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Sample records for ageratum conyzoides leaves

  1. Antibacterial activity and in vitro cytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth. stem bark and Ageratum conyzoides Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Adetutu, Adewale; Morgan, Winston A; Corcoran, Olivia; Chimezie, F

    2012-09-01

    Many species of plants in African countries are widely used in the rural communities where there is little or no access to modern medicine. However, the safety and effectiveness of these medicinal plants are poorly evaluated. The stem bark of Parkia biglobosa Jacq. and leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. were investigated for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. The plant materials were extracted with 95% ethanol, and fractionated with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antibacterial effects of the extracts and fractions of the plant materials were assayed on the bacterial cultures of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium perfringes. Ethanol extracts of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides were screened for cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Two cancer cell lines (SK-MES 1 and SK-LU 1) and one normal cell line (human skin fibroblast cell line, FS5) were used for the screening of the extracts and the fractions obtained. The ethanolic extracts and fractions of P. biglobosa and A. conyzoides showed the best activity against E. coli, S. aureus and MRSA. All fractions of A. conyzoides leaves have no activity against P. aeruginosa. Human lung cancer cell lines (SK-LU 1 and SK-MES 1) and human skin fibroblast cell line (FS5 cells) were treated with various concentrations (3.9μg/ml-2mg/ml) of the extracts and fractions for 24h. SK-MES 1 cells are more susceptible to treatment with the plant fractions. All the fractions of A. conyzoides leaves and the petroleum ether fraction of P. biglobosa were cytotoxic to SK-MES 1 cells, which to some extent may support their traditional inclusion in herbal preparations for treatment of cancer. The overall results provided evidence that the studied plant extracts might be potential sources of new antibacterial and anticancer drug.

  2. Effect of essential oils from leaves of Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camara and Chromolaena odorata on the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Bouda; Tapondjou; Fontem; Gumedzoe

    2001-04-01

    Ageratum conyzoides, Chromolaena odorata, and Lantana camara, are common weed species in Cameroon. Essential oil extracts from their leaves were tested for efficacy on the morality of the maize grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera, Curculionidae). Concentrations of the essential oils relative to the maize grains of 0.013, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1% (v/w) were used for A. conyzoides and 0.063, 0.125, 0.25 and 0.50% (v/w) for C. odorata and L. camara. Twenty 7-day old adult weevils were fed on maize grains treated with the above concentrations of the essential oils in Petri dishes. Control dishes contained insects and maize grains without essential oils. The experiment was repeated three times. Dishes were incubated in the laboratory for 7 days at 26 degrees C and 75-85% relative humidity. Insect mortality was recorded every 24 h. Graphs of percentage mortality versus the duration of exposure were constructed and the LD(50) was computed for each oil. Significant insect mortality was obtained with all the essential oils used. The mortality of S. zeamais increased with the concentration of the essential oils of the three plants and the duration of exposure of the weevils on the treated substrates. The essential oil extract of Ageratum conyzoides was the most effective insecticide (LD(50)=0.09% in 24 h), followed by that of L. camara (LD(50)=0.16%) and C. odorata (LD(50)=6.78%). These results show that the essential oils of the leaves of some of these weed species may be exploited for insect control in stored products.

  3. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum.

  4. Clinodiplosis agerati (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae), a new galling species associated with Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia, V C; Araújo, L

    2016-04-19

    Clinodiplosis agerati, a new galling species that induces stem galls on Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall) based on material collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is compared with the other Neotropical species. This is the first record of the Clinodiplosis in Ageratum. PMID:27097086

  5. Removal of methylene blue from dye effluent using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder (ACLP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman bin Mohamed; Malakahmad, Amirhossein; Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Aminu, Nasiru; Salihi, Ibrahim Umar

    2015-07-01

    Methylene blue (MB), a common environmental pollutant discharged from dye effluents were removed from synthetic effluents in this study using ageratum conyzoide leaf powder. Effects of operating parameters such as pH, initial Methylene blue concentration, adsorbent weight and contact time were examined on methylene blue removal whereas stirring speed was constant at 100 rpm. Results show that low pH (3-4) had more Methylene blue removal than high pH. Methylene blue removal decreased when initial concentration was increased but increased when adsorbent weight was increased. Removal of Methylene blue by Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder was rapid and significantly above 80% in all initial concentrations examined. At optimum conditions of pH 3, 20 minutes contact time and adsorbent weight of 60 mg for Methylene blue initial concentration of 20 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 60 mg/L, Methylene blue removal of 84.7%, 83.9% and 81.2% were obtained respectively. Results suggest that Ageratum conyzoide leaf powder could be potential adsorbents for Methylene blue removal from dye effluents.

  6. Acute Sodium Arsenite-Induced Hematological and Biochemical Changes in Wistar Rats: Protective Effects of Ethanol Extract of Ageratum conyzoides

    PubMed Central

    Ola-Davies, Olufunke Eunice; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) is an annual herbaceous plant used in folklore medicine for the treatment of a wide range of diseases. Objective: To investigate the protective effect of the ethanol leaf extract of A. conyzoides (EEAC) against hematological, serum biochemical and histological alterations induced by Sodium arsenite administration to Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups of five rats each. Group I received propylene glycol and Group II rats were given the (EEAC, 100 mg/kg b.w.) orally for 7 days. Group III were given a single oral dose of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2, 2.5 mg/kg b.w.). Animals in Group IV were pretreated with 100 mg/kg EEAC for 7 days followed by a single oral dose of sodium arsenite. Results: Arsenic exposure resulted in significant reductions (P < 0.05) in values of packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and red blood cell (RBC) count, and elevation in total white blood cell (WBC) count with insignificant reductions in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels. Alterations in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma glutamyl transferase activities, as well as in serum levels of urea, creatinine, glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels, were not statistically significant. EEAC significantly restored (P < 0.05) the PCV, Hb, RBC, and WBC as well as serum albumin, globulin, and total protein to normal values. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that EEAC possess strong potentials to protect against toxicities induced by sodium arsenite. SUMMARY Ageratum conyzoides produced significant reversal of the reduction in the erythrocytic indices (packed cell volume, red blood cell, and Hb) caused by sodium arseniteSodium arsenite-induced slight elevations in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), correlating with the

  7. In Vitro Evaluation of Ethanolic Extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against Cattle Tick, Rhipicephalus microplus

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, S.; Godara, R.; Katoch, R.; Yadav, A.; Verma, P. K.; Katoch, M.; Singh, N. K.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P < 0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus. PMID:25525626

  8. In vitro evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Singh, N K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus.

  9. In vitro evaluation of ethanolic extracts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus.

    PubMed

    Parveen, S; Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Singh, N K

    2014-01-01

    In vitro efficacy of ethanolic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides and Artemisia absinthium was assessed on Rhipicephalus microplus using adult immersion test (AIT). Five concentrations of the extract (1.25%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 20%) with three replications for each concentration were used in the bioassay. In AIT, the maximum mortality was recorded as 40% and 66.7% at 20% concentration for A. conyzoides and A. absinthium, respectively. Acaricidal activity was found to be higher in the extract of A. absinthium with LC50 and LC95 values of 11.2% and 61.7%, respectively. Egg mass weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the extracts was significantly (P<0.05) lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced significantly (P<0.05). The A. conyzoides inhibited 90% hatching of eggs at the 20% concentration, whereas A. absinthium showed 100% inhibition at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations. The results show that A. absinthium has better acaricidal properties than A. conyzoides and could be useful in controlling R. microplus. PMID:25525626

  10. Evaluation of quality and efficacy of an ethnomedicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. in the management of pediculosis

    PubMed Central

    Shailajan, Sunita; Wadke, Priyanka; Joshi, Harshvardhan; Tiwari, Bhavesh

    2013-01-01

    Background Infestation with the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, is one of the most common parasitic infestations of human worldwide. Traditionally, the main treatment for control of head lice is chemical control that includes wide variety of neurotoxic synthetic insecticides. The main difficulty posed in controlling the head louse infestation is increasing lice resistance to synthetic pediculicidal drugs. Plant-based drugs; especially essential oil components and standardized extracts have been suggested as an alternative source of materials for insect control. Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) has been reported to possess antifungal and insecticidal properties. In the present research work, an attempt has been made to evaluate in vitro pediculicidal activity of A. conyzoides. Methods A filter paper diffusion bioassay was carried out in order to determine the pediculicidal activity of different extracts of A. conyzoides. Results The study elucidates the active plant part and suitable extract responsible for the therapeutic efficacy of this plant in the management of pediculosis. Conclusion Findings of the present study indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extract to be included in the formulations as a pediculicidal agent. PMID:24563592

  11. Do Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides enhance the anti-microbial activity of traditional medicinal soft soaps (Osedudu)?

    PubMed

    Moody, J O; Adebiyi, O A; Adeniyi, B A

    2004-05-01

    The Nigerian traditional soft soaps prepared using varied locally sourced raw materials such as cocoa pod ash (Theobroma cacao) palm kernel shaft ash (Elaies guineensis) have been evaluated for their physico-chemical properties and anti-microbial activities using standard pharmacopoeia protocols and an in-vitro agar diffusion bioassay method. The anti-microbial evaluation was done with and without incorporation of Aloe vera and Ageratum conyzoides extractives into the soap samples. Results showed that the physico-chemical properties of the soaps are dependent on the raw materials utilised. The incorporated medicinal plants used in this study, however, did not show any significant effect on the anti-microbial activities exhibited by the various soaps against the bacterial and fungal test organisms.

  12. A nanovirus-like DNA component associated with yellow vein disease of Ageratum conyzoides: evidence for interfamilial recombination between plant DNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Saunders, K; Stanley, J

    1999-11-10

    Yellow vein disease of Ageratum conyzoides, a weed species that is widely distributed throughout Asia, has been attributed to infection by the geminivirus Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). In addition to a single AYVV genomic component (DNA A), we have previously demonstrated that infected plants contain chimeric defective viral components, comprising DNA A and nongeminiviral sequences, that act as defective interfering DNAs. A database search has revealed that the nongeminiviral sequences of one such defective component (def19) show significant homology with sequences of nanovirus components that encode replication-associated proteins (Reps). Primers designed to hybridise to the nongeminiviral DNA were used to PCR-amplify a full-length nanovirus-like component, referred to as DNA 1, from an extract of infected A. conyzoides. DNA 1 is unrelated to AYVV DNA A but resembles nanovirus components that encode Reps and is most closely related (73% identity) to a nanovirus-like DNA recently isolated from geminivirus-infected cotton. DNA 1 is dependent on AYVV DNA A for systemic infection of A. conyzoides and Nicotiana benthamiana and can systemically infect N. benthamiana in the presence of the bipartite geminivirus African cassava mosaic virus. A. conyzoides plants coinfected with AYVV DNA A and DNA 1 remain asymptomatic, indicating that additional factors are required to elicit yellow vein disease. Our results provide direct evidence for recombination between distinct families of plant single-stranded DNA viruses and suggest that coinfection by geminivirus and nanovirus-like pathogens may be a widespread phenomenon. The ability of plant DNA viruses to recombine in this way may greatly increase their scope for diversification.

  13. Chemo-profiling and bioassay of phytoextracts from Ageratum conyzoides for acaricidal properties against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting cattle and buffaloes in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K G Ajith; Tayade, Amol B; Kumar, Rajesh; Gupta, Suman; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Nagar, Gaurav; Tewari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Rawat, A K S; Srivastava, Sharad; Kumar, Sachin; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-03-01

    In India, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations have developed a certain level of resistance to most of the acaricides marketed against tick species. To manage the problem, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the acaricidal potential of Ageratum conyzoides plants against acaricides-resistant ticks infesting cattle and buffaloes. The regression analysis of dose-response data of ethanolic extract of A. conyzoides revealed LC90 value of 8.91% against reference susceptible IVRI-1 line of R.(B.) microplus. The ethanolic extract was found efficacious against 76.7-90% acaricides-resistant field ticks and adversely affected oviposition showing 7.04-31.3% reduction in egg laying capacity. The extract was also showed an in vitro efficacy of 52.5 and 76.7% against reference resistant IVRI-4 and 5 lines. The GC/MS/MS profiling of hexane extract, two bioactive sub-fractions and essential oils revealed the presence of 6,7-dimethoxy-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran (precocene II) as a major phyto-compound. The bioactive sub-fractions showed 96.2-97.5% efficacy against larvae of IVRI-1 and 77.1-94.9% against multi-acaricide resistant larvae of IVRI-5 line of R.(B.) microplus. The results of this study provided significant support for the development of a phyto-formulation based on A. conyzoides species. PMID:26723275

  14. Isolation, partial purification and evaluation of bioactive compounds from leaves of Ageratum houstonianum

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, M.; Rizvi, S.M.D.; Khan, M.S.; Kumar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the isolation and partial purification of bioactive compounds from the crude methanol extracts of the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum (Asteraceae). The quantification and the identification of compounds in the crude extract and active bands isolated by preparative TLC were accomplished using GC-MS analysis. The most important compounds identified in the crude extract and active bands (AB-1 and AB-2) were 6-acetyl-7-methoxy-2, 2-dimethylchromene, hexadecanoic acid and squalene, respectively. Crude extract and active bands (AB-1 and AB-2) were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The crude extract, AB-1 and AB-2 showed maximum zone of inhibition (10-13 mm) against Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, the antibacterial potential of active bands was slightly higher as compared to the crude extract. Dose-dependant increase in antioxidant potential was noticed in crude extract as well as with both active bands measured by DPPH free radicals, ion chelation and total antioxidants capacity. Our study reports various bioactive compounds in the leaves of the A. houstonianum with significant antioxidant and antibacterial potential. PMID:27350770

  15. A study of the acaricidal properties of an essential oil extracted from the leaves of Ageratum houstonianum.

    PubMed

    Tedonkeng Pamo, E; Tendonkeng, F; Kana, J R; Khan Payne, V; Boukila, B; Lemoufouet, J; Miegoue, E; Nanda, A S

    2005-03-31

    Study on acaricide property of foam soap containing essential oil of Ageratum houstonianum leaves was tested on Rhipicephalus lunulatus. Four doses of the oil (0.00, 0.02, 0.025 and 0.03 microl/g) with four replications for each dose were used in vitro. Each replication consisted of 10 ticks in a Petri dish with filter paper impregnated uniformly with the foam soap on the bottom. The same four doses in three replications were used in vivo. Each replication was made up of 10 naturally ticks infested goats. Results of this study indicate that foam soap containing essential oil of A. houstonianum leaves is toxic to R. lunulatus. The in vitro mortality rate was observed to vary from 0 to 50% on day 8 after treatment with the controls as compared to 95% with the lowest dose (0.02 microl/g) on day 8 and 100% with the highest dose (0.03 microl/g) on day 3. Meanwhile, the in vivo mortality rate was observed to be 23.4% with the control on day 8 after treatment whereas the highest dose killed 95.1% of the ticks by this day. The LD50 of the foam soap containing essential oil of this plant was 0.0259 and 0.0173 microl/g on day 2 after treatment, in the laboratory and on the farm, respectively. This indicates a potentially high efficiency of this medicated soap on this parasite.

  16. A begomovirus associated with Ageratum yellow vein disease in Indonesia: evidence for natural recombination between tomato leaf curl Java virus and Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java].

    PubMed

    Kon, T; Kuwabara, K; Hidayat, S H; Ikegami, M

    2007-01-01

    A begomovirus (2747 nucleotides) and a satellite DNA beta component (1360 nucleotides) have been isolated from Ageratum conyzoides L. plants with yellow vein symptoms growing in Java, Indonesia. The begomovirus is most closely related to Tomato leaf curl Java virus (ToLCJV) (91 and 98% in the total nucleotide and coat protein amino acid sequences, respectively), although the products of ORFs C1 and C4 are more closely related to those of Ageratum yellow vein virus-[Java] (91 and 95% identity, respectively). For this reason, the begomovirus it is considered to be a strain of ToLCJV and is referred to as ToLCJV-Ageratum. The virus probably derives from a recombination event in which nucleotides 2389-2692 of ToLCJV have been replaced with the corresponding region of the AYVV-[Java] genome, which includes the 5' part of the intergenic region and the C1 and C4 ORFs. Infection of A. conyzoides with ToLCJV-Ageratum alone produced no symptoms, but co-infection with DNAbeta induced yellow vein symptoms. Symptoms induced in Nicotiana benthamiana by ToLCJV-Ageratum, ToLCJV and AYVV-[Java] are consistent with the exchange of pathogenicity determinant ORF C4 during recombination.

  17. An enzoinformatics study targeting polo-like kinases-1 enzyme: Comparative assessment of anticancer potential of compounds isolated from leaves of Ageratum houstonianum

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd. Danish; Shakil, Shazi; Zeeshan, Mohd.; Khan, Mohd. Sajid; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Biswas, Deboshree; Ahmad, Adnan; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad

    2014-01-01

    Natural products from plant sources, embracing inherently ample structural diversity than synthetic ones are the major sources of anticancer agents and will constantly play as protagonists for discovering new drugs. Polo-like kinases (PLKs) play a leading role in the ordered execution of mitotic events and 4 mammalian PLK family members have been identified. PLK1 is an attractive target for anticancer drugs in mammalian cells, among the four members of PLKs. The present study expresses the molecular interaction of compounds (1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid bis (2 ethylhexyl) ester, squalene, 3,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol, Pentamethyl tetrahydro-5H-chromene, (1,4-Cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone and 6-Vinyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene) isolated from methanolic extract of leaves of Ageratum houstonianum with PLK1 enzyme. Docking between PLK1 and each of these compounds (separately) was performed using “Auto dock 4.2.” (1,4-Cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone showed the maximum potential as a promising inhibitor of PLK1 enzyme with reference to ∆G (−6.84 kcal/mol) and Ki (9.77 μM) values. This was sequentially followed by Pentamethyl tetrahydro-5H-chromene (∆G = −6.60 kcal/mol; Ki = 14.58 μM), squalene (∆G = −6.17 kcal/mol; Ki = 30.12 μM), 6-Vinyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene (∆G = −5.91 kcal/mol; Ki = 46.68 μM), 3, 5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol (∆G = −5.70 kcal/mol; Ki = 66.68 μM) and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid bis (2 ethylhexyl) ester (∆G = −5.58 kcal/mol; Ki = 80.80 μM). These results suggest that (1,4-Cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone might be a potent PLK1 inhibitor. Further, in vitro and in vivo rumination are warranted to validate the anticancer potential of (1,4-Cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone. PMID:24914294

  18. Ageratum enation virus-a begomovirus of weeds with the potential to infect crops.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2015-02-01

    Samples of two Ageratum conyzoides, one Sonchus oleraceus and one turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from Pakistan and Nepal. Full-length begomovirus clones were obtained from the four plant samples and betasatellite clones from three of these. The begomovirus sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) with greater than 89.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the 26 AEV sequences available in the databases. The three betasatellite sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) with greater than 90% identity to the 18 AYLCB sequences available in the databases. The AEV sequences were shown to fall into two distinct strains, for which the names Nepal (consisting of isolates from Nepal, India, and Pakistan-including the isolates identified here) and India (isolates occurring only in India) strains are proposed. For the clones obtained from two AEV isolates, with their AYLCB, infectivity was shown by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Solanum lycopersicon and A. conyzoides. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV alone or betasatellite alone showed no symptoms. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV with its associated betasatellite showed leaf curl symptoms. The findings show that AEV is predominantly a virus of weeds that has the capacity to infect crops. AYLCB appears to be the common partner betasatellite of AEV and is associated with diseases with a range of very different symptoms in the same plant species. The inability to satisfy Koch's postulates with the cloned components of isolate SOL in A. conyzoides suggests that the etiology may be more complex than a single virus with a single betasatellite.

  19. Ageratum enation virus—A Begomovirus of Weeds with the Potential to Infect Crops

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of two Ageratum conyzoides, one Sonchus oleraceus and one turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from Pakistan and Nepal. Full-length begomovirus clones were obtained from the four plant samples and betasatellite clones from three of these. The begomovirus sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) with greater than 89.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the 26 AEV sequences available in the databases. The three betasatellite sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) with greater than 90% identity to the 18 AYLCB sequences available in the databases. The AEV sequences were shown to fall into two distinct strains, for which the names Nepal (consisting of isolates from Nepal, India, and Pakistan—including the isolates identified here) and India (isolates occurring only in India) strains are proposed. For the clones obtained from two AEV isolates, with their AYLCB, infectivity was shown by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Solanum lycopersicon and A. conyzoides. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV alone or betasatellite alone showed no symptoms. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV with its associated betasatellite showed leaf curl symptoms. The findings show that AEV is predominantly a virus of weeds that has the capacity to infect crops. AYLCB appears to be the common partner betasatellite of AEV and is associated with diseases with a range of very different symptoms in the same plant species. The inability to satisfy Koch’s postulates with the cloned components of isolate SOL in A. conyzoides suggests that the etiology may be more complex than a single virus with a single betasatellite. PMID:25674770

  20. Ageratum enation virus-a begomovirus of weeds with the potential to infect crops.

    PubMed

    Tahir, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Haider, Muhammad Saleem; Mansoor, Shahid; Briddon, Rob W

    2015-02-01

    Samples of two Ageratum conyzoides, one Sonchus oleraceus and one turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) exhibiting virus-like symptoms were collected from Pakistan and Nepal. Full-length begomovirus clones were obtained from the four plant samples and betasatellite clones from three of these. The begomovirus sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum enation virus (AEV) with greater than 89.1% nucleotide sequence identity to the 26 AEV sequences available in the databases. The three betasatellite sequences were shown to be isolates of Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) with greater than 90% identity to the 18 AYLCB sequences available in the databases. The AEV sequences were shown to fall into two distinct strains, for which the names Nepal (consisting of isolates from Nepal, India, and Pakistan-including the isolates identified here) and India (isolates occurring only in India) strains are proposed. For the clones obtained from two AEV isolates, with their AYLCB, infectivity was shown by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana, N. tabacum, Solanum lycopersicon and A. conyzoides. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV alone or betasatellite alone showed no symptoms. N. benthamiana plants infected with AEV with its associated betasatellite showed leaf curl symptoms. The findings show that AEV is predominantly a virus of weeds that has the capacity to infect crops. AYLCB appears to be the common partner betasatellite of AEV and is associated with diseases with a range of very different symptoms in the same plant species. The inability to satisfy Koch's postulates with the cloned components of isolate SOL in A. conyzoides suggests that the etiology may be more complex than a single virus with a single betasatellite. PMID:25674770

  1. Buffalo calves intoxicated with Ageratum houstonianum mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ageratum houstonianum Mill, a noxious weed has been reported to contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, triterpens and coumarin. It is an invasive weed that is commonly found in the pasturelands of tropical and subtropical regions. The objectives of this work were to verify the toxicity of A. ho...

  2. Ageratum houstonianum toxicosis in zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Sánchez, Luz María; Durand, Reina

    2004-08-01

    Ageratum houstonianum (Ageratum, flossflower, blue billygoat weed) is an annual plant that tends to become a pest in gardens and pastures. Clinical signs for A. houstonianum toxicosis in cattle are characterized by either an acute hemorrhagic course or sub-acute photodynamic dermatitis. The toxicosis has often been associated with Holstein-Friesian or crossbreed Holstein cattle less resistant to tropical climate conditions. During a recent especially dry spring about 40 adult Zebu cattle were found dead, while another 40/800 animals were sacrificed. The animals had been relocated to the problem area about 4 mo before, where due to the prolonged drought, A. houstonianum was almost exclusively the only pasture available. The intoxicated cattle did not show the characteristic toxic dermatitis reported for A. houstonianum acute toxicosis; but post-mortem examination revealed bloody serous fluid in coccyx-femoral joints and hemorrhages in the large muscle tissues, while liver, kidney and heart also had hemorrhages. To confirm the toxic plant as cause of the toxicosis, phytochemical Qualitative screening and a novel thin-layer chromatographic characterization of plant extracts were done. The chromatographic profiles of coumarin compounds, alkaloids and triterpens in ruminal and intestinal contents were similar to those obtained from A. houstonianum plants from the same area, confirming ingestion of A. houstonianum as cause of the toxicosis. The coincidence of adverse nutritional conditions together with the cattle's ignorance of the grazing area predisposed the plant toxicosis. PMID:15303392

  3. Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robyn L.

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, the author presents a personal story, "Leaving," which highlights the problematic experience of opposing established practice. The tale tells of the difficulty faced by creative agency when confronted by a constraining structural hegemony. Specifically, it draws attention to the professionalization of academic life through a…

  4. Molecular characterization and pathogenicity of a carrot (Daucus carota) infecting begomovirus and associated betasatellite from India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Singh, Sudhir P; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Tuli, Rakesh

    2013-10-24

    The yellow mosaic pattern and shortening of leaf petiole are common disease symptoms associated with begomovirus infection in carrot. DNA from field infected carrot leaves was analyzed by rolling circle amplification and sequencing. The results established the presence of ageratum enation virus (AEV), which is referred to here as ageratum enation virus-carrot (AEV-Car). Symptomatic ageratum (Ageratum conyzoides) plants, growing adjacent to the carrot fields, also showed the presence of AEV (AEV-Age). Ageratum yellow leaf curl betasatellite (AYLCB) was also detected in the AEV infected carrot and ageratum samples. AEV-Car and AEV-Age are 95-97% identical in their DNA sequences, represents groups of isolates from the respective plant hosts (carrot and ageratum). Agroinoculation using infectious clones of AEV-Car plus AYLCB or AEV-Age plus AYLCB in carrot, ageratum, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) produced yellow mosaic and curling symptoms in leaves of inoculated plants. Agroinoculation of the two isolates together, along with the betasatellite (AEV-Car plus AEV-Age plus AYLCB) resulted in the enhancement of symptoms in comparison to the plants inoculated with single isolate. Plants with more severe symptoms showed a higher level of viral DNA accumulation, suggesting synergistic interactions between the two isolates of AEV.

  5. Strains of a new bipartite begomovirus, pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus, in leaf-curl-diseased tomato and yellow-vein-diseased ageratum in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Jyun-Ji; Shibuya, Yutaka; Sharma, Pradeep; Ikegami, Masato

    2008-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of begomoviruses from pepper with leaf curl and yellowing symptoms, tomato with leaf curl symptoms, and ageratum with yellow vein in Indonesia were determined. On the basis of genome organization and sequence homology, they were proposed to belong to a new species, Pepper yellow leaf curl Indonesia virus (PepYLCIV), which includes the new strains PepYLCIV-Tomato and PepYLCIV-Ageratum. These viruses had bipartite genomes. Pepper virus DNAs from Indonesia (PepYLCIV, PepYLCIV-Tomato and PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-As) were noticeably distinct, forming a separate branch from the viruses infecting pepper. Considerable divergence was observed in the common region (CR) of the genomic components of PepYLCIV (77%), PepYLCIV-Tomato (82%) and PeYLCIV-Ageratum (75%). A stem-loop-forming region and a Rep-binding motif were identical in the CR of the three viruses. The CRs of PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-A was approximately 10 nucleotides longer than that of PepYLCIV DNA-A and PepYLCIV-Tomato DNA-A. A similar insertion was also found in the CR of PepYLCIV-Ageratum DNA-B. PepYLCIV DNA-A alone was infectious in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana plants, and association with DNA-B increased symptom severity.

  6. Bioactivities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches: antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Del-Vechio-Vieira, Glauciemar; Santos, Bruna C S; Alves, Maria Silvana; Araújo, Aílson L A; Yamamoto, Célia H; Pinto, Míriam A O; Kaplan, Maria Auxiliadora C; Sousa, Orlando V

    2016-07-11

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanol extract from Ageratum fastigiatum branches. Phytochemical screening and total phenol and flavonoid contents were determined. The antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrilhydrazin (DPPH) and iron reducing power methods. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin, hot plate and tail immersion assays; while the carrageenan-induced paw edema and pleurisy tests were performed to examine the anti-inflammatory activity against acute inflammation. The extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, terpenes, sterols and saponins. Expressive levels of total phenols and flavonoids and a promising antioxidant effect were quantified. At the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract inhibited the writhing, reduced both phases of paw licking time and increased the reaction time on the hot plate. In the tail immersion test, the extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) caused a significant inhibition of pain. In these doses, the paw edema, exudate volume and leucocyte mobilization were significantly reduced. These results suggest that A. fastigiatum can be an active source of substances with antioxidant, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, adding scientific support to the appropriate use in the Brazilian folk medicine. PMID:27411067

  7. Pathogenicity and insect transmission of a begomovirus complex between tomato yellow leaf curl virus and Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shigenori; Onuki, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Masataka; Yamato, Yoichi

    2012-04-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein betasatellite (AYVB) are members of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae). TYLCV and AYVB have been found in Japan over the last 15 years, and are associated with tomato leaf curl and the tomato yellow leaf curl diseases (TYLCD). AYVB is also associated with some monopartite begomoviruses. We have cloned both TYLCV and AYVB and demonstrated that TYLCV can trans-replicate with AYVB in Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato plants. A mixed infection of TYLCV and AYVB induced more severe symptoms of upward leaf curl, stunting, vein thickening, and swelling compared with TYLCV infection alone. The symptoms induced by infection of AYVB included a rise in abnormal cell proliferation, and pigmentation around leaf vein tissues. This is the first study to show that a complex of TYLCV and AYVB can be transmitted by vector insects among tomato plants. These results indicate that TYLCV possesses the potential to induce severe TYLCD by associating with AYVB.

  8. Compounds isolated from Ageratum houstonianum inhibit the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9): An oncoinformatics study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Anupriya; Rizvi, Syed Mohd. Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Ansari, Mohd. Afaque; Shakil, Shazi; Ghazal, Fauzia; Siddiqui, Mohd. Haris; Haneef, Mohd.; Rehman, Ajijur

    2014-01-01

    Background: In osteosarcoma tissue, both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are over expressed compared to their expression in non-affected stromal tissue. Hence, gelatinases are attractive targets for anti-osteosarcoma drugs. Objective: To study the inhibitory activity of compounds isolated from Ageratum houstonianum against MMP-2 and MMP-9 by in-silico approach. Material and Methods: We performed docking study using ‘Autodock 4.2’ between 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid-bis (2-ethylhexyl) ester; squalene; 3,5-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol; pentamethyl tetrahydro-5H-chromene; (1, 4-cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone and 6-vinyl-7-methoxy-2,2-dimethylchromene with MMP-2 and MMP-9. Results: Among all six compounds isolated from Ageratum houstonianum, (1, 4-cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone showed the maximum potential as a putative inhibitor of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes with reference to ΔG (−7.95 and −8.2 kcal/mol, respectively) and Ki (1.48 and 0.98 μM, respectively) values. Total intermolecular energy of docking for (1, 4-cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone-MMP catalytic domain-interaction was found to be −8.55 kcal/mol for MMP-2 and −9.21 kcal/mol for MMP-9. Conclusion: This study explores molecular interactions between human MMPs (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and six natural compounds. This study predicts that (1,4-cyclohexylphenyl) ethanone is a more efficient inhibitor of human MMP-2 and MMP-9 enzymes compared to the other natural compounds used in this study with reference to Ki and ΔG values. PMID:24695379

  9. Identification of the virulence factors and suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing encoded by Ageratum yellow vein virus, a monopartite begomovirus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Ikegami, M; Kon, T

    2010-04-01

    Ageratum yellow vein disease (AYVD) is caused by the association of a Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite [Indonesia:Indonesia 1:2003] (ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03]) with a begomovirus component. Our previous results demonstrated that ToLCJB-[ID:ID:03] is essential for induction of leaf curl symptoms in plants and transgene expression of its betaC1 gene in Nicotiana benthamiana plants induces virus-like symptoms. Here we show that Ageratum yellow vein virus-Indonesia [Indonesia: Tomato] (AYVV-ID[ID:Tom]) alone could systemically infect the plants and induced upward leaf curl symptoms. ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03] was required, in addition to AYVV-ID[ID:Tom], for induction of severe downward leaf curl disease in N. benthamiana plants. However, DNAbeta01fsbetaC1, which encompasses a frameshift mutation, did not induce severe symptoms in N. benthamiana when co-inoculated with AYVV-ID[ID:Tom]. The infectivity analysis of AYVV-ID[ID:Tom] and its associated betasatellite encoded genes using Potato virus X (PVX) vector were carried out in N. benthamiana, indicate that the V2 and betaC1 genes are symptom determinants. We have identified the DNA encoded V2 and its betasatellite, ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03], encoded betaC1 proteins as efficient silencing suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by using an Agrobacterium co-infiltration or heterologous PVX vector assays. However, the results also showed weak suppression of gene silencing activities for C2 and C4 induced by GFP and mRNA associated with GFP was detected. Furthermore, confocal imaging analysis of ToLCJB-[ID:ID1:03] betaC1 in the epidermal cells of N. benthamiana shows that this protein is accumulated towards the periphery of the cell and around the nucleus, however, V2 accumulated in the cell cytoplasm, C4 associated with plasma membrane and C2 exclusively targeted into nucleus. In this study, we identified as many as four distinct suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by AYVV-ID[ID:Tom] and its cognate betasatellite in the

  10. Repellent activity of plant-derived compounds against Amblyomma cajennense (Acari: Ixodidae) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Soares, Sara Fernandes; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira; de Sousa Braga, Raquel; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Louly, Carla Cristina Braz; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; de Paula, José Realino; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2010-01-20

    Repellence responses of Amblyomma cajennense nymphs to callicarpenal, intermedeol, Hyptis suaveolens essential oil, extract of Melia azedarach, Cymbopogon nardus, Spiranthera odoratissima, Chenopodium ambrosioides, Ageratum conyzoides, Mentha pulegium, Ruta graveolens, and Memora nodosa were studied. Among these the extract of C. nardus stood out because of the long-lasting repellence, maintaining, in the highest concentration, 35h of protection against 90% of the nymphs. The essential oil of H. suaveolens and the extracts of C. ambrosioides and A. conyzoides showed good repellence index (66%) when applied in high concentrations. However, greater protection could be obtained at higher concentrations but with a shorter repellence time. Callicarpenal, intermedeol, extract of M. Pulegium, and M. nodosa leaves showed moderate repellence in high concentrations. Extracts from M. azedarach, R. graveolens, S. odoratissima, and M. nodosa roots showed little or no repellent effect. These results show that some plant extracts may represent a promising alternative in the control of infestations by A. cajennense.

  11. Association of an alphasatellite with tomato yellow leaf curl virus and ageratum yellow vein virus in Japan is suggestive of a recent introduction.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Muhammad Shafiq; Ikegami, Masato; Waheed, Abdul; Briddon, Rob W; Natsuaki, Keiko T

    2014-01-01

    Samples were collected in 2011 from tomato plants exhibiting typical tomato leaf curl disease symptoms in the vicinity of Komae, Japan. PCR mediated amplification, cloning and sequencing of all begomovirus components from two plants from different fields showed the plants to be infected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Ageratum yellow vein virus (AYVV). Both viruses have previously been shown to be present in Japan, although this is the first identification of AYVV on mainland Japan; the virus previously having been shown to be present on the Okinawa Islands. The plant harboring AYVV was also shown to contain the betasatellite Tomato leaf curl Java betasatellite (ToLCJaB), a satellite not previously shown to be present in Japan. No betasatellite was associated with the TYLCV infected tomato plants analyzed here, consistent with earlier findings for this virus in Japan. Surprisingly both plants were also found to harbor an alphasatellite; no alphasatellites having previously been reported from Japan. The alphasatellite associated with both viruses was shown to be Sida yellow vein China alphasatellite which has previously only been identified in the Yunnan Province of China and Nepal. The results suggest that further begomoviruses, and their associated satellites, are being introduced to Japan. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:24424499

  12. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  13. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Proliferative Activities of Essential Oils of Plants from Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and gas chromatography–flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils of plants from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Bayala, Bagora; Bassole, Imaël Henri Nestor; Gnoula, Charlemagne; Nebie, Roger; Yonli, Albert; Morel, Laurent; Figueredo, Gilles; Nikiema, Jean-Baptiste; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A; Simpore, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities of essential oils from leaves of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum americanum, Hyptis spicigera, Lippia multiflora, Ageratum conyzoides, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Zingiber officinale. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector. Major constituents were α-terpineol (59.78%) and β-caryophyllene (10.54%) for Ocimum basilicum; 1, 8-cineol (31.22%), camphor (12.730%), α-pinene (6.87%) and trans α-bergamotene (5.32%) for Ocimum americanum; β-caryophyllene (21%), α-pinene (20.11%), sabinene (10.26%), β-pinene (9.22%) and α-phellandrene (7.03%) for Hyptis spicigera; p-cymene (25.27%), β-caryophyllene (12.70%), thymol (11.88), γ-terpinene (9.17%) and thymyle acetate (7.64%) for Lippia multiflora; precocene (82.10%)for Ageratum conyzoides; eucalyptol (59.55%), α-pinene (9.17%) and limonene (8.76%) for Eucalyptus camaldulensis; arcurcumene (16.67%), camphene (12.70%), zingiberene (8.40%), β-bisabolene (7.83%) and β-sesquiphellandrène (5.34%) for Zingiber officinale. Antioxidant activities were examined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) methods. O. basilicum and L. multiflora exhibited the highest antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS tests, respectively. Anti-inflammatory properties were evaluated by measuring the inhibition of lipoxygenase activity and essential oil of Z. officinale was the most active. Anti-proliferative effect was assayed by the measurement of MTT on LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines, and SF-763 and SF-767 glioblastoma cell lines. Essential oils from A. conyzoides and L. multiflora were the most active on LNCaP and PC-3 cell lines, respectively. The SF-767 glioblastoma cell line was the most sensitive to O. basilicum and L. multiflora EOs while essential oil of A. conyzoides

  15. To leave or not to leave.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2016-06-22

    Lies, damned lies and Brexit statistics. It's not been a good month for anyone espousing evidence-based policy and politics after the chair of the Commons health committee switched from Leave to Remain, citing misuse of data by the Leave campaign. PMID:27332589

  16. Problematising Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Alistair; Leathwood, Carole

    2013-01-01

    Early school leaving has been identified as a key policy priority across Europe. In this article, we critically discuss the underpinning assumptions and rationale for this policy focus, challenging the association that is made between early school leaving, economic growth and employment. We suggest that ESL is important, not because it is…

  17. Falling for Clay Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Christine

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art project that integrated science and art education. Explains that students create ceramic bowls by using real leaves. Discusses the process of creating the ceramic bowls, including how to glaze the bowls. Includes a list of materials. (CMK)

  18. Rhubarb leaves poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the leaves (leaf blade) of the rhubarb plant. The stalk can be eaten. ... may include: Breathing difficulty Burning in the mouth Burning in the throat Coma Diarrhea Eye pain Kidney stones Nausea and vomiting Red-colored urine Seizures Stomach pain Weakness

  19. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  20. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2010-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk…

  1. Maternity Leave in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Joyce Yen; Han, Wen-Jui

    2011-01-01

    Using the first nationally representative birth cohort study in Taiwan, this paper examines the role that maternity leave policy in Taiwan plays in the timing of mothers returning to work after giving birth, as well as the extent to which this timing is linked to the amount of time mothers spend with their children and their use of breast milk versus formula. We found that the time when mothers returned to work coincided with the duration of guaranteed leave. In particular, mothers with a labor pension plan resumed work significantly earlier than mothers with no pension plan, and mothers with no pension plan returned to work significantly later than those with pension plans. The short leave of absence guaranteed under existing policies translated into mothers spending less time with their children and being more likely to exclusively use formula by 6 months after birth. In contrast, mothers who resumed work later than 6 months after birth were more likely to have not worked before birth or to have quit their jobs during pregnancy. Implications and recommendations for parental leave policy in Taiwan are discussed. PMID:21603074

  2. Massey to leave NSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    National Science Foundation Director Walter E. Massey has been recommended for appointment to the position of senior vice president for academic affairs and provost for the entire University of California system. The recommendation, which was announced on January 27, came from UC President Jack W. Peltason and will be acted upon by UC's Board of Regents. Massey has accepted the position, and it is expected that he will leave NSF early in February.Massey said that he was honored to receive the nomination and had not planned to leave his current position. “It's such a fantastic opportunity to be part of the leadership of the greatest public university in the world.…It's an opportunity that I cannot pass up,” he commented. Massey was named to a 6-year term as NSF director by former President George Bush in March 1991.

  3. Freezing injury in potato leaves.

    PubMed

    Sukumaran, N P; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Time-temperature profiles of freezing leaves from frost-resistant (Solanum acaule Bitt.) and frost-susceptible (Solanum tuberosum L. subsp. tuberosum Hawkes) types of potatoes did not reveal any major differences. The pattern of change in resistance of leaves to low voltage, low frequency current during freezing was different in the frost-resistant and susceptible leaves. In tissue sections from both types of leaves, cells freeze extracellularly at cooling velocities lower than 5 C per minute. Cells from leaves of resistant plants showed a higher osmotic pressure but not a higher water permeability than those from susceptible plants. The extent of injury caused by even very slow freezing was greater than that caused by equivalent isopiestic desiccation, particularly in susceptible leaves. The higher osmotic pressure in cells of leaves from resistant plants can account for the greater desiccation resistance but not for the frost resistance observed. PMID:16658217

  4. Water isotopologues in leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuntz, M.; Ogée, J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Cernusak, L. A.; Peylin, P.; Bariac, T.

    2007-12-01

    Leaf water isotope enrichment is a cornerstone of a variety of isotopic applications. It imprints on different substances such as atmospheric CO2, O2, and plant organic matter. But different applications use enrichment in different parts of the leaf and weighted by different fluxes. For example, leaf organic matter is determined by the assimilation-weighted average bulk water enrichment. Atmospheric CO2 and O2 are determined by the enrichment near the evaporating sites, either weighted by the one-way CO2 flux from the stomata to the atmosphere or by electron transport, resp. These applications of leaf water enrichment are used from the leaf level up to global scales. It is therefore essential to understand the time course of leaf water enrichment at both the evaporating sites and in the mesophyll but also to asses the suitability of simple models such as the Craig & Gordon (1965) steady-state prediction or the Dongmann et al. (1974) non-steady-state model. We describe here advection and diffusion of water isotopologues in leaves in the non-steady state. We first show how this relates to earlier non-steady state bulk leaf water enrichment models. The adv.-diff. model compares very well with observations of bulk mesophyll water during the whole diel cycle. It compares well with the enrichment at the evaporative sites during the day but shows some deviations at night. It is clear that night-time stomatal conductance should be measured in the future. However, varying mesophyll water volume did not seem critical for a good prediction. In addition, observations of single diurnal cycles do not constrain the effective length in the mesophyll. Finally, we show when simpler models of leaf water enrichment are suitable for applications of leaf water isotopes once weighted with the appropriate gas exchange flux. We then present a two-dimensional adv.-diff. description of leaf water enrichment along monocot leaves. The model reproduces well all published measurements along

  5. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  7. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  9. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  10. Key Obama officials leave administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  11. BRDF model for new leaves on tea leaves and new leaves monitoring through BRDF monitoring with Web cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Kohei

    In order to monitor size of new leaves, BRDF model is created with Minnaert function based on Monte Carlo model. New leaves grow up on semi-parmanent old leaves, in general, for tea leaves. It is difficult to monitor size of new leaves by measuring spectral reflectance from nadir view only. BRDF would help to estimate size of new leaves. BRDF, meanwhile, can not be measured easely. BRDF model is needed for estimation of size of new leaves. Through theoretical and simulation studies, BRDF model is created. In order to estimate size of new leaves, the most significant observation angle as well as the most effective wavelength regions for spectral reflectance measurement are estimated through simulation and experiments. Visible and near infrared cameras monitoring tea fields from 45 degrees of zenith angle of observation allows monitor size of tea leaves so that the most appropriate time for pick tea leaves up can be determined.

  12. 75 FR 75363 - Absence and Leave; Sick Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... regulations are in response to only a portion of OPM's proposed regulations (74 FR 43064) issued on August 26... covered servicemember undergoing medical treatment, recuperation, or therapy, for a serious injury or... regulations (75 FR 33491) amending the definition of family member for sick leave purposes to now...

  13. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... NDAA legislation. DOL issued its final regulations on November 17, 2008, (73 FR 67934) to implement the... proposed FMLA regulations on August 26, 2009, (74 FR 43064, at http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2009/pdf/E9... leave may be found in the DOL proposed regulations published on February 11, 2008, at 73 FR 7876...

  14. Leaves: Elevated CO2 levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Burning fossil fuels and land use changes such as deforestation and urbanization have led to a dramatic rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The highly dilute CO2 from the atmosphere enters plant leaves where it is concentr...

  15. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and... with the employee's right to submit an application to become a leave donor (or leave contributor,...

  19. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  20. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  1. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  2. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  3. 29 CFR 825.205 - Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.205 Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent or... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Increments of FMLA leave for......

  4. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants.

  5. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  6. Carnivorous leaves from Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Eva-Maria; Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Sadowski, Friederike; Fleischmann, Andreas; Behling, Hermann; Schmidt, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    The fossil record of carnivorous plants is very scarce and macrofossil evidence has been restricted to seeds of the extant aquatic genus Aldrovanda of the Droseraceae family. No case of carnivorous plant traps has so far been reported from the fossil record. Here, we present two angiosperm leaves enclosed in a piece of Eocene Baltic amber that share relevant morphological features with extant Roridulaceae, a carnivorous plant family that is today endemic to the Cape flora of South Africa. Modern Roridula species are unique among carnivorous plants as they digest prey in a complex mutualistic association in which the prey-derived nutrient uptake depends on heteropteran insects. As in extant Roridula, the fossil leaves possess two types of plant trichomes, including unicellular hairs and five size classes of multicellular stalked glands (or tentacles) with an apical pore. The apices of the narrow and perfectly tapered fossil leaves end in a single tentacle, as in both modern Roridula species. The glandular hairs of the fossils are restricted to the leaf margins and to the abaxial lamina, as in extant Roridula gorgonias. Our discovery supports current molecular age estimates for Roridulaceae and suggests a wide Eocene distribution of roridulid plants. PMID:25453067

  7. Arsenic Sorption in Dried Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Gabriela C.; de Carvalho, Regina P.; Duarte, Grazielle; Santos, Mércia H.

    2005-10-01

    Biosorption is the retention of metal ions from aqueous solutions by biomasses. This phenomenon can be helpful in the design of alternative filters for the depollution of industrial and mining waste waters. The recovery of filtered metal ions can also be commercially interesting. Although many studies about the sorptive capacity of biomasses have been done for different metals, few have investigated sorption sites and mechanisms in these systems. We studied the retention of arsenic ions from aqueous solutions using dried lettuce leaves (L. sativa) as biomass. The toxic arsenic forms As(III) and As(V) are commonly found in mining waste waters. Early studies have shown that lettuce leaves have a good sorptive capacity for copper and iron ions, comparable to other sorbents such as activated carbon or ionic-exchange resins. Arsenic sorption by lettuce dried leaves was not found to be effective when in natura biomass was used. Sorptive capacity was improved and became comparable to the sorption of the other ions studied when the biomass was charged with Fe(III). The sorption mechanism of arsenic in Fe-charged biomass must be similar to the one proposed for As sorption by mineral clays, where As ions bind to Fe(III) atoms in the clay structure.

  8. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  9. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  10. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  11. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  12. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  13. 46 CFR 310.8 - Leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitalized, sick at home, or confined in the sick bay, leave shall not exceed four (4) months. (2) For an... may be granted leaves of absence without pay, as approved by the Superintendent, for periods not...

  14. Resource capture by single leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013 Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. (a) If an agency or organizational subunit... this subpart; and (3) The agency or organizational subunit shall establish policies or...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015 Movement... organizational subunit covered by a voluntary leave bank program under this subpart and an agency or organizational subunit covered by a voluntary leave transfer program under subpart I of this part, the...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  19. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    PubMed

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  20. Role of leaves in phototropism.

    PubMed

    Lam, S L; Leopold, A C

    1966-05-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones.

  1. The cardioprotective power of leaves

    PubMed Central

    Boncler, Magdalena; Watala, Cezary

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity, smoking and/or inappropriate diet can contribute to the increase of oxidative stress, in turn affecting the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Strong anti-oxidant properties of plant polyphenolic compounds might underlie their cardioprotective activity. This paper reviews recent findings on the anti-oxidant activity of plant leaf extracts and emphasizes their effects on blood platelets, leukocytes and endothelial cells – the targets orchestrating the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. We also review the evidence linking supplementation with plant leaf extracts and the risk factors defining the metabolic syndrome. The data point to the importance of leaves as an alternative source of polyphenolic compounds in the human diet and their role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26322095

  2. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds.

  3. Phenolics of Moringa oleifera leaves.

    PubMed

    Manguro, Lawrence Onyango Arot; Lemmen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Five flavonol glycosides characterised as kaempferide 3-O-(2'',3''-diacetylglucoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrhamnoside), kaempferide 3-O-(2''-O-galloylrutinoside)-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol 3-O-[beta-glucosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside and kaempferol 3-O-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)]-[alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-glucoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnoside together with benzoic acid 4-O-beta-glucoside, benzoic acid 4-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-glucoside and benzaldehyde 4-O-beta-glucoside have been isolated from methanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves. Also obtained from the same extract were known compounds, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-rhamnoside, kaempferol, syringic acid, gallic acid, rutin and quercetin 3-O-beta-glucoside. Their structures were determined using spectroscopic methods as well as comparison with data from known compounds. PMID:17365690

  4. 5 CFR 630.703 - Computation of shore leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of shore leave. 630.703... AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.703 Computation of shore leave. (a) An employee earns shore leave at the rate of 1 day of shore leave for each 15 calendar days of absence on one or more extended voyages....

  5. Ion exchanger from chemically modified banana leaves.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Mohamed, Samar H; Abd-Elkader, Amal H

    2013-07-25

    Cation exchangers from chemically modified banana leaves have been prepared. Banana leaves were treated with different molarities of KMnO4 and cross linked with epichlorohydrin and their effect on metal ion adsorption was investigated. Phosphorylation of chemically modified banana leaves was also studied. The metal ion uptake by these modified banana leaves was clarified. Effect of different varieties, e.g. activation of produced cation exchanger, concentration of metal ions was also investigated. Characterization of the prepared ion exchangers by using infrared and thermal analysis was also taken in consideration. PMID:23768590

  6. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability.

    PubMed

    Hill, Heather D

    2013-05-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  7. Paid Sick Leave and Job Stability

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Heather D.

    2013-01-01

    A compelling, but unsubstantiated, argument for paid sick leave legislation is that workers with leave are better able to address own and family member health needs without risking a voluntary or involuntary job separation. This study tests that claim using the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and regression models controlling for a large set of worker and job characteristics, as well as with propensity score techniques. Results suggest that paid sick leave decreases the probability of job separation by at least 2.5 percentage points, or 25%. The association is strongest for workers without paid vacation leave and for mothers. PMID:24235780

  8. Resilience and Young People Leaving Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Mike

    2008-01-01

    How do we promote the resilience of young people leaving care? This article explores this question by bringing together research findings on the resilience of young people from disadvantaged family backgrounds with research studies on young people leaving care. These findings are applied to young people during their journey to adulthood: their…

  9. Developments in Educational Leave of Absence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The document evaluates present international developments in the area of leave of absence during working hours for educational purposes. Part 1, Educational Leave of Absence: A Comparative Analysis, contains five chapters: (1) Towards a New Right to Education, discussing recurrent education, the world of work, the International Labor Organization,…

  10. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  11. Antioxidant activity of Arbutus unedo leaves.

    PubMed

    Pabuçcuoğlu, A; Kivçak, B; Baş, M; Mert, T

    2003-09-01

    The ethanol and methanol extracts of Arbutus unedo leaves were screened for antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity was determined by an improved assay based on the decolorization of the radical monocation of [2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS). The ethanol and methanol extract of A. unedo leaves displayed potent antioxidant activity. PMID:12946724

  12. Patterns of ehtylene production in senescing leaves.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, N; Lieberman, M

    1979-11-01

    Changes in the patterns of ethylene production, chlorophyll content, and respiration were studied in relation to the senescence of intact leaves and leaf discs. The primary leaves of pinto bean, which abscise readily during natural senescence, and tobacco and sugar beet leaves, which do not abscise, were used. A decrease in the rate of ethylene production and respiration, during the slow phase of chlorophyll degradation, was observed in leaf-blade discs cut from mature leaves and aged in the dark. During rapid chlorophyll loss both ethylene production and respiration increased and then decreased. These climacteric-like patterns were shown by leaf discs of all three species. Discs taken from leaves that had been senescing on the plant also showed a climacteric-like rise in ethylene production but not in respiration, which decreased continuously with leaf age. Climacteric-like patterns in the rise of ethylene and respiration for leaf discs were also shown by the petioles of both bean and tobacco leaves. This indicates that the rise of ethylene and respiration is characteristic of the general process of senescence in leaves and is not restricted to the abscission process. In contrast to the ethylene-forming systems in climacteric fruits and many flowers, the one in leaves declines sharply in the early stages of senescence. The subsequent rise of ethylene production appears to be associated with the rapid phase of chlorophyll breakdown, and may indicate the final stage of the senescence process during which ethylene could be actively involved in inducing leaf abscission.

  13. When and Why Dropouts Leave High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Elizabeth; Glennie, Elizabeth J.

    2006-01-01

    Teens may leave school because of academic failure, disciplinary problems, or employment opportunities. In this article, the authors test whether the reasons dropouts leave school differ by grade level and age. We compare dropout rates and reasons across grade levels and ages for all high school students, ethnic groups, and gender groups. Across…

  14. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  15. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  16. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need can be best... illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of intermittent leave or leave on a... condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or for recovery from treatment...

  17. Women's reasons for leaving abusive spouses.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Y C

    1991-01-01

    Research has focused on factors associated with leaving physically abusive relationships, yet little is known about what the woman thinks when she leaves. Fifty-one formerly battered women from rural and metropolitan areas in two midwestern states described 86 reasons for leaving a physically abusive relationship. During open-ended interviews, women who rated themselves as severely abused spontaneously emphasized leaving as a process. Content analysis resulted in reasons categorized as safety, dependency, and personal growth. Self-report retrospective data from a nonrandom sample limit generalizability of results; however, the awareness and reasoning of the women, coupled with their emphasis on leaving as process and personal growth, suggest the importance of education and support programs for abused women and women at risk for abuse.

  18. Changes in spectral properties of detached leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    If leaf senescence can be delayed for several days without significant changes in spectral properties, then samples of leaves at remote test sites could be prepared and shipped to laboratories to measure spectral properties. The changes in spectral properties of detached leaves were determined. Leaves from red birch and red pine were immersed in water or 0.001 M benzylaminopurine (BAP) and stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of birch leaves were measured over the 400 to 1100 nm wavelength region with a spectroradiometer and integrating sphere. Pine needles were taped together and reflectance of the mat of needles was measured. Spectral properties changed less than 5% of initial values during the first week when leaves were stored at 5 C. Storage at 25 C promoted rapid senescence and large changes in spectral properties. BAP delayed, but did not stop, senescence at 25 C.

  19. Activities of some Brazilian plants against larvae of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    de Mendonça, Fernando A C; da Silva, K F S; dos Santos, K K; Ribeiro Júnior, K A L; Sant'Ana, A E G

    2005-12-01

    The insecticidal activities of extracts and oils of seventeen medicinal plants of Brazil have been determined using an Aedes aegypti larvicidal bioassay. Oils from Anacardium occidentalis, Copaifera langsdorffii, Carapa guianensis, Cymbopogon winterianus and Ageratum conyzoides showed high activities with LC50 values of 14.5, 41, 57, 98 and 148 microg/l, respectively. The most active ethanolic extract tested was that from the stem of Annona glabra which presented an LC50 value of 27 microg/l. The potential application of cashew nut oil, an industrial by-product with low commercial value, in the control of the vector of dengue and yellow fever, may be proposed.

  20. Influence of pesticides on yeasts colonizing leaves.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renata; Sláviková, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The effect of nine different pesticides on the growth of yeasts isolated from the leaves of fruit and forest trees was investigated. Four insecticides (with the active ingredients: thiacloprid, deltamethrin, lambdacyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam) and five fungicides (with the effective substances: bitertanol, kresoxim-methyl, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, and cupric oxychloride) were tested. The concentrations of chemicals were those recommended by the manufacturers for the spraying of trees. The yeast strains isolated from the leaves of fruit trees were not sensitive to any of the insecticides. The majority of yeast strains isolated from the leaves of forest trees were either not sensitive or only to a small extent. While Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Pichia anomala were not affected by any insecticide, the strains of Cryptococcus laurentii and Rhodotorula glutinis showed the highest sensitivity. The effects of fungicides on the growth of isolated yeasts were more substantial. The fungicide Dithane DG (mancozeb) completely inhibited the growth of all yeasts. All strains isolated from fruit tree leaves were more resistant to the tested fungicides than those isolated from the leaves of forest trees. The most resistant strains from the leaves of fruit trees belonged to the species Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Pichia anomala, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas Cryptococcus albidus and C. laurentii, originating from the leaves of forest trees, showed the highest sensitivity to fungicides. PMID:22351984

  1. 5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting shore leave. 630.704 Section 630... LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.704 Granting shore leave. (a) Authority. (1) An employee has an absolute right to use shore leave, subject to the right of the head of the agency to fix the time at which...

  2. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  3. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  4. 38 CFR 21.6340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Recipients Leaves of Absence § 21.6340 Leaves of absence. (a) General. VA may approve leaves of absence under vertain conditions. During approved leaves of absence, a ceteran shall be considered to be...

  5. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave.......

  6. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  7. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  8. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... between workers' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 825.207......

  9. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825...' compensation absences and FMLA leave. (f) Section 7(o) of the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) permits public... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substitution of paid leave.......

  10. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630... LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized by statute, an employee is entitled to home leave only when he has completed a basic service period of...

  11. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605... AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad, an employee earns home leave under the rates fixed by § 630.604(a) in the amounts set forth in the...

  12. Phytotoxicity of the volatile monoterpene citronellal against some weeds.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder K; Arora, Komal

    2006-01-01

    A study was undertaken to assess the phytotoxicity of citronellal, an oxygenated monoterpenoid with an aldehyde group, towards some weedy species [Ageratum conyzoides L., Chenopodium album L., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.), Garcke, Cassia occidentalis L. and Phalaris minor Retz.]. A significant effect on weed emergence and early seedling growth was observed in a dose-response based laboratory bioassay in a sand culture. Emergence of all test weeds was completely inhibited at 100 micro/g sand content of citronellal. Seeds of A. conyzoides and P. hysterophorus failed to emerge even at 50 microg/g content. Root length was inhibited more compared to shoot length. The failure of root growth was attributed to the effect of citronellal on the mitotic activity of growing root tips cells as ascertained by the onion root tip bioassay. At 2.5 mM treatment of citronellal, mitosis was completely suppressed and at higher concentrations cells showed various degrees of distortion and were even enucleated. The post-emergent application of citronellal also caused visible injury in the form of chlorosis and necrosis, leading to wilting and even death of test weeds. Among the test weeds, the effect was severe on C. album and P. hysterophorus. There was loss of chlorophyll pigment and reduction in cellular respiration upon citronellal treatment indicating the impairment of photosynthetic and respiratory metabolism. Scanning electron microscopic studies in C. occidentalis leaves upon treatment of citronellal revealed disruption of cuticular wax, clogging of stomata and shrinkage of epidermal cells at many places. There was a rapid electrolyte leakage in the leaf tissue upon exposure to citronellal during the initial few hours. In P. minor electrolyte leakage in response to 2 mM citronellal was closer to the maximum leakage that was obtained upon boiling the tissue. The rapid ion leakage is indicative of the severe effect of citronellal on the membrane

  13. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    PubMed

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm. PMID:23678643

  14. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  15. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  16. The extraction of characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves based on LCTF imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Peng-fei; Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-ning

    2013-08-01

    In order to identify and classify horticultural crops rapidly, it is great importance of selecting effective characteristic wavebands from a large number of imaging data. Extracting effective characteristic wavebands can nearly represent holistic information of the research target from rich imaging spectral data, mainly used for rapid characteristic identification, cluster analysis and establishing database, especially in high spectral sensing to recognize targets for a long distance. The experiment chooses radish leaves and rice leaves as research samples so as to obtain spectral information from the surface of samples by interval of 5nm based on LCTF imaging; then, the standard deviation and correlation coefficient of the gray images are calculated for these two kinds of leaves; next, we calculate the value of waveband index according to standard deviation and correlation coefficient, and extract the effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves through the sorting of waveband index. By those, the experimental results show there are six ideal wavebands at 530nm, 550nm, 555nm, 715nm, 510nm and 565nm for radish leaves, 645nm, 675nm, 685nm, 670nm, 690nm and 660nm for rice leaves separately. Further, according to the principle of Euclidean distance, we also give an assessment of classification accuracy for these two samples by comparing characteristic wavebands with full wavebands, and the classification accuracy of radish leaves and rice leaves is 80.00% and 86.67% respectively. Therefore, choosing these wavebands can be used as effective characteristic wavebands for radish leaves and rice leaves.

  17. Maize Leaves Turn Away from Neighbors1

    PubMed Central

    Maddonni, Gustavo Angel; Otegui, María Elena; Andrieu, Bruno; Chelle, Michael; Casal, Jorge J.

    2002-01-01

    In commercial crops, maize (Zea mays) plants are typically grown at a larger distance between rows (70 cm) than within the same row (16–23 cm). This rectangular arrangement creates a heterogeneous environment in which the plants receive higher red light (R) to far-red light (FR) ratios from the interrow spaces. In field crops, the hybrid Dekalb 696 (DK696) showed an increased proportion of leaves toward interrow spaces, whereas the experimental hybrid 980 (Exp980) retained random leaf orientation. Mirrors reflecting FR were placed close to isolated plants to simulate the presence of neighbors in the field. In addition, localized FR was applied to target leaves in a growth chamber. During their expansion, the leaves of DK696 turned away from the low R to FR ratio signals, whereas Exp980 leaves remained unaffected. On the contrary, tillering was reduced and plant height was increased by low R to FR ratios in Exp980 but not in DK696. Isolated plants preconditioned with low R/FR-simulating neighbors in a North-South row showed reduced mutual shading among leaves when the plants were actually grouped in North-South rows. These observations contradict the current view that phytochrome-mediated responses to low R/FR are a relic from wild conditions, detrimental for crop yield. PMID:12427985

  18. Parenthood and Leaving Home in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    With increases in nonmarital fertility, the sequencing of transitions in early adulthood has become even more complex. Once the primary transition out of the parental home, marriage was first replaced by nonfamily living and cohabitation; more recently, many young adults have become parents before entering a coresidential union. Studies of leaving home, however, have not examined the role of early parenthood. Using the Young Adult Study of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 4,674), we use logistic regression to analyze parenthood both as a correlate of leaving home and as a route from the home. We find that even in mid-adolescence, becoming a parent is linked with leaving home. Coming from a more affluent family is linked with leaving home via routes that do not involve children rather than those that do, and having a warm relationship with either a mother or a father retards leaving home, particularly to nonfamily living, but is not related to parental routes out of the home. PMID:25544790

  19. [Morphogenesis of proximal branch leaves in mosses].

    PubMed

    Ignatov, M S; Spirina, U N

    2012-01-01

    The formation of deeply dissected and compound leaves at the bases of branches, their homology between different groups of mosses, and probable factors responsible for their development are considered. Previous authors differ in the interpretation of such leaves and in most cases describe them as special morphological structures named pseudoparaphyllia. It is shown, however, that this term has been applied both to whole leaves and to separate leaf parts. Among the patterns of leaf formation deviating from the basic type, a special place belongs to the Hampeella variant, where deeply dissected and compound leaves are formed due to the delayed development of branch primordia. The families representing this variant occupy a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of pleurocarpous mosses. The Leucodon variant, where splitting of leaves into lobes is apparently explained by strong stem extension, is not specific for any definite phylogenetic group and manifests itself in different families. The Hypnum variant is also not associated with certain phylogenetic lineages, but it provides an example of more profound specialization.

  20. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  1. Decision to Leave Scale: Perceived Reasons to Stay in or Leave Violent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendy, Helen M.; Eggen, Doreen; Gustitus, Cheryl; McLeod, Kelli C.; Ng, Phillip

    2003-01-01

    The 30-item Decision to Leave Scale (DLS) was developed with 631 college women and 420 college women and women in shelters. Seven DLS subscales emerged for concerns in deciding to stay or leave: Fear of Loneliness, Child Care Needs, Financial Problems, Social Embarrassment, Poor Social Support, Fear of Harm, Hopes Things Change. Mean internal…

  2. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  3. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208 Section 630.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.208 Reduction in leave credits. (a) When the number of hours in a...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752... Leave and holidays. For use in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts for technical or professional services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its...

  5. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752... Leave and holidays. For use in all USAID cost-reimbursement contracts for technical or professional services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its...

  6. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the endorsement of the Mission) approves one of the following as an alternative: (i) Taking, during... contract. The use of home leave authorized under this clause shall not constitute a break in service for... leave at the completion of their duties under this contract. (c) Home leave. (1) Home leave is...

  7. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  8. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  9. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21... Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Leaves of Absence § 21.8340 Leaves of absence. (a... absence. The VR&E case manager may grant the child leaves of absence for periods during which the...

  10. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  11. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  12. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... the Act's leave requirements. (2) An exception to this required uniformity......

  13. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  14. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  15. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  16. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  17. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.120 Leave for... of a child as follows: (1) Both the mother and father are entitled to FMLA leave for the......

  18. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... the Act's leave requirements. (2) An exception to this required uniformity......

  19. 29 CFR 825.200 - Amount of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.200 Amount of... a family and medical leave statute. The State may require a single......

  20. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  1. The geometry of unfolding tree leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, H.; Kresling, B.; Vincent, J. F. V.

    1998-01-01

    Leaves of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus) and beech (Fagus sylvaticus) were modelled to a first approximation as plane surfaces, with straight parallel folds, using numerical methods. In both species the lateral veins, when the leaves are outstretched, are angled at 30 to 50 degrees from the centre vein. A higher angle allows the leaf to be folded more compactly within the bud, but it takes longer to expand. This may allow the plant to optimize the timing of leaf deployment with ecological and physiological conditions.

  2. Mary Glover Lecture 2004: leaving a legacy.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Marlene

    2005-09-01

    Mary Glover was a Head Nurse at St. Paul's Hospital in Vancouver. She was killed in a plane crash more than 25 years ago. Yet, through this neuroscience nurse's passion for her specialty, we share in her legacy through the annual Mary Glover Lecture, which was established by her parents after her death. The first Mary Glover Lecturer was Pamela Mitchell, a well-known neuroscience nurse from the School of Nursing at the University of Washington. She is leaving a multifaceted legacy through her research on intracranial pressure and quality of care as well as her books and her mentorship. Jessie Young has left a legacy as the founder and first president of the Canadian Association of Neuroscience Nurses (CANN). CANN is leaving a legacy with many firsts among Canadian nursing specialty organizations. Leaving a legacy is not just about donating money or writing a famous book. For most of us, our legacy comes in the little everyday things of life. Ask yourself, what is the legacy that you are leaving as a neuroscience nurse and as an individual?

  3. Sun and Shade Leaves: Some Field Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1983-01-01

    Several simple experiments illustrating how the light regime affects the final form of dog's mercury (Mercurialis perennis) are provided. These experiments, which can also be done with other plants, focus on differences in the anatomy, morphology, and physiology of sun and shade leaves. (JN)

  4. Practical Approaches for Teaching Leave No Trace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    As participation in outdoor recreation grows, natural resources suffer a variety of environmental and social impacts. A minimum-impact back country educational program first developed during the 1970s, Leave No Trace (LNT), has been revitalized by the National Outdoor Leadership School, six federal agencies, and members of the outdoor products…

  5. Diterpenoids from Leaves of Rubus chingii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian

    2016-03-01

    The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity.

  6. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  7. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  8. The Biology of Ageing in Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures for observing the progressive change deciduous leaves undergo prior to abscission. Outlines the starch test, sugar test, extraction and chromatography of pigments, and experimental results. States that obtained results enable the events of leaf senescence to be correlated with the carbohydrate economy of a tree in…

  9. Diterpenoids from Leaves of Rubus chingii.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Huang, Yingzheng; Cui, Hangqing; Peng, Caiying; Liu, Jianqun; Huang, Huilian

    2016-03-01

    The leaves of Rubus chingii were examined for their phytochemical composition and anti-yeast activity. In the process, seven diterpenoids (compounds 1-7), including a new natural compound (14β, 16-epoxy-7-pimarene-3α, 15β-diol, 1), were isolated and elucidated. Compound 1 exhibited moderate anti-Candida activity. PMID:27169185

  10. Limonoids from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera.

    PubMed

    Ning, Jing; Di, Ying-Tong; Fang, Xin; He, Hong-Pin; Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yan; Li, Shun-Lin; Hao, Xiao-Jiang

    2010-08-27

    Eight new limonoids with four different structural frameworks, including gedunin (1, 2), havanensin (3, 4), mexicanolide (5, 6), and methyl angolensate types (7, 8), together with six known limonoids, were isolated from the leaves of Cipadessa baccifera. Compounds 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against the HL-60 cell line with an IC(50) value of 20 microM. PMID:20666364

  11. Industry Work Experience Leave for Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Don R.

    Working leaves for faculty in two-year diploma programs provide colleges with more experienced and current faculty, provide industry with new employees or consultants with fresh ideas, and present faculty with opportunities to use up-to-date technologies and methodologies and share those experiences with students. At the University College of the…

  12. Ecojustice in Science Education: Leaving the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vazquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at…

  13. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  14. Investigations on heat resistance of spinach leaves.

    PubMed

    Santarius, K A; Müller, M

    1979-10-01

    Exposure of spinach plants to high temperature (35° C) increased the heat resistance of the leaves by about 3° C. This hardening process occurred within 4 to 6 h, whereas dehardening at 20°/15° C required 1 to 2 days. At 5° C dehardening did not take place. Hardening and dehardening occurred in both the dark and the light. The hardiness was tested by exposure of the leaves to heat stress and subsequent measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence induction and light-induced absorbance changes at 535 nm on the leaves and of the photosynthetic electron transport in thylakoids isolated after heat treatment. Heat-induced damage to both heat-hardened and non-hardened leaves seemed to consist primarily in a breakdown of the membrane potential of the thylakoids accompanied by partial inactivation of electron transport through photosystem II. The increase in heat resistance was not due to temperature-induced changes in lipid content and fatty acid composition of the thylakoids, and no conspicuous changes in the polypeptide composition of the membranes were observed. Prolonged heat treatment at 35° C up to 3 days significantly decreased the total lipid content and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids of membrane lipids without further increase in the thermostability of the leaves. Intact chloroplasts isolated from heat-hardened leaves retained increased heat resistance. When the stroma of the chloroplasts was removed, the thermostability of the thylakoids was decreased and was comparable to the heat resistance of chloroplast membranes obtained from non-hardened control plants. Compartmentation studies demonstrated that the content of soluble sugars within the chloroplasts and the whole leaf tissue decreased as heat hardiness increased. This indicated that in spinach leaves, sugars play no protective role in heat hardiness. The results suggest that changes in the ultrastructure of thylakoids in connection with a stabilizing effect of soluble non-sugar stroma

  15. Green leaves are the stuff of life.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    Children, pregnant women, nursing mothers, and the elderly need to eat dark green leafy vegetables. These vegetables provide vitamin A which prevents night blindness and increases resistance to illness. The vitamin is also transferred to babies in breast milk; so mothers, in particular, need to consume these vegetables. Vitamin A is also contained in squash, sweet potatoes, carrots, mangoes, milk, eggs, and liver. Iron, which prevents tiredness and weakness, is found in meat, peas, beans, spinach, cassava leaves, and pumpkin leaves. Folic acid, which is necessary for healthy blood, is also found in dark green leafy vegetables. Pregnant women and the elderly especially need it. Protein is needed by all. Children need it for growth. Sources include meat, fish, eggs, milk, and cheese. However, protein is also found in dark green leafy vegetables, which can be grown or foraged, when the aforementioned sources are in short supply. Cultivated vegetable sources of protein include spinach, leeks, and the leaves of okra, cassava, papaya, hot peppers, beets, taro, and sweet potatoes. Wild vegetable sources are also available; however, care must be taken concerning plants that are poisonous or bitter. Some may require special preparation before eating. Vitamins and minerals escape with cooking, so a lid should be used and the time allotted should be as short as possible. Cooking water may be used for stew or soup, except when the leaves are poisonous before they are cooked (An example of this is cassava.). Children should begin eating these vegetables as soon as they stop breastfeeding. The vegetables can be mashed, ground, sieved or pureed in order for the children to eat them.

  16. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  17. Morphology of leaves cuticle by fringe projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Amalia; Rayas Alvarez, J. A.; Cordero, Raúl; Balieiro R., Daniela

    2011-10-01

    The development of this work is important in the morphological study of plant parts, specifically in the study of the cuticle of fruits or leaves. The implemented optical technique for fringe projection can identify potential fracture zones which damage the presentation of the fruits impacting business as well as producing them. Specifically, we obtained information on the thickness of a cuticle corresponding to the abaxial surface of a leaf of apple (Malus domestica) of the variety Golden Delicious.

  18. Rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper (Piper guineense) leaves.

    PubMed

    Okpala, Laura C; Ekechi, Constance A

    2014-11-01

    The rehydration characteristics of dehydrated West African pepper leaves were investigated at hydration temperatures of 28, 60, 70, and 80°C. Four treatments were given to the leaves: blanched and sun dried, unblanched and sun dried, blanched and shade dried, and unblanched and shade dried. The hydration process of the dehydrated leaves was adequately described by the Peleg's equation. As the hydration temperature increased from 28 to 70°C, there was a significant decrease in the Peleg's constant K 1, while for most of the leaves the Peleg's constant K 2 varied with temperature. Rehydration ratio values ranged from 3.75 in blanched shade dried leaves to 4.26 in unblanched sun dried leaves with the unblanched leaves generally exhibiting higher ratios than the blanched leaves.

  19. Learning to live with the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    PubMed

    White, J D

    1994-03-01

    Many issues surround the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993. Employer concerns focus on eligibility, lost work hours, and the conditions of granting leave. Employees would like to know what their new rights are, how the Act affects their benefits, and what documentation they must present to demonstrate a need for leave. Both agency administrators and home care workers will find clarification here.

  20. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  1. 5 CFR 630.208 - Reduction in leave credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reduction in leave credits. 630.208... credits. (a) When the number of hours in a nonpay status in a full-time employee's leave year equals the number of basepay hours in a pay period, the agency shall reduce his credits for leave by an amount...

  2. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separat...

  3. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  4. Self-Funded Leave and Life Role Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furbish, Dale S.

    2009-01-01

    Self-funded leave is an employee benefit that provides a time resource to those who wish to develop interests and other life roles. Semistructured interviews were used for this qualitative study to explore the motivations for enrolling in the self-funded leave program, how the leave contributed to work-life balance through development of other…

  5. An Update on the Family Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.; Massucci, Joseph D.

    1998-01-01

    There has been little litigation since the Family Medical Leave Act's inception in 1993. This article highlights FMLA's scope of coverage, leave requirements, notice and verification, special rules for employees and local education agencies, employment and leave entitlements, and enforcement. Employers violating the FMLA may have to reinstate and…

  6. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the undertaking of the new appointment the regular employee, except for reasons beyond his/her... services. Leave and Holidays (OCT 1989) (a) Vacation leave. (1) The Contractor may grant to its employees... for its employees, but in no event shall such vacation leave be earned at a rate exceeding 26...

  7. Studies on some Pharmacognostic profiles of Cassia tora Linn. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Tapan Kumar; Mandal, Subhash C.; Saha, B.P.; Pal, M.

    2000-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaves, physical constant values, extractive values, behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents. Fluorescence characters under ultraviolet light after treatment wit different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Cassia tora Linn. (Family: Leguminosae) were studied to characterize some pharmacognostical parameters. Preliminary phytochemical study on different tracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556931

  8. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...' Compensation Programs under 20 CFR 10.202 and 10.310, and the annual leave was leave transferred under § 630... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL...

  9. Iridoids from Spathodea campanulata P. Beauvais leaves.

    PubMed

    Gouda, Yaser G

    2009-06-01

    Three new and four known iridoids have been isolated from the leaves of Spathodea campanulata, the structures of the new compounds were determined as 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-decinnamoyl globularimin, 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-asystasioside E and 6-O-trans-caffeoyl-5,7-bisdeoxycynanchoside and provisionally named as spatheosides A (1), B (2) and C (3) respectively. The known iridoids were identified as verminoside (4), 6'-O-trans-caffeoyl-loganic acid (5), catalpol (6) and ajugol (7). The structures of the isolated compounds were characterized by different spectroscopic methods.

  10. Isoflavone tetraglycosides from Sophora japonica Leaves.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuping; Yang, Ruolin; Duan, Jin-Ao; Shang, Erxin; Su, Shulan; Zhu, Min; Qian, Dawei

    2008-03-01

    Two new isoflavone tetraglycosides ( 1 and 2) and six known compounds were isolated from the leaves of Sophora japonica. The new glycosides are genistein 7- O-beta- d-glucopyranoside-4'- O-(6'''- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside ( 1) and genistein 7- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranoside-4'- O-(6'''- O-alpha- l-rhamnopyranosyl)-beta-sophoroside ( 2). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established primarily by NMR experiments and chemical methods, and they are the first reported naturally occurring isoflavone glycosides with four attached sugar residues. PMID:18047294

  11. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  12. Labdane diterpenes from Leonurus japonicus leaves.

    PubMed

    Romero-González, Román R; Avila-Núñez, Jorge L; Aubert, Lianne; Alonso-Amelot, Miguel E

    2006-05-01

    Three labdane diterpenes 15,16-epoxy-6-hydroxylabda-5,8,13(16),14-tretraen-7-one (leojaponin), (9alpha,13S);15,16-diepoxy-7beta-hydroxylabd-14-en-6-one (13-epi-preleoheterin), and (9alpha,13R);15,16-diepoxy-6beta-hydroxylabd-14-en-7-one (iso-preleoheterin) were isolated from the leaves of Leonurus japonicus, in addition to the previously reported preleoheterin. The structure elucidations were made based on analysis of their spectroscopic data.

  13. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  14. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  15. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  16. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  17. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.310 Certification for leave taken to care... of the covered servicemember. For purposes of leave taken to care for a covered servicemember,...

  18. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    PubMed

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients. PMID:18844259

  19. Biophotonic in situ sensor for plant leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Conejo, Elian; Frangi, Jean-Pierre; Rosny, Gilles de

    2010-04-01

    Knowledge of the water concentration of plants can be helpful in several environmental and agricultural domains. There are many methods for the determination of water content in plant leaves; however, most of them give a relative moisture level or an analytical measure after a previous calibration procedure. Even for other biochemical compounds such as dry matter or chlorophyll, the measurement techniques could be destructive. For this reason, a nondestructive method has been developed to measure the biochemical compounds of a plant leaf, using an infrared spectroscopy technique. One important advantage is the simplicity of the device (RAdiometre portatif de Mesure In Situ, RAMIS) and its capability to perform measurements in situ. The prototype is a leaf-clip configuration and is made of LEDs at five wavelengths (656, 721, 843, 937, and 1550 nm), and a silicon/germanium photosensor. To compute the water content of vegetative leaves, the radiative transfer model PROSPECT was implemented. This model can accurately predict spectral transmittances in the 400 nm to 2500 nm spectral region as a function of the principal leaf biochemical contents: water, dry matter, and chlorophyll. Using the transmittance measured by RAMIS into an inversion procedure of PROSPECT: A Model of Leaf Optical Properties Spectra, we are able to compute the values of water contents that show an agreement with the water contents measured directly using dry weight procedures. This method is presented as a possibility to estimate other leaf biochemical compounds using appropriate wavelengths.

  20. Ecojustice in science education: leaving the classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael P.

    2011-06-01

    Eduardo Dopico and Eva Garcia-Vázquez's article enriched the ecojustice literature with an interesting metaphor of leaving the classroom, which I argue for here. Glasson and Boggs help to highlight the challenges and fortitude of working ecojustice perspectives in science education and the ways that a dialogical conversation addresses the world at large rather than focusing narrowly and exclusively on science education. Considering the metaphor of `leaving the classroom' I want to explore the tensions that can be experienced by science educators who do research focused on ecosocial justice. While it is not a new idea to suggest that there are gatekeepers in science education who try to maintain what counts in terms of impact in the classroom and what counts or not for the purposes of doing good work in science education, I anticipate highlighting the tensions that ecojustice educators may experience and why they can and should persevere with the incisive work that they are doing to conserve the prospects of future generations. Ecojustice no longer belongs constrained under the confines of environmental sciences or environmental education in science education. It is a separate and distinct field of study that should be generally accepted for the ways it brings clarity and conversation to ideas, curriculum studies, and thick descriptions of how people engage in eco-justice and ethics.

  1. Reconfiguration of broad leaves into cones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura

    2013-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag. This presentation will begin by examining how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in strong flow. The dynamics of the flow around the leaf of the wild ginger Hexastylis arifolia are described using particle image velocimetry. The flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is significant to both the reduction of vortex-induced vibrations and the forces experienced by the leaf.

  2. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... serious injury or illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need... of a serious injury or illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of... treatment of a serious health condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or...

  3. 29 CFR 825.202 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... serious injury or illness, there must be a medical need for leave and it must be that such medical need... of a serious injury or illness, if required by the employer, addresses the medical necessity of... treatment of a serious health condition or of a covered servicemember's serious injury or illness, or...

  4. Influenza in workplaces: transmission, workers’ adherence to sick leave advice and European sick leave recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Tomba, Gianpaolo Scalia; de Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben

    2016-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about influenza transmission in the workplace and whether staying home from work when experiencing influenza-like illness can reduce the spread of influenza is crucial for the design of efficient public health initiatives. Aim: This review synthesizes current literature on sickness presenteeism and influenza transmission in the workplace and provides an overview of sick leave recommendations in Europe for influenza. Methods: A search was performed on Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and SweMed to identify studies related to workplace contacts, -transmission, -interventions and compliance with recommendations to take sick leave. A web-based survey on national recommendations and policies for sick leave during influenza was issued to 31 European countries. Results: Twenty-two articles (9 surveys; 13 modelling articles) were eligible for this review. Results from social mixing studies suggest that 20–25% of weekly contacts are made in the workplace, while modelling studies suggest that on average 16% (range 9–33%) of influenza transmission occurs in the workplace. The effectiveness of interventions to reduce workplace presenteeism is largely unknown. Finally, estimates from studies reporting expected compliance with sick leave recommendations ranged from 71 to 95%. Overall, 18 countries participated in the survey of which nine (50%) had issued recommendations encouraging sick employees to stay at home during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, while only one country had official recommendations for seasonal influenza. Conclusions: During the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic, many European countries recommended ill employees to take sick leave. Further research is warranted to quantify the effect of reduced presenteeism during influenza illness. PMID:27060594

  5. Role of Leaves in Phototropism 1

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Shue-Lock; Leopold, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones. PMID:16656329

  6. Photosynthesis by sugar-cane leaves

    PubMed Central

    Hatch, M. D.; Slack, C. R.

    1966-01-01

    1. Radioactive products in detached leaf segments were examined after periods of steady-state photosynthesis in 14CO2. 2. After exposure to 14CO2 for approx. 1sec. more than 93% of the fixed radioactivity was located in malate, aspartate and oxaloacetate. After longer periods large proportions of the radioactivity appeared in 3-phosphoglycerate, hexose monophosphates and sucrose. Similar results were obtained with leaves still attached to the plant. 3. Radioactivity appeared first in C-4 of the dicarboxylic acids and C-1 of 3-phosphoglycerate. The labelling pattern in hexoses was consistent with their formation from 3-phosphoglycerate. 4. The reaction giving rise to C4 dicarboxylic acid appears to be the only quantitatively significant carboxylation reaction. 5. Evidence is provided that the radioactivity incorporated into the C4 dicarboxylic acid pool is transferred to sugars via 3-phosphoglycerate. A scheme is proposed to account for these observations. PMID:5971771

  7. Leaving and entering a career in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narasimhan, Shobhana; Tajima, Setsuko; Yoon, Jin-Hee

    2013-03-01

    Although a continuous research career is desirable for physicists, women often face situations that force them to interrupt their careers. Concerning the career-break problem, we discussed four issues. First, we analyzed the factors that force women to leave physics. Second, we discussed the effects of an interruption in a physics career. Should women continue to work as scientists without any break, at all costs? Or is it possible (and perhaps even better) to choose a more flexible career path? Third, we discussed the ways to retain women in physics. As an example, we focused on one of the most difficult problems: dual-career couples. Finally, we also discussed some possible ways in which one could support and facilitate women returning to a physics career after a break.

  8. Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.

    PubMed

    Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2013-02-01

    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).

  9. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    PubMed

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  10. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review.

    PubMed

    Subapriya, R; Nagini, S

    2005-03-01

    Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, has attracted worldwide prominence in recent years, owing to its wide range of medicinal properties. Neem has been extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathic medicine and has become a cynosure of modern medicine. Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. More than 140 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem. All parts of the neem tree- leaves, flowers, seeds, fruits, roots and bark have been used traditionally for the treatment of inflammation, infections, fever, skin diseases and dental disorders. The medicinal utilities have been described especially for neem leaf. Neem leaf and its constituents have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycaemic, antiulcer, antimalarial, antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidant, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. This review summarises the wide range of pharmacological activities of neem leaf. PMID:15777222

  11. Volatile organic compounds from leaves litter.

    PubMed

    Isidorov, Valery; Jdanova, Maria

    2002-09-01

    Qualitative composition of volatile emissions of litter of five species of deciduous trees was investigated by GC-MS. The list of identified substances contains more than 70 organic compounds of various classes. It was established that the composition of components emitted by the litter into the gas phase greatly differs from that of essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from turned leaves collected from trees during fall. It is suggested that most compounds found in litter emissions are products of vital activity of microorganisms decomposing it. The reported data indicate that after the vegetative period is over the decomposition processes of litter are important seasonal sources of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  12. Adolescent home-leaving and the transition to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kabiru, Caroline; Beguy, Donatien; Kanyiva, Muindi; Jessor, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Home-leaving is considered an important marker of the transition to adulthood and is usually framed as an individual decision. We move beyond this limited assumption to examine a broader conceptualization that might better illuminate home-leaving among youth in impoverished circumstances. We adopt the Problem Behavior Theory-framework to investigate the association of home-leaving with behavioral and psychosocial variables and with other transitions. We use data on adolescents aged 14–22 years from a three-wave study conducted between 2007 and 2010. We used variable- and person-centered cross-sectional analyses, as well as predictive analysis of home-leaving by subsequent waves. Parental controls protection predicted home-leaving by subsequent waves. Overall, protective factors moderated the association of problem behavior involvement with leaving home in Nairobi’s slums. PMID:24089582

  13. Analysis of flavonoids from leaves of cultivated Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing Z; Lu, Da Y; Wang, Y

    2009-09-01

    Leaves of Lycium barbarum are widely used as medicine vegetables and functional tea in China. The main flavonoids present in the leaves were separated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI) MS) and ultraviolet-visible spectra with shift additives. The predominant flavonoid was identified as rutin. Leaves are the rutin-rich parts (16.03-16.33 mg/g). In the wild and cultivated L. barbarum fruits, contents of rutin were determined very low (0.09-1.38 mg/g). The contents of total flavonoids (21.25 mg/g) of cultivated L. barbarum leaves were much higher than those in the wild L. barbarum leaves (17.86 mg/g), so cultivated barbarum leaves are a suitable source for medicine vegetables and functional tea.

  14. Disabled Veteran Leave and Other Miscellaneous Changes. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations to implement the Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015, which establishes a separate new leave category, to be known as "disabled veteran leave," available during a 12-month period beginning on the first day of employment to be used by an employee who is a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more for purposes of undergoing medical treatment for such disability. We are also rescinding two obsolete leave-related regulations. PMID:27529899

  15. Family medical leave as a resilience resource for family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Swanke, Jayme; Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2009-01-01

    Case managers mobilize family networks to care for patients. Family medical leave can be a resource for case managers who seek to enhance resilience among family caregivers. The Family Medical Leave Act, passed in 1993, was the first U.S. policy to regulate employee leaves from work for family care purposes (29 CFR 825.102). This policy offers family caregivers increased flexibility and equality. Current and emerging policies also can reduce financial strain. The discussion examines how case managers can integrate family medical leave into best-practice models to support patients and family caregivers.

  16. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  17. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and

  18. Mitochondrial electron transport protects floating leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition: comparison with submerged leaves.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Sharmila, P; Sharma, Anuradha; Strasser, Reto J; Govindjee; Pardha-Saradhi, P

    2015-08-01

    Investigations were carried to unravel mechanism(s) for higher tolerance of floating over submerged leaves of long leaf pondweed (Potamogeton nodosus Poir) against photoinhibition. Chloroplasts from floating leaves showed ~5- and ~6.4-fold higher Photosystem (PS) I (reduced dichlorophenol-indophenol → methyl viologen → O2) and PS II (H2O → parabenzoquine) activities over those from submerged leaves. The saturating rate (V max) of PS II activity of chloroplasts from floating and submerged leaves reached at ~600 and ~230 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1), respectively. Photosynthetic electron transport rate in floating leaves was over 5-fold higher than in submerged leaves. Further, floating leaves, as compared to submerged leaves, showed higher F v/F m (variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence, a reflection of PS II efficiency), as well as a higher potential to withstand photoinhibitory damage by high light (1,200 µmol photons m(-2) s(-1)). Cells of floating leaves had not only higher mitochondria to chloroplast ratio, but also showed many mitochondria in close vicinity of chloroplasts. Electron transport (NADH → O2; succinate → O2) in isolated mitochondria of floating leaves was sensitive to both cyanide (CN(-)) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), whereas those in submerged leaves were sensitive to CN(-), but virtually insensitive to SHAM, revealing the presence of alternative oxidase in mitochondria of floating, but not of submerged, leaves. Further, the potential of floating leaves to withstand photoinhibitory damage was significantly reduced in the presence of CN(-) and SHAM, individually and in combination. Our experimental results establish that floating leaves possess better photosynthetic efficiency and capacity to withstand photoinhibition compared to submerged leaves; and mitochondria play a pivotal role in protecting photosynthetic machinery of floating leaves against photoinhibition, most likely by oxidation of NAD(P)H and

  19. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-04-25

    Transitory starch builds up in photosynthesizing leaves during the day and is then degraded each night. It has recently been shown through mutant analysis and genetically engineered plants that transitory starch is required for maximal rates of photosynthesis, especially in high carbon dioxide atmospheres. Understanding the pathway by which carbon is exported from chloroplasts at night is limited. Previous work has shown that starch conversion to sucrose at night involves maltose export from chloroplasts. This pathway for carbon export from chloroplasts normally does not occur during the day. The regulation of maltose formation, the transporters that allow export of maltose from the chloroplast, and the cytosolic reactions by which maltose is converted to sucrose remain obscure. Genomic and biochemical approaches are proposed here to address maltose metabolism and transport. The research will cover three areas (1) how are hydrolytic and phosphorylytic starch degradation regulated, (2) how is maltose exported from chloroplasts, and (3) how is maltose converted to sucrose in the cytosol? It is expected that this research will lead to new insights about photosynthesis at high carbon dioxide levels, how carbon is partitioned in plants, and how partitioning can be altered to adapt plants to human needs.

  20. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal. PMID:26233737

  1. Photosynthate Partitioning into Starch in Soybean Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chatterton, N. Jerry; Silvius, John E.

    1979-01-01

    Photosynthesis, photosynthate partitioning into foliar starch, and translocation were investigated in soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Amsoy 71), grown under different photoperiods and photosynthetic periods to determine the controls of leaf starch accumulation. Starch accumulation rates in soybean leaves were inversely related to the length of the daily photosynthetic period under which the plants were grown. Photosynthetic period and not photoperiod per se appears to be the important factor. Plants grown in a 14-hour photosynthetic period partitioned approximately 60% of the daily foliar accumulation into starch whereas 7-hour plants partitioned about 90% of their daily foliar accumulation into starch. The difference in starch accumulation resulted from a change in photosynthate partitioning between starch and leaf residual dry weight. Residual dry weight is defined as leaf dry weight minus the weight of total nonstructural carbohydrates. Differences in photosynthate partitioning into starch were also associated with changes in photosynthetic and translocation rates, as well as with leaf and whole plant morphology. It is concluded that leaf starch accumulation is a programmed process and not simply the result of a limitation in translocation. PMID:16661047

  2. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    PubMed

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  3. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    PubMed

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  4. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave system for education personnel. (a) Full-time school-term employees. Employees on a full-time...

  5. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  6. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saroj K.; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Saha, Kakali; Pal, M.; Saha, B.P

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed. PMID:22556759

  7. Optical Parameters of Leaves of 30 Plant Species 1

    PubMed Central

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Optical parameters (absorption coefficient k, infinite reflectance R∞, scattering coefficient 8) are tabulated for seven wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for 30 plant species. The wavelengths are: 550 nm (green reflectance peak), 650 nm (chlorophyll absorption band), 850 nm (infrared reflectance plateau), 1450 nm (water absorption band), 1650 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1450 nm), 1950 nm (water absorption band), and 2200 nm (reflectance peak following water absorption band at 1950 nm). Thick, complex dorsiventral (bifacial mesophyll) leaves such as rubber plant, begonia, sedum, and privet had lower R∞ values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, peach, bean, rose) or essentially centric (undifferentiated mesophyll) sorghum and corn leaves. Infinite reflectance was negatively correlated with leaf thickness (−0.734**). Thick, complex dorsiventral leaves (crinum, oleander, privet, rubber plant, sedum) had higher (p 0.01) k values than thinner, less complex dorsiventral leaves (i.e., soybean, rose, peach) or essentially centric sorghum, sugarcane, and corn leaves. A coefficient of 0.718** was obtained for the correlation of k values with leaf thickness values. Complex dorsiventral oleander, orange, and crinum leaves had higher (p 0.01) 8 values than less complex dorsiventral (i.e., onion, begonia, banana) or centric leaves (i.e., corn and sugarcane). The scattering coefficient was not correlated with leaf thickness. PMID:16658499

  8. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  9. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE... table: Home Leave-Earning Table Months of service abroad Earning rate (days for each 12 months) 15 10 5... 10 5 (b) When an employee moves between different home leave-earning rates during a month of...

  10. Postharvest quarantine treatments for Diaphorina citri on infested curry leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to evaluate treatments that reduce survival and attachment of Diaphorina citri nymphs on infested curry leaves (Bergera koenigii). Decontamination of curry leaves infested with D. citri in relation to disinfectant (none or Pro-San), temperature (0, 40, and 50°C), and treatment...

  11. Why Do New Teachers Leave? How Could They Stay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simos, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article posits that some teachers leave the profession because they entered it with unrealistic expectations, and that the reality of multiple preparations, unpaid orientation sessions, and large student loads is overburdening.for new teachers. Many new teachers leave their positions because of the dissonance between their…

  12. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    PubMed

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  13. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  14. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  15. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (3) School vacation. School term employees may... to an educator who is reemployed within three years of separation. (d) Leave for school term... authorized. (ii) Accumulated sick leave at the time of separation will be recredited to an educator who...

  16. Genotoxicity of Nicotiana tabacum leaves on Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Fernanda R; Erdtmann, Bernardo; Dalpiaz, Tiago; Nunes, Emilene; Ferraz, Alexandre; Martins, Tales L C; Dias, Johny F; da Rosa, Darlan P; Porawskie, Marilene; Bona, Silvia; da Silva, Juliana

    2013-07-01

    Tobacco farmers are routinely exposed to complex mixtures of inorganic and organic chemicals present in tobacco leaves. In this study, we examined the genotoxicity of tobacco leaves in the snail Helix aspersa as a measure of the risk to human health. DNA damage was evaluated using the micronucleus test and the Comet assay and the concentration of cytochrome P450 enzymes was estimated. Two groups of snails were studied: one fed on tobacco leaves and one fed on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) leaves (control group). All of the snails received leaves (tobacco and lettuce leaves were the only food provided) and water ad libitum. Hemolymph cells were collected after 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. The Comet assay and micronucleus test showed that exposure to tobacco leaves for different periods of time caused significant DNA damage. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes occurred only in the tobacco group. Chemical analysis indicated the presence of the alkaloid nicotine, coumarins, saponins, flavonoids and various metals. These results show that tobacco leaves are genotoxic in H. aspersa and inhibit cytochrome P450 activity, probably through the action of the complex chemical mixture present in the plant. PMID:23885210

  17. Available starch pools in mature soybean leaves. [Glycine max

    SciTech Connect

    Highsmith, M.

    1987-04-01

    Soybeans, Glycine max, were grown in the greenhouse and in the field under conditions that varied CO/sub 2/ levels, irradiance, and photosynthetic period. Photosynthesis, sucrose export rate, starch accumulation, and starch mobilization were measured in mature leaves and compared to expansion of developing leaves two nodes above. Measurements were made daily over a twelve day period. Measured parameters in mature leaves varied daily with night expansion of the growing leaves. Starch accumulation and photosynthesis were affected by the environmental factors while sucrose export rate and starch mobilization were affected only if growth of the expanding leaves changed. The data indicated that influence of night expansion of developing leaves and influence of the environmental factors on photosynthesis caused two pools of starch to be formed in mature leaves. Concentration of each starch pool was calculated. The pool associated with night growth of expanding leaves was positively correlated with photosynthesis and sucrose export rate. The other pool, a storage, was negatively correlated with these parameters. Starch mobilization was comprised of starch from either pool, depending on the plant's environment or it was comprised of starch from both pools.

  18. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  19. The Meaning of Korean Women's Career-Leaving Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yu-Jin

    2010-01-01

    What is the meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience? To answer this question, this study adopted a hermeneutic phenomenology approach. My intention was to search for the deeper meaning of Korean women's career-leaving experience from their perspective. Ten Korean women who had left their careers due to their domestic roles in their…

  20. Footprints and Fingerprints in Cyberspace: The Trail You Leave Behind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dern, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Online users leave traces that others can find and use. Provides an overview of where and how users leave traces and what users can do to protect their privacy. Discusses Internet accounts; special files ("signature,""plan,""project,""file,""finger,""whois," and "vacation"); online use; e-mail and Usenet; patterns and trends; Web footprints and…

  1. Report on a National Study of Parental Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheinberg, Randy; And Others

    Detailed are the research findings of a national study of parental leaves. Basic objectives of the study were to: (1) collect data that would provide a picture of current leave policies, practices, and attitudes at some of the nation's largest companies; (2) discover how policy translated into practice by gathering information about the…

  2. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches. PMID:19535364

  3. Life-history strategies affect aphid preference for yellowing leaves.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Semiz, Gürkan; Blande, James D

    2009-10-23

    According to the nutrient-translocation hypothesis, yellowing tree leaves are colonized by aphids at the end of the growing season owing to improved availability of nutrients in the phloem sap after chlorophyll degradation. We measured aphid densities on potted Betula pendula seedlings in a field site where a small proportion of foliage rapidly turned yellow before normal autumn coloration as a consequence of root anoxia. The number of adults and nymphs of the birch-feeding specialist aphids Euceraphis betulae, Betulaphis brevipilosa and Callipterinella tuberculata were counted from leaves on each of the 222 plants. Aphids were detected on 19 per cent of green leaves and on 41 per cent of yellow leaves. There was no indication of aphid avoidance of yellow leaves, and the number of winged (alate) viviparous E. betulae adults and their nymphs were significantly higher on yellow leaves than on green leaves, while the numbers of apterous B. brevipilosa and C. tuberculata did not differ between the leaf colour types. Our result suggests that only aphid species with alate generation during colour change can take advantage of yellowing leaves. This may explain the exceptional abundance of E. betulae compared with other aphid species on birches.

  4. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  5. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  6. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  7. 77 FR 22519 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... certain regulations of the Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA). On February 15, 2012, the... Hour Division 29 CFR Part 825 RIN 1215-AB76 and RIN 1235-AA03 The Family and Medical Leave Act AGENCY... for Comment The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) proposes revisions to the Family and......

  8. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  9. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of FMLA leave. 825.301 Section 825.301 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act §...

  10. Energy budgets and temperatures of nyctinastic leaves on freezing nights.

    PubMed

    Schwintzer, C R

    1971-08-01

    Temperatures of exposed horizontal and vertical soybean leaves (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Chippewa) were measured on calm, clear nights with temperatures near freezing. Average leaf-air temperature differences for 5 nights were -1.5 C and -1.0 C for horizontal and vertical leaves respectively. The horizontal leaves were cooler than the vertical leaves. The mean of all observed horizontal-vertical leaf temperature differences was -0.5 C with a maximum average for 1 night of -0.8 C, while maximum differences theoretically attainable in similar leaves were calculated to be -1.7 C. No differences were observed in the extent of frost damage in horizontal and vertical leaves. The apparent reduction in frost damage in vertical leaves observed by Charles Darwin was probably caused by his method of using corks to hold the horizontal leaves and not by leaf orientation. Theoretical considerations and the experimental results indicate that nyctinastic leaf movements probably do not provide significant protection from frost for any plants.

  11. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    PubMed

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  12. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  13. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  14. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  15. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United...

  16. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    PubMed

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  17. The health effects of leaving school in a bad economy.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the lasting health effects of leaving school in a bad economy. Three empirical patterns motivate this study: Leaving school in a bad economy has persistent and negative career effects, career and health outcomes are correlated, and fluctuations in contemporaneous economic conditions affect health in the short-run. I draw data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Age 40 Health Supplement. Members of my sample left school between 1976 and 1992. I find that men who left school when the school-leaving state unemployment rate was high have worse health at age 40 than otherwise similar men, while leaving school in a bad economy lowers depressive symptoms at age 40 among women. A 1 percentage point increase in the school-leaving state unemployment rate leads to a 0.5% to 18% reduction in the measured health outcomes among men and a 6% improvement in depressive symptoms among women.

  18. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, Thomas D

    2012-05-03

    Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of the amylomaltase (Steichen, Petty & Sharkey, 2008). These results have laid the groundwork for manipulating plants for improved biofuel production.

  19. Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas D. Sharkey

    2010-01-28

    Final Technical Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-04ER15565 Maltose Biochemistry and Transport in Plant Leaves PI Thomas D. Sharkey University of Wisconsin-Madison Starch is a desirable plant product for both food and biofuel. Leaf starch is ideal for use in biofuels because it does not compete with grain starch, which is used for food. Starch is accumulated in plant leaves during the day and broken down at night. If we can manipulate leaf starch breakdown it may be possible to design a plant that provides both grain starch for food and leaf starch for biofuel. The pathway of leaf starch breakdown was not known when this work started. Preliminary evidence had shown that maltose was the primary product of leaf starch breakdown (Weise, Weber & Sharkey, 2004) and that it was metabolized by a disproportionating enzyme called amylomaltase but given the initials DPE2 (Lu & Sharkey, 2004). In this work we showed that only one form of maltose was metabolically active (Weise et al., 2005a) and that maltose was located in two different places when the amylomaltase was knocked out but only inside the chloroplast when the maltose transporter was knocked out (Lu et al., 2006a). This allowed us to estimate the energetics of maltose export and to show that maltose export is more efficient than glucose export (Weise et al., 2005b). We examined how daylength affected starch breakdown rate and found that starch breakdown rate could respond to changes in daylength within one day (Lu, Gehan & Sharkey, 2005). We also were able to show a second starch breakdown pathway by chloroplastic starch phosphorylase (Weise et al., 2006). Work to this point was summarized in a review (Lu & Sharkey, 2006). We were able to show that the amylomaltase in plants could substitute for the amylomaltase in bacteria (Lu et al., 2006b). In this paper we also showed the importance of a second enzyme called alpha-glucan phosphorylase in starch breakdown. Finally, we were able to determine the enzymatic mechanism of

  20. Paid Educational Leave and Self-Directed Learning: Implications for Legislation on the Learning Leave Scheme in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Cho Hyun; Jo, Sung Jun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study are to explore paid educational leave (PEL), self-directed learning (SDL) and the relationship between them; and to identify the implications for legislation on the learning leave scheme in South Korea. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method of the study is a literature review. Articles were identified…

  1. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    PubMed

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  2. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using extracts of Artocarpus Lakoocha fruit and its leaves, and Eriobotrya Japonica leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ankita; Dhiman, Naresh; Singh, Bhanu P.; Gathania, Arvind K.

    2014-04-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesis is demonstrated successfully using fresh young leaves of Artocarpus Lakoocha (A. Lakoocha), fruit pulp of A. Lakoocha and loquat (Eriobotrya Japonica) leaves. We have also compared green synthesis with chemical assisted tri-n-octyl-phosphine (TOP) stabilized gold nanoparticles. Samples were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-Visible spectroscopy. TEM images have shown that the average size of the particles is 15.06, 36.8 and 25.08 nm for A. Lakoocha fruits, A. Lakoocha leaves and loquat leaves assisted gold nanoparticles, respectively. Hydrogen tetrachloroaurate is reduced and AuNPs are stabilized by phenols, hydroxyls and carboxyls groups such as terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins etc, present in young leaves and fruit extracts. It was observed that green synthesis using botanical extracts is a cost effective and non- toxic way for nanoparticle preparation.

  3. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of (/sup 14/C)-sucrose during steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, (/sup 14/C)-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited.

  4. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ganyu; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2013-01-01

    Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9) or 10(7) CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  5. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated. PMID:24939800

  6. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  7. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  8. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  9. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  10. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  11. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave while the employee's... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  12. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave for a qualifying... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  13. 29 CFR 825.126 - Leave because of a qualifying exigency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.126 Leave because of a qualifying exigency. (a) Eligible employees may take FMLA leave for a qualifying... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave because of a qualifying exigency.......

  14. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630... ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled to have his home leave account transferred or recredited to his account when he moves between agencies...

  15. Huygens space probe ready to leave Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-03-01

    the Earth, before settling down to prolonged observations of Saturn and its rings and moons. European and American scientists are partners in all the experiments, both in the Orbiter and in the Huygens Probe. Farthest out for Europe Huygens will travel to a greater distance from the Sun than any previous ESA mission, out to the orbit of Saturn at 1400 million kilometres, or nearly ten times the Sun Earth distance. For comparison, the farthest ranging mission at present is Ulysses, orbiting over the poles of the Sun and out to the orbit of Jupiter, 800 million kilometres from the Sun. As no other mission planned or contemplated by ESA at present will go as far as Saturn, Huygens is likely to hold the European record for many years. HUYGENS READY TO LEAVE EUROPE PRESS BRIEFING Wednesday 26 March, 10:00 hrs. Location : Daimler-Benz Aerospace/ Dornier Satellitensysteme Gate 2, Building 5.1 Ludwig-B>lkow-Allee Ottobrunn (Munich) Programme: 10h00 Registration of press 10h15 Huygens video introduction 10h20 Welcoming addresses: Klaus Ensslin, President, Dornier Satellitensysteme Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA Michel Delaye, President, Aerospatiale Espace & Defense 10h30 NASA News and Cassini status Wesly T. Huntress, Associate Administrator of Space Science, NASA Richard Spehalski, Head of Cassini Project, NASA/JPL 10h40 The Huygens Project: Hamid Hassan, Head of the Huygens Project, ESA/ESTEC Hans-Joachim Hoffman, Head of the Huygens Project, Dornier Satellitensysteme Gerard Huttin, Head of the Huygens Project, Aerospatiale 11h00 The Huygens Scientific Programme: Jean-Pierre Lebreton, Huygens Project Scientist, ESA supported by European and American scientists. 11h15 The ESA Science programme, current and future missions Roger Bonnet, Director of Science, ESA 11h25 Question and Answer session 11h55 Visit to the Huygens spacecraft (access inside the clean room limited to photographers and TV teams only). 12h45 Buffet lunch 14h00 End of activties HUYGENS READY TO

  16. Transcriptome Phase Distribution Analysis Reveals Diurnal Regulated Biological Processes and Key Pathways in Rice Flag Leaves and Seedling Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meina; Xing, Zhuo; Yang, Wenqiang; Chen, Guang; Guo, Han; Gong, Xiaojie; Du, Zhou; Zhang, Zhenhai; Hu, Xingming; Wang, Dong; Qian, Qian; Wang, Tai; Su, Zhen; Xue, Yongbiao

    2011-01-01

    Plant diurnal oscillation is a 24-hour period based variation. The correlation between diurnal genes and biological pathways was widely revealed by microarray analysis in different species. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major food staple for about half of the world's population. The rice flag leaf is essential in providing photosynthates to the grain filling. However, there is still no comprehensive view about the diurnal transcriptome for rice leaves. In this study, we applied rice microarray to monitor the rhythmically expressed genes in rice seedling and flag leaves. We developed a new computational analysis approach and identified 6,266 (10.96%) diurnal probe sets in seedling leaves, 13,773 (24.08%) diurnal probe sets in flag leaves. About 65% of overall transcription factors were identified as flag leaf preferred. In seedling leaves, the peak of phase distribution was from 2:00am to 4:00am, whereas in flag leaves, the peak was from 8:00pm to 2:00am. The diurnal phase distribution analysis of gene ontology (GO) and cis-element enrichment indicated that, some important processes were waken by the light, such as photosynthesis and abiotic stimulus, while some genes related to the nuclear and ribosome involved processes were active mostly during the switch time of light to dark. The starch and sucrose metabolism pathway genes also showed diurnal phase. We conducted comparison analysis between Arabidopsis and rice leaf transcriptome throughout the diurnal cycle. In summary, our analysis approach is feasible for relatively unbiased identification of diurnal transcripts, efficiently detecting some special periodic patterns with non-sinusoidal periodic patterns. Compared to the rice flag leaves, the gene transcription levels of seedling leaves were relatively limited to the diurnal rhythm. Our comprehensive microarray analysis of seedling and flag leaves of rice provided an overview of the rice diurnal transcriptome and indicated some diurnal regulated biological

  17. Effect of microbial fermentation on caffeine content of tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaogang; Hu, Shuxia; Wan, Xiaochun; Pan, Caiyuan

    2005-09-01

    Caffeine is widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industries. For safety concerns, natural caffeine is preferred over synthetic products despite of its high cost. To explore more economical methods of acquiring natural caffeine, we adopted a microbial fermentation technique to increase the caffeine content of tea leaves. Our studies showed that the caffeine content in tea leaves increased reasonably after treating leaves with microorganisms for a period of time (i.e. orthodox pile-fermentation), and the amount of caffeine content increase varied significantly between black and green teas (27.57% and 86.41%). These results suggested that the change of caffeine content in tea leaves during the pile-fermentation depended not only on the growth and reproduction of microorganisms, but also on the tea composition.

  18. Antioxidant properties of extracts from Ginkgo biloba leaves in meatballs.

    PubMed

    Kobus-Cisowska, Joanna; Flaczyk, Ewa; Rudzińska, Magdalena; Kmiecik, Dominik

    2014-06-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of Ginkgo leaf extracts on the stability of lipids and cholesterol in pork meatballs over 21days of refrigerated storage. The antioxidants used were characterized by their antioxidant activity towards lipids and cholesterol. Extracts were prepared from green and yellow leaves from Ginkgo biloba L. trees. Water, acetone and ethanol were used as extractants. The extracts showed stabilizing effects on both lipid and cholesterol oxidation processes. The lipid oxidation process of pork meatballs was mostly inhibited by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the yellow leaves. Their antioxidant activity was higher than that of BHT. All the extracts had a stabilizing effect on cholesterol and most of them inhibited the formation of oxidized derivatives. The acetone and ethanol extracts of green leaves and the ethanol extract of yellow leaves inhibited the formation of cholesterol oxidation products formation most effectively.

  19. Changes in spectral properties of detached birch leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study conducted in order to determine the rate of changes in spectral properties of detached leaves and to evaluate the effectiveness of low temperature and cytokinins for delaying the changes, is examined. For five minutes, leaves from red birch are immersed in water or 0.001 M BAP, and then stored in plastic bags in the dark at either 5 or 25 C. Using a spectroradiometer and an integrating sphere, total directional-hemispherical reflectance and transmittance of the adaxial surface of the leaves are measured over the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. The results indicate that for leaves stored at 5 C for one week, the changes in the spectral properties are less than 5 percent of the initial values, whereas storage at 25 C promotes rapid senescence and large changes in the spectral properties. It is shown that low temperature is more effective than BAP in delaying senescence.

  20. IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Stack interior. Masons lay fire brick liner, leaving air layer between bricks and concrete wall. Date: May 20, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1306 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Guajadial: an unusual meroterpenoid from guava leaves Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Hsieh, Kun-Lung; Liu, Ji-Kai

    2007-11-22

    Guajadial (1), a novel caryophyllene-based meroterpenoid, was isolated from the Leaves of Psidium guajava (guava). The structure and relative stereochemistry of guajadial (1) were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. A possible biosynthetic pathway for 1 was proposed.

  2. 31 CFR 29.332 - Unused sick leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Satisfied by June 30, 1997 § 29.332 Unused sick leave. (a) For employees separated for retirement as of June... the applicable plan. (b) For employees separated for retirement after June 30, 1997, no unused...

  3. Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of gauges that record pressure of gas leaving the engine house. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  4. Morphogenesis of simple and compound leaves: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2010-04-01

    The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves.

  5. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any...

  6. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are Otherwise Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any...

  7. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S

    2014-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next 5 years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans.

  8. Contrasts among bidirectional reflectance of leaves, canopies, and soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Walter, E. A.; Welles, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simple models are presented for predicting the bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) for soils and plant canopies viewed from various directions. BRDFs are predicted for bare soil, individual leaves, and plant canopies, and the results are compared with measurements and a three coefficient empirical equation. BRDF measurements for corn and soybean leaves are presented to contrast with canopy and soil distributions. Estimates of the soil, canopy, and leaf BRDFs are combined into a model called Cupid to predict BRDFs for complex natural surfaces.

  9. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  10. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  11. Long-term declines in nutritional quality of tropical leaves.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Struhsaker, Thomas T; Raubenheimer, David; Twinomugisha, Dennis; Waterman, Peter G

    2015-03-01

    Global change is affecting plant and animal populations and many of the changes are likely subtle and difficult to detect. Based on greenhouse experiments, changes in temperature and rainfall, along with elevated CO2, are expected to impact the nutritional quality of leaves. Here, we show a decline in the quality of tree leaves 15 and 30 years after two previous studies in an undisturbed area of tropical forest in Kibale National Park, Uganda. After 30 years in a sample of multiple individuals of ten tree species, the mature leaves of all but one species increased in fiber concentrations, with a mean increase of 10%; tagged individuals of one species increased 13% in fiber. After 15 years, in eight tree species the fiber of young leaves increased 15%, and protein decreased 6%. Like many folivores, Kibale colobus monkeys select leaves with a high protein-to-fiber ratio, so for these folivores declining leaf quality could have a major impact. Comparisons among African and Asian forests show a strong correlation between colobine biomass and the protein-to-fiber ratio of the mature leaves from common tree species. Although this model, predicts a 31% decline in monkey abundance for Kibale, we have not yet seen these declines.

  12. Nurse manager job satisfaction and intent to leave

    PubMed Central

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The nurse manager role is critical to staff nurse retention and often the portal to senior nursing leadership, yet little is known about nurse managers' job satisfaction and career plans. The purpose of this study was to describe nurse managers' job satisfaction and intent to leave. Methods An electronic survey was used to collect data from 291 nurse managers working in U.S. hospitals. Findings Seventy percent were satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and 68% were either likely or very likely to recommend nursing management as a career choice. Seventy-two percent of these nurse managers were also planning to leave their positions in the next five years. The four most common reasons reported for intent to leave included burnout, career change, retirement, and promotion. Burnout was the most common reason cited by the entire sample but the fourth most common reason for leaving cited by those nurse managers who were planning to leave and also satisfied or very satisfied with their positions. Conclusions Recommendations for nursing leaders include evaluating the workload of nurse managers, providing career counseling, and developing succession plans. Additional research is needed to understand the determinants and consequences of nurse manager job satisfaction, intent to leave, and turnover. PMID:24689156

  13. Carbon partitioning and export from mature cotton leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, D.L. ); Grange, R.I. )

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of carbon in intact, mature cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) leaves was examined by steady-state {sup 14}CO{sub 2} labeling. Plants were exposed to dark periods of varying lengths, followed by similar illuminated labeling periods. These treatments produced leaves with a range of starch and soluble sugar contents, carbon exchange, and carbon export rates. Export during the illuminated periods was neither highly correlated with photosynthesis nor was export during the illuminated periods significantly different among the treatments. In contrast, the rate of subsequent nocturnal carbon export from these leaves varied widely and was found to be highly correlated with leaf starch content at the end of the illumination period and with nocturnal leaf respiration. Leaves which had accumulated the highest levels of starch (about 275 micrograms per square centimeter) by the end of the illumination period exhibited nocturnal export rates very similar to those during the daylight hours. Leaves which accumulated starch to only 50 to 75 micrograms per square centimeter virtually ceased nocturnal carbon export. For leaves with starch accumulations of between 50 and 275 micrograms per square centimeter, nocturnal export was directly proportional to leaf starch at the end of the illumination period. After the nocturnal export rate was established, it continued at a constant rate throughout the night even though leaf starch and sucrose contents declined.

  14. Propensity to Leave versus Probability of Leaving: The Relationship between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction in the Voluntary Leaving Behavior of IT Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents a quantitative analysis of the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction and the voluntary leaving behavior of IT professionals. In addition, the study adds to the validity and reliability of the Udechukwu and Mujtaba Mathematical Turnover Model. Surveyed within the study for their intrinsic and…

  15. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (2.4) as compared to FLE (2.2). Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control patties than other patties containing BHT, CLE and FLE. Overall percent increase during storage period was highest in control followed by BHT, CLE and FLE. Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TBARS values. The average percent decrease in TBARS values during storage was 18, 25.5 and 27.5 in BHT, CLE and FLE treatments, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from curry leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products. PMID:24293699

  16. Comparative antioxidant effect of aqueous extracts of curry leaves, fenugreek leaves and butylated hydroxytoluene in raw chicken patties.

    PubMed

    Devatkal, Suresh K; Thorat, Pramod R; Manjunatha, M; Anurag, Rahul K

    2012-12-01

    Antioxidant properties and use of aqueous extracts of curry leaves (Murraya koenigii) and fenugreek leaves (Trigonella foenum-graecum) as source of natural antioxidant in raw chicken meat were evaluated. Four treatments viz., I. Control (meat +2% salt), II.BHT (meat +2% salt +0.1% BHT), III. CLE (meat +2% salt +2% curry leaves extract) and IV. FLE (meat +2% salt +2% fenugreek leaves extract) were compared for lipid oxidation during eight days refrigerated storage. The average phenolic content was 59.2 and 52.8 mg/g gallic acid equivalent in CLE and FLE respectively. Free radical scavenging activity was 61.4 and 64.2% in CLE and FLE, respectively. CLE had significantly (P < 0.05) higher reducing activity (2.4) as compared to FLE (2.2). Observation on lipid oxidation showed a significant (p < 0.05) higher TBARS values in control patties than other patties containing BHT, CLE and FLE. Overall percent increase during storage period was highest in control followed by BHT, CLE and FLE. Both synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the TBARS values. The average percent decrease in TBARS values during storage was 18, 25.5 and 27.5 in BHT, CLE and FLE treatments, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that water extracts obtained from curry leaves and fenugreek leaves could be explored as natural antioxidants in poultry meat and meat products.

  17. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases. PMID:24989289

  18. GPs’ negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    PubMed Central

    Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L; Maeland, Silje; Magnussen, Liv Heide

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives. To explore general practitioners’ (GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patients suffering from subjective health complaints. Design. Focus-group study. Setting. Nine focus-group interviews in three cities in different regions of Norway. Participants. 48 GPs (31 men, 17 women; age 32–65), participating in a course dealing with diagnostic practice and assessment of sickness certificates related to patients with subjective health complaints. Results. The GPs identified some specific strategies that they claimed to apply when dealing with the question of sick leave for patients with subjective health complaints. The first step would be to build an alliance with the patient by complying with the wish for sick leave, and at the same time searching for information to acquire the patient's perspective. This position would become the basis for the main goal: motivating the patient for a rapid return to work by pointing out the positive effects of staying at work, making legal and moral arguments, and warning against long-term sick leave. Additional solutions might also be applied, such as involving other stakeholders in this process to provide alternatives to sick leave. Conclusions and implications. GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick-leave negotiations has been suggested by others to enhance return to work, and should be further encouraged. However, specific effectiveness of this strategy is yet to be proven, and further investigation into the actual dealings between doctor and patients in these complex encounters is needed. PMID:25602364

  19. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P < 0.05), the inhibitory ratio were 87.37% and 86.24% respectively; the juice could not inhibit activated platelets Fib-R and CD62P expression levels (P > 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P < 0.05); the rabbit platelet aggregation rate in the group given cooked blanched garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  20. Expanding leaves of mature deciduous forest trees rapidly become autotrophic.

    PubMed

    Keel, Sonja G; Schädel, Christina

    2010-10-01

    Emerging leaves in evergreen tree species are supplied with carbon (C) from the previous year's foliage. In deciduous trees, no older leaves are present, and the early phase of leaf development must rely on C reserves from other tissues. How soon developing leaves become autotrophic and switch from being C sinks to sources has rarely been studied in mature forest trees, and simultaneous comparisons of species are scarce. Using a canopy crane and a simple (13)CO(2)-pulse-labelling technique, we demonstrate that young leaves of mature trees in three European deciduous species (Fagus sylvatica L., Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Tilia platyphyllos Scop.) start assimilating CO(2) at a very early stage of development (10-50% expanded). One month after labelling, all leaves were still strongly (13)C enriched, suggesting that recent photosynthates had been incorporated into slow turnover pools such as cellulose or lignin and thus had contributed to leaf growth. In line with previous studies performed at the same site, we found stronger incorporation of recent photosynthates into growing tissues of T. platyphyllos compared with F. sylvatica and Q. petraea. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations analysed for one of the three study species (F. sylvatica) showed that sugar and starch pools rapidly increased during leaf development, suggesting that newly developed leaves soon produce more NSC than can be used for growth. In conclusion, our findings indicate that expanding leaves of mature deciduous trees become C autonomous at an early stage of development despite the presence of vast amounts of mobile carbohydrate reserves.

  1. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.

    PubMed

    C Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-03-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  2. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  3. Effects of organic extracts of six Bangladeshi plants on in vitro thrombolysis and cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Thrombus formed in blood vessels lead to atherothrombotic diseases such as myocardial or cerebral infarction. Thrombolytic agents are used to dissolve the already formed clots in the blood vessels; however, these drugs sometimes cause serious and fatal consequences. Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times for the treatment of several diseases although they show little toxicity in some cases. Aqueous extracts of herbs used in thrombolysis have been reported before with cytotoxic data, however, the organic extracts of herbs have not been documented. This study aims to investigate whether organic extracts possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity. Methods An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effect of six Bangladeshi herbal extracts viz., Ageratum conyzoides L., Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica (Burm.f.) Merr., Leucas aspera Willd., Senna sophera L. Roxb., and Solanum torvum Swartz. using streptokinase as a positive control and water as a negative control. Briefly, venous blood drawn from twenty healthy volunteers was allowed to form clots which were weighed and treated with the test plant materials to disrupt the clots. Weight of clot after and before treatment provided a percentage of clot lysis. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as positive control. Results Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera, Senna sophera and Solanum torvum showed 18.12 ± 2.34%, 48.9 ± 2.44%, 39.30 ± 0.96%, 37.32 ± 2.00%, 31.61 ± 2.97% and 31.51 ± 0.57% and clot lysis respectively. Among the herbs studied Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica and Leucas aspera showed very significant (p < 0.0001) percentage (%) of clot lysis compared to reference drug streptokinase (75.00 ± 3.04%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, the extracts Ageratum conyzoides, Clausena suffruticosa, Leea indica, Leucas aspera

  4. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract.

  5. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  6. Analysis of the free amino acid content in pollen of nine Asteraceae species of known allergenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mondal, A K; Parui, S; Mandal, S

    1998-01-01

    The study reports the free amino acid composition of the pollen of nine members of the family Asteraceae, i.e. Ageratum conyzoides L., Blumea oxyodonta DC., Eupatorium odoratum L., Gnaphalium indicum L., Mikania scandens Willd., Parthenium hysterophorus L., Spilanthes acmella Murr., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Lees. and Xanthium strumarium L. by thin layer chromatography. The amino acid content was found to vary from 0.5-4.0% of the total dry weight. Fourteen amino acids were identified, among which amino-n-butyric acid, aspartic acid and proline were present in almost all pollen samples. The other major amino acids present in free form included arginine, cystine, glutamic acid, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, ornithine, tryptophan and tyrosine. PMID:9852488

  7. Drying kinetics of dill leaves in a convective dryer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motevali, A.; Younji, S.; Chayjan, R. Amiri; Aghilinategh, N.; Banakar, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics of dill leaves under fixed, semi-fluidized, and fluidized bed conditions were studied at air temperatures of 30, 40, 50, and 60°C. In order to find a suitable drying curve, 12 thin layer-drying models were fitted to the experimental data of the moisture ratio. Among the applied mathematical models, the Midilli et al. model was the best for drying behavior prediction in thin layer drying of dill leaves. To obtain the optimum network for drying of dill leaves, various numbers of multilayer feed-forward neural networks were made and tested with different numbers of hidden layers and neurons. The best neural network feed-forward back-propagation topology for the prediction of drying of dill leaves (moisture ratio and drying rate) was the 3-45-2 structure with the training algorithm trainlm and threshold functions logsig and purelin. The coefficient of determination for this topology for training, validation, and testing patterns was 0.9998, 0.9981, and 0.9990, respectively. Effective moisture diffusivity of dill leaves during the drying process in different bed types was found to be in the range from 7.10 10-12 to 1.62 10-10 m2 s-1. Also, the values of activation energy were determined to be between 75.435 and 80.118 kJ mol-1

  8. Intercellular Diffusion Limits to CO2 Uptake in Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Parkhurst, David F.; Mott, Keith A.

    1990-01-01

    We studied plants of five species with hypostomatous leaves, and six with amphistomatous leaves, to determine the extent to which gaseous diffusion of CO2 among the mesophyll cells limits photosynthetic carbon assimilation. In helox (air with nitrogen replaced by helium), the diffusivities of CO2 and water vapor are 2.3 times higher than in air. For fixed estimated CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf (pi), assimilation rates in helox ranged up to 27% higher than in air for the hypostomatous leaves, and up to 7% higher in the amphistomatous ones. Thus, intercellular diffusion must be considered as one of the processes limiting photosynthesis, especially for hypostomatous leaves. A corollary is that CO2 pressure should not be treated as uniform through the mesophyll in many leaves. To analyze our helox data, we had to reformulate the usual gas-exchange equation used to estimate CO2 pressure at the evaporating surfaces of the leaf; the new equation is applicable to any gas mixture for which the diffusivities of CO2 and H2O are known. Finally, we describe a diffusion-biochemistry model for CO2 assimilation that demonstrates the plausibility of our experimental results. PMID:16667792

  9. Proteomic analysis of strawberry leaves infected with Colletotrichum fragariae.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xianping; Chen, Wenyue; Xin, Ya; Zhang, Hengmu; Yan, Chengqi; Yu, Hong; Liu, Hui; Xiao, Wenfei; Wang, Shuzhen; Zheng, Guizhen; Liu, Hongbo; Jin, Liang; Ma, Huasheng; Ruan, Songlin

    2012-07-16

    Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes. To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection, proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification. Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (>1.5-fold, p<0.05) in mock- and C. fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point. Notably, 2-DE analysis revealed that C. fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves, and western blotting confirmed the induction of β-1,3-glucanase and a low-molecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C. fragariae infection. During the late phase of infection, proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression. The abundance changes, putative functions, and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogen-responsive protein network in C. fragariae-infected strawberry leaves. Together, these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms, especially those found in non-model plant species. PMID:22634039

  10. Radical scavenging conserves from unused fresh green tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Borse, B B; Kumar, H Vijay; Rao, L Jagan Mohan

    2007-03-01

    Green teas were made by inactivating the enzymes present in fresh leaves of coarse/pruned (unused) and normal (used for tea) grades using different sources of thermal energies. Green teas were extracted in a Soxhlet using different solvents. The obtained miscella was subjected to concentration to give the extract. The extract was subjected to solvent-solvent extraction. Solvent extract was concentrated to obtain conserve. The yields of conserves are 17 +/- 0.8 and 15 +/- 0.8% from green teas of normal and coarse tea leaves, respectively. The radical scavenging activity of these extracts was evaluated using a DPPH in vitro model system. The total polyphenol content was also determined and found to be higher in conserves from normal tea leaves. However, radical scavenging activity of conserves from coarse and normal green tea leaves was found to be >90% at 15 ppm concentration. The HPLC profiles of these conserves were used to quantify the total catechin content with the help of calibration curves prepared using authentic samples at known concentrations. The total catechin content is found to be in the range of 55-85%. Results indicated that the extracts from coarse leaves also possess potential biological activity and could be used as nutraceuticals as well as for preservation purposes in food formulations.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  12. PROFILE OF PATIENTS ON SICK LEAVE WITH CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Judson Welber Veríssimo; de Oliveira, Alexandre Barbosa; Nascimento, Valdênia das Graças; de Paiva, Henver Ribeiro; Viecili, Leandro; Rocha, Murilo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors of patients with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) on sick leave admitted in a University Hospital. Methods: This is a transversal study conducted with patients admitted sequentially over 18 years of age, without distinction of gender and race in the period between September and November 2014. Patients answered a questionnaire and underwent physical examination carried out by the authors. Results: Twenty-five patients were admitted within three months, all females, the mean age was 50.24 years old (standard deviation 10,39) . Among the professions they performed, general and cleaning services were the most prevalent. Most patients featured obesity, followed by depression and systemic arterial hypertension. Approximately half of them were on sick leave. Sleep disorders were also a frequent complaint. Conclusion: CTS is a frequent cause of sick leave and it is related to obesity, dyslipidemia and depression. Level of Evidence IV, Series of Cases. PMID:26981030

  13. Anticomplement activity of polyacetylenes from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ill-Min; Song, Hong-Keun; Kim, Sun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-05-01

    The present study evaluated the anticomplement effect of polyacetylenes from Dendropanax morbifera (Araliaceae) in the classical pathway complement system. The leaves of D. morbifera were evaluated with regard to its anticomplement activity, and its active principles identified following activity-guided isolation. An aqueous CCl(4) fraction of the leaves of D. morbifera exhibited significant anticomplement activity on the classical pathway complement system, which was expressed as total hemolytic activity. Three polyacetylenes isolated from the leaves of D. morbifera, namely (3S)-falcarinol (1), (3S,8S)-falcarindiol (2) and (3S)-diynene (3). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 87.3 µM, 15.2 µM and 39.8 µM. Among the compounds tested, 2 showed the most potent anticomplement activity (IC(50), 15.2 µM).

  14. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-01-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts. PMID:20931087

  15. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Esper, Renata H.; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O. M.; Felicio, Roberto C.; Felicio, Joana D.

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 105 spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans. PMID:24926289

  16. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  17. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  18. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    PubMed

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  19. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    PubMed

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child. PMID:11712459

  20. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave...

  1. State Maternity/Parental Leave Laws. Facts on Working Women No. 90-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The status of state maternity/parental leave laws throughout the United States is depicted in eight figures and three tables. Information is reported by state for maternity/parental leave laws, months of available leave, maternity/family illness laws, days of leave for family illness, temporary disability insurance laws, temporary disability…

  2. Paid Educational Leave. NIE Papers in Education and Work: Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Herbert A.

    This report is a digest of a larger work, "Developments in Paid Leave of Absence," a report including case studies and analysis of the collective experience of nine European countries and the United States with paid educational leave. Section I defines paid educational leave as "leave given to an employee for educational purposes for a specified…

  3. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Time limit for use of restored annual leave. 630.306 Section 630.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except as otherwise authorized under paragraphs...

  4. Ages, Reasons and Sex Differences for Children Leaving Home: Observations From Survey Data for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    Overall, daughters leave home when about two years younger than sons, and a higher proportion of daughters leave home for marriage than for other reasons. For each sex, the average age at leaving home is youngest when the reason for leaving is education or a job, and oldest when the reason is marriage. (Author)

  5. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or..., restraining, or denying the exercise of (or attempts to exercise) any rights provided by......

  6. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... covered by FMLA are required to grant leave to eligible employees: (1) For birth of a son or daughter, and... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth,......

  7. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993: An Overview and Implications for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Albert S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) applies new federally mandated employee leave provisions to institutions. Schools must formulate leave policies, communicate them to all staff, and document all FMLA-related actions. Offers a guide to planning and implementing FMLA leave. (MLF)

  8. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... to a combined total of 12 weeks of leave during any 12-month period if the......

  9. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... to a combined total of 12 weeks of leave during any 12-month period if the......

  10. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  11. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... to a combined total of 12 weeks of leave during any 12-month period if the......

  12. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  13. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... covered by FMLA are required to grant leave to eligible employees: (1) For birth of a son or daughter, and... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth,......

  14. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119......

  15. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119......

  16. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121... take FMLA leave before the actual placement or adoption of a child if an absence from work is required... leave for adoption or foster care expires at the end of the 12-month period beginning on......

  17. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or..., restraining, or denying the exercise of (or attempts to exercise) any rights provided by......

  18. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  19. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121... take FMLA leave before the actual placement or adoption of a child if an absence from work is required... leave for adoption or foster care expires at the end of the 12-month period beginning on......

  20. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or foster care of a... covered by FMLA are required to grant leave to eligible employees: (1) For birth of a......

  1. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., calculation of leave. 825.802 Section 825.802 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable..., calculation of leave. (a) Amount of leave. (1) An eligible airline flight crew......

  2. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119......

  3. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false......

  4. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121... take FMLA leave before the actual placement or adoption of a child if an absence from work is required... leave for adoption or foster care expires at the end of the 12-month period beginning on......

  5. 29 CFR 825.802 - Special rules for airline flight crew employees, calculation of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., calculation of leave. 825.802 Section 825.802 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable..., calculation of leave. (a) Amount of leave. (1) An eligible airline flight crew......

  6. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... covered by FMLA are required to grant leave to eligible employees: (1) For birth of a son or daughter, and... employees. A father, as well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth,......

  7. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or..., restraining, or denying the exercise of (or attempts to exercise) any rights provided by......

  8. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false......

  9. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  10. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false......

  11. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or..., restraining, or denying the exercise of (or attempts to exercise) any rights provided by......

  12. 29 CFR 825.112 - Qualifying reasons for leave, general rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act... well as a mother, can take family leave for the birth, placement for adoption, or foster care of a... covered by FMLA are required to grant leave to eligible employees: (1) For birth of a......

  13. 29 CFR 825.203 - Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.203 Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule leave. Eligible... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Scheduling of intermittent or reduced schedule......

  14. 29 CFR 825.220 - Protection for employees who request leave or otherwise assert FMLA rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.220 Protection for employees who request leave or..., restraining, or denying the exercise of (or attempts to exercise) any rights provided by......

  15. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false......

  16. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121... take FMLA leave before the actual placement or adoption of a child if an absence from work is required... leave for adoption or foster care expires at the end of the 12-month period beginning on......

  17. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119......

  18. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.119 Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119......

  19. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... to a combined total of 12 weeks of leave during any 12-month period if the......

  20. 29 CFR 825.100 - The Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.100 The Family and Medical Leave Act. (a) The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, as amended, (FMLA or Act... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false......

  1. 29 CFR 825.121 - Leave for adoption or foster care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.121... take FMLA leave before the actual placement or adoption of a child if an absence from work is required... leave for adoption or foster care expires at the end of the 12-month period beginning on......

  2. 29 CFR 825.201 - Leave to care for a parent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825... to a combined total of 12 weeks of leave during any 12-month period if the......

  3. Nest Leaving in Sweden: The Importance of Early Educational and Labor Market Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karina; Strandh, Mattias

    1999-01-01

    Study looked at the importance of early education and labor market careers for nest leaving and returning to the parental home. The data determined that employment means a high probability of nest leaving but less stability of independent living. The early career was more important for structuring women's nest leaving than men's nest leaving.…

  4. Iridoids from the green leaves of Eucommia ulmoides.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Chika; Hirata, Tetsuya; Ueda, Taro; Ono, Masateru; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro

    2007-08-01

    The bark of Eucommia ulmoides is a well-known crude drug in oriental medicine, and its leaves have been consumed as a beverage. From the green leaves of this plant, three new iridoids (1-3) were isolated, together with 12 known compounds. Compound 1 is the first iridoid possessing a saturated bond between C-3 and C-4 and having an ether linkage between C-3 and C-2 of the glucose unit. Furthermore, 2 and 3 may be regarded as the first naturally occurring conjugates of an iridoid and an amino acid.

  5. Is there spectral variation in the polarized reflectance of leaves?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-05-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  6. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses. PMID:27066615

  7. 3D reconstruction and visualization of plant leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaomeng; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Peng

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional reconstruction method, which is based on point clouds and texture images, is used to realize the visualization of leaves of greenhouse crops. We take Epipremnum aureum as the object for study and focus on applying the triangular meshing method to organize and categorize scattered point cloud input data of leaves, and then construct a triangulated surface with interconnection topology to simulate the real surface of the object. At last we texture-map the leaf surface with real images to present a life-like 3D model which can be used to simulate the growth of greenhouse plants.

  8. Synthesis of Oxalic Acid by Enzymes from Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Davies, David D.; Asker, Hassan

    1983-01-01

    A rapid purification of lactate dehydrogenase and glycolate oxidase from lettuce (Lactuca sativa) leaves is described. The kinetics of both enzymes are reported in relation to their possible roles in the production of oxalate. Lettuce lactate dehydrogenase behaves like mammalian dehydrogenase, catalyzing the dismutation of glyoxylate to glycolate and oxalate. A model is proposed in which glycolate oxidase in the peroxisomes and lactate dehydrogenase in the cytosol are involved in the production of oxalate. The effect of pH on the balance between oxalate and glycolate produced from glyoxylate suggests that in leaves lactate dehydrogenase may function as part of an oxalate-based biochemical, pH-stat. PMID:16662946

  9. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced. PMID:27064733

  10. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of Psidium guajava L. leaves

    PubMed Central

    Metwally, A. M.; Omar, A. A.; Harraz, F. M.; El Sohafy, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. leaves were subjected to extraction, fractionation and isolation of the flavonoidal compounds. Five flavonoidal compounds were isolated which are quercetin, quercetin-3-O-α-L-arabinofuranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-β-D-galactoside. Quercetin-3-O-β-D-arabinopyranoside was isolated for the first time from the leaves. Fractions together with the isolates were tested for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial studies showed good activities for the extracts and the isolated compounds. PMID:20931082

  11. Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Allium macrostemon.

    PubMed

    Nakane, Risa; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-08-01

    Twelve flavonoids were isolated from Allium macrostemon leaves. Five compounds were identified as kaempferol 3,7-di-O-glucoside (1), kaempferol 3,4'-di-O-glucoside (2), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (3), kaempferol 3-0-glucoside (4) and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside (5) by UV spectra, LC-MS, acid hydrolysis and HPLC comparisons with authentic standards. Other flavonoids were characterized as kaempferol glycosides (6-8, 10 and 11) and quercetin glycosides (9 and 12). Other compounds, such as steroidal saponins, have been already found from the bulbs of A. macrostemon. However, flavonoids were reported for the first time from the leaves. PMID:26434122

  12. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  13. Immediate IPTV channel leave by explicit user tracking in PON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Peng; Yoshiuchi, Hideya; Yoshizawa, Satoshi

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel IPTV channel leave mechanism for Passive Optical Network (PON). By explicit user tracking and automatic differentiation of IGMP v2 and v3 users, the proposed mechanism can realize immediate channel leave in both Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and Optical Network Unit (ONU) while avoiding removing the channel which still has users. Simulation results show that the proposed mechanism can significantly save the bandwidth consumption during "channel surf" by users, compared to the standard IGMP timeout mechanism.

  14. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  15. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  16. Neolignans from the Leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six new neolignans, casearialignans A-F (1-6) and one known lignan syringaresinol-ß-D-glucoside were isolated from the leaves of Casearia sylvestris. Their structures were determined on the basis of 1D and 2 D NMR and high resolution ESI-MS spectroscopic analyses. The relative and absolute configura...

  17. Phomalactone from a phytopathogenic fungus infecting Zinnia elegans (Asteraceae) leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Zinnia elegans plants are infected by a fungus that causes necrosis with dark red spots particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South part of the United States. This fungal disease when untreated causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated...

  18. Essential oil of Turnera ulmifolia leaves from Cuba.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Turnera ulmifolia L. (Turneraceae) from Cuba was studied by GC and GC/MS. Sixty-four volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were beta-caryophyllene (21.5%) and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (18.4%).

  19. When the Leader Leaves: Sustaining Success at Romero High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lauri; Sillman, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This case study asks readers to consider what leadership actions might help to sustain success for immigrant students in a small urban high school when the leader leaves. Principal Michael Perez, the founding principal of Romero High School, has been recruited to become the superintendent of a first-ring suburban district with rapidly changing…

  20. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  1. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  2. Is Your Sick Leave Bank in Good Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Sick leave banks are a common staple of teacher contracts. Although these banks may benefit employees, they expose school districts to a variety of complications and unintended consequences, including administrative complexity, potential cash flow implications, cost disparities, increased absenteeism, instructional instability, privacy issues, and…

  3. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  4. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    PubMed

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  5. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  6. Redistribution of boron in leaves reduces boron toxicity.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert J; Fitzpatrick, Kate L

    2009-11-01

    High soil boron (B) concentrations lead to the accumulation of B in leaves, causing the development of necrotic regions in leaf tips and margins, gradually extending back along the leaf. Plants vary considerably in their tolerance to B toxicity, and it was recently discovered that one of the tolerance mechanisms involved extrusion of B from the root. Expression of a gene encoding a root B efflux transporter was shown to be much higher in tolerant cultivars. In our current research we have shown that the same gene is also upregulated in leaves. However, unlike in the root, the increased activity of the B efflux transporter in the leaves cannot reduce the tissue B concentration. Instead, we have shown that in tolerant cultivars, these transporters redistribute B from the intracellular phase where it is toxic, into the apoplast which is much less sensitive to B. These results provide an explanation of why different cultivars with the same leaf B concentrations can show markedly different toxicity symptoms. We have also shown that rain can remove a large proportion of leaf B, leading to significant improvements of growth of both leaves and roots. PMID:20009556

  7. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are...

  8. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section 416.215 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Eligibility Reasons Why You May Not Get Ssi Benefits for Which You Are...

  9. Morphogenesis of Simple and Compound Leaves: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Efroni, Idan; Eshed, Yuval; Lifschitz, Eliezer

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of seed plants evolved from a primitive shoot system and are generated as determinate dorsiventral appendages at the flanks of radial indeterminate shoots. The remarkable variation of leaves has remained a constant source of fascination, and their developmental versatility has provided an advantageous platform to study genetic regulation of subtle, and sometimes transient, morphological changes. Here, we describe how eudicot plants recruited conserved shoot meristematic factors to regulate growth of the basic simple leaf blade and how subsets of these factors are subsequently re-employed to promote and maintain further organogenic potential. By comparing tractable genetic programs of species with different leaf types and evaluating the pros and cons of phylogenetic experimental procedures, we suggest that simple and compound leaves, and, by the same token, leaflets and serrations, are regulated by distinct ontogenetic programs. Finally, florigen, in its capacity as a general growth regulator, is presented as a new upper-tier systemic modulator in the patterning of compound leaves. PMID:20435903

  10. Latina High School Leaving: Some Practical Solutions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romo, Harriett D.

    Leaving school early has a dramatic impact on Hispanic girls, because Latinas face greater barriers than males when seeking high-wage jobs and opportunities in postsecondary education. This Digest examines how gender roles, families, schools, and friends influence Latinas in their education and career decisions, and outlines practical dropout…

  11. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  12. Chromatographic Profiles of Ginkgo biloba Leaves and Selected Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ginkgo biloba leaves and their extracts are one of the most widely used herbal products or dietary supplements in the world. Their flavonoids and terpene lactones are considered to be the main beneficial components. Many previous studies have focused on specific components, or families of component...

  13. "Ya Me Fui" When English Learners Consider Leaving School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boone, Jeanmarie Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    This study examines narratives of English learners who have either dropped out or considered dropping out as a result of their experience in high school. This research seeks to determine at which point students left or considered leaving school, which often goes undetected in traditional quantitative data collection methods. The common themes that…

  14. The evolution, morphology, and development of fern leaves

    PubMed Central

    Vasco, Alejandra; Moran, Robbin C.; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy) on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearly all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology, and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development. PMID:24027574

  15. 33 CFR 401.47 - Leaving a lock.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leaving a lock. 401.47 Section 401.47 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... shall proceed out of a lock until the exit gates, ship arresters and the bridge, if any, are in a...

  16. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  17. Syncom IV-1 satellite leaving Discovery's payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In a frisbee-type method, the Syncom IV-1 satellite leaves the Discovery's payload bay on its way into service for the U.S. Navy. Retrieval hardware and part of the pallet for securing the Palapa B-2 are pictured near the protective shield for the now vacated Telest-H/PAM-B.

  18. Biotemplating plasmonic nanoparticles using intact microfluidic vasculature of leaves.

    PubMed

    Pushpavanam, Karthik; Santra, Sanjitarani; Rege, Kaushal

    2014-11-25

    Leaves are an abundant natural resource, and consist of a sophisticated microfluidic network of veins that transport nutrients and water, thereby enabling photosynthesis. Here, we simultaneously exploit the microfluidics as well as chemistry of processed leaf vasculature (venation) in order to template the in situ generation of plasmonic metal (gold and silver) nanoparticles under ambient conditions. This biotemplating approach involves capillary flow of metal salts through skeleton leaf vasculature, and does not require additional reducing agents for plasmonic nanoparticle formation. Gold nanoparticles, 30-40 nm in diameter, and silver nanoparticles, approximately 9 nm in diameter, were formed within the intact leaf vasculature using this method. Absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron diffraction analyses were employed to ascertain the formation of nanoparticles in the leaf veins. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed in order to obtain insights into functional groups responsible for formation of the plasmonic nanoparticles within the leaves. Gold nanoparticles, templated within leaves, demonstrated excellent catalytic properties, thereby imparting catalytic and plasmonic properties to the leaf itself. Furthermore, nanoparticles can be recovered from the leaves as soluble dispersions by simply combusting the organic leaf matter. Taken together, this is a simple yet powerful biotemplating approach for the generation of plasmonic nanoparticles and formation of biotic-abiotic structures for diverse, low-cost applications in sensing, catalysis, and medicine. PMID:25363517

  19. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of the leaves of Artemisia ludoviciana.

    PubMed

    Said Fernández, Salvador; Ramos Guerra, Monica Celina; Mata Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas Villarreal, Javier; Villarreal Treviño, Licet

    2005-07-01

    The inhabitants of Northeast of Mexico use an infusion of leaves from Artemisia ludoviciana as an antidiarrheal remedy. The aqueous, methanol, acetone and hexane leaf extracts from mature plants were found to be active in vitro against the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia.

  20. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.

  1. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  2. Maintenance Carbon Cycle in Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Plant Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, William H.; Severson, Ray F.; Black, Clanton C.

    1985-01-01

    The reciprocal relationship between diurnal changes in organic acid and storage carbohydrate was examined in the leaves of three Crassulacean acid metabolism plants. It was found that depletion of leaf hexoses at night was sufficient to account quantitatively for increase in malate in Ananas comosus but not in Sedum telephium or Kalanchoë daigremontiana. Fructose and to a lesser extent glucose underwent the largest changes. Glucose levels in S. telephium leaves oscillated diurnally but were not reciprocally related to malate fluctuations. Analysis of isolated protoplasts and vacuoles from leaves of A. comosus and S. telephium revealed that vacuoles contain a large percentage (>50%) of the protoplast glucose, fructose and malate, citrate, isocitrate, ascorbate and succinate. Sucrose, a major constituent of intact leaves, was not detectable or was at extremely low levels in protoplasts and vacuoles from both plants. In isolated vacuoles from both A. comosus and S. telephium, hexose levels decreased at night at the same time malate increased. Only in A. comosus, however, could hexose metabolism account for a significant amount of the nocturnal increase in malate. We conclude that, in A. comosus, soluble sugars are part of the daily maintenance carbon cycle and that the vacuole plays a dynamic role in the diurnal carbon assimilation cycle of this Crassulacean acid metabolism plant. PMID:16664005

  3. Triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Meliosma henryi.

    PubMed

    Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Morjani, Hamid; Harakat, Dominique; Madoulet, Claudie; Dumontet, Vincent; Lavaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Seven triterpenoid glycosides, named meliosmosides A-G, were isolated from the leaves of Meliosma henryi Diels (Sabiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB cell line. PMID:25468712

  4. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part is foreseeable based on an expected birth, placement for adoption or foster care, or planned... not less than 30 calendar days before the date the leave is to begin. If the date of birth or... the employee is unable, due to circumstances beyond his or her control, to provide notice of his...

  5. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Leaves of absence. 21.8340 Section 21.8340 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Training and Rehabilitation for Certain Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with...

  6. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  7. New cytotoxic steroids from the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Lan; Wang, Rui; Ding, Lan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum led to the isolation of five new (2-6) and two known (1 and 7) steroids, whose structures and relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Steroids 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLa cell line.

  8. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    SciTech Connect

    McCallen, R.

    2015-10-16

    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  9. How and Why the Leaves Fall: A Story Sketch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwood, Bert; Henderson, Bob

    1995-01-01

    A short story compares an old man's tale of why the woodland animals prepare for winter and the leaves change colors with a teacher's science-based explanations. Commentary distinguishes inquiry of wonder (why) and inquiry of power (how), and suggests ways to record the story for oral retelling and adapt it for use with young, older, and…

  10. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leave and holidays. 752.7031 Section 752.7031 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... States (less language training) and the actual days overseas beginning on the date of departure from...

  11. Isolation and Characterization of Phosphatidyl Choline from Spinach Leaves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devor, Kenneth A.

    1979-01-01

    This inexpensive but informative experiment for undergraduate biochemistry students involves isolating phosphatidyl choline from spinach leaves. Emphasis is on introducing students to techniques of lipid extraction, separation of lipids, identification using thin layer chromatography, and identification of fatty acids. Three periods of three hours…

  12. The Role of Protein Synthesis in the Senescence of Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Colin; Thimann, Kenneth V.

    1972-01-01

    The senescence of oat leaves has been studied by following the loss of chlorophyll and protein and the increase of α-amino nitrogen, after detachment and darkening. Protein synthesis and the amounts of proteolytic enzymes in the leaves have been determined directly. The process of senescence is shown to be a sequential one in which protein synthesis,most probably the formation of a proteolytic enzyme with l-serine in its active center, is of prime importance. The evidence is as follows. Firstly, l-serine specifically enhances senescence, especially in presence of kinetin. Secondly, cycloheximide, which inhibits protein synthesis in other systems, delays senescence and prevents the serine enhancement. Although requiring higher concentrations, cycloheximide can be as effective as kinetin in inhibiting senescence. It is shown directly that cycloheximide prevents protein synthesis in oat leaves under the same conditions as when it prevents senescence. Thirdly, leaves have been shown to contain two proteinases, with pH optima at 3 and 7.5, whose activity increases during senescence, even though the total leaf protein is decreasing. The amounts of both these enzymes present after 3 days are clearly increased by serine, and are greatly decreased by cycloheximide or by kinetin. The role of kinetin in delaying senescence thus may rest on its ability to suppress protease formation. PMID:16657898

  13. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  14. The reconfiguration of broad leaves in strong winds and currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Laura; Hoover, Alex; Marzuola, Jeremy

    2015-11-01

    Flexible plants, fungi, and sessile animals are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. In strong winds, for example, leaves roll up into cone shapes that reduce flutter and drag when compared to paper cut-outs with similar shape and flexibility. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a two-dimensional leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up and reduce drag and flutter. In this project, we use computational fluid dynamics and particle image velocimetry to determine how leaves roll up into drag reducing shapes in extreme conditions. Force and flow measurements are taken on real broad leaves and simplified physical models. Corresponding numerical simulations using the immersed boundary method are used to understand which features of the flexible leaves result in proper reconfiguration and drag reduction.

  15. Leave or Stay? Battered Women's Decision after Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinseok; Gray, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    Battered women's reasons for staying with or leaving their male partners are varied and complex. Using data from the Domestic Violence Experience in Omaha, Nebraska, a discrete-time hazard model was employed to examine a woman's decision based on four factors: financial independence, witness of parental violence, psychological factors, and the…

  16. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... advance by the supervisor for rest and relaxation or other personal reasons is authorized on a per year... year-long employees. Employees who are on part-time year-long contracts exceeding 20 hours per week are... will request the use of this leave in advance when it is for personal use or personal business...

  17. I Can See Clearly Now - Embolism in Leaves.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Jansen, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Deciphering how air enters the plant hydraulic transport tissues represents a major challenge to understanding plant drought responses. Using a non-invasive and cheap visualization technique applied to leaves, the spread of embolism is found to initiate in the midrib, increase with vein order, and is seemingly influenced by vein topology. PMID:27423303

  18. Phosphatidic acid production in the processing of cabbage leaves.

    PubMed

    Urikura, Mai; Morishige, Jun-Ichi; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Satouchi, Kiyoshi

    2012-11-14

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator involved in various physiological responses, including wound healing. Evidence of the antiulcer activity of LPA has been reported, and soybean LPA at a concentration of 10 μM is effective in reducing stress-induced gastric ulcer. Because LPA can be formed from phosphatidic acid (PA) by digestive phospholipase A₂, dietary PA can be considered a potential antiulcer phospholipid. In this study, PA production in cut processing of cabbage leaves was examined. The amounts of PA in sliced, minced, and homogenized cabbage leaves were 107 ± 5, 134 ± 19, and 286 ± 29 nmol PA/g (wet weight), respectively, all being significantly higher than the amount of PA found in intact leaves. Mixing mayonnaise with sliced cabbage dramatically increased the PA content (1586 ± 393 nmol/3 g), indicating phospholipase D activity leaked raw cabbage produced PA. These results indicate that fine cutting raw cabbage leaves and mixing them with foods rich in phospholipids resulted in an abundant production of PA. PMID:23098184

  19. Carolina "Takes It or Leaves It" then "Gives It Up."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes the "Take It or Leave It" (now the "Give It Up") program at the University of South Carolina, in which the materials generated by students moving out of campus housing for the summer, rather than being disposed of as trash, are collected and recycled or donated to local charities. (EV)

  20. Students Matter in School Reform: Leaving Fingerprints and Becoming Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osberg, Jerusha; Pope, Denise; Galloway, Mollie

    2006-01-01

    Our examination of three schools demonstrates how students can be involved in school reform by giving input about problems, helping design the reform, and sharing implementation responsibilities with adult leaders. Their involvement affects both the reform--as students leave their fingerprints on it--and the students themselves, who show signs of…

  1. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  2. LEAVES AS INDICATORS OF EXPOSURE TO AIRBORNE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in leaves is primarily a product of airborne exposures and dependent upon bioconcentration factors and release rates. The bioconcentration factors for VOCs in grass are found to be related to their partitioning between octan...

  3. Funding Child Rearing: Child Allowance and Parental Leave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    1996-01-01

    Two financing plans are proposed to address needs for an allowance for poor households to fund child-care: financing from redirected existing funds; and a program of voluntary parental leave to ensure the adequacy of infant care, financed through a payroll tax increase. These proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations. (SLD)

  4. Sick leave and workers' compensation for police officers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Robert

    2010-05-01

    In Australia it has been necessary to enact specific provisions into industrial and employment laws to ensure workplace protection and coverage of police officers because at common law police officers have not been regarded as employees. Police unions in Australia have emerged as strong industrial players and have secured a range of terms and conditions of employment which do not apply to the broader workforce. However, the battle in relation to workers' compensation coverage and extended sick leave seems to be ongoing, particularly in Western Australia. The area of interaction between workers' compensation laws and sick leave entitlements is often neglected against the background of other industrial matters concerning police. This article investigates the entitlements of Australian police officers to these benefits against the historical background of industrial laws. It concludes that there is no uniformity in coverage for workers' compensation and sick leave and that the publicly available data in relation to absence from work of police officers due to sickness are generally incomplete and present challenges for cross-jurisdictional comparisons. The article points to future areas of research into police sick leave. PMID:20552944

  5. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... FR 67934. A. What the FMLA Provides The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993, 29 U.S.C. 2601 et seq... FR 13394. The Department received comments from a wide variety of stakeholders, and after considering... FR 31794. After publication, the Department invited further public comment on the interim...

  6. Where Do Public School Teachers Go when They Leave Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.; Mittapalli, Kavita

    2006-01-01

    This article critically questions where public school teachers go when they leave the teaching profession. It reviews the research to find that few studies appear to explain what occupations former experienced teachers ("leavers") move to. The article draws evidence from National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) data sets and publications to…

  7. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  8. Three new hecogenin glycosides from fermented leaves of Agave americana.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xi-Kui; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2003-06-01

    Eight steroidal compounds, including three new hecogenin glycosides, agamenosides D-F, were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. The structures of the new steroidal saponins were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The activity of the isolated compounds on deformations of mycelia germinated from conidia of Pyricularia oaryzae P-2b was evaluated.

  9. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... exigencies: (1) Short-notice deployment. To address any issue that arises from the fact that a covered... incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical disability at the time the FMLA leave is to commence... status, such as preparing and executing financial and health care powers of attorney, transferring...

  10. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Qualifying exigency leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... exigencies: (1) Short-notice deployment. To address any issue that arises from the fact that a covered... incapable of self-care because of a mental or physical disability at the time the FMLA leave is to commence... status, such as preparing and executing financial and health care powers of attorney, transferring...

  11. Antioxidant Potential and Oil Composition of Callistemon viminalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zubair, Muhammad; Hassan, Sadia; Rizwan, Komal; Rasool, Nasir; Riaz, Muhammad; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant potential and oil composition of Callistemon viminalis leaves. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane extract revealed the presence of 40 compounds. Leaves contained appreciable levels of total phenolic contents (0.27–0.85 GAE mg/g) and total flavonoid contents (2.25–7.96 CE mg/g). DPPH radical scavenging IC50 and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation were found to be in the ranges of 28.4–56.2 μg/ml and 40.1–70.2%, respectively. The haemolytic effect of the plant leaves was found in the range of 1.79–4.95%. The antioxidant activity of extracts was also studied using sunflower oil as an oxidative substrate and found that it stabilized the oil. The correlation between the results of different antioxidant assays and oxidation parameters of oil indicated that leaves' methanolic extract, exhibiting higher TPC and TFC and scavenging power, was also more potent for enhancing the oxidative stability of sunflower oil. PMID:23818824

  12. A Guide to the Family & Medical Leave Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, John D.; Strom, David J.; Sloan, Monica; McElroy, Liz

    This document provides a summary description of the most important provisions of the Family and Medical Leave Act that affect members of the American Federation of Teachers. Twenty-eight chapters examine the details of employer and employee obligations: (1) "General Overview"; (2) "FMLA Checklist"; (3) "Key Definitions"; (4) "How To Apply for FMLA…

  13. Rapid and Pervasive Occupation of Fallen Mangrove Leaves by a Marine Zoosporic Fungus †

    PubMed Central

    Newell, S. Y.; Miller, J. D.; Fell, J. W.

    1987-01-01

    Samples of leaves of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were incubated on an agar medium selective for pythiaceous oomycetes. Leaves on trees above the water did not contain oomycetes. Marine oomycetes, principally Phytophthora vesicula, had colonized leaves within 2 h of leaf submergence, probably finding them by chemotaxis. The frequency of occurrence of P. vesicula in submerged leaves reached 100% within 30 h of submergence. By 43 h most, if not all, parts of leaves were occupied, and surface treatment with a biocide indicated that leaves were occupied internally. Frequencies of P. vesicula remained near 100% through about 2 weeks of submergence and then declined to about 60% in older (≥4 weeks) leaves. Leaves of white mangrove (Laguncularia racemosa) were also extensively occupied by P. vesicula after falling into the water column, but decaying leaves of turtlegrass (Thalassia testudinum) were not colonized by oomycetes. Ergosterol analysis indicated that the standing crop of living, non-oomycete (ergosterol-containing) fungal mass in submerged red-mangrove leaves did not rise above that which had been present in senescent leaves on the tree; decaying turtlegrass leaves had an ergosterol content that was only about 2% of the maximum concentration detected for red-mangrove leaves. These results suggest that oomycetes are the predominant mycelial eucaryotic saprotrophs of mangrove leaves that fall into the water column and that for turtlegrass leaves which live, die, and decompose under submerged conditions, mycelial eucaryotes make no substantial contribution to decomposition. PMID:16347463

  14. Photoinhibition and Zeaxanthin Formation in Intact Leaves 12

    PubMed Central

    Demmig, Barbara; Winter, Klaus; Krüger, Almuth; Czygan, Franz-Christian

    1987-01-01

    Comparative studies of chlorophyll a fluorescence, measured with a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer, and of the pigment composition of leaves, suggest a specific role of zeaxanthin, a carotenoid formed in the xanthophyll cycle, in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against the adverse effects of excessive light. This conclusion is based on the following findings: (a) exposure of leaves of Populus balsamifera, Hedera helix, and Monstera deliciosa to excess excitation energy (high light, air; weak light, 2% O2, 0% CO2) led to massive formation of zeaxanthin and a decrease in violaxanthin. Over a wide range of conditions, there was a linear relationship between either variable, Fv, or maximum fluorescence, Fm, and the zeaxanthin content of leaves. (b) When exposed to photoinhibitory light levels in air, shade leaves of H. helix had a higher capacity for zeaxanthin formation, at the expense of β-carotene, than shade leaves of M. deliciosa. Changes in fluorescence characteristics suggested that, in H. helix, the predominant response to high light was an increase in the rate of nonradiative energy dissipation, whereas, in M. deliciosa, photoinhibitory damage to photosystem II reaction centers was the prevailing effect. (c) Exposure of a sun leaf of P. balsamifera to increasing photon flux densities in 2% O2 and 0% CO2 resulted initially in increasing levels of zeaxanthin (matched by decreases in violaxanthin) and was accompanied by fluorescence changes indicative of increased nonradiative energy dissipation. Above the light level at which no further increase in zeaxanthin content was observed, fluorescence characteristics indicated photoinhibitory damage. (d) A linear relationship was obtained between the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence, Fv/Fm, determined with the modulated fluorescence technique at room temperature, and the photon yield of O2 evolution, similar to previous findings (O Björkman, B Demmig 1987 Planta 170: 489-504) on chlorophyll

  15. Water leaving polarization signal measured from space. Is it possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, Jacek; Freda, Wlodzimierz

    2016-04-01

    Improvements in optical techniques for measuring linear polarization have renewed interest in using them to study ocean waters. However, some questions needed answering. Is there any useful information about ocean water optical properties in the polarization signal? Is it possible to discern it from polarization caused by atmospheric Rayleigh scattering polarization reflected by the sea surface and by the reflection itself? Will the signal be still detectable from the top of the atmosphere? We have recently answered affirmatively to the first question, showing that useful information about in-water single scattering albedo can be derived from the degree of polarization of water leaving radiation [1]. This information, can be combined with reflectance measurements to calculate for example the backscattering ratio of sea water components. Thus, at least in theory, optical remote sensing could be used to get information about the angular distribution of scattering. To answer the second and third questions, we have performed experiments [2] and used Monte Carlo modelling to study the water leaving polarization through a realistic (Cox-Munk distribution) sea surface. The results are promising, at least in some directions (mostly 90 degrees of azimuth angle from the sun blink). We also performed Monte Carlo calculations with a realistic atmosphere with both Rayleigh and aerosol scattering. The (new and unpublished) results show the polarization signal of water leaving can be also discerned from the top of the atmosphere making satellite remote sensing of ocean leaving polarization a realistic possibility. [1] Piskozub J. and Freda W, 2013, Signal of single scattering albedo in water leaving polarization, J. Europ. Opt. Soc.-Rapid, 8, 13055, http://dx.doi.org/10.2971/jeos.2013.13055 [2] Freda W., J. Piskozub, H. Toczek, 2015, Polarization imaging over sea surface - a method for measurements of Stokes components angular distribution, J. Eur. Opt. Soc.-Rapid, 10, 15060

  16. Anti-juvenile activity of Azadirachta indica extract on the development and morphometry of filaria vector, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) Say.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Preeti; Mohan, Lalit; Srivastava, Chand N

    2009-10-01

    Efficacy of extracts of Ageratum conyzoides, Argemone mexicana, and Azadirachta indica were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Petroleum ether extracts of A. conyzoides and A. mexicana with LC(50) values 425.60 and 267.90 ppm and 140.15 and 137.70 ppm after a period of 24 and 48 h, respectively, were found effective. However, the methanol extract of A. indica with LC(50) values 21.95 and 11.30 ppm after 24 and 48 h of exposure, respectively, was the most competent larvicide. The methanol extract of A. indica, being the most potent extract was therefore studied for its impact on the developmental scenario of the mosquito. It had a significant effect on the life cycle of the vector, C. quinquefasciatus. Hatching was delayed and its rate was reduced compared to control. Larval and pupal development was arrested resulting in decreased pupal transformation and adult emergence. Larval and pupal periods were prolonged with appearance of larval-pupal and pupal-adult intermediates, with an overall increase in the developmental period. Disrupted egg shells, dechitinized body walls, and distorted intestines were observed, indicating clearly the anti-juvenile potential of the extract. The growth index was considerably reduced.

  17. Movement of water from old to young leaves in three species of succulents.

    PubMed

    Rabas, A R; Martin, C E

    2003-10-01

    A hypothetical adaptive response of succulent plants to drought-stress is the redistribution of water from old to young leaves. We examined the effects of possible movement of water from old to young leaves in three succulent species, Carpobrotus edulis (weak CAM-inducible), Kalanchoe tubiflora (CAM) and Sedum spectabile (possibly a CAM-cycler or CAM-inducible). Old leaves were removed from plants, and photosynthesis, transpiration, f. wt : d. wt ratios, diurnal acid fluctuations, stomatal conductance and internal CO2 concentrations of the remaining young leaves were measured during drought-stress. Comparison was made with plants retaining old leaves. There was no evidence that water moved from old to young leaves during drought-stress as previously hypothesized. Only in drought-stressed plants of K. tubiflora, were photosynthetic and transpiration rates of young leaves greater on shoots with old leaves removed compared with attached. There was a trend in all species for greater fluctuations in acidity in young leaves on shoots that lacked older leaves. For two of the three species studied, the f. wt : d. wt ratios of young leaves were greater under drought-stress, on shoots with old leaves removed than with them attached. Absence of old leaves may reduce competition for water with young leaves, which consequently have higher water content and greater photosynthetic rates.

  18. Validation of sick leave measures: self-reported sick leave and sickness benefit data from a Danish national register compared to multiple workplace-registered sick leave spells in a Danish municipality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous validation studies of sick leave measures have focused on self-reports. Register-based sick leave data are considered to be valid; however methodological problems may be associated with such data. A Danish national register on sickness benefit (DREAM) has been widely used in sick leave research. On the basis of sick leave records from 3,554 and 2,311 eldercare workers in 14 different workplaces, the aim of this study was to: 1) validate registered sickness benefit data from DREAM against workplace-registered sick leave spells of at least 15 days; 2) validate self-reported sick leave days during one year against workplace-registered sick leave. Methods Agreement between workplace-registered sick leave and DREAM-registered sickness benefit was reported as sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. A receiver-operating characteristic curve and a Bland-Altman plot were used to study the concordance with sick leave duration of the first spell. By means of an analysis of agreement between self-reported and workplace-registered sick leave sensitivity and specificity was calculated. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (95% CI) were used. Results The probability that registered DREAM data on sickness benefit agrees with workplace-registered sick leave of at least 15 days was 96.7% (95% CI: 95.6-97.6). Specificity was close to 100% (95% CI: 98.3-100). The registered DREAM data on sickness benefit overestimated the duration of sick leave spells by an average of 1.4 (SD: 3.9) weeks. Separate analysis on pregnancy-related sick leave revealed a maximum sensitivity of 20% (95% CI: 4.3-48.1). The sensitivity of self-reporting at least one or at least 56 sick leave day/s was 94.5 (95% CI: 93.4 – 95.5) % and 58.5 (95% CI: 51.1 – 65.6) % respectively. The corresponding specificities were 85.3 (95% CI: 81.4 – 88.6) % and 98.9 (95% CI: 98.3 – 99.3) %. Conclusions The DREAM register offered valid measures of sick leave spells of at

  19. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  20. Tri-trophic insecticidal effects of African plants against cabbage pests.

    PubMed

    Amoabeng, Blankson W; Gurr, Geoff M; Gitau, Catherine W; Nicol, Helen I; Munyakazi, Louis; Stevenson, Phil C

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  1. Tri-Trophic Insecticidal Effects of African Plants against Cabbage Pests

    PubMed Central

    Amoabeng, Blankson W.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Gitau, Catherine W.; Nicol, Helen I.; Stevenson, Phil C.

    2013-01-01

    Botanical insecticides are increasingly attracting research attention as they offer novel modes of action that may provide effective control of pests that have already developed resistance to conventional insecticides. They potentially offer cost-effective pest control to smallholder farmers in developing countries if highly active extracts can be prepared simply from readily available plants. Field cage and open field experiments were conducted to evaluate the insecticidal potential of nine common Ghanaian plants: goat weed, Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae), Siam weed, Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae), Cinderella weed, Synedrella nodiflora (Asteraceae), chili pepper, Capsicum frutescens (Solanaceae), tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum (Solanaceae) cassia, Cassia sophera (Leguminosae), physic nut, Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae), castor oil plant, Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and basil, Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae). In field cage experiments, simple detergent and water extracts of all botanical treatments gave control of cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, equivalent to the synthetic insecticide Attack® (emamectin benzoate) and superior to water or detergent solution. In open field experiments in the major and minor rainy seasons using a sub-set of plant extracts (A. conyzoides, C. odorata, S. nodiflora, N. tabacum and R. communis), all controlled B. brassicae and P. xylostella more effectively than water control and comparably with or better than Attack®. Botanical and water control treatments were more benign to third trophic level predators than Attack®. Effects cascaded to the first trophic level with all botanical treatments giving cabbage head weights, comparable to Attack® in the minor season. In the major season, R. communis and A conyzoides treatment gave lower head yields than Attack® but the remaining botanicals were equivalent or superior to this synthetic insecticide. Simply-prepared extracts from readily

  2. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  3. Diuretic Activity of Leaves of Garcinia Cambogia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group. PMID:22303069

  4. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-03-16

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  6. Underground leaves of Philcoxia trap and digest nematodes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Caio G; Almenara, Daniela P; Winter, Carlos E; Fritsch, Peter W; Lambers, Hans; Oliveira, Rafael S

    2012-01-24

    The recently described genus Philcoxia comprises three species restricted to well lit and low-nutrient soils in the Brazilian Cerrado. The morphological and habitat similarities of Philcoxia to those of some carnivorous plants, along with recent observations of nematodes over its subterranean leaves, prompted the suggestion that the genus is carnivorous. Here we report compelling evidence of carnivory in Philcoxia of the Plantaginaceae, a family in which no carnivorous members are otherwise known. We also document both a unique capturing strategy for carnivorous plants and a case of a plant that traps and digests nematodes with underground adhesive leaves. Our findings illustrate how much can still be discovered about the origin, distribution, and frequency of the carnivorous syndrome in angiosperms and, more generally, about the diversity of nutrient-acquisition mechanisms that have evolved in plants growing in severely nutrient-impoverished environments such as the Brazilian Cerrado, one of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots.

  7. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  8. Fern leaves and cauliflower curds are not fractals.

    PubMed

    Lev-Yadun, Simcha

    2012-05-01

    The popular demonstration of drawing a mature fern leaf as expressed by Barnsley's fractal method is mathematically and visually very attractive but anatomically and developmentally misleading, and thus has limited, if any, biological significance. The same is true for the fractal demonstration of the external features of cauliflower curds. Actual fern leaves and cauliflower curds have a very small number of anatomically variable and non-iterating bifurcations, which superficially look self-similar, but do not allow for scaling down of their structure as real fractals do. Moreover, fern leaves and cauliflower curds develop from the inside out through a process totally different from fractal drawing procedures. The above cases demonstrate a general problem of using mathematical tools to investigate or illustrate biological phenomena in an irrelevant manner. A realistic set of mathematical equations to describe fern leaf or cauliflower curd development is needed.

  9. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  10. PHANTASTICA regulates development of the adaxial mesophyll in Nicotiana leaves.

    PubMed

    McHale, Neil A; Koning, Ross E

    2004-05-01

    Initiation and growth of leaf blades is oriented by an adaxial/abaxial axis aligned with the original axis of polarity in the leaf primordium. To investigate mechanisms regulating this process, we cloned the Nicotiana tabacum ortholog of PHANTASTICA (NTPHAN) and generated a series of antisense transgenics in N. sylvestris. We show that NSPHAN is expressed throughout emerging blade primordia in the wild type and becomes localized to the middle mesophyll in the expanding lamina. Antisense NSPHAN leaves show ectopic expression of NTH20, a class I KNOX gene. Juvenile transgenic leaves have normal adaxial/abaxial polarity and generate leaf blades in the normal position, but the adaxial mesophyll shows disorganized patterns of cell division, delayed maturation of palisade, and ectopic reinitiation of blade primordia along the midrib. Reversal of the phenotype with exogenous gibberellic acid suggests that NSPHAN, acting via KNOX repression, maintains determinacy in the expanding lamina and sustains the patterns of cell proliferation critical to palisade development.

  11. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  12. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Yu; Hao, Wang-Jun; Huang, Wu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is an edible and medicinal plant distributed in Hainan, China. The antibacterial activities of the extracts of water (WE), petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), chloroform (CE), and n-butanol (BE) were assayed by the disk diffusion method. The results showed that the extracts from Noni leaves possessed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 5 different extracts, the BE produced the best antibacterial activity. The samples were first extracted by ethanol, and the primary compounds in the BE fraction of ethanol extract was further isolated and identified. Six phenolic compounds, including 5, 15-dimethylmorindol, ferulic acid, p-hydroxycinamic acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl ferulate, and methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, were identifiedby NMR. The results indicated that the phenolic compounds might significantly contribute to antibacterial activities of Noni leaves.

  13. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  14. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  15. Stomatal Characterization of Grass Leaves by Four Preparation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Joyce Phillips; Anderson, Val Jo; Gardner, John S.

    1995-06-01

    Four leaf preparation techniques (air drying, tetramethylsilane air drying, critical point drying, and freeze substitution) used in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were evaluated with respect to the degree of cellular distortion they produce in stomatal guard cells of leaves of Dactylis glomerata and Elymus canadensis. Surface morphological distortion and cuticle disruption in the air-dried and tetramethylsilane air-dried leaves, and cuticle disruption within the critical point-dried tissue made it difficult to obtain measurements.The freeze-substituted tissue experienced little cuticle disturbance, and the cellular morphology appeared normal. The length of the guard cells did not significantly differ between the air-dried, tetramethylsilane air-dried, critical point-dried, or freeze-substituted samples. Widths did significantly vary, with the freeze-substituted tissue having lower values than tissues treated with the other treatments. Freeze substitution methodology produced SEM images that appear to be less distorted and allow easy and precise measurement.

  16. Anti-metastatic properties of the leaves of Eriobotrya japonica.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Seok; Shin, Tae Yong; Eun, Jae Soon; Kim, Dae Keun; Jeon, Hoon

    2011-03-01

    The leaves of Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. have been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases including gastroenteric disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic bronchitis and asthma. In the present study, the anti-metastatic action of the EtOAc fraction of the leaves of E. japonica (LEJ) was investigated. LEJ showed potent inhibitory effects on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and expressions via down-regulation of NF-κB translocation to the nucleus in B16F10 cells. In addition, the cell migration and invasion were down-regulated by LEJ. LEJ also significantly suppressed lung metastasis in vivo. Moreover, we isolated the compounds ursolic acid and 2α-hydroxyursolic acid from LEJ and both compounds also significantly suppressed MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, indicating that they are the active components of LEJ. The present results demonstrate that LEJ may be used as valuable antimetastatic agent for the treatment of cancer metastasis.

  17. Drought-Responsive Mechanisms in Plant Leaves Revealed by Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cai, Xiaofeng; Xu, Chenxi; Wang, Quanhua; Dai, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    Plant drought tolerance is a complex trait that requires a global view to understand its underlying mechanism. The proteomic aspects of plant drought response have been extensively investigated in model plants, crops and wood plants. In this review, we summarize recent proteomic studies on drought response in leaves to reveal the common and specialized drought-responsive mechanisms in different plants. Although drought-responsive proteins exhibit various patterns depending on plant species, genotypes and stress intensity, proteomic analyses show that dominant changes occurred in sensing and signal transduction, reactive oxygen species scavenging, osmotic regulation, gene expression, protein synthesis/turnover, cell structure modulation, as well as carbohydrate and energy metabolism. In combination with physiological and molecular results, proteomic studies in leaves have helped to discover some potential proteins and/or metabolic pathways for drought tolerance. These findings provide new clues for understanding the molecular basis of plant drought tolerance. PMID:27763546

  18. Spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of potato leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, B. I.; Belyaev, Yu. V.; Chumakov, A. V.; Nekrasov, V. P.; Shuplyak, V. I.

    2000-07-01

    The results of laboratory investigations of the spectral and spectral-polarization characteristics of radiation reflected from the leaves of potato (Solanum tuberosum) of different varieties are discussed. During the vegetation season of 1997, the angular dependence of the degree and azimuth of polarization of radiation reflected from potato leaves as well as the scattering indicatrices in the range 380 1080 nm were determined by a specially developed method with the use of a laboratory goniometric setup. The relationship between the spectral polarization characteristics of radiation and biological parameters of the potato has been obtained with the help of different methods of statistical analysis and explained on the basis of the known physical mechanisms.

  19. Three new iridoids from leaves of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Chao; Yang, Jing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Xu, Xin-Juan; Fu, Qing-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Three new iridoids, cornifins A-C (1-3), together with a known iridoid, were obtained from EtOAc layer of leaves of Cornus officinalis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Compound 2 showed weak inhibitory activity against lung cancer cell line A-549 with IC50 value of 29.1 μM.

  20. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-02-15

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. PMID:18266154

  1. Essential oil of Galinsoga parviflora leaves from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Pino, Jorge A; Gaviria, Mauricio; Quevedo-Vega, Juana; García-Lesmes, Laura; Quijano-Celis, Clara E

    2010-11-01

    The chemical composition of the volatile compounds from the leaves of Galinsoga parviflora Cav. (Asteraceae) from Colombia was studied by GC and GC/MS. Eighty-eight volatile compounds were identified, of which the major ones were (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol (21.7%), beta-caryophyllene (12.4%), and 6-demethoxy-ageratochrome (14%). The leaf oil presented antimicrobial activities against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus.

  2. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314

  3. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    PubMed

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  4. In vitro Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Nauclea orientalis Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Raghavamma, S. T. V.; Rao, N. Rama

    2010-01-01

    Antianthelmintic activity of successive extracts (chloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous) of Nauclea orientalis leaves were evaluated separately on adult Indian earthworm (Pheretima posthuma) and compared with that of albendazole. It was found that the extracts exhibited, respectively dose-dependent action and inhibition of spontaneous motility (paralysis) and death of earthworms. The results indicated that the chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were more potent. PMID:21218070

  5. Flavonoids and free phenolic acids from Phytolacca americana L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Bylka, W; Matławska, I

    2001-01-01

    In the leaves of Phytolacca americana L. flavonoid compounds: kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-diglucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucoside were identified by chemical and spectroscopic methods and using co-chromatography, phenolic acids: p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, synapic, p-coumaric ferulic and caffeic were also confirmed.

  6. Essential oil composition of Vismia macrophylla leaves (Guttiferae).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Janne; Buitrago, Alexis; Rojas, Luis; Morales, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The essential oil from Vismia macrophylla Kunth (Guttiferae) leaves, extracted by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by GC/MS. The oil obtained (yield 0.11%) contained twenty-eight compounds, which were identified from their retention indices and by comparison of their mass spectra with those in the Wiley GC-MS Library data base. The major components were beta-caryophyllene (20.1%), germacrene D (11.6%) and beta-elemene (7.0%).

  7. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions.

  8. Volatiles from leaves and rhizomes of Fragrant Acorus spp. (Acoraceae).

    PubMed

    Du, Zhizhi; Clery, Robin A; Hammond, Christopher J

    2008-06-01

    Three horticultural selections of Acorus gramineus Soland were investigated to determine the chemical composition of their leaves and rhizomes. The variety 'liquorice' was found to contain methylchavicol (49%) which accounts for the unusual anisic odor of this variety, while beta-asarone was the main component of A. christophii (43%) and 'yodo-no-yuki' (20%). The results are compared with calamus oils, and the possible biosynthetic precursors of the main components methylchavicol and beta-asarone are considered.

  9. Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. )

    1990-01-01

    Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

  10. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn.

  11. IEQ and the impact on employee sick leave

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Satish; Fisk, William J.

    2002-08-01

    When selecting minimum ventilation rates, employers should balance the well-recognized energy costs of providing higher minimum ventilation rates with the expected, but less well quantified, health benefits from a higher ventilation rate. This is a summary of the paper by Milton, et al. that found low employee sick leave associated with high ventilation rates in a set of buildings located in Massachusetts. A simple cost-benefit analysis also is presented.

  12. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn. PMID:26666047

  13. Variegation in Arum italicum leaves. A structural-functional study.

    PubMed

    La Rocca, Nicoletta; Rascio, Nicoletta; Pupillo, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    The presence of pale-green flecks on leaves (speckling) is a frequent character among herbaceous species from shady places and is usually due to local loosening of palisade tissue (air space type of variegation). In the winter-green Arum italicum L. (Araceae), dark-green areas of variegated leaf blades are ca. 400 μm thick with a chlorophyll content of 1080 mg m⁻² and a palisade parenchyma consisting of a double layer of oblong cells. Pale-green areas are 25% thinner, have 26% less chlorophyll and contain a single, loose layer of short palisade cells. Full-green leaves generally present only one compact layer of cylindrical palisade cells and the same pigment content as dark-green sectors, but the leaf blade is 13% thinner. A spongy parenchyma with extensive air space is present in all leaf types. Green cells of all tissues have normal chloroplasts. Assays of photosynthetic activities by chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and O₂ exchange measurements showed that variegated pale-green and dark-green sectors as well as full-green leaves have comparable photosynthetic activities on a leaf area basis at saturating illumination. However, full-green leaves require a higher saturating light with respect to variegated sectors, and pale-green sectors support relatively higher photosynthesis rates on a chlorophyll basis. We conclude that i) variegation in this species depends on number and organization of palisade cell layers and can be defined as a "variable palisade" type, and ii) the variegated habit has no limiting effects on the photosynthetic energy budget of A. italicum, consistent with the presence of variegated plants side by side to full-green ones in natural populations.

  14. Evidence that spinach leaves express calreticulin but not calsequestrin.

    PubMed Central

    Navazio, L; Baldan, B; Dainese, P; James, P; Damiani, E; Margreth, A; Mariani, P

    1995-01-01

    The presence of either calreticulin (CR) or calsequestrin (CS-like proteins in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves has been previously described. Here we report the purification from spinach leaves of two highly acidic (isoelectric point 5.2) Ca(2+)-binding proteins of 56 and 54 kD by means of DEAE-cellulose chromatography followed by phenyl-Sepharose chromatography in the presence of Zn(2+) (i.e., under experimental conditions that allowed the purification of CR from human liver). On the other hand, we failed to identify any protein sharing with animal CS the ability to bind to phenyl-Sepharose in the absence of Ca(2+). Based on the N-terminal amino acid sequence, the 56- and 54-kD spinach Ca(2+)-binding proteins were identified as two distinct isoforms of CR. Therefore, we conclude that CR, and not CS, is expressed in spinach leaves. The 56-kD spinach CR isoform was found to be glycosylated, as judged by ligand blot techniques with concanavalin A and affinity chromatography with concanavalin A-Sepharose. Furthermore, the 56-kD CR was found to differ from rabbit liver CR in amino acid sequence, peptide mapping after partial digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, pH-dependent shift of electrophoretic mobility, and immunological cross-reactivity with an antiserum raised to spinach CR, indicating a low degree of structural homology with animal CRs. PMID:8552722

  15. Wound-induced Oxidative Responses in Mountain Birch Leaves

    PubMed Central

    RUUHOLA, TEIJA; YANG, SHIYONG

    2006-01-01

    • Aims The aim of the study was to examine oxidative responses in subarctic mountain birch, Betula pubescens subsp. czerepanovii, induced by herbivory and manual wounding. • Methods Herbivory-induced changes in polyphenoloxidase, peroxidase and catalase activities in birch leaves were determined. A cytochemical dye, 3,3-diaminobenzidine, was used for the in situ and in vivo detection of H2O2 accumulation as a response to herbivory and wounding. To localize peroxidase activity in leaves, 10 mm H2O2 was applied to the dye reagent. • Key Results Feeding by autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata, larvae caused an induction in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities within 24 h, and a concomitant decrease in the activity of antioxidative catalases in wounded leaves. Wounding also induced H2O2 accumulation, which may have both direct and indirect defensive properties against herbivores. Wound sites and guard cells showed a high level of peroxidase activity, which may efficiently restrict invasion by micro-organisms. • Conclusion Birch oxidases together with their substrates may form an important front line in defence against herbivores and pathogens. PMID:16254021

  16. Proteomic analysis of "Moncada" mandarin leaves with contrasting fruit load.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    A proteomic approach was used to know more about the molecular mechanism related to Citrus alternate bearing. To this end, we researched protein expression differences between on-crop and off-crop "Moncada" [Clementine 'Oroval' (Citrus clementina Hort ex Tanaka) x 'Kara' mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. x Citrus nobilis Lou.)] mandarin leaves. This variety usually shows a remarkable behaviour in alternate production. Samples were collected in the period during which the fruit affect flowering induction. From 2D DIGE gel, 110 spots were isolated: 43 showed increased expression in the off-crop samples compared to on-crop samples, while 67 showed increased expression in the on-crop samples against off-crop samples. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. According to the up-expressed proteins in off-crop leaves such as proteins related to nutrient reservoir activity or to the pentose phosphate pathway, the primary metabolism was more active in off-crop trees than in on-crop trees. In contrast, the proteins up-expressed in on-crop samples such as catalase were related to the oxidoreductase activity and, therefore, the redox state seemed different for off-crop and for on-crop leaves. Other proteins with unknown functions were isolated, which could be also related to the alternate bearing and to the flowering induction.

  17. Age-associated circadian period changes in Arabidopsis leaves.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Yumi; Yeom, Miji; Lim, Junhyun; Nam, Hong Gil

    2016-04-01

    As most organisms age, their appearance, physiology, and behaviour alters as part of a life history strategy that maximizes their fitness over their lifetime. The passage of time is measured by organisms and is used to modulate these age-related changes. Organisms have an endogenous time measurement system called the circadian clock. This endogenous clock regulates many physiological responses throughout the life history of organisms to enhance their fitness. However, little is known about the relation between ageing and the circadian clock in plants. Here, we investigate the association of leaf ageing with circadian rhythm changes to better understand the regulation of life-history strategy in Arabidopsis. The circadian periods of clock output genes were approximately 1h shorter in older leaves than younger leaves. The periods of the core clock genes were also consistently shorter in older leaves, indicating an effect of ageing on regulation of the circadian period. Shortening of the circadian period with leaf age occurred faster in plants grown under a long photoperiod compared with a short photoperiod. We screened for a regulatory gene that links ageing and the circadian clock among multiple clock gene mutants. Only mutants for the clock oscillator TOC1 did not show a shortened circadian period during leaf ageing, suggesting that TOC1 may link age to changes in the circadian clock period. Our findings suggest that age-related information is incorporated into the regulation of the circadian period and that TOC1 is necessary for this integrative process.

  18. Lipid peroxidation inhibitory compounds from daylily (Hemerocallis fulva) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Cichewicz, Robert H; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2004-06-25

    Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) have been used as food and in traditional medicine for thousands of years in eastern Asia. The leaves of the plant are used in the treatment of inflammation and jaundice. In studies of the aqueous methanol extracts of fresh Hemerocallis fulva leaves, 1',2',3',4'-tetrahydro-5'-deoxy-pinnatanine (1), pinnatanine (2), roseoside (3), phlomuroside (4), lariciresinol (5), adenosine (6), quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (7), quercetin 3,7-O-beta-D-diglucopyranoside (8), quercetin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyransol-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosol-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (9), isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-6'-acetylglucopyranoside (10) and isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-D-6'-acetylgalactopyranoside (11) were isolated. All of these compounds were tested for their in vitro lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities. Compounds 3-5 and 7-11 were found to possess strong antioxidant properties, inhibiting lipid oxidation by 86.4, 72.7, 90.1, 79.7, 82.4, 89.3, 82.2, and 93.2%, respectively at 50 microg/mL. Compound 1 is novel and compounds 3-6 and 8-11 described here in are isolated for the first time from daylily leaves. PMID:15172183

  19. Carotenoids retention in processed curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng).

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Varnashree Boraiah; Subban, Nagarajan

    2013-02-01

    Lutein content and β-carotene content of dried curry leaves (Murraya koenigii L. Spreng) by various methods [microwave, combo, infrared (IR), hot air oven, freeze drying, cross flow tray drying, sun and shade drying] have been evaluated. The dried leaves were treated with ice-cold acetone to get the extracts (0.69-3.64% w/w) on dry weight basis. Lutein content and β-carotene content of all these extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using an established method and found in the range of 8.2-99.5 mg/100 g and 2.9-19.2 mg/100 g, respectively. The results indicated that the microwave processed leaves contain higher levels of lutein (99.4 mg/100 g) and β-carotene (19.2 mg/100 g) compared with other drying methods. The cross flow dried (8.2 mg/100 g and 3.5 mg/100 g) and IR dried samples (23 mg/100 g and 2.9 mg/100 g) retained minimum amount of lutein and β-carotene, respectively.

  20. [Comparison of major bioactive components from leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium].

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Shen, Xue-gen; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Zhou, Jian-song; Mao, Peng-fei; Shen, Zhen-guo

    2015-05-01

    Leaves of Chrysanthemum morifolium were potential medicinal resource. The present study aims to estimate the main bioactive components: total flavonoids (TF), galuteolin (GA), quercitrin (QU), chlorogenic acid (CA) and 3 ,5-O-caffeoylquinic acid ( CQ), which were considered to be the main effective components, in leaves of C. morfolium cultivars in China. The TF content was estimated hy UV-VIS spectrophotometry, while GA, QU, CA, and CQ were quantitatively determined by HPLC. The highest TF content (7. 13% w/w) was found in cultivar Wan Cong (Shexian county). Cultivar Da Bo ( Bozhou county) had the highest GA content (33. 45 mg - g-1); Cultivar Hong Xin (Sheyang county) contained the highest QU content (29.25 mg · g(-1)); Cultivar Chang Ban (Sheyang county) had the highest CA content (13.14 mg ·(-1)). The maximum CQ content (7.35 mg · g(-1)) was observed in culti- r Da Yang ( Tongxiang county). Different cultivars of C. morfolium had significant difference in components, but the leaf and capitulum of C. morifolium. were found to possess similar chemical compositions. The high content of bioactive components in several cultivars suggested the potential utilization of C. morifolium leaves. PMID:26323127

  1. Inhibition of rat platelet aggregation by Urtica dioica leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    El Haouari, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed; Bendahou, Mourad; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2006-07-01

    Platelet hyperactivity plays an important role in arterial thrombosis and atherosclerosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of different extracts of Urtica dioica leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different concentrations of the tested extracts and aggregation was induced by different agonists including thrombin (0.5 U/mL), ADP (10 microm), epinephrine (100 microm) and collagen (5 mg/mL). The crude aqueous extract inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in a dose-dependent manner. At 1 mg/mL, the percent inhibition was 17.1 +/- 4.2%. Soxhlet extraction of the plant leaves with different successive solvents showed that the ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most antiaggregant effect with an inhibition of 76.8 +/- 6.1% at 1 mg/mL. Flavonoids isolated from the plant leaves, produced a strong inhibitory effect on thrombin-induced platelet aggregation with an IC(50) of 0.25 +/- 0.05 and 0.40 +/- 0.04 mg/mL for genins and heterosidic flavonoids, respectively. Flavonoids also markedly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and epinephrine. It is concluded that Urtica dioica has an antiplatelet action in which flavonoids are mainly implicated. These results support the traditional use of Urtica dioica in the treatment and/or prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:16619332

  2. Age-associated circadian period changes in Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Yumi; Yeom, Miji; Lim, Junhyun; Nam, Hong Gil

    2016-01-01

    As most organisms age, their appearance, physiology, and behaviour alters as part of a life history strategy that maximizes their fitness over their lifetime. The passage of time is measured by organisms and is used to modulate these age-related changes. Organisms have an endogenous time measurement system called the circadian clock. This endogenous clock regulates many physiological responses throughout the life history of organisms to enhance their fitness. However, little is known about the relation between ageing and the circadian clock in plants. Here, we investigate the association of leaf ageing with circadian rhythm changes to better understand the regulation of life-history strategy in Arabidopsis. The circadian periods of clock output genes were approximately 1h shorter in older leaves than younger leaves. The periods of the core clock genes were also consistently shorter in older leaves, indicating an effect of ageing on regulation of the circadian period. Shortening of the circadian period with leaf age occurred faster in plants grown under a long photoperiod compared with a short photoperiod. We screened for a regulatory gene that links ageing and the circadian clock among multiple clock gene mutants. Only mutants for the clock oscillator TOC1 did not show a shortened circadian period during leaf ageing, suggesting that TOC1 may link age to changes in the circadian clock period. Our findings suggest that age-related information is incorporated into the regulation of the circadian period and that TOC1 is necessary for this integrative process. PMID:27012281

  3. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  4. Polarization of Light by Leaves and Plant Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.

    2006-01-01

    This talk will focus first on the information contained in the surface-scattered light from leaves, plant canopies and surface waters. This light is in general polarized and depends upon surface roughness. Thus, for example, - The surface reflection from shiny green leaves measured in the specular direction shows no chlorophyll absorption bands, no 'red edge.' - Conversely, the degree of linear polarization of such light displays marked variation with wavelength having local maxima in the chlorophyll absorption bands and an inverted red edge. - Plant canopies with shiny leaves distributed in angle like the area on a sphere, specularly reflect sunlight in the subsolar or specular direction- but also in every other view direction. - Canopies of green plants may appear white not green when viewed obliquely toward the sun. - In a light to moderate wind, the often blindingly bright glitter of sunlight off smooth water surfaces provides a strong, angularly narrow signature reflection characteristic of inundated vegetated areas that are big sources of atmospheric methane, a climatically important greenhouse gas. (Conversely, a blindingly bright glitter-type reflection is uncharacteristic of upland or wind ruffled open water areas that are poor sources of atmospheric methane.) Because some of these results may be 'head scratchers,' it's always important to properly calibrate ones instruments. Indeed, as the second portion of the talk will show, the characteristics of the light measuring instrument, particularly its entrance aperture, may affect the results and should be taken into account during across-instrument data comparisons.

  5. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice. PMID:19928648

  6. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves.

    PubMed

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Nakayama, Naomi; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-04-01

    Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types. PMID:27074136

  7. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  8. Regulation of Monoterpene Accumulation in Leaves of Peppermint1

    PubMed Central

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; McConkey, Marie E.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2000-01-01

    Plants synthesize numerous classes of natural products that accumulate during development and are thought to function as constitutive defenses against herbivores and pathogens. However, little information is available about how the levels of such defenses are regulated. We measured the accumulation of monoterpenes, a model group of constitutive defenses, in peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) leaves and investigated several physiological processes that could regulate their accumulation: the rate of biosynthesis, the rate of metabolic loss, and the rate of volatilization. Monoterpene accumulation was found to be restricted to leaves of 12 to 20 d of age, the period of maximal leaf expansion. The rate of monoterpene biosynthesis determined by 14CO2 incorporation was closely correlated with monoterpene accumulation, as determined by gas chromatographic analysis, and appeared to be the principal factor controlling the monoterpene level of peppermint leaves. No significant catabolic losses of monoterpenes were detected throughout leaf development, and monoterpene volatilization was found to occur at a very low rate, which, on a monthly basis, represented less than 1% of the total pool of stored monoterpenes. The composition of volatilized monoterpenes differed significantly from that of the total plant monoterpene pool, suggesting that these volatilized products may arise from a separate secretory system. With the demonstration that the rate of biosynthesis is the chief process that determines monoterpene accumulation in peppermint, efforts to improve production in this species can now focus on the genes, enzymes, and cell differentiation processes that regulate monoterpene biosynthesis. PMID:10631264

  9. An Assessment of Wound Healing Potential of Argyreia speciosa Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Narayan Prasad; Rawat, Bindu; Rai, Vineet Kumar; Shanker, Karuna; Venkateswara Rao, Chandana

    2014-01-01

    In North India, poultice of young unfolded leaves of Argyreia speciosa Linn. (Convolvulaceae) is used for healing wounds. In order to find scientific evidence for the traditional utilization of leaves of A. speciosa in wound healing, this investigation was carried out. A linear incision wound of about 3 cm in length and 2 mm in depth and circular excision wound of 177 mm2 full thickness were made on the dorsal region of separate groups (n = 5) of anesthetized Swiss albino mice. A simple ointment, developed by including ethanol, ethanol-water, and water extracts (10% each, separately) of A. speciosa, was applied topically to mice once daily for 14 days after wounding. To evaluate the effect of each extract, wound contraction, epithelization period, wound breaking strength, and hydroxyproline content were determined. The water extract of A. speciosa showed accelerated wound healing activity as evidenced by fast wound contraction (96.30 ± 0.52%; P < 0.01), rapid epithelization period (11.40 ± 0.60 days; P < 0.001), greater wound breaking strength (376.56 ± 21.16 g; P < 0.001), and higher hydroxyproline content (16.49 ± 1.12 mg/g; P < 0.05) of granulation tissue. The present report supports the traditional use of Argyreia speciosa leaves for wound healing and signify its relevant therapeutic potential. PMID:24688387

  10. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-08-19

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  11. [Indoor simulation on dew formation on plant leaves].

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Yong; Wang, You-Ke; Wei, Xin-Guang; Liu, Shou-Yang; He, Zi-Li; Zhou, Yu-Hong

    2014-03-01

    Dew forming on plant leaves through water condensation plays a significant ecological role in arid and semi-arid areas as an ignorable fraction of water resources. In this study, an artificial intelligent climate chamber and an automatic temperature-control system for leaves were implemented to regulate the ambient temperature, the leaf surface temperature and the leaf inclination for dew formation. The impact of leaf inclination, ambient temperature and dew point-leaf temperature depression on the rate and quantity of dew accumulation on leaf surface were analyzed. The results indicated that the accumulation rate and the maximum volume of dew on leaves decreased with increasing the leaf inclination while increased with the increment of dew point-leaf temperature depression, ambient temperature and relative humidity. Under the horizontal configuration, dew accumulated linearly on leaf surface over time until the maximum volume (0.80 mm) was reached. However, dew would fall down after reaching the maximum volume when the leaf inclination existed (45 degrees or 90 degrees), significantly slowing down the accumulative rate, and the zigzag pattern for the dynamic of dew accumulation appeared.

  12. Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato roots and leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Baiden, H.N.; Ercanli-Huffman, F.G.

    1986-03-05

    Bioavailability of zinc from sweet potato (SP) roots and leaves were determined, by extrinsic labeling technique, in rats fed control and zinc deficient diets. Weanling male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (60-75g) were divided into 4 groups, and fed laboratory chow, a control diet (ad libitum and pair fed) and a zinc deficient diet, for 4 weeks. Each group then was divided into at least 2 sub groups, containing 6 rats, which were intubated with one of 3 tubing solutions extrinsically labeled with /sup 65/Zn; baked sweet potato roots (BSPR), raw sweet potato leaves (RSPL) and cooked sweet potato leaves (CSPL). Five hours after intubation the rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, testes, spleen, heart, brain, thymus and lungs were removed. Feces, urine, and GI tract contents were collected and their /sup 65/Zn activity was determined in a gamma counter. In all treatment groups zinc bioavailability from BSPR, RSPL or CSPL were not significantly different. Zinc deficient rats absorbed significantly more (P < 0.01) /sup 65/Zn (86-90% of the dose), regardless of type of tubing solution than the pairfed or control animals (35-58% of the dose). The highest retention of /sup 65/Zn was found in the liver (12-20% of absorbed dose), GI tract (6-17% of absorbed dose), kidney (2-8% of absorbed dose), and blood (1-5% of absorbed dose). The lowest retention was found in the brain, heart, thymus and testes. (< 1% of absorbed dose).

  13. Osmotic Stress-Induced Polyamine Accumulation in Cereal Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Hector E.; Galston, Arthur W.

    1984-01-01

    Arginine decarboxylase activity increases 2- to 3-fold in osmotically stressed oat leaves in both light and dark, but putrescine accumulation in the dark is only one-third to one-half of that in light-stressed leaves. If arginine or ornithine are supplied to dark-stressed leaves, putrescine rises to levels comparable to those obtained by incubation under light. Thus, precursor amino acid availability is limiting to the stress response. Amino acid levels change rapidly upon osmotic treatment; notably, glutamic acid decreases with a corresponding rise in glutamine. Difluoromethylarginine (0.01-0.1 millimolar), the enzyme-activated irreversible inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase, prevents the stress-induced putrescine rise, as well as the incorporation of label from [14C]arginine, with the expected accumulation of free arginine, but has no effect on the rest of the amino acid pool. The use of specific inhibitors such as α-difluoromethylarginine is suggested as probes for the physiological significance of stress responses by plant cells. PMID:16663552

  14. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Sinai, Yohai; Julien, Jean-Daniel; Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Nakayama, Naomi; Adda-Bedia, Mokhtar; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types. PMID:27074136

  15. Air pollution effects on the structure of Citrus aurantium leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Psaras, G.K.; Christodoulakis, N.S.

    1987-09-01

    Individual air pollutants cause acute and chronic plant injury, act on stomata and affect carbon dioxide exchange as well as plant growth and development. Inhibition of photosynthesis by several air pollutants has been reported repeatedly. Besides, structural modifications of cell organelles have been reported after fumigation by SO/sub 2/. Although chlorosis and subsequent necrosis are common phenomena caused by artificial treatment with pollutants, fine structural leaf characteristics of plants exposed to long-term air pollution in natural conditions are little explored. Light microscope examination of air pollution affected leaves of plants common in natural ecosystems of Athens' metropolitan area revealed chlorosis phenomena. Electron microscope examination of the leaves of a common subshrub of greek phryganic formations grown in a heavily air polluted natural ecosystem of Athens metropolitan area revealed pronounced ultrastructural anomalies of chloroplasts, mitochondria and microbodies of the mesophyll cells. This organelle destruction of the photosynthesizing tissue as well as the minimization of the ecosystem primary productivity are attributed to the compound action of several toxic air pollutants of the photochemical smog of Athens. This work describes the long-term air pollution effects on the structural features of the leaves of Citrus aurantium, a decorative species planted throughout the heavily air polluted city of Athens.

  16. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement. PMID:27539510

  17. Characterization and subcellular localization of aminopeptidases in senescing barley leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, S. S.; Choe, H. T.; Rausser, S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Four aminopeptidases (APs) were separated using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cell-free extracts and the stromal fractions of isolated chloroplasts prepared from primary barley (Hordeum vulgare L., var Numar) leaves. Activities were identified using a series of aminoacyl-beta-naphthylamide derivatives as substrates. AP1, 2, and 3 were found in the stromal fraction of isolated chloroplasts with respective molecular masses of 66.7, 56.5, and 54.6 kilodaltons. AP4 was found only in the cytoplasmic fraction. No AP activity was found in vacuoles of these leaves. It was found that 50% of the L-Leu-beta-naphthylamide and 25% of the L-Arg-beta-naphthylamide activities were localized in the chloroplasts. Several AP activities were associated with the membranes of the thylakoid fraction of isolated chloroplasts. AP1, 2, and 4 reacted against a broad range of substrates, whereas AP3 hydrolyzed only L-Arg-beta-naphthylamide. Only AP2 hydrolyzed L-Val-beta-naphthylamide. Since AP2 and AP3 were the only ones reacting against Val-beta-naphthylamide and Arg-beta-naphthylamide, respectively, several protease inhibitors were tested against these substrates using a stromal fraction from isolated chloroplasts as the source of the two APs. Both APs were sensitive to both metallo and sulfhydryl type inhibitors. Although AP activity decreased as leaves senesced, no new APs appeared on gels during senescence and none disappeared.

  18. Chlorophyll breakdown and chlorophyll catabolites in leaves and fruit†

    PubMed Central

    Kräutler, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Chlorophyll metabolism probably is the most visible manifestation of life. Total annual turnover of chlorophyll has been estimated to involve more than 1000 million tons. Surprisingly, chlorophyll catabolism has remained an enigma until less than twenty years ago, when a colorless chlorophyll catabolite from senescent plant leaves was identified and its structure was elucidated. In the meantime, chlorophyll breakdown products have been identified in a variety of plant leaves and their structural features have been elucidated. Most recently, chlorophyll breakdown products have also been identified in some ripening fruit. Chlorophyll breakdown in vascular plants only fleetingly involves enzyme-bound colored intermediates. The stage of fluorescent catabolites is also passed rapidly, as these isomerize further to colorless nonfluorescent tetrapyrrolic catabolites. The latter accumulate in the vacuoles of de-greened leaves and are considered the final products of controlled chlorophyll breakdown. The same tetrapyrroles are also found in ripening fruit and are effective antioxidants. Chlorophyll breakdown leads to tetrapyrroles that appear to have physiologically beneficial chemical properties, and it may thus not merely be a detoxification process. PMID:18846275

  19. 5 CFR 550.1204 - Projecting the lump-sum leave period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this chapter; or credit hours accumulated under an alternative work schedule established under 5 U.S.C... annual leave to the employee's credit. The agency must project the lump-sum period leave beginning on...

  20. [Sick leave benefits for workers in the Brazilian meat and fish industries in 2008].

    PubMed

    Jakobi, Heinz Roland; Barbosa-Branco, Anadergh; Bueno, Luis Fernando; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyze factors associated with sick leave rates among workers in the meat, fish, and seafood industries in Brazil. The study analyzed all sick leave benefits granted by the country's social security system to workers in these industries in 2008. Incidence of sick leave per 10 thousand jobs was stratified by sex, age, diagnosis, job position, State, and nature and length of benefits. The study analyzed 31,913 sick leaves, with an annual incidence of 788.7. Meat processing and packaging showed the highest incidence, and fish and seafood processing and packaging showed the longest mean length of sick leave. Women showed a higher sick leave incidence, while men received longer average sick leaves. Injuries, musculoskeletal disorders, and mental disorders accounted for 67.2% of sick leaves. The most common diagnoses were lower back pain, first-trimester bleeding in pregnancy, and depression. The data suggest poor job protection and adverse working conditions in these industries.

  1. Influence of harvest season on antioxidant activity and constituents of rabbiteye blueberry ( Vaccinium ashei ) leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Liu, Xi; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu

    2013-11-27

    To select rabbiteye blueberry leaves from an appropriate harvest season to develop functional foods, this paper studied the bioactive secondary metabolites and the antioxidant capacity of rabbiteye blueberry leaves from May, September, and November. The results showed the leaves from May had the highest content of total flavonoids (114.21 mg/g) and the leaves from November had the highest content of total polyphenols and proanthocyanidins (425.24 and 243.29 mg/g, respectively). It was further found that blueberry leaves from different seasons have similar bioactive constituents, but their contents are obviously different by HPLC. The rabbiteye blueberry leaves from November had the highest antioxidant capacity, which was well correlated with their highest proanthocyanidin content. The results clarify that the blueberry leaves from different seasons have different contents of bioactive secondary metabolites and different antioxidant activities, which implied that leaves from November should be selected first for utilization in functional foods.

  2. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  3. 75 FR 8424 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Leaves From an Austrian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Leaves From an Austrian Mahzor... that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Leaves from an Austrian Mahzor,'' imported...

  4. 20 CFR 670.610 - When are students authorized to take leaves of absence from their Job Corps centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are students authorized to take leaves... Student Support § 670.610 When are students authorized to take leaves of absence from their Job Corps centers? Job Corps students are eligible for annual leaves, emergency leaves and other types of leaves...

  5. Photosynthetic acclimation in relation to nitrogen allocation in cucumber leaves in response to changes in irradiance.

    PubMed

    Trouwborst, Govert; Hogewoning, Sander W; Harbinson, Jeremy; van Ieperen, Wim

    2011-06-01

    Leaves deep in canopies can suddenly be exposed to increased irradiances following e.g. gap formation in forests or pruning in crops. Studies on the acclimation of photosynthesis to increased irradiance have mainly focused on the changes in photosynthetic capacity (A(max)), although actual irradiance often remains below saturating level. We investigated the effect of changes in irradiance on the photosynthesis irradiance response and on nitrogen allocation in fully grown leaves of Cucumis sativus. Leaves that fully developed under low (50 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹) or moderate (200 µmol m⁻² s⁻¹) irradiance were subsequently exposed to, respectively, moderate (LM-leaves) or low (ML-leaves) irradiance or kept at constant irradiance level (LL- and MM-leaves). Acclimation of photosynthesis occurred within 7 days with final A(max) highest in MM-leaves, lowest in LL-leaves and intermediate in ML- and LM-leaves, whereas full acclimation of thylakoid processes underlying photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and non-photochemical quenching occurred in ML- and LM-leaves. Dark respiration correlated with irradiance level, but not with A(max). Light-limited quantum efficiency was similar in all leaves. The increase in photosynthesis at moderate irradiance in LM-leaves was primarily driven by nitrogen import, and nitrogen remained allocated in a similar ratio to Rubisco and bioenergetics, while allocation to light harvesting relatively decreased. A contrary response of nitrogen was associated with the decrease in photosynthesis in ML-leaves. Net assimilation of LM-leaves under moderate irradiance remained lower than in MM-leaves, revealing the importance of photosynthetic acclimation during the leaf developmental phase for crop productivity in scenarios with realistic, moderate fluctuations in irradiance that leaves can be exposed to. PMID:21320128

  6. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging

    SciTech Connect

    Zeiger, E.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  7. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1)) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  8. Detection of honey mesquite leaves in cattle diets using fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) is a common invasive shrub whose leaves contain secondary compounds that limit consumption by cattle. However, crude protein and fiber levels of mesquite leaves are similar to alfalfa hay. The ability to consume small quantities of mesquite leaves might mak...

  9. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  10. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  11. Moderate Photoinhibition of Photosystem II Protects Photosystem I from Photodamage at Chilling Stress in Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Yang, Ying-Jie; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Shi-Bao

    2016-01-01

    It has been indicated that photosystem I (PSI) is susceptible to chilling-light stress in tobacco leaves, but the effect of growth light intensity on chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in tobacco is unclear. We examined the effects of chilling temperature (4°C) associated with moderate light intensity (300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the activities of PSI and photosystem II (PSII) in leaves from sun- and shade-grown plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. k326). The sun leaves had a higher activity of alternative electron flow than the shade leaves. After 4 h chilling treatment, the sun leaves showed significantly a higher PSI photoinhibition than the shade leaves. At chilling temperature the sun leaves showed a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI, accompanying with a lower P700 oxidation ratio. When leaves were pre-treated with lincomycin, PSII activity decreased by 42% (sun leaves) and 47% (shade leaves) after 2 h exposure to the chilling-light stress, but PSI activity remained stable during the chilling-light treatment, because the electron flow from PSII to PSI was remarkably depressed. These results indicated that the stronger chilling-induced PSI photoinhibition in the sun leaves was resulted from a greater electron flow from PSII to PSI. Furthermore, moderate PSII photoinhibition depressed electron flow to PSI and then protected PSI activity against further photodamage in chilled tobacco leaves. PMID:26941755

  12. 5 CFR 630.202 - Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings. 630.202 Section 630.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... biweekly pay period; leave earnings. (a) Full-time employees. A full-time employee earns leave during...

  13. A Report on the Status of Sabbatical Leaves for Administrators in California Junior Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandley, Marion K.

    This recent study investigates sabbatical leave policy for administrators in 80 California Junior Colleges. Except for a few newly-formed colleges or those having boards generally unfavorable to the idea, most of the colleges responding to the survey indicated some type of policy for granting such leaves. Justification for these leaves ranges from…

  14. Life after Vouchers: What Happens to Students Who Leave Private Schools for the Traditional Public Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Deven; Cowen, Joshua M.; Fleming, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Few school choice evaluations consider students who leave such programs, and fewer still consider the effects of leaving these programs as policy-relevant outcomes. Using a representative sample of students from the citywide voucher program in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, we analyze more than 1,000 students who leave the program during a 4-year period.…

  15. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  16. Benefits and Harms of Sick Leave: Lack of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelsson, Inge; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to try to identify those randomized controlled trials that compare sick leave with no sick leave or a different duration or degree of sick leave. A comprehensive, systematic, electronic search of Clinical Evidence, the Cochrane Library and PubMed, and a manual search of the Campbell Library and a journal supplement was…

  17. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, and the employee would be on leave for more than 20 percent of... entitlement. An instructional employee who is on FMLA leave at the end of the school......

  18. 29 CFR 825.303 - Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.303 Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave. (a) Timing of... anticipated duration of the absence; or if the leave is for a family member that the......

  19. 29 CFR 825.303 - Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee and Employer Rights and Obligations Under the Act § 825.303 Employee notice requirements for unforeseeable FMLA leave. (a) Timing of...), and the anticipated duration of the absence; or if the leave is for a family member......

  20. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Special Rules Applicable... foreseeable based on planned medical treatment, and the employee would be on leave for more than 20 percent of... entitlement. An instructional employee who is on FMLA leave at the end of the school......