic agents, development of surveillance systems and data bases are equally important. PMID:6444199

  20. A Study on the D. magna and V. fischeri Toxicity Relationship of Industrial Wastewater from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, S.; Lee, S.; Chun Sang, H.; Park, T. J.; Kim, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that high concentration of TDS (total dissolved solid) in industrial effluent gives rise to the toxicity to the Daphnia magna toxicity test. D. magna is vulnerable to relatively low TDS concentration showing the 24-hr EC50 of Salinity 0.6% (as the sea salt concentration). Recently, standard mandatory toxicity testing using Daphnia magna has been used to monitor industrial effluent toxicity according to Korea standard method (Acute Toxicity Test Method of the Daphnia magna Straus (Cladocera, Crustacea), ES 04704. 1a) under regulation. Since only one acute toxicity testing is applied in the present, we are trying to introduce microbial battery for more complete toxicity assessment. In this study, the acute toxicities between daphnids and microbes were compared. The results of D. magna and Vibrio fischeri toxicity test from 165 industrial wastewater effluents showed high positive correlation. In addition, the possibility of predicting daphnia toxicity from the bacterial toxicity data amounts to 92.6% if we consider salinity effect (>5ppt) together. From this study, we found that the V. fischeri toxicity test is a powerful battery tool to assess the industrial wastewater toxicity. Here, we suggest that luminescent bacteria toxicity test be useful not only for complete toxicity assessment which can't be obtained by daphnia toxicity testing only but also for the reduction cost, time, and labor in the Korean society. Keywords : D. magna, V. fischeri, Industrial waste water, battery test Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  1. Effectiveness and Toxicity of Several DTPA Broadening Agents for Biological ESR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplatin, A. N.; Baker, Kent A.; Kleinhans, F. W.

    1996-03-01

    The effectiveness of a standard ESR broadening agent, potassium trioxalatochromiate (CrOx), for use with the spin-label tempone, was compared to that of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) containing an ion (Gd, Cr, Mn, Fe) with a large magnetic moment. Signal attenuation, line broadening, toxicity, and cell membrane permeability were compared. As a broadening agent, CrOx was most effective, followed by Fe-DTPA. CrOx proved mildly toxic while Gd-DTPA and Fe-DTPA were virtually nontoxic. The human red blood cell membrane was tested for permeability to Fe- and Gd-DTPA and found to be impermeable to both. In situations where toxicity to cells is critical, the DTPA chelates, particularly Fe-DTPA, may prove an acceptable substitute for CrOx.

  2. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the reported effects for exposure to many of the toxic industrial chemicals is DNA damage. The present study describes a simple, rapid and innovative assay to detect DNA damage resulting from exposure of surrogate DNA to toxic industrial chemicals (acrolein, allylamine, ch...

  3. Short-term toxicity of nine industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Komsta, E.; Secours, V.E.; Chu, I.; Morris, R.; Harrison, J.; Baranowski, E.; Villeneuve, D.C. ); Valli, V.E. )

    1989-07-01

    There are a number of industrial chemicals currently used in Canada in sufficiently large quantities that warrant a careful environmental and human health hazard assessment by the regulatory agencies. A review of the existing toxicity data for these chemicals indicated that most of the studies were inadequate due to study design, small group size, inadequate procedures or insufficient parameters being monitored. In order to determine if further studies were warranted it was decided to screen 9 of these chemicals in a short-term study using male and female rats. The chemicals were chosen based on considerations such as quantity, availability of toxicological data, chemical and structural properties and commercial availability. The chemicals selected were: tri(butoxyethyl) phosphate, dimethylol urea, 2-butyne-1,4-diol, triallyl-s-triazine-trione, cyclohexanone oxime, p-toluene sulphonhydrazide, 2-nitroaniline, propargyl alcohol and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole. The assay consisted of a 14-day oral dosing regime followed by a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histophathological changes.

  4. Chemical warfare agent and biological toxin-induced pulmonary toxicity: could stem cells provide potential therapies?

    PubMed

    Angelini, Daniel J; Dorsey, Russell M; Willis, Kristen L; Hong, Charles; Moyer, Robert A; Oyler, Jonathan; Jensen, Neil S; Salem, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWAs) as well as biological toxins present a significant inhalation injury risk to both deployed warfighters and civilian targets of terrorist attacks. Inhalation of many CWAs and biological toxins can induce severe pulmonary toxicity leading to the development of acute lung injury (ALI) as well as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The therapeutic options currently used to treat these conditions are very limited and mortality rates remain high. Recent evidence suggests that human stem cells may provide significant therapeutic options for ALI and ARDS in the near future. The threat posed by CWAs and biological toxins for both civilian populations and military personnel is growing, thus understanding the mechanisms of toxicity and potential therapies is critical. This review will outline the pulmonary toxic effects of some of the most common CWAs and biological toxins as well as the potential role of stem cells in treating these types of toxic lung injuries.

  5. Methods for estimating cleaning effectiveness, dispersion, and toxicity of shoreline cleaning agents at oil spills

    SciTech Connect

    Stransky, B.C.; Clayton, J.R. Jr.; Schwartz, M.J.; Snyder, B.J.; Lees, D.C.; Adkins, A.C.; Reilly, T.J.; Michel, J.

    1995-12-31

    Chemical shoreline cleaning agents (SCAs) are designed to enhance removal of stranded oil from shoreline surfaces. However, difficulties associated with estimating cleaning effectiveness and toxicity of SCAs for site-specific conditions make it desirable to perform measurements in the field with onsite oil, substrates, and resident or otherwise appropriate test organisms. Information for onsite testing should address the following questions: (1) does use of an SCA promote removal of oil from substate surfaces; (2) does use of an SCA increase the amount of dispersed oil in the water column; (3) does toxicity for resident organisms indicate a likelihood for adverse effects; (4) does toxicity with a portable test organism indicate a likelihood for adverse effects? Methodologies are described for use in a portable kit to estimate quantitative and qualitative information for cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field. Toxicity methodologies for resident organisms include echinoderm fertilization, byssal thread attachment for mussels, and righting/water-escaping ability for periwinkle snails. Microtox{trademark} is used for toxicity measurements as a portable test organism/assay. Use of portable methodologies for assessing cleaning effectiveness, dispersion of oil, and toxicity of SCAs in the field can assist onsite evaluations for cleaning performance and relative risk to biological resources, which are important for supporting use-no use decisions for SCAs.

  6. Creatinine Clearance Is Associated with Toxicity from Molecularly Targeted Agents in Phase I Trials

    PubMed Central

    Basu, B.; Vitfell-Pedersen, J.; Moreno Garcia, V.; Puglisi, M.; Tjokrowidjaja, A.; Shah, K.; Malvankar, S.; Anghan, B.; de Bono, J.S.; Kaye, S.B.; Molife, L.R.; Banerji, U.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate any correlations between baseline creatinine clearance and the development of grade 3/4 toxicities during treatment within oncology phase I trials of molecularly targeted agents where entry criteria mandate a serum creatinine of ≤1.5 × the upper limit of normal. Methods Documented toxicity and creatinine clearance (calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula) from all patients treated with molecularly targeted agents in the context of phase I trials within our centre over a 5-year period were analyzed. Results Data from 722 patients were analyzed; 116 (16%) developed at least one episode of grade 3/4 toxicity. Patients who developed a late-onset (>1 cycle) grade 3/4 toxicity had a lower creatinine clearance than those who did not (82.69 ml/min vs. 98.97 ml/min; p = < 0.001). Conclusion Creatinine clearance (even when within normal limits) should be studied as a potential factor influencing late toxicities in the clinical trials of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22889980

  7. Toxic polyneuropathy of shoe-industry workers. A study of 122 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Cianchetti, C; Abbritti, G; Perticoni, G; Siracusa, A; Curradi, F

    1976-01-01

    The toxic polyneuropathy observed in a group of shoe-industry workers in Italy was clinically characterised by a symmetrical prevalently distal motor deficit, with occasional marked weakness of pelvic girdle muscles, and frequently by only subjective sensory symptoms; non-specific disturbances usually preceded neurological signs. Subclinical cases of 'minimal' chronic neuropathy, characterised by alterations of a neurogenic type in the EMG without a reduction of motor nerve conduction velocity, were also observed. Worsening of the clinical picture, with further lowering of nerve conduction velocity, was noted in some cases up to four months after removal from the toxic environment. In the most severe cases clinical recovery took up to three years. The electromyographic and electroneurographic features were consistent with a mixed axonal neuropathy, with clear prevalence of the damage in the distal part of the nerve (dying-back neuropathy). Volatile substances, such as n-hexane and other low boiling point hydrocarbons found in high percentage in solvents and glues, are suggested as the causative agent. PMID:1011025

  8. In vitro toxicities of experimental jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents.

    PubMed

    Geiss, K T; Frazier, J M

    2001-07-01

    One research emphasis within the Department of Defense has been to seek the replacement of operational compounds with alternatives that pose less potential risk to human and ecological systems. Alternatives to glycol ethers, such as diethylene glycol monomethyl ether (M-DE), were investigated for use as jet fuel system ice-inhibiting agents (FSIIs). This group of chemicals includes three derivatives of 1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol (M-1, M-2, and M-3) and a 1,3-dioxane (M-27). In addition, M-DE was evaluated as a reference compound. Our approach was to implement an in vitro test battery based on primary rat hepatocyte cultures to perform initial toxicity evaluations. Hepatocytes were exposed to experimental chemicals (0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10 mM dosages) for periods up to 24 h. Samples were assayed for lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, MTT dye reduction activity, glutathione level, and rate of protein synthesis as indicators of toxicity. Of the compounds tested, M-1, especially at the 10-mM dose, appeared to be more potent than the other chemicals, as measured by these toxicity assays. M-DE, the current FSII, elicited little response in the toxicity assays. Although some variations in toxicity were observed at the 10-mM dose, the in vitro toxicities of the chemicals tested (except for M-1) were not considerably greater than that of M-DE.

  9. Toxicity of spill-treating agents and oil to sea urchin embryos.

    PubMed

    Rial, Diego; Vázquez, José A; Murado, Miguel A

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the joint toxicity of a Maya crude oil and four spill-treating agents (STAs) (CytoSol, Finasol OSR51, Agma OSD569 and OD4000). The acute toxicity of the binary mixtures of the water accommodated fractions (WAFs) obtained independently for the oil and each STA was assessed. The toxicity of the chemically enhanced WAF (CEWAF) of oil and Finasol OSR51 at several dispersant to oil ratios (1:2, 1:10 and 1:100) was also evaluated. The toxicity (EC50) obtained for the WAFs of the STAs was: CytoSol (15.1 mL/L)toxicity of binary mixtures was obtained by the following models: Concentration Addition (Agma OSD569 and CytoSol), Independent Action (Finasol OSR51) and extended Concentration Addition model to describe antagonistic effects (OD4000). The CEWAFs showed an intermediate position between the more moderate effects of the WAF of oil and the higher toxicity of the WAFs of Finasol OSR51, which suggested the high sensitivity of the sea urchin embryo toward the dispersant.

  10. Preclinical animal acute toxicity studies of new developed MRI contrast agent based on gadolinium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, I. F.; Zhuk, V. V.

    2015-04-01

    Acute toxicity test of new developed MRI contrast agent based on disodium salt of gadopentetic acid complex were carried out on Mus musculus and Sprague Dawley rats according to guidelines of preclinical studies [1]. Groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Death and clinical symptoms of animals were recorded during 14 days. As a result the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for female mice is 2.8 mM/kg of body weight, male mice - 1.4 mM/kg, female rats - 2.8 mM/kg, male rats - 5.6 mM/kg of body weight. No Observed Adverse Effect Dose (NOAEL) for female mice is 1.4 mM/kg, male mice - 0.7 mM/kg, male and female rats - 0.7 mM/kg. According to experimental data new developed MRI contrast agent based on Gd-DTPA complex is low-toxic.

  11. Effect of new soil metal immobilizing agents on metal toxicity to terrestrial invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lock, K; Janssen, C R

    2003-01-01

    Application of 5% (w:w) novel metal immobilizing agent reduced the water soluble, the calcium chloride extracted as well as the pore water concentration of zinc in soils from Maatheide, a metal contaminated site in the northeast of Belgium. Addition of the metal immobilizing agents also eliminated acute toxicity to the potworm Enchytraeus albidus and the earthworm Eisenia fetida and chronic toxicity to the springtail Folsomia candida. Cocoon production by E. fetida, however, was still adversely affected. These differences may be explained by the species dependent routes of metal uptake: F. candida is probably mainly exposed via pore water while in E. fetida dietary exposure is probably also important. From these results it is clear that organisms with different exposure routes should be used simultaneously to assess the environmental risk of metal contaminated soils.

  12. Toxic trauma.

    PubMed

    Moles, T M; Baker, D J

    2001-01-01

    Hazardous materials (HAZMAT) carry many inherent dangers. Such materials are distributed widely in industrial and military sites. Toxic trauma (TT) denotes the complex of systemic and organ injury caused by toxic agents. Often, TT is associated with other injuries that also require the application of life-support techniques. Rapid onset of acute respiratory failure and consequent cardiovascular failure are of primary concern. Management of TT casualties is dependent upon the characteristics of the toxic agents involved and on the demographics surrounding the HAZMAT incident. Agents that can produce TT possess two pairs of salient characteristics: (1) causality (toxicity and latency), and (2) EMS system (persistency and transmissibility). Two characteristics of presentations are important: (1) incident presentation, and (2) casualty presentation. In addition, many of these agents complicate the processes associated with anaesthesia and must be dealt with. Failure of recognition of these factors may result in the development of respiratory distress syndromes and multiorgan system failure, or even death. PMID:11513285

  13. Immunoassay as a screening tool for industrial toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, T.

    1986-08-01

    Immunoassay techniques may represent useful screening tools to assist analysts interested in the presence and amounts of organic toxicants in biological fluids. The widespread application of immunoassay methods in medicinal and forensic (drugs of abuse) chemistry has resulted in such screening methodologies. Four methodologies of potential benefit are considered: the free radical assay technique, the enzyme-mediated immunoassay technique, radioimmunoassay, and hemagglutination. Each of these immunoassays is based on the competitive displacement of the labeled drug (or toxicant) from the antibody complex by the unlabeled drug-toxicant in the sample.

  14. 76 FR 72952 - Guidance for Industry on Nonclinical Evaluation of Late Radiation Toxicity of Therapeutic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Nonclinical Evaluation of Late Radiation Toxicity of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability...

  15. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases

    PubMed Central

    Bessac, Bret F.; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A.; Caceres, Ana I.; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-01-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca2+ imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca2+ influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.—Bessac, B. F., Sivula, M., von Hehn, C. A., Caceres, A. I., Escalera, J., Jordt, S.-E. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases. PMID:19036859

  16. VAPOR SAMPLING DEVICE FOR INTERFACE WITH MICROTOX ASSAY FOR SCREENING TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A time-integrated sampling system interfaced with a toxicity-based assay is reported for monitoring volatile toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the fill solvent accumulated each of 17 TICs from the vapor...

  17. CORRESPONDENCE BETWEEN WHOLE EFFLUENT TOXICITY AND THE PRESENCE OF PRIORITY SUBSTANCES IN COMPLEX INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to examine broad-scale correlation between presence of priority substances and whole effluent toxicity (WET) across a range of industry types. Using regression analysis, we examined how chemical-based inferred toxicity predicted measured WET of the e...

  18. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    SciTech Connect

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  19. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner-Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa's expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  20. Pharmacophore modeling and in silico toxicity assessment of potential anticancer agents from African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Simoben, Conrad Veranso; Karaman, Berin; Ngwa, Valery Fuh; Judson, Philip Neville; Sippl, Wolfgang; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a

    2016-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been employed in the search for lead compounds of chemotherapy to fight cancer. In this study, pharmacophore models have been generated and validated for use in virtual screening protocols for eight known anticancer drug targets, including tyrosine kinase, protein kinase B β, cyclin-dependent kinase, protein farnesyltransferase, human protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1. Pharmacophore models were validated through receiver operating characteristic and Güner–Henry scoring methods, indicating that several of the models generated could be useful for the identification of potential anticancer agents from natural product databases. The validated pharmacophore models were used as three-dimensional search queries for virtual screening of the newly developed AfroCancer database (~400 compounds from African medicinal plants), along with the Naturally Occurring Plant-based Anticancer Compound-Activity-Target dataset (comprising ~1,500 published naturally occurring plant-based compounds from around the world). Additionally, an in silico assessment of toxicity of the two datasets was carried out by the use of 88 toxicity end points predicted by the Lhasa’s expert knowledge-based system (Derek), showing that only an insignificant proportion of the promising anticancer agents would be likely showing high toxicity profiles. A diversity study of the two datasets, carried out using the analysis of principal components from the most important physicochemical properties often used to access drug-likeness of compound datasets, showed that the two datasets do not occupy the same chemical space. PMID:27445461

  1. Non-toxic lead sulfide nanodots as efficient contrast agents for visualizing gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Ran, Xiang; Liu, Jianhua; Du, Yingda; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-09-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gastrointestinal (GI) tract using novel but efficient contrast agents is of the most important issues in the diagnosis and prognosis of GI diseases. Here, for the first time, we reported the design and synthesis of biothiol-decorated lead sulfide nanodots, as well as their usages in functional dual-modality imaging of GI tract in vivo. Due to the presence of glutathione on the surface of the nanodots, these well-prepared contrast agents could decrease the unwanted ion leakage, withstand the harsh conditions in GI tract, and avoid the systemic absorption after oral administration. Compared with clinical barium meal and iodine-based contrast agents, these nanodots exhibited much more significant enhancement in contrast efficiency during both 2D X-ray imaging and 3D CT imaging. Different from some conventional invasive imaging modalities, such as gastroscope and enteroscope, non-invasive imaging strategy by using glutathione modified PbS nanodots as contrast agents could reduce the painfulness towards patients, facilitate the imaging procedure, and economize the manipulation period. Moreover, long-term toxicity and bio-distribution of these nanodots after oral administration were evaluated in detail, which indicated their overall safety. Based on our present study, these nanodots could act as admirable contrast agents to integrate X-ray imaging and CT imaging for the direct visualization of GI tract.

  2. Application of simple and low-cost toxicity tests for ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Aydin, Senar; Tongur, Süheyla; Kara, Gülnihal; Kolb, Marit; Bahadir, Müfit

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and to apply appropriate biotests having the advantages of being highly sensitive, easy to run, relatively inexpensive and able to substitute fish toxicity tests due to ethical reasons of animal welfare. To perform an ecotoxicological assessment of industrial wastewaters, different microbiotests were conducted to substitute the fish toxicity test with Lebistes reticulatus through Vibrio fischeri, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna, Lemna minor and Lepidium sativum representing different trophic levels in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also, Algaltox F(TM) with Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Protox F(TM) with Tetrahymena thermophila tests were carried out. However, they could not be applied successfully for the wastewater samples. Wastewater samples from seven different industrial zones comprising different industries were subjected to characterization through measuring their physical-chemical parameters and their toxicity versus the above-mentioned organisms. T. platyurus, D. magna and L. reticulatus were the most sensitive test organisms investigated for the wastewaters. Considering toxic unit values, generally wastewater samples were toxic according to Thamnotox F(TM), Daphtox F(TM) and fish toxicity tests. As an important outcome, it was concluded that Daphtox F(TM) and Thamnotox F(TM) could be a good alternative for the fish toxicity test, which is so far the sole toxicity test accepted by the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation. PMID:25951939

  3. Proceedings of the seventeenth mid-Atlantic industrial waste conference on toxic and hazardous wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Kugelman, I.J.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on hazardous and toxic materials. Topics considered at the conference included methane production using anaerobic fluidized beds, thermal sludge conditioning, phosphorus removal, cooling tower water treatment, groundwater modeling, dry fly ash landfills, resource recovery, industrial wastes, the assessment of waste disposal sites utilizing expert systems, and the agricultural use of industrial wastes.

  4. On-Line Microbial Whole Effluent Toxicity Monitoring for Industrial Wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, S; Hoppes, W; Mascetti, M; Campbell, C G

    2002-09-17

    In this study a respirometer is tested for its ability to act as an early upset warning device and whole effluent toxicity monitor for industrial discharge. Industrial discharge water quality is commonly evaluated by comparing measured chemical concentrations to target values or regulatory limits established by governmental agencies. Unless the regulatory values are based upon empirical data, the actual effect of the discharge on aquatic systems is unknown. At the same time assessing the environmental toxicology of wastewater discharges is complicated by synergistic relationships among chemical constituents producing greater total toxicity. For example, metals may be more toxic in waters with low total hardness or more soluble at lower pH. An alternative approach that we are investigating is whole effluent toxicity testing. This study investigates the measurement of whole effluent toxicity through an on-line respirometer that measures toxicity to microorganisms comprising activated sludge. In this approach the oxygen uptake rate is monitored and used as an indicator of microbial activity or health. This study investigates the use of an online whole effluent toxicity testing system to provide early upset warning and the consistency of measured response to low pH. Repeated exposure of the microorganisms to low pH results in reduced sensitivity of the microbial population. We investigate whether this reduction in sensitivity results from physiological acclimation or changes in species composition. We identify promising applications, where, with proper calibration, respirometry based toxicity monitoring appear to be well suited for relative comparisons of whole effluent toxicity.

  5. A method for evaluating the toxicity of industrial solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kononen, D.W.; Gorski, R.A.

    1997-05-01

    The toxicity of a mixture of toluene and mixed xylenes was studied with the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Single compound experiments with either toluene or mixed xylenes show that growth inhibition, not mortality or malformation, is the most sensitive toxic endpoint in the FETAX system (i.e., growth is inhibited at lower exposure concentrations than those resulting in malformations and mortality). A multiple logistic regression analysis model described mortality and malformation as functions of exposure concentrations of toluene and mixed xylenes. The results indicate that toluene and mixed xylenes are additive in their effects on mortality in the FETAX system. Further experimentation is necessary to validate the model`s ability to describe malformation as a function of coexposure to toluene and mixed xylenes.

  6. Rapid, cell-based toxicity screen of potentially therapeutic post-transcriptional gene silencing agents.

    PubMed

    Kolniak, Tiffany A; Sullivan, Jack M

    2011-05-01

    to nuclear DNA. In this format we can test a number of PTGS agents for cellular toxicity relative to control elements. We also developed an HTS 96-well plate assay that allows us to assess the impact of any given PTGS agent on stimulating a variety of common cellular stress signaling pathways (e.g. CRE, SRE, AP-1, NFκB, Myc, and NFAT) that could indicate possible deleterious effects of PTGS agents either dependent or independent of base pairing complementarity with target mRNAs. To this end we exploited the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) Pathway Profiling System where the expression of the secreted reporter protein is coupled to transcriptional activation of a variety of promoter elements involved in common cell signaling pathways. We found that a variety of lead hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) and short hairpin (shRNA) expression constructs did not exert cytotoxicity in human cells when driven by highly active RNA Pol-III promoters. We also found that most of the cell signaling pathways tested (CRE, SRE, Myc, and NFAT) did not significantly couple through upregulation to expression of the set of PTGS agents tested. AP-1 and NFκB upregulation both appear to couple to the expression of some PTGS agents which likely reflect the known properties of these pathways to be stimulated by abundant small structured RNAs. PMID:21256844

  7. Rapid, cell-based toxicity screen of potentially therapeutic post-transcriptional gene silencing agents.

    PubMed

    Kolniak, Tiffany A; Sullivan, Jack M

    2011-05-01

    to nuclear DNA. In this format we can test a number of PTGS agents for cellular toxicity relative to control elements. We also developed an HTS 96-well plate assay that allows us to assess the impact of any given PTGS agent on stimulating a variety of common cellular stress signaling pathways (e.g. CRE, SRE, AP-1, NFκB, Myc, and NFAT) that could indicate possible deleterious effects of PTGS agents either dependent or independent of base pairing complementarity with target mRNAs. To this end we exploited the secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) Pathway Profiling System where the expression of the secreted reporter protein is coupled to transcriptional activation of a variety of promoter elements involved in common cell signaling pathways. We found that a variety of lead hammerhead ribozyme (hhRz) and short hairpin (shRNA) expression constructs did not exert cytotoxicity in human cells when driven by highly active RNA Pol-III promoters. We also found that most of the cell signaling pathways tested (CRE, SRE, Myc, and NFAT) did not significantly couple through upregulation to expression of the set of PTGS agents tested. AP-1 and NFκB upregulation both appear to couple to the expression of some PTGS agents which likely reflect the known properties of these pathways to be stimulated by abundant small structured RNAs.

  8. Neuroprotective effects of imidazenil against chemical warfare nerve agent soman toxicity in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Oguntayo, Samuel; Wei, Yanling; Wood, Elisa; Brown, Ammon; Jensen, Neil; Auta, James; Guiodotti, Alessandro; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2012-03-01

    The chemical warfare nerve agent, soman irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to hypercholinergy and seizures which trigger glutamate toxicity and status epilepticus ultimately resulting in neuropathology and neurobehavioral deficits. The standard emergency treatment comprising of anticholinergic, AChE reactivator and anticonvulsant does not completely protect against soman toxicity. We have evaluated imidazenil, a new anticonvulsant imidazo benzodiazepine with high affinity and intrinsic efficacy at α5-, α2-, and α3- but low intrinsic efficacy at α1-containing GABA(A) receptors and is devoid of cardiorespiratory depression, sedative/hypnoitc and amnestic actions and does not elicit tolerance and dependence liabilities unlike diazepam, for protection against soman toxicity. Guinea pigs implanted with bipotential radiotelemetry probes for recording EEG and ECG were administered with 26 μg/kg pyridostigmine bromide 30 min prior to 2× LD(50) soman exposure and 1 min later treated with a combination of 2mg/kg atropine sulfate and 25mg/kg 2-pralidoxime and various doses of imidazenil. Intramuscular administration of imidazenil, dose-dependently protected against 2× LD(50) of soman toxicity up to 1mg/kg. Further increase in the dose of imidazenil to 2.5mg/kg was less effective than 1mg/kg probably due to non-specific actions at sites other than GABA(A) receptors. Compared to vehicle group, 1mg/kg imidazenil treatment showed optimal increase in survival rate, reduction in behavioral manifestations and high power of EEG spectrum as well as neuronal necrosis. These data suggest that imidazenil is an effective anticonvulsant for medical countermeasure against soman-induced toxicity.

  9. Toxicity and in vitro activity of HIV-1 latency-reversing agents in primary CNS cells.

    PubMed

    Gray, Lachlan R; On, Hung; Roberts, Emma; Lu, Hao K; Moso, Michael A; Raison, Jacqueline A; Papaioannou, Catherine; Cheng, Wan-Jung; Ellett, Anne M; Jacobson, Jonathan C; Purcell, Damian F J; Wesselingh, Steve L; Gorry, Paul R; Lewin, Sharon R; Churchill, Melissa J

    2016-08-01

    Despite the success of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), HIV persists in long lived latently infected cells in the blood and tissue, and treatment is required lifelong. Recent clinical studies have trialed latency-reversing agents (LRA) as a method to eliminate latently infected cells; however, the effects of LRA on the central nervous system (CNS), a well-known site of virus persistence on cART, are unknown. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity and potency of a panel of commonly used and well-known LRA (panobinostat, romidepsin, vorinostat, chaetocin, disulfiram, hexamethylene bisacetamide [HMBA], and JQ-1) in primary fetal astrocytes (PFA) as well as monocyte-derived macrophages as a cellular model for brain perivascular macrophages. We show that most LRA are non-toxic in these cells at therapeutic concentrations. Additionally, romidepsin, JQ-1, and panobinostat were the most potent at inducing viral transcription, with greater magnitude observed in PFA. In contrast, vorinostat, chaetocin, disulfiram, and HMBA all demonstrated little or no induction of viral transcription. Together, these data suggest that some LRA could potentially activate transcription in latently infected cells in the CNS. We recommend that future trials of LRA also examine the effects of these agents on the CNS via examination of cerebrospinal fluid.

  10. Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdi, Hamdi K. . E-mail: hkhamdi@gmail.com; Castellon, Raquel

    2005-09-02

    Oleuropein, a non-toxic secoiridoid derived from the olive tree, is a powerful antioxidant and anti-angiogenic agent. Here, we show it to be a potent anti-cancer compound, directly disrupting actin filaments in cells and in a cell-free assay. Oleuropein inhibited the proliferation and migration of advanced-grade tumor cell lines in a dose-responsive manner. In a novel tube-disruption assay, Oleuropein irreversibly rounded cancer cells, preventing their replication, motility, and invasiveness; these effects were reversible in normal cells. When administered orally to mice that developed spontaneous tumors, Oleuropein completely regressed tumors in 9-12 days. When tumors were resected prior to complete regression, they lacked cohesiveness and had a crumbly consistency. No viable cells could be recovered from these tumors. These observations elevate Oleuropein from a non-toxic antioxidant into a potent anti-tumor agent with direct effects against tumor cells. Our data may also explain the cancer-protective effects of the olive-rich Mediterranean diet.

  11. Toxicity-directed approach of polyester manufacturing industry wastewater provides useful information for conducting treatability studies.

    PubMed

    Caffaro-Filho, Roberto A; Morita, Dione M; Wagner, Roger; Durrant, Lucia R

    2009-04-15

    A broader characterization of industrial wastewaters, especially in respect to hazardous compounds and their potential toxicity, is often necessary in order to determine the best practical treatment (or pretreatment) technology available to reduce the discharge of harmful pollutants to the environment or publicly owned treatment works. Using a toxicity-directed approach, this paper sets the base for a rational treatability study of polyester resin manufacturing. Relevant physical and chemical characteristics were determined. Respirometry was used for toxicity reduction evaluation after physical and chemical effluent fractionation. Of all the procedures investigated, only air stripping was significantly effective in reducing wastewater toxicity. Air stripping in pH 7 reduced toxicity in 18.2%, while in pH 11 a toxicity reduction of 62.5% was observed. Results indicated that toxicants responsible for the most significant fraction of the effluent's instantaneous toxic effect to unadapted activated sludge were organic compounds poorly or not volatilized in acid conditions. These results led to useful directions for conducting treatability studies which will be grounded on actual effluent properties rather than empirical or based on the rare specific data on this kind of industrial wastewater.

  12. Comparison of feeding strategies in acute toxicity tests of crude oil and commercial bioremediation agents

    SciTech Connect

    Cavender, R.C.; Cherry, D.S.; Yeager, M.M.; Bidwell, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    Proposed modifications to the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan have prompted examinations of the methodology used in toxicity testing of the water soluble fraction (WSF) of oil, commercial bioremediation agents (CBA), and a combination of the two. The organisms currently used in acute (96 hr) testing of these agents are the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, and an estuarine mysid, Mysidopsis bahia. The mysid is a carnivorous species that must be fed during a test in order to prevent predation within the test chambers. Currently proposed methodology for silverside testing also includes feeding. The high oxygen demand of CBAs and the WSF of oil causes dissolved oxygen to be a factor in toxicity. This effect can be intensified by the addition of brine shrimp (Artemia sp.) to the test chambers. The purpose of this study was to compare the toxicity of CBAs in combination with the WSF of oil to silversides with and without the addition of food. Tests were conducted using both 24-hour and 14-day spinning times for the CBA/WSF mixture. With the 24-hour spinning time, LC50 values from each day of the 4-day test were consistently lower in the Artemia fed test (47.8--22.6%) as compared to the unfed test (72.1--43.0%). A similar trend was seen in the 24 and 48 hour LC50`s in the 14-day spinning time. Overall, low dissolved oxygen was found to be most relevant at the highest CBA/WSF concentrations where D.O. dropped below 2 mg/l in Artemia fed tests.

  13. Parallel Comparative Studies on Mouse Toxicity of Oxide Nanoparticle- and Gadolinium-Based T1 MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Ling, Daishun; Zhao, Lin; Wang, Shuaifei; Liu, Ying; Bai, Ru; Baik, Seungmin; Zhao, Yuliang; Chen, Chunying; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2015-12-22

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents with high relaxivity are highly desirable because they can significantly increase the accuracy of diagnosis. However, they can be potentially toxic to the patients. In this study, using a mouse model, we investigate the toxic effects and subsequent tissue damage induced by three T1 MRI contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine injection (GDI), a clinically used gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agent (GBCAs), and oxide nanoparticle (NP)-based contrast agents, extremely small-sized iron oxide NPs (ESIONs) and manganese oxide (MnO) NPs. Biodistribution, hematological and histopathological changes, inflammation, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses are evaluated for 24 h after intravenous injection. These thorough assessments of the toxic and stress responses of these agents provide a panoramic description of safety concerns and underlying mechanisms of the toxicity of contrast agents in the body. We demonstrate that ESIONs exhibit fewer adverse effects than the MnO NPs and the clinically used GDI GBCAs, providing useful information on future applications of ESIONs as potentially safe MRI contrast agents.

  14. On the engineering design for systematic integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liyong; Schüller, Andreas; Epple, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    In today's automation industry, agent-oriented development of system functionalities appears to have a great potential for increasing autonomy and flexibility of complex operations, while lowering the workload of users. In this paper, we present a reference model for the harmonious and systematical integration of agent-orientation in industrial automation. Considering compatibility with existing automation systems and best practice, this model combines advantages of function block technology, service orientation and native description methods from the automation standard IEC 61131-3. This approach can be applied as a guideline for the engineering design of future agent-oriented automation systems.

  15. Steroid hormones and brain development: some guidelines for understanding actions of pseudohormones and other toxic agents

    SciTech Connect

    McEwen, B.S.

    1987-10-01

    Gonadal, adrenal, and thyroid hormones affect the brain directly, and the sensitivity to hormones begins in embryonic life with the appearance of hormone receptor sites in discrete populations of neurons. Because the secretion of hormones is also under control by its neural and pituitary targets, the brain-endocrine axis during development is in a delicately balanced state that can be upset in various ways, and any agent that disrupts normal hormone secretion can upset normal brain development. Moreover, exogenous substances that mimic the actions of natural hormones can also play havoc with CNS development and differentiation. This paper addresses these issues in the following order: First, actions of glucocorticoids on the developing nervous system related to cell division dendritic growth and neurotransmitter phenotype will be presented followed by a discussion of the developmental effects of synthetic steroids. Second, actions of estrogens related to brain sexual differentiation will be described, followed by a discussion of the actions of the nonsteroidal estrogen, diethylstilbestrol, as an example of exogenous estrogenic substances. The most important aspect of the potency of exogenous estrogens appears to be the degree to which they either bypass protective mechanisms or are subject to transformations to more active metabolites. Third, agents that influence hormone levels or otherwise modify the neuroendocrine system, such as nicotine, barbiturates, alcohol, opiates, and tetrahydrocannabinol, will be noted briefly to demonstrate the diversity of toxic agents that can influence neural development and affect personality, cognitive ability, and other aspects of behavior. 53 references.

  16. A novel nanoparticle-based disposable electrochemical immunosensor for diagnosis of exposure to toxic organophosphorus agents

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Donglai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Du, Dan; Timchalk, Charles; Barry, Richard C.; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-11-15

    We present a novel disposable electrochemical immunosensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of organophosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase (OP-BChE), a specific biomarker for exposure to toxic organophosphorus agents. In our new approach, the zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO-2) were employed to selectively capture the OP moiety of OP-BChE adducts, and followed by quantum dot (QD)-tagged anti-BChE antibodies for amplified quantification. The captured CdSe-QD tags can be sensitively detected by stripping voltammetry using in situ bismuth-plating method. The OP agent, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), was selected to prepare OP-BChE adducts in various matrices. The formation of OP-BChE adducts in plasma sample was confirmed using mass spectroscopy. The developed electrochemical immunosensor demonstrates a highly linear voltammetric response over the range of 0.1 to 30 nM OP-BChE. Moreover, the immunosensor has been successfully applied for the detection of OP-BChE adducts in the plasma samples. This novel nanoparticle-based electrochemical immunosensor thus provides an alternative way for designing simple, fast, sensitive, and cost-effective sensing platform for on-site screening/evaluating exposure to a variety of OP agents.

  17. Evaluating the toxic effect of an antimicrobial agent on single bacterial cells with optical tweezers

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Akbar; Zhang, Chensong; Chen, Joseph; Reihani, S. N. S.; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    We implement an optical tweezers technique to assess the effects of chemical agents on single bacterial cells. As a proof of principle, the viability of a trapped Escherichia coli bacterium is determined by monitoring its flagellar motility in the presence of varying concentrations of ethyl alcohol. We show that the “killing time” of the bacterium can be effectively identified from the correlation statistics of the positional time series recorded from the trap, while direct quantification from the time series or associated power spectra is intractable. Our results, which minimize the lethal effects of bacterial photodamage, are consistent with previous reports of ethanol toxicity that used conventional culture-based methods. This approach can be adapted to study other pairwise combinations of drugs and motile bacteria, especially to measure the response times of single cells with better precision. PMID:25657879

  18. Detecting the effects of toxic agents on spermatogenesis using DNA probes

    SciTech Connect

    Hecht, N.B.

    1987-10-01

    Advances in the molecular biology of spermatogenesis suggest that DNA probes can be used to monitor the effects of toxic agents in male germ cells of mammals. Molecular hybridization analyses with DNA probes can provide a reproducible methodology capable of detecting changes ranging from massive deletions to single base pair substitutions in the genome of exposed individuals. A constantly increasing number of DNA probes that can be used to detect such alterations in human sperm DNA exist for both ubiquitously expressed proteins and for genes solely expressed in the testis. In this chapter, the currently available testicular stage-specific and/or cell type-specific DNA probes and the techniques by which they can be utilized in reproductive toxicology studies are discussed. The advantages, limitations, and future technological advances of this novel biological marker system for the human male reproductive system are also considered.

  19. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, memory enhancer, hypotensive and anticancer. According to the literatures, saffron has remarkable therapeutic effects. The protective effects of saffron and its main constituents in different tissues including brain, heart, liver, kidney and lung have been reported against some toxic materials either natural or chemical toxins in animal studies.In this review article, we have summarized different in vitro and animal studies in scientific databases which investigate the antidotal and protective effects of saffron and its major components against natural toxins and chemical-induced toxicities. Due to the lake of human studies, further investigations are required to ascertain the efficacy of saffron as an antidote or a protective agent in human intoxication.

  20. Assessment of combined toxicity of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters on Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeb, BibiSaima; Ping, Zheng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Lin, Qiu; Pervez, Arshid; Irshad, Muhammad; Bilal, Muhammad; Bhatti, Zulfiqar Ahmad; Shaheen, Shahida

    2016-02-01

    This research work is focusing on the toxicities of heavy metals of industrial origin to anaerobic digestion of the industrial wastewater. Photobacterium phosphoreum T3S was used as an indicator organism. The acute toxicities of heavy metals on P. phosphoreum T3S were assessed during 15-min half inhibitory concentration (IC50) as indicator at pH 5.5-6. Toxicity assays involved the assessment of multicomponent mixtures using TU and MTI approaches. The results of individual toxicity indicated that the toxicity of Cd, Cu and Pb on P. phosphoreum increased with increasing concentrations and there was a linear correlation. The 15-min IC50 values of Cd, Cu and Pb were 0.537, 1.905 and 1.231 mg/L, respectively, and their toxic order was Cd > Pb > Cu. The combined effects of Cd, Cu and Pb were assayed by equivalent concentration mixing method. The results showed that the combined effects of Cd + Cu, Cd + Pb, Cu + Pb, Cd + Cu + Pb were antagonistic, antagonistic and partly additive. The combined effect of three heavy metals was partly additive.

  1. Defusing the Toxics Threat: Controlling Pesticides and Industrial Waste. Worldwatch Paper 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postel, Sandra

    The use of pesticides in agriculture and the discarding of industrial chemical waste into the air, soil, and water constitute two major pathways of human exposure to toxic substances. It is argued that these practices release hundreds of millions of tons of potentially hazardous substances into the environment each year. Speculation continues into…

  2. Toxicity induced by chemical warfare agents: insights on the protective role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Marco-Contelles, José; Ramos, Eva; Del Pino, Javier; Romero, Alejandro

    2013-11-25

    Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) are substances that can be used to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare, but also against civilian population in terrorist attacks. Many chemical agents are able to generate free radicals and derived reactants, excitotoxicity process, or inflammation, and as consequence they can cause neurological symptoms and damage in different organs. Nowadays, taking into account that total immediate decontamination after exposure is difficult to achieve and there are not completely effective antidotes and treatments against all CWAs, we advance and propose that medical countermeasures against CWAs poisoning would benefit from a broad-spectrum multipotent molecule. Melatonin, a versatile and ubiquitous antioxidant molecule, originally discovered as a hormone synthesized mainly in the pineal gland, has low toxicity and high efficacy in reducing oxidative damage, anti-inflammatory effects by regulation of multiple cellular pathways and properties to prevent excitotoxicity, among others. The purpose of this review is to show the multiple and diverse properties of melatonin, as a pleiotropic indole derivative, and its marked potential for improving human health against the most widely used chemical weapons.

  3. Boric acid: a potential chemoprotective agent against aflatoxin b1 toxicity in human blood

    PubMed Central

    Geyikoglu, Fatime

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent pulmonary and hepatic carcinogen. Since the eradication of Aflatoxin B1 contamination in agricultural products has been difficult, the use of natural or synthetic free radical scavengers could be a potential chemopreventive strategy. Boric acid is the major component of industry and its antioxidant role has recently been reported. The present study assessed, for the first time, the effectiveness of boric acid following exposure to Aflatoxin B1 on human whole blood cultures. The biochemical characterizations of glutathione and some enzymes have been carried out in erythrocytes. Alterations in malondialdehyde level were determined as an index of oxidative stress. The sister-chromatid exchange and micronucleus tests were performed to assess DNA damages in lymphocytes. Aflatoxin B1 treatment significantly reduced the activities of antioxidants by increasing malondialdehyde level (30.53 and 51.43%) of blood, whereas, the boric acid led to an increased resistance of DNA to oxidative damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in comparison with control values (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the support of boric acid was especially useful in Aflatoxin-toxicated blood. Thus the risk on tissue targeting of Aflatoxin B1 could be reduced ensuring early recovery from its toxicity. PMID:20431944

  4. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals.

  5. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 antagonists block the noxious effects of toxic industrial isocyanates and tear gases.

    PubMed

    Bessac, Bret F; Sivula, Michael; von Hehn, Christian A; Caceres, Ana I; Escalera, Jasmine; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2009-04-01

    The release of methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, India, caused the worst industrial accident in history. Exposures to industrial isocyanates induce lacrimation, pain, airway irritation, and edema. Similar responses are elicited by chemicals used as tear gases. Despite frequent exposures, the biological targets of isocyanates and tear gases in vivo have not been identified, precluding the development of effective countermeasures. We use Ca(2+) imaging and electrophysiology to show that the noxious effects of isocyanates and those of all major tear gas agents are caused by activation of Ca(2+) influx and membrane currents in mustard oil-sensitive sensory neurons. These responses are mediated by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), an ion channel serving as a detector for reactive chemicals. In mice, genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPA1 dramatically reduces isocyanate- and tear gas-induced nocifensive behavior after both ocular and cutaneous exposures. We conclude that isocyanates and tear gas agents target the same neuronal receptor, TRPA1. Treatment with TRPA1 antagonists may prevent and alleviate chemical irritation of the eyes, skin, and airways and reduce the adverse health effects of exposures to a wide range of toxic noxious chemicals. PMID:19036859

  6. Contact allergens in registered cleaning agents for industrial and household use.

    PubMed Central

    Flyvholm, M A

    1993-01-01

    Cleaning work is a common cause of both irritant and allergic contact dermatitis. Cleaning agents for industrial and household use are registered in the Danish Product Register Data Base (PROBAS) according to a special notification rule issued by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency. About 2350 registered washing and cleaning agents containing about 1250 different chemical substances were marketed in Denmark in February 1992. The occurrence of 49 contact allergens in 16 different product types within washing and cleaning agents were listed. Preservatives and surface active agents made up the main part of contact allergens. Isothiazolinones and formaldehyde releasers were the most commonly registered preservatives, and coconut diethanolamide the most commonly registered surface active agent. The major product types registered as containing contact allergens were general cleaners, skin cleaners, hair shampoos, and floor polishes. PMID:8280630

  7. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  8. Intracellular haemolytic agents of Heterocapsa circularisquama exhibit toxic effects on H. circularisquama cells themselves and suppress both cell-mediated haemolytic activity and toxicity to rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Cho, Kichul; Yasutomi, Masumi; Ueno, Mikinori; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Basti, Leila; Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Takeshita, Satoshi; Kim, Daekyung; Oda, Tatsuya

    2016-10-01

    A harmful dinoflagellate, Heterocapsa circularisquama, is highly toxic to shellfish and the zooplankton rotifer Brachionus plicatilis. A previous study found that H. circularisquama has both light-dependent and -independent haemolytic agents, which might be responsible for its toxicity. Detailed analysis of the haemolytic activity of H. circularisquama suggested that light-independent haemolytic activity was mediated mainly through intact cells, whereas light-dependent haemolytic activity was mediated by intracellular agents which can be discharged from ruptured cells. Because H. circularisquama showed similar toxicity to rotifers regardless of the light conditions, and because ultrasonic ruptured H. circularisquama cells showed no significant toxicity to rotifers, it was suggested that live cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity is a major factor responsible for the observed toxicity to rotifers. Interestingly, the ultrasonic-ruptured cells of H. circularisquama suppressed their own lethal effect on the rotifers. Analysis of samples of the cell contents (supernatant) and cell fragments (precipitate) prepared from the ruptured H. circularisquama cells indicated that the cell contents contain inhibitors for the light-independent cell-mediated haemolytic activity, toxins affecting H. circularisquama cells themselves, as well as light-dependent haemolytic agents. Ethanol extract prepared from H. circularisquama, which is supposed to contain a porphyrin derivative that displays photosensitising haemolytic activity, showed potent toxicity to Chattonella marina, Chattonella antiqua, and Karenia mikimotoi, as well as to H. circularisquama at the concentration range at which no significant toxicity to rotifers was observed. Analysis on a column of Sephadex LH-20 revealed that light-dependent haemolytic activity and inhibitory activity on cell-mediated light-independent haemolytic activity existed in two separate fractions (f-2 and f-3), suggesting that both

  9. Toxic myopathy induced by industrial minerals oils: clinical and histopathological features.

    PubMed

    Rossi, B; Siciliano, G; Giraldi, C; Angelini, C; Marchetti, A; Paggiaro, P L

    1986-12-01

    We report a case of subacute myopathy in a 47 years old man engaged on boiler maintenance at an oil-fired thermoelectric power station. The occupational history highlighted heavy exposure to inhalation of ash derived from mineral oil combustion and containing several elements, metals and metalloids, including vanadium and nickel. The presenting symptoms, clinical course and muscle histopathology suggest that exposure to toxic agents probably played an important part in the causation of the myopathy. PMID:3804712

  10. The geographic distribution of potential risks posed by industrial toxic emissions in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2004-01-01

    The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI), compiled annually by the EPA, has emerged as the most comprehensive database on industrial toxic emissions in the U.S. While various risk indicators and pollutant weighting methods have been developed to compare TRI emissions, these measures are rarely used to examine the geography of potential risks posed by toxic emissions at the national scale. This article provides a geographic perspective on the evaluation of industrial pollution by exploring the spatial distribution of the potential health and environmental impacts of TRI emissions across the U.S. Six indicators of potential risk based on the impact benchmarking concept are used to characterize specific human health and environmental concerns: carcinogenic toxicity, noncarcinogenic toxicity, ozone depletion, global warming, smog formation and acid rain formation. Air emission data from the 2000 TRI are used to analyze the six potential impacts at the state level. The objectives are to: (a) examine and compare spatial variations in the distribution of these adverse impacts across the U.S.: and (b) identify the states facing the highest health and environmental risk from industrial toxic releases. The effect of differences in state area and population size on the distribution of the six potential impacts and state rankings for each category are also investigated. While Ohio and Texas receive the highest ranks in all risk categories, Louisiana and West Virginia represent the most "hazardous" states when emissions are weighted by state area and population. The results demonstrate the need to examine the geographic variability of different risk indicators that are used to evaluate TRI emissions, at multiple scales.

  11. Monitoring of toxic elements present in sludge of industrial waste using CF-LIBS.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rohit; Rai, Awadhesh K; Alamelu, Devanathan; Aggarwal, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Industrial waste is one of the main causes of environmental pollution. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to detect the toxic metals in the sludge of industrial waste water. Sludge on filter paper was obtained after filtering the collected waste water samples from different sections of a water treatment plant situated in an industrial area of Kanpur City. The LIBS spectra of the sludge samples were recorded in the spectral range of 200 to 500 nm by focusing the laser light on sludge. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) technique was used for the quantitative measurement of toxic elements such as Cr and Pb present in the sample. We also used the traditional calibration curve approach to quantify these elements. The results obtained from CF-LIBS are in good agreement with the results from the calibration curve approach. Thus, our results demonstrate that CF-LIBS is an appropriate technique for quantitative analysis where reference/standard samples are not available to make the calibration curve. The results of the present experiment are alarming to the people living nearby areas of industrial activities, as the concentrations of toxic elements are quite high compared to the admissible limits of these substances.

  12. Chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S; Chauhan, S; D'Cruz, R; Faruqi, S; Singh, K K; Varma, S; Singh, M; Karthik, V

    2008-09-01

    Chemical warfare agents (CWA's) are defined as any chemical substance whose toxic properties are utilised to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy in warfare and associated military operations. Chemical agents have been used in war since times immemorial, but their use reached a peak during World War I. During World War II only the Germans used them in the infamous gas chambers. Since then these have been intermittently used both in war and acts of terrorisms. Many countries have stockpiles of these agents. There has been a legislative effort worldwide to ban the use of CWA's under the chemical weapons convention which came into force in 1997. However the manufacture of these agents cannot be completely prohibited as some of them have potential industrial uses. Moreover despite the remedial measures taken so far and worldwide condemnation, the ease of manufacturing these agents and effectiveness during combat or small scale terrorist operations still make them a powerful weapon to reckon with. These agents are classified according to mechanism of toxicity in humans into blister agents, nerve agents, asphyxiants, choking agents and incapacitating/behavior altering agents. Some of these agents can be as devastating as a nuclear bomb. In addition to immediate injuries caused by chemical agents, some of them are associated with long term morbidities and psychological problems. In this review we will discuss briefly about the historical background, properties, manufacture techniques and industrial uses, mechanism of toxicity, clinical features of exposure and pharmacological management of casualties caused by chemical agents. PMID:21783898

  13. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    This volume is a companion to "Innovation Agents: VET Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume 1". The detailed report of the project is contained in Volume 1 while Volume 2 contains the appendices: (1) Data tables for construction of the composite index of innovation; (2) Case study interview schedule; and (3) Case study…

  14. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Asimina; Spiliotis, Xenofon; Baklavaridis, Apostolos; Papapolymerou, George; Karayannis, Vayos

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  15. New ceramics incorporated with industrial by-products as pore formers for sorption of toxic chromium from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domopoulou, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of secondary resources including various industrial wastes as pore-forming agents into clayey raw material mixtures for the development of tailored porous ceramic microstructures is currently of increasing interest. In the present research, sintered ceramic compacts were developed incorporated with industrial solid by-products as pore formers, and then used as new sorbents for chromium removal from aqueous media. The microstructures obtained were characterized through X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sorption potential of chromium from synthetic solutions on the porous ceramics was studied by static adsorption experiments as a function of the pore-former percentage in the ceramic matrix as well as the initial heavy metal (chromium) concentration, solution pH and temperature. Kinetic studies were conducted and adsorption isotherms of chromium were determined using the Langmuir equation. Preliminary experimental results concerning the adsorption characteristics of chromium on the ceramic materials produced appear encouraging for their possible beneficial use as new sorbents for the removal of toxic chromium from aqueous media. Keywords: sorbents, ceramics, industrial solid by-products, pore-former, chromium. Acknowledgements: This research has been co-financed by the European Union (European Social Fund - ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program ARCHIMEDES III: Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  16. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity. PMID:27266532

  17. Chemopreventive Agents Attenuate Rapid Inhibition of Gap Junctional Intercellular Communication Induced by Environmental Toxicants.

    PubMed

    Babica, Pavel; Čtveráčková, Lucie; Lenčešová, Zuzana; Trosko, James E; Upham, Brad L

    2016-07-01

    Altered gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) has been associated with chemical carcinogenesis, where both chemical tumor promoters and chemopreventive agents (CPAs) are known to conversely modulate GJIC. The aim of this study was to investigate whether attenuation of chemically inhibited GJIC represents a common outcome induced by different CPAs, which could be effectively evaluated using in vitro methods. Rat liver epithelial cells WB-F344 were pretreated with a CPA for either 30 min or 24 h, and then exposed to GJIC-inhibiting concentration of a selected tumor promoter or environmental toxicant [12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lindane, fluoranthene, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), or pentachlorophenol]. Out of nine CPAs tested, quercetin and silibinin elicited the most pronounced effects, preventing the dysregulation of GJIC by all the GJIC inhibitors, but DDT. Metformin and curcumin attenuated the effects of three GJIC inhibitors, whereas the other CPAs prevented the effects of two (diallyl sulfide, emodin) or one (indole-3-carbinol, thymoquinone) GJIC inhibitor. Significant attenuation of chemically induced inhibition of GJIC was observed in 27 (50%) out of 54 possible combinations of nine CPAs and six GJIC inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that in vitro evaluation of GJIC can be used as an effective screening tool for identification of chemicals with potential chemopreventive activity.

  18. Chemical compounds toxic to invertebrates isolated from marine cyanobacteria of potential relevance to the agricultural industry.

    PubMed

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S; Bajic, Vladimir B; Archer, John A C

    2014-10-29

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review.

  19. Aquatic toxicity of forty industrial chemicals: Testing in support of hazardous substance spill prevention regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, M. W.; Ward, C. H.

    1981-05-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is presently developing hazardous substance spill regulations to help prevent water pollution. Aquatic animal toxicity data are used as criteria for the designation and categorization of substances as hazardous, even though this type of data is not available for many industrial chemicals. Static 96-hr. toxicity tests were conducted with 40 such chemicals to provide basic toxicity data for regulatory decision making. Thirty-two of the 40 chemicals tested were hazardous to aquatic life as determined by 96-hr. LC 50's less than or equal to 500 mg/l. All 40 chemicals were tested with the fresh-water fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, and ten chemicals were also tested with the salt-water grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

  20. Chemical Compounds Toxic to Invertebrates Isolated from Marine Cyanobacteria of Potential Relevance to the Agricultural Industry

    PubMed Central

    Essack, Magbubah; Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A. C.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of advances in invertebrate pest management, the agricultural industry is suffering from impeded pest control exacerbated by global climate changes that have altered rain patterns to favour opportunistic breeding. Thus, novel naturally derived chemical compounds toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates are of interest, as potential pesticides. In this regard, marine cyanobacterium-derived metabolites that are toxic to both terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates continue to be a promising, but neglected, source of potential pesticides. A PubMed query combined with hand-curation of the information from retrieved articles allowed for the identification of 36 cyanobacteria-derived chemical compounds experimentally confirmed as being toxic to invertebrates. These compounds are discussed in this review. PMID:25356733

  1. Potential antitumor agents. 36. Quantitative relationships between experimental antitumor activity, toxicity, and structure for the general class of 9-anilinoacridine antitumor agents

    SciTech Connect

    Denny, W.A.; Cain, B.F.; Atwell, G.J.; Hansch, C.; Panthananickal, A.; Leo, A.

    1982-03-01

    Quantitative relationships (QSAR) have been derived between antileukemic (L1210) activity and agent physicochemical properties for 509 tumor-active members of the general class of 9-anilinoacridines. One member of this class is the clinical agent m-AMSA (NSC 249992). Agent hydrophobicity proved a significant but not a dominant influence on in vivo potency. The electronic properties of substituent groups proved important, but the most significant effects on drug potency were shown by the steric influence of groups placed at various positions on the 9-anilinoacridine skeleton. The results are entirely consistent with the physiologically important step in the action of these compounds being their binding to double-stranded DNA by intercalation of the acridine chromophore between the base pairs and positioning of the anilino group in the minor groove, as previously suggested. An equation was also derived for the acute toxicities of 643 derivatives of 9-anilinoacridine. This equation took a somewhat similar form to the one modeling antileukemia potency, emphasizing the usual fairly close relationship between potency and acute toxicity for antitumor agents in general. This study demonstrated the power of QSAR techniques to structure very large amounts of biological data and to allow the extraction of useful information from them bearing on the possible site of action of the compounds concerned.

  2. Assessing acute toxicities of pre- and post-treatment industrial wastewaters with Hydra attenuata: A comparative study of acute toxicity with the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, L.J.; Staples, R.E.; Stahl, R.G. Jr. . Haskell Lab. for Toxicology and Industrial Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    This study was undertaken to (a) determine wastewater treatment effectiveness using two freshwater organisms, (b) compare acute toxicity results from the two species exposed to the wastewaters, and (c) link acute and potential developmental toxicity of wastewaters in one organism. The acute toxicities of several pretreatment and post-treatment industrial waste-water samples wee evaluated with adult Hydra attenuata and fathead minnows. The acute LC50s agreed closely when results in Hydra attenuata were compared with those from fathead minnow tests. Acute LC50s ranged from 3 to >100% of samples with hydra, and from 1.0 to >100% of sample with fathead minnows. The results provided strong evidence of treatment effectiveness because toxicity decreased with progressive stages of treatment. Previously the Hydra Developmental Toxicity Assay was used as a prescreen mainly for in vitro assessment of developmental toxicity with pure compounds and to prioritized toxicants according to selective toxicity to the developing embryo. Recently the authors modified the assay for testing natural waters and wastewaters; hence, some of the wastewater samples also were tested for their developmental toxicity. In this case, the relative selective toxicity of these wastewater samples ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that no sample was uniquely toxic to the developing embryo, although acute toxicity was manifested. Overall, their results indicate the Hydra Assay functions appropriately in assessments of acute and developmental toxicity of industrial wastewaters and may be a simple and useful tool in a battery of tests for broader scale detection of environmental hazards.

  3. Maintenance service contract model for heavy equipment in mining industry using principal agent theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakpahan, Eka K. A.; Iskandar, Bermawi P.

    2015-12-01

    Mining industry is characterized by a high operational revenue, and hence high availability of heavy equipment used in mining industry is a critical factor to ensure the revenue target. To maintain high avaliability of the heavy equipment, the equipment's owner hires an agent to perform maintenance action. Contract is then used to control the relationship between the two parties involved. The traditional contracts such as fixed price, cost plus or penalty based contract studied is unable to push agent's performance to exceed target, and this in turn would lead to a sub-optimal result (revenue). This research deals with designing maintenance contract compensation schemes. The scheme should induce agent to select the highest possible maintenance effort level, thereby pushing agent's performance and achieve maximum utility for both parties involved. Principal agent theory is used as a modeling approach due to its ability to simultaneously modeled owner and agent decision making process. Compensation schemes considered in this research includes fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing. The optimal decision is obtained using a numerical method. The results show that if both parties are risk neutral, then there are infinite combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing produced the same optimal solution. The combination of fixed price and cost sharing contract results in the optimal solution when the agent is risk averse, while the optimal combination of fixed price and revenue sharing contract is obtained when agent is risk averse. When both parties are risk averse, the optimal compensation scheme is a combination of fixed price, cost sharing and revenue sharing.

  4. Acute toxicity of 54 industrial chemicals to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Heitmuller, P.T.; Hollister, T.A.; Parrish, P.R.

    1981-12-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted with sheepshead minnows to develop a data base from which water quality criteria could be established and to help determine priorites for further reseach efforts. Chemicals were generally those used by industry in relatively large quantities that pose potential or suspected environmental hazards, such as, chlorinated benzenes, phenols, and phthalates. The acute toxicity of the 54 chemicals varied widely. The most toxic chemical groups were the chlorinated phenols and the chlorinated benzenes with 96-h LC50's (based on nominal concentrations) ranging from 1.7-5.4 ppm and 0.8-21 ppm, respectively. The most toxic chemical tested appeared to be 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene with a 96-h LC50 of 0.8 ppm (95% confidence limits of 0.7-1.1 ppm). The 96-h LC50 for pentachlorobenzene was the same (0.8 ppm; 95% confidence limits of 0.4-1.8 ppm), but its effect early in the exposure was not as severe as the effect of 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene. The majority of the chemicals had 96-h LC50's in the range of 10-500 ppm and were considered to be slightly toxic to practically nontoxic. Ten of the chemicals had no apparent effect at highest concentrations tested. (JMT)

  5. Effect of electrochemical oxidation on biodegradability and toxicity of batik industry wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Devagi; Halim, Azhar A.

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the increase in biodegradability and reduction in toxicity level in the batik wastewater treatment. Basically, the wastewater treatment from batik industry contained chemicals especially dyes which are not biodegradable and contains higher toxicity level because of the chemical compartment which comes out during the wastewater discharge and this could lead high risk in health wise to humans and all the aquatic living organisms. Thus, this research was carried to enhance the effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation method by using the batik wastewater. Optimal parameters such as pH, time, distance between graphite electrodes and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as it activates as the electrolyte was done to obtain the removal of BOD, COD and color in the batik wastewater. The research study found that the removal of COD and color was high in the acidic conditions which are pH 5 with the removal of COD, 89.71% and color 93.89%. The ratio of BOD5/ COD successfully increased from 0.015 to 0.271 which mean it increase by 94.46% and the toxicity level using Toxtrax method (10017) also successfully reduced from 1.195% to 0.129% which means the samples which were slightly toxic were reduced to non-toxic level.

  6. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  7. Personal care product preservatives: risk assessment and mixture toxicities with an industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Carbajo, Jose B; Perdigón-Melón, Jose A; Petre, Alice L; Rosal, Roberto; Letón, Pedro; García-Calvo, Eloy

    2015-04-01

    The aquatic toxicity of eight preservatives frequently used in personal care products (PCPs) (iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, bronopol, diazolidinyl urea, benzalkonium chloride, zinc pyrithione, propylparaben, triclosan and a mixture of methylchloroisothiazolinone and methylisothiazolinone) was assessed by means of two different approaches: a battery of bioassays composed of single species tests of bacteria (Vibrio fischeri and Pseudomonas putida) and protozoa (Tetrahymena thermophila), and a whole biological community resazurin-based assay using activated sludge. The tested preservatives showed considerable toxicity in the studied bioassays, but with a marked difference in potency. In fact, all biocides except propylparaben and diazolidinyl urea had EC50 values lower than 1 mg L(-1) in at least one assay. Risk quotients for zinc pyrithione, benzalkonium chloride, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate and triclosan as well as the mixture of the studied preservatives exceeded 1, indicating a potential risk for the process performance and efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). These four single biocides explained more than 95% of the preservative mixture risk in all bioassays. Each individual preservative was also tested in combination with an industrial wastewater (IWW) from a cosmetics manufacturing facility. The toxicity assessment was performed on binary mixtures (preservative + IWW) and carried out using the median-effect principle, which is a special case of the concept of Concentration Addition (CA). Almost 70% of all experiments resulted in EC50 values within a factor of 2 of the values predicted by the median-effect principle (CI values between 0.5 and 2). The rest of the mixtures whose toxicity was mispredicted by CA were assessed with the alternative concept of Independent Action (IA), which showed higher predictive power for the biological community assay. Therefore, the concept used to accurately predict the toxicity of mixtures of a preservative

  8. Toxicity Identification and Evaluation for the Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Industrial Complex using D.magna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Keum, H.; Chun Sang, H.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the interests on the impacts of industrial wastewater on aquatic ecosystem have increased with concern about ecosystem protection and human health. Whole effluent toxicity tests are used to monitor toxicity by unknown toxic chemicals as well as conventional pollutants from industrial effluent discharges. This study describes the application of TIE (toxicity identification evaluation) procedures to an acutely toxic effluent from a wastewater treatment plant in industrial complex which was toxic to Daphnia magna. In TIE phase I (characterization step), the toxic effects by heavy metals, organic compounds, oxidants, volatile organic compounds, suspended solids and ammonia were screened and revealed that the source of toxicity is far from these toxicants group. Chemical analysis (TIE phase II) on TDS showed that the concentration of chloride ion (6,900 mg/L) was substantially higher than that predicted from EC50 for D. magna. In confirmation step (TIE phase III), chloride ion was demonstrated to be main toxicant in this effluent by the spiking approach, species sensitivity approach and deletion approach. Calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium, fluorine, sulfate ion concentration (450, 100, 80, 5,300, 0.66, 2,200mg/L) was not shown toxicity from D. magna. Finally, we concluded that chloride was the most contributing toxicant in the waste water treatment plant. Further research activities are needed for technical support of toxicity identification and evaluation on the various types of wastewater treatment plant discharge in Korea. Keywords : TIE, D. magna, Industrial waste water Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (15IFIP-B089908-02) from Plant Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government

  9. Proposal of an agent-based analytical model to convert industrial areas in industrial eco-systems.

    PubMed

    Romero, Elena; Ruiz, M Carmen

    2014-01-15

    The transformation of industrial areas towards greater sustainability results from a strategic objective to address the effects of economic and environmental crisis. Such transformation, however, requires methodologies and tools that support and facilitate the process. This paper proposes an analytical model that favours the redesign of industrial areas based on sustainable strategies for eco-industrial parks. The proposed model is enhanced by the definition of building blocks of an agent-based modelling method. The methodology that was followed favours the detailed description of the objectives of the system, with individual elements and adaptation to the surrounding environment, amongst other features. The proposed model integrates a knowledge database that supports the process of identification of cooperative strategies such as material exchange networks in industrial areas. The underlying theory for the assessment of cooperative interactions is game theory, which supports the resolution of problems with strategic choices. This work covers the stage of analytical model formulation that is essential for advancement towards the inference process based on simulation models.

  10. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China.

  11. Toxicity evaluation of wastewater collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Qin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhongqing; Zhao, Chunxia; Liang, Shuxuan

    2016-09-01

    The toxicity of water-receiving bodies, the effluent and other treatment stages in wastewater treatment plants has recently been of interest to the public due to the lack of a regulated toxicity-based index for wastewater discharge in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of wastewaters collected at different treatment stages from a pharmaceutical industrial park wastewater treatment plant through dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio qinghaiensis) tests. The results of an analysis of conventional parameters indicated that the total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), ammonia nitrogen (NH3N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after various treatments. However, the TN, NH3N and COD still exceeded the regulated standards. The tested pharmaceutical park effluents were mainly polluted with organic pollutants and nitrogenous. The toxicity test results indicated that the toxicities could be markedly reduced after treatment, with the toxicities of two out of the six effluent samples at different treatment stages being greater than the influent toxicity. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values obtained using the DHA and Vibrio qinghaiensis tests. Compared with the DHA measurement, the Vibrio qinghaiensis test was faster and more sensitive. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the TSS, TN, TP and COD concentrations. These results may aid the understanding of the toxicity of pharmaceutical industrial park wastewaters and toxicity removal using the treatment techniques that are currently utilized in China. PMID:27262686

  12. Basalt fiber insulating material with a mineral binding agent for industrial use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdyuk, T.; Aizenshtadt, A.; Tutygin, A.; Frolova, M.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers a possibility of using mining industry waste as a binding agent for heat insulating material on the basis of basalt fiber. The main objective of the research is to produce a heat-insulating material to be applied in machine building in high-temperature environments. After synthetic binder having been replaced by a mineral one, an environmentally sound thermal insulating material having desirable heat-protecting ability and not failing when exposed to high temperatures was obtained.

  13. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry

    SciTech Connect

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Valorization of titanium wastes which cannot be recycled in metallurgical industry. • Transferring Ti waste into raw materials for obtaining Ti based tanning agent. • Characterization of new Ti based tanning agents and leather tanned with them. • Characterization of sewage waste water and sludge resulted from leather manufacture. • Analysis of the impact of main metal component of Ti waste. - Abstract: The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77 °C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  14. Low toxicity and long circulation time of Polyampholyte-coated magnetic nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Ming; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jiang; Duan, Yourong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Polyampholyte-coated (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) magnetite nanoparticles (PAMNPs) have been prepared as contrasting agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent biocompatibility is required for contrasting agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of PAMNPs, some experiments have been conducted. The hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting, prothrombin time, inflammatory cytokine release and complement system activation assays were carried out to investigate the hemocompatibility. To evaluate the toxicity to vessel, MTT test and vascular irritation tests were conducted. Tissue toxicity test was also performed to investigate the biocompability in vivo. We also looked into the biodistribution. The results showed that PAMNPs at the working concentration (0.138 mM) present similar hemocompatibility with negative control, thus have no significant effect to vessels. PAMNPs were mainly distributed in the liver and the blood. The circulation time in blood was considerably long, with the half-time of 3.77 h in plasma. This property is advantageous for PAMNPs' use in angiography. PAMNPs could be metabolized rapidly in mice and were not observed to cause any toxic or adverse effect. In short, these results suggest that the PAMNPs have great potential to serve as safe contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PMID:25585607

  15. Low toxicity and long circulation time of Polyampholyte-coated magnetic nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Shen, Ming; Zhao, Tao; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lin, Jiang; Duan, Yourong; Gu, Hongchen

    2015-01-01

    Polyampholyte-coated (poly(acrylic acid) (PAA)-co-3-(diethylamino)-propylamine (DEAPA)) magnetite nanoparticles (PAMNPs) have been prepared as contrasting agent used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Excellent biocompatibility is required for contrasting agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. To evaluate the biocompatibility of PAMNPs, some experiments have been conducted. The hemolysis, plasma recalcification, dynamic blood clotting, prothrombin time, inflammatory cytokine release and complement system activation assays were carried out to investigate the hemocompatibility. To evaluate the toxicity to vessel, MTT test and vascular irritation tests were conducted. Tissue toxicity test was also performed to investigate the biocompability in vivo. We also looked into the biodistribution. The results showed that PAMNPs at the working concentration (0.138 mM) present similar hemocompatibility with negative control, thus have no significant effect to vessels. PAMNPs were mainly distributed in the liver and the blood. The circulation time in blood was considerably long, with the half-time of 3.77 h in plasma. This property is advantageous for PAMNPs' use in angiography. PAMNPs could be metabolized rapidly in mice and were not observed to cause any toxic or adverse effect. In short, these results suggest that the PAMNPs have great potential to serve as safe contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

  16. Assessment of the toxicity of waste water from a textile industry to Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Roopadevi, H; Somashekar, R K

    2012-03-01

    Static, short-term, acute toxicity tests were performed over a period of 96 hrs using different concentrations of influent and effluent of textile industry waste water with the objective of evaluating their acute toxicity on fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (common carp). The LC50 24, 48, 72 and 96 hr of influent and effluent were 25.9, 21.10, 15.66, 11.11% (v/v) and 63.18, 54.89, 48.62, 36.04% (v/v), respectively. The acute toxic unit TUa values for 24, 48, 72, 96 hr for influent and effluent are 3.85, 4.73, 6.38, 8.99 and 1.58, 1.82, 2.05, 2.77, respectively. Correspondingly, the TF was found to be 1, 1.22, 1.65 and 2.33 for influent, and for effluent 1, 1.15, 1.29 and 1.75. Total efficiency of the treatment was 69.16% and the safe concentration of effluent is set to be 3.60%. These data are highly useful in establishing limits of acceptability by the aquatic animals. The need to introduce toxicity evaluation assay for confirming the quality of effluent from the point view of effective environmental safe limits and to ensure integrity of aquatic environment, is stressed.

  17. Use of metal chelating agents to differentiate among sources of acute aquatic toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hockett, J.R.; Mount, D.R.

    1996-10-01

    Metals are common toxicants found in effluents and other environmental samples. Within Toxicity Identification Evaluation methods proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency and others, addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is used as an indicator of metal toxicity. Previous experiments showed that addition of sodium thiosulfate, originally included to detect toxicity due to oxidants, was also effective at reducing toxicity from some common metals. in the present study, the authors characterized the effectiveness of both EDTA and thiosulfate in removing the toxicity of 16 different metal ions to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition removed toxicity associated with all cationic metals tested except for Cr{sup 3+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Al{sup 3+}, and Ag{sup +}. Thiosulfate addition was less effective than EDTA for Zn{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Ni{sup 2+}, but reduced toxicity of both Ag{sup +} and selenite (Se[VI]), which EDTA did not. Results of this research can be used to categorize metal toxicity in unknown samples based on the response to additions of EDTA and thiosulfate.

  18. Detoxification of a highly toxic lead-loaded industrial solid waste by stabilization using apatites.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, T A; Zouboulis, A I

    2003-02-28

    Apatites are known for their properties to immobilize lead contained in aqueous solutions or contaminated soils. In this study, apatites were examined as stabilization additives for lead-loaded industrial solid toxic wastes. The specific waste was the residue, obtained after thermal treatment of sludges (incineration), which was derived from tetraethyl lead fuel storage tanks. It was found to contain around 30 wt.% lead and 33 wt.% iron. Standard leaching tests (according to DIN 38414 S-4) were applied for the determination of leachability of metals from the ash and, thus, of chemical toxicity; the proposed leaching tests examined both initial and stabilized products in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied additives. The results obtained demonstrate the fact that lead concentrations in leachates, after the application of the proposed leaching tests using apatites as additives and with a ratio of 50% solid waste-50 wt.% apatite, could be reduced to the range of 1mg/l.

  19. Long-term evaluation of lethal and sublethal toxicity of industrial effluents using Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa.

    PubMed

    Yi, Xianliang; Kang, Sung-Wook; Jung, Jinho

    2010-06-15

    Acute toxicity and feeding rate inhibition of effluent from a wastewater treatment plant and its adjacent stream water on Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa were comparatively studied. The acute toxicity of the final effluent (FE) fluctuated greatly over the sampling period from January to August 2009. Toxicity identification results of the FE in July 2009 showed that Cu originating from the Fenton's reagent was likely a key toxicant. In addition, the feeding rate of both species was still inhibited by the FEs in which acute toxicity was not observed. These findings indicate that the feeding response would be a useful tool for monitoring sublethal effects of industrial effluents. For the acute toxicity test, M. macrocopa was more sensitive than D. magna, but the opposite result was true in the case of the feeding rate inhibition. These suggest that different species have different sensitivities to toxic chemicals and to the test methods. PMID:20211525

  20. Nonclinical reproductive toxicity testing requirements for drugs, pesticides, and industrial chemicals in India and China.

    PubMed

    Rao, K S; Dong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    India and China have booming chemical, agrochemical, and pharmaceutical industries. Both countries also represent expanding markets for foreign chemical and healthcare companies. All such products require reproductive toxicity testing before marketing. The ICH testing guidelines for medicinal products are not applicable in China and India. Nonetheless, reproductive toxicity studies designed and run to ICH principles are generally acceptable for submission. The Chinese guidelines take into consideration traditional Chinese medicines, which are usually mixtures. Likewise, the specific recommendations of India and China for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals and pesticides differ from those of the OECD and the USEPA. Again, studies performed in accordance with internationally recognized principles are usually acceptable for submission in both countries. The Chinese guideline for the reproductive toxicity testing of agrochemicals is currently under revision; the new version is expected to resemble more closely the requirements of the OECD and the USEPA. As a member of the OECD, India has conducted Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) inspection, accreditation, and monitoring activities since 2004. China has made several attempts to join the Council Decisions on Mutual Acceptance of Data in the Assessment of Chemicals since 2005. Currently 47 laboratories in China have been certified by the national GLP authorities. Several laboratories in China have also been recently been certified by OECD member countries as GLP compliant. In India, there are currently 23 GLP-Certified laboratories; about six of these are also AALAC accredited. The specific study designs specified in the guidelines of China and India for reproductive toxicity studies are described in detail in this chapter. PMID:23138892

  1. Microtubule-targeting agents augment the toxicity of DNA-damaging agents by disrupting intracellular trafficking of DNA repair proteins.

    PubMed

    Poruchynsky, Marianne S; Komlodi-Pasztor, Edina; Trostel, Shana; Wilkerson, Julia; Regairaz, Marie; Pommier, Yves; Zhang, Xu; Kumar Maity, Tapan; Robey, Robert; Burotto, Mauricio; Sackett, Dan; Guha, Udayan; Fojo, Antonio Tito

    2015-02-01

    The paradigm that microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs) cause cell death via mitotic arrest applies to rapidly dividing cells but cannot explain MTA activity in slowly growing human cancers. Many preferred cancer regimens combine a MTA with a DNA-damaging agent (DDA). We hypothesized that MTAs synergize with DDAs by interfering with trafficking of DNA repair proteins on interphase microtubules. We investigated nine proteins involved in DNA repair: ATM, ATR, DNA-PK, Rad50, Mre11, p95/NBS1, p53, 53BP1, and p63. The proteins were sequestered in the cytoplasm by vincristine and paclitaxel but not by an aurora kinase inhibitor, colocalized with tubulin by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitated with the microtubule motor dynein. Furthermore, adding MTAs to radiation, doxorubicin, or etoposide led to more sustained γ-H2AX levels. We conclude DNA damage-repair proteins traffic on microtubules and addition of MTAs sequesters them in the cytoplasm, explaining why MTA/DDA combinations are common anticancer regimens.

  2. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Drain-in-Furnace Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Houseman, J.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Compact furnace moved from site to site. Toxic industrial waste destroyed using furnace concept developed for disposal of toxic munitions. Toxic waste drained into furnace where incinerated immediately. In furnace toxic agent rapidly drained and destroyed in small combustion chamber between upper and lower layers of hot ceramic balls

  3. Lethal toxicity of industrial chemicals to early life stages of Tilapia guineensis.

    PubMed

    Ezemonye, L I N; Ogeleka, D F; Okieimen, F E

    2008-08-30

    The toxic effects of industrial chemicals on three early life stages of an economically important fish, Tilapia guineensis were investigated using the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) # 203 recommended semi-static renewal bioassay. The assessment was necessary for the uncontrollable disposal of Neatex (liquid detergent) and Norust CR 486 (corrosion inhibitor) into the Niger Delta environment of Nigeria. The estimated 96-h LC(50) for 7-, 14- and 28-day-old fish in Norust CR 486 exposure was considered "more toxic" than Neatex in all life stages and was dependent on species age, exposure duration and environment. In the fresh water test, for Neatex and Norust CR 486 exposures for day 7, 14 and 28, the 96-h LC50 were 8.79, 17.10 and 82.42 mg/l and 5.55, 13.58 and 20.21 mg/l, respectively. In the brackish test, 15.42 and 46.52 mg/l, not determined (ND) and 7.35, 13.95 and 24.50mg/l were obtained. Differential toxicity was observed in the fresh and brackish water fish for the two chemicals and controls at p<0.05. The high sensitivity of the 7-day-old test organisms to both chemicals provides a rationale for regulatory surveillance and monitoring of both chemicals in the fragile Niger Delta environment. PMID:18262353

  4. Toxicity of oiled sediments treated with bioremediation agents: A shoreline experiment in Delaware, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Mearna, A.; Doe, K.; Fisher, W.; Lee, K.; Mueller, C.

    1995-12-31

    Using a randomized complete block design, a battery of five pore water and sediment bioassays were used to monitor and compare toxicity among un-oiled, oiled (light Nigerian crude) and nutrient and bacteria-treated shoreline plots on a sandy beach. Tests included sea urchin fertilization, water and modified-solid phase microtox, 10-day amphipod survival and grass shrimp embryo bioassays. During the 13-week study, bioremediation treatment with nutrients and/or bacteria did not decrease toxicity relative to that in untreated plots. Results from at least one bioassay suggested that, relative to no treatment, treatment may have increased toxicity for several weeks. The least and most sensitive tests were sea urchin fertilization (pore water) and 10-day amphipod test, respectively. Coupled with chemical monitoring, the study produced a large data-base for evaluating toxic concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in sandy sediments.

  5. The use of sugar and alcohol industry waste in the adsorption of potentially toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Santos, Oseas Silva; Mendonça, André Gustavo Ribeiro; Santos, Josué Carinhanha Caldas; Silva, Amanda Paulina Bezerra; Costa, Silvanio Silverio Lopes; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo; Carmo, Janaina Braga; Botero, Wander Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    One of the waste products of the industrial process of the sugar and alcohol agribusiness is filter cake (FC). This waste product has high levels of organic matter, mainly proteins and lipids, and is rich in calcium, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorous. In this work we characterized samples of FC from sugar and alcohol industries located in sugarcane-producing regions in Brazil and assessed the adsorption of potentially toxic metals (Cu(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Ni(II) and Cr(III)) by this waste in mono- and multi-elemental systems, seeking to use FC as an adsorbent in contaminated environments. The characterization of FCs showed significant differences between the samples and the adsorption studies showed retention of over 90% of potentially toxic metals. In a competitive environment (multi-metallic solution), the FC was effective in adsorbing all metals except lead, but less effective compared to the mono-metallic solution. These results show the potential for use of this residue as an adsorbent in contaminated environments.

  6. Biochars made from agro-industrial by-products remove chlorine and lower water toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzachristas, Andreas; Xirou, Maria; Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Dailianis, Stefanos; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.

    2016-04-01

    Chlorination is the most common disinfection process for water and treated wastewater. For the industrial use of water in food production, chlorine can add undesired taste and odor to the final product. For this reason, dechlorination is desired for food industries that use municipal tap water. For treated wastewater discharge or reuse, chlorine can be toxic to the receiving aqueous systems and to the irrigated plants. In both the above cases, dechlorination is also required. Traditionally activated carbon has been used as the ideal material for the removal of chlorine. The main mechanisms that describe the interaction between activated carbon and HOCl or OCl- are described by the following equations (AWWA, 1990): HOCl + C* → C*O + H+ + Cl- (1), OCl- + C* → C*O + Cl- (2) Where C* and C*O represent the activated carbon surface and a surface oxide, respectively. The present study proposes the use of agro-industrial by-products for the production of biochars that will be used for dechlorination of tap-water used for food-industry production. Different raw materials such as malt spent rootlets, coffee residue, olive and grape seeds, etc. are used for the production of biochar. Various temperatures and air-to-solid ratios are tested for optimizing biochar production. Batch tests as well as a column test are employed to study the dechlorination efficiency and kinetics of the different raw and biochar materials as well as those of commercial activated carbons. As chlorine concentration increases the removal also increases linearily. After 1 and 24 hours of contact the chlorine relative removal efficiencies for the biochar made from olive seeds are 50 and 77 ± 4%, respectively. It seems that the removal kinetics are faster during the first hour; then, removal continues but with a slower rate. Most of the biochars tested (with 3 mg of solid in 20 mL of chlorine solution at initial concentration Co=1.5 mg/L) demonstrated removal efficiencies with an average of 9.4 ± 0

  7. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-11-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects.

  8. Toxicity of vesicant agents scheduled for destruction by the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, A P; Griffin, G D

    1992-01-01

    The vesicant agents of the unitary chemical munitions stockpile include various formulations of sulfur mustard [bis-(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; agents H, HD, and HT] and small quantities of the organic arsenical Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine; agent L]. These agents can be dispersed in liquid, aerosol, or vapor form and are capable of producing severe chemical burns upon direct contact with tissue. Moist tissues such as the eyes, respiratory tract, and axillary areas are particularly affected. Available data summarizing acute dose response in humans and laboratory animals are summarized. Vesicant agents are also capable of generating delayed effects such as chronic bronchitis, carcinogenesis, or keratitis/keratopathy of the eye under appropriate conditions of exposure and dose. These effects may not become manifest until years following exposure. Risk analysis derived from carcinogenesis data indicates that sulfur mustard possesses a carcinogenic potency similar to that of benzo[a]pyrene. Because mustard agents are alkylating compounds, they destroy individual cells by reaction with cellular proteins, enzymes, RNA, and DNA. Once begun, tissue reaction is irreversible. Mustard agents are mutagenic; data for cellular and laboratory animal assays are presented. Reproductive effects have not been demonstrated in the offspring of laboratory rats. Acute Lewisite exposure has been implicated in cases of Bowen's disease, an intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma. Lewisite is not known to generate reproductive or teratogenic effects. PMID:1486858

  9. Toxicity of cryoprotectants agents in freshwater prawn embryos of Macrobrachium amazonicum.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Arthur Vinícius Lourenço; Castro, Elias José Teles; Barbosa, Mariana Silva Alves; de Sousa, Míriam Luzia Nogueira Martins; de Araújo Neto, Manoel Paiva; Filho, Aldeney Andrade Soares; de Souza Sampaio, Celia Maria

    2015-12-01

    The process of cooling and cryopreservation of prawn embryos is a viable alternative for a continuous supply of larvae for freshwater prawn farming ponds. However, studies involving the application of those techniques as well as on toxicity of cryoprotectants in freshwater prawn embryos are scarce. Thus, this study aims to test the toxicity of methylic alcohol (MET), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) on Macrobrachium amazonicum embryos. For the present experiment, pools of embryos were taken from 15 M. amazonicum females and were divided into three groups and tested in duplicate at concentrations of 10, 5, 3; 1, 0.5 or 0.1%. Toxicity tests were conducted for 24 h in Falcon® pipes to obtain the lethal concentration for 50% of the larvae (LC50). After the set period for testing, random samples of embryos were removed for morphological analysis under stereoscopic microscopes. Results were analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test at a 5% significance level and Trimmed Spearman-Karber Analysis to determine LC50-24 h. DMSO toxicity tests revealed that 5% and 10% concentrations showed the highest toxicity and differed from the control (P ≤ 0.05), 24h-LC50 was 437.4 ± 14.4 µL. MET was less toxic among the tested cryoprotectants and concentrations did not allow the determination of its LC50-24h. For tests with EG, concentrations of 3, 5 or 10% solutions resulted in a 100% mortality to tested embryos; EG was the tested cryoprotectant with the highest toxicity, with an LC50-24h average of 81.91 ± 35.3 µl. PMID:25255785

  10. Analysis of the contributions of pollution to industrial discharge categories in Korea using the Modified Toxic Weighting Factor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong-Jin; Yeom, Ick-Tae

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, 45,163 domestic industrial direct/indirect discharge sources were registered in Korea, which have been categorized into 82 divisions based on the characteristics of their products, raw materials and wastewaters. The purpose of this study was to set priorities using a risk assessment of pollutants toxic weighting for each industrial category with respect to pollution prevention and control. This study developed the upgraded Modified Toxic Weighting Factors (MTWFs) rather than the Toxic Weighting Factors (TWFs) suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with respect to domestic environmental regulations, and the assessment of existing databases of domestic industrial wastewater characteristics for the 82 categorized industries in Korea. Finally, priority of industrial categories and pollutants were established to determine the target industries and pollutants requiring controls. High contributing categories in order of their pollution loads were pulp, paper and paper products manufacturing, dyeing and processing facilities, etc. The top 10 industrial category loads accounted for 76.0% of the total effluent equivalent kilograms of pollution. High contributing categories, in order of their toxic level were synthetic resins and other plastics manufacturing, leather and fur processing and manufacturing. PMID:22339020

  11. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds.

  12. TOXICITY-BASED CHEMICAL AGENT DETECTION SYSTEMS: CONTINUOUS MONITOR AND EXPOSURE HISTORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will develop and characterize chemical agent detection systems that will provide broad toxicological screening information to first responders and building decontamination personnel. The primary goal for this technology is to detect the presence of airborne chemic...

  13. Scuba diver's delayed toxic epithelial keratopathy from commercial mask defogging agents.

    PubMed

    Wright, W L

    1982-04-01

    Two unrelated cases of delayed epithelial keratopathy in amateur scuba divers were attributed to the improper use of commercial chemical defogging agents on the divers' masks. Symptoms of corneal damage emerged one to three hours after exposure to such agents. Damage to the cornea in both cases was limited to a diffuse superficial punctate keratopathy that resolved within 24 hours without scarring or permanent damage.

  14. Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Isabel S S; Neto, Isabel F F; Soares, Helena M V M

    2014-10-01

    Aminopolycarboxylates, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), are chelating agents widely used in several industrial, agricultural, and domestic applications. However, the fact that they are not biodegradable leads to the presence of considerable amounts in aquatic systems, with serious environmental consequences. The replacement of these compounds by biodegradable alternatives has been the object of study in the last three decades. This paper reviews the most relevant studies towards the use of environmentally friendly chelating agents in a large number of applications: oxidative bleaching, detergents and cleaning compositions, scale prevention and reduction, remediation of soils, agriculture, electroplating, waste treatment, and biocides. Nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), and iminodisuccinic acid (IDS) are the most commonly suggested to replace the nonbiodegradable chelating agents. Depending on the application, the requirements for metal complexation might differ. Metal chelation ability of the most promising compounds [NTA, EDDS, IDS, methylglycinediacetic acid (MGDA), L-glutamic acid N,N-diacetic acid (GLDA), ethylenediamine-N,N'-diglutaric acid (EDDG), ethylenediamine-N,N'-dimalonic acid (EDDM), 3-hydroxy-2,2-iminodisuccinic acid (HIDS), 2-hydroxyethyliminodiacetic acid (HEIDA), pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDA)] with Fe, Mn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ca, and Mg was simulated by computer calculations. The advantages or disadvantages of each compound for the most important applications were discussed.

  15. Neurological syndromes produced by some toxic metals encountered industrially or environmentally.

    PubMed

    Bahiga, L M; Kotb, N A; El-Dessoukey, E A

    1978-06-01

    Toxic metals encountered industrially or environmentally may produce the following syndromes: 1) Peripheral neuropathy: which is mainly sensory in arsenic and entirely motor with inorganic lead, organophosphorus compounds and tallium produce a mixed form of peripheral neuropathy. 2) Encephalopathy: usually with lead poisoning where ataxia and hemiplegia or optic atrophy may occur. 3) Optic neuritis: transient or permanent impairment of vision in arsenic poisoning and blurring of vision followed by field fedects with thallium poisoning. 4) Cerebellar disturbances: in the form of ataxia in organic mercury. 5) Parkinsonism: extrapyramidal signs occurs in manganese poisoning shown as mask face and rigidity of muscles. 6) Mental changes: as acute psychosis in organic lead and erethism in organic mercury.

  16. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions. PMID:27230425

  17. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions.

  18. Secret science: tobacco industry research on smoking behaviour and cigarette toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hammond, David; Collishaw, Neil E; Callard, Cynthia

    2006-03-01

    A lack of scientific data remains the principal obstacle to regulating cigarette toxicity. In particular, there is an immediate need to improve our understanding of the interaction between smoking behaviour and product design, and its influence on cigarette deliveries. This article reviews internal tobacco industry documents on smoking behaviour research undertaken by Imperial Tobacco Limited (ITL) and British-American Tobacco (BAT). BAT documents indicate that smokers vary their puffing behaviour to regulate nicotine levels and compensate for low-yield cigarettes by smoking them more intensely. BAT research also shows that the tar and nicotine delivered to smokers is substantially greater than the machine-smoked yields reported to consumers and regulators. Internal documents describe a strategy to maximise this discrepancy through product design. In particular, BAT developed elastic cigarettes that produced low yields under standard testing protocols, whereas in consumers' hands they elicited more intensive smoking and provided higher concentrations of tar and nicotine to smokers. Documents also show that BAT pursued this product strategy despite the health risks to consumers and ethical concerns raised by senior scientists, and paired it with an equally successful marketing campaign that promoted these cigarettes as low-tar alternatives for health-concerned smokers. Overall, the documents seem to reveal a product strategy intended to exploit the limitations of the testing protocols and to intentionally conceal from consumers and regulators the potential toxicity of BAT products revealed by BAT's own research. Tobacco industry research underscores the serious limitations of the current cigarette testing protocols and the documents describe deceptive business practices that remain in place. PMID:16517278

  19. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-08-14

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater.

  20. Estimating genetic potential of biofuel forest hardwoods to withstand metal toxicity in industrial effluent under dry tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Manzoor, S A; Mirza, S N; Zubair, M; Nouman, W; Hussain, S B; Mehmood, S; Irshad, A; Sarwar, N; Ammar, A; Iqbal, M F; Asim, A; Chattha, M U; Chattha, M B; Zafar, A; Abid, R

    2015-01-01

    Biofuel tree species are recognized as a promising alternative source of fuel to conventional forms. Additionally, these tree species are also effective in accumulating toxic heavy metals present in some industrial effluents. In developing countries such as Pakistan, the use of biofuel tree species is gaining popularity not only for harvesting economical and environmentally friendly biofuel, but also to sequester poisonous heavy metals from industrial wastewater. This study was aimed at evaluating the genetic potential of two biofuel species, namely, Jatropha curcas and Pongamia pinnata, to grow when irrigated with industrial effluent from the Pak-Arab Fertilizer Factory Multan, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. The growth performances of one-year-old seedlings of both species were compared in soil with adverse physiochemical properties. It was found that J. curcas was better able to withstand the toxicity of the heavy metals present in the fertilizer factory effluent. J. curcas showed maximum gain in height, diameter, and biomass production in soil irrigated with 75% concentrated industrial effluent. In contrast, P. pinnata showed a significant reduction in growth in soil irrigated with more than 50% concentrated industrial effluent, indicating that this species is less tolerant to higher toxicity levels of industrial effluent. This study identifies J. curcas as a promising biofuel tree species that can be grown using industrial wastewater. PMID:26345887

  1. Fifty-two-week oral toxicity study of the new cognition-enhancing agent nefiracetam in rats.

    PubMed

    Hooks, W N; Colman, K A; Gopinath, C; Inage, F; Kato, M; Takayama, S

    1994-02-01

    A 52-week toxicity study by oral gavage administration was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with nefiracetam (N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2-(2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl) acetamide, DM-9384, CAS 77191-36-7), a new cognition-enhancing agent, as a part of a safety evaluation program. Dosages of 0 (control), 10, 30, 100 and 300 mg/kg/d were selected for this study. Treatment-related findings were confined to the 300 mg/kg/d level and, to a lesser extent, the 100 and 30 mg/kg/d levels, with the investigations indicating the kidney as the main target organ for toxicity. The microscopic pathology examination of this organ showed papillary epithelial hyperplasia and/or collecting duct epithelial hyperplasia, with cortical scarring and occasional mineralisation in the papilla. Histopathological changes in the liver, centrilobullar hepatocyte enlargement (accompanied by fine vacuolation) and foci/areas of eosinophilic hepatocytes were considered to reflect the induction of drug-metabolising enzymes in the liver. Other tissues showing treatment-related findings included the salivary glands, urinary bladder, spleen, pancreas and adrenals. Additionally, other notable findings included (in the high dosage males only) a decline in body weight (from week 34), lower erythrocytic characteristics and slightly higher plasma urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase values. The results in this study, therefore, indicated that the non-toxic effect level was 10 mg/kg/d of nefiracetam. PMID:8018094

  2. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX

    SciTech Connect

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P.; Doctor, Bhupendra P.

    2007-03-15

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m{sup 3} of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  3. Medical countermeasure against respiratory toxicity and acute lung injury following inhalation exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent VX.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Madhusoodana P; Gordon, Richard K; Rezk, Peter E; Katos, Alexander M; Wajda, Nikolai A; Moran, Theodore S; Steele, Keith E; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Sciuto, Alfred M

    2007-03-01

    To develop therapeutics against lung injury and respiratory toxicity following nerve agent VX exposure, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a number of potential pulmonary therapeutics. Guinea pigs were exposed to 27.03 mg/m(3) of VX or saline using a microinstillation inhalation exposure technique for 4 min and then the toxicity was assessed. Exposure to this dose of VX resulted in a 24-h survival rate of 52%. There was a significant increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein, total cell number, and cell death. Surprisingly, direct pulmonary treatment with surfactant, liquivent, N-acetylcysteine, dexamethasone, or anti-sense syk oligonucleotides 2 min post-exposure did not significantly increase the survival rate of VX-exposed guinea pigs. Further blocking the nostrils, airway, and bronchioles, VX-induced viscous mucous secretions were exacerbated by these aerosolized treatments. To overcome these events, we developed a strategy to protect the animals by treatment with atropine. Atropine inhibits muscarinic stimulation and markedly reduces the copious airway secretion following nerve agent exposure. Indeed, post-exposure treatment with atropine methyl bromide, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier, resulted in 100% survival of VX-exposed animals. Bronchoalveolar lavage from VX-exposed and atropine-treated animals exhibited lower protein levels, cell number, and cell death compared to VX-exposed controls, indicating less lung injury. When pulmonary therapeutics were combined with atropine, significant protection to VX-exposure was observed. These results indicate that combinations of pulmonary therapeutics with atropine or drugs that inhibit mucous secretion are important for the treatment of respiratory toxicity and lung injury following VX exposure.

  4. Evaluation of the toxicity of 2-aminoimidazole antibiofilm agents using both cellular and model organism systems

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, Sean D.; Tucker, Ashley T.; Thompson, Richele; Piper, Amanda; Richards, Justin J.; Rogers, Steven A.; Mathies, Laura D.; Melander, Christian; Cavanagh, John

    2012-01-01

    Biofilm formation is a ubiquitous bacterial defense mechanism and has been shown to be a primary element in the antibiotic resistance of many human diseases, especially in the case of nosocomial infections. Recently, we have developed several compound libraries that are extremely effective at both dispersing preexisting biofilms and also inhibiting their initial formation. In addition to their antibiofilm properties, some of these molecules are able to resensitize resistant bacterial strains to previously ineffective antibiotics and are being assessed as adjuvants. In this study, we evaluated the toxic effects of three of our most effective 2-aminoimidazole compounds (dihydrosventrin, RA, and SPAR) using a rapid pipeline that combines a series of assays. A methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium assay, using the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line was used to determine epidermal irritants and was combined with Caenorhabditis elegans fecundity assays that demonstrated the effects of environmental exposure to various concentrations of these molecules. In each case, the assays showed that the compounds did not exhibit toxicity until they reached well above their current biofilm dispersion/inhibition concentrations. The most effective antibiofilm compound also had significant effects when used in conjunction with several standard antibiotics against resistant bacteria. Consequently, it was further investigated using the C. elegans assay in combination with different antibiotics and was found to maintain the same low level of toxicity as when acting alone, bolstering its candidacy for further testing as an adjuvant. PMID:22292413

  5. Toxicity study of dimethylethoxysilane (DMSES), the waterproofing agent for the Orbiter heat protective system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; Dodd, Darol; Stuart, Bruce; Rothenberg, Simon; Kershaw, Mary Ann; Thilagar, A.

    1993-01-01

    DMES, a volatile liquid, is used by NASA to waterproof the Orbiter thermal protective system. During waterproofing operations at the Oribter Processing Facility at KSC, workers could be exposed to DMES vapor. To assess the toxicity of DMES, acute and subchronic (2-week and 13-week) inhalation studies were conducted with rats. Studies were also conducted to assess the potential of DMES. Inhalation exposure concentrations ranged from 40 ppm to 4000 ppm. No mortality was observed during the studies. Exposures to 2100 ppm produced narcosis and ataxia. Post-exposure recovery from these CNS effects was rapid (less than 1 hr). These effects were concentration-dependent and relatively independent of exposure length. Exposure to 3000 ppm for 2 weeks (5 h/d, 5 d/wk) produced testicular toxicity. The 13-week study yielded similar results. Results from the genotoxicity assays (in vivo/in vitro unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary heptaocytes, chromosomal aberrations in rat bone marrow cells; reverse gene mutation in Salmonella typhimurium; and forward mutation in Chinese hamster culture cells) were negative. These studies indicated that DMES is mildly to moderately toxic but not a multagen.

  6. Optimization of electrocoagulation (EC) process for the purification of a real industrial wastewater from toxic metals.

    PubMed

    Gatsios, Evangelos; Hahladakis, John N; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, the efficiency evaluation of electrocoagulation (EC) in removing toxic metals from a real industrial wastewater, collected from Aspropyrgos, Athens, Greece was investigated. Manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) at respective concentrations of 5 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L were present in the wastewater (pH=6), originated from the wastes produced by EBO-PYRKAL munitions industry and Hellenic Petroleum Elefsis Refineries. The effect of operational parameters such as electrode combination and distance, applied current, initial pH and initial metal concentration, was studied. The results indicated that Cu and Zn were totally removed in all experiments, while Mn exhibited equally high removal percentages (approximately 90%). Decreasing the initial pH and increasing the distance between electrodes, resulted in a negative effect on the efficiency and energy consumption of the process. On the other hand, increasing the applied current, favored metal removal but resulted in a power consumption increase. Different initial concentrations did not affect metal removal efficiency. The optimal results, regarding both cost and EC efficiency, were obtained with a combination of iron electrodes, at 2 cm distance, at initial current of 0.1 A and pH=6. After 90 min of treatment, maximum removal percentages obtained were 89% for Mn, 100% for Cu and 100% for Zn, at an energy consumption of 2.55 kWh/m(3).

  7. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment. PMID:26856647

  8. A LITERATURE REVIEW OF WIPE SAMPLING METHODS FOR CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wipe sampling is an important technique for the estimation of contaminant deposition in buildings, homes, or outdoor surfaces as a source of possible human exposure. Numerous

    methods of wipe sampling exist, and each method has its own specification for the type of wipe, we...

  9. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry.

  10. Acute environmental toxicity and persistence of methyl salicylate: A chemical agent simulant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Li, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    The interactions of methyl salicylate with plant foliage and soils were assessed using aerosol/vapor exposure methods. Measurements of deposition velocity and residence times for soils and foliar surfaces are reported. Severe plant contact toxicity was observed at foliar mass-loading levels above 4 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} leaf; however, recovery was noted after four to fourteen days. Methyl salicylate has a short-term effect on soil dehydrogenase activity, but not phosphatase activity. Results of the earthworm bioassay indicated only minimal effects on survival.

  11. Assessment of Oral Toxicity and Safety of Pentamethylchromanol (PMCol), A Potential Chemopreventative Agent, in Rats and Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lindeblad, Matthew; Kapetanovic, Izet M.; Kabirov, Kasim K.; Detrisac, Carol J.; Dinger, Nancy; Mankovskaya, Irina; Zakharov, Alexander; Lyubimov, Alexander V.

    2010-01-01

    lower levels is considered to be less likely to result in toxicity following 28 days of exposure. Sex-related differences were seen in rats. Male rats appeared to have greater sensitivity to nephrotoxicity, while female animals had a greater incidence of hepatoxicity and changes in hematological parameters evaluated, especially at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day, which correlated to the higher plasma drug levels in female rats. It appeared that dogs were generally more sensitive than rats to oral administration of PMCol. Further examination of the potential toxic effects of PMCol in longer term studies is required prior to understanding the full risks of PMCol administration as a chemopreventative agent. PMID:20430063

  12. Science First: Contributions of a University-Industry Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program to Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Ted K.; Kennedy, Kevin M.; Davis, Paul R.; Lloyd, Larry L.; Gwebu, Nokuthula; Last, Jerold A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes how public policy establishing the University of California Toxic Substances Research and Teaching Program helped to establish the state's environmental technology industry. The multidisciplinary "science-push" program generated economic development benefits including leveraged research funding and at least 200 new private sector jobs,…

  13. [Selective toxicity of cytostatic agents: studies on the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin, its pathogenesis and contraindications].

    PubMed

    Lenzhofer, R

    1983-01-01

    In the past few years the medical treatment of malignant diseases has steadily increased in scope and importance. However, the tumor regimens described in the textbooks still are rather schematic recommendations, which are inadequately tailored to the needs of the individual case. Current tumor therapy is based on the results of the statistical analysis using empirical data collected in randomized trials. While patients can today be given a statistical value which expresses their computed chance of a cure versus that of a defined population, there is still no generally valid method which could serve as a rational basis for individualized counselling. But cytostatic chemotherapy has yet another major shortcoming: the collective assessment of toxicity, which is related to one of the basic properties of cytostatic drugs, i.e. their extremely low therapeutic index. Many of the side effects of cytostatics may cause severe irreversible, at times even fatal, organ dysfunction. Consequently, the definition of the therapeutic risks involved on the basis of an objective identification of potential organ toxicity is a major challenge. "Surgery without a knife", as K.H. Spitzy has called chemotherapy, should be subjected to objective criteria for its indications and contraindications so that patients can truly benefit from what are become increasingly aggressive measures. The principle of weighing the benefits desired in the individual case against the potential risks involved in a specific treatment, which Paul Ehrlich postulated for antibacterial chemotherapy, should also be applied to cytostatic chemotherapy with a view to facilitating the decision for or against therapy in borderline cases. The present contribution which is designed to shed light on the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin should be interpreted in light of this situation. Pathogenetic aspects and animal experiments on drug-induced lipid peroxidation will be discussed and clinical trials on both acute and chronic

  14. Chelating agents for uranium(IV): 2. Efficacy and toxicity of tetradentate catecholate and hydroxypyridinonate ligands in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Ebbe, S.N.; Xu, J.; Raymond, K.N.

    2000-05-01

    Uranium(VI) (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, uranyl) is nephrotoxic. Depending on isotopic composition and dosage, U(VI) is also chemically toxic and carcinogenic in bone. Several ligands containing two, three, or four bidentate catecholate or hydroxypyridinonate metal binding groups, developed for in vivo chelation of other actinides, were found, on evaluation in mice, to be effective for in vivo chelation of U(VI). The most promising ligands contained two bidentate groups per chelator molecule (tetradentate) attached to linear 4- or 5-carbon backbones (4-LI, butylene; 5-LI, pentylene; 5-LIO, diethyl ether). New ligands were then prepared to optimize ligand affinity for U(VI) in vivo and low acute toxicity. Five bidentate binding groups--sulfocatechol [CAM(S)], carboxycatechol [CAM(C)], methylterephthalamide (MeTAM), 1,2-hydroxypyridinone (1,2-HOPO), or 3,2-hydroxypyridinone (Me-3,2-HOPO)--were each attached to two linear backbones (4-LI and 5-LI or 5-LIO). Those ten tetradentate ligands and octadentate 3,4,3-LI(1,2-HOPO), an effective actinide chelator, were evaluated in mice for in vivo chelation of {sup 233}U(VI) (injection at 3 min, 1 h, or 24 h or oral administration at 3 min after intravenous injection of {sup 233}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) and for acute toxicity (100 {micro}mol kg{sup {minus}1} injected daily for 10 d). The combined efficacy and toxicity screening identified 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) and 5-LICAM(S) as the most effective low-toxicity agents. They chelate circulating U(VI) efficiently at ligand:uranium molar ratios {ge} 20, remove useful amounts of newly deposited U(VI) from kidney and bone at molar ratios {ge} 100, and reduce kidney U(VI) levels significantly when given orally at molar ratios {ge} 100. 5-LIO(Me-3,2-HOPO) has greater affinity for kidney U(VI) while 5-LICAM(S) has greater affinity for bone U(VI), and a 1:1 mixture (total molar ratio = 91) reduced kidney and bone U(VI) to 15 and 58% of control, respectively--more than an equimolar amount of either ligand

  15. Usefulness of sediment toxicity tests with estuarine plants and animals to indicate municipal and industrial effluent impact

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, M.A.; Weber, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The environmental impact of municipal and industrial effluents has been predicted from results from single species toxicity tests. The goal of these tests is to ensure that water quality criteria and the designated use of the waterbody is not impacted. Recently, the focus of some effluent toxicity evaluation has centered on determining the effluent impact on the sediment in the receiving water. This study evaluated the toxicities of several sediment samples collected above and below six outfalls to the Pensacola Bay system. Toxicities were determined using three macrophytic plants and four animal species. The sediments, with few exceptions, exhibited a low level of toxicity. The mysid shrimp was more sensitive than Ampelisca, Leptocheirus and the sheepshead minnow. The sensitivities of the plants, Echinochloa crusgalli, Scirpus robustus and Sesbania macrocarpa, were comparable to those of the animal species. The toxicity of time sediment, when compared to that of the effluent, determined using standard single species of plants and animals was less. Overall, the sediment toxicity tests were useful in providing insight on the impact of effluents. However, the application and usefulness of this assessment tool is highly dependent upon a variety of factors, including the geomorphological characteristics of the receiving waters.

  16. Thiazolidine prodrugs as protective agents against gamma-radiation-induced toxicity and mutagenesis in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    Wilmore, B H; Cassidy, P B; Warters, R L; Roberts, J C

    2001-08-01

    Representatives of two classes of thiazolidine prodrug forms of the well-known radioprotective agents L-cysteine, cysteamine, and 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065) were synthesized by condensing the parent thiolamine with an appropriate carbonyl donor. Inherent toxicity of the prodrugs was assessed in V79 cells using a clonogenic survival assay. Protection against radiation-induced cell death was measured similarly after exposure to 0--8 Gy gamma ((137)Cs) radiation. Antimutagenic activity was determined at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) locus. All thiazolidine prodrugs exhibited less toxicity than their parent thiolamines, sometimes dramatically so. Protection against radiation-induced cell death was observed for the 2-alkylthiazolidine, 2(R,S)-D-ribo-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)thiazolidine (RibCyst), which produced a protection factor at 8 Gy of 1.8; the cysteine analogue, 2(R,S)-D-ribo-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (RibCys), was less active. RibCyst also exhibited excellent antimutational activity, rivaling that of WR-1065. The 2-oxothiazolidine analogues showed little activity in either determination under the conditions tested, perhaps due to their enhanced chemical and biochemical stability. PMID:11472218

  17. Sequential application of chelating agents and innovative surfactants for the enhanced electroremediation of real sediments from toxic metals and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Hahladakis, John N; Lekkas, Nikolaos; Smponias, Andreas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the sequential application of a chelating agent (citric acid) followed by a surfactant in the simultaneous electroremediation of real contaminated sediments from toxic metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, the efficiency evaluation of two innovative non-ionic surfactants, commercially known as Poloxamer 407 and Nonidet P40, was investigated. The results indicated a removal efficacy of approximately 43% and 48% for the summation of PAHs (SUM PAHs), respectively for the aforementioned surfactants, much better than the one obtained by the use of Tween 80 (nearly 21%). Individual PAHs (e.g. fluorene) were removed in percentages that reached almost 84% and 92% in the respective electrokinetic experiments when these new surfactants were introduced. In addition, the combined-enhanced sequential electrokinetic treatment with citric acid improved dramatically the removal of Zn and As, compared to the unenhanced run, but did not favor the other toxic metals examined. Since no improvement in metal removal percentages occurred when Tween 80 was used, significant contribution to this matter should also be attributed to the solubilization capacity of these innovative, in electrokinetic remediation, non-ionic surfactants.

  18. Sequential application of chelating agents and innovative surfactants for the enhanced electroremediation of real sediments from toxic metals and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Hahladakis, John N; Lekkas, Nikolaos; Smponias, Andreas; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-06-01

    This study focused on the sequential application of a chelating agent (citric acid) followed by a surfactant in the simultaneous electroremediation of real contaminated sediments from toxic metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, the efficiency evaluation of two innovative non-ionic surfactants, commercially known as Poloxamer 407 and Nonidet P40, was investigated. The results indicated a removal efficacy of approximately 43% and 48% for the summation of PAHs (SUM PAHs), respectively for the aforementioned surfactants, much better than the one obtained by the use of Tween 80 (nearly 21%). Individual PAHs (e.g. fluorene) were removed in percentages that reached almost 84% and 92% in the respective electrokinetic experiments when these new surfactants were introduced. In addition, the combined-enhanced sequential electrokinetic treatment with citric acid improved dramatically the removal of Zn and As, compared to the unenhanced run, but did not favor the other toxic metals examined. Since no improvement in metal removal percentages occurred when Tween 80 was used, significant contribution to this matter should also be attributed to the solubilization capacity of these innovative, in electrokinetic remediation, non-ionic surfactants. PMID:24321329

  19. Anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with chemical precipitation for treatment and toxicity reduction of industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Laohaprapanona, Sawanya; Marquesa, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the reduction of soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) and the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), formaldehyde (FA) and nitrogen from highly polluted wastewater generated during cleaning procedures in wood floor manufacturing using a laboratory-scale biological anaerobic baffled reactor followed by chemical precipitation using MgCI2 .6H20 + Na2HPO4. By increasing the hydraulic retention time from 2.5 to 3.7 and 5 days, the reduction rates of FA, DOC and CODs of nearly 100%, 90% and 83%, respectively, were achieved. When the Mg:N:P molar ratio in the chemical treatment was changed from 1:1:1 to 1.3:1:1.3 at pH 8, the NH4+ removal rate increased from 80% to 98%. Biologically and chemically treated wastewater had no toxic effects on Vibrio fischeri and Artemia salina whereas chemically treated wastewater inhibited germination of Lactuca sativa owing to a high salt content. Regardless of the high conductivity of the treated wastewater, combined biological and chemical treatment was found to be effective for the removal of the organic load and nitrogen, and to be simple to operate and to maintain. A combined process such as that investigated could be useful for on-site treatment of low volumes of highly polluted wastewater generated by the wood floor and wood furniture industries, for which there is no suitable on-site treatment option available today.

  20. An industry perspective on the use of “atoxigenic” strains of Aspergillus flavus as biological control agents and the significance of cyclopiazonic acid

    PubMed Central

    King, Eileen D; (Bobby) Bassi, Albeit B; Ross, David C; Druebbisch, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Several nonaflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been registered in the United States to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize and other crops, but there may be unintended negative consequences if these strains produce cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). AF36, a nonaflatoxigenic, CPA-producing strain has been shown to produce CPA in treated maize and peanuts. Alternative strains, including Afla-Guard® brand biocontrol agent and K49, do not produce CPA and can reduce both aflatoxin and CPA in treated crops. Chronic toxicity of CPA has not been studied, and recent animal studies show significant harmful effects from short-term exposure to CPA at low doses. Grower and industry confidence in this approach must be preserved through transparency. PMID:22844262

  1. Light-Induced Toxic Effects of Tamoxifen: A Chemotherapeutic and Chemopreventive Agent

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Shuguang; Yin, Jun-Jie; Fu, Peter P.; Yu, Hongtao

    2009-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a powerful drug used to treat breast cancer patients, and more than 500,000 women in the U. S. are being treated with this drug. In our study, tamoxifen is found to be photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 at concentrations as low as 0.08 μM and reaches maximum photomutagenicity at 0.4 μM under a light dose equivalent to 20 min sunlight. These concentrations are comparable to the plasma tamoxifen concentration of 0.4 to 3 μM for patients undergoing tamoxifen therapy. The toxicity seems to be the result of DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation caused by light irradiation of tamoxifen. The DNA damage caused by irradiation of ΦX174 DNA in the presence of tamoxifen appears to be formation of DNA-tamoxifen covalent adducts, not single strand/double strand cleavages, and there is no oxygen involvement. This is confirmed by EPR experiments that carbon-centerd radicals are formed by light irradiation of tamoxifen and there is no singlet oxygen formation. Although superoxide radical is formed, it is not involved in DNA damage. PMID:20046228

  2. Cell-based Models for Discovery of Pharmacogenomic Markers of Anticancer Agent Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, R. Stephanie; Dolan, M. Eileen

    2009-01-01

    The field of pharmacogenomics is challenging because of the multigenic nature of drug response and toxicity. The candidate gene approach has been traditionally utilized to determine the contribution of genetic variation to a particular phenotype; however, the sequencing of the human genome and the genetic resource provided by the International HapMap Project has allowed researchers to perform genome-wide studies without a priori knowledge. Recent work has demonstrated the usefulness of cell-based models for pharmacogenomic discovery using the HapMap samples, which are a panel of well-genotyped, human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) derived from 90 Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe (CEU), 90 Yoruba in Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI), 45 Japanese in Tokyo, Japan (JPT) and 45 Han Chinese in Beijing, China (CHB). Using these cell-based models, investigators are able to study not only individual variation in drug response, but also population differences in drug response. Finally, besides single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and gene expression, these cell-based models can also be used to investigate other genetic (e.g. copy number variants, CNVs), epigenetic or environmental factors responsible for drug response. PMID:21499559

  3. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Soluble Fractions of Industrial Solid Wastes on Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri

    PubMed Central

    Flohr, Letícia; de Castilhos Júnior, Armando Borges; Matias, William Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Industrial wastes may produce leachates that can contaminate the aquatic ecosystem. Toxicity testing in acute and chronic levels is essential to assess environmental risks from the soluble fractions of these wastes, since only chemical analysis may not be adequate to classify the hazard of an industrial waste. In this study, ten samples of solid wastes from textile, metal-mechanic, and pulp and paper industries were analyzed by acute and chronic toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri. A metal-mechanic waste (sample MM3) induced the highest toxicity level to Daphnia magna(CE50,48 h = 2.21%). A textile waste induced the highest toxicity level to Vibrio fischeri (sample TX2, CE50,30 min = 12.08%). All samples of pulp and paper wastes, and a textile waste (sample TX2) induced chronic effects on reproduction, length, and longevity of Daphnia magna. These results could serve as an alert about the environmental risks of an inadequate waste classification method. PMID:22619632

  4. Imidazenil: a potent and safe protective agent against diisopropyl fluorophosphate toxicity.

    PubMed

    Auta, James; Costa, Erminio; Davis, John; Guidotti, Alessandro

    2004-03-01

    Convulsions are major and life-threatening signs of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents induced neurotoxicity. Thus, early intervention with anticonvulsant drugs to control seizure propagation and the consequent irreversible neuronal damage that may occur during OP exposure is essential. Diazepam is the standard anticonvulsant used in the therapeutic management of OP poisoning. However, its use has been associated with several unwanted effects including, sedation, amnesia, and in the large doses used for such treatment, respiratory depression. Moreover, protracted administration of diazepam has been associated with tolerance and dependence liabilities. In this study, we compared the efficacy and safety of diazepam (full allosteric modulator of GABA action) to that of imidazenil (partial, selective allosteric modulator of GABA action) as preventive treatment against diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP)-induced convulsions and mortality. Our results show that imidazenil is more potent and efficacious than diazepam in protecting rats against DFP-induced convulsions and death. Moreover, imidazenil was effective at doses (1 and 0.5 mg/kg) we have previously shown to be devoid of sedation, amnesia, respiratory depression, or tolerance and/or dependence. In contrast, diazepam was effective at doses (5 and 2.5 mg/kg) that produce sedation, amnesia, and ataxia. Furthermore, the combination of imidazenil with atropine was more potent and efficacious than that with diazepam.

  5. Dioxin, agent orange

    SciTech Connect

    Gough, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: dioxin, a prevalent problem; nobody wanted dioxin; agent organe and Vietnam; what we know about and may learn about agent orange and Veterans' health; agent organe and birth defects; dioxin in Missouri; 2, 4, 5-T: the U.S.' disappearing herbicide; Seveso: high-level environmental exposure; the nitro explosion; industrial exposures to dioxin; company behavior in the face of dioxin exposures; dioxin and specific cancers; animal tests of dioxin toxicity; dioxin decions; the present and the future.

  6. Methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity in mice. Role of environmental temperature and pharmacological agents.

    PubMed

    Ali, S F; Newport, G D; Slikker, W

    1996-10-31

    1. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature (23 degrees C) produced a significant depletion of dopamine (DA) and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. 2. Three days post 4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C, an 80% decrease in striatal dopamine (DA) occurred, while the same dose at 4 degrees C produced only a 20% DA decrease, and 4 x 20 mg/kg METH at 4 degrees C produced a 54% DA decrease. A similar pattern in the decreases of the DA metabolites DOPAC and HVA was observed after METH administration. 3. At 23 degrees C (+)MK-801 completely blocked while phenobarbital (40% decrease) and diazepam (65% decrease) partially blocked decreases in striatal DA produced by 4 x 10 mg/kg METH. Decreases in DOPAC and HVA were similar to the decreases in DA after METH and antagonists. 4. Multiple injections of METH (4 x 10 mg/kg, i.p.) at room temperature also produced a significant depletion of serotonin (5-HT) in striatum at 24 and 72 hr, and 1 and 2 wk. The depletion of 5-HT metabolite 5-HIAA was found only at 72 hr post-dosing. 5. This depletion of 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA at room temperature was blocked either by changing the environmental temperature to 4 degrees C, or by pretreatment with MK-801, diazepam and phenobarbital after METH treatment. 6. Therefore, these data suggest that drugs that block METH toxicity, such as haloperidol (D2 receptors), pentobarbital and phenobarbital (chloride channels) and MK-801 (NMDA/glutamate receptors), do not necessarily have the same mechanism of action but may either induce hypothermia or block induction of hyperthermia. 7. In summary, these studies show that in the mouse, environmental temperature greatly influences METH neurotoxicity, and that the protective effects of compounds such as diazepam, phenobarbital and MK-801 may be mediated by blockade of METH-induced hyperthermia.

  7. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  8. Toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions modeling for pressurized liquefied gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britter, Rex; Weil, Jeffrey; Leung, Joseph; Hanna, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to report current toxic industrial chemical (TIC) source emissions formulas appropriate for use in atmospheric comprehensive risk assessment models so as to represent state-of-the-art knowledge. The focus is on high-priority scenarios, including two-phase releases of pressurized liquefied gases such as chlorine from rail cars. The total mass released and the release duration are major parameters, as well as the velocity, thermodynamic state, and amount and droplet sizes of imbedded aerosols of the material at the exit of the rupture, which are required as inputs to the subsequent jet and dispersion modeling. Because of the many possible release scenarios that could develop, a suite of model equations has been described. These allow for gas, two-phase or liquid storage and release through ruptures of various types including sharp-edged and "pipe-like" ruptures. Model equations for jet depressurization and phase change due to flashing are available. Consideration of the importance of vessel response to a rupture is introduced. The breakup of the jet into fine droplets and their subsequent suspension and evaporation, or rainout is still a significant uncertainty in the overall modeling process. The recommended models are evaluated with data from various TIC field experiments, in particular recent experiments with pressurized liquefied gases. It is found that there is typically a factor of two error in models compared with research-grade observations of mass flow rates. However, biases are present in models' estimates of the droplet size distributions resulting from flashing releases.

  9. Accumulation of potentially toxic elements in road deposited sediments in residential and light industrial neighborhoods of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Yuen, J Q; Olin, P H; Lim, H S; Benner, S G; Sutherland, R A; Ziegler, A D

    2012-06-30

    Road deposited sediments (RDS) are a valuable environmental medium for characterizing contaminant levels in urban areas; and their associated potentially toxic elements (PTEs) can directly impact both human and aquatic health. In this study, RDS were collected from 15 co-located industrial and residential roads throughout Singapore to determine the effect of land use on contaminant levels. A second pilot study was designed to quantify the efficiency of road sweeping in removing different RDS grain size fractions from industrial and residential roads. The fine fraction (<63 μm) of all RDSs was analyzed for over 40 elements. Eleven elements that reflect geogenic and anthropogenic sources were examined in detail (Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sc, Si, and Zn). Industrial RDS had statistically higher concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, and Ni than residential RDS. Potentially toxic elements Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn were enriched >10-fold at all locations compared to upper continental crust values. Concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn exceeded aquatic sediment probable effect concentration levels, suggesting they could generate a toxic response in bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms. Traffic was equally heavy at both industrial and residential sites, but large trucks and machinery comprised a larger proportion of the traffic in the industrial areas. Traffic was not significantly correlated with the PTE (i.e., Cu, Pb, Sb and Zn) concentrations. Plausible anthropogenic contaminant sources include vehicles (e.g., brake and tire wear, vehicle emissions) and several industrial activities including metal works, oil processing, and waste incineration. Street sweeping was effective in removal of large organic debris and inorganic RDS, but it was ineffective in removing the geochemically important fraction, i.e., <125 μm.

  10. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models.

  11. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models. PMID:27122324

  12. The past suppression of industry knowledge of the toxicity of benzene to humans and potential bias in future benzene research.

    PubMed

    Infante, Peter F

    2006-01-01

    Petrochemical industry representatives often withhold information and misinterpret positive evidence of toxicity of benzene, even from their own research, also discouraging or delaying disclosure of findings of adverse effects to the public. They now appear to be attempting to influence study results in industry's favor by offering predetermined conclusions about study results as part of an effort to draw financial support for the studies. The American Petroleum Institute is currently raising funds for benzene research being conducted in China for which it has already announced the intended conclusions. PMID:16967835

  13. Evaluation of aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing effluents in reference to chromium electroplating industries.

    PubMed

    Baral, A; Engelken, R; Stephens, W; Farris, J; Hannigan, R

    2006-05-01

    This study evaluated aquatic toxicities of chromium and chromium-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, and compared the aquatic environmental risks of hexavalent and trivalent chromium electroplating operations. Trivalent chromium electroplating has emerged as an acceptable alternative to hazardous hexavalent chromium electroplating. This process substitution has reduced the human health impact in the workplace and minimized the production of hazardous sludge regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The thrust behind this research was to investigate whether trivalent chromium electroplating operations have lower adverse impacts on standardized toxicity test organisms. Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas were used to investigate toxicities of trivalent chromium (Cr (III)), hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)), and industrial effluents. In agreement with previous studies, Cr (III) was found to be less toxic than Cr (VI). Despite having several organic and inorganic constituents in the effluents obtained from trivalent chromium plating baths, they exhibited less adverse effects to C. dubia than effluents obtained from hexavalent chromium electroplating baths. Thus, transition from hexavalent to trivalent chromium electroplating processes may be justified. However, because of the presence of organic constituents such as formate, oxalate, and triethylene glycol in effluents, trivalent chromium electroplating operations may face additional regulatory requirements for removal of total organic carbon.

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity and toxicity of water and sediment samples from a Brazilian stream influenced by tannery industries.

    PubMed

    Júnior, Horst Mitteregger; Silva, Juliana da; Arenzon, Alexandre; Portela, Carina Saraiva; Ferreira, Isabel Cristina Fernandes de Sá; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports results of genotoxicity and toxicity studies of water and sediment samples collected from the Estância Velha stream of southern Brazil, a stream transporting both domestic sewage and effluents from regional factories working in the leather industry. Three sites were selected: in the stream headwaters (Site 1), located downstream of an urban area (Site 2), and near the basin outfall (Site 3). Results obtained with Allium cepa showed no evidence of chromosomal mutation, either in water or in sediment, during winter or summer seasons, but samples collected below Site 1 showed high toxicity. Physical and chemical analyses showed high concentrations of pollutants at these sites. Ecotoxicity tests with Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia measured toxicity in water from Sites 2 and 3 in summer 2004. A toxic effect on Hyalella azteca was only found in sediment from Site 3 during winter 2003 and summer 2004. The results suggest that the synergy among different compounds in domestic and industrial sewage discharges can make it difficult to maintain system stability. PMID:17157352

  15. Resveratrol induces catalytic bioscavenger paraoxonase 1 expression and protects against chemical warfare nerve agent toxicity in human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Bryan F; Seetharam, Karthik I; Dhoieam, Pilin; Gordon, Richard K; Doctor, Bhupendra P; Nambiar, Madhusoodana P

    2008-04-01

    Current advances in enzyme bioscavenger prophylactic therapy against chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) exposure are moving towards the identification of catalytic bioscavengers that can degrade large doses of organophosphate (OP) nerve agents without self destruction. This is a preferred method compared to therapy with the purified stoichiometric bioscavenger, butyrylcholinesterase, which binds OPs 1:1 and would thus require larger doses for treatment. Paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) is one such catalytic bioscavenger that has been shown to hydrolyze OP insecticides and contribute to detoxification in animals and humans. Here we investigated the effects of a common red wine ingredient, Resveratrol (RSV), to induce the expression of PON-1 in the human hepatic cell line HC04 and evaluated the protection against CWNA simulants. Dose-response curves showed that a concentration of 20 microM RSV was optimal in inducing PON-1 expression in HC04 cells. RSV at 20 microM increased the extracellular PON-1 activity approximately 150% without significantly affecting the cells. Higher doses of RSV were cytotoxic to the cells. Resveratrol also induced PON-1 in the human lung cell line A549. RSV pre-treatment significantly (P = 0.05) protected the hepatic cells against exposure to 2x LD(50) of soman and sarin simulants. However, lung cells were protected against soman simulant exposure but not against sarin simulant exposure following RSV treatment. In conclusion, these studies indicate that dietary inducers, such as RSV, can up-regulate PON-1, a catalytic bioscavenger, which can then hydrolyze and protect against CWNA-induced toxicity, providing a prospective new method to protect against CWNA exposure.

  16. Escherichia coli biosensors for environmental, food industry and biological warfare agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allil, R. C. S. B.; Werneck, M. M.; da Silva-Neto, J. L.; Miguel, M. A. L.; Rodrigues, D. M. C.; Wandermur, G. L.; Rambauske, D. C.

    2013-06-01

    This work has the objective to research and develop a plastic optical fiber biosensor based taper and mPOF LPG techniques to detect Escherichia coli by measurements of index of refraction. Generally, cell detection is crucial in microbiological analysis of clinical, food, water or environmental samples. However, methods current employed are time consuming, taking at least 72 hours in order to produce reliable responses as they depend on sample collection and cell culture in controlled conditions. The delay in obtaining the results of the analysis can result in contamination of a great number of consumers. Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) biosensors consist in a viable alternative for rapid and inexpensive scheme for cells detection. A study the sensitivity of these sensors for microbiological detection, fiber Tapers and Long Period Grating (LPG) both in poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) were realized as possible candidates to take part of a biosensor system to detect Escherichia coli in water samples. In this work we adopted the immunocapture technique, which consists of quantifying bacteria in a liquid sample, attract-ing and fixing the bacteria on the surface of the polymer optical fiber, by the antigen-antibody reaction. The results were obtained by optical setup that consists in a side of the fiber a LED coupled to a photodetector through a POF with the taper in the middle of it. On the other side of the POF a photodetector receives this light producting a photocurrent. The output voltage is fed into the microcontroller A/D input port and its output data is sent via USB to a LabView software running in a microcomputer. The results showed the possibility of the POF in biosensor application capable to detect E. coli for environmental and food industry and for detecting and identifying biological-warfare agents using a very rapid response sensor, applicable to field detection prototypes.

  17. Application of Ni-63 photo and corona discharge ionization for the analysis of chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stach, J.; Adler, J.; Brodacki, M.; Doring, H.-R.

    1995-01-01

    Over the past decade, advances in instrumental design and refinements in the understanding of ion molecule reactions at atmospheric pressure enabled the application of Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS) as a simple inexpensive and sensitive analytical method for the detection of organic trace compounds. Positive and negative gas-phase ions for ion mobility spectrometry have been produced by a variety of methods, including photo-ionization, laser multi photon ionization, surface ionization, corona discharge ionization. The most common ion source used in ion mobility spectrometry is a radioactive Ni-63 foil which is favored due to simplicity, stability, convenience, and high selectivity. If reactant ions like (H2O(n)H)(+) or (H2O(n)O2)(-) dominate in the reaction region, nearly all kinds of compounds with a given proton or electron affinity; are ionized. However, the radioactivity of the Ni-63 foil is one disadvantage of this ion source that stimulates the development and application of other ionization techniques. In this paper, we report analyses of old chemical warfare agents and toxic wastes using Bruker RAID ion mobility spectrometers. Due to the modular construction of the measuring cell, the spectrometers can be equipped with different ion sources. The combined use of Ni-63, photo- and corona discharge ionization allows the identification of different classes of chemical compounds and yields in most cases comparable results.

  18. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  19. Scientific and industrial challenges of developing nanoparticle-based theranostics and multiple-modality contrast agents for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2015-10-21

    Designing of theranostics and dual or multi-modality contrast agents are currently two of the hottest topics in biotechnology and biomaterials science. However, for single entity theranostics, a right ratio of their diagnostic component and their therapeutic component may not always be realized in a composite suitable for clinical application. For dual/multiple modality molecular imaging agents, after in vivo administration, there is an optimal time window for imaging, when an agent is imaged by one modality, the pharmacokinetics of this agent may not allow imaging by another modality. Due to reticuloendothelial system clearance, efficient in vivo delivery of nanoparticles to the lesion site is sometimes difficult. The toxicity of these entities also remains poorly understood. While the medical need of theranostics is admitted, the business model remains to be established. There is an urgent need for a global and internationally harmonized re-evaluation of the approval and marketing processes of theranostics. However, a reasonable expectation exists that, in the near future, the current obstacles will be removed, thus allowing the wide use of these very promising agents.

  20. Scientific and industrial challenges of developing nanoparticle-based theranostics and multiple-modality contrast agents for clinical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J.; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2015-10-01

    Designing of theranostics and dual or multi-modality contrast agents are currently two of the hottest topics in biotechnology and biomaterials science. However, for single entity theranostics, a right ratio of their diagnostic component and their therapeutic component may not always be realized in a composite suitable for clinical application. For dual/multiple modality molecular imaging agents, after in vivo administration, there is an optimal time window for imaging, when an agent is imaged by one modality, the pharmacokinetics of this agent may not allow imaging by another modality. Due to reticuloendothelial system clearance, efficient in vivo delivery of nanoparticles to the lesion site is sometimes difficult. The toxicity of these entities also remains poorly understood. While the medical need of theranostics is admitted, the business model remains to be established. There is an urgent need for a global and internationally harmonized re-evaluation of the approval and marketing processes of theranostics. However, a reasonable expectation exists that, in the near future, the current obstacles will be removed, thus allowing the wide use of these very promising agents.

  1. Scientific and industrial challenges of developing nanoparticle-based theranostics and multiple-modality contrast agents for clinical application.

    PubMed

    Wáng, Yì Xiáng J; Idée, Jean-Marc; Corot, Claire

    2015-10-21

    Designing of theranostics and dual or multi-modality contrast agents are currently two of the hottest topics in biotechnology and biomaterials science. However, for single entity theranostics, a right ratio of their diagnostic component and their therapeutic component may not always be realized in a composite suitable for clinical application. For dual/multiple modality molecular imaging agents, after in vivo administration, there is an optimal time window for imaging, when an agent is imaged by one modality, the pharmacokinetics of this agent may not allow imaging by another modality. Due to reticuloendothelial system clearance, efficient in vivo delivery of nanoparticles to the lesion site is sometimes difficult. The toxicity of these entities also remains poorly understood. While the medical need of theranostics is admitted, the business model remains to be established. There is an urgent need for a global and internationally harmonized re-evaluation of the approval and marketing processes of theranostics. However, a reasonable expectation exists that, in the near future, the current obstacles will be removed, thus allowing the wide use of these very promising agents. PMID:26394746

  2. A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous natural and man-made agents are continuously released into the environment due to human activity. Many of these agents cause irreversible damage to the normal biological functions leading to morbidity and mortality in the exposed organisms. The possibility of deliberat...

  3. (WASHINGTON, DC) A FLUORESCENCE BASED ASSAY FOR DNA DAMAGE INDUCED BY TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous natural and man-made agents are continuously released into the environment due to human activity. Many of these agents cause irreversible damage to the normal biological functions leading to morbidity and mortality in the exposed organisms. The possibility of deliberat...

  4. Toxicity and sublethal effects of six insecticides to last instar larvae and adults of the biocontrol agents Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Garzón, A; Medina, P; Amor, F; Viñuela, E; Budia, F

    2015-08-01

    To further develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against crop pests, it is important to evaluate the effects of insecticides on biological control agents. Therefore, we tested the toxicity and sublethal effects (fecundity and fertility) of flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone, spirotetramat, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin on the natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea and Adalia bipunctata. The side effects of the active ingredients of the insecticides were evaluated with residual contact tests for the larvae and adults of these predators in the laboratory. Flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat were innocuous to last instar larvae and adults of C. carnea and A. bipunctata. Sulfoxaflor was slightly toxic to adults of C. carnea and was highly toxic to the L4 larvae of A. bipunctata. For A. bipunctata, sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin were the most damaging compounds with a cumulative larval mortality of 100%. Deltamethrin was also the most toxic compound to larvae and adults of C. carnea. In accordance with the results obtained, the compounds flonicamid, flubendiamide, metaflumizone and spirotetramat might be incorporated into IPM programs in combination with these natural enemies for the control of particular greenhouse pests. Nevertheless, the use of sulfoxaflor and deltamethrin in IPM strategies should be taken into consideration when releasing either of these biological control agents, due to the toxic behavior observed under laboratory conditions. The need for developing sustainable approaches to combine the use of these insecticides and natural enemies within an IPM framework is discussed.

  5. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-08-05

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  6. Occurrence and Concentrations of Toxic VOCs in the Ambient Air of Gumi, an Electronics-Industrial City in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Sung-Ok; Suvarapu, Lakshmi Narayana; Seo, Young-Kyo

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize the occurrence and concentrations of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including aliphatic, aromatic, halogenated, nitrogenous, and carbonyl compounds, in the ambient air of Gumi City, where a large number of electronics industries are found. Two field monitoring campaigns were conducted for a one year period in 2003/2004 and 2010/2011 at several sampling sites in the city, representing industrial, residential and commercial areas. More than 80 individual compounds were determined in this study, and important compounds were then identified according to their abundance, ubiquity and toxicity. The monitoring data revealed toluene, trichloroethylene and acetaldehyde to be the most significant air toxics in the city, and their major sources were mainly industrial activities. On the other hand, there was no clear evidence of an industrial impact on the concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde in the ambient air of the city. Overall, seasonal variations were not as distinct as locational variations in the VOCs concentrations, whereas the within-day variations showed a typical pattern of urban air pollution, i.e., increase in the morning, decrease in the afternoon, and an increase again in the evening. Considerable decreases in the concentrations of VOCs from 2003 to 2011 were observed. The reductions in the ambient concentrations were confirmed further by the Korean PRTR data in industrial emissions within the city. Significant decreases in the concentrations of benzene and acetaldehyde were also noted, whereas formaldehyde appeared to be almost constant between the both campaigns. The decreased trends in the ambient levels were attributed not only to the stricter regulations for VOCs in Korea, but also to the voluntary agreement of major companies to reduce the use of organic solvents. In addition, a site planning project for an eco-friendly industrial complex is believed to play a contributory role in improving

  7. Predicting the Future: Opportunities and Challenges for the Chemical Industry to Apply 21st-Century Toxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process. PMID:25836969

  8. Predicting the future: opportunities and challenges for the chemical industry to apply 21st-century toxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Settivari, Raja S; Ball, Nicholas; Murphy, Lynea; Rasoulpour, Reza; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-03-01

    Interest in applying 21st-century toxicity testing tools for safety assessment of industrial chemicals is growing. Whereas conventional toxicology uses mainly animal-based, descriptive methods, a paradigm shift is emerging in which computational approaches, systems biology, high-throughput in vitro toxicity assays, and high-throughput exposure assessments are beginning to be applied to mechanism-based risk assessments in a time- and resource-efficient fashion. Here we describe recent advances in predictive safety assessment, with a focus on their strategic application to meet the changing demands of the chemical industry and its stakeholders. The opportunities to apply these new approaches is extensive and include screening of new chemicals, informing the design of safer and more sustainable chemical alternatives, filling information gaps on data-poor chemicals already in commerce, strengthening read-across methodology for categories of chemicals sharing similar modes of action, and optimizing the design of reduced-risk product formulations. Finally, we discuss how these predictive approaches dovetail with in vivo integrated testing strategies within repeated-dose regulatory toxicity studies, which are in line with 3Rs principles to refine, reduce, and replace animal testing. Strategic application of these tools is the foundation for informed and efficient safety assessment testing strategies that can be applied at all stages of the product-development process.

  9. Toxicity effects of nickel electroplating effluents treated by photoelectrooxidation in the industries of the Sinos River Basin.

    PubMed

    Benvenuti, T; Rodrigues, Mas; Arenzon, A; Bernardes, A M; Zoppas-Ferreira, J

    2015-05-01

    The Sinos river Basin is an industrial region with many tanneries and electroplating plants in southern Brazil. The wastewater generated by electroplating contains high loads of salts and metals that have to be treated before discharge. After conventional treatment, this study applied an advanced oxidative process to degrade organic additives in the electroplating bright nickel baths effluent. Synthetic rinsing water was submitted to physical-chemical coagulation for nickel removal. The sample was submitted to ecotoxicity tests, and the effluent was treated by photoelectrooxidation (PEO). The effects of current density and treatment time were evaluated. The concentration of total organic carbon (TOC) was 38% lower. The toxicity tests of the effluent treated using PEO revealed that the organic additives were partially degraded and the concentration that is toxic for test organisms was reduced.

  10. Toxic legacy: the environmental impact of the manufactured gas industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The manufactured gas industry provided cities in the United States with energy for light and power during much of the period from approximately 1850 to 1950. This article explores the history of the effects of this industry on air, land, and water environments; it also examines attempts by the courts and municipal and state governments to regulate gas-waste pollution and the industry's response. The article concludes by exploring the heritage of badly contaminated sites that the manufactured gas industry left to the nation after it was replaced by natural gas after World War II. PMID:24988796

  11. Toxic legacy: the environmental impact of the manufactured gas industry in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tarr, Joel A

    2014-01-01

    The manufactured gas industry provided cities in the United States with energy for light and power during much of the period from approximately 1850 to 1950. This article explores the history of the effects of this industry on air, land, and water environments; it also examines attempts by the courts and municipal and state governments to regulate gas-waste pollution and the industry's response. The article concludes by exploring the heritage of badly contaminated sites that the manufactured gas industry left to the nation after it was replaced by natural gas after World War II.

  12. Toxicity Appraisal of Untreated Dyeing Industry Wastewater Based on Chemical Characterization and Short Term Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Furqan; Ashraf, Muhammad; Javeed, Aqeel; Anjum, Aftab Ahmad; Sharif, Ali; Saleem, Ammara; Akhtar, Bushra; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Altaf, Imran

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing wastewaters only on a chemical basis may be insufficient owing to their complex nature. The purpose of this study was to assess toxicity of textile dyeing wastewater based on analytical techniques and short term toxicity based bioassays. In this study, screening of the fractionated wastewater through GC-MS showed the presence of phenols, phthalic acid derivatives and chlorpyrifos. Metal analysis revealed that chromium, arsenic and mercury were present in amounts higher than the wastewater discharge limits. Textile dyeing wastewater was found to be highly mutagenic in the Ames test. DNA damage in sheep lymphocytes decreased linearly with an increase in the dilution of wastewater. MTT assay showed that 8.3 percent v/v wastewater decreased cell survival percentage to 50 %. It can be concluded from this study that short term toxicity tests such as Ames test, in vitro comet assay, and cytotoxicity assays may serve as useful indicators of wastewater pollution along with their organic and inorganic chemical characterizations.

  13. A combined approach to investigate the toxicity of an industrial landfill's leachate: Chemical analyses, risk assessment and in vitro assays

    SciTech Connect

    Baderna, D.; Maggioni, S.; Boriani, E.; Gemma, S.; Molteni, M.; Lombardo, A.; Colombo, A.; Bordonali, S.; Rotella, G.; Lodi, M.; Benfenati, E.

    2011-05-15

    Solid wastes constitute an important and emerging problem. Landfills are still one of the most common ways to manage waste disposal. The risk assessment of pollutants from landfills is becoming a major environmental issue in Europe, due to the large number of sites and to the importance of groundwater protection. Furthermore, there is lack of knowledge for the environmental, ecotoxicological and toxicological characteristics of most contaminants contained into landfill leacheates. Understanding leachate composition and creating an integrated strategy for risk assessment are currently needed to correctly face the landfill issues and to make projections on the long-term impacts of a landfill, with particular attention to the estimation of possible adverse effects on human health and ecosystem. In the present study, we propose an integrated strategy to evaluate the toxicity of the leachate using chemical analyses, risk assessment guidelines and in vitro assays using the hepatoma HepG2 cells as a model. The approach was applied on a real case study: an industrial waste landfill in northern Italy for which data on the presence of leachate contaminants are available from the last 11 years. Results from our ecological risk models suggest important toxic effects on freshwater fish and small rodents, mainly due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. Our results from in vitro data show an inhibition of cell proliferation by leachate at low doses and cytotoxic effect at high doses after 48 h of exposure. - Research highlights: {yields} We study the toxicity of leachate from a non-hazardous industrial waste landfill. {yields} We perform chemical analyses, risk assessments and in vitro assays on HepG2 cells. {yields} Risk models suggest toxic effects due to ammonia and inorganic constituents. {yields} In vitro assays show that leachate inhibits cell proliferation at low doses. {yields} Leachate can induce cytotoxic effects on HepG2 cells at high doses.

  14. Valorization of titanium metal wastes as tanning agent used in leather industry.

    PubMed

    Crudu, Marian; Deselnicu, Viorica; Deselnicu, Dana Corina; Albu, Luminita

    2014-10-01

    The development of new tanning agents and new technologies in the leather sector is required to cope with the increasingly higher environmental pressure on the current tanning materials and processes such as tanning with chromium salts. In this paper, the use of titanium wastes (cuttings) resulting from the process of obtaining highly pure titanium (ingots), for the synthesis of new tanning agent and tanning bovine hides with new tanning agent, as alternative to tanning with chromium salts are investigated. For this purpose, Ti waste and Ti-based tanning agent were characterized for metal content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and chemical analysis; the tanned leather (wet white leather) was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Using X-ray (Analysis). SEM/EDX analysis for metal content; Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), Micro-Hot-Table and standard shrinkage temperature showing a hydrothermal stability (ranged from 75.3 to 77°C) and chemical analysis showing the leather is tanned and can be processed through the subsequent mechanical operations (splitting, shaving). On the other hand, an analysis of major minor trace substances from Ti-end waste (especially vanadium content) in new tanning agent and wet white leather (not detected) and residue stream was performed and showed that leachability of vanadium is acceptable. The results obtained show that new tanning agent obtained from Ti end waste can be used for tanning bovine hides, as eco-friendly alternative for chrome tanning.

  15. Toxicity evaluation of Gd2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiumei; Yang, Fanwen; Yang, Chuan; Peng, Ye; Chen, Dihu; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Li, Li; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Poor toxicity characterization is one obstacle to the clinical deployment of Gd2O3@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (Gd-NPs) for use as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents. To date, there is no systematic toxicity data available for Gd-NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid. In this article, we systematically studied the Gd-NPs’ cytotoxicity, apoptosis in vitro, immunotoxicity, blood circulation half-life, biodistribution and excretion in vivo, as well as pharmacodynamics. The results show the toxicity, and in vivo MR data show that these NPs are a good contrast agent for preclinical applications. No significant differences were found in cell viability, apoptosis, and immunotoxicity between our Gd-NPs and Gd in a DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) chelator. Biodistribution data reveal a greater accumulation of the Gd-NPs in the liver, spleen, lung, and tumor than in the kidney, heart, and brain. Approximately 50% of the Gd is excreted via the hepatobiliary system within 4 weeks. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images of xenografted murine tumors were obtained after intravenous administration of the Gd-NPs. Collectively, the single step preparation of Gd-NPs by laser ablation in liquid produces particles with satisfactory cytotoxicity, minimal immunotoxicity, and efficient MR contrast. This may lead to their utility as molecular imaging contrast agents in MR imaging for cancer diagnosis. PMID:25187708

  16. Toxicity evaluation of Gd2O3@SiO2 nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid as MRI contrast agents in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiumei; Yang, Fanwen; Yang, Chuan; Peng, Ye; Chen, Dihu; Zhu, Jixiang; He, Fupo; Li, Li; Chen, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    Poor toxicity characterization is one obstacle to the clinical deployment of Gd2O3@ SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles (Gd-NPs) for use as magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast agents. To date, there is no systematic toxicity data available for Gd-NPs prepared by laser ablation in liquid. In this article, we systematically studied the Gd-NPs' cytotoxicity, apoptosis in vitro, immunotoxicity, blood circulation half-life, biodistribution and excretion in vivo, as well as pharmacodynamics. The results show the toxicity, and in vivo MR data show that these NPs are a good contrast agent for preclinical applications. No significant differences were found in cell viability, apoptosis, and immunotoxicity between our Gd-NPs and Gd in a DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) chelator. Biodistribution data reveal a greater accumulation of the Gd-NPs in the liver, spleen, lung, and tumor than in the kidney, heart, and brain. Approximately 50% of the Gd is excreted via the hepatobiliary system within 4 weeks. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR images of xenografted murine tumors were obtained after intravenous administration of the Gd-NPs. Collectively, the single step preparation of Gd-NPs by laser ablation in liquid produces particles with satisfactory cytotoxicity, minimal immunotoxicity, and efficient MR contrast. This may lead to their utility as molecular imaging contrast agents in MR imaging for cancer diagnosis.

  17. Toxic Acid Gas Absorber Design Considerations for Air Pollution Control in Process Industries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyele, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the design parameters for an absorber used for removal of toxic acid gas (in particular sulfur dioxide) from a process gas stream for environmental health protection purposes. Starting from the equilibrium data, Henry's law constant was determined from the slope of the y-x diagram. Based on mass balances across the absorber,…

  18. Chemical contamination and toxicity of sediment from a coastal area receiving industrial effluents in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Beg, M U; Al-Muzaini, S; Saeed, T; Jacob, P G; Beg, K R; Al-Bahloul, M; Al-Matrouk, K; Al-Obaid, T; Kurian, A

    2001-10-01

    The Shuaiba coastal area (12.5 x 1.5 km) was examined for contamination with total organic carbon, volatile organic matter, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, vanadium, and zinc in sediment; their desorption by aqueous elution; and toxicity to aquatic biota. The pollutants were mainly accumulated in the upstream area facing Mina Al-Ahmadi refinery to Shuaiba harbour. Solid-phase Microtox assays showed severe toxicity, and the LC(50) was negatively correlated with most of the chemical parameters, suggesting that toxicity was the function of collective effects of the pollutants present in sediment. Sea water elutriation showed poor desorption of pollutants from sediment, and the elutriates were not found toxic to Microtox and brine shrimp larvae. Whole sediment suspension in sea water reduced the survival of fingerlings in fish bioassays. Action from Shuaiba Area Authority is required to reduce pollutant accumulation in identified depositional area on the Shuaiba coast by facilitating unrestricted water flow in the area and restricting pollutant discharge at source. PMID:11503065

  19. Thermal treatment of toxic metals of industrial hazardous wastes with fly ash and clay.

    PubMed

    Singh, I B; Chaturvedi, K; Morchhale, R K; Yegneswaran, A H

    2007-03-01

    Waste generated from galvanizing and metal finishing processes is considered to be a hazardous due to the presence of toxic metals like Pb, Cu, Cr, Zn, etc. Thermal treatment of such types of wastes in the presence of clay and fly ash can immobilizes their toxic metals to a maximum level. After treatment solidified mass can be utilized in construction or disposed off through land fillings without susceptibility of re-mobilization of toxic metals. In the present investigation locally available clay and fly ash of particular thermal power plant were used as additives for thermal treatment of both of the wastes in their different proportions at 850, 900 and 950 degrees C. Observed results indicated that heating temperature to be a key factor in the immobilization of toxic metals of the waste. It was noticed that the leachability of metals of the waste reduces to a negligible level after heating at 950 degrees C. Thermally treated solidified specimen of 10% waste and remaining clay have shown comparatively a higher compressive strength than clay fired bricks used in building construction. Though, thermally heated specimens made of galvanizing waste have shown much better strength than specimen made of metal finishing waste. The lechability of toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn became far below from their regulatory threshold after heating at 950 degrees C. Addition of fly ash did not show any improvement either in engineering property or in leachability of metals from the solidified mass. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the solidified product confirmed the presence of mixed phases of oxides of metals.

  20. Effects from Filtration, Capping Agents, and Presence/Absence of Food on the Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles to Daphnia Magna

    EPA Science Inventory

    Relatively little is known regarding the behavior and toxicity of nanoparticles in the environment. The objectives of the work presented here include establishing the toxicity of a variety of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to Daphnia magna neonates, assessing the applicability of ...

  1. An Analysis of "In-Depth" Schools Conducted by Area Extension Agents in the Agricultural Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Clarence J.

    The Ohio Extension Service conducted "in-depth" schools on Dairy Genetics and Reproduction, Beef Cattle, Capital Management, and Fertilizer and Lime at area centers in Wooster, Defiance and Fremont, Washington Court House, and McConnellsville. Two thirds of the instructional staff were area agents; others were specialists, resident staff, research…

  2. [Division of agricultural areas based on the level of pollution with industrial toxic substances].

    PubMed

    Safonnikova, S M; Maksimova, G F; Iakhina, M P; Magzhanova, S A

    1993-10-01

    Investigation of soil in the region with oil processing industry showed that soil of agricultural fields 10 km around is much polluted and can be used only for growing of technical crops and perennial grasses for seeds. Soil 15-20 km around is less polluted, but also demands limitation in agricultural use, especially on low riverside parts.

  3. Toxicity studies of coumarin 6-encapsulated polystyrene nanospheres conjugated with peanut agglutinin and poly(N-vinylacetamide) as a colonoscopic imaging agent in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Shinji; Kumagai, Hironori; Shimosato, Moe; Kitamura, Tokio; Mohri, Kohta; Ikejima, Tetsuya; Hiwatari, Ken-ichiro; Koike, Seiji; Tobita, Etsuo; McClure, Richard; Gore, John C.; Pham, Wellington

    2015-01-01

    We are investigating an imaging agent that detects early-stage primary colorectal cancer on the mucosal surface in real time under colonoscopic observation. The imaging agent, which is named the nanobeacon, is fluorescent nanospheres conjugated with peanut agglutinin and poly(N-vinylacetamide). Its potential use as an imaging tool for colorectal cancer has been thoroughly validated in numerous studies. Here, toxicities of the nanobeacon were assessed in rats. The nanobeacon was prepared according to the synthetic manner which is being established as the Good Manufacturing Practice-guided production. The rat study was performed in accordance with Good Laboratory Practice regulations. No nanobeacon treatment-related toxicity was observed. The no observable adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of the nanobeacon in 7-day consecutive oral administration and single intrarectal administration were estimated to be more than 1000 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg/day, respectively. We concluded that the nanobeacon could be developed as a safe diagnostic agent for colonoscopy applications. PMID:25725490

  4. Innovation Agents: Vocational Education and Training Skills and Innovation in Australian Industries and Firms. Volume I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Phillip; Marceau, Jane; Hall, Richard; Considine, Gillian

    2004-01-01

    Australia's competitive success with innovation-based products and services is an influential factor to its long-term prosperity. This study examines the role of vocational education and training (VET) and occupations in innovative industries and firms. The authors find VET is vital to developing knowledge and practical skills across a broad range…

  5. Effect of Renal Dysfunction on Toxicity in Three Decades of Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program–Sponsored Single-Agent Phase I Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fei; Tawbi, Hussein; Lin, Yan; Viluh, Diana; Chatterjee, Indrani; Rinker, Matthew; Chow, Selina L.; Ivy, S. Percy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Alterations in renal clearance of anticancer drugs can affect the occurrence of toxicities related to drug exposure. The National Cancer Institute and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) use different criteria to classify renal dysfunction. We examined those discrepancies and their potential association with the incidence of toxicities in patients enrolled onto Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program–sponsored single-agent phase I studies over three decades (1979 to 2010). Methods Data to estimate creatinine clearance according to the Cockcroft-Gault and Jelliffe formulas were available from 10,236 patients, and data to estimate creatinine clearance according to the six- and four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formulas were available from a subset (n = 4,084). Patients were classified according to National Cancer Institute and FDA criteria, and the rates of clinically relevant toxicities were evaluated within groups and compared among groups. Results Cockcroft-Gault estimated renal function improved over time, which may be attributed to an increase in weight of patients in the same time frame. Approximately 36% of patients enrolled onto phase I trials had mild renal dysfunction by FDA criteria. Relative to normal function, mild renal dysfunction was associated with a statistically significant but small increase in grade 3 or 4 nonhematologic toxicity and any relevant toxicities. Conclusion Patients with mild renal dysfunction by FDA criteria have routinely been enrolled onto phase I studies of antineoplastics without clinically meaningful increase in the risk of toxicity. In future oncology renal dysfunction trials based on the FDA classification, the FDA mild group may only need to be activated when the moderate and normal groups differ substantially in tolerability or pharmacokinetics. PMID:26392101

  6. The technical viability of alternative blowing agents in polyisocyanurate roof insulation: A cooperative industry/government project

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, J.E.; Courville, G.E.; Desjarlais, A.O.; Graves, R.S.; Linkous, R.L.; McElroy, D.L.; Weaver, F.J.; Wendt, R.L.; Yarbrough, D.W.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary of the cooperative industry/government program to establish the viability of alternative blowing agents to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The project was initiated in 1989 following two workshops that focused on needed research on thermal insulation blown with substitutes for CFC-11 and CFC-12. The project is directed by a steering committee of representatives of the sponsors and of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of the project is to determine if the performance of polyisocyanurate (PIR) roof insulation foam boards blown with alternate agents differs from the performance of boards blown with CFC-1. This report describes apparent thermal conductivity (k) results obtained from field and laboratory tests from 1989 to 1992 on a set of experimental PIR laminate boardstock produced to evaluate the viability of alternative hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as blowing agents. All boardstock was manufactured from similar formulations that were not optimized for thermal performance. Commercial broadstock made in the future may differ in performance from this set. The PIR boards were prepared with CFC-11, HCFC-123, HCFC-141b, and 50/50 and 65/35 blends of HCFC-123/HCFC-141b.

  7. Acute toxicity of arsenic to Aliivibrio fischeri (Microtox bioassay) as influenced by potential competitive-protective agents.

    PubMed

    Rubinos, David A; Calvo, Valeria; Iglesias, Luz; Barral, María Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of some potential alleviative compounds against the acute toxicity of arsenic (As(V), As(III) and DMA(V)) on Aliivibrio fischeri (formerly Vibrio fischeri), a bioluminescent model bacterium, through the Microtox bioassay. The compounds studied differed in their mechanism of action, and they included the following: phosphate and glycerol, as chemical analogues (and potential competitors) of As(V) or As(III), respectively; citrate, a weak natural organic ligand; and the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Special attention was paid to phosphate effects, a widespread pollutant in natural environments. As(V) was found to be more acutely toxic than As(III) to A. fischeri, in accordance with its higher interaction with the bacteria. Both As(V) and As(III) were found to be much more acutely toxic than DMA(V), which was essentially non-acutely toxic even at very high concentrations. Phosphate presence (at equimolar P/As ratios or higher) resulted in the almost total suppression of bioluminescence inhibition, suggesting it exerts an alleviative effect against As(V) acute toxicity on A. fischeri. Interestingly, the uptake and the percentage of extracellular As(V) were not affected by the addition of phosphate, suggesting that such protective effect does not result from the competition for their common transporters. In contrast, the acute toxicity of As(III) was essentially unaffected by phosphate. Glycerol did not decrease the acute toxicity or the uptake of As(III) by A. fischeri, denoting the likely occurrence of an additional mechanism for As(III) uptake in such bacteria. Similarly, citrate and ascorbic acid essentially did not caused alleviation of As(V) or As(III) acute toxicity. As for environmental and operational implications, P could beneficially protect aquatic microorganisms against acute detrimental effects of As(V), whilst its presence could mask the toxicity due to As(V) when assessed using the Microtox bioassay, thus leading to

  8. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  9. Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the industrial chemical epichlorohydrin on Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae) embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Hutler Wolkowicz, Ianina R; Aronzon, Carolina M; Pérez Coll, Cristina S

    2013-12-15

    Lethal and sublethal toxicity of the major chemical used in epoxide compounds, epichlorohydrin (ECH) was evaluated on the early life cycle of the common South American toad, Rhinella arenarum (Anura, Bufonidae). The stages evaluated were (according to Del Conte and Sirlin): early blastula (S.3-S.4), gastrula (S.10-S.12), rotation (S.15), tail bud (S.17), muscular response (S.18), gill circulation (S.20), open mouth (S.21), opercular folds (S.23) and complete operculum (S.25). The LC50 and EC50 values for lethal and sublethal effects were calculated. The early blastula was the most sensitive stage to ECH both for continuously and pulse-exposures (LC50-24h=50.9 mg L(-1)), while S.20 was the most resistant (LC50-24h=104.9 mg L(-1)). Among sublethal effects, early blastula was also the most sensitive stage (LOEC-48 h=20 mg L(-1)) and it has a Teratogenic Index of 2.5, which indicates the teratogenic potential of the substance. The main abnormalities were persistent yolk plugs, cell dissociation, tumors, hydropsy, oral malformations, axial/tail flexures, delayed development and reduced body size. ECH also caused neurotoxicity including scarce response to stimuli, reduction in the food intake, general weakness, spasms and shortening, erratic or circular swimming. Industrial contamination is considered an important factor on the decline of amphibian populations. Considering the available information about ECH's toxicity and its potential hazard to the environment, this work shows the first results of its developmental toxicity on a native amphibian species, Rhinella arenarum.

  10. Insights from cardiovascular outcome trials with novel antidiabetes agents: what have we learned? An industry perspective.

    PubMed

    Hirshberg, Boaz; Katz, Arie

    2015-11-01

    Owing to the close association of cardiovascular (CV) disease with type 2 diabetes and the uncertainty surrounding the CV safety of antidiabetes agents, in 2008 the Food and Drug Administration issued guidance for the demonstration of CV safety for new antidiabetes drugs. Recently the results from CV outcomes trials of three dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist have been reported. The Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (SAVOR) trial, the Examination of Cardiovascular Outcomes with Alogliptin versus Standard of Care in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Acute Coronary Syndrome (EXAMINE) trial, and the Trial Evaluating Cardiovascular Outcomes with Sitagliptin (TECOS) assessed the safety of saxagliptin, alogliptin, and sitagliptin, respectively, in patients with type 2 diabetes with CV disease or at high risk for CV disease. The Evaluation of Lixisenatide in Acute Coronary Syndrome (ELIXA) assessed the safety of lixisenatide in patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome event. The results show that these agents neither increased nor deceased major adverse CV events (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and nonfatal stroke) compared with placebo. However, the resources needed to conduct these studies may detract from the ability to understand the potential long-term benefit and risk in the majority of patients that are candidates for use of these medications. PMID:26370698

  11. Introduction of Peripheral Carboxylates to Decrease the Charge on Tm(3+) DOTAM-Alkyl Complexes: Implications for Detection Sensitivity and in Vivo Toxicity of PARACEST MRI Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Suchý, Mojmír; Milne, Mark; Elmehriki, Adam A H; McVicar, Nevin; Li, Alex X; Bartha, Robert; Hudson, Robert H E

    2015-08-27

    A series of structurally modified Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes as potential PARACEST MRI contrast agents has been synthesized with the aim to decrease the overall positive charge associated with these molecules and increase their biocompatibility. Two types of structural modification have been performed, an introduction of terminal carboxylate arms to the alkyl side chains and a conjugation of one of the alkyl side chains with aspartic acid. Detailed evaluation of the magnetic resonance imaging chemical exchange contrast associated with the structurally modified contrast agents has been performed. In contrast to the acutely toxic Tm(3+) DOTAM-alkyl complexes, the structurally modified compounds were found to be tolerated well during in vivo MRI studies in mice; however, only the aspartic acid modified chelates produced an amide proton-based PARACEST signal. PMID:26214576

  12. CMCTS stabilized Fe3O4 particles with extremely low toxicity as highly efficient near-infrared photothermal agents for in vivo tumor ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Song; Kong, Fenfen; Guo, Xiaomeng; Wu, Lin; Shen, Haijun; Xie, Meng; Wang, Xinshi; Jin, Yi; Ge, Yanru

    2013-08-01

    With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low toxicity was proposed. This hyperthermia agent showed rapid heat generation under NIR irradiation. After modification with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCTS), the obtained Fe3O4@CMCTS particles could disperse stably in PBS and serum without any aggregation. The modification of CMCTS could decrease the adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and improve the cellular uptake. In a comparative study with hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS), Fe3O4@CMCTS particles exhibited a comparable photothermal effect and fairly low cytotoxicity. The in vivo magnetic resonance (MR) images of mice revealed that by attaching a magnet to the tumor, Fe3O4@CMCTS particles accumulated in the tumor after intravenous injection and showed a low distribution in the liver. After being exposed to a 808 nm laser for 5 min at a low power density of 1.5 W cm-2, the tumors on Fe3O4@CMCTS-injected mice reached a temperature of ~52 °C and were completely destroyed. Thus, a kind of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticle with extremely low toxicity and a simple structure for simultaneous MR imaging, targeted drug delivery and photothermal therapy can be easily fabricated.With the potential uses of photothermal therapy (PTT) in cancer treatment with excellent efficacy, and the growing concerns about the nanotoxicity of hyperthermia agents such as carbon nanotubes and gold-based nanomaterials, the importance of searching for a biocompatible hyperthermia agent cannot be emphasized too much. In this work, a novel promising hyperthermia agent employing magnetic Fe3O4 particles with fairly low

  13. Detection of toxic industrial chemicals and bacterial endotoxins via electrical and optical spectroscopy techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammu, Srikanth

    The first decade of the 21st century has been labeled by some as the "Sensor Decade." With a dramatic increase in sensor R&D and applications over the past 20 years, sensors are certainly on the brink of a revolution similar to what was in the field of computers in 1980s, information technology in the 1990s and wireless communication at the turn of the century. Just in the pharmaceutical industry alone, sensing needs are growing by leaps and bounds, and the sensing technologies used are as varied as the applications. Tremendous advances have been made in sensor technology and many more are on the brink of commercialization. In this work, I have attempted to balance breadth and depth in a single, practical and up-to-date resource. Understanding sensor design and operation typically requires a cross-disciplinary background, as it draws basic concepts from both engineering (chemical, electrical, mechanical, etc.), and science (mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, etc.). This work is an attempt to pull together the most crucial information utilized in designing, fabricating and application of this relatively novice field of Nanomaterials. While it would be impossible to cover each and every sensor in use today, I have attempted to provide as broad a range of sensor types and applications as possible. Current industrial standards, latest techniques for fabrication and assembly, followed by their application in safeguarding the human race against from possible chemical and biological threats are discussed in detail.

  14. Reproductive toxicity of the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol in rats and interactive effects of ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, B K; Brightwell, W S; Setzer, J V; O'Donohue, T L

    1984-01-01

    The solvent, 2-ethoxyethanol, induced complete embryomortality in pregnant rats exposed to three times the current Federal permissible exposure limit (PEL). Following exposure to ethoxyethanol at a concentration only one-half the current PEL, the offspring evidenced behavioral and neurochemical deviations from controls. Subsequent studies found that ingestion of ethanol with concomitant inhalation of ethoxyethanol vapors early in pregnancy appeared to reduce the number of both behavioral and neurochemical deviations found for ethoxyethanol. In contrast, the concomitant exposure to ethanol and ethoxyethanol later in gestation potentiated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethoxyethanol. This research indicates that the industrial solvent 2-ethoxyethanol presents an occupational reproductive hazard and raises the issue of the importance of an interaction of social habits with occupational exposure to such hazards. The results would suggest that occupational physicians should advise pregnant workers in the chemical industry of the adverse effects of ethanol during pregnancy and of the possible interactions with other chemicals and should encourage them to be especially cautious with ethanol consumption since they may be at greater risk. PMID:6499811

  15. Effectiveness and reaction networks of H2O2 vapor with NH3 gas for decontamination of the toxic warfare nerve agent, VX on a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Gon Ryu, Sam; Wan Lee, Hae

    2015-01-01

    The nerve agent, O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate (VX) must be promptly eliminated following its release into the environment because it is extremely toxic, can cause death within a few minutes after exposure, acts through direct skin contact as well as inhalation, and persists in the environment for several weeks after release. A mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas was examined as a decontaminant for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature, and the reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR). All the VX on glass wool filter disks was found to be eliminated after 2 h of exposure to the decontaminant mixtures, and the primary decomposition product was determined to be non-toxic ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA); no toxic S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioic acid (EA-2192), which is usually produced in traditional basic hydrolysis systems, was found to be formed. However, other by-products, such as toxic O-ethyl S-vinyl methylphosphonothioate and (2-diisopropylaminoethyl) vinyl disulfide, were detected up to 150 min of exposure to the decontaminant mixture; these by-products disappeared after 3 h. The two detected vinyl byproducts were identified first in this study with the decontamination system of liquid VX on solid surfaces using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas. The detailed decontamination reaction networks of VX on solid surfaces produced by the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas were suggested based on the reaction products. These findings suggest that the mixture of hydrogen peroxide vapor and ammonia gas investigated in this study is an efficient decontaminant mixture for the removal of VX on solid surfaces at ambient temperature despite the formation of a toxic by-product in the reaction process. PMID:26327407

  16. [Technology upgrades and exposure to chemical agents: results of the PPTP study in the footwear industry].

    PubMed

    Gianoli, Enrica; Brusoni, Daniela; Cornaggia, Nicoletta; Saretto, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    In the present work the chemical compositions of the products used in shoes manufacturing are reported. The data were collected over the period 2004-2007 in 156 shoe factories in Vigevano area during a study aiming the evaluation of safety conditions and occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals of the employees. The study was part of a regional project for "Occupational cancer prevention in the footwear industry". In the first phase of the study an information form on production cycle, products used and their composition was filled during preliminary audit. In the second phase of the study an in depth qualitative/quantitative evaluation of professional exposure was conducted in 13 selected shoe factories. Data analysis showed the increase in use of water-based adhesives at expense of solvent-based adhesives, the reduction to less than 3.5 weight %, and up to 1 weight %, of n-hexane concentration in solvent mixtures, the increase in use of products containing less hazardous ketones, esters, cyclohexane and heptane. Only in very few cases, products containing from 4 to 12 weight% of toluene were used. These data attest a positive trend in workers risks prevention in shoes industry.

  17. Toxic effects of selected industrial solvents in batch and continuous anaerobic reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.J.

    1991-12-31

    Acetone and ethyl acetate were readily degraded in batch reactors containing anaerobic solids from an industrial reactor at concentrations to 1000 mg/L; isoamyl acetate was degraded at concentrations below 200 mg/L. Xylene was noninhibitory in batch cultures at concentrations of 50 mg/L or less. Batch reactors receiving 45 mg/L methylene chloride (MC) experienced a 60% reduction in gas production, and an increase in volatile fatty acids. Semicontinuously-fed reactors dosed with 20 mg/L MC at the start suffered some loss of anaerobic efficiency, but acclimated well with increased gas production after 20 d. A continuously fed sludge blanket reactor with no previous exposure to MC has acclimated to 20 mg/L MC after initial inhibition at 10 mg/L.

  18. Estimation of maximum annual ambient concentrations of air toxics resulting from industrial facility emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Rehm, R.M. ); Vandenberg, J.J.; Trutna, M.A.; Painter, D.F. )

    1988-01-01

    A screening tool is also needed by S/L agencies and EPA to evaluate initially the large amounts of data now being submitted by industry pursuant to Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986. Here, while thousands of sources are required to file data submissions on their releases to the environment of over 300 chemicals and classes of compounds, the information on releases to the atmosphere will only include plant-wide, annual stack and fugitive emissions. The result will be a challenge for governmental officials to identify and prioritize source problems in order to effectively respond to inquiries from concerned citizens. Certainly, the screening tool needed for HRPS identification could also be put to constructive use in determining which SARA sources should be analyzed in more detail. This paper summarizes the authors' progress to date in developing this tool.

  19. Separation and recovery of radioactive and non-radioactive toxic trace elements from aqueous industrial effluents.

    PubMed

    Iyer, R H

    2003-09-01

    An update is presented on liquid membrane-based processes as viable and relevant alternatives to conventional approaches such as precipitation, solvent extraction, ion exchange processes and electrochemical techniques for the removal and recovery of some toxic and/or valuable trace metal ions including some actinides and fission products e.g. U, Am, Y etc and As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn etc from radioactive as well as non-radioactive aqueous waste solutions respectively. In particular, results of experiments aimed at developing supported liquid membrane(SLM)-based process using commercially available porous membranes and indigenously prepared track--etch membranes (TEMs) have been critically examined in laboratory studies to generate basic data needed to evaluate their utility for continuous operation without regeneration. These include effect of pore size, porosity, optimum pore size and their reusability. It is clearly demonstrated that indigenously prepared 10 microm thick TEMs with a porosity in the range of 2-5% give comparable transport rates for metal ions-matching with that of commercial membranes of much higher thickness (160 microm) and higher porosity of 60-85%. The smaller thickness of TEMs more than compensates for their lower porosity. It is shown that because of their well defined pore characteristics TEMs could serve as model supports in SLM studies. By comparing the values of permeability coefficient (P) for TEM and polytetraflouroethylene (PTFE) supports for the transport of Pb2+ chosen as a typical divalent metal ion, and using di-2 ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as the carrier, it is unambiguously proved that diffusion of the metal complex across the membrane is the rate controlling step in metal ion transport in SLM-based processes. An overview of the experimental findings along with future outlook and suggestions for further work are presented in this paper.

  20. Naphthalene toxicity and antioxidant nutrients.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Ohia, Sunny; Bagchi, Debasis

    2002-10-30

    Naphthalene is a bicyclic aromatic compound that has wide industrial and commercial applications. It is used as the starting material for the synthesis of other compounds, as a moth repellent, soil fumigant and lavatory deodorant. Most exposure occurs through low dose chronic inhalation, dermal contact or ingestion through the food chain. The lungs and eyes appear to be most susceptible to toxicity, although biochemical markers of toxicity can be demonstrated in other tissues, such as the kidney, brain and liver. In addition to lens opacification (cataracts) and histological changes associated with pneumotoxicity, other biomarkers of toxic effects include glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and the production of the active oxygen species as superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical. In addition, the urinary excretion of lipid metabolites occurs. A role for the tumor suppressor gene p53 has been demonstrated. Toxic manifestations of naphthalene are associated with its oxidative metabolism to various products including quinones. The ability to protect against the toxic effects of naphthalene by using various antioxidants and free radical scavengers has been demonstrated. Studies have been conducted with vitamin E, vitamin E succinate, melatonin, curcumin, various L-cysteine prodrugs, several aldose reductase inhibitors and spin-trapping agents. The ability to prevent the toxic manifestations of naphthalene is dependent on the pharmacokinetic properties of the agents, which have been studied. The appropriate selection of chemoprotectants can be useful in preventing naphthalene toxicity.

  1. Safe disposal of toxic chrome buffing dust generated from leather industries.

    PubMed

    Swarnalatha, S; Srinivasulu, T; Srimurali, M; Sekaran, G

    2008-01-31

    The high concentration of trivalent chromium along with organic/inorganic compounds in chrome buffing dust (CBD), the solid waste discharged from leather industries, causes severe groundwater contamination on land co-disposal and chronic air pollution during thermal incineration. In the present investigation, CBD was subjected to starved air incineration (SAI) at 800 degrees C in a thermal incinerator under different flow rates of oxygen to optimize the oxygen required to incinerate the organic compounds and simultaneously preventing the conversion of Cr(3+) to Cr(6+). The energy audit of SAI of buffing dust under the external supply of oxygen was carried out under different incineration conditions. The bottom ash from SAI was effectively solidified/stabilized using Portland cement and fine aggregate. The solidified blocks were tested for unconfined compressive strength and heavy metal leaching. Unconfined compressive strength of the blocks was in the range of 120-180 kg/cm(2). The stabilization of chromium(III) in the cement gel matrix was confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectroscopy (EPR) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Leachability studies through TCLP on solidified blocks were carried out to determine the degree of leaching of chromium and organic compounds (expressed as COD) under standard conditions.

  2. Zinc toxicity among galvanization workers in the iron and steel industry.

    PubMed

    El Safty, Amal; El Mahgoub, Khalid; Helal, Sawsan; Abdel Maksoud, Neveen

    2008-10-01

    Galvanization is the process of coating steel or cast iron pieces with zinc, allowing complete protection against corrosion. The ultimate goal of this work was to assess the effect of occupational exposure to zinc in the galvanization process on different metals in the human body and to detect the association between zinc exposure and its effect on the respiratory system. This study was conducted in 111 subjects in one of the major companies in the iron and steel industry. There were 61 subjects (workers) who were involved in the galvanization process. Fifty adult men were chosen as a matched reference group from other departments of the company. All workers were interviewed using a special questionnaire on occupational history and chest diseases. Ventilatory functions and chest X rays were assessed in all examined workers. Also, complete blood counts were performed, and serum zinc, iron, copper, calcium, and magnesium levels were tested. This study illustrated the relation between zinc exposure in the galvanization process and high zinc levels among exposed workers, which was associated with a high prevalence rate of metal fume fever (MFF) and low blood copper and calcium levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the exposed and control groups with regards to the magnesium level. No long-term effect of metals exposure was detected on ventilatory functions or chest X rays among the exposed workers.

  3. Antiangiogenic agents significantly improve survival in tumor-bearing mice by increasing tolerance to chemotherapy-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danfang; Hedlund, Eva-Maria E.; Lim, Sharon; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yin; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Yihai

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced broad toxicities are the leading cause of the drug-induced mortality in cancer patients. Antiangiogenic drugs (ADs) in combination with chemotherapy are widely used as front-line therapy for the treatment of various human cancers. However, the beneficial mechanisms underlying combination therapy are poorly understood. Here we show that, in several murine tumor models, administration of sunitinib markedly reduced chemotherapy-induced bone marrow toxicity. Intriguingly, in a sequential treatment regimen, delivery of ADs followed by chemotherapy demonstrated superior survival benefits compared with simultaneous administration of two drugs. In murine tumor models, we show that VEGF increased chemotoxicity by synergistically suppressing bone marrow hematopoiesis with cytostatic drugs. These findings shed light on molecular mechanisms by which ADs in combination with chemotherapy produce survival benefits in cancer patients and provide conceptual information guiding future designs of clinical trials, current practice, and optimization of ADs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21367692

  4. Preliminary acute and subchronic toxicity studies of GLG-V-13, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, C L; Chandra, S A; Kim, S; Sangiah, S; Chen, H; Roder, J D; Qualls, C W; Garrison, G L; Cowell, R L; Berlin, K D; Scherlag, B J; Lazzara, R

    2000-01-01

    The acute and subchronic toxic effects of GLG-V-13 (3-[4-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)benzoyl]-7-isopropyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nona ne dihydroperchlorate, CAS 155029-33-7), a novel class III with some class Ib antiarrhythmic activity, were investigated in mice. The estimated LD50 for GLG-V-13 given orally were 419 mg/kg for male mice and 383 mg/kg for female mice, respectively. The acute toxic signs appeared to be of the central nervous system in origin. Four groups of mice (15 per sex, group and dose) were fed daily with diets containing GLG-V-13 for 90 consecutive days. The equivalent daily doses were 0, 22, 50 and 121 mg/kg/day and 0, 27, 60 and 136 mg/kg/day for male and female mice, respectively. All of the mice survived. Food consumption was decreased. However, mean body weight and body weight gain were not significantly changed. Gross pathological changes, especially in the lungs and liver, were found in the middle and high dose groups. Consistent increased mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and decreased mean corpuscular hemoglobin were observed in all dose groups. Hepatocellular necrosis was found in both male and female mice treated with the drug and was dose-dependent. Marked vacuolation of the X zone in the adrenal gland with mild to moderate deposition of ceroid pigments (brown degeneration) was observed in female mice. Lesions in the kidneys and adrenal glands may be a possible reason for changes in serum sodium and potassium ions concentrations leading to an increase in water intake. A significant reduction in cholesterol in the high dose group may be a favorable pharmacological effect of GLG-V-13. The data from the 90-day subchronic toxicity studies indicate that GLG-V-13 appears to have limited systemic toxicity potential.

  5. Clear and present danger? The use of a yeast biosensor to monitor changes in the toxicity of industrial effluents subjected to oxidative colour removal treatments.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Patrick O; Knight, Andrew W; Billinton, Nicholas; Cahill, Paul A; Dalrymple, Ian M; Hawkyard, Christopher J; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walmsley, Richard M

    2007-12-01

    Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in effluent toxicity during the course of two alternative wastewater treatment methods, ozonation and electrochemical oxidation, using a novel toxicity biosensor, GreenScreen EM. The biosensor is capable of measuring both general acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), and more specifically genotoxicity, that is damage to a cell's DNA structure, replication or distribution, caused by substances that may be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The biosensor utilises a modified strain of the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporating a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to the inducible promoter of the DNA damage responsive RAD54 gene. Upon exposure to a genotoxin, the production of GFP is up-regulated in parallel with RAD54, and the resulting cellular fluorescence provides a measure of genotoxicity. Acute toxicity is simultaneously determined by monitoring relative total growth of the cell culture during incubation. The results presented in this paper show that a reduction in colouration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in effluent toxicity.

  6. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams.

  7. Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated wetting agents in plating industry waste water.

    PubMed

    Fath, Andreas; Sacher, Frank; McCaskie, John E

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical decomposition of fluorinated surfactants (PFAS, perfluorinated alkyl substances) used in the plating industry was analyzed and the decomposition process parameters optimized at the laboratory scale and production scale of a 500-liter reactor using lead electrodes. The method and system was successfully demonstrated under production conditions to treat PFAS) with up to 99% efficiency in the concentration range of 1,000-20,000 μg/l (1 ppm-20 ppm). The treatment also reduced hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) ions to trivalent chromium (Cr(3+)) ions in the wastewater. If the PFAS-containing wastewater is mixed with other wastewater streams, specifically from nickel plating drag out solution or when pH values >5, the treatment process is ineffective. For the short chain PFAS, (perfluorobutylsulfonate) the process was less efficient than C6-C8 PFAS. The process is automated and has safety procedures and controls to prevent hazards. The PFAS were decomposed to hydrogen fluoride (HF) under the strong acid electrochemical operating conditions. Analytical tests showed no evidence of organic waste products remaining from the process. Conventional alternative PFAS removal systems were tested on the waste streams and compared with each other and with the-E-destruct (electrochemical oxidation) process. For example, ion exchange resin (IX resin) treatment of wastewater to complex and remove PFAS was found to be seven times more efficient when compared to the conventional activated carbon absorption (C-treat) process. However, the E-destruct process is higher in capacity, exhibits longer service life and lower operating costs than either IX or C-treat methods for elimination of PFAS from these electroplating waste streams. PMID:27054738

  8. Magnetic PEGylated Pt3Co nanoparticles as a novel MR contrast agent: in vivo MR imaging and long-term toxicity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shengnan; Li, Zhiwei; Cheng, Liang; Wang, Chao; Liu, Yumeng; Chen, Qian; Gong, Hua; Guo, Liang; Li, Yonggang; Liu, Zhuang

    2013-11-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG), the obtained Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles exhibit an extremely high T2-weighted relaxivity rate (r2) up to 451.2 mM s-1, which is much higher than that of Resovist®, a commercial T2-MR contrast agent used in the clinic. In vitro experiments indicate no obvious cytotoxicity of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles to various cell lines. After intravenous injection of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles, in vivo T2-weighted MR imaging of tumor-bearing mice reveals strong tumor contrast, which is much higher than that offered by injecting Resovist®. We further study the long-term biodistribution and toxicology of this new type of MR contrast nanoparticles after intravenous injection into healthy mice. Despite the significant retention of Pt3Co-PEG nanoparticles in the mouse liver and spleen, no appreciable toxicity of these nanoparticles to the treated animals has been noted in our detailed histological and hematological analysis over a course of 60 days. Our work demonstrates that functionalized Pt3Co nanoparticles may be a promising new type of T2-weighted MR contrast agent potentially useful in biomedical imaging and diagnosis.Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging using magnetic nanoparticles as the contrast agent has been extensively explored in biomedical imaging and disease diagnosis. Herein, we develop biocompatible polymer coated ultra-small Pt3Co magnetic nanoparticles as a new T2-weighted MR imaging contrast agent. A unique class of alloy Pt3Co nanoparticles is synthesized through a thermal decomposition method. After being modified with polyethylene

  9. A novel strategy for antimicrobial agent: role of exogenous carbon monoxide on suppressing Escherichia coli vitality and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xuefeng; Shen, Weichang; Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Sun, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a severe systemic inflammatory response mostly caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. The rates of mortality in sepsis patients remain high. To date little is known about whether exogenous carbon monoxide can directly or indirectly inhibit or even kill gram negative bacteria. In our study, wedemonstrate a critical role of CO-releasing molecules in the suppressive effects on bacterial vitality and toxicity. We found the bacterial growth and colony forming were markedly suppressed in the presence of CORM-2 with significant cell damage, decreased or disappeared pili and flagella. In contrast, qRT-PCR showed the expression of fliA was downregulated, while dnaKandwaaQ were upregulated in E. coli+CORM-2. Subsequent in vivo experiments showed the mouse survival in the CORM-2 intervened-E.coli injectiontended to improve with 60%-100% survival rates, and colony distribution in major organs were significantly decreased with attenuated histological damage. In parallel, cytokine levels and myeloperoxidase accumulation in livers and lungs decreased significantly compared with E. coli group.These data provide the first evidence and a potential strategy that exogenous carbon monoxide can significantly suppress bacterial vitality and toxicity. This may be associated with the regulatory functions of CORM-2 on the expression of essential genes (fliA, dnaKand waaQ) in E. coli.

  10. Uptake and accumulation of potentially toxic metals (Zn, Cu and Pb) in soils and plants of Durgapur industrial belt.

    PubMed

    Kisku, Ganesh Chandra; Pandey, Poonam; Negi, Mahendra Pratap Singh; Misra, Virendra

    2011-11-01

    Uptake and accumulation of metals in crops may cause possible health risks through food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the accumulation of potentially toxic metals contamination in soil and plants irrigated with complexed industrial effluents. Concentration of Zn, Cu and Pb was 205-255,101-130,118-177 microg g(-1) in rhizosphere soils and 116-223, 57-102 and 63-95 microg g(-1) d. wt. in root and 95-186, 44-75 and 27-58 microg g(-1) d. wt. in shoot, respectively. The trend in Cu and Pb was in the order: soil > root > shoot > seed while in Zn it was soil > root > seed > shoot. Roots accumulated a larger fraction of soil Cu (70%) > Zn (67%) > Pb (54%). Bioaccumulation coefficient of soil to root ranged from 51-98 for Zn, 54-85 for Cu and 43-63 for Pb.Analysis of variance showed marginal change in bioaccumulation coefficient, noticed between plants (p > 0.05) while it varied significantly (p < 0.01) between tissues and metals. It increased from root to seed/fruit (root > shoot > seed/fruit) while decreased between metals from Zn to Pb (Zn > Cu > Pb). Out of the three, two Cu and Pb accumulated to phyotoxic levels while Zn was within threshold limit of phytotoxicity. PMID:22471223

  11. Safety distance assessment of industrial toxic releases based on frequency and consequence: a case study in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Q; Zhang, Y; Wang, X; Ma, W C; Chen, L M

    2009-09-15

    A case study on the safety distance assessment of a chemical industry park in Shanghai, China, is presented in this paper. Toxic releases were taken into consideration. A safety criterion based on frequency and consequence of major hazard accidents was set up for consequence analysis. The exposure limits for the accidents with the frequency of more than 10(-4), 10(-5)-10(-4) and 10(-6)-10(-5) per year were mortalities of 1% (or SLOT), 50% (SLOD) and 75% (twice of SLOD) respectively. Accidents with the frequency of less than 10(-6) per year were considered incredible and ignored in the consequence analysis. Taking the safety distance of all the hazard installations in a chemical plant into consideration, the results based on the new criterion were almost smaller than those based on LC50 or SLOD. The combination of the consequence and risk based results indicated that the hazard installations in two of the chemical plants may be dangerous to the protection targets and measurements had to be taken to reduce the risk. The case study showed that taking account of the frequency of occurrence in the consequence analysis would give more feasible safety distances for major hazard accidents and the results were more comparable to those calculated by risk assessment. PMID:19345011

  12. The threat of mid-spectrum chemical warfare agents.

    PubMed

    Aas, Pål

    2003-01-01

    There is a spectrum of several threat agents, ranging from nerve agents and mustard agents to natural substances, such as biotoxins and new, synthetic, bioactive molecules produced by the chemical industry, to the classical biological warfare agents. The new, emerging threat agents are biotoxins produced by animals, plants, fungi, and bacteria. Examples of such biotoxins are botulinum toxin, tetanus toxin, and ricin. Several bioactive molecules produced by the pharmaceutical industry can be even more toxic than are the classical chemical warfare agents. Such new agents, like the biotoxins and bioregulators, often are called mid-spectrum agents. The threat to humans from agents developed by modern chemical synthesis and by genetic engineering also must be considered, since such agents may be more toxic or more effective in causing death or incapacitation than classical warfare agents. By developing effective medical protection and treatment against the most likely chemical and mid-spectrum threat agents, the effects of such agents in a war scenario or following a terrorist attack can be reduced.

  13. Priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors in the U.S. toxics release inventory: a comparison of the life cycle impact-based and risk-based assessment tools developed by U.S. EPA.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Lam, Carl W; Schoenung, Julie M

    2011-09-01

    Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) and Risk Assessment (RA) employ different approaches to evaluate toxic impact potential for their own general applications. LCIA is often used to evaluate toxicity potentials for corporate environmental management and RA is often used to evaluate a risk score for environmental policy in government. This study evaluates the cancer, non-cancer, and ecotoxicity potentials and risk scores of chemicals and industry sectors in the United States on the basis of the LCIA- and RA-based tools developed by U.S. EPA, and compares the priority screening of toxic chemicals and industry sectors identified with each method to examine whether the LCIA- and RA-based results lead to the same prioritization schemes. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) is applied as an LCIA-based screening approach with a focus on air and water emissions, and the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicator (RSEI) is applied in equivalent fashion as an RA-based screening approach. The U.S. Toxic Release Inventory is used as the dataset for this analysis, because of its general applicability to a comprehensive list of chemical substances and industry sectors. Overall, the TRACI and RSEI results do not agree with each other in part due to the unavailability of characterization factors and toxic scores for select substances, but primarily because of their different evaluation approaches. Therefore, TRACI and RSEI should be used together both to support a more comprehensive and robust approach to screening of chemicals for environmental management and policy and to highlight substances that are found to be of concern from both perspectives.

  14. Determination of toxic inorganic elements pollution in ground waters of Kahuta Industrial Triangle Islamabad, Pakistan using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kausar, Rubina; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2009-10-01

    The present study deals with the ground water quality assessment in Kahuta Industrial Triangle Islamabad, Pakistan. The objective of the study was to assess ground water quality against the drinking water standards for various toxic inorganic elements. Representative groundwater samples were collected and analyzed in the Water Quality Laboratory of Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) at Islamabad, Pakistan. The samples were run on ICP-MS (Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), which has the capability to separate and quantify 70 elements at a time. One of the finding of study is that ICP-MS is a very good tool to analyze broad range of toxic inorganic elements to the level of parts per billion (ppb). World Health Organization drinking water standards shows that these toxic inorganic elements such as heavy metals even at this concentration level (ppb) are injurious to human health. This analysis indicated pollution of various toxic elements including Selenium. Vertical leachate through industrial waste septic tanks is identified as major cause of groundwater pollution in the Industrial Triangle. Monitoring of the septic tanks and groundwater quality in study area is suggested along with remedial measures.

  15. Dual Role of ROS as Signal and Stress Agents: Iron Tips the Balance in favor of Toxic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gammella, Elena; Recalcati, Stefania; Cairo, Gaetano

    2016-01-01

    Iron is essential for life, while also being potentially harmful. Therefore, its level is strictly monitored and complex pathways have evolved to keep iron safely bound to transport or storage proteins, thereby maintaining homeostasis at the cellular and systemic levels. These sequestration mechanisms ensure that mildly reactive oxygen species like anion superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, which are continuously generated in cells living under aerobic conditions, keep their physiologic role in cell signaling while escaping iron-catalyzed transformation in the highly toxic hydroxyl radical. In this review, we describe the multifaceted systems regulating cellular and body iron homeostasis and discuss how altered iron balance may lead to oxidative damage in some pathophysiological settings. PMID:27006749

  16. Synthesis, molecular properties, toxicity and biological evaluation of some new substituted imidazolidine derivatives in search of potent anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Husain, Asif; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shah Alam; Asif, Mohd; Bhutani, Rubina; Al-Abbasi, Fahad A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and synthesize pharmaceutical agents containing imidazolidine heterocyclic ring in the hope of developing potent, safe and orally active anti-inflammatory agents. A number of substituted-imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were synthesized starting from ethylene diamine and aromatic aldehydes. The imidazolidine derivatives (3a-k) were investigated for their anticipated anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activity in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice, respectively. Bioactivity score, molecular and pharmacokinetic properties of the imidazolidine derivatives were calculated by online computer software programs viz. Molinspiration and Osiris property explorer. The results of biological testing indicated that among the synthesized compounds only three imidazolidine derivatives namely 4-[1,3-Bis(2,6-dichlorobenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3g), 4-[1,3-Bis(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl)-2-imidazolidinyl]phenyl-diethylamine (3i) and 4-(1,3-Bis(4-methoxybenzyl)-4-methylimidazolidin-2-yl)-phenyl-diethylamine (3j) possess promising anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions. Additionally these derivatives displayed superior GI safety profile (low severity index) with respect to the positive control, Indomethacin. All synthesized compounds showed promising bioactivity score for drug targets by Molinspiration software. Almost all the compounds were predicted to have very low toxicity risk by Osiris online software. Compound number (3i) emerged as a potential candidate for further research as it obeyed Lipinski's rule of five for drug likeness, exhibited promising biological activity in-vivo and showed no risk of toxicity in computer aided screening. PMID:26903774

  17. Subacute intramuscular toxicity of the acetylcholinesterase reactivating agent Hi-6 in rats and dogs. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1993-12-31

    Studies herein describe the toxicity of HI-6 in Sprague-Dawley rats and Beagle dogs following i.m. injection for 14 days. Dose levels were 0, 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg/day for 10 rats/sex/dose and 0, 35, 70, and 140 mg/kg/day for 4 dogs/sex/dose. Three rats at the high dose, 2 males and 1 female, died prior to scheduled sacrifice. Reduced weight gain, decreased activity, tremors, hunched posture,and poor grooming were seen in high dose survivors. Increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities at the mid and high doses suggested hepatotoxicity, although liver weights and histology were normal. Hematology parameters were unaffected except for slight, dose-related increases of platelets in both sexes. Injection site inflammation was seen; however, serum creatine kinase activity was not altered. In dogs, slight weight loss, vomiting, salivation, and diarrhea occurred at the high dose, but no deaths were observed at any of the doses. As with rats, dose-related increases in ALT and AST activities occurred at the mid and high doses, and were, in this case, accompanied at the high dose by hepatomegaly and hepatocellular vacuolization. Cardiotoxicity was evidenced by increased relative heart weights and subtle ECG changes, the latter of which occurred almost exclusively at the highest dose. Injection site inflammation, which was accompanied by dose-related elevations in serum CK-MM2 activity, was also observed.

  18. TOXICOLOGY STUDIES OF LEWISITE AND SULFUR MUSTARD AGENTS:GENETIC TOXICITY OF LEWISITE (L) IN CHINESE HAMSTER OVARY CELLS

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes,R.F. Jr.; Sasser, LB; Rausch, R.J.

    1989-05-31

    The cytotoxic clastogenic and mutagenic effects of the arsenic containing vesicant, Lewisite (L) [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine], have been investigated using Chinese hamster ovary cells. One hour exposures to Lewisite were cytotoxic in uM amounts. The cell survival response yields a D37 of 0.6 uM and an extrapolation number of 2.5. The mutagenic response at the hypoxantnine-guanine phosporibosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus was sporadic and not significantly greater than control values when cells were exposed over a range of 0.125 to2.0 uM. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction, a measure of chromosomal rearrangement, was weakly positive over a range of 0.25 to 1.0 uM but the values were not significantly greater than the control response. Chromosomal aberrations were induced at 0.75 and 1.0 UMin one experiment and 0.5 and 0.75 uM in another experiment. The Induced values were significantly greater than the control values. Lewisite appears to be cytotoxic and clastogenic in our investigations but SCE and mutation at the HGPRT locus are not significantly greater than control values. Lewisita toxicity was in some ways similar to radiomimetic chemicals such as bleomycin.

  19. Design, synthesis, in silico toxicity prediction, molecular docking, and evaluation of novel pyrazole derivatives as potential antiproliferative agents

    PubMed Central

    Ravula, Parameshwar; Vamaraju, Harinadha Babu; Paturi, Manichandrika; Chandra JN, Narendra Sharath; Kolli, Swetha

    2016-01-01

    A new series of pyrazole derivatives were designed by docking into vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) kinase active site. The designed compounds were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 colon and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and angioinhibitory activity in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model. Based on the obtained antiproliferative activity results of in vitro and CAM assay, compounds 4b, 4c, 4f, 5b, 5c and 5f were selected, and tested for anticancer activity using in vivo ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) bearing mice. Compound 5c showed the highest in vitro antiproliferative activity against HT-29 and PC-3 with IC50 values of 6.43 µM and 9.83 µM respectively and comparable to reference drug Doxorubicin. Results of in vivo anticancer activity revealed that compound 5c showed the highest percentage increase in life span ( %ILS), and mean survival time (MST) with 75.13 % and 32.4 ± 0.53 days respectively. Moreover, compound 5c demonstrated significant reduction of microvessel density (MVD) in CAM assay. In silico prediction of toxicities, and drug score profiles of designed compounds are promising. A correlation made between the results obtained by antiproliferative study and molecular docking studies suggest that the synthesized compounds may be beneficial as molecular scaffolds for antiproliferative activity. PMID:27103897

  20. Toxicity and accumulation of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its metabolites in Atlantic salmon alevins exposed to an industrially polluted water.

    PubMed

    Leffler, Per; Brännäs, Eva; Ragnvaldsson, Daniel; Wingfors, Håkan; Berglind, Rune

    2014-01-01

    A pond in an industrial area in Sweden was selected to study adverse effects on salmon alevins from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated water. Chemical screening revealed heavy contamination of TNT and its degradation products, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), ranging from 0.05 to 230 g/kg in the sediment (dry weight) within the water system. Pond water contained 3 mg/L TNT. A dilution series of pond water mixed with tap water revealed increased death frequency in alevins down to fivefold dilution (approximate 0.4 mg TNT/L). Uptake was concentration dependent, reaching 7, 9, and 22 μg/g tissue for TNT, 2-ADNT, and 4-ADNT at the highest test concentration. A time-dependent uptake of TNT and its degradation products was found at a water concentration of 0.08 mg TNT/L. Degradation products of TNT showed a more efficient uptake compared to native TNT, and accumulation of 4-ADNT was more pronounced during the late phase of the 40-d exposure study. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) (0.34, 52, and 134 ml/g for TNT, 2-ADNT, and 4-ADNT, respectively) demonstrated a significant uptake of the metabolite 4-ADNT in alevin tissue. Disturbed physiological conditions and delayed development in alevins were not studied, but may not be excluded even at 125-fold diluted pond water (0.016 mg TNT/L). BCF data indicated that bioaccumulation of TNT metabolites need to be considered in TNT chronic toxicity. Fish species and age differences in the accumulation of TNT metabolites need to be further studied.

  1. Identification of 5-Methoxyflavone as a Novel DNA Polymerase-Beta Inhibitor and Neuroprotective Agent against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sara; Basile, Livia; Giuffrida, Maria Laura; Sortino, Maria Angela; Guccione, Salvatore; Copani, Agata

    2015-11-25

    Cell-cycle reactivation is a core feature of degenerating neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). A variety of stressors, including β-amyloid (Aβ) in the case of AD, can force neurons to leave quiescence and to initiate an ectopic DNA replication process, leading to neuronal death rather than division. As the primary polymerase (pol) involved in neuronal DNA replication, DNA pol-β contributes to neuronal death, and DNA pol-β inhibitors may prove to be effective neuroprotective agents. Currently, specific and highly active DNA pol-β inhibitors are lacking. Nine putative DNA pol-β inhibitors were identified in silico by querying the ZINC database, containing more than 35 million purchasable compounds. Following pharmacological evaluation, only 5-methoxyflavone (1) was validated as an inhibitor of DNA pol-β activity. Cultured primary neurons are a useful model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of potential DNA pol-β inhibitors, since these neurons undergo DNA replication and death when treated with Aβ. Consistent with the inhibition of DNA pol-β, 5-methoxyflavone (1) reduced the number of S-phase neurons and the ensuing apoptotic death triggered by Aβ. 5-Methoxyflavone (1) is the first flavonoid compound able to halt neurodegeneration via a definite molecular mechanism rather than through general antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  2. Design and evaluation of improved barrier fabrics for protection against toxic aerosols and biological agents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, S.P.; Tucker, P.A.

    1993-09-01

    The structure of nine fabrics, their resistance to aerosol penetration, and their pore size distributions were evaluated to determine their suitability as barrier fabrics for protection against aerosols. A main objective is to gain insight and knowledge which will be useful for designing fabrics that will provide better protection with minimum discomfort. Aerosol penetration was assessed using fluorescent polystyrene latex spheres ranging in diameter from 0.6 to 4.5 um at a face velocity of 1.8 cm/s. The maximum penetration occurred for 1.01 micrometers diameter spheres. Fabric pore size distributions were measured by liquid extrusion and microscopical image analysis, and the maximum pore size was also measured by liquid critical breakthrough pressure. Results obtained by all three techniques were fairly consistent. The best correlation between fabric structure and particle penetration at this time is between fabric density and weave type, with penetration decreasing with increasing fabric areal density and being lower for plain weave fabrics than for twill weaves. Biological aerosols, Chemical protective clothing, Biological agents, Fabrics, Aerosol penetration, Aerosols, Pore size.

  3. Biodegradable chelating agent ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid reduces uptake of copper through alleviation of copper toxicity in hydroponically grown Chrysanthemum coronarium L.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lan; Luo, Chunling; Wang, Chunchun; Li, Xiangdong; Shen, Zhenguo

    2007-04-01

    Hydroponic cultures were conducted to investigate the effects of the biodegradable chelating agent S,S-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) on the growth and copper uptake by garland chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.), a plant species sensitive to soil chelate amendment. In the presence of 50 micromol/L Cu, the addition of EDDS increased shoot and root biomass and the vitality of cells in root tips and decreased the relative electrolyte leakage of root cells and the concentration of Cu in shoots. When the roots were pretreated with 65 degrees C hot water for 0.5 to 2 h or with 0.001 to 0.1 mol/L HCl for 24 h before the exposure to 50 micromol/L Cu + 100 micromol/L EDDS, the concentration of Cu in shoots increased considerably compared with the plants without any pretreatment. A statistically significant correlation was found between the Cu concentrations in shoots and the relative electrolyte leakage of root cells. These results indicated that Cu-EDDS might be a less bioavailable form to plants and that some physiological damage to the roots led to enhanced accumulation of Cu in plant shoots.

  4. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Subchronic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) In Rats Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sasser, L. B.; Miller, R. A.; Kalkwarf, D, R.; Buschbom, R. L.; Cushing, J. A.

    1989-06-30

    Occupational health standards have not been established for sulfur mustard [bis(2- chlorethyl)-sulfide], a strong alkylating agent with known mutagenic properties. Seventytwo Sprague-Dawley rats of each sex, 6-7 weeks old, were divided into six groups (12/group/ sex) and gavaged with either 0, 0.003 , 0.01 , 0.03 , 0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg of sulfur mustard in sesame oil 5 days/week for 13 weeks. No dose-related mortality was observed. A significant decrease (P ( 0.05) in body weight was observed in both sexes of rats only in the 0.3 mg/kg group. Hematological evaluations and clinical chemistry measurements found no consistent treatment-related effects at the doses studied. The only treatment-related lesion associated with gavage exposure upon histopathologic evaluation was epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach of both sexes at 0.3 mg/kg and males at 0.1 mg/kg. The hyperplastic change was minimal and characterized by cellular disorganization of the basilar layer, an apparent increase in mitotic activity of the basilar epithelial cells, and thickening of the epithelial layer due to the apparent increase in cellularity. The estimated NOEL for HD in this 90-day study is 0.1 mg/kg/day when administered orally.

  5. Assessing toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium levels relevant to discharge limits of industrial effluents into inland surface waters using common onion, Allium cepa bioassay.

    PubMed

    Hemachandra, Chamini K; Pathiratne, Asoka

    2015-02-01

    Toxicity of copper, cadmium and chromium relevant to established tolerance limits for the discharge of industrial effluents into inland surface waters was evaluated by Allium cepa bioassay. The roots of A. cepa bulbs exposed to Cu(2+) (3 mg L(-1)) individually or in mixtures with Cd(2+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) or/and Cr(6+) (0.1 mg L(-1)) exhibited the highest growth inhibition, mitotic index depression and nuclear abnormalities. Root tip cells exposed to Cr(6+) or Cd(2+) alone or in mixture displayed significant chromosomal aberrations in comparison to the controls. EC50s for root growth inhibition followed the order Cu(2+) < Cd(2+) < Cr(6+) indicating greater toxicity of copper. The results show that the industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits for these metals need to be reviewed considering potential cyto-genotoxicity to biological systems.

  6. In silico prediction of toxicity of non-congeneric industrial chemicals using ensemble learning based modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Kunwar P. Gupta, Shikha

    2014-03-15

    Ensemble learning approach based decision treeboost (DTB) and decision tree forest (DTF) models are introduced in order to establish quantitative structure–toxicity relationship (QSTR) for the prediction of toxicity of 1450 diverse chemicals. Eight non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals was evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index. Stochastic gradient boosting and bagging algorithms supplemented DTB and DTF models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the toxicity end-point in T. pyriformis. Special attention was drawn to prediction ability and robustness of the models, investigated both in external and 10-fold cross validation processes. In complete data, optimal DTB and DTF models rendered accuracies of 98.90%, 98.83% in two-category and 98.14%, 98.14% in four-category toxicity classifications. Both the models further yielded classification accuracies of 100% in external toxicity data of T. pyriformis. The constructed regression models (DTB and DTF) using five descriptors yielded correlation coefficients (R{sup 2}) of 0.945, 0.944 between the measured and predicted toxicities with mean squared errors (MSEs) of 0.059, and 0.064 in complete T. pyriformis data. The T. pyriformis regression models (DTB and DTF) applied to the external toxicity data sets yielded R{sup 2} and MSE values of 0.637, 0.655; 0.534, 0.507 (marine bacteria) and 0.741, 0.691; 0.155, 0.173 (algae). The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting toxicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. These approaches provide useful strategy and robust tools in the screening of ecotoxicological risk or environmental hazard potential of chemicals. - Graphical abstract: Importance of input variables in DTB and DTF classification models for (a) two-category, and (b) four-category toxicity intervals in T. pyriformis data. Generalization and predictive abilities of the

  7. Effectiveness of Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and (±)Huperzine A in Counteracting the Acute Toxicity of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents: Comparison with Galantamine

    PubMed Central

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (±)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 × LD50 soman (42 μg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6–8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (±)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (±)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 × LD50 soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 × LD50 soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 × LD50 soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  8. Capping Agent-Dependent Toxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Silver Nanoparticles: An In Vitro Study. Concerns about Potential Application in Dental Practice

    PubMed Central

    Niska, Karolina; Knap, Narcyz; Kędzia, Anna; Jaskiewicz, Maciej; Kamysz, Wojciech; Inkielewicz-Stepniak, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In dentistry, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have drawn particular attention because of their wide antimicrobial activity spectrum. However, controversial information on AgNPs toxicity limited their use in oral infections. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities against a panel of oral pathogenic bacteria and bacterial biofilms together with potential cytotoxic effects on human gingival fibroblasts of 10 nm AgNPs: non-functionalized - uncapped (AgNPs-UC) as well as surface-functionalized with capping agent: lipoic acid (AgNPs-LA), polyethylene glycol (AgNPs-PEG) or tannic acid (AgNPs-TA) using silver nitrate (AgNO3) as control. Methods: The interaction of AgNPs with human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1) was evaluated using the mitochondrial metabolic potential assay (MTT). Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was tested against anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria isolated from patients with oral cavity and respiratory tract infections, and selected aerobic Staphylococci strains. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined by the agar dilution method for anaerobic bacteria or broth microdilution method for reference Staphylococci strains and Streptococcus mutans. These strains were also used for antibiofilm activity of AgNPs. Results: The highest antimicrobial activities at nontoxic concentrations were observed for the uncapped AgNPs and the AgNPs capped with LA. It was found that AgNPs-LA and AgNPs-PEG demonstrated lower cytotoxicity as compared with the AgNPs-TA or AgNPs-UC in the gingival fibroblast model. All of the tested nanoparticles proved less toxic and demonstrated wider spectrum of antimicrobial activities than AgNO3 solution. Additionally, AgNPs-LA eradicated Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus mutans 1-day biofilm at concentration nontoxic to oral cells. Conclusions: Our results proved that a capping agent had significant influence on the antibacterial

  9. Air quality modeling of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the Houston urban and industrial airshed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coarfa, Violeta Florentina

    2007-12-01

    Air toxics, also called hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. Their study is important in the Houston area, where point sources, mostly located along the Ship Channel, mobile and area sources contribute to large emissions of such toxic pollutants. Previous studies carried out in this area found dangerous levels of different HAPs in the atmosphere. This thesis presents several studies that were performed for the aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in the HGA. For these studies we developed several tools: (1) a refined chemical mechanism, which explicitly represents 18 aromatic air toxics that were lumped under two model species by the previous version, based on their reactivity with the hydroxyl radical; (2) an engineering version of an existing air toxics photochemical model that enables us to perform much faster long-term simulations compared to the original model, that leads to a 8--9 times improvement in the running time across different computing platforms; (3) a combined emission inventory based on the available emission databases. Using the developed tools, we quantified the mobile source impact on a few selected air toxics, and analyzed the temporal and spatial variation of selected aromatic and non-aromatic air toxics in a few regions within the Houston area; these regions were characterized by different emissions and environmental conditions.

  10. Phthalates: European regulation, chemistry, pharmacokinetic and related toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ventrice, Pasquale; Ventrice, Domenica; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2013-07-01

    Phthalates are chemicals widely used in industry and the consequences for human health caused by exposure to these agents are of significant current interest. Phthalate toxicity targets the reproductive and respiratory systems primarily, but they also may be involved in the processes of carcinogenesis and even in autism spectrum disorders. This article discusses the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in organ toxicity of phthalates; furthermore, pharmacokinetic, chemistry and the European regulation are summarized. PMID:23603460

  11. Toxicity studies on agents Gb and Gd (Phase 2): Delayed neuropathy study of soman in SPF white leghorn chickens. Final technical report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1992-05-01

    A dose rangefinding study, a delayed neuropathy study, and a neurotoxic esterase study, were performed in White Leghorn chickens using the organophosphate ester Soman. The hens used for the Rangefinding study were dosed once orally with 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, or 0 microns g/Kg GD, on Day 1. They were pretreated and protected daily through Day 7 with atropine. Surviving hens were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital on Day 21. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to be used in the Delayed Neuropathy Study was chosen based upon the rangefinding data. Fifty hens were assigned to a Single Dose Delayed Neuropathy study. Groups of ten hens were given 14.2 (MTD), 7.1 (MTD/2), 3.5 (MTD/4), 0 (negative control) microns/Kg GD or 51 0 mg/Kg tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) (positive control). Rangefinding study. They were evaluated for signs of neurologic toxicity/ataxia. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Sections of cerebellum, medulla, spinal cord (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), both sciatic nerves and their tibial branch were examined microscopically.... Delayed neuropathy; Agents; Soman; Chickens.

  12. L-arginine and L-glutamine as immunonutrients and modulating agents for oxidative stress and toxicity induced by sodium nitrite in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Nora M; Khalil, Fatma A

    2011-04-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO(2)) is a flavoring, coloring and preservative agent in meat and fish products. The study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of L-arginine and L-glutamine supplementation as a potentially novel and useful strategy for the modulation of oxidative stress and toxicity induced by NaNO(2) in male rats. Rats were divided into six groups each of 10 rats and treated for 6 weeks: group 1 as normal control; group 2 fed standard diet containing 0.2% NaNO(2); group 3 and 4 fed the previous diet supplemented with 1% and 2% arginine, respectively; group 5 and 6 fed NaNO(2) diet supplemented with 1% and 2% glutamine, respectively. NaNO(2) treatment induced a significant increase in serum malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, arginase, glutathione-S-transferase activities, urea and creatinine as well as differential leucocytes%. However, a significant decrease was recorded in reduced glutathione, catalase activity, total protein, albumin and some hematological parameters as well as immunoglobulin G. On the other hand, arginine or glutamine showed a remarkable modulation of these abnormalities as indicated by reduction of malondialdehyde and improvement of the investigated antioxidant and hematological parameters. It can be concluded that arginine or glutamine supplementation may reduce oxidative stress and improve the hazard effects of NaNO(2).

  13. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z.; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Current clinical Gd3+-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn2+) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn2+/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn2+ concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe. PMID:26625867

  14. Towards An Advanced Graphene-Based Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent: Sub-acute Toxicity and Efficacy Studies in Small Animals.

    PubMed

    Kanakia, Shruti; Toussaint, Jimmy; Hoang, Dung Minh; Mullick Chowdhury, Sayan; Lee, Stephen; Shroyer, Kenneth R; Moore, William; Wadghiri, Youssef Z; Sitharaman, Balaji

    2015-12-02

    Current clinical Gd(3+)-based T1 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents (CAs) are suboptimal or unsuitable, especially at higher magnetic fields (>1.5 Tesla) for advanced MRI applications such as blood pool, cellular and molecular imaging. Herein, towards the goal of developing a safe and more efficacious high field T1 MRI CA for these applications, we report the sub-acute toxicity and contrast enhancing capabilities of a novel nanoparticle MRI CA comprising of manganese (Mn(2+)) intercalated graphene nanoparticles functionalized with dextran (hereafter, Mangradex) in rodents. Sub-acute toxicology performed on rats intravenously injected with Mangradex at 1, 50 or 100 mg/kg dosages 3 times per week for three weeks indicated that dosages ≤50 mg/kg could serve as potential diagnostic doses. Whole body 7 Tesla MRI performed on mice injected with Mangradex at a potential diagnostic dose (25 mg/kg or 455 nanomoles Mn(2+)/kg; ~2 orders of magnitude lower than the paramagnetic ion concentration in a typical clinical dose) showed persistent (up to at least 2 hours) contrast enhancement in the vascular branches (Mn(2+) concentration in blood at steady state = 300 ppb, per voxel = 45 femtomoles). The results lay the foundations for further development of Mangradex as a vascular and cellular/ molecular MRI probe.

  15. Using S and Pb isotope ratios to trace leaching of toxic substances from an acid-impacted industrial-waste landfill (Pozdatky, Czech Republic).

    PubMed

    Novak, Martin; Pacherova, Petra; Erbanova, Lucie; Veron, Alain J; Buzek, Frantisek; Jackova, Ivana; Paces, Tomas; Rukavickova, Lenka; Blaha, Vladimir; Holecek, Jan

    2012-10-15

    Slightly elevated concentrations of toxic species in waters sampled in the surroundings of a leaky landfill may be both a sign of an approaching contaminant plume, or a result of water-rock interaction. Isotopes can be instrumental in distinguishing between anthropogenic and geogenic species in groundwater. We studied sulfur and lead isotope ratios at an abandoned industrial-waste landfill, located in a densely populated part of Central Europe. Stable isotope variability in space and time was used to follow the movement of a groundwater plume, contaminated with toxic metals (Cd, Cr, Be), in fractured granitoids. Toxic metals had been mobilized from industrial waste by a strong pulse of sulfuric acid, also deposited in the landfill. Both tracers exhibited a wide range of values (δ(34)S between +2.6 and +18.9‰; (206)Pb/(207)Pb between 1.16 and 1.39), which facilitated identification of mixing end-members, and made it possible to assess the sources of the studied species. In situ fractionations did not hinder source apportionment. Influx of contaminated groundwater was observed neither in irrigation wells in a nearby village, nor at distances greater than 300 m from the landfill. Combination of stable isotope tracers can be used as part of an early-warning system in landscapes affected by landfills.

  16. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  17. Toxics Release Inventory, 1996. Public data release: Ten years of right-to-know industry sector analyses

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This volume presents the data for 15 industrial sectors, identified by Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, that are presently required to report to TRI. These chapters set the TRI data in context of economic, regulatory, and technological developments that influence industry-wide releases and other waste management. They also analyze reporting by industrial activities at the four-digit SIC code level. Industry sectors covered are: Food and Beverage Processing; Tobacco Products; Textile Mill Products; Apparel and Fabricated Textiles; Lumber and Wood Products; Furniture; Printing and Publishing; Rubber and Plastics Products; Leather and Leather Products; Stone, Clay, Glass, and Concrete; Fabricated Metals; Industrial Machinery; Transportation Equipment; Instruments and Photographic Equipment; and Miscellaneous Manufacturing.

  18. Effect of the industrial canning on the toxicity of mussels contaminated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Arévalo, Fabiola; Correa, Jorge; Porro, M Corina; Cabado, Ana G; Vieites, Juan M; Moroño, Angeles

    2016-03-15

    The effect of canning in pickled sauce and autoclaving on weight, toxin content, toxin concentration and toxicity of steamed mussels was studied. Weight decreased by 25.5%. Okadaic acid (OA) and DTX2 content of mussel meat decreased by 24.1 and 42.5%, respectively. The estimated toxicity of the mussel remained nearly unchanged (increased by 2.9%). A part of the toxins lost by the mussels was leached to the sauce but the remaining part should have been thermally degraded. DTX2 underwent more degradation than OA and, in both toxins, free forms more than conjugated ones. This process, therefore, cannot be responsible for the large increments of toxicity of processed mussels -relative to the raw ones-sometimes detected by food processing companies. The final product could be monitored in several ways, but analysing the whole can content or the mussel meat once rehydrated seems to be the most equivalents to the raw mussel controls. PMID:26806209

  19. Antiparasitic agents.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, J E

    1992-03-01

    In recent years, introduction of new and more effective agents has improved the overall therapy for parasitic infections. This field, however, is still plagued by numerous problems, including the development of resistance to antimicrobial agents (especially with malaria), unavailability of agents in the United States or lack of approval by the Food and Drug Administration, and major toxicities or lack of experience in pregnant women and children, which limits use in these groups of patients. Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine and other agents has complicated the treatment and prophylaxis of this type of malaria. A combination of quinine and Fansidar is usually effective oral therapy for falciparum malaria; quinidine may be administered if intravenous therapy is needed. Mefloquine, which is currently recommended for prophylaxis against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum, is also effective for single-dose oral treatment, although this regimen has not yet been approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Metronidazole has been widely used for treatment of gastroenteritis due to Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia (not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the latter) and is considered safe and effective. A new macrolide, azithromycin, has been reported to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in experimental animals; currently, no effective therapy is available for human infections. Combinations of sulfonamides with other antifolates, trimethoprim or pyrimethamine, are recommended therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or toxoplasmosis, respectively. Therapies for the various types of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are complex, often toxic, and often of limited efficacy. The benzimidazoles are effective for roundworm infections, although thiabendazole has severe toxic effects. The recent introduction of ivermectin has revolutionized the treatment and control of onchocerciasis. Another relatively new agent, praziquantel

  20. Initial formal toxicity evaluation of APC-2, a novel fluorescent tracer agent for real-time measurement of glomerular filtration rate in preparation for a first-in-man clinical trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugaj, Joseph E.; Dorshow, Richard B.

    2014-03-01

    The fluorescent tracer agent 2,5-bis[N-(1-carboxy-2-hydroxy)]carbamoyl-3,6-diaminopyrazine, designated APC-2, has been developed with properties and attributes necessary for use as a direct measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Comparison to known standard exogenous GFR agents in animal models has demonstrated an excellent correlation. A clinical trial to demonstrate this same correlation in humans is in preparation. A battery of formal toxicity tests necessary for regulatory clearance to proceed with a clinical trial has been recently completed on this new fluorescent tracer agent. These include single dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs to determine overall toxicity and toxicokinetics of the compound. Blood compatibility, mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, and several other assays were also completed. Toxicity assessments were based on mortality, clinical signs, body weight, food consumption and anatomical pathology. Blood samples were collected to assess pharmacokinetic parameters including half-life, area under the curve, and clearance. Urine samples were collected to assess distribution. Doses of up to 200-300 times the estimated human dose were administered. No test-article related effects were noted on body weight, food consumption, ophthalmic observations and no abnormal pathology was seen in either macroscopic or microscopic evaluations of any organs or tissues. All animals survived to scheduled sacrifice. Transient discoloration of skin and urine was noted at the higher dose levels in both species as expected from a highly fluorescent compound and was not considered pathological. Thus initial toxicology studies of this new fluorescent tracer agent APC-2 have resulted in no demonstrable pathological test article concerns.

  1. [Toxic effect of benzalkonium chloride on animals and humans].

    PubMed

    Swiercz, Radosław; Hałatek, Tadeusz; Majcherek, Wanda; Grzelińiska, Zofia; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) exerts toxic effects on microorganisms. This property has been utilized in the cosmetic industry and medicine, where it is used as effective germicide and preservative agents. Various BAC-containing preparations used by people may induce a number of adverse effects on the human body. Bearing in mind that BAC is widely used in different branches of the national economy, its toxic effect may cause a health problem of significant importance to humans. The authors describe BAC toxic effects exerted on humans and laboratory animals as well as relevant hazards resulting from the use of BAC-contained preparations. PMID:17926503

  2. An innovative approach to sampling complex industrial emissions for use in animal toxicity tests: application to iron casting operations.

    PubMed

    Palmer, W G; Scholz, R C; Moorman, W J

    1983-03-01

    Sampling of complex mixtures of airborne contaminants for chronic animal toxicity tests often involves numerous sampling devices, requires extensive sampling time, and yields forms of collected materials unsuitable for administration to animals. A method is described which used a high volume, wet venturi scrubber for collection of respirable fractions of emissions from iron foundry casting operations. The construction and operation of the sampler are presented along with collection efficiency data and its application to the preparation of large quantities of samples to be administered to animals by intratracheal instillation. PMID:6846144

  3. Vertical profile, source apportionment, and toxicity of PAHs in sediment cores of a wharf near the coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Ju, Yun-Ru; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-03-01

    Three sediment cores were collected from a wharf near a coal-based steel refining industrial zone in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Analyses for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of the US Environmental Protection Agency priority list in the core sediment samples were conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The vertical profiles of PAHs in the core sediments were assessed, possible sources and apportionment were identified, and the toxicity risk of the core sediments was determined. The results from the sediment analyses showed that total concentrations of the 16 PAHs varied from 11774 ± 4244 to 16755 ± 4593 ng/g dry weight (dw). Generally, the vertical profiles of the PAHs in the sediment cores exhibited a decreasing trend from the top to the lower levels of the S1 core and an increasing trend of PAHs from the top to the lower levels of the S2 and S3 cores. Among the core sediment samples, the five- and six-ring PAHs were predominantly in the S1 core, ranging from 42 to 54 %, whereas the composition of the PAHs in the S2 and S3 cores were distributed equally across three groups: two- and three-ring, four-ring, and five- and six-ring PAHs. The results indicated that PAH contamination at the site of the S1 core had a different source. The molecular indices and principal component analyses with multivariate linear regression were used to determine the source contributions, with the results showing that the contributions of coal, oil-related, and vehicle sources were 38.6, 35.9, and 25.5 %, respectively. A PAH toxicity assessment using the mean effect range-median quotient (m-ERM-q, 0.59-0.79), benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent (TEQ(carc), 1466-1954 ng TEQ/g dw), and dioxin toxicity equivalent (TEQ(fish), 3036-4174 pg TEQ/g dw) identified the wharf as the most affected area. The results can be used for regular monitoring, and future pollution prevention and management should target the coal-based industries in this region for pollution reduction.

  4. Significant reduction in toxicity, BOD, and COD of textile dyes and textile industry effluent by a novel bacterium Pseudomonas sp. LBC1.

    PubMed

    Telke, Amar A; Kim, Seon-Won; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2012-03-01

    The 16S rRNA sequence analysis and biochemical characteristics were confirmed that the isolated bacterium is Pseudomonas sp. LBC1. The commonly used textile dye, Direct Brown MR has been used to study the fate of biodegradation. Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 showed 90% decolorization of Direct Brown MR (100 mg/L) and textile industry effluent with significant reduction in COD and BOD. The optimum condition for decolorization was 7.0 pH and 40°C. Significant increase in a activity of extracellular laccase suggested their possible involvement in decolorization of Direct Brown MR. Biodegradation metabolites viz. 3,6-dihydroxy benzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-7-aminonaphthol-3-sulfonic acid, and p-dihydroperoxybenzene were identified on the basis of mass spectra and using the 1.10 beta Shimadzu NIST GC-MS library. The Direct Brown MR and textile industry effluent were toxic to Sorghum bicolor and Vigna radiata plants as compared to metabolites obtained after decolorization. The Pseudomonas sp. LBC1 could be useful strain for decolorization and detoxification of textile dyes as well as textile industry effluent.

  5. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb. PMID:24767494

  6. Biomass fly ashes as low-cost chemical agents for Pb removal from synthetic and industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Rui; Lapa, Nuno; Lopes, Helena; Günther, Annika; Dias, Diogo; Mendes, Benilde

    2014-06-15

    The main aim of this work was to study the removal efficiency of Pb from synthetic and industrial wastewaters by using biomass fly ashes. The biomass fly ashes were produced in a biomass boiler of a pulp and paper industry. Three concentrations of Pb(2+) were tested in the synthetic wastewater (1, 10 and 1000 mg Pb/L). Moreover, two different wastewaters were collected in an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP) of an industry of lead-acid batteries: (i) wastewater of the equalization tank, and (ii) IWWTP effluent. All the wastewaters were submitted to coagulation-flocculation tests with a wide range of biomass fly ashes dosage (expressed as Solid/Liquid - S/L - ratios). All supernatants were characterized for chemical and ecotoxicological parameters. The use of biomass fly ashes has reduced significantly the Pb concentration in the synthetic wastewater and in the wastewaters collected in the IWWTP. For example, the definitive coagulation-flocculation assays performed over the IWWTP effluent presented a very low concentration of Pb (0.35 mg/L) for the S/L ratio of 1.23 g/L. Globally, the ecotoxicological characterization of the supernatants resulting from the coagulation-flocculation assays of all wastewaters has indicated an overall reduction on the ecotoxicity of the crude wastewaters, due to the removal of Pb.

  7. Environmental toxicants in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Gonsebatt, M E

    1996-05-01

    Health effects from environmental toxicants may be a more serious problem in developing countries compared with developed countries because the problem is potentiated by other factors: a) the lack of or failure to enforce regulations, which allows human exposures to genotoxic agents; b) undernourishment of the lower economic and social classes that comprise the most exposed populations from industrial and agricultural activities; and c) parasitic infections that afflict a wide range of populations in both urban and rural areas. Data on the genotoxic effects of different types of exposures, including environmental exposes (natural and industrial), occupational exposures, and infections and medical treatments, are presented and discussed with the point of view that all these factors must be taken into account with respect to regulation and the protection of human health. Occupational exposures in developing countries are higher than in developed countries due to lack of stringent regulations, lack of knowledge of the risks involved, and the negligence of workers. General pollution is another important issue since developed countries have established strict regulations and risky industrial processes are being exported to developing countries, along with banned substances and dangerous industrial wastes. It should be emphasized that stringent regulations in developed countries will not prevent exposures in the long term because toxic substances that are released into the environment will ultimately reach all our future generations. PMID:8781389

  8. Policies to clean up toxic industrial contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo: a cost-benefit analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cost-benefit analysis is a transparent tool to inform policy makers about the potential effect of regulatory interventions, nevertheless its use to evaluate clean-up interventions in polluted industrial sites is limited. The two industrial areas of Gela and Priolo in Italy were declared "at high risk of environmental crisis" in 1990. Since then little has been done to clean the polluted sites and reduce the health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure. This study, aims to quantify the monetary benefits resulting from clean-up interventions in the contaminated sites of Gela and Priolo. Methods A damage function approach was used to estimate the number of health outcomes attributable to industrial pollution exposure. Extensive one way analyses and probabilistic analyses were conducted to investigate the sensitivity of results to different model assumptions. Results It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela. Conclusions Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial. PMID:21797993

  9. Toxic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Misra, Usha Kant; Kalita, Jayantee

    2009-01-01

    Toxic neuropathies generally result in length dependent axonal neuropathy with the exception of diphtheria and a few toxic neuropathies. In spite of occurrence of diphtheria in India there is paucity of published reports on diphtheritic neuropathy. Arsenic neuropathy commonly occurs in Bengal and Bangladesh because of ground water contamination whereas in Punjab it is due to contamination of opium. Lead neuropathy is rare and has been reported in battery workers and silver refining workers. It produces motor neuropathy resulting in foot drop and wrist drop. Organophosphates are used as pesticides, industrial chemicals and food adulterant. Certain organophosphates such as triorthocresyl phosphate used for or oil adulteration inhibit neurotoxic esterase and result in a delayed type of axonal neuropathy. Alcohol related neuropathy is a controversial issue whether it is due to alcohol related toxicity or due to nutritional deficiencies. Indian studies have revealed that neuropathy occurs both in alcoholic and nonalcoholic cirrhosis. Hexane neuropathy is reported in screen printers and these cases highlight the need for better preventive and occupational measures. Iatrogenic toxic neuropathies have been reported with cisplatin and vincristine. Because of geographical, occupational and health related conditions toxic neuropathies are likely to be more common than reported and greater awareness is needed.

  10. Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S; Wolff, I; Werner, N; Hoffmann, P; Herzschuh, R; Oemus, K; Rath, F W; Voigt, R

    1992-01-01

    In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased. PMID:1386950

  11. Toxicological investigations in the semiconductor industry: I. Studies on the acute oral toxicity of a complex mixture of waste products from the aluminium plasma etching process

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.; Wolff, I.; Werner, N.; Hoffmann, P.; Herzschuh, R.; Oemus, K.; Rath, F.W.; Voigt, R. )

    1992-05-01

    In dry etching processes--one of the sources of potential exposure to toxic wastes in the semiconductor industry--complex mixtures of inorganic and organic compounds arise from reactions between feed stock gases (BCl3/Cl2), top layers (aluminium photoresist), and the carrier gas (N2). Two different fractions of the complex mixture--one an ethanolic solution (ES) and the other an insoluble liquid residue (LR)--were examined for acute oral toxicity in rats. Analytical data showed that the ethanol soluble fraction contained mainly inorganic compounds, whereas the residue contained various halogenated hydrocarbons. Neither death nor behavioral changes occurred after oral administration and observation up to 23 days. ES caused a lower mean arterial blood pressure in both sexes, increased P-R-intervals in male rats, and caused some mild biochemical and hematological alterations and changes in relative organ weights compared to the control groups. Exposure to LR influenced food and water intake, and caused a significant decrease in body weights, signs of polyurie, as well as changes in various relative organ weights and biochemical and hematological parameters. The blood pressure of the male animals fell and the heart rates of both sexes decreased.

  12. Study on the relationship between speciation of heavy metals and their ecotoxicity. I. Toxicity of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in seawater to three marine algae in the presence of different complexation agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Manping; Wang, Juying; Bao, Junbo

    1992-09-01

    Heavy metal is a main pollutant in the marine ecosystem, so study on the effect of heavy metal on phytoplankton is important. Algae ( Chaetoceros sp., Dunaliella sp., Dicrateria zhanjiangenis Hu. var. sp.) were laboratory cultured to observe the effect of heavy metals on their growth. The effect of different metal ion concentration, the detoxication effect of complexation agents and the growth of algae in different media and different nutrition levels were studied to evaluate the effect of metal speciation. It is proved that trace amount of heavy metals can stimulate the growth of algae cells but that high concentration is lethal. The sequence of toxicity is Cd2+>Zn2+>Pb2+. In ordinary nutrition conditions, the detoxication sequence of complexation agents to Chaetoceros sp. is EDTA >sodium salicylate>sodium oxalate >sodium citrate>sulfanilic acid>O-phenanthroline. This is in good conformity with the stability constant sequence of these agents with copper and good evidence that toxicity of metal ion is related to its activity and not to its total concentration.

  13. Assessment of DNA damage as an index of genetic toxicity in welding microenvironments among iron-based industries.

    PubMed

    Singh, Zorawar; Chadha, Pooja

    2016-10-01

    Welding is used extensively in different industries. Welders are always at a risk of exposure to a number of gases and metal-containing fumes in their respective microenvironments in which they work. Welding fumes consist of a wide range of complex metal oxide particles which can deposit in different parts of their bodies causing serious health problems. In the present study, 35 welders (age: 33.80 ± 1.04 years) from two iron-based industries have been assessed for DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes using single-cell gel electrophoresis. An equal number of subjects (N = 35; age: 30.40 ± 1.51 years) matched to exposed subjects with respect to sex, age, socioeconomic status, smoking, and alcoholic habits were taken as controls. The results revealed that the damaged cell frequency (DCF) and mean comet tail length (CTL) in welders were significantly higher as compared to the controls (DCF: 69.74 ± 1.68 vs. 31.14 ± 1.67 and CTL: 29.21 ± 1.48 vs. 1.47 ± 0.08; p < 0.05). The effect of confounding factors such as age, duration of exposure, smoking, and drinking habits was also studied. Blood lead levels also showed a positive correlation with duration of exposure and CTL, and the overall results indicated an increased genetic damage as an index of genotoxicity in workers occupationally engaged in welding microenvironments.

  14. Synthesis and anticancer effects evaluation of 1-alkyl-3-(6-(2-methoxy-3-sulfonylaminopyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea as anticancer agents with low toxicity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiao-Xiao; Li, Huan; Wang, Juan; Mao, Shuai; Xin, Min-Hang; Lu, She-Min; Mei, Qi-Bing; Zhang, San-Qi

    2015-10-01

    As a PI3K and mTOR dual inhibitor, N-(2-chloro-5-(2-acetylaminobenzo[d]thiazol-6-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-4-fluorophenylsulfonamide displays toxicity when orally administrated. In the present study, alkylurea moiety replaced the acetamide group in the compound and a series of 1-alkyl-3-(6-(2,3-disubstituted pyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea derivatives were synthesized. The antiproliferative activities of the synthesized compounds in vitro were evaluated against HCT116, MCF-7, U87 MG and A549 cell lines. The compounds with potent antiproliferative activity were tested for their acute oral toxicity and inhibitory activity against PI3Ks and mTORC1. The results indicate that the compound attached a 2-(dialkylamino)ethylurea moiety at the 2-positeion of benzothiazole can retain the antiproliferative activity and inhibitory activity against PI3K and mTOR. In addition, their acute oral toxicity reduced dramatically. Moreover, compound 2f can effectively inhibit tumor growth in a mice S180 homograft model. These findings suggest that 1-(2-dialkylaminoethyl)-3-(6-(2-methoxy-3-sulfonylaminopyridin-5-yl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)urea derivatives can serve as potent PI3K inhibitors and anticancer agents with low toxicity.

  15. Identification, Quantification, and Toxicity of PCDDs and PCDFs in Soils from Industrial Areas in the Central and Eastern Regions of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; El-Saeid, Mohamed H; Usman, Adel R A; Al-Turki, Ali M; Ahmad, Mahtab; Hassanin, Ashraf S; El-Naggar, Ahmed H; Alenazi, Khaled K H

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify and quantify polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in soil samples collected from selected industrial areas in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. All the investigated compounds of PCDDs/PCDFs were identified in the studied locations. The average concentrations of PCDDs (sum of seven congeners measured) ranged from 11.5 to 59.6 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 125.7 pg g(-1) at an oil refinery station followed by 100.9 pg g(-1) at a cement factory. The average concentrations of PCDFs (sum of 10 congeners measured) accounted for 11.68-19.35 pg g(-1), with a maximum concentration of 38.67 pg g(-1) at the cement factory. It was generally observed that the soil samples collected from industrial areas have substantially high toxicity equivalence (TEQ) values of PCDDs/PCDFs compared to soils of remote areas. Principal component analysis revealed that the cement factories and oil refineries were the primary sources of PCDDs and PCDFs. PMID:27010396

  16. Toxic effects of the ingestion of water-soluble elements found in soil under the atmospheric influence of an industrial complex.

    PubMed

    da Silva Júnior, Flavio Manoel Rodrigues; Silva, Patrick Ferreira; Garcia, Edariane Menestrino; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Peraza-Cardoso, Gianni; Baisch, Paulo Roberto; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão; Muccillo-Baisch, Ana Luíza

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the toxic effects of water-soluble elements from a contaminated soil via gavage in a single dose, simulating a geophagy event. The contaminated soil was collected in a field located in an industrial complex, and the control soil was collected in a reference area. Metabolic and behavioral parameters in Wistar male rats were measured after 24 and 96 h of gavage. After 96 h, the major organs were weighed, blood was collected to check hematological parameters, the bone marrow was taken for the micronucleus test, and the liver was used for evaluating the total antioxidant capacity, lipoperoxidation and protein carbonylation. Animals exposed to contaminated soil presented a few significant alterations by comparison with control animals: TBARS and protein carbonyl levels increased, the relative weight of the kidneys increased, metabolic parameters (body weight gain, food intake, water consumption, urine and feces production) depressed and there was behavioral alteration. These findings suggest that soils impacted by atmospheric contaminants can affect the organism physiological status jeopardizing the health of populations living in industrial areas. Finally, this study reassures that ingestion of potentially contaminated soils, even for short periods of time, can cause health risks.

  17. Cellular automata-based forecasting of the impact of accidental fire and toxic dispersion in process industries.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Abbasi, S A

    2006-09-01

    The strategies to prevent accidents from occurring in a process industry, or to minimize the harm if an accident does take place, always revolve around forecasting the likely accidents and their impacts. Based on the likely frequency and severity of the accidents, resources are committed towards preventing the accidents. Nearly all techniques of ranking hazardous units, be it the hazard and operability studies, fault tree analysis, hazard indice, etc.--qualitative as well as quantitative--depend essentially on the assessment of the likely frequency and the likely harm accidents in different units may cause. This fact makes it exceedingly important that the forecasting the accidents and their likely impact is done as accurately as possible. In the present study we introduce a new approach to accident forecasting based on the discrete modeling paradigm of cellular automata. In this treatment an accident is modeled as a self-evolving phenomena, the impact of which is strongly influenced by the size, nature, and position of the environmental components which lie in the vicinity of the accident site. The outward propagation of the mass, energy and momentum from the accident epicenter is modeled as a fast diffusion process occurring in discrete space-time coordinates. The quantum of energy and material that would flow into each discrete space element (cell) due to the accidental release is evaluated and the degree of vulnerability posed to the receptors if present in the cell is measured at the end of each time element. This approach is able to effectively take into account the modifications in the flux of energy and material which occur as a result of the heterogeneous environment prevailing between the accident epicenter and the receptor. Consequently, more realistic accident scenarios are generated than possible with the prevailing techniques. The efficacy of the approach has been illustrated with case studies.

  18. Toxic Effects of Chronic Mercury Exposure on the Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular and Choroidal Thickness in Industrial Mercury Battery Workers

    PubMed Central

    Ekinci, Metin; Ceylan, Erdinç; Keleş, Sadullah; Çağatay, Halil Hüseyin; Apil, Aytekin; Tanyıldız, Burak; Uludag, Gunay

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of mercury on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), macular thickness (MT), and choroidal thickness (CT) by using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in battery industry workers who had been chronically exposed to mercury. Material/Methods Battery factory workers (n=31) and healthy non-factory employee controls (n=15) participated in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups: Group 1 (n=15) was factory workers who had worked for more than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; Group 2 (n=16) was factory worker who had worked for less than 5 years in a mercury battery factory; and Group 3 (n=15) was healthy non-employees. Systemic symptoms were recorded. Ophthalmic examination included best-corrected visual acuity test, color vision test, full ophthalmologic examination, and SD-OCT of the RNLF, macula, and choroid. To determine mercury exposure, venous blood samples were collected and mercury levels were assessed. Results In our study group the most common systemic symptoms were insomnia (67.7%) and fatigue (67.7%). There were no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2, but there were significant differences between Group 3 and both Group 1 and Group 2 in best-corrected visual acuity values (1=2<3), color vision scores, blood mercury levels, and duration (mean ±SD, range) of mercury exposure(1>2>3). OCT values of RNFLTs, MTs, and CTs of all 3 groups were statistically different from each another (1<2<3). Conclusions SD-OCT can be useful for evaluating the toxic effects of chronic exposure to mercury. PMID:25056093

  19. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda. PMID:27165227

  20. Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry.

    PubMed

    Yari, Saeed; Fallah Asadi, Ayda; Varmazyar, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Excessive exposure to chemicals in the workplace can cause poisoning and various diseases. Thus, for the protection of labor, it is necessary to examine the exposure of people to chemicals and risks from these materials. The purpose of this study is to evaluate semi-quantitative health risks of exposure to harmful chemical agents in the context of carcinogenesis in a latex glove manufacturing industry. In this cross-sectional study, semi-quantitative risk assessment methods provided by the Department of Occupational Health of Singapore were used and index of LD50, carcinogenesis (ACGIH and IARC) and corrosion capacity were applied to calculate the hazard rate and the biggest index was placed as the basis of risk. To calculate the exposure rate, two exposure index methods and the actual level of exposure were employed. After identifying risks, group H (high) and E (very high) classified as high-risk were considered. Of the total of 271 only 39 (15%) were at a high risk level and 3% were very high (E). These risks only was relevant to 7 materials with only sulfuric acid placed in group E and 6 other materials in group H, including nitric acid (48.3%), chromic acid (6.9%), hydrochloric acid (10.3%), ammonia (3.4%), potassium hydroxide (20.7%) and chlorine (10.3%). Overall, the average hazard rate level was estimated to be 4 and average exposure rate to be 3.5. Health risks identified in this study showed that the manufacturing industry for latex gloves has a high level of risk because of carcinogens, acids and strong alkalisand dangerous drugs. Also according to the average level of risk impact, it is better that the safety design strategy for latex gloves production industry be placed on the agenda.

  1. A phase II study evaluating the toxicity and efficacy of single-agent temsirolimus in chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kruczek, K; Ratterman, M; Tolzien, K; Sulo, S; Lestingi, T M; Nabhan, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is deregulated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of temsirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, in chemotherapy-naïve CRPC. Methods: In this phase II open label study, eligible patients received IV temsirolimus at 25 mg weekly until objective disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or investigator's discretion. Toxicity was assessed every 4 weeks and responses every 8 weeks. Primary end point was calculating the overall response (OR) rate as well as measuring stable disease (SD) to assess the overall clinical benefit calculated as OR+SD. Secondary end points included prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) changes and time to progression biochemically and radiographically. Correlative studies included prospective assessment of quality of life (QoL) using two previously validated scales. Results: Although the sponsor halted the study early, 21 patients were enrolled of which, 15 were evaluable for efficacy and OR. Median age was 74 (range: 57–89), median PSA was 237.5 ng ml−1 (range: 8.2–2360), visceral disease present in 11 patients (52%), and 17 patients (81%) patients had Gleason score (7–10). Two patients had a partial response (PR) and eight had SD. The OR was 13% (2/15) and the overall clinical benefit (OR+SD) was 67% (10/15). Median time to radiographic disease progression was 2 months (range 2–10 months). Biochemical response assessment was available for 14/15 patients. Any PSA decline was observed in four patients (28.5% 4/14) with one patient (7%) having >50% PSA decline. Median time to progression by PSA was 2 months (range 1–10 months). With a median follow-up of 32 months, median overall survival (OS) was 13 months (range: 2–37) and three patients remain alive at the data cutoff (5/2013) for an OS of 14% at 4 years on an intent-to-treat analysis. Major non-haematologic toxicities included fatigue (19%) and pneumonia (14%). Main

  2. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278).

  3. Thallium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Galván-Arzate, S; Santamaría, A

    1998-09-30

    Thallium (T1+) is a toxic heavy metal which was accidentally discovered by Sir William Crookes in 1861 by burning the dust from a sulfuric acid industrial plant. He observed a bright green spectral band that quickly disappeared. Crookes named the new element 'Thallium' (after thallos meaning young shoot). In 1862, Lamy described the same spectral line and studied both the physical and chemical properties of this new element (Prick, J.J.G., 1979. Thallium poisoning. In: Vinkrn, P.J., Bruyn, G.W. (Eds.), Intoxication of the Nervous System, Handbook of Clinical Neurology, vol. 36. North-Holland, New York. pp. 239-278). PMID:9801025

  4. Toxic megacolon

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease - toxic megacolon; Crohn disease - toxic megacolon; Ulcerative colitis - toxic megacolon ... people with an inflamed colon due to: Ulcerative colitis , or Crohn disease that is not well controlled ...

  5. Toxicity of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s., Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae), and potential biocontrol agent, Poecilia reticulata (Pisces: Poeciliidae).

    PubMed

    Anogwih, Joy A

    2014-08-01

    The toxicity of an emulsifiable formulation of pirimiphos methyl (Actellic 25EC) on Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and predator fish Poecilia reticulata Peters (Pisces: Poeciliidae) was investigated. Acute toxicity tests were carried out to determine the effect of the larvicide on mosquito larvae and fish species. To investigate the nontarget effects on P. reticulata, fish of similar size (3.5 +/- 0.2 cm) were randomly selected and exposed for 28 d, under static renewal bioassay, to sublethal concentrations of the larvicide capable of killing 30 and 70% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. The 24 h LC50 value of pirimiphos methyl on the test organisms ranged between 20.44 and 697.30 microg liter(-1). The ultrastructural changes observed in the intestinal cells of P. reticulata were characterized by degenerating cell membranes with gradual loss of gray area in pycnotic nucleus at lower concentration. Marked damage was found at higher concentration including distinct loss of gray areas in cytosol, absence of cristae, numerous ruptures, and several dead cells. Pirimiphos methyl was toxic to a predatory fish species, and for its relevance in vector control and crop protection, warrants cumulative assessment to establish its comprehensive ecological risk, and the dosage required for field larviciding.

  6. Synthesis, identification and in vivo studies of tumor-targeting agent peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis of gastric cancer with similar efficacy but reduced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This work aimed to synthesize a cathepsin B (CTSB)-cleavable tumor-targeting prodrug peptide doxorubicin (PDOX) and study the in vivo efficacy and toxicities on an animal model of gastric peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). Methods PDOX was synthesized using doxorubicin (DOX) attaching to a CTSB-cleavable dipeptide Ac-Phe-Lys and a para-amino-benzyloxycarbonyl (PABC) spacer. PC model was established by injecting VX2 tumor cells into the gastric sub-mucosa of 40 rabbits, which then were randomized into 4 groups: the Control (n = 10) without treatment, the HIPEC (n = 10) receiving cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC), the PDOX (n = 10) and the DOX (n = 10) receiving systemic chemotherapy with PDOX 50.0 mg/kg or DOX 5.0 mg/kg, respectively, after CRS + HIPEC. Results The median overall survivals (OS) were 23.0 d (95% CI: 19.9 d - 26.1 d) in the Control, 41.0 d (36.9 d - 45.1 d) in the HIPEC, 65.0 d (44.1 d - 71.9 d) in the PDOX, and 58.0 d (39.6 d - 54.4 d) in the DOX. Compared with the Control, the OS was extended by 70% in the HIPEC (p < 0.001) and further extended by 40% in the DOX (p = 0.029) and by 58% in the PDOX (p = 0.021), and the PC severity was decreased in the HIPEC and further decreased in the PDOX and DOX. Animals receiving DOX treatment showed hematological toxicities with marked reduction of white blood cells and platelets, as well as cardiac toxicities with significant increases in creatine kinase mb isoenzyme, evident myocardium coagulation necrosis, significant nuclear degeneration, peri-nucleus mitochondria deletion, mitochondria-pyknosis, and abnormal intercalated discs. But these toxicities were not evident in the PDOX. Conclusions PDOX is a newly synthesized tumor-targeting prodrug of DOX. Compared with DOX, PDOX has similar efficacy but reduced hematological and cardiac toxicities in treating rabbit model of gastric PC. PMID:24588871

  7. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  8. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent.

  9. Differential mobility spectroscopy for chemical agent detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, M. Todd

    2006-05-01

    General Dynamics ATP (GDATP) and Sionex Corporation (Sionex) are carrying out a cooperative development for a handheld chemical agent detector, being called JUNO TM, which will have lower false positives, higher sensitivity, and improved interference rejection compared with presently available detectors. This enhanced performance is made possible by the use of a new principle of ion separation called Differential Mobility Spectrometry (DMS). The enhanced selectivity is provided by the field tunable nature of the Sionex differential mobility technology (microDMxTM) which forms the analytical heart of the JUNO system and enables fingerprinting of molecules by characterization of the ionized molecular behavior under multiple electric field conditions. This enhanced selectivity is valuable in addressing not only the traditional list of chemical warfare agents (CWA) but also the substantial list of Toxic Industrial Compounds (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) which may be released in warfare or terrorist situations. Experimental results showing the ability of the microDMx to reject interferences, detect and resolve live agents are presented. An additional breakthrough in the technology was realized by operating the device at a reduced pressure of around 0.5 atmospheres. This reduced pressure operation resulted in roughly doubling the spectrometers resolution over what has previously been reported [1]. Advances have also been made in power consumption and packaging leading to a device suitable for portable, handheld, applications. Experimental results illustrating the performance of the microDMx technology employed in JUNO are highlighted.

  10. Cells, Agents, and Support Vectors in Interaction - Modeling Urban Sprawl based on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Post-Industrial Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienow, A.; Menz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, artificial intelligence techniques as cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) have been incorporated into land-system simulations to address the complex challenges of transitions in urban areas as open, dynamic systems. The study presents a hybrid modeling approach for modeling the two antagonistic processes of urban sprawl and urban decline at once. The simulation power of support vector machines (SVM), cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) are integrated into one modeling framework and applied to the largest agglomeration of Central Europe: the Ruhr. A modified version of SLEUTH (short for Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, and Hillshade) functions as the CA component. SLEUTH makes use of historic urban land-use data sets and growth coefficients for the purpose of modeling physical urban expansion. The machine learning algorithm of SVM is applied in order to enhance SLEUTH. Thus, the stochastic variability of the CA is reduced and information about the human and ecological forces driving the local suitability of urban sprawl is incorporated. Subsequently, the supported CA is coupled with the MAS ReHoSh (Residential Mobility and the Housing Market of Shrinking City Systems). The MAS models population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking regions based on interactions between household and city agents. Semi-explicit urban weights are introduced as a possibility of modeling from and to the pixel simultaneously. Three scenarios of changing housing preferences reveal the urban development of the region in terms of quantity and location. They reflect the dissemination of sustainable thinking among stakeholders versus the steady dream of owning a house in sub- and exurban areas. Additionally, the outcomes are transferred into a digital petri dish reflecting a synthetic environment with perfect conditions of growth. Hence, the generic growth elements affecting the future

  11. Process chemicals in the oil and gas industry: potential occupational hazards.

    PubMed

    Cottle, M K; Guidotti, T L

    1990-01-01

    Numerous chemicals are used in various processes of the oil and gas industry: drilling, cementing, completion, stimulation, and production. The number and the complexity of composition of process chemicals has increased greatly over the last three decades. The occupational hazards of exposure to these agents has received little attention. We reviewed the various processes in the industry, the type of chemicals used in each process, and some of their characteristics. We placed emphasis on those for which significant toxicity has been established or is suspected, and those for which there is incomplete information on their chemistry and health hazards. This report is intended to form a basis for a more complete survey of the process chemicals, and to draw attention to the possibilities for toxic exposure resulting from use of these agents in the oil and gas industry. The ultimate objective is to promote the safe use of these agents in the industry. PMID:2190356

  12. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, S; Covino, S; Solanas, A M; Petruccioli, M; D'annibale, A; Viñas, M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.

  13. Aspects of aluminum toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hewitt, C.D.; Savory, J.; Wills, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the earth's crust. The widespread occurrence of aluminum, both in the environment and in foodstuffs, makes it virtually impossible for man to avoid exposure to this metal ion. Attention was first drawn to the potential role of aluminum as a toxic metal over 50 years ago, but was dismissed as a toxic agent as recently as 15 years ago. The accumulation of aluminum, in some patients with chronic renal failure, is associated with the development of toxic phenomena; dialysis encephalopathy, osteomalacic dialysis osteodystrophy, and an anemia. Aluminum accumulation also occurs in patients who are not on dialysis, predominantly infants and children with immature or impaired renal function. Aluminum has also been implicated as a toxic agent in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, Guamiam amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and parkinsonism-dementia. 119 references.

  14. Effect of chemical cross-linking on gelatin membrane solubility with a non-toxic and non-volatile agent: terephthalaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Biscarat, Jennifer; Galea, Benjamin; Sanchez, José; Pochat-Bohatier, Celine

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, terephthalaldehyde (TPA) is proposed as non-toxic and non-volatile gelatin cross-linker. Optimal cross-linking parameters (TPA/gelatin ratio, temperature) were first determined from in situ rheological measurements on gelatin solutions and from chemical tests with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS assays) on gelatin gel. The highest cross-linking ratio was achieved for a concentration of 0.005 g TPA/g gelatin at 60°C. The impact of TPA cross-linking on gelatin membrane functional properties (water swelling ratio, water vapor sorption and mechanical properties) was measured. TPA cross-linking increased 17 times the liquid water resistance duration of gelatin films, and delayed the entry of vapor water in the polymer matrix for 7 days, indicating that TPA increased the hydrophobic character of the gelatin matrix.

  15. Combination therapy versus celecoxib, a single selective COX-2 agent, to reduce gastrointestinal toxicity in arthritic patients: patient and cost-effectiveness considerations

    PubMed Central

    Scolnik, Marina; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2011-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for treating symptoms of rheumatologic diseases, such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Knowing their side effects and the way to minimize them is a medical responsibility. To reduce NSAID-related risk, clinicians should choose a gastroprotective strategy. This may include coprescribing a traditional NSAID with a proton pump inhibitor or a high-dose histamine 2-receptor antagonist (H2RA), or using a cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 selective inhibitor or a COX-2 with a proton pump inhibitor. Assessing each patient’s risk (cardiovascular and gastrointestinal) is a priority in order to decide the best intervention to minimize toxicity. In this article, we review some of the common interventions for reducing the gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs.

  16. Toxicology Studies on Lewisite and Sulfur Mustard Agents: Genetic Toxicity of Sulfur Mustard (HD) in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jostes, Jr., R. F.; Sasser, L. B.; Rausch, R. J.

    1989-05-01

    The cytotoxic, clastogenic and mutagenic effects of sulfur nustard in Chinese hamster ovary cells are described in this reoort. The cytotoxicity data indicate that micromolar amounts of HC are highly toxic in microrolar amounts. Chromosone aberration frequencies increased in a dose-dependent manner over a dose range of 0. 5 to 1.0 {micro}m and SCE increased in a dose-dependent fashion in the dose range of 0.0625 to 0.25 {micro}M. Mutation induction at the HGPRT locus was sporadic, but the majority of the exoosures resulted in mutation frequencies which were 1.2 to 4.3 fold higher than the spontaneous frequencies.

  17. Applying theoretical premises of binary toxicity mathematical modeling to combined impacts of chemical plus physical agents (A case study of moderate subchronic exposures to fluoride and static magnetic field).

    PubMed

    Katsnelson, B A; Tsepilov, N A; Panov, V G; Sutunkova, M P; Varaksin, A N; Gurvich, V B; Minigalieva, I A; Valamina, I E; Makeyev, O H; Meshtcheryakova, E Y

    2016-09-01

    Sodium fluoride solution was injected i.p. to rats at a dose equivalent to 0.1 LD50 three times a week up to 18 injections. Two thirds of these rats and of the sham-injected ones were exposed to the whole body impact of a 25 mT static magnetic field for 2 or 4 h a day, 5 times a week. For mathematical analysis of the effects they produced in combination, we used a response surface model. This analysis demonstrated that (like in combined toxicity) the combined adverse action of a chemical plus a physical agent was characterized by a diversity of types depending not only on particular effects these types were assessed for but on their level as well. From this point of view, the indices for which at least one statistically significant effect was observed could be classified as identifying (1) single-factor action; (2) additivity; (3) synergism; (4) antagonism (both subadditive unidirectional action and all variants of contradirectional action). Although the classes (2) and (3) taken together encompass a smaller part of the indices, the biological importance of some of them renders the combination of agents studied as posing a higher health risk than that associated with each them acting alone.

  18. Toxicity comparison of chlorinated and brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in industrial source samples by HRGC/HRMS and enzyme immunoassay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Limited information is available on the applicability of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PCDD/F) toxicity assays to their brominated counterparts: polybrominated dibenzo-p-dixoins/furans (PBDDs/Fs). We estimated the toxicity of mixtures of chlorinated, brominated, and mi...

  19. Toxicity and median effective doses of oxime therapies against percutaneous organophosphorus pesticide and nerve agent challenges in the Hartley guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Snider, Thomas H; Babin, Michael C; Jett, David A; Platoff, Gennady E; Yeung, David T

    2016-01-01

    Anticholinesterases, such as organophosphorus pesticides and warfare nerve agents, present a significant health threat. Onset of symptoms after exposure can be rapid, requiring quick-acting, efficacious therapy to mitigate the effects. The goal of the current study was to identify the safest antidote with the highest therapeutic index (TI = oxime 24-hr LD50/oxime ED50) from a panel of four oximes deemed most efficacious in a previous study. The oximes tested were pralidoxime chloride (2-PAM Cl), MMB4 DMS, HLö-7 DMS, and obidoxime Cl2. The 24-hr median lethal dose (LD50) for the four by intramuscular (IM) injection and the median effective dose (ED50) were determined. In the ED50 study, male guinea pigs clipped of hair received 2x LD50 topical challenges of undiluted Russian VX (VR), VX, or phorate oxon (PHO) and, at the onset of cholinergic signs, IM therapy of atropine (0.4 mg/kg) and varying levels of oxime. Survival was assessed at 3 hr after onset clinical signs. The 3-hr 90th percentile dose (ED90) for each oxime was compared to the guinea pig pre-hospital human-equivalent dose of 2-PAM Cl, 149 µmol/kg. The TI was calculated for each OP/oxime combination. Against VR, MMB4 DMS had a higher TI than HLö-7 DMS, whereas 2-PAM Cl and obidoxime Cl2 were ineffective. Against VX, MMB4 DMS > HLö-7 DMS > 2-PAM Cl > obidoxime Cl2. Against PHO, all performed better than 2-PAM Cl. MMB4 DMS was the most effective oxime as it was the only oxime with ED90 < 149 µmol/kg against all three topical OPs tested. PMID:27432237

  20. AhR signalling and dioxin toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sorg, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Dioxins are a family of molecules associated to several industrial accidents such as Ludwigshafen in 1953 or Seveso in 1976, to the Agent Orange used during the war of Vietnam, and more recently to the poisoning of the former president of Ukraine, Victor Yushchenko. These persistent organic pollutants are by-products of industrial activity and bind to an intracellular receptor, AhR, with a high potency. In humans, exposure to dioxins, in particular 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) induces a cutaneous syndrome known as chloracne, consisting in the development of many small skin lesions (hamartoma), lasting for 2-5 years. Although TCDD has been classified by the WHO as a human carcinogen, its carcinogenic potential to humans is not clearly demonstrated. It was first believed that AhR activation accounted for most, if not all, biological properties of dioxins. However, certain AhR agonists found in vegetables do not induce chloracne, and other chemicals, in particular certain therapeutic agents, may induce a chloracne-like syndrome without activating AhR. It is time to rethink the mechanism of dioxin toxicity and analyse in more details the biological events following exposure to these compounds and other AhR agonists, some of which have a very different chemical structure than TCDD. In particular various food-containing AhR agonists are non-toxic and may on the contrary have beneficial properties to human health. PMID:24239782

  1. Medical applications and toxicities of gallium compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2010-05-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use.

  2. Medical Applications and Toxicities of Gallium Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chitambar, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two to three decades, gallium compounds have gained importance in the fields of medicine and electronics. In clinical medicine, radioactive gallium and stable gallium nitrate are used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in cancer and disorders of calcium and bone metabolism. In addition, gallium compounds have displayed anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activity in animal models of human disease while more recent studies have shown that gallium compounds may function as antimicrobial agents against certain pathogens. In a totally different realm, the chemical properties of gallium arsenide have led to its use in the semiconductor industry. Gallium compounds, whether used medically or in the electronics field, have toxicities. Patients receiving gallium nitrate for the treatment of various diseases may benefit from such therapy, but knowledge of the therapeutic index of this drug is necessary to avoid clinical toxicities. Animals exposed to gallium arsenide display toxicities in certain organ systems suggesting that environmental risks may exist for individuals exposed to this compound in the workplace. Although the arsenic moiety of gallium arsenide appears to be mainly responsible for its pulmonary toxicity, gallium may contribute to some of the detrimental effects in other organs. The use of older and newer gallium compounds in clinical medicine may be advanced by a better understanding of their mechanisms of action, drug resistance, pharmacology, and side-effects. This review will discuss the medical applications of gallium and its mechanisms of action, the newer gallium compounds and future directions for development, and the toxicities of gallium compounds in current use. PMID:20623028

  3. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hooper, K.; LaDou, J.; Rosenbaum, J.S.; Book, S.A. )

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene.

  4. Regulation of priority carcinogens and reproductive or developmental toxicants.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K; LaDou, J; Rosenbaum, J S; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    In California, 370 carcinogens and 112 reproductive/developmental toxicants have been identified as a result of the State's Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. They include pesticides, solvents, metals, industrial intermediates, environmental mixtures, and reactive agents. Occupational, environmental, and consumer product exposures that involve these agents are regulated under the Act. At levels of concern, businesses must provide warnings for and limit discharges of those chemicals. The lists of chemicals were compiled following systematic review of published data, including technical reports from the U.S. Public Health Service--National Toxicology Program (NTP), and evaluation of recommendations from authoritative bodies such as the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Given the large number of chemicals that are carcinogens or reproductive/developmental toxicants, regulatory concerns should focus on those that have high potential for human exposure, e.g., widely distributed or easily absorbed solvents, metals, environmental mixtures, or reactive agents. In this paper, we present a list of 33 potential priority carcinogens and reproductive/developmental toxicants, including alcoholic beverages, asbestos, benzene, chlorinated solvents, formaldehyde, glycol ethers, lead, tobacco smoke, and toluene. PMID:1463026

  5. Identification and confirmation of ammonia toxicity in contaminated sediments using a modified toxicity identification evaluation approach

    SciTech Connect

    Sprang, P.A. Van; Janssen, C.R.

    1997-12-01

    Toxicity identification of sediment pore waters from four sites in the Upper Scheldt (Belgium) was assessed using a simplified and discriminative toxicity identification evaluation procedure. The samples from all locations exhibited acute toxicity toward the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus. Toxicity was removed or considerably reduced by the cation exchange resins and air stripping at pH 11. In addition, the toxicity of the pore waters was found to be highly pH dependent. Increased toxicity was observed at higher pH levels, whereas reduced toxicity was found at lower pH levels. Based on these results, ammonia was suggested as the main toxic agent. The presence of ammonia concentrations exceeding the 24-h median lethal concentration and comparison of the toxicity characterization profiles of the pore waters with those of the suspected toxicant supported this hypothesis. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the observed toxicity of the pore waters and the expected toxicity (due to the presence of the suspected toxicant) confirmed ammonia as the true toxic agent. Finally, the ratio between the expected ammonia toxicity and the observed toxicity from the characterization tests was approx. 1, meaning that all or most of the observed toxicity was caused by the presence of one toxicant (i.e., ammonia). The developed toxicity identification evaluation procedure is suggested as a useful tool for the identification and confirmation of toxicants in contaminated sediments.

  6. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  7. Evaluation of the oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to toxic pyridinium cations by monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes and its use to search for new MAO inhibitors and protective agents.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomás

    2012-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes catalyze the oxidative deamination of amines and neurotransmitters and inhibitors of MAO are useful as neuroprotectants. This work evaluates the human MAO-catalyzed oxidation of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a dopaminergic neurotoxin, to the directly-acting neurotoxic metabolites, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-2,3-dihydropyridinium (MPDP(+)) and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) measured by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and this approach is subsequently used as a new method for screening of MAO inhibitors and protective agents. Oxidation of MPTP by human MAO-B was more efficient than by MAO-A. R-Deprenyl, a known neuroprotectant, norharman (β-carboline), 5-nitroindazole and menadione (vitamin K3) inhibited MAO-B and reduced the formation of toxic pyridinium cations. Clorgyline and the β-carbolines, harman and norharman, inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-A. Cigarette smoke, as well as the naturally occurring β-carbolines (norharman and harman) isolated from smoke and coffee inhibited the oxidation of MPTP by MAO-B and/or MAO-A, suggesting protective effects against MPTP. The results show the suitability of the approach used to search for new MAO inhibitors with eventual neuroprotective activity.

  8. Agent Orange

    MedlinePlus

    ... Index Agent Orange Agent Orange Home Facts about Herbicides Veterans' Diseases Birth Defects Benefits Exposure Locations Provider ... millions of gallons of Agent Orange and other herbicides on trees and vegetation during the Vietnam War. ...

  9. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  10. Novel drug delivery systems for actinides (uranium and plutonium) decontamination agents.

    PubMed

    Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Phan, Guillaume

    2015-08-01

    The possibility of accidents in the nuclear industry or of nuclear terrorist attacks makes the development of new decontamination strategies crucial. Among radionuclides, actinides such as uranium and plutonium and their different isotopes are considered as the most dangerous contaminants, plutonium displaying mostly a radiological toxicity whereas uranium exhibits mainly a chemical toxicity. Contamination occurs through ingestion, skin or lung exposure with subsequent absorption and distribution of the radionuclides to different tissues where they induce damaging effects. Different chelating agents have been synthesized but their efficacy is limited by their low tissue specificity and high toxicity. For these reasons, several groups have developed smart delivery systems to increase the local concentration of the chelating agent or to improve its biodistribution. The aim of this review is to highlight these strategies.

  11. Protective effects of a by-product of the pecan nut industry (Carya illinoensis) on the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rats Carya illinoensis protects against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Benvegnú, D; Barcelos, R C S; Boufleur, N; Reckziegel, P; Pase, C S; Müller, L G; Martins, N M B; Vareli, C; Bürger, M E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant effects of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in the heart, kidney, liver, bladder, plasma and erythrocytes of rats. Rats were treated with water or pecan shell AE (5%) ad libitum, replacing drinking water for 37 days up to the end of the experiment. On day 30, half of each group received a single administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg-ip. After 7 days, the organs were removed. Rats treated with CP showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LP) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in all structures. Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in the heart and decreased in liver and kidney. Besides, CP treatment decreased plasmatic vitamin C (VIT C) levels and induced bladder macroscopical and microscopical damages. In contrast, co-treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the LP development and the GSH depletion in all structures, except in the heart and plasma, respectively. CAT activity in the heart and liver as well as the plasmatic VIT C levels remained unchanged. Finally, AE prevented CP-induced bladder injury. These findings revealed the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced multiple organ toxicity. PMID:21303326

  12. Evaluation of spacecraft toxic gas removal agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A study of the decomposition of various compounds adsorbed on charcoal was made, with a view toward providing a critical appraisal of previous data from charcoal adsorption studies. It was found that thermal decomposition occurs at temperature lower than previously suspected during the charcoal stripping process. A discussion is presented dealing with the various types of reactions found. A rough, quantitative scheme for correcting previous analytical results is developed and presented.

  13. Toxic Substances in the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of toxic substances, examining pesticides and herbicides, heavy metals, industrial chemicals, and household substances. Includes a list of major toxic substances (indicating what they are, where they are found, and health concerns) and a student activity on how pesticides enter the food chain. (JN)

  14. Genetic toxicity in surface water from Guaíba Hydrographic Region under the influence of industrial, urban and agricultural sewage in the Drosophila wing-spot test.

    PubMed

    do Amaral, Viviane Souza; Sinigaglia, Marialva; Reguly, Maria Luiza; de Andrade, Heloisa Helena Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    Mutagenic and recombinagenic activity of surface waters in the Guaíba Hydrographic Region (RS, Brazil) was investigated using the SMART in Drosophila melanogaster. Two positive results in Caí River (September 2000 and August 2001) and in Taquari River (August 2001 and February 2002)--linked to direct recombinagenic toxicants were observed. In Jacuí samples, an indirect mutagenic and recombinagenic action was detected in a September 2000 collection and a direct recombinational activity was observed in February 2002. Also in February 2002--samples from Dilúvio Brook and Guaíba Lake (GPC) were able to induce wing spots by mitotic recombinagenesis. The former sampling site showed toxicants to have a direct action, and the latter an increment in mitotic recombination that depended on metabolic action. The SMART wing test shows that all positive responses were mainly related to homologous mitotic recombination.

  15. Coupling coagulation, flocculation and decantation with photo-Fenton process for treatment of industrial wastewater containing fipronil: Biodegradability and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    da Costa Filho, Batuira Martins; da Silva, Valdislaine Maria; Silva, Jader de Oliveira; da Hora Machado, Antonio Eduardo; Trovó, Alam Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the treatment of wastewater containing the insecticide fipronil, integrating coagulation, flocculation and decantation in the photo-Fenton process. Under the best concentration of the coagulant - Fe(3+) (56 mg L(-1)), the suspended solids and total fipronil concentrations decreased respectively from 7000 and 20.9 mg L(-1) to 590 and 2.2 mg L(-1), but without reduction in dissolved organic carbon - DOC (1760 mg C L(-1)) and acute toxicity to Artemia salina (100%). Subsequently, the photo-Fenton process was applied as alternative of pre- or complete treatment, taking into account toxicity and biodegradability (given by biochemical oxygen demand after five days - BOD5/chemical oxygen demand - COD ratio) assessment. The best DOC and COD removal were reached with 60 and 6723 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and H2O2, respectively. Under these conditions, after 60 min of irradiation, 57% of DOC and 74% of COD were removed, with a decrease in acute toxicity to A. salina from 100% to 13% and an increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.052 to 1.0. With these parameters, the integration of coagulation/flocculation/decantation and photo-Fenton processes may be an alternative to the pre- or complete treatment of wastewater containing fipronil. PMID:27016714

  16. Coupling coagulation, flocculation and decantation with photo-Fenton process for treatment of industrial wastewater containing fipronil: Biodegradability and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    da Costa Filho, Batuira Martins; da Silva, Valdislaine Maria; Silva, Jader de Oliveira; da Hora Machado, Antonio Eduardo; Trovó, Alam Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    This work reports the treatment of wastewater containing the insecticide fipronil, integrating coagulation, flocculation and decantation in the photo-Fenton process. Under the best concentration of the coagulant - Fe(3+) (56 mg L(-1)), the suspended solids and total fipronil concentrations decreased respectively from 7000 and 20.9 mg L(-1) to 590 and 2.2 mg L(-1), but without reduction in dissolved organic carbon - DOC (1760 mg C L(-1)) and acute toxicity to Artemia salina (100%). Subsequently, the photo-Fenton process was applied as alternative of pre- or complete treatment, taking into account toxicity and biodegradability (given by biochemical oxygen demand after five days - BOD5/chemical oxygen demand - COD ratio) assessment. The best DOC and COD removal were reached with 60 and 6723 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+) and H2O2, respectively. Under these conditions, after 60 min of irradiation, 57% of DOC and 74% of COD were removed, with a decrease in acute toxicity to A. salina from 100% to 13% and an increase in the BOD5/COD ratio from 0.052 to 1.0. With these parameters, the integration of coagulation/flocculation/decantation and photo-Fenton processes may be an alternative to the pre- or complete treatment of wastewater containing fipronil.

  17. An integrated (electro- and bio-oxidation) approach for remediation of industrial wastewater containing azo-dyes: Understanding the degradation mechanism and toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Aravind, Priyadharshini; Selvaraj, Hosimin; Ferro, Sergio; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu

    2016-11-15

    A hybrid approach for the remediation of recalcitrant dye wastewater is proposed. The chlorine-mediated electrochemical oxidation of real textile effluents and synthetic samples (using Ti/IrO2-RuO2-TiO2 anodes), lead to discoloration by 92% and 89%, respectively, in 100min, without significant mineralization. The remediation was obtained through biodegradation, after removing the residual bio-toxic active chlorine species via sunlight exposition. Results show that the electrochemical discoloration enhances the effluent biodegradability with about 90% COD removal employing acclimatized naphthalene-degrading bacterial consortia, within 144h. Based on results obtained through FT-IR and GC-MS, it is likely that azo group stripping and oxidative cleavage of dyes occur due to the nucleophilic attack of active chlorine species during electro-oxidation. This leads to generation of aromatic intermediates which are further desulfonated, deaminated or oxidized only at their functional groups. These aromatic intermediates were mineralized into simpler organic acids and aldehydes by bacterial consortia. Phyto-toxicity trials on Vigna radiata confirmed the toxic nature of the untreated dye solutions. An increase in root and shoot development was observed with the electrochemically treated solutions, the same was higher in case of bio-treated solutions. Overall, obtained results confirm the capability of the proposed hybrid oxidation scheme for the remediation of textile wastewater. PMID:27427887

  18. Profiling the reproductive toxicity of chemicals from multigeneration studies in the toxicity reference database

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multigeneration reproduction studies are used to characterize parental and offspring systemic toxicity, as well as reproductive toxicity of pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Results from 329 multigeneration studies on 316 chemicals have been digitized into sta...

  19. Toxic oil syndrome: the perspective after 20 years.

    PubMed

    Posada de la Paz, M; Philen, R M; Borda, A I

    2001-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome burst upon the scene in Spain in May of 1981, draining the resources of a newly evolving political and social medicine system. The vehicle of the causative toxic agent was identified as an illicit oil that had been diverted from industrial use and refined in order to remove the aniline denaturant, and that was sold in unlabeled 5-liter containers by itinerant salesmen. Over 20,000 people were ultimately affected, and over 1,200 deaths from all causes have been recorded in the affected cohort. The epidemiologic investigation of toxic oil syndrome involved all facets of investigative and analytical work; from visits to factories and interviewing workers, to sophisticated chemical and statistical analytical techniques. This investigation serves as a further illustration that data and information of all types, and from a wide range of fields, need to be systematically collected and evaluated in order to best resolve an epidemiologic mystery. Astute clinical observation of the patients, however, led to the hypothesis that toxic oil syndrome was a result of a toxic exposure. In this and other epidemics of unknown etiology, clinical observation and the intense scrutiny of patients' histories, signs, and symptoms by treating clinicians have often led to hypotheses that could be tested epidemiologically. When there are medical unknowns, the role of the astute clinician continues to be crucial. The toxic oil syndrome epidemic is an example of how even a developed country can be affected by a massive epidemic of environmental origin if failures occur in the systems that control and regulate the food supply or other consumer products. However, such failures could occur anywhere that large commercial networks operate on the regulatory edge, and if these business lack an in depth knowledge of the consequences of alterations in manufacturing conditions. Such was the case with eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome as well, when apparently minor alterations in

  20. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry--Part II: Carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and developmental toxicity of 1,3-butadiene

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, M.A.; Legator, M.S. )

    1991-05-01

    1,3-butadiene (BD) is present in synthetic rubber and motor fuels (gasoline). BD is shown to cause lymphocytic lymphomas, heart hemangiosarcomas, lung alveolar bronchiolar cancers, forestomach-squamous cell cancers, harderian gland neoplasms, preputial gland adenoma or carcinoma, liver-hepatocellular cancers, mammary gland acinar cell carcinomas, ovary-glanulosa cell carcinoma, brain cancers, pancreas adenoma and carcinoma, testis-Leydig cell tumors, thyroid follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and zymbal gland carcinoma in rodents and to date no exposure level has been established at which this chemical does not cause cancers. In humans BD causes increase in lymphomas, leukemias, and other cancers of hematopoietic systems and organs. BD is also a potent alkylating agent, directly toxic to developing embryos and damages progeny after parental exposure.29 references.

  1. Clinical description of toxic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Little, Ann A; Albers, James W

    2015-01-01

    Toxic neuropathy, although rare, is an important consideration in the setting of a known or suspected toxic exposure in the workplace or other environment. This chapter discusses the clinical and electrodiagnostic evaluation of peripheral neuropathies, highlighting findings that direct further workup and may point to specific toxins as etiology. The difficulty of establishing causality of a toxin in relation to peripheral neuropathy is discussed; guidelines for establishing causality are presented. Examples of common industrial toxins are listed, including their typical industrial uses and their mechanisms of action in producing neuropathy. Characteristic clinical presentations of specific toxic neuropathies are highlighted with selected case studies. PMID:26563794

  2. Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Castro, Aline M; Machado, Olga L T; Freire, Denise M G

    2011-08-01

    In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology.

  3. Environmental sentinel biomonitors: integrated response systems for monitoring toxic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schalie, William H.; Reuter, Roy; Shedd, Tommy R.; Knechtges, Paul L.

    2002-02-01

    Operational environments for military forces are becoming potentially more dangerous due to the increased number, use, and misuse of toxic chemicals across the entire range of military missions. Defense personnel may be exposed to harmful chemicals as a result of industrial accidents or intentional or unintentional action of enemy, friendly forces, or indigenous populations. While there has been a significant military effort to enable forces to operate safely and survive and sustain operations in nuclear, biological, chemical warfare agent environments, until recently there has not been a concomitant effort associated with potential adverse health effects from exposures of deployed personnel to toxic industrial chemicals. To provide continuous real-time toxicity assessments across a broad spectrum of individual chemicals or chemical mixtures, an Environmental Sentinel Biomonitor (ESB) system concept is proposed. An ESB system will integrate data from one or more platforms of biologically-based systems and chemical detectors placed in the environment to sense developing toxic conditions and transmit time-relevant data for use in risk assessment, mitigation, and/or management. Issues, challenges, and next steps for the ESB system concept are described, based in part on discussions at a September 2001 workshop sponsored by the U.S. Army Center for Environmental Health Research.

  4. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells. PMID:24986306

  5. Arsenic, cadmium, and manganese levels in shellfish from Map Ta Phut, an industrial area in Thailand, and the potential toxic effects on human cells.

    PubMed

    Rangkadilok, Nuchanart; Siripriwon, Pantaree; Nookabkaew, Sumontha; Suriyo, Tawit; Satayavivad, Jutamaad

    2015-01-01

    Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate is a major industrial area in Thailand for both petrochemical and heavy industries. The release of hazardous wastes and other pollutants from these industries increases the potential for contamination in foods in the surrounding area, especially farmed shellfish. This study determined the arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) concentrations in the edible flesh of farmed shellfish, including Perna viridis, Meretrix meretrix, and Scapharca inaequivalvis, around the Map Ta Phut area using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results showed that shellfish samples contained high levels of total As [1.84-6.42 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww)]. High Mn concentrations were found in P. viridis and M. meretrix, whereas S. inaequivalis contained the highest Cd. Arsenobetaine (AsB) was found to be the major As species in shellfish (>45% of total As). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these elements was evaluated using human cancer cells (T47D, A549, and Jurkat cells). An observed decrease in cell viability in T47D and Jurkat cells was mainly caused by exposure to inorganic As (iAs) or Mn but not to AsB or Cd. The combined elements (AsB+Mn+Cd) at concentrations predicted to result from the estimated daily intake of shellfish flesh by the local people showed significant cytotoxicity in T47D and Jurkat cells.

  6. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  7. Arsenic toxicity in Hawaii: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Nakawatase, T V; Nakatsuka, C H

    1993-10-01

    As mentioned at the beginning of this article, many questions were raised in our one particular case including the problem of verifying true arsenic toxicity and in determining the source of the exposure. In our case, there was a markedly elevated concentration of arsenic in samples of pubic hair and in the sample of urine. While arsenic toxicity can present with GI symptoms, we felt that in this particular case the association of the abdominal pain with arsenic toxicity was unlikely. For one, the patient's symptoms persisted despite apparent adequate treatment for arsenic toxicity. Also, the usual symptom of chronic arsenic toxicity is peripheral neuropathy (which was not documented in our case) and not abdominal pain. After the exhaustive diagnostic workup, we felt that this patient had irritable bowel syndrome and that the discovery of arsenic toxicity was serendipitous. In regards to the etiology of the toxicity, the patient's occupation involved working in the construction industry for a number of years. He indicated a definite exposure to termite-treated wood throughout that period. Wood for building houses, etc. is commonly pressure-treated with an arsenic-based compound; therefore, this source of occupational exposure appears to be a likely one. Another remotely possible source was the ingestion of contaminated illicit drugs. Cases of the use of illicit drugs laced with various toxic agents such as cyanide and strychnine have been reported. Although our patient required analgesics not commensurate with his symptoms, he categorically denied any use of "street" drugs. The random urine drug screen for such was negative.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  9. Early toxicity screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nigel; Naven, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Despite a steady increase in the total amount spent on pharmaceutical R&D over the past decade, the number of new drug approvals has declined in recent years. Toxicity continues to account for more than 30% of compound attrition during the drug development process and remains one of the major causes for drugs to be withdrawn after approval. Since R&D costs increase exponentially along the drug development timeline, late stage failures are heavily contributing to an unsustainable business model for the pharmaceutical industry. Improved early identification of toxicities associated with new drug entities will allow resources to be focused only on those compounds most likely to succeed.

  10. Early toxicity screening strategies.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nigel; Naven, Russell

    2009-01-01

    Despite a steady increase in the total amount spent on pharmaceutical R&D over the past decade, the number of new drug approvals has declined in recent years. Toxicity continues to account for more than 30% of compound attrition during the drug development process and remains one of the major causes for drugs to be withdrawn after approval. Since R&D costs increase exponentially along the drug development timeline, late stage failures are heavily contributing to an unsustainable business model for the pharmaceutical industry. Improved early identification of toxicities associated with new drug entities will allow resources to be focused only on those compounds most likely to succeed. PMID:19152217

  11. The Problem with Toxic Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beecher, John L.; Fossa, Arthur J.

    1980-01-01

    Traced is the historical development of toxic waste problems in western New York State from 1825 to the present. Three major data sources are described: Industrial Chemical Survey, Inventory of Industrial Waste Generation Study, and the Interagency Task Force Study, developed by the Department of Environmental Conservation to prevent future…

  12. Estuarine ambient toxicity assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, S.I.; Dawson, C.E.; Jordahl, D.M.

    1994-12-31

    This study was to determine if sediment and water column ambient toxicity bioassay results correlate with fish community IBI assessments in tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay watersheds that are impacted by industrial, urban and agricultural land use patterns. A battery of water column and sediment toxicity tests were conducted monthly in coordination with fish community sampling in four sub estuaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Fish were sampled with seines and bottom trawls. An association was found between dissolved oxygen and species richness in the trawls. Water column bioassays indicated mild toxicological contamination in industrial watershed estuaries. Results varied by month and species. Water quality in the rural and agricultural watershed estuaries was generally good. Sediment bioassays demonstrated significant toxicity in the industrialized area. Effects were seen in the urbanized estuary, but to a lesser extent. Fish egg survival effects were observed in the agricultural watershed estuary. The rural estuary sediment produced variable, but non-significant results. The industrial and urban sites were contaminated with heavy metals and organics.

  13. Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Schwalfenberg, Gerry; Siy, Anna-Kristen J.; Rodushkin, Ilya

    2012-01-01

    Background Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)–therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. Methods Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products) as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. Results Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Conclusions Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control–developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight–is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers. PMID:23185404

  14. Sulfur-Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By-Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Michael P; Evans, Austin M; Worthington, Max J H; Albuquerque, Inês S; Slattery, Ashley D; Gibson, Christopher T; Campbell, Jonathan A; Lewis, David A; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2016-01-26

    A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d-limonene, by-products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur-limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next-generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing.

  15. Sulfur-Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By-Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Michael P; Evans, Austin M; Worthington, Max J H; Albuquerque, Inês S; Slattery, Ashley D; Gibson, Christopher T; Campbell, Jonathan A; Lewis, David A; Bernardes, Gonçalo J L; Chalker, Justin M

    2016-01-26

    A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d-limonene, by-products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur-limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next-generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  16. Sulfur‐Limonene Polysulfide: A Material Synthesized Entirely from Industrial By‐Products and Its Use in Removing Toxic Metals from Water and Soil

    PubMed Central

    Crockett, Michael P.; Evans, Austin M.; Worthington, Max J. H.; Albuquerque, Inês S.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Gibson, Christopher T.; Campbell, Jonathan A.; Lewis, David A.; Bernardes, Gonçalo J. L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A polysulfide material was synthesized by the direct reaction of sulfur and d‐limonene, by‐products of the petroleum and citrus industries, respectively. The resulting material was processed into functional coatings or molded into solid devices for the removal of palladium and mercury salts from water and soil. The binding of mercury(II) to the sulfur‐limonene polysulfide resulted in a color change. These properties motivate application in next‐generation environmental remediation and mercury sensing. PMID:26481099

  17. Toxic elements (As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb) and their mineral and technogenic formations in the snow cover in the vicinity of the industrial enterprises of Tomsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, A. V.; Filimonenko, E. A.; Osipova, N. A.; Lyapina, E. E.; azikov, E. G. Y.

    2014-08-01

    Snow samples were collected in four industrial areas of Tomsk where brickworks, factories for the production of reinforced concrete structures, machine repair industries and local boilers, petrochemical plant and thermal power station are located. Study of insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow and melted snow water was performed to determine the contents of the emissions from these facilities. The insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow is aerosol particles deposited on snow cover. As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb concentration was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mineral modes of the elements were determined by scanning electron microscope. It was found the snow cover is mainly polluted by As, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb in the thermal power station impact area, by As - in the brickworks impact area, by Se - in the impact area of densely located factories for the production of reinforced concrete structures, machine repair industries and local boilers. The research results show that the mineral modes of As are associated with arsenopyrite, of Pb - with galena in the insoluble fraction of aerosols in snow.

  18. Toxic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Woo

    2012-01-01

    This article schematically reviews the clinical features, diagnostic approaches to, and toxicological implications of toxic encephalopathy. The review will focus on the most significant occupational causes of toxic encephalopathy. Chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar syndrome, parkinsonism, and vascular encephalopathy are commonly encountered clinical syndromes of toxic encephalopathy. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomonic neurological syndromes. The symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy may be mimicked by many psychiatric, metabolic, inflammatory, neoplastic, and degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Thus, the importance of good history-taking that considers exposure and a comprehensive neurological examination cannot be overemphasized in the diagnosis of toxic encephalopathy. Neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging typically play ancillary roles. The recognition of toxic encephalopathy is important because the correct diagnosis of occupational disease can prevent others (e.g., workers at the same worksite) from further harm by reducing their exposure to the toxin, and also often provides some indication of prognosis. Physicians must therefore be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of toxic encephalopathy, and close collaborations between neurologists and occupational physicians are needed to determine whether neurological disorders are related to occupational neurotoxin exposure. PMID:23251840

  19. Toxic Chemical System (TCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Del Gandio, P.

    1994-09-01

    The Toxic Chemical System (TCS) will have the capacity to process chemical data, calculate chemical formulas, and format the data into the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Chemical Release Inventory Reporting Form R of Section 313 of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), hereafter be referred to as ``Form R.`` The filing of this form is required of all industries which manufacture, process or otherwise use any EPA listed chemicals in quantities in excess of their threshold planning quantities (TPQ). Facilities required to file the Form R must report the quantities of both routine and accidental releases of listed toxic chemicals on-site during the calendar year and the amount contained in waste products transferred off-site. This paper describes a specialized computer system designed for regulatory compliance.

  20. Automated manometric method to assess anaerobic toxicity of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Fdz-Polanco, F; Nieto, P; Pérez-Elvira, S I; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2006-01-01

    Industrial additives eventually used for different purposes (antifoaming, cleaning, bactericides, antiscale, etc) are discharged to the wastewater treatment plant. The anaerobic toxicity of these commercial products is not provided by suppliers. A new manometric method is developed and tested to evaluate anaerobic toxicity or inhibition using four different commercial products. Antifoaming Cleron 6 (50-200 ppm), bactericide Divosan-forte (0.05-1.0% v/v), bleach (0.1-1.0% v/v) and cleaning agent Topax 66 (0.10-1.0% v/v). According to the different methods proposed in the literature, from the methane production rate, it is possible to calculate both methanogenic activity evolution and final substrate removal and quantify the potential inhibitory effect of commercial additives. The experimental method is simple and reliable.

  1. In vitro toxicity and transformation potency of nickel compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, K; Stern, R M

    1983-01-01

    An in vitro bioassay utilizing BHK-21 cells in culture is used to determine the relative transformation potential of a number of nickel compounds including, as relatively insoluble particulates a known carcinogen (Ni3S2) and several oxides either of commercial interest or found in the working environment in the metal industry (e.g., NiO), and a soluble salt [Ni(CH3COO)2]. Although a wide range of transformation potency is found as a function of the dose of Ni per area of culture, all substances produce the same number of transformed colonies at the same degree of toxicity (e.g., 50% survival). If toxicity is a direct measure of intracellular concentration, then apparently nickel per se is the ultimate transforming agent independent of source or uptake mechanism. PMID:6641656

  2. Effect of annealing on the spectral and optical characteristics of nano ZnO: Evaluation of adsorption of toxic metal ions from industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Asha; Rejani, P; Shanavas Khan, J; Beena, B

    2016-11-01

    The present work accentuates an unexploited and environmentally benign method of synthesizing ZnO nanomaterials using Sugar cane juice. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, EDS and FTIR. UV-visible and photoluminescence studies were also carried out to understand the absorption properties of synthesized nanomaterial. From the adsorption studies, it would be clear that synthesized ZnO should be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) removal. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min and isotherm follows the order Sips>Langmuir>Freundlich. The adsorption-desorption studies conducted over 6 cycles illustrate the viability and repeated use of the adsorbent for the removal of Pb(ll)and Cd(ll) from aqueous solutions. The practical efficiency and usefulness of the adsorbent was tested using real industrial wastewater also. Cytotoxicity result shows that, ZnO was biocompatible at lower concentrations, and it was used as an ecofriendly nanoadsorbent for industrial and environmental applications. PMID:27521961

  3. Effect of annealing on the spectral and optical characteristics of nano ZnO: Evaluation of adsorption of toxic metal ions from industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Asha; Rejani, P; Shanavas Khan, J; Beena, B

    2016-11-01

    The present work accentuates an unexploited and environmentally benign method of synthesizing ZnO nanomaterials using Sugar cane juice. The synthesized nanomaterials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, EDS and FTIR. UV-visible and photoluminescence studies were also carried out to understand the absorption properties of synthesized nanomaterial. From the adsorption studies, it would be clear that synthesized ZnO should be used as an effective adsorbent for Pb(ll) and Cd(ll) removal. The kinetic data followed the pseudo-second-order model. The equilibrium attained at 120min and isotherm follows the order Sips>Langmuir>Freundlich. The adsorption-desorption studies conducted over 6 cycles illustrate the viability and repeated use of the adsorbent for the removal of Pb(ll)and Cd(ll) from aqueous solutions. The practical efficiency and usefulness of the adsorbent was tested using real industrial wastewater also. Cytotoxicity result shows that, ZnO was biocompatible at lower concentrations, and it was used as an ecofriendly nanoadsorbent for industrial and environmental applications.

  4. Propylene Glycol Toxicity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Robert L.; Pageler, Natalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Propylene glycol (PG) is a commonly used solvent for oral, intravenous, and topical pharmaceutical agents. Although PG is generally considered safe, when used in high doses or for prolonged periods, PG toxicity can occur. Reported adverse effects from PG include central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, hyperosmolarity, hemolysis, cardiac arrhythmia, seizures, agitation, and lactic acidosis. Patients at risk for toxicity include infants, those with renal or hepatic insuficiency, epilepsy, and burn patients receiving extensive dermal applications of PG containing products. Laboratory monitoring of PG levels, osmolarity, lactate, pyruvate, bicarbonate, creatinine, and anion gap can assist practitioners in making the diagnosis of PG toxicity. Numerous studies and case reports have been published on PG toxicity in adults. However, very few have been reported in pediatric patient populations. A review of the literature is presented. PMID:25762872

  5. Evaluation of toxicity: clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Vietti, T J

    1980-01-01

    Toxicity criteria used by three of the major cooperative groups are reviewed and discussed. The definition of acceptable toxicity will depend on the extent of disease and the availability of effective therapy. For some forms of toxicity there are adequate early warning signals; for other forms no satisfactory criteria yet exist. Until recently, no attempt had been made to systematically evaluate the quality of the patient's life during and after therapy. We are just now beginning to assess the long-term pathophysiologic changes that occur during and after multimodal therapy. The protocol must include information concerning agent toxicity, criteria for modification of therapy, and time intervals for documentation of toxicity. We must continue to develop therapeutic regimens which control the disease but interfere minimally with the quality of life.

  6. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  7. Keeping tabs on toxics.

    PubMed

    Young, J E

    1992-01-01

    The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) is a list of all chemicals released by over 22,000 manufacturing sites across the US. The TRI was established by the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act of 1986. The TRI is managed by the Environmental Protection Agency. It was opposed by the Reagan administration and many industry groups because it was seen as an increase in government paper work and regulation. It has turned out to be an easy-to-manage stimulate to change. Industry leaders have even proclaimed its ability to help raise awareness of pollution in the industry. The TRI is accessible through computers with modems on the TOXNET system at the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda for about 25$-35$/hour. It is also available through RTK NET which is operated jointly by OMB Watch and the Unison Institute. TRI is by no means complete. It covers an estimated 5% of the total toxic release in the US. It monitors the release of only 330 toxic chemicals leaving about 500 more out. It does not count releases from sites that process less then 25,000 pounds or that use less than 10,000 pounds of a listed chemical. It also only monitors steel, paper, chemical, petroleum refining activities. It does not monitor the releases from other manufacturing like oil and gas extraction, warehousing, transportation, hazardous waste disposal, incineration, and mining.

  8. Digitalis toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, or slow and irregular. An ECG is done to check for irregular heartbeats. Blood ... A. Digitalis toxicity. In: Goldberger AL, ed. Clinical Electrocardiography : A Simplified Approach, 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  9. Antimony Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  10. An elementary framework for judging the cardiovascular toxicity of carbon soot: experiences from an occupational health survey of diamond industry workers.

    PubMed

    Beniwal, Rajesh; Shivgotra, Vijay Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Carbon soot is produced in the process of diamond manufacture. Recent experimental and epidemiological studies have associated exposure to carbon nanoparticles with effects on cardiovascular system and blood cells. The objective of this study is to assess the cardiovascular effects consequent to chronic respiratory exposure of carbon soot. A cross-sectional occupational health survey was conducted in all consenting workers who employed in the production wing of diamond-processing industries. Blood pressure, ECGs, height, weight, and blood counts were measured and evaluated. Blood pressure measurements revealed a high prevalence of hypertension in young workers. Left atrial abnormality (LAA) was the major finding in the electrocardiograms. We found a high prevalence of hypertension in young diamond workers. The LASER saw operators had highest prevalence of LAA. White cell count and prevalence of hypertension was highest for the workers in grinder operations.

  11. Enhanced formulations for neutralization of chemical, biological and industrial toxants

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D [Albuqueque, NM

    2008-06-24

    An enhanced formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The enhanced formulation according to the present invention is non-toxic and non-corrosive and can be delivered by a variety of means and in different phases. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator and water.

  12. Changes in mobility of toxic elements during the production of phosphoric acid in the fertilizer industry of Huelva (SW Spain) and environmental impact of phosphogypsum wastes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Rafael; Alvarez-Valero, Antonio M; Nieto, José Miguel

    2007-09-30

    Presently, about 3 million tonnes of phosphogypsum are being generated annually in Spain as by-product from phosphoric acid in a fertilizer factory located in Huelva (southwestern Iberian Peninsula). Phosphate rock from Morocco is used as raw material in this process. Phosphogypsum wastes are stored in a stack containing 100Mt (approximately 1200ha of surface) over salt marshes of an estuary formed by the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, less than 1km away from the city centre. A very low proportion of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils in the area of the Guadalquivir river valley (Seville, SW Spain). The chemical speciation of potentially toxic elements (Ba, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sr, U and Zn) in phosphogypsum and phosphate rock was performed using the modified BCR-sequential extraction procedure, as described by the European Community Bureau of Reference (1999). This study has been done with the main of: (1) evaluate changes in the mobility of metals during the production of phosphoric acid; (2) estimate the amount of mobile metals that can affect the environmental surrounding; and (3) verify the environmentally safe use of phosphogypsum as an amendment to agricultural soils. The main environmental concern associated to phosphoric acid production is that Uranium, a radiotoxic element, is transferred from the non-mobile fraction in the phosphate rock to the bioavailable fraction in phosphogypsum in a rate of 23%. Around 21% of Ba, 6% of Cu and Sr, 5% of Cd and Ni, and 2% of Zn are also contained in the water-soluble phase of the final waste. Considering the total mass of phosphogypsum, the amount of metals easily soluble in water is approximately 6178, 3089, 1931, 579, 232, 193 and 77t for Sr, U, Ba, Zn, Ni, Cu and Cd, respectively. This gives an idea of the pollution potential of this waste. PMID:17683858

  13. Silver nanoparticles: their potential toxic effects after oral exposure and underlying mechanisms--a review.

    PubMed

    Gaillet, Sylvie; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2015-03-01

    Because of their antimicrobial properties, the use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is increasing fast in industry, food, and medicine. In the food industry, nanoparticles are used in packaging to enable better conservation products such as sensors to track their lifetime, and as food additives, such as anti-caking agents and clarifying agents for fruit juices. Nanoemulsions, used to encapsulate, protect and deliver additives are also actively developed. Nanomaterials in foods will be ingested and passed through the digestive tract. Those incorporated in food packaging may also be released unintentionally into food, ending up in the gastrointestinal tract. It is therefore important to make a risk assessment of nanomaterials to the consumer. Thus, exposure to AgNPs is increasing in quantity and it is imperative to know their adverse effects in man. However, controversies still remain with respect to their toxic effects and their mechanisms. Understanding the toxic effects and the interactions of AgNPs with biological systems is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. They usually generate reactive oxygen species resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signalling pathways. Here, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of AgNPs, toxic effects and the mechanisms underlying the induced toxicity.

  14. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns.

  15. Vicia faba bioassay for environmental toxicity monitoring: A review.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Munawar

    2016-02-01

    Higher plants are recognized as excellent genetic models to detect cytogenetic and mutagenic agents and are frequently used in environmental monitoring studies. Vicia faba (V. faba) bioassay have been used to study DNA damages i.e., chromosomal and nuclear aberrations induced by metallic compounds, pesticides, complex mixtures, petroleum derivates, toxins, nanoparticles and industrial effluents. The main advantages of using V. faba is its availability round the year, economical to use, easy to grow and handle; its use does not require sterile conditions, rate of cell division is fast, chromosomes are easy to score, less expensive and more sensitive as compared to other short-term tests that require pre-preparations. The V. faba test offers evaluation of different endpoints and tested agents can be classified as cytotoxic/genotoxic/mutagenic. This test also provides understanding about mechanism of action, whether the tested agent is clastogenic or aneugenic in nature. In view of advantages offered by V. faba test system, it is used extensively to assess toxic agents and has been emerged as an important bioassay for ecotoxicological studies. Based on the applications of V. faba test to assess the environmental quality, this article offers an overview of this test system and its efficiency in assessing the cytogenetic and mutagenic agents in different classes of the environmental concerns. PMID:26414739

  16. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results. PMID:25236238

  17. Agent orange herbicides, organophosphate and triazinic pesticides analysis in olive oil and industrial oil mill waste effluents using new organic phase immunosensors.

    PubMed

    Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi

    2015-02-15

    New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.

  18. General aspects of metal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, H; Kolkowska, P; Watly, J; Krzywoszynska, K; Potocki, S

    2014-01-01

    This review is focused on the general mechanisms of metal toxicity in humans. The possible and mainly confirmed mechanisms of their action are discussed. The metals are divided into four groups due to their toxic effects. First group comprises of metal ions acting as Fenton reaction catalyst mainly iron and copper. These types of metal ions participate in generation of the reactive oxygen species. Metals such as nickel, cadmium and chromium are considered as carcinogenic agents. Aluminum, lead and tin are involved in neurotoxicity. The representative of the last group is mercury, which may be considered as a generally toxic metal. Fenton reaction is a naturally occurring process producing most active oxygen species, hydroxyl radical: Fe(2+) + He2O2 ↔ Fe(3+) + OH(-) + OH(•) It is able to oxidize most of the biomolecules including DNA, proteins, lipids etc. The effect of toxicity depends on the damage of molecules i.e. production site of the hydroxyl radical. Chromium toxicity depends critically on its oxidation state. The most hazardous seems to be Cr(6+) (chromates) which are one of the strongest inorganic carcinogenic agents. Cr(6+) species act also as oxidative agents damaging among other nucleic acids. Redox inactive Al(3+), Cd(2+) or Hg(2+) may interfere with biology of other metal ions e.g. by occupying metal binding sites in biomolecules. All these aspects will be discussed in the review. PMID:25039781

  19. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  20. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas.

  1. Reactive skin decontamination lotion (RSDL) for the decontamination of chemical warfare agent (CWA) dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, M D; Hurst, C G; Kirk, M A; Reedy, S J D; Braue, E H

    2012-08-01

    Rapid decontamination of the skin is the single most important action to prevent dermal absorption of chemical contaminants in persons exposed to chemical warfare agents (CWA) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) as a result of accidental or intentional release. Chemicals on the skin may be removed by mechanical means through the use of dry sorbents or water. Recent interest in decontamination systems which both partition contaminants away from the skin and actively neutralize the chemical has led to the development of several reactive decontamination solutions. This article will review the recently FDA-approved Reactive Skin Decontamination Lotion (RSDL) and will summarize the toxicity and efficacy studies conducted to date. Evidence of RSDL's superior performance against vesicant and organophosphorus chemical warfare agents compared to water, bleach, and dry sorbents, suggests that RSDL may have a role in mass human exposure chemical decontamination in both the military and civilian arenas. PMID:22352732

  2. Treating the Treatment: Toxicity of Cancer Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Plenderleith, Ian H.

    1990-01-01

    Many cancer chemotherapeutic agents can produce toxicity, even at the usual therapeutic doses. Family physicians are often called upon to treat symptoms of these toxicities and to advise patients about them. This brief discussion may help family physicians to anticipate some of the problems, to avoid some, and to manage others more effectively. PMID:21234006

  3. A Multicompartment Approach - Diatoms, Macrophytes, Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish - To Assess the Impact of Toxic Industrial Releases on a Small French River

    PubMed Central

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination. PMID:25019954

  4. A multicompartment approach--diatoms, macrophytes, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish--to assess the impact of toxic industrial releases on a small French river.

    PubMed

    Lainé, Manon; Morin, Soizic; Tison-Rosebery, Juliette

    2014-01-01

    The River Luzou flows through a sandy substrate in the South West of France. According to the results of two assessment surveys, the Water Agency appraised that this river may not achieve the good ecological status by 2015 as required by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). This ecosystem is impacted by industrial effluents (organic matter, metals and aromatic compounds). In order to assess and characterize the impact, this study aimed to combine a set of taxonomic and non-taxonomic metrics for diatoms, macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and fish along the up- to downstream gradient of the river. Diversity metrics, biological indices, biological and ecological traits were determined for the four biological quality elements (BQE). Various quantitative metrics (biomass estimates) were also calculated for diatom communities. The results were compared to physicochemical analysis. Biological measurements were more informative than physicochemical analysis, in the context of the study. Biological responses indicated both the contamination of water and its intensity. Diversity metrics and biological indices strongly decreased with pollution for all BQE but diatoms. Convergent trait selection with pollution was observed among BQE: reproduction, colonization strategies, or trophic regime were clearly modified at impaired sites. Taxon size and relation to the substrate diverged among biological compartments. Multiple anthropogenic pollution calls for alternate assessment methods of rivers' health. Our study exemplifies the fact that, in the case of complex contaminations, biological indicators can be more informative for environmental risk, than a wide screening of contaminants by chemical analysis alone. The combination of diverse biological compartments provided a refined diagnostic about the nature (general mode of action) and intensity of the contamination.

  5. Megacity Levels of Black and Brown Carbon in the Port of Valparaiso, Chile: A Toxic Mix of Bus, Truck, Ship, Industrial and Wood Burning Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Julio; Raga, Graciela; Baumgardner, Darrel; Cordova, Ana; Arevalo, Jorge; Pozo, Diana

    2015-04-01

    Measurements of effective black carbon (eBC) have been made during three seasons (Winter, Spring and Summer) in Valparaiso, a coastal city that is located in the subtropics and is the largest commercial port in Chile. In addition to the ships in the harbor and the trucks that service the shipping industry, the primary public transport in the city is a bus system that uses diesel as its primary fuel source. Adding to the emissions of black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) from mobile sources is an oil refinery approximately 30 km to the north and in the winter many residences use wood burning as a primary source of heating. In winter the wind speeds are low, the boundary layer is shallow and there are frequent night time thermal inversions. The meteorology, coupled with a topography of very steep hillsides surrounding the bay, leads to episodes when the maximum eBC, measured with filter-based and photoacoustic techniques, often exceeds 10 µg m-3 and average mass concentrations are > 1.0 µg m-3. The absorption angstrom exponent (AAE), derived from measurements of the absorption coefficient at 550 nm and 870 nm, provides an indicator of the source of the eBC and brown carbon (BrC). The AAE ranges from 0 - 4, the lowest values, <1, associated with diesel emissions from public transport and the highest values, >3, with biomass combustion. The values in the mid-range appear to be associated with ship emissions or from the oil refinery. Removal of these aerosol particles is linked to the sea/land breeze circulations and periods of heavy fog and drizzle.

  6. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease.

  7. Renal Toxicities of Targeted Therapies.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Anum; Mirza, Mohsin M; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Tendulkar, Ketki

    2015-12-01

    With the incorporation of targeted therapies in routine cancer therapy, it is imperative that the array of toxicities associated with these agents be well-recognized and managed, especially since these toxicities are distinct from those seen with conventional cytotoxic agents. This review will focus on these renal toxicities from commonly used targeted agents. This review discusses the mechanisms of these side effects and management strategies. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents including the monoclonal antibody bevacizumab, aflibercept (VEGF trap), and anti-VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) all cause hypertension, whereas some of them result in proteinuria. Monoclonal antibodies against the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptors, such as cetuximab and panitumumab, cause electrolyte imbalances including hypomagnesemia and hypokalemia due to the direct nephrotoxic effect of the drug on renal tubules. Cetuximab may also result in renal tubular acidosis. The TKIs, imatinib and dasatinib, can result in acute or chronic renal failure. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, can cause acute renal failure following initiation of therapy because of the onset of acute tumor lysis syndrome. Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, can result in proteinuria. Discerning the renal adverse effects resulting from these agents is essential for safe treatment strategies, particularly in those with pre-existing renal disease. PMID:25922090

  8. Arylthiosemicarbazones as antileishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    Manzano, José Ignacio; Cochet, Florent; Boucherle, Benjamin; Gómez-Pérez, Verónica; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Gamarro, Francisco; Peuchmaur, Marine

    2016-11-10

    Based on a screening process, we targeted substituted thiosemicarbazone as potential antileishmanial agents. Our objective was to identify the key structural elements contributing to the anti-parasite activity that might be used for development of effective drugs. A series of 32 compounds was synthesized and their efficacy was evaluated against the clinically relevant intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani. From these, 22 compounds showed EC50 values below 10 μM with the most active derivative (compound 14) showing an EC50 of 0.8 μM with very low toxicity on two different mammalian cell lines. The most relevant structural elements required for higher activity indicate that the presence of a fused bicyclic aromatic ring such as a naphthalene bearing an alkyl or an alkoxy group substituent are prerequisites. Owing to the easy synthesis, high activity and low toxicity, the most active compounds could be considered as a lead for further development.

  9. High durability and low toxicity antimicrobial coatings fabricated by quaternary ammonium silane copolymers.

    PubMed

    Li, Hairui; Bao, Hongqian; Bok, Ke Xin; Lee, Chi-Ying; Li, Bo; Zin, Melvin T; Kang, Lifeng

    2016-02-01

    Adhesion and subsequent growth of microorganisms on material surfaces are a major concern in many biomedical applications. Currently, various polymers are immobilized on material surfaces to prevent microbial colonization. However, there are several challenges with regard to the coating materials, including their inability to kill microorganisms, complexity of surface grafting, limited durability and toxicity towards humans. To address these challenges, we synthesize a novel quaternary ammonium silane (QAS) antimicrobial copolymer to confer the antimicrobial effect via a simple thermal-curing coating process. The QAS copolymers were less toxic to 3 human cell lines than a commercial antimicrobial QAS monomeric agent, namely, dimethyloctadecyl[3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl]ammonium chloride (DTPAC). Moreover, the QAS coatings demonstrated superior antimicrobial efficacy and durability than those of the DTPAC coatings. In conclusion, the novel QAS copolymers are useful to prevent substrates from microbial infections, yet with low toxicity to humans and long durability. In addition, the synthetic process is potentially scalable for industrial applications.

  10. Inflammatory and toxic myopathies.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C

    1992-10-01

    The major advances in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of inflammatory myopathies, and the main criteria that distinguish polymyositis (PM) from dermatomyositis (DM) or inclusion-body myositis (IBM) are presented. The origin and implications of the amyloid and ubiquitin deposits found within the vacuolated fibers of patients with IBM are considered. The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-I-associated PM is presented, and the role of retroviruses in triggering PM, even in the absence of detectable viral genome within the muscle fibers, is discussed. In addition, three toxic myopathies with distinct morphologic, biochemical, or molecular characteristics, caused by zidovudine [azidothymidine (AZT) myopathy], the cholesterol-lowering-agent myopathy (CLAM), and the combination of blocking agents with corticosteroids are presented.

  11. Toxic myopathies.

    PubMed

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M

    2014-08-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, because they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features, and possible underlying cellular mechanisms.

  12. Toxic Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Barohn, Richard J.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle tissue is highly sensitive to many substances. Early recognition of toxic myopathies is important, as they potentially are reversible on removal of the offending drug or toxin, with greater likelihood of complete resolution the sooner this is achieved. Clinical features range from mild muscle pain and cramps to severe weakness with rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, and even death. The pathogenic bases can be multifactorial. This article reviews some of the common toxic myopathies and their clinical presentation, histopathologic features and possible underlying cellular mechanisms. PMID:25037083

  13. Toxicity following laundry detergent pod ingestion.

    PubMed

    Schneir, Aaron B; Rentmeester, Landen; Clark, Richard F; Cantrell, F Lee

    2013-06-01

    Laundry detergent pods (LDPs) have only recently become available in the United States, and there has been increasing concern regarding pediatric ingestions of them. We describe a 15-month-old female infant who ingested an LDP and had a depressed level of consciousness, metabolic acidosis, pulmonary toxicity, and swallowing difficulties. It is currently unclear what the exact etiologic agent(s) is responsible for the toxicity associated with LDPs. The case demonstrates the potential for significant toxicity following the ingestion of an LDP. Clearly, measures should be taken to avoid ingestions of these products.

  14. Cardiovascular Toxicities from Systemic Breast Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuang; Wong, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular toxicity is unfortunately a potential short- or long-term sequela of breast cancer therapy. Both conventional chemotherapeutic agents such as anthracyclines and newer targeted agents such as trastuzumab can cause varying degrees of cardiac dysfunction. Type I cardiac toxicity is dose-dependent and irreversible, whereas Type II is not dose-dependent and is generally reversible with cessation of the drug. In this review, we discuss what is currently known about the cardiovascular effects of systemic breast cancer treatments, with a focus on the putative mechanisms of toxicity, the role of biomarkers, and potential methods of preventing and minimizing cardiovascular complications. PMID:25538891

  15. Chromium toxicity in plants.

    PubMed

    Shanker, Arun K; Cervantes, Carlos; Loza-Tavera, Herminia; Avudainayagam, S

    2005-07-01

    Due to its wide industrial use, chromium is considered a serious environmental pollutant. Contamination of soil and water by chromium (Cr) is of recent concern. Toxicity of Cr to plants depends on its valence state: Cr(VI) is highly toxic and mobile whereas Cr(III) is less toxic. Since plants lack a specific transport system for Cr, it is taken up by carriers of essential ions such as sulfate or iron. Toxic effects of Cr on plant growth and development include alterations in the germination process as well as in the growth of roots, stems and leaves, which may affect total dry matter production and yield. Cr also causes deleterious effects on plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis, water relations and mineral nutrition. Metabolic alterations by Cr exposure have also been described in plants either by a direct effect on enzymes or other metabolites or by its ability to generate reactive oxygen species which may cause oxidative stress. The potential of plants with the capacity to accumulate or to stabilize Cr compounds for bioremediation of Cr contamination has gained interest in recent years. PMID:15878200

  16. Toxic remediation

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Stephen M.; Schonberg, Russell G.; Fadness, David R.

    1994-01-01

    What is disclosed is a novel toxic waste remediation system designed to provide on-site destruction of a wide variety of hazardous organic volatile hydrocarbons, including but not limited to halogenated and aromatic hydrocarbons in the vapor phase. This invention utilizes a detoxification plenum and radiation treatment which transforms hazardous organic compounds into non-hazardous substances.

  17. Toxicity reduction of photo processing wastewaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, W.

    1992-01-01

    The photo processing industry can be characterized by treatment processes and subsequent silver recovery. The effluents generated all contain various amounts of silver. The objectives of this study were to determine toxicity of photo processing effluents and to explore their toxicity mitigation. Six samples, from small shops to a major photo processing center, were studied. Two samples (I and VI) were found to be extremely toxic, causing 100 and 99% inhibition of duckweed frond reproduction, respectively, and were used for subsequent toxicity reduction experiments. Lime and sodium sulfide were effective for the toxicity reduction of Sample VI; both reduced its toxicity to negligible. Sample I was far more toxic and was first diluted to 2.2% and then treated with 0.5 g lime/100 mL, reducing toxicity from 100% to 12% inhibition.

  18. Toxicity and clinical tolerance of lonidamine.

    PubMed

    Robustelli della Cuna, G; Pedrazzoli, P

    1991-04-01

    The new anticancer agent lonidamine has been recently revisited for the treatment of various solid tumors, due to its peculiar and unusual mechanism of action (ie, interference with energy metabolism of tumor cells, morphologically displayed by the appearance of "condensed mitochondria"). First generation trials have in fact demonstrated therapeutic activity and an unusual toxicity profile. Lonidamine is devoid of conventional side effects induced by antiproliferative agents (ie, myelosuppression, stomatitis, cystitis, alopecia, renal, hepatic, and cardiac toxicity). No serious or life-threatening adverse reactions have been recorded even over long term treatment periods. Given as a single agent (in daily doses ranging between 300 and 900 mg) lonidamine induces the following side effects: myalgia, testicular pain, asthenia, ototoxicity, nausea and vomiting, gastric pain, and drowsiness. Hyperesthesia and photophobia have also been reported. In combination with radiotherapy (in oral daily doses ranging between 300 and 450 mg) lonidamine was well tolerated, without any reported evidence of additional toxicity. When associated with cytotoxic agents no enhanced toxicity was observed. In particular, myelosuppression and other conventional nonhematological adverse reactions were never greater than would be expected with chemotherapy alone. The same applies to toxicity and tolerance of lonidamine when used concurrently with hypertermia. The data collected from large series of cancer patients treated with this new agent show that lonidamine is a safe drug whether used alone or in combination with other effective anticancer treatments. The reported therapeutic efficacy and the peculiar toxic profile make lonidamine an interesting new drug for future clinical trials. PMID:2031192

  19. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Nibedita; Dongare, Pradeep A; Mishra, Rajeeb Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice. PMID:26644615

  20. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  1. Comparison of acute toxicity of process chemicals used in the oil refinery industry, tested with the diatom Chaetoceros gracilis, the flagellate Isochrysis galbana, and the zebra fish, Brachydanio rerio

    SciTech Connect

    Roseth, S.; Edvardsson, T.; Botten, T.M.; Fuglestad, J.; Fonnum, F.; Stenersen, J.

    1996-07-01

    Chemicals under the trade names Nalco 537-DA, Nalco 625, Nalco 7607, Nalco 5165, Ivamin, and technical monoethanolamine are used extensively in the oil refinery industry. Aquatic toxicity tests were conducted using zebra fish fry (Brachydanio rerio) and the unicellular algae Isochrysis galbana (a flagellate) and Chaetoceros gracilis (a diatom). Inhibition of cell division, chlorophyll content, and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} uptake in the algae were sensitive end points. The effective concentrations (EC50s) of growth inhibition were 0.1 mg/L (Ivamin; I. galbana), 0.8 mg/L (Nalco 7607; I. galbana), 6 mg/L (Nalco 625; I. galbana), 10 mg/L (Nalco 5165; C. gracilis), and 15 mg/L (Nalco 537-DA; C. gracilis). The lethal concentrations (LC50s) (96 h) toward zebra fish fry was 1 mg/L for Nalco 7607, 6.5 mg/L for Nalco 537-DA, 7.1 mg/L for Nalco 625, and 20 mg/L for Ivamin 803. Monoethanolamine had an LC50 higher than 5,000 mg/L. Nalco 5165 was not tested on fish fry. The heartbeat frequency of fish embryos was reduced by 2.5 mg/L Nalco 537-DA, but this was an insensitive end point for the other chemicals.

  2. Sunscreening Agents

    PubMed Central

    Martis, Jacintha; Shobha, V; Sham Shinde, Rutuja; Bangera, Sudhakar; Krishnankutty, Binny; Bellary, Shantala; Varughese, Sunoj; Rao, Prabhakar; Naveen Kumar, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing incidence of skin cancers and photodamaging effects caused by ultraviolet radiation has increased the use of sunscreening agents, which have shown beneficial effects in reducing the symptoms and reoccurrence of these problems. Many sunscreen compounds are in use, but their safety and efficacy are still in question. Efficacy is measured through indices, such as sun protection factor, persistent pigment darkening protection factor, and COLIPA guidelines. The United States Food and Drug Administration and European Union have incorporated changes in their guidelines to help consumers select products based on their sun protection factor and protection against ultraviolet radiation, whereas the Indian regulatory agency has not yet issued any special guidance on sunscreening agents, as they are classified under cosmetics. In this article, the authors discuss the pharmacological actions of sunscreening agents as well as the available formulations, their benefits, possible health hazards, safety, challenges, and proper application technique. New technologies and scope for the development of sunscreening agents are also discussed as well as the role of the physician in patient education about the use of these agents. PMID:23320122

  3. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where particles are abundantly internalized - is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a ``lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect'' since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments.The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where

  4. Beryllium Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... potential for exposure to it. People working in industries where beryllium is mined, processed, machined, or converted into metal, alloys, and other chemicals may be exposed to high levels of beryllium. ...

  5. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations. PMID:26210237

  6. Skin diseases associated with Agent Orange and other organochlorine exposures.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Andrew T; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Keller, Richard A; Elston, Dirk M

    2016-01-01

    Organochlorine exposure is an important cause of cutaneous and systemic toxicity. Exposure has been associated with industrial accidents, intentional poisoning, and the use of defoliants, such as Agent Orange in the Vietnam War. Although long-term health effects are systematically reviewed by the Institute of Medicine, skin diseases are not comprehensively assessed. This represents an important practice gap as patients can present with cutaneous findings. This article provides a systematic review of the cutaneous manifestations of known mass organochlorine exposures in military and industrial settings with the goal of providing clinically useful recommendations for dermatologists seeing patients inquiring about organochlorine effects. Patients with a new diagnosis of chloracne, porphyria cutanea tarda, cutaneous lymphomas (non-Hodgkin lymphoma), and soft-tissue sarcomas including dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and leiomyosarcomas should be screened for a history of Vietnam service or industrial exposure. Inconclusive evidence exists for an increased risk of other skin diseases in Vietnam veterans exposed to Agent Orange including benign fatty tumors, melanomas, nonmelanoma skin cancers, milia, eczema, dyschromias, disturbance of skin sensation, and rashes not otherwise specified. Affected veterans should be informed of the uncertain data in those cases. Referral to Department of Veterans Affairs for disability assessment is indicated for conditions with established associations.

  7. Beyond toxicity

    PubMed Central

    García, Irene; Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C

    2014-01-01

    In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is a co-product of ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis. To maintain cyanide at non-toxic levels, Arabidopsis plants express the mitochondrial β-cyanoalanine synthase CYS-C1. CYS-C1 knockout leads to an increased level of cyanide in the roots and leaves and a severe defect in root hair morphogenesis, suggesting that cyanide acts as a signaling factor in root development. During compatible and incompatible plant-bacteria interactions, cyanide accumulation and CYS-C1 gene expression are negatively correlated. Moreover, CYS-C1 mutation increases both plant tolerance to biotrophic pathogens and their susceptibility to necrotrophic fungi, indicating that cyanide could stimulate the salicylic acid-dependent signaling pathway of the plant immune system. We hypothesize that CYS-C1 is essential for maintaining non-toxic concentrations of cyanide in the mitochondria to facilitate cyanide’s role in signaling. PMID:24398435

  8. Toxic-Waste Disposal by Combustion in Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Stephens, J. B.; Moynihan, P. I.; Compton, L. E.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical wastes burned with minimal handling in storage containers. Technique for disposing of chemical munitions by burning them inside shells applies to disposal of toxic materials stored in drums. Fast, economical procedure overcomes heat-transfer limitations of conventional furnace designs by providing direct contact of oxygenrich combustion gases with toxic agent. No need to handle waste material, and container also decontaminated in process. Oxygen-rich torch flame cuts burster well and causes vaporization and combustion of toxic agent contained in shell.

  9. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  10. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  11. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  12. Studying toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  13. Mechanistic Understanding of Toxicity from Nanocatalysts

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Cuijuan; Jia, Jianbo; Zhai, Shumei

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based catalysts, or nanocatalysts, have been applied in various industrial sectors, including refineries, petrochemical plants, the pharmaceutical industry, the chemical industry, food processing, and environmental remediation. As a result, there is an increasing risk of human exposure to nanocatalysts. This review evaluates the toxicity of popular nanocatalysts applied in industrial processes in cell and animal models. The molecular mechanisms associated with such nanotoxicity are emphasized to reveal common toxicity-inducing pathways from various nanocatalysts and the uniqueness of each specific nanocatalyst. PMID:25119861

  14. Design, Synthesis, Toxicity Estimation and Molecular Docking Studies of N-(furan-2-yl)-1-(5-substituted) phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) methanimine as Antitubercular Agents

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, B.; Suresh, J.; Mathew, Githa E.; Sonia, George; Krishnan, G. K.

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel N-(furan-2-yl)-1-(5-substituted) phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl) methanimines (Fa-e) were synthesized and evaluated for antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv) strain by using alamar blue assay. The synthesized compounds were characterized based on IR, 1HMR and mass spectral analysis. The toxicity profile was predicted by organic chemistry portal, a web based application for predicting in silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity, and the novel derivatives under study did not show any toxicity issues. The mechanism of action of the titled derivatives was predicted by docking on the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Enoyl-ACP reductase enzyme. The docking study concluded that Fb and Fa possessed good binding energy indicating more prominent interaction towards the active sites NAD and TYR 158. The antitubercular studies showed that the both Fa and Fb possessed significant activity with the MIC as low as 3.125 μg/ml. PMID:25425753

  15. Antidiabetic Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on antidiabetic agents is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  16. In-phase and out-of-phase tensile properties of polypropylene/mica composites modified by a novel industrial waste based interfacial agent. Responses at the α and β transitions of the polymer phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Martínez, Jesús María; Collar, Emilia P.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the study of the evolution with temperature of the in-phase and the out-of-phase responses of polypropylene/mica composites with improved interfacial interactions due to the presence of an industrial waste based interfacial modifier. This one is a p-phenylen-bis-maleamic acid grafted atactic polypropylene (aPP-pPBMA) with 15% w/w grafted pPBMA (5.0.10-4 g.mol-1). This work has been two-fold planned. On one hand, we have used dynamic mechanical parameters to evidence the interfacial improve caused by the addition of the interfacial modifier (aPP-pPBMA). The other purpose has been to obtain a mathematical to predict the overall behaviour of the heterogeneous system for whatever temperature considered. In our case we have merely used the dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) for just the α and β transition temperatures. Hence, a Box-Wilson experimental design considering the amount of mica particles and of interfacial agent as independent variables was used to obtain the mathematical model. The study has been tackled by considering the different transitions of the polypropylene matrix in the temperature interval scanned and further application of the Statistical Design of Experiments (sDOE) to each transition temperature in order to make forecasts for the property (E', E") as a function of the composite components and of the type of temperature dependent relaxation phenomena taking place.

  17. Effects of Humic and Fulvic Acids on Silver Nanoparticle Stability, Dissolution, and Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gunsolus, Ian L; Mousavi, Maral P S; Hussein, Kadir; Bühlmann, Philippe; Haynes, Christy L

    2015-07-01

    The colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in natural aquatic environments influences their transport and environmental persistence, while their dissolution to Ag(+) influences their toxicity to organisms. Here, we characterize the colloidal stability, dissolution behavior, and toxicity of two industrially relevant classes of AgNPs (i.e., AgNPs stabilized by citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone) after exposure to natural organic matter (NOM, i.e., Suwannee River Humic and Fulvic Acid Standards and Pony Lake Fulvic Acid Reference). We show that NOM interaction with the nanoparticle surface depends on (i) the NOM's chemical composition, where sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM more significantly increases colloidal stability, and (ii) the affinity of the capping agent for the AgNP surface, where nanoparticles with loosely bound capping agents are more effectively stabilized by NOM. Adsorption of NOM is shown to have little effect on AgNP dissolution under most experimental conditions, the exception being when the NOM is rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Similarly, the toxicity of AgNPs to a bacterial model (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1) decreases most significantly in the presence of sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM. Our data suggest that the rate of AgNP aggregation and dissolution in aquatic environments containing NOM will depend on the chemical composition of the NOM, and that the toxicity of AgNPs to aquatic microorganisms is controlled primarily by the extent of nanoparticle dissolution.

  18. Effects of Humic and Fulvic Acids on Silver Nanoparticle Stability, Dissolution, and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Gunsolus, Ian L.; Mousavi, Maral P. S.; Hussein, Kadir; Bühlmann, Philippe; Haynes, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    The colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in natural aquatic environments influences their transport and environmental persistence, while their dissolution to Ag+ influences their toxicity to organisms. Here, we characterize the colloidal stability, dissolution behavior, and toxicity of two industrially relevant classes of AgNPs (i.e., AgNPs stabilized by citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone) after exposure to natural organic matter (NOM, i.e., Suwannee River Humic and Fulvic Acid Standards and Pony Lake Fulvic Acid Reference). We show that NOM interaction with the nanoparticle surface depends on (i) the NOM’s chemical composition, where sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM more significantly increases colloidal stability, and (ii) the affinity of the capping agent for the AgNP surface, where nanoparticles with loosely bound capping agents are more effectively stabilized by NOM. Adsorption of NOM is shown to have little effect on AgNP dissolution under most experimental conditions, the exception being when the NOM is rich in sulfur and nitrogen. Similarly, the toxicity of AgNPs to a bacterial model (Shewanella oneidensis MR-1) decreases most significantly in the presence of sulfur- and nitrogen-rich NOM. Our data suggest that the rate of AgNP aggregation and dissolution in aquatic environments containing NOM will depend on the chemical composition of the NOM, and that the toxicity of AgNPs to aquatic microorganisms is controlled primarily by the extent of nanoparticle dissolution. PMID:26047330

  19. Thermal Stress and Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at subthermoneutral te...

  20. Fate of sessile droplet chemical agents in environmental substrates in the presence of physiochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaz, H. K.; Dang, A. L.; Atkinson, T.; Zand, A.; Nowakowski, A.; Kamensky, K.

    2014-05-01

    A general-purpose multi-phase and multi-component computer model capable of solving the complex problems encountered in the agent substrate interaction is developed. The model solves the transient and time-accurate mass and momentum governing equations in a three dimensional space. The provisions for considering all the inter-phase activities (solidification, evaporation, condensation, etc.) are included in the model. The chemical reactions among all phases are allowed and the products of the existing chemical reactions in all three phases are possible. The impact of chemical reaction products on the transport properties in porous media such as porosity, capillary pressure, and permeability is considered. Numerous validations for simulants, agents, and pesticides with laboratory and open air data are presented. Results for chemical reactions in the presence of pre-existing water in porous materials such as moisture, or separated agent and water droplets on porous substrates are presented. The model will greatly enhance the capabilities in predicting the level of threat after any chemical such as Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) release on environmental substrates. The model's generality makes it suitable for both defense and pharmaceutical applications.

  1. Triclosan: environmental exposure, toxicity and mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Dann, Andrea B; Hontela, Alice

    2011-05-01

    Triclosan [5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol; TCS] is a broad spectrum antibacterial agent used in personal care, veterinary, industrial and household products. TCS is commonly detected in aquatic ecosystems, as it is only partially removed during the wastewater treatment process. Sorption, biodegradation and photolytic degradation mitigate the availability of TCS to aquatic biota; however the by-products such as methyltriclosan and other chlorinated phenols may be more resistant to degradation and have higher toxicity than the parent compound. The continuous exposure of aquatic organisms to TCS, coupled with its bioaccumulation potential, have led to detectable levels of the antimicrobial in a number of aquatic species. TCS has been also detected in breast milk, urine and plasma, with levels of TCS in the blood correlating with consumer use patterns of the antimicrobial. Mammalian systemic toxicity studies indicate that TCS is neither acutely toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, nor a developmental toxicant. Recently, however, concern has been raised over TCS's potential for endocrine disruption, as the antimicrobial has been shown to disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis and possibly the reproductive axis. Moreover, there is strong evidence that aquatic species such as algae, invertebrates and certain types of fish are much more sensitive to TCS than mammals. TCS is highly toxic to algae and exerts reproductive and developmental effects in some fish. The potential for endocrine disruption and antibiotic cross-resistance highlights the importance of the judicious use of TCS, whereby the use of TCS should be limited to applications where it has been shown to be effective. PMID:21462230

  2. Priorities for toxic wastewater management in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, A.

    1996-12-31

    This study assesses the number of industries in Pakistan, the total discharge of wastewater, the biological oxygen demand (BOD) load, and the toxicity of the wastewater. The industrial sector is a major contributor to water pollution, with high levels of BOD, heavy metals, and toxic compounds. Only 30 industries have installed water pollution control equipment, and most are working at a very low operational level. Priority industrial sectors for pollution control are medium- to large-scale textile industries and small-scale tanneries and electroplating industries. Each day the textile industries discharge about 85,000 m{sup 3} of wastewater with a high BOD, while the electroplating industries discharge about 23,000 m{sup 3} of highly toxic and hazardous wastewater. Various in-plant modifications can reduce wastewater discharges. Economic incentives, like tax rebates, subsidies, and soft loans, could be an option for motivating medium- to large-scale industries to control water pollution. Central treatment plants may be constructed for treating wastewater generated by small-scale industries. The estimated costs for the treatment of textile and electroplating wastewater are given. The legislative structure in Pakistan is insufficient for control of industrial pollution; not only do existing laws need revision, but more laws and regulations are needed to improve the state of affairs, and enforcement agencies need to be strengthened. 15 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  3. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  4. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  5. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  6. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  7. 14 CFR 125.163 - Fire-extinguishing agents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Requirements § 125.163 Fire-extinguishing agents. Only methyl bromide, carbon dioxide, or another agent that.... If methyl bromide or any other toxic extinguishing agent is used, provisions must be made to prevent... ground or in flight when there is a defect in the extinguishing system. If a methyl bromide system...

  8. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity Test of Pilea microphylla

    PubMed Central

    Modarresi Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza Sulaiman, Shaida

    2010-01-01

    A total of 9 plant extracts were tested, using two different kinds of extracting methods to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities from Pilea microphylla (Urticaceae family) and including toxicity test. Antioxidant activity were tested by using DPPH free radical scavenging, also total phenolic contents and total flavonoid contents were determined. Toxicity assay carried out by using brine shrimps. Methanol extract of method I (ME I) showed the highest antioxidant activity at 69.51 ± 1.03. Chloroform extract of method I (CE I) showed the highest total phenolic contents at 72.10 ± 0.71 and chloroform extract of method II (CE II) showed the highest total flavonoid contents at 60.14 ± 0.33. The antimicrobial activity of Pilea microphylla extract was tested in vitro by using disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The Pilea microphylla extract showed antibacterial activity against some Gram negative and positive bacteria. The extracts did not exhibit antifungal and antiyeast activity. The hexane extract of method I (HE I) was not toxic against brine shrimp (LC50 value was 3880 μg/ml). Therefore, the extracts could be suitable as antimicrobial and antioxidative agents in food industry. PMID:20652052

  9. [Hospital response and medical management in toxic chemical substance disasters].

    PubMed

    Yeh, I-Jeng; Lin, Tzeng-Jih

    2010-06-01

    A hazardous material is defined as any item or agent which has the potential to cause harm to humans, animals, or the environment, either by itself or through interaction with other factors. Toxic chemical substance events are increasingly common events in our modern world. The numerous variables and special equipment involved make effective response to toxic chemical events an especially critical test of hospital emergency response and patient rescue mechanisms. Inadequacies in management could result in disaster - even when only a simple event and minimal error are involved. This article introduces the general medical management algorithm for toxic chemical substance injury and the hospital incident command systems (HICS) developed and currently used by Taiwanese hospitals. Important steps and frequent mistakes made during medical management procedures are further described. The goal of medical care response and emergency units is to prevent catastrophic disasters in the emergency room and their subsequent results. This article further emphasizes correct patient management not only in terms of medical unit effort, but also in terms of cooperation between various relevant organizations including factory-based industrial health and safety systems, multi-factory union defense systems, coordination centers, fire protection and disaster rescue systems, the Environmental Protection Administration and national defense system in order to achieve the most appropriate management. Such coordination, in particular, requires reinforcement in order to ensure readiness for future response needs. PMID:20535674

  10. [Use of biologically active substances in preventing the toxic action of some heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Degtiareva, T D; Katsnel'son, B A; Pirvalova, L I; Beresneva, O Iu; Gurvich, V B; Kuz'min, S V; Malykh, O L

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents experimental and theoretical rationales for some methods and means of biological prevention of the toxic effects of a number of heavy metals (lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium) that pollute the environment. Subchronic experiments were made on laboratory animals exposed to the above substances in combination with various biological agents (sodium glutaminate, the adaptogen saparal, pectin-containing enterosorbent, calcium, the multivitamin-multimineral preparation Pikovit, etc.). They have indicated that the complex use of preparations is more beneficial than they are used alone. The results of controlled trials of biologically preventive preparations on children residing in an area exposed to industrial pollution are presented.

  11. Immobilized materials for removal of toxic metal ions from surface/groundwaters and aqueous waste streams.

    PubMed

    Zawierucha, Iwona; Kozlowski, Cezary; Malina, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metals from industrial processes are of special concern because they produce chronic poisoning in the aquatic environment. More strict environmental regulations on the discharge of toxic metals require the development of various technologies for their removal from polluted streams (i.e. industrial wastewater, mine waters, landfill leachate, and groundwater). The separation of toxic metal ions using immobilized materials (novel sorbents and membranes with doped ligands), due to their high selectivity and removal efficiency, increased stability, and low energy requirements, is promising for improving the environmental quality. This critical review is aimed at studying immobilized materials as potential remediation agents for the elimination of numerous toxic metal (e.g. Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) ions from polluted streams. This study covers the general characteristics of immobilized materials and separation processes, understanding of the metal ion removal mechanisms, a review of the application of immobilized materials for the removal of toxic metal ions, as well as the impacts of various parameters on the removal efficiency. In addition, emerging trends and opportunities in the field of remediation technologies using these materials are addressed.

  12. Possible theophylline toxicity during anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Redden, R. J.

    1996-01-01

    Asthmatic patients who undergo outpatient anesthesia are typically prescribed one or more drugs for treatment. Some of these agents have narrow therapeutic ranges and are associated with potentially serious adverse reactions, toxic effects, or drug interactions. Various clinical signs of toxicity may be first uncovered during routine monitoring of an office anesthetic. The case reported here demonstrates the need for proper understanding of the asthmatic patient's medical history and an appreciation for the medications used to control the disease. A sudden cardiovascular event possibly related to drug toxicity is witnessed and treated in an asthmatic patient during intravenous sedation. A possible drug interaction with a non-asthmatic medication taken concomitantly by the patient is implicated and discussed. In addition to the case report, the broad classification of drugs employed for bronchial asthma and their effects is reviewed. PMID:10323129

  13. Neurobehavioral toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, B.

    2000-01-01

    A growing number of agents are known to perturb one or more of the interconnected processes of the central nervous system. At the same time, there is an increase in the incidence of neurobehavioral disorders that are confronting clinicians with baffling symptoms and presentations that seem uncommon. Fundamental to the assessment of the environmental-relatedness of the syndromes is a work and exposure history, including information different from that routinely obtained in the clinical setting. Exposure examples are described to suggest the scope of inquiry necessary to differentiate neurotoxic syndromes from nonneurotoxic illness. PMID:10745641

  14. Air toxics: sources and monitoring in Texas.

    PubMed Central

    Pendleton, D R

    1995-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, federal legislation has required industries to publicly report their annual emissions of toxic compounds. Industry reports show the largest contributor to toxic emission levels in Texas is the massive concentration of petrochemical industries along the Gulf Coast. It is interesting to note that although Texas produces over 50% of the nation's synthetic chemicals, it discharges less than 8% of the nation's toxic emissions. However, in response to growing concerns about the effects of these toxic emissions, the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) initiated a long-term program for monitoring toxic chemicals in the air. This article provides details of this monitoring program as well as industry-funded toxic monitoring networks in Texas. This includes information on the technology currently being used for sample collection and analysis as well as plans for implementing methods that are on the technological horizon. Finally, details of some key measurements from the state's air toxics monitoring network will be provided along with an explanation of how they impact current air quality trends in Texas. PMID:8549477

  15. Toxic terror

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    A review of toxic materials in the environment explores the evolution of public awareness of the problem, public and governmental reaction, the effort to establish standards of safe levels and danger thresholds, and the struggle to implement and enforce environmental policy. Separate chapters deal with environmental premises and scientific realities, the DDT debate and birth of environmentalism, the disaster of Love Canal, pesticides, PCBs, PBBs, formaldehyde, dioxin, air pollution, water pollution, nuclear energy and radioactive materials, acid rain, and the status of American health. The book concludes with a chapter on the need for scientific research and hard evidence to either prove or disprove the pessimism of those who warn of a threat to human health and survival.

  16. KGB agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    A short story is reported in which the activity of Communist Party of the USSR and secret KGB agents, which were payed by the State, in view of controlling of the conscience of population. The story reffers to the Physics Department of the Moscow University, Planing Institute of the Gosplan of Moldavian S.S.R. and Chishinau Technical University (actually: Technical University of Moldova), where the author has worked during Soviet times. Almost every 6-th citizen in the USSR was engaged in this activity, while actually the former communists rule in the Republic of Moldova.

  17. Management of Thalidomide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ghobrial, Irene M.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Thalidomide has re-emerged as a novel antineoplastic agent with immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities. In the early sixties, it was withdrawn from the market after its infamous association with congenital abnormalities that left about 10,000 children affected world-wide. With strict regulations and precautions, thalidomide is now approved by the FDA for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Its role in cancer therapy is promising, with clinical trials in the past 5 years showing significant activity in multiple myeloma. Several trials are ongoing in other malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. The major toxicities of thalidomide are birth defects, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, somnolence, rash, fatigue, and constipation. Less common side effects include deep venous thrombosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, malaise, and peripheral edema. The incidence and severity of adverse events are related to dose and duration of therapy. Doses of the drug of 200 mg/day or less are usually well tolerated. In this review, we will discuss the incidence and management of the side effects of thalidomide and the precautions and interventions needed to minimize the toxicities of this drug. PMID:15334875

  18. Management of thalidomide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ghobrial, Irene M; Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2003-01-01

    Thalidomide has re-emerged as a novel antineoplastic agent with immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities. In the early sixties, it was withdrawn from the market after its infamous association with congenital abnormalities that left about 10,000 children affected world-wide. With strict regulations and precautions, thalidomide is now approved by the FDA for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Its role in cancer therapy is promising, with clinical trials in the past 5 years showing significant activity in multiple myeloma. Several trials are ongoing in other malignancies, such as myelodysplastic syndrome, agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, renal cell carcinoma, and prostate cancer. The major toxicities of thalidomide are birth defects, sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy, somnolence, rash, fatigue, and constipation. Less common side effects include deep venous thrombosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, elevated liver enzymes, malaise, and peripheral edema. The incidence and severity of adverse events are related to dose and duration of therapy. Doses of the drug of 200 mg/day or less are usually well tolerated. In this review, we will discuss the incidence and management of the side effects of thalidomide and the precautions and interventions needed to minimize the toxicities of this drug.

  19. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  20. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  1. Protection against Radiotherapy-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan; Rudrawar, Santosh; Zunk, Matthew; Bernaitis, Nijole; Arora, Devinder; McDermott, Catherine M; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a highly utilized therapy in the treatment of malignancies with up to 60% of cancer patients receiving radiation therapy as a part of their treatment regimen. Radiation therapy does, however, cause a wide range of adverse effects that can be severe and cause permanent damage to the patient. In an attempt to minimize these effects, a small number of compounds have been identified and are in use clinically for the prevention and treatment of radiation associated toxicities. Furthermore, there are a number of emerging therapies being developed for use as agents that protect against radiation-induced toxicities. The aim of this review was to evaluate and summarise the evidence that exists for both the known radioprotectant agents and the agents that show promise as future radioprotectant agents. PMID:27399787

  2. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which

  3. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin.

    PubMed

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL(-1). Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32-37, 20-24, and 16-18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log K LB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins, which

  4. Biochemical, Transcriptional, and Bioinformatic Analysis of Lipid Droplets from Seeds of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and Their Use as Potent Sequestration Agents against the Toxic Pollutant, 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin

    PubMed Central

    Hanano, Abdulsamie; Almousally, Ibrahem; Shaban, Mouhnad; Rahman, Farzana; Blee, Elizabeth; Murphy, Denis J.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of aquatic environments with dioxins, the most toxic group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), is a major ecological issue. Dioxins are highly lipophilic and bioaccumulate in fatty tissues of marine organisms used for seafood where they constitute a potential risk for human health. Lipid droplets (LDs) purified from date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, seeds were characterized and their capacity to extract dioxins from aquatic systems was assessed. The bioaffinity of date palm LDs toward 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic congener of dioxins was determined. Fractioned LDs were spheroidal with mean diameters of 2.5 µm, enclosing an oil-rich core of 392.5 mg mL-1. Isolated LDs did not aggregate and/or coalesce unless placed in acidic media and were strongly associated with three major groups of polypeptides of relative mass 32–37, 20–24, and 16–18 kDa. These masses correspond to the LD-associated proteins, oleosins, caleosins, and steroleosins, respectively. Efficient partitioning of TCDD into LDs occurred with a coefficient of log KLB/w,TCDD = 7.528 ± 0.024; it was optimal at neutral pH and was dependent on the presence of the oil-rich core, but was independent of the presence of LD-associated proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the date palm genome revealed nine oleosin-like, five caleosin-like, and five steroleosin-like sequences, with predicted structures having putative lipid-binding domains that match their LD stabilizing roles and use as bio-based encapsulation systems. Transcriptomic analysis of date palm seedlings exposed to TCDD showed strong up-regulation of several caleosin and steroleosin genes, consistent with increased LD formation. The results suggest that the plant LDs could be used in ecological remediation strategies to remove POPs from aquatic environments. Recent reports suggest that several fungal and algal species also use LDs to sequester both external and internally derived hydrophobic toxins

  5. Filling agents.

    PubMed

    Glavas, Ioannis P

    2005-06-01

    Injectable fillers have become an important component of minimally invasive facial rejuvenation modalities. Their ease of use, effectiveness, low morbidity, and fast results with minimal downtime are factors that have made them popular among patients. Soft tissue augmentation has evolved to a unique combination of medicine and art. A wide selection of available agents and new products, each one with unique properties, may be used alone or in combination. The physician acquires the tools to rebalance facial characteristics not only by filling wrinkles but also by having the ability to shape the face and restore bony contours and lines. Careful selection of candidates, realistic expectations, and an understanding of the limitations of fillers are crucial for a successful result.

  6. Use of extracting agent for decadmiation of phosphate rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benredjem, Z.; Delimi, R.

    2009-11-01

    According to World Bank projections, world population will reach 7 billion in 2020. This impressive population must be accommodated, clothed and most importantly it must be fed. It keep into this challenge an increase in the agricultural production must reach 90% of the already cultivated land. It is clear that mineral fertilizers will continue to play an important role in improving agricultural production. A fertilizer is by definition 'any product containing at least 5% of the three major plant nutrients: N, P2O5, and K2 O. The most common fertilizers are nitrogen, phosphate, potassium, magnesium and sulphur fertilizers. They can be simple, single or complex nutrients. Currently, phosphate fertilizers are by far the most prevalent. However, the fertilizers produced from phosphate ores still contain heavy metals that are harmful to human health. These heavy metals are transferred through processing to phosphoric acid: the main intermediary between the rock and phosphate fertilizers. Among these heavy metals, cadmium seems to be the most harmful and toxic element. The occurrence of such element in the fertilizer products causes a serious danger to both human health and environment. Most of the phosphate-bearing rocks contain large Cd amounts that are often above acceptable levels. Phosphate ore industry usually tends to improve the quality of product by eliminating this toxic element. The aim of this study is to present an accurate and less expensive method by which cadmium in phosphate ore would be reduced to lower rates. The method uses ammonium acetate salt, diamine tetra-acetic and hydrochloric acids as extracting agents of cadmium in phosphate. The influence of some parameters was taken into consideration, such as the volume/mass ratios, the extracting agent concentration and the temperature. The results analyses were based on the amount of cadmium extracted and P2O5 loss, and the efficiencies of extracting agents.

  7. Update on Pharmacologic Retinal Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Flynn, Harry W; Mieler, William F

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are associated with retinal vascular toxicity. These include intraocular aminoglycosides, oral contraceptives, interferon alpha, several other agents, and talc, which occurs as a vehicle in some oral medications that may be abused intravenously. As a group, these entities represent a small but clinically relevant category of retinal toxicity from medications. Some of the manifestations (e.g., retinal vascular occlusion) are nonspecific, but others are more specific, including clinically visible talc emboli in retinal vessels. Toxicity may be asymptomatic or may cause irreversible visual loss. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, the correct diagnosis can usually be made.

  8. In vivo toxicity study of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Pour, Badakhshan Mahdi; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the toxicity of methanol extract of various parts (Root, Stem, Leaf, Flower and Fruit) of Lantana camara (L. Camara) in Artemia salina. Methods The methanol extracts of L. camara were tested for in vivo brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the tested extract exhibited very low toxicity on brine shrimp larva. The results showed that the root extract was the most toxic part of L. camara and may have potential as anticancer agent. Conclusions Methanolic extract of L. camara is relatively safe on short-term exposure. PMID:23569765

  9. Update on Pharmacologic Retinal Vascular Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Wasinska-Borowiec, Weronika; Flynn, Harry W; Mieler, William F

    2015-01-01

    Several medications are associated with retinal vascular toxicity. These include intraocular aminoglycosides, oral contraceptives, interferon alpha, several other agents, and talc, which occurs as a vehicle in some oral medications that may be abused intravenously. As a group, these entities represent a small but clinically relevant category of retinal toxicity from medications. Some of the manifestations (e.g., retinal vascular occlusion) are nonspecific, but others are more specific, including clinically visible talc emboli in retinal vessels. Toxicity may be asymptomatic or may cause irreversible visual loss. By maintaining a high index of suspicion, the correct diagnosis can usually be made. PMID:26350526

  10. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  11. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  12. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01234h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment – where particles are abundantly internalized – is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a “lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect” since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. PMID:24842463

  13. Health care agents

    MedlinePlus

    Durable power of attorney for health care; Health care proxy; End-of-life - health care agent; Life support treatment - ... Respirator - health care agent; Ventilator - health care agent; Power of attorney - health care agent; POA - health care ...

  14. Thallium toxicity in humans.

    PubMed

    Cvjetko, Petra; Cvjetko, Ivan; Pavlica, Mirjana

    2010-03-01

    Thallium is a naturally occurring trace element, widely distributed in the earth's crust, but at very low concentrations. It does not have a known biological use and does not appear to be an essential element for life. It has been considered one of the most toxic heavy metals.Occasionally, there are reports on thallium poisoning as results of suicide or murder attempt or accident. The main threat to humans is through occupational exposure, environmental contamination, and accumulation in food, mainly in vegetables grown on contaminated soil. Increasing use in emerging new technologies and demanding high-tech industry constantly raise concern about exposure risk to all living organisms. Thallium is considered a cumulative poison that can cause adverse health effects and degenerative changes in many organs. The effects are the most severe in the nervous system. The exact mechanism of thallium toxicity still remains unknown, although impaired glutathione metabolism, oxidative stress, and disruption of potassium-regulated homeostasis may play a role. The lack of data about mutagenic, carcinogenic, or teratogenic effects of thallium compounds in humans calls for further research.

  15. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  16. Detecting agents.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan C

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews a recent set of behavioural studies that examine the scope and nature of the representational system underlying theory-of-mind development. Studies with typically developing infants, adults and children with autism all converge on the claim that there is a specialized input system that uses not only morphological cues, but also behavioural cues to categorize novel objects as agents. Evidence is reviewed in which 12- to 15-month-old infants treat certain non-human objects as if they have perceptual/attentional abilities, communicative abilities and goal-directed behaviour. They will follow the attentional orientation of an amorphously shaped novel object if it interacts contingently with them or with another person. They also seem to use a novel object's environmentally directed behaviour to determine its perceptual/attentional orientation and object-oriented goals. Results from adults and children with autism are strikingly similar, despite adults' contradictory beliefs about the objects in question and the failure of children with autism to ultimately develop more advanced theory-of-mind reasoning. The implications for a general theory-of-mind development are discussed. PMID:12689380

  17. 13th Meeting of the Scientific Group on Methodologies for the Safety Evaluation of Chemicals (SGOMSEC): alternative testing methodologies for organ toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Spielmann, H; Bochkov, N P; Costa, L; Gribaldo, L; Guillouzo, A; Heindel, J J; Karol, M; Parchment, R; Pfaller, W; Peraita, P P; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    In the past decade in vitro tests have been developed that represent a range of anatomic structure from perfused whole organs to subcellular fractions. To assess the use of in vitro tests for toxicity testing, we describe and evaluate the current status of organotypic cultures for the major target organs of toxic agents. This includes liver, kidney, neural tissue, the hematopoietic system, the immune system, reproductive organs, and the endocrine system. The second part of this report reviews the application of in vitro culture systems to organ specific toxicity and evaluates the application of these systems both in industry for safety assessment and in government for regulatory purposes. Members of the working group (WG) felt that access to high-quality human material is essential for better use of in vitro organ and tissue cultures in the risk assessment process. Therefore, research should focus on improving culture techniques that will allow better preservation of human material. The WG felt that it is also important to develop and make available relevant reference compounds for toxicity assessment in each organ system, to organize and make available via the Internet complete in vivo toxicity data, including human data, containing dose, end points, and toxicokinetics. The WG also recommended that research should be supported to identify and to validate biological end points for target organ toxicity to be used in alternative toxicity testing strategies. PMID:9599689

  18. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  19. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us.

  20. Caustic Agent Ingestion by a 1.5-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Behdad; Mohammadpour, Masoud; Yaghmaie, Bahareh; Sharifzadeh, Meisam; Mehdizadeh, Mehrzad; Zamani, Fatemeh; Edalatkhah, Rouhollah; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh

    2016-07-01

    We present a case of caustic ingestion by a 1.5-year-old boy. The caustic agent was drain opener which is a strong alkaline substance. Children in Iran and many other countries are still exposed to not "child proof" (child resistant packaging) toxic substance containers. Ingestion of caustic agents may lead to necrosis, perforation, and strictures. Substances that are ingested more frequently are liquid alkali material which causes severe, deep liquefaction necrosis. Common signs and symptoms of caustic agents are vomiting, drooling, refusal to drink, oral burns, stridor, hematemesis, dyspnea, dysphagia and abdominal pain. Even if no oropharyngeal lesion is seen, a significant esophageal injury which can lead to perforation and stricture cannot be ruled out. If abdominal pain or rigidity, substernal, chest or back pain exists, visceral perforation should be considered. The first thing to be checked is airway assessment. A lot of patients should be admitted to intensive care unit, and endoscopic evaluation, surgical intervention, long-term hospitalization, and worsening quality of life or among the complications. Preventive measures especially at the country level and approving proper legislation for obligating the related industries to produce child proof containers for house hold toxic products are the urgent measures to be followed by all of us. PMID:27424019

  1. Mitochondrial Mechanisms of Redox Cycling Agents Implicated in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopert, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Environmental agents have been implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) based on epidemiological studies and the ability of toxicants to replicate features of PD. However, the precise mechanisms by which toxicants induce dopaminergic toxicity observed in the idiopathic form of PD remain to be fully understood. The roles of ROS and mitochondria are strongly suggested in the mechanisms by which these toxicants exert dopaminergic toxicity. There are marked differences and similarities shared by the toxicants in increasing steady-state levels of mitochondrial ROS. Furthermore, toxicants increase steady-state mitochondrial ROS levels by stimulating the production, inhibiting the antioxidant pathways of both. This review will focus on the role of mitochondria and ROS in PD associated with environmental exposures to redox-based toxicants. PMID:25749885

  2. Behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landauer, M. R.; Davis, H. D.; Kumar, K. S.; Weiss, J. F.

    1992-10-01

    Effective radioprotection with minimal behavioral disruption is essential for the selection of protective agents to be used in manned spaceflight. This overview summarizes the studies on the behavioral toxicity of selected radioprotectors classified as phosphorothioates (WR-2721, WR-3689), bioactive lipids (16, 16 dimethylprostaglandin E2(DiPGE2), platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4), and immunomodulators (glucan, synthetic trehalose dicorynomycolate, and interleukin-1). Behavioral toxicity was examined in laboratory mice using a locomotor activity test. For all compounds tested, there was a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor behavior that paralleled the dose-dependent increase in radioprotection. While combinations of radioprotective compounds (DiPGE2 plus WR-2721) increased radioprotection, they also decreased locomotor activity. The central nervous system stimulant, caffeine, was able to mitigate the locomotor decrement produced by WR-3689 or PAF.

  3. Toxicity evaluation and hazard review for o-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, M.M.; Stocum, W.E.

    1993-12-01

    Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile (CS) is one of a number of riot control agents referred to as tear gas, although it is in fact a particulate suspension. The toxicity of this material has been studied in various detail. The purpose of this study was to review and summarize the literature data available on the toxicity of CS.

  4. Toxicity of the pyrolysis products of spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    A number of spacecraft construction materials are evaluated for the toxic effects of their thermodegradation products on rats. Pyrolysis toxicity testing of pyrolysate fumes establish carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen cyanide as the most common intoxicating agents. Generally, COHb levels of animals expiring in the test chamber suggest higher concentrations of CO are produced with larger samples of most materials.

  5. [Lipid lowering drug and other toxic myopathies].

    PubMed

    Schoser, B G H; Pongratz, D

    2005-11-01

    A growing number of therapeutic agents and exogenous toxins are harmful to structure and function of human skeletal muscle. The clinical syndrome encompasses asymptomatic creatine kinase elevation, myalgia, exercise intolerance, muscle paresis and atrophy, and lastly acute rhabdomyolysis. Toxic myopathies are potentially reversible, hence a prompt recognition is particularly helpful for the early diagnosis and in conclusion elimination of a myopathy inducing toxin. Toxic myopathies may be classified as acute or chronic accordingly to the exposition time to a toxin. Main source of an exogenous induced toxic myopathy is chronic alcohol abuse. Alcohol excess induces acute and/or chronic neuropathy and myopathy, consequently muscle wasting and weakness occurs. Drug-induced myopathies are most frequently seen due to amplified utilization of corticosteroids or lipid lowering agents.

  6. The relevance of cryoprotectant "toxicity" to cryobiology.

    PubMed

    Fahy, G M

    1986-02-01

    Cryoprotective agents are essential for the cryopreservation of almost all biological systems. These additives, however, do not usually permit 100% survival after freezing and thawing, though from a theoretical point of view they should be able to fully suppress all known types of freezing injury. In view of the known biological and physicochemical effects of cryoprotectants, it is suggested that the toxicity of these agents is a key limiting factor in cryobiology. Not only does this toxicity prevent the use of fully protective levels of additive, but it may also be manifested in the form of cryoinjury over and beyond the cryoinjury due to classical causes. Evidence for this extra injury ("cryoprotectant-associated freezing injury") is reviewed. It is suggested that better suppression of toxicity is possible and will lead to advances in cryopreservation.

  7. Natural chelating agents for radionuclide decorporation

    DOEpatents

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1985-06-11

    This invention relates to the production of metal-binding compounds useful for the therapy of heavy metal poisoning, for biological mining and for decorporation of radionuclides. The present invention deals with an orderly and effective method of producing new therapeutically effective chelating agents. This method uses challenge biosynthesis for the production of chelating agents that are specific for a particular metal. In this approach, the desired chelating agents are prepared from microorganisms challenged by the metal that the chelating agent is designed to detoxify. This challenge induces the formation of specific or highly selective chelating agents. The present invention involves the use of the challenge biosynthetic method to produce new complexing/chelating agents that are therapeutically useful to detoxify uranium, plutonium, thorium and other toxic metals. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa family of organisms is the referred family of microorganisms to be used in the present invention to produce the new chelating agent because this family is known to elaborate strains resistant to toxic metals.

  8. Toxicity testing in chemical safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bus, James S

    2007-02-01

    The modern era of chemistry has resulted in dramatic improvements in the overall human condition. In addition to new pharmaceuticals, modern chemistry has brought with it enormous health and social benefits Introduction of chemistry-based technologies, however, has also been clearly associated with potential human health risks. The dramatic increase in pharmaceutical and chemical technologies in the post World War II era, coupled with associated examples of demonstrated human toxicity, led to development and application of an expanded and standardized battery of animal and other toxicity tests designed to characterize the potential hazards and risks associated with chemical exposures. This unit discusses the current approach to industrial chemical and pesticide toxicity testing.

  9. Potential Toxic Effects of Nano-Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingsheng; Chen, Hongzheng; Shi, Minmin; Wu, Gang; Fujita, Daisuke; Hanagata, Nobutaka

    2013-09-01

    The increasing use of nanomaterials in industrial and consumer products has aroused global concern regarding their potential impact on environment and human health. A number of studies on the effects of nanomaterials in in vitro and in vivo systems have been shown that some nanomaterials are potentially toxic. We address the understanding of the link of physicochemical characteristics of some nano-oxides including SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO to the observed toxic effects. Understanding the contribution of physicochemical characteristics of nanomaterials to toxic effects would allow safety to be built into the design of nanomaterials and their applications, to allow their safe integration into products.

  10. Proteinuria of industrial lead intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Vacca, C.V.; Hines, J.D.; Hall, P.W. III

    1986-12-01

    Studies of protein excretion were undertaken in seven males, aged 35-42 years, who had more than 5 years exposure to industrial lead and had clinically established Pb intoxication. Heavy metal intoxication with Cd and Hg causes proximal tubular abnormalities, i.e., aminoaciduria, glycosuria, phosphaturia. Similar abnormalities occur in Pb intoxication except that the nature of the proteinuria remains controversial. Studies of urinary proteins included 24-hr urine protein excretion, dextran gel separations, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacryl-amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and ..beta../sub 2/ microglobulin (B/sub 2/M) measurements. Creatinine clearances, and serum B/sub 2/M concentrations were normal. Urine total protein distribution by SDS-PAGE and the B/sub 2/M excretion rate were also normal. These data imply that the nephrotoxicity of Cd and Hg are different than that of Pb. The authors speculate on what might account for this difference. This study suggests that when examining a population exposed to Pb, the finding of tubular proteinuria should alert investigators to search for the presence of other toxic agents.

  11. Psychologic sequelae of chronic toxic waste exposure.

    PubMed

    Foulks, E; McLellen, T

    1992-02-01

    Exposure to toxic industrial substances has been a topic of increasing concern to environmentalists, government agencies, industrial engineers, and medical specialists. Our study focuses on the psychologic symptom responses of a community to perceived long-term exposure to toxic waste products. We compared their symptom clusters, as shown by their responses to questions on the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-90 Item (SCL-90) and the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS), with symptom levels of normal and depressed subjects. Issues of media coverage, litigation, and potential for compensation complicate the psychiatric epidemiology of the subject. PMID:1738876

  12. Interaction between some common genotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Beckman, L; Nordenson, I

    1986-01-01

    The clastogenic effects of arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide and the protective effect of selenium were studied in short-term lymphocyte cultures. The three agents selected are the major toxic substances in emissions from copper smelters. Cells from non-smoking, healthy individuals were exposed to individual agents and combinations of the four agents (sodium arsenite, lead acetate, sodium sulphite and sodium selenite) and the cells were analysed for chromosome aberrations and sister chromatide exchanges. Selenium showed an antagonistic (protective) effect against the other agents. No synergistic effects were found, and the interactions between arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide were mainly antagonistic. These rather unexpected findings indicate that mixed exposure from copper smelters, and other mixed exposures where arsenic, lead and sulphur dioxide are involved, may cause less genetic damage than expected and that an adequate dietary supplement of selenium may reduce the genotoxic effects of these agents. PMID:3793119

  13. An evaluation of thiram toxicity on cultured human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Cereser, C; Boget, S; Parvaz, P; Revol, A

    2001-05-11

    Thiram is widely used in agriculture as a fungicide and, to a lesser extent, as a vulcanizing agent in the rubber industry. In spite of the extensive use of thiram, knowledge on its toxicity and health risk remains limited, and few investigations have been performed to assess specific damage at the cellular and subcellular level. We report here the cytotoxic effects of thiram on cultured human skin fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that thiram exposure induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the viable cell recovery with 100% cell death observed with a concentration of 5.0 mg/l. As judged by morphological changes and biochemical criteria, thiram-mediated cell death was not of the apoptotic but seemed to be of the necrotic type. This cell death was not associated with a modification of gene expression of different constituents of the extracellular matrix. A late increase of lactate production was evident after thiram treatment, suggesting a mitochondrial metabolic pathway dysfunction as reported by other authors using similar compounds. However, this phenomenon appeared as a secondary response to the toxic action of thiram. The cytotoxic effect of thiram is possibly due to an oxidant effect inherent to the structure of thiram and the interaction between thiram and vital cellular molecules.

  14. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry. PMID:26593505

  15. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    PubMed

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry.

  16. Industrial diamond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    An overview of the industrial diamond industry is provided. More than 90 percent of the industrial diamond consumed in the U.S. and the rest of the world is manufactured diamond. Ireland, Japan, Russia, and the U.S. produce 75 percent of the global industrial diamond output. In 2000, the U.S. was the largest market for industrial diamond. Industrial diamond applications, prices for industrial diamonds, imports and exports of industrial diamonds, the National Defense Stockpile of industrial diamonds, and the outlook for the industrial diamond market are discussed.

  17. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies. PMID:26617524

  18. Bacteriocins as Potential Anticancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Sumanpreet; Kaur, Sukhraj

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide, despite advances in its treatment and detection. The conventional chemotherapeutic agents used for the treatment of cancer have non-specific toxicity toward normal body cells that cause various side effects. Secondly, cancer cells are known to develop chemotherapy resistance in due course of treatment. Thus, the demand for novel anti-cancer agents is increasing day by day. Some of the experimental studies have reported the therapeutic potential of bacteriocins against various types of cancer cell lines. Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized cationic peptides secreted by almost all groups of bacteria. Some bacteriocins have shown selective cytotoxicity toward cancer cells as compared to normal cells. This makes them promising candidates for further investigation and clinical trials. In this review article, we present the overview of the various cancer cell-specific cytotoxic bacteriocins, their mode of action and efficacies.

  19. Preparing Change Agents for Change Agent Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, James R.

    Seventy-seven Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking agricultural change agents from developing Central and South American countries responded to a questionnaire which sought perceptions of the roles in which the change agents felt they were involved and the roles for which they felt they were being trained. The agents were participating in training…

  20. No toxics in, no toxics out, says California steelmaker

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    In 1992, managers at USS-POSCO Industries (UPI; Pittsburgh, California) developed the New Product Review program, a hazardous substance tracking system aimed at minimizing the mill's use of hazardous materials and, consequently, the amount of hazardous waste to be controlled. The program tracks the flow of hazardous materials and promotes use of non-hazardous substances whenever possible. Under UPI's review program, suppliers must submit more detailed product information. A product review form, along with such documents as a vendor-supplied MSDS, requires the listing of known or potentially carcinogenic or harmful substances. The review from also specifies a product's estimated annual usage, if the product will generate a hazardous or toxic waste, and disposal method. To better understand overall product performance, the company may require vendors to supply additional bioassay and toxicity test information. In addition to the New Product Review program, company officials are exploring ways to recycle or sell every by-product of the steelmaking process.

  1. Thermal stress and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Johnstone, Andrew F M; Aydin, Cenk

    2014-07-01

    Elevating ambient temperature above thermoneutrality exacerbates toxicity of most air pollutants, insecticides, and other toxic chemicals. On the other hand, safety and toxicity testing of toxicants and drugs is usually performed in mice and rats maintained at sub-thermoneutral temperatures of ~22∘C. When exposed to chemical toxicants under these relatively cool conditions, rodents typically undergo a regulated hypothermic response, characterized by preference for cooler ambient temperatures and controlled reduction in core temperature. Reducing core temperature delays the clearance of most toxicants from the body; however, a mild hypothermia also improves recovery and survival from the toxicant. Raising ambient temperature to thermoneutrality and above increases the rate of clearance of the toxicant but also exacerbates toxicity. Furthermore, heat stress combined with work or exercise is likely to worsen toxicity. Body temperature of large mammals, including humans, does not decrease as much in response to exposure to a toxicant. However, heat stress can nonetheless worsen toxic outcome in humans through a variety of mechanisms. For example, heat-induced sweating and elevation in skin blood flow accelerates uptake of some insecticides. Epidemiological studies suggest that thermal stress may exacerbate the toxicity of airborne pollutants such as ozone and particulate matter. Overall, translating results of studies in rodents to that of humans is a formidable task attributed in part to the interspecies differences in thermoregulatory response to the toxicants and to thermal stress. PMID:24944028

  2. Baltimore Air Toxics Study (BATS)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Baltimore Air Toxics Study is one of the three urban air toxics initiatives funded by EPA to support the development of the national air toxics strategy. As part of this project, the Air Quality Integrated Management System (AIMS) is under development. AIMS is designed to bring together the key components of urban air quality management into an integrated system, including emissions assessment, air quality modeling, and air quality monitoring. Urban area source emissions are computed for a wide range of pollutants and source categories, and are joined with existing point source emissions data. Measured air quality data are used to evaluate the adequacy of the emissions data and model treatments as a function of season, meteorological parameters, and daytime/nighttime conditions. Based on tested model performance, AIMS provides the potential to improve the ability to predict air quality benefits of alternative control options for criteria and toxic air pollutants. This paper describes the methods used to develop AIMS, and provides examples from its application in the Baltimore metropolitan area. The use of AIMS in the future to enhance environmental management of major industrial facilities also will be addressed in the paper.

  3. Remote Agent Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorais, Gregory A.; Kurien, James; Rajan, Kanna

    1999-01-01

    We describe the computer demonstration of the Remote Agent Experiment (RAX). The Remote Agent is a high-level, model-based, autonomous control agent being validated on the NASA Deep Space 1 spacecraft.

  4. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfson, J S; Hooper, D C

    1989-01-01

    system toxicities occurring most commonly, but only rarely necessitating discontinuance of therapy. In 17 of 18 prospective, randomized, double-blind comparisons with another agent or placebo, fluoroquinolones were tolerated as well as or better than the comparison regimen. Bacterial resistance has been uncommonly documented but occurs, most notably with P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and occasionally other species for which the therapeutic ratio is less favorable. Fluoroquinolones offer an efficacious, well-tolerated, and cost-effective alternative to parenteral therapies of selected infections. PMID:2680058

  5. Industrial Waste Reduction Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-24

    US industry generates over 12 billion tons of wastes each year. These wastes consist of undesirable by-products of industrial production that are discarded into our environment. Energy is an integral part of these wastes; it is found in the embodied energy of industrial feedstocks not optimally used, in the energy content of the wastes themselves, and in the energy needed to transport, treat, and dispose of wastes. Estimates of the potential energy savings from reducing industrial wastes range from three to four quadrillion Btu per year -- enough to meet the annual energy needs of 30 million American homes. This document presents a plan for the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which has been designed to help achieve national goals for energy efficiency and waste minimization. The objective of the program is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial processes through cost-effective waste reduction. The initial program focus is on waste reduction opportunities in the production and use of chemicals, due to the significant amount of energy used in these activities and the large amounts of hazardous and toxic wastes they generate. The chemical industry will be the initial subject of a series of waste reduction opportunity assessments conducted as part of the program. Assessments of other industries and waste problems will follow.

  6. Serotonin toxicity: a practical approach to diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Buckley, Nicholas A; Whyte, Ian M

    2007-09-17

    Excess serotonin in the central nervous system leads to a condition commonly referred to as the serotonin syndrome, but better described as a spectrum of toxicity - serotonin toxicity. Serotonin toxicity is characterised by neuromuscular excitation (clonus, hyperreflexia, myoclonus, rigidity), autonomic stimulation (hyperthermia, tachycardia, diaphoresis, tremor, flushing) and changed mental state (anxiety, agitation, confusion). Serotonin toxicity can be: mild (serotonergic features that may or may not concern the patient); moderate (toxicity which causes significant distress and deserves treatment, but is not life-threatening); or severe (a medical emergency characterised by rapid onset of severe hyperthermia, muscle rigidity and multiple organ failure). Diagnosis of serotonin toxicity is often made on the basis of the presence of at least three of Sternbach's 10 clinical features. However, these features have very low specificity. The Hunter Serotonin Toxicity Criteria use a smaller, more specific set of clinical features for diagnosis, including clonus, which has been found to be more specific to serotonin toxicity. There are several drug mechanisms that cause excess serotonin, but severe serotonin toxicity only occurs with combinations of drugs acting at different sites, most commonly including a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Less severe toxicity occurs with other combinations, overdoses and even single-drug therapy in susceptible individuals. Treatment should focus on cessation of the serotonergic medication and supportive care. Some antiserotonergic agents have been used in clinical practice, but the preferred agent, dose and indications are not well defined.

  7. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei; Pai, Reetesh K.; Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  8. Industrial garnet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olson, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    A general overview of the industrial garnet industry is provided. About 20 percent of global industrial garnet production takes place in the U.S. During 2000, an estimated 300 kt of industrial garnets were produced worldwide. The U.S. is the world's largest consumer of industrial garnet, consuming 56.9 kt in 2000.

  9. The international electronics industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J; Rohm, T

    1998-01-01

    High-technology microelectronics has a major presence in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, now the third-largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips. The migration of European, Japanese, and American companies accommodates regional markets. Low wage rates and limited enforcement of environmental regulations in developing countries also serve as incentives for the dramatic global migration of this industry. The manufacture of microelectonics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials. Metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids, and toxic gases are used in a wide variety of combinations and workplace settings. The industry also presents problems of radiation exposure and various occupational stressors, including some unresolved ergonomic issues. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as the stringent security precautions, have added to the difficulty of instituting proper health and safety measures. Epidemiologic studies reveal an alarming increase in spontaneous abortions among cleanroom manufacturing workers; no definitive study has yet identified its cause. Other health issues, including occupational cancer, are yet to be studied. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems are properly addressed and resolved. PMID:10026464

  10. The international electronics industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, J; Rohm, T

    1998-01-01

    High-technology microelectronics has a major presence in countries such as China, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, now the third-largest manufacturer of semiconductor chips. The migration of European, Japanese, and American companies accommodates regional markets. Low wage rates and limited enforcement of environmental regulations in developing countries also serve as incentives for the dramatic global migration of this industry. The manufacture of microelectonics products is accompanied by a high incidence of occupational illnesses, which may reflect the widespread use of toxic materials. Metals, photoactive chemicals, solvents, acids, and toxic gases are used in a wide variety of combinations and workplace settings. The industry also presents problems of radiation exposure and various occupational stressors, including some unresolved ergonomic issues. The fast-paced changes of the technology underlying this industry, as well as the stringent security precautions, have added to the difficulty of instituting proper health and safety measures. Epidemiologic studies reveal an alarming increase in spontaneous abortions among cleanroom manufacturing workers; no definitive study has yet identified its cause. Other health issues, including occupational cancer, are yet to be studied. The microelectronics industry is a good example of an industry that is exported to many areas of the world before health and safety problems are properly addressed and resolved.

  11. [Comparative evaluation of health hazards associated with industrial chemicals and their derivates forming during water chlorination].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Lebedev, A T

    2006-01-01

    Many industrial chemicals found in waste waters are able to form organochlorine by-products during water disinfection. The transformation of seven model compounds, cyclohexene, n-butanol, diphenylmethane, acetophenone, aniline, 1-methylnaphthalene, and phenylxylylethane during a reaction with active chlorine was studied. Aqueous chlorine and sodium hypochlorite were used as chlorinating agents. The products of the reaction were analyzed by means of chromatomass-spectrometry. A schematic model of diphenylmethane transformation was proposed. Comparative evaluation of hazards associated with the model chemicals and their derivates confirmed that chlorination products can be more toxic and dangerous than the initial compounds, and may possess mutagenic and cancerigenic properties. PMID:16889350

  12. Toxicity of laundry detergent components to a freshwater cladoceran and their contribution to detergent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Warne, M S; Schifko, A D

    1999-10-01

    The toxicity of 39 laundry detergent components including surfactants, enzymes, builders, fabric brighteners, fillers, and coloring agents to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf. dubia was determined. The difference between the most and the least toxic components was approximately 17,000-fold and 1,000,000-fold for the mg/L and mmol/L EC50 data, respectively. Two of the components had high toxicity (EC50 values < 1 mg/L), 11 moderate toxicity (EC50 values between 1 and 10 mg/L), and the remaining 26 components had low toxicity (EC50 values > 10 mg/L). Analysis revealed that mixtures of the components interacted antagonistically, additively, and synergistically. On a molarity basis the most toxic group of compounds was the surfactants followed by the brighteners. The most toxic individual components included sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium silicate solution, four brighteners, sodium perborate tetrahydrate, and the surfactants. Many of the most toxic components, however, contributed very little to the toxicity of the detergents due to being present in the detergents at low concentrations. The main contributors to the toxicity of detergents were the sodium silicate solution and the surfactants-with the remainder of the components contributing very little to detergent toxicity. The potential for acute aquatic toxic effects due to the release of secondary or tertiary sewage effluents containing the breakdown products of laundry detergents may frequently be low. However, untreated or primary treated effluents containing detergents may pose a problem. Chronic and/or other sublethal effects that were not examined in this study may also pose a problem.

  13. Toxic substances handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junod, T. L.

    1979-01-01

    Handbook, published in conjunction with Toxic Substances Alert Program at NASA Lewis Research Center, profiles 187 toxic chemicals in their relatively pure states and include 27 known or suspected carcinogens.

  14. Toxic shock syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... of toxic shock syndrome involved women who used tampons during their periods (menstruation). However, today less than half of cases are linked to tampon use. Toxic shock syndrome can also occur with ...

  15. Toxic leukoencephalopathy with atypical MRI features following a lacquer thinner fire.

    PubMed

    Kao, Hung-Wen; Pare, Laura; Kim, Ronald; Hasso, Anton N

    2014-05-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is a structural alteration of the white matter following exposure to various toxic agents. We report a 49-year-old man exposed to an explosion of lacquer thinner with brain MRI features atypical from those of chronic toxic solvent intoxication. PMID:24291481

  16. Contrast agents for diagnostic ultrasound: development and evaluation of polymer-coated microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, M A; Schrope, B; Shen, P

    1990-11-01

    Although the concept of an ultrasound contrast agent dates from Gramiak's work in 1968 in which indocyanine green was injected into the ascending aorta and heart, no universally accepted contrast agent for ultrasound now exists. This is primarily due to problems with stability, size and/or toxicity of the agents which have been investigated. Development of an effective ultrasound contrast agent would be highly significant for the health care industry, since it would greatly expand the scope of ultrasound (a noninvasive and safe procedure) as a diagnostic technique. While encapsulated gas bubbles offer particular advantages in stability over hand-agitated systems, they frequently present problems with size. Capsules larger than 10 microns in diameter become entrapped in the capillary bed of the lung. This paper describes the use of ionotropic gelation of the naturally occurring polysaccharide, alginate, for microencapsulation of air. Two procedures have been investigated. A novel jet head has been developed which allows co-extrusion of a solution of sodium alginate and air to produce nascent microencapsulated air bubbles which fall into a hardening solution of calcium ions. A second method employs ultrasound to introduce cavitation-induced bubbles into the alginate before capsule formation by spraying. Power spectra of these preparations demonstrate echogenicity (that is strong scatter of the incident ultrasound wave back to the emitting transducer, which also acts as a receiver), with resonant peaks that are a function of capsule size and wall characteristics. PMID:2090309

  17. Toxic gases from fires.

    PubMed

    Terrill, J B; Montgomery, R R; Reinhardt, C F

    1978-06-23

    The major lethal factors in uncontrolled fires are toxic gases, heat, and oxygen deficiency. The predominant toxic gas is carbon monoxide, which is readily generated from the combusion of wood and other cellulosic materials. Increasing use of a variety of synthetic polymers has stimulated interest in screening tests to evaluated the toxicity of polymeric materials when thermally decomposed. As yet, this country lacks a standardized fire toxicity test protocol. PMID:208143

  18. In vitro and in vivo toxicities of sediment and surface water in an area near a major steel industry of Korea: endocrine disruption, reproduction, or survival effects combined with instrumental analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunmi; Lee, Sangwoo; Kim, Cheolmin; Liu, Xiaoshan; Seo, Jihyun; Jung, Hyorin; Ji, Kyunghee; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Khim, Jong Seong; Yoon, Seokmin; Lee, Woojin; Park, Jeongim; Choi, Kyungho

    2014-02-01

    The influence of industrial and/or municipal contaminant inputs on the aquatic environment of Pohang, Korea was investigated, with a focus on bioassay combined with instrumental analysis. Pohang is the most heavily populated city in Gyeongsangbuk-do province of Korea, with more than half a million residents, and also hosts the nation's biggest steel manufacturer and related industries. Sediment (n=15) and surface water samples (n=17) were collected from Hyeongsan River which runs across the Pohang city, in two separate events, i.e., June 2010 and February 2011. Sediment samples were first Soxhlet-extracted (raw extract) and were measured for estrogenicity using H295R cell line, and also analyzed for alkylphenols (APs), bisphenol A (BPA), PAHs, and PCBs. For sediment samples which exhibited greatest effects in the cell line, further fractionation was performed into non-polar, mid-polar, and polar portions. In surface water samples, heavy metals were also analyzed. Among 15 sediment samples, station S2 near the steel industry complex and station M3 near the municipal area showed the greatest sex hormone changes, and these changes were generally explained by the fractions which contained APs and BPA. Principal component analysis (PCA) however suggests that chemicals that were not analyzed in the present study would better explain endocrine disruption capacity of sediments. In water samples, adverse effects on hatchability and growth of Japanese medaka fish, and on Daphnia reproduction were noted following exposure to six water samples collected from stations near industrial and municipal areas. Several heavy metals and nonylphenol (NP) concentrations exceeded surface water quality guidelines, suggesting adverse effects of contamination inputs from both industrial and municipal activities. Observed estrogenicities in stations such as S2 and M3 warrant further investigations on longer term ecosystem impacts near industrial and municipal areas. The levels of major

  19. OVERVIEW OF HAZARDOUS/TOXIC WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective hazardous/toxic waste disposal and safe dumpsite cleanup are two of EPA's major missions in the 1980s. Incineration has been recognized as a very efficient process to destroy the hazardous wastes generated by industry or by the dumpsite remediations. The paper provides ...

  20. How Toxic Is It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crellin, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relative danger from toxicity of some typical chemicals. Notes that some materials in solutions have low toxicity, but in dust form have high toxicity. Suggests that more chemical compounds should be treated as the dangerous compounds they are. Lists common compounds found in the lab. (MVL)